Sample records for soja anticarsia gemmatalis

  1. Cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activity in the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Christian; S. J. Yu

    1986-01-01

    l The activity of microsomal aldrin epoxidase was observed in various tissues of the last instar larva of the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hiibner) with the midgut being the most active. Optimum conditions for assaying the enzyme were established. 2. Ailelochemicals (monoterpenes, indoles and flavones) and host plants (cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, soybeans and hairy indigo) were found to induce the

  2. Cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activity in the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner.

    PubMed

    Christian, M F; Yu, S J

    1986-01-01

    The activity of microsomal aldrin epoxidase was observed in various tissues of the last instar larva of the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner) with the midgut being the most active. Optimum conditions for assaying the enzyme were established. Allelochemicals (monoterpenes, indoles and flavones) and host plants (cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, soybeans and hairy indigo) were found to induce the monooxygenase. Piperonyl butoxide decreased and increased the toxicity of methomyl and methyl parathion, respectively, suggesting that the monooxygenase system of velvetbean caterpillars plays a major role in the detoxification of xenobiotics. PMID:2869902

  3. Production of viral progeny in insect cells undergoing apoptosis induced by a mutant Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    de Castro, M E; Ribeiro, B M

    2001-01-01

    The Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) is the most successful viral biopesticide in use worldwide. We have demonstrated that despite widespread apoptosis and no protein synthesis at 48 h p.i., UFL-AG-286 cells infected with a mutant of AgMNPV (vApAg), produced significant amounts of budded virus (BVs) and viral DNA late in infection. However, a different susceptible cell line (BTI-Tn5B 1-4) showed no signs of apoptosis and produced 3.5 times more budded virus when infected with vApAg. A comparison of DNA from AgMNPV and vApAg digested with the same restriction enzymes showed differences in the restriction pattern, indicating that the vApAg phenotype might be due to a mutation in a gene or genes responsible for directly or indirectly inhibiting apoptosis in UFL-AG-286 cells. PMID:11770855

  4. Improved replication of the baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) in vitro using proteins from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Álvaro P B; Moraes, Roberto H P; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z

    2015-03-01

    The baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV), a member of the family Baculoviridae, has been widely applied as a biopesticide for the control of the velvetbean caterpillar, a pest of soybean crop field. Baculoviruses are considered safe and efficient agents for this purpose, because they do not infect vertebrates, being safe for the health of humans and animals, as well as to the environment. The objective of this work was to identify proteins obtained from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph with potential application in the optimization of baculovirus AgMNPV replication in Sf9 insect cell culture. In this work the improvement of the cell culture and viral replication of the AgMNPV baculovirus was observed when Grace medium was supplemented with 10 % (v/v) Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 1 % (v/v) hemolymph extract, or 3 % (v/v) of hemolymph fractions or hemolymph sub-fractions obtained by purifying hemolymph through High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Hemolymph presented a positive effect on the synthesis of polyhedra and enhanced baculovirus replication in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells (TCID50/mL), and led to Sf9 cell culture improvement. Grace medium supplemented with 10 % (v/v) FBS and 1 % (v/v) hemolymph provided an increase of baculovirus replication, when the cells were infected with multiplicity of infection of 1. In this case, the baculovirus replication was 6,443.91 times greater than that obtained with the control: Grace medium supplemented with 10 % (v/v) FBS. In addition, this work suggests that hemolymph from L. obliqua could have an interesting application in biotechnology, due to an increase in the viability of the cells and virus replication. PMID:24969017

  5. Entomocidal effects of beech apricot, Labramia bojeri, seed extract on a soybean pest, the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and its enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria L R; Kubo, Carlos E G; Freire, Maria G M; Júnior, Roberto T A; Parra, José R P

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the beech apricot, Labramia bojeri A. de Candolle (Sapotales: Sapotaceae), seed aqueous extract on the larval development of the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was evaluated. The extract inhibited larval development, pupal weight, and survival and emergence of adults. Digestive proteolytic activity in larval midgut and feces extracts was determined. Larvae fed 10 g/L of the aqueous extract showed a significant reduction in trypsin activity (~64%), when compared with control larvae. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were also detected in fecal material in aqueous-extract-fed larvae, with about ~4.5 times more trypsin activity than the controls. The results from dietary utilization experiments with A. gemmatalis larvae showed a reduction in the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. The effect of the extract suggests the potential use of L. bojeri seeds to inhibit the development of A. gemmatalis via oral exposure. The L. bojeri extract can be an alternative to other methods of control. PMID:25373174

  6. Toxicity of extracts and isobutyl amides from Piper tuberculatum: potent compounds with potential for the control of the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis.

    PubMed

    Navickiene, Hosana M Debonsi; Miranda, José E; Bortoli, Sérgio A; Kato, Massuo J; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Furlan, Maysa

    2007-04-01

    The isobutyl amides pellitorine (compound 1) and 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine (compound 2) were extracted from the seeds of Piper tuberculatum Jacq. (Piperaceae) in yields of 6.10 and 4.45% respectively. The acute toxicities to the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), of extracts of seeds, leaves and stems of P. tuberculatum, and of compounds 1 and 2, were evaluated by means of contact bioassays. The extracts caused 80% mortality when doses higher than 800.00 microg insect(-1) of extract of seeds, leaves and stems were administered to the velvetbean caterpillars. Compounds 1 and 2 showed 100% mortality at doses of 200 and 700 microg insect(-1) respectively. The LD(50) and LD(90) values were respectively 31.3 and 104.5 microg insect(-1) for compound 1, and 122.3 and 381.0 microg insect(-1) for compound 2. The potential value of extracts and amides derived from P. tuberculatum as efficient insecticides against velvetbean caterpillars is discussed. PMID:17323416

  7. Immunological effects of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) by stimulation of mice in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Anamelia Lorenzetti; Barros, Maria Creuza do Espirito Santos; Martins, Grace Kelly Menezes; de Araújo, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Souza, Marcio Jerônimo; Ribeiro, Alice Melo; Figueiredo, Florêncio; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-09-01

    Baculoviruses are highly specific and only capable of replication in arthropod hosts. The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is the most studied baculovirus at the molecular level and the Anticarsia gemnatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) is the most used viral insecticide worldwide. AcMNPV have also been shown to stimulate the mammalian immune response acting as an adjuvant. In order to evaluate the effects of AgMNPV in modulating macrophage and lymphocyte activation, we have stimulated these cells in vitro and inoculated BALB/c mice intranasally with the two viral phenotypes (PIBs and BVs) and compared with the response induced by the same phenotypes of AcMNPV. Our results showed that baculoviruses are able to modulate mammalian immune response; in vitro they increase phagocytosis, NO2 production and Th1 cells response. In vivo, AgMNPV BVs or PIBs do not induce an inflammatory reaction in normal lung but during a fungal lung infection they can change the type of adaptive response developed. Considering our data, AgMNPV can be considered more useful as a vaccine vector or immune adjuvant than AcMNPV. PMID:23747526

  8. UTILIZACIÓN DE EMULSIONANTES EN PAN DE SOJA Y SABORIZACIÓN DE ZUMO DE SOJA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leandro Agostini; Claudio Dalla Marta; Julio Brunoni

    RESUMEN: Sólo una pequeña parte de la soja producida se consume como tal, siendo casi en su totalidad industrializada, para la obtención de aceites y derivados proteicos. En este trabajo se ensa- yaron dos productos a base de soja: zumo y pan. El zumo de soja fue saborizado con manzana y naranja, por adición de jugos frescos y deshidratados. Ambos

  9. Binary floral lure attractive to velvetbean caterpillar adults (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in northern Florida, revealed that linalool was synergistic in attractiveness with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to the migratory moth velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner). This noctuid was the most common species collected from traps w...

  10. Soybean phytophthora root rot: {\\\\it Phytophthora sojae\\\\\\/} races in Indiana and factors affecting disease resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Cristino Melgar

    1997-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot of soybeans caused by Phytophthora sojae has been one of the most important diseases throughout the soybean growing areas of the United States and Canada since the 1950's. Documenting the current physiological diversity of P. sojae and the role of factors affecting disease resistance are important in reducing yield losses due to this disease. Prevalence and distribution

  11. Quantitative Trait Loci for Partial Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Burnham; A. E. Dorrance; T. T. Vantoai; S. K. St. Martin

    Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae Kauffmann and Gerde-mann in soybean [Glycine max (L. ) Merr.] is expressed as a reduced level of root rot and is effective against all populations of the pathogen. The objective of this study was to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for partial resistance to P. sojae in

  12. Insect pests and yield potential of vegetable soybean (Endamame) produced in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of replicated field experiments was conducted with vegetable soybean (edamame), Glycine max (L.) Merrill, to assess the impacts of cultivars, planting dates, and insecticidal controls on insect pest abundance, crop damage and yield potential. The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatali...

  13. Binary floral lure attractive to velvetbean caterpillar adults (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of moth species responded positively to phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) and to the binary blend of PAA + linalool in tests conducted in peanut fields in northern Florida, USA. Velvetbean caterpillar moths (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner) were the most commonly collected species, with almost 13,000 ...

  14. Article original Digestion des protines de pois et de soja chez le veau

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article original Digestion des protéines de pois et de soja chez le veau préruminant. II partiellement dégradées puissent échapper à la digestion dans l'intestin grêle dans le cas des aliments pois et - digestion - iléon - veau préruminant Summary ― Digestion of pea and soya-bean proteins in preruminant

  15. Multi-Year Evaluation of Commercial Soybean Cultivars for Resistance to Phytophthora sojae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora sojae causes damping off, root rot, and stem rot of soybean, particularly in poorly drained soils. The use of resistance has been one of the primary management tools used to control this disease, with the most commonly used genes being Rps1c and Rps1k, followed by Rps1a. The Varietal In...

  16. Pathogenic diversity of Phytophthora sojae and breeding strategies to develop Phytophthora-resistant soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora stem and root rot disease, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and has been increasing in several soybean-producing areas around the world. This disease induces serious limitations on soybean production, with yield l...

  17. QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA, FÍSICA E SANITÁRIA DE SEMENTES DE SOJA PRODUZIDAS NO BRASIL1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTONINHO CARLOS MAURINA; JOSÉ DE BARROS; FRANÇA NETO; FRANCISCO CARLOS KRZYZANOWSKI; ADEMIR ASSIS HENNING

    RESUMO - Nos últimos anos, o Brasil tem apresentado desempenho crescente em termos de produtividade e produção de soja. Todavia, alguns estudos mostram que a falta de controle de qualidade tem comprometido a germinação e o vigor de parte significativa de sementes de diferentes genótipos. Com base nessa realidade, foi conduzido um estudo, objetivando dimensionar e avaliar os aspectos da

  18. INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES CLASSES DE INFESTAÇÃO POR MANCHA PÚRPURA SOBRE O VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE SOJA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUCIANO DOS; REIS VENTUROSO; MARCO ANTÔNIO SEDREZ; FÁBIO RÉGIS DE SOUZA; ANDERSON CRISTIAN BERGAMIN; LENITA APARECIDA CONUS

    RESUMO: O trabalho propôs-se a analisar a influência de diferentes classes de infestação por mancha púrpura (Cercospora kikuchii) no tegumento das sementes de três cultivares de soja, sobre o vigor de plântulas no município de Dourados - MS. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em outubro de 2006. As classes de infestação foram determinadas visualmente e classificadas em

  19. Understanding Nonaflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus sojae: A Windfall of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. A. sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical relatedness to aflatoxin-producing A. parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to...

  20. Les conditions de la concurrence internationale entre soja, arachide et colza

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-P. Berlan; J.-P. Bertrand; L. Lebas; M. Marlone

    1976-01-01

    [fre] Arachide, colza et soja sont des produits comparables du point de vue alimentaire. Ce sont des oléoprotéa- gineux, dont la composition en huile et protéines varie. Leurs utilisations, la localisation de leurs productions, sont fonction, à un moment donné, des rapports, des flux d'échanges entre pays, et des politiques protectionnistes ou libre- échangistes des Etats. . Ainsi la politique

  1. Expression of a Phytophthora sojae necrosis-inducing protein occurs during transition from biotrophy to necrotrophy.

    PubMed

    Qutob, Dinah; Kamoun, Sophien; Gijzen, Mark

    2002-11-01

    Phytophthora sojae is an oomycete that causes stem and root rot on soybean plants. To discover pathogen factors that produce disease symptoms or activate plant defense responses, we identified putative secretory proteins from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and tested selected candidates using a heterologous expression assay. From an analysis of 3035 ESTs originating from mycelium, zoospore, and infected soybean tissues, we identified 176 putative secreted proteins. A total of 16 different cDNAs predicted to encode secreted proteins ranging in size from 6 to 26 kDa were selected for expression analysis in Nicotiana benthamiana using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary potato virus X (PVX) vector. This resulted in the identification of a 25.6-kDa necrosis-inducing protein that is similar in sequence to other proteins from eukaryotic and prokaryotic species. The genomic region encoding the P. sojae necrosis-inducing protein was isolated and the expression pattern of the corresponding gene determined by RNA blot hybridization and by RT-PCR. The activity of this P. sojae protein was compared to proteins of similar sequence from Fusarium oxysporum, Bacillus halodurans, and Streptomyces coelicolor by PVX-based expression in N. benthamiana and by transient expression via particle bombardment in soybean tissues. The P. sojae protein was a powerful inducer of necrosis and cell death in both assays, whereas related proteins from other species varied in their activity. This study suggests that the P. sojae necrosis-inducing protein facilitates the colonization of host tissues during the necrotrophic phase of growth. PMID:12410814

  2. MICRORGANISMOS ASSOCIADOS A SEMENTES DE SOJA SUBMETIDAS AO ARMAZENAMENTO, À ASSEPSIA E À RETIRADA DE TEGUMENTO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ADILSON BIZZETTO; MARTIN HOMECHIN

    RESUMO - Determinou-se a presença de microrg a- nismos associados a sementes de soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), armazenadas durante oito meses nas temperaturas de 18 oC e 22oC. As avaliações foram realizadas bimes- tralmente, sendo as sementes submetidas ou não ao proce s- so de assepsia com hipoclorito de sódio, e retirada ou não do tegumento. Foram incubadas em

  3. Non-toxic albumin and soja protein borates as ground-contact wood preservatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-F. Thevenon; A. Pizzi; J.-P. Haluk

    1997-01-01

    Wood preservatives based on protein borates, both obtained by just mixed water solutions of protein and boric acid, as well\\u000a as in the case of premanufactured protein borates salts are shown to be a good method to greatly retard the leaching of boron\\u000a from treated timber. Hence just premixed albumin + boric acid, premanufactured albumin borate and soja protein +

  4. Global transcriptome profiling of wild soybean (Glycine soja) roots under NaHCO3 treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Ge; Yong Li; Yan-Ming Zhu; Xi Bai; De-Kang Lv; Dianjing Guo; Wei Ji; Hua Cai

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plant roots are the primary site of perception and injury for saline-alkaline stress. The current knowledge of saline-alkaline stress transcriptome is mostly focused on saline (NaCl) stress and only limited information on alkaline (NaHCO3) stress is available. RESULTS: Using Affymetrix® Soybean GeneChip®, we conducted transcriptional profiling on Glycine soja roots subjected to 50 mmol\\/L NaHCO3 treatment. In a total

  5. Coffee pulp koji of Aspergillus sojae as stable immobilized catalyst of chlorogenate hydrolase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osao Adachi; Yoshitaka Ano; Yoshihiko Akakabe; Emiko Shinagawa; Kazunobu Matsushita

    2008-01-01

    Chlorogenate hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.42, CHase) was highly induced in mycelia of Aspergillus sojae AKU 3312 grown in Czapek medium containing either instant coffee powder or coffee pulp as inducer. No CHase formation was\\u000a observed in the mycelia when cultivated without the inducer. CHase was purified readily from CHase-induced mycelia to high\\u000a homogeneity, and the purified CHase revealed the molecular weight

  6. Cross-species global proteomics reveals conserved and unique processes in Phytophthora sojae and P. ramorum

    SciTech Connect

    Savidor, Alon [ORNL; Donahoo, Ryan S [ORNL; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Lamour, Kurt H [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL

    2008-08-01

    Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora sojae are destructive plant pathogens. Phytophthora sojae has a narrow host range whereas P. ramorum has a wide host range. A global proteomic comparison of the vegetative (mycelium) and infective (germinating-cyst) life-stages of P. sojae and P. ramorum was conducted to identify candidate proteins involved in host range, early infection and vegetative growth. Sixty-two candidates for early infection, 26 candidates for vegetative growth, and numerous proteins that may be involved in defining host specificity were identified. In addition, common life stage proteomic trends between the organisms were observed. In mycelia, proteins involved in transport and metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and other small molecules were up-regulated. In the germinating cysts, up-regulated proteins associated with lipid transport and metabolism, cytoskeleton and protein synthesis were observed. It appears that the germinating cyst catabolizes lipid reserves through the -oxidation pathway to drive the extensive protein synthesis necessary to produce the germ tube and initiate infection. Once inside the host, the pathogen switches to vegetative growth, where energy is derived from glycolysis and utilized for synthesis of amino acids and other molecules that assist survival in the plant tissue.

  7. Pathogenic diversity of Phytophthora sojae and breeding strategies to develop Phytophthora-resistant soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Takuma; Kato, Masayasu; Yoshida, Shinya; Matsumoto, Isao; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Kaga, Akito; Hajika, Makita; Yamamoto, Ryo; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Aino, Masataka; Matoh, Toru; Walker, David R.; Biggs, Alan R.; Ishimoto, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora stem and root rot, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and the incidence of this disease has been increasing in several soybean-producing areas around the world. This presents serious limitations for soybean production, with yield losses from 4 to 100%. The most effective method to reduce damage would be to grow Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars, and two types of host resistance have been described. Race-specific resistance conditioned by single dominant Rps (“resistance to Phytophthora sojae”) genes and quantitatively inherited partial resistance conferred by multiple genes could both provide protection from the pathogen. Molecular markers linked to Rps genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying partial resistance have been identified on several molecular linkage groups corresponding to chromosomes. These markers can be used to screen for Phytophthora-resistant plants rapidly and efficiently, and to combine multiple resistance genes in the same background. This paper reviews what is currently known about pathogenic races of P. sojae in the USA and Japan, selection of sources of Rps genes or minor genes providing partial resistance, and the current state and future scope of breeding Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars. PMID:23136490

  8. paru dans Politique et Management Public, Volume 28, n2, 2010. pp. 3-35 Evolution des rgles d'utilisation du soja transgnique au Brsil

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    rendu tolérant à l'herbicide RoundUp® de Monsanto, dit soja SRR, est un sujet qui a attiré l développement de l'agro-business. Mots clés : Brésil ; Gouvernance ; soja ; OGM ; biotechnologies ; Monsanto, rendered tolerant to RoundUp herbicide of Monsanto (RRS), is a topic which has attracted attention

  9. The genomic relationship between Glycine max (L.) Merr. and G. soja Sieb. and Zucc. as revealed by pachytene chromosome analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, R J; Hymowitz, T

    1988-11-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of determining the genomic relationship between cultivated soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (G. soja) of the subgenus Soja, genus Glycine. Observations on cross-ability rate, hybrid viability, meiotic chromosome pairing, and pollen fertility in F 1 hybrids of G. max × G. soja and reciprocals elucidated that both species hybridized readily and set mature putative hybrid pods, generated vigorous F1 plants, had a majority of sporocytes that showed 18II + 1IV chromosome association at diakinesis and metaphase I, and had a pollen fertility that ranged from 49.2% to 53.3%. A quadrivalent was often associated with the nucleolus, suggesting that one of the chromosomes involved in the interchange is a satellited chromosome. Thus, G. max and G. soja genetic stocks used in this study have been differentiated by a reciprocal translocation. Pachytene analysis of F1 hybrids helped construct chromosome maps based on chromosome length and euchromatin and heterochromatin distribution. Chromosomes were numbered in descending order of 1-20. Pachytene chromosomes in soybean showed heterochromatin distribution on either side of the centromeres. Pachytene analysis revealed small structural differences for chromosomes 6 and 11 which were not detected at diakinesis and metaphase I. This study suggests that G. max and G. soja carry similar genomes and validates the previously assigned genome symbol GG. PMID:24232348

  10. Aspects qualitatifs de la digestion intestinale des glucides d'un tourteau de soja par le veau prruminant

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Aspects qualitatifs de la digestion intestinale des glucides d'un tourteau de soja par le veau préruminant J. M. BESLE P. THIVEND Laboratoire de la Digestion des Ruminants, 1. N. R. A., Theix, Saint-Genès-Champanelle, 63110 Beaumonf, France. Summary. Qualitative aspects of intestinal digestion of soya carbohydrates

  11. PERFIL DOS ASPECTOS FÍSICOS, FISIOLÓGICOS E QUÍMICOS DE SEMENTES DE SOJA PRODUZIDAS EM SEIS REGIÕES DO BRASIL1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NILTON PEREIRA DA COSTA; JOSÉ BARROS; FRANÇA NETO; FRANCISCO CARLOS KRZYZANOWSKI; ADEMIR ASSIS HENNING

    RESUMO - A semente de soja, produzida em algumas regiões do Brasil, tem apresentado sérios problemas de qualidade fisiológica. Essa situação pode ser atribuída a ajustes inadequados do sistema de trilha das colhedoras, à ocorrência de estresses climáticos na maturação e, geralmente, à lesões de percevejos, resultando em semente com baixos potenciais de germinação e de vigor. O estudo teve

  12. Mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with partial resistance to phytophthora sojae and flooding tolerance in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufm. & Gerd. and flooding can limit growth and productivity, of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], especially on poorly drained soils. The primary objective of this research project was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with f...

  13. COMPARISON OF SOYBEAN DIFFERENTIAL REACTIONS FOLLOWING INOCULATION WITH FOUR RACES OF PHYTOPHTHORA SOJAE FROM OHIO AND INDIANA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypocotyl inoculation is commonly used to determine races or pathotypes of Phytophthora sojae isolates and to identify Rps genes. Differences in reactions for isolates have been reported. This may be due to changes in virulence in the pathogen or to different sources of resistance in a differe...

  14. Genome Re-Sequencing of Semi-Wild Soybean Reveals a Complex Soja Population Structure and Deep Introgression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang

    2014-01-01

    Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19–0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure. PMID:25265539

  15. Comparaison technico-conomique de la valorisation de l'irrigation par quatre cultures d't (mas, soja, sorgho,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparaison technico-économique de la valorisation de l'irrigation par quatre cultures d'été (maïs économiques dans la valorisation de l'irrigation de quatre cultures d'été (maïs, soja, sorgho et tournesol chaque culture, avec différents coûts du m3 d'eau Relations marges brutes - d'irrigation, permet de

  16. Laboratory colonization has not reduced constitutive or induced polysubstrate monooxygenase activity in velvetbean caterpillars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Wheeler; S. J. Yu

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated whether velvetbean caterpillars (Anticarsia gemmatalis) from a laboratory colony had reduced constitutive (basal) and\\/or induced activities of their polysubstrate monooxygenase (PSMO) detoxification enzyme system as a result of long-term rearing (> 100 generations) on artificial diet without introduction of field-collected individuals. Larvae from the laboratory colony and those from a recently collected field strain were fed either a

  17. Detection and identification of multiple baculoviruses using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction endonuclease analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rejane R. de Moraes; James E. Maruniak

    1997-01-01

    A technique using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction analysis was developed for the simultaneous detection of eight baculoviruses. The baculoviruses detected by this technique were Autographa californica multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (MNPV), Anticarsia gemmatalis MNPV, Bombyx mori MNPV, Orgyia pseudot-sugata MNPV, Spodoptera frugiperda MNPV, S. exigua MNPV, Anagrapha falcifera MNPV, Heliothis zea single-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SNPV). A

  18. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Pathogenesis-Related Protein Gene (GmPRP) with Induced Expression in Soybean (Glycine max) during Infection with Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Liangyu; Wu, Junjiang; Fan, Sujie; Li, Wenbin; Dong, Lidong; Cheng, Qun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins) play crucial roles in the plant defense system. A novel PRP gene was isolated from highly resistant soybean infected with Phytophthora sojae (P. sojae) and was named GmPRP (GenBank accession number: KM506762). The amino acid sequences of GmPRP showed identities of 74%, 73%, 72% and 69% with PRP proteins from Vitis vinifera, Populus trichocarpa, Citrus sinensis and Theobroma cacao, respectively. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) data showed that the expression of GmPRP was highest in roots, followed by the stems and leaves. GmPRP expression was upregulated in soybean leaves infected with P. sojae. Similarly, GmPRP expression also responded to defense/stress signaling molecules, including salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA). GmPRP was localized in the cell plasma membrane and cytoplasm. Recombinant GmPRP protein exhibited ribonuclease activity and significant inhibition of hyphal growth of P. sojae 1 in vitro. Overexpression of the GmPRP gene in T2 transgenic tobacco and T2 soybean plants resulted in enhanced resistance to Phytophthora nicotianae (P. nicotianae) and P. sojae race 1, respectively. These results indicated that the GmPRP protein played an important role in the defense of soybean against P. sojae infection. PMID:26114301

  19. Soybean Root Suberin: Anatomical Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Relationship to Partial Resistance to Phytophthora sojae 1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Raymond; Fang, Xingxiao; Ranathunge, Kosala; Anderson, Terry R.; Peterson, Carol A.; Bernards, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is a versatile and important agronomic crop grown worldwide. Each year millions of dollars of potential yield revenues are lost due to a root rot disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae (Kaufmann & Gerdemann). Since the root is the primary site of infection by this organism, we undertook an examination of the physicochemical barriers in soybean root, namely, the suberized walls of the epidermis and endodermis, to establish whether or not preformed suberin (i.e. naturally present in noninfected plants) could have a role in partial resistance to P. sojae. Herein we describe the anatomical distribution and chemical composition of soybean root suberin as well as its relationship to partial resistance to P. sojae. Soybean roots contain a state I endodermis (Casparian bands only) within the first 80 mm of the root tip, and a state II endodermis (Casparian bands and some cells with suberin lamellae) in more proximal regions. A state III endodermis (with thick, cellulosic, tertiary walls) was not present within the 200-mm-long roots examined. An exodermis was also absent, but some walls of the epidermal and neighboring cortical cells were suberized. Chemically, soybean root suberin resembles a typical suberin, and consists of waxes, fatty acids, ?-hydroxy acids, ?,?-diacids, primary alcohols, and guaiacyl- and syringyl-substituted phenolics. Total suberin analysis of isolated soybean epidermis/outer cortex and endodermis tissues demonstrated (1) significantly higher amounts in the endodermis compared to the epidermis/outer cortex, (2) increased amounts in the endodermis as the root matured from state I to state II, (3) increased amounts in the epidermis/outer cortex along the axis of the root, and (4) significantly higher amounts in tissues isolated from a cultivar (‘Conrad’) with a high degree of partial resistance to P. sojae compared with a susceptible line (OX760-6). This latter correlation was extended by an analysis of nine independent and 32 recombinant inbred lines (derived from a ‘Conrad’ × OX760-6 cross) ranging in partial resistance to P. sojae: Strong negative correlations (?0.89 and ?0.72, respectively) were observed between the amount of the aliphatic component of root suberin and plant mortality in P. sojae-infested fields. PMID:17494920

  20. Alkaline-stress response in Glycine soja leaf identifies specific transcription factors and ABA-mediated signaling factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Ge; Yong Li; De-Kang Lv; Xi Bai; Wei Ji; Hua Cai; Ao-Xue Wang; Yan-Ming Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome of Glycine soja leaf tissue during a detailed time course formed a foundation for examining transcriptional processes during NaHCO3 stress treatment. Of a total of 2,310 detected differentially expressed genes, 1,664 genes were upregulated and 1,704 genes\\u000a were downregulated at various time points. The number of stress-regulated genes increased dramatically after a 6-h stress\\u000a treatment. GO category gene enrichment

  1. The Diaporthe sojae species complex: Phylogenetic re-assessment of pathogens associated with soybean, cucurbits and other field crops.

    PubMed

    Udayanga, Dhanushka; Castlebury, Lisa A; Rossman, Amy Y; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Hyde, Kevin D

    2015-05-01

    Phytopathogenic species of Diaporthe are associated with a number of soybean diseases including seed decay, pod and stem blight and stem canker and lead to considerable crop production losses worldwide. Accurate morphological identification of the species that cause these diseases has been difficult. In this study, we determined the phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries of Diaporthe longicolla, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Diaporthe sojae and closely related taxa. Species boundaries for this complex were determined based on combined phylogenetic analysis of five gene regions: partial sequences of calmodulin (CAL), beta-tubulin (TUB), histone-3 (HIS), translation elongation factor 1-? (EF1-?), and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that this large complex of taxa is comprised of soybean pathogens as well as species associated with herbaceous field crops and weeds. Diaporthe arctii, Diaporthe batatas, D. phaseolorum and D. sojae are epitypified. The seed decay pathogen D. longicolla was determined to be distinct from D. sojae. D. phaseolorum, originally associated with stem and leaf blight of Lima bean, was not found to be associated with soybean. A new species, Diaporthe ueckerae on Cucumis melo, is introduced with description and illustrations. PMID:25937066

  2. Gene Duplication and Fragment Recombination Drive Functional Diversification of a Superfamily of Cytoplasmic Effectors in Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Danyu; Liu, Tingli; Ye, Wenwu; Liu, Li; Liu, Peihan; Wu, Yuren; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora and other oomycetes secrete a large number of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling and necrosis inducing proteins (CRN), or Crinkler. Here, we first investigated the evolutionary patterns and mechanisms of CRN effectors in Phytophthora sojae and compared them to two other Phytophthora species. The genes encoding CRN effectors could be divided into 45 orthologous gene groups (OGG), and most OGGs unequally distributed in the three species, in which each underwent large number of gene gains or losses, indicating that the CRN genes expanded after species evolution in Phytophthora and evolved through pathoadaptation. The 134 expanded genes in P. sojae encoded family proteins including 82 functional genes and expressed at higher levels while the other 68 genes encoding orphan proteins were less expressed and contained 50 pseudogenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that most expanded genes underwent gene duplication or/and fragment recombination. Three different mechanisms that drove gene duplication or recombination were identified. Finally, the expanded CRN effectors exhibited varying pathogenic functions, including induction of programmed cell death (PCD) and suppression of PCD through PAMP-triggered immunity or/and effector-triggered immunity. Overall, these results suggest that gene duplication and fragment recombination may be two mechanisms that drive the expansion and neofunctionalization of the CRN family in P. sojae, which aids in understanding the roles of CRN effectors within each oomycete pathogen. PMID:23922898

  3. A Phytophthora sojae cytoplasmic effector mediates disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meixiang; Ahmed Rajput, Nasir; Shen, Danyu; Sun, Peng; Zeng, Wentao; Liu, Tingli; Juma Mafurah, Joseph; Dou, Daolong

    2015-01-01

    Each oomycete pathogen encodes a large number of effectors. Some effectors can be used in crop disease resistance breeding, such as to accelerate R gene cloning and utilisation. Since cytoplasmic effectors may cause acute physiological changes in host cells at very low concentrations, we assume that some of these effectors can serve as functional genes for transgenic plants. Here, we generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants that express a Phytophthora sojae CRN (crinkling and necrosis) effector, PsCRN115. We showed that its expression did not significantly affect the growth and development of N. benthamiana, but significantly improved disease resistance and tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Furthermore, we found that expression of heat-shock-protein and cytochrome-P450 encoding genes were unregulated in PsCRN115-transgenic N. benthamiana based on digital gene expression profiling analyses, suggesting the increased plant defence may be achieved by upregulation of these stress-related genes in transgenic plants. Thus, PsCRN115 may be used to improve plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:26039925

  4. A Phytophthora sojae cytoplasmic effector mediates disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meixiang; Ahmed Rajput, Nasir; Shen, Danyu; Sun, Peng; Zeng, Wentao; Liu, Tingli; Juma Mafurah, Joseph; Dou, Daolong

    2015-01-01

    Each oomycete pathogen encodes a large number of effectors. Some effectors can be used in crop disease resistance breeding, such as to accelerate R gene cloning and utilisation. Since cytoplasmic effectors may cause acute physiological changes in host cells at very low concentrations, we assume that some of these effectors can serve as functional genes for transgenic plants. Here, we generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants that express a Phytophthora sojae CRN (crinkling and necrosis) effector, PsCRN115. We showed that its expression did not significantly affect the growth and development of N. benthamiana, but significantly improved disease resistance and tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Furthermore, we found that expression of heat-shock-protein and cytochrome-P450 encoding genes were unregulated in PsCRN115-transgenic N. benthamiana based on digital gene expression profiling analyses, suggesting the increased plant defence may be achieved by upregulation of these stress-related genes in transgenic plants. Thus, PsCRN115 may be used to improve plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:26039925

  5. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)] [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Deyholos, Michael K. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada)] [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Chen, Qin [Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Ave., South P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada)] [Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Ave., South P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)] [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: ymzhu@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)] [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from Glycine soja. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of GsJAZ2 enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transcriptions of stress marker genes were higher in GsJAZ2 overexpression lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GsJAZ2 was localized to nucleus. -- Abstract: Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

  6. Summa Phytopathol., Botucatu, v. 32, n. 3, p. 247-254, 2006 247 Incompatibilidade somtica em Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA da soja

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Bruce

    Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA da soja Ana Paula da Silva de Campos1 e Paulo Cezar Ceresini1, 2 1 Faculdade de/03/2006. ABSTRACT Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 1 IA (AG-1 IA) is considered one of the most important structure. RESUMO O fungo Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA é um dos patógenos mais importantes que afeta a cultura

  7. O PROCESSO DECISÓRIO DE IMPLANTAÇÃO DE ESTRUTURA DE ARMAZENAGEM DE SOJA AO NÍVEL DE PROPRIEDADE RURAL NA REGIÃO DE SANTO ÂNGELO\\/RS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Silva Dutra; Joao Armando Dessimon Machado; Regis Rathmann

    2008-01-01

    Considerando-se que existe um déficit na capacidade estática de armazenamento de grãos no Brasil, aliado a baixa margem de rentabilidade auferida pelos produtores de commodities agrícolas, notadamente a soja, bem como o fato de que a armazenagem em nível de propriedade rural pode vir a se constituir em um diferencial positivo ao produtor no momento da comercialização desta oleaginosa, buscou-se

  8. O IMPACTO DA ARMAZENAGEM DA SOJA NA PROPRIEDADE RURAL SOBRE OS PREÇOS DE MERCADO DA COMMODITY E NA AMPLIAÇÃO DA CAPACIDADE DE ARMAZENAMENTO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lenio Tramontina; Edson Talamini; Gabriel Murad Velloso Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho consiste em um estudo realizado com objetivo principal de avaliar o impacto do aumento na capacidade de armazenagem de soja na propriedade rural, sobre o nível de preços da commodity e deste sobre a viabilidade de novos incrementos na capacidade de armazenagem. Para o seu desenvolvimento aplicou-se um estudo exploratório, baseado no levantamento e análise de dados

  9. Production of antioomycete compounds active against the phytopathogens Phytophthora sojae and Aphanomyces cochlioides by clavicipitoid entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Putri, Sastia Prama; Ishido, Kei-Ichi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Kitani, Shigeru; Ihara, Fumio; Sakihama, Yasuko; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Nihira, Takuya

    2014-05-01

    A total of 412 strains belonging to 14 genera of clavicipitoid entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) were screened for activities against two economically important plant pathogenic oomycetes, Phytophthora sojae and Aphanomyces cochlioides. To identify the antioomycete compounds produced by EPF, the extracts of 13 highly active EPF strains were characterized in detail by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and high-resolution mass spectrometric detection and antioomycete assay. The antioomycete activity of several Metarhizium extracts was associated with previously isolated aurovertins, fungerin, N-(methyl-3-oxodec-6-enoyl)-2-pyrroline, and N-(methyl-3-oxodecanoyl)-2-pyrroline. The depsipeptide beauvericin was confirmed to be one of the active principles of three strains of Isaria tenuipes, which strongly inhibited mycelial growth of both P. sojae and A. cochlioides. Two known bioactive metabolites, paecilosetin and aranorosinol A, together with a novel and potent antioomycete compound, farinomalein, were isolated from the extracts of Isaria farinosa and all compounds were confirmed to have antioomycete activity. Identification of 8 antioomycete compounds from 13 clavicipitioid EPF demonstrated a new potential use of EPF as a source of compounds for the control of soil-borne plant pathogenic oomycetes. PMID:24268864

  10. GsLRPK, a novel cold-activated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase from Glycine soja, is a positive regulator to cold stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Wu, Kangcheng; Gao, Peng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Guangpu; Wu, Zujian

    2014-02-01

    Plant LRR-RLKs serve as protein interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of protein activation. Here, we report the isolation of a novel plant-specific LRR-RLK from Glycine soja (termed GsLRPK) by differential screening. GsLRPK expression was cold-inducible and shows Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsLRPK is localized in the plasma membrane. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that temperature, salt, drought, and ABA treatment can alter GsLRPK gene transcription in G. soja. However, just protein induced by cold stress not by salinity and ABA treatment in tobacco was found to possess kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsLRPK in yeast and Arabidopsis can enhance resistance to cold stress and increase the expression of a number of cold responsive gene markers. PMID:24388511

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a new basic peroxidase cDNA from soybean hypocotyls infected with Phytophthora sojae f.sp. glycines.

    PubMed

    Yi, S Y; Hwang, B K

    1998-10-31

    Differential display techniques were used to isolate cDNA clones corresponding to genes which were expressed in soybean hypocotyls by Phytophthora sojae f.sp. glycines infection. With a partial cDNA clone C20CI4 from the differential display PCR as a probe, a new basic peroxidase cDNA clone, designated GMIPER1, was isolated from a cDNA library of soybean hypocotyls infected with P. sojae f.sp. glycines. Sequence analysis revealed that the peroxidase clone encodes a mature protein of 35,813 Da with a putative signal peptide of 27 amino acids in its N-terminus. The amino acid sequence of the soybean peroxidase GMIPER1 is between 54-75% identical to other plant peroxidases including a soybean seed coat peroxidase. Southern blot analysis indicated that multiple copies of sequences related to GMIPER1 exist in the soybean genome. The mRNAs corresponding to the GMIPER1 cDNA accumulated predominantly in the soybean hypocotyls infected with the incompatible race of P. sojae f.sp. glycines, but were expressed at low levels in the compatible interaction. Soybean GMIPER1 mRNAs were not expressed in hypocotyls, leaves, stems, and roots of soybean seedlings. However, treatments with ethephon, salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate induced the accumulation of the GMIPER1 mRNAs in the different organs of soybean. These results suggest that the GMIPER1 gene encoding a putative pathogen-induced peroxidase may play an important role in induced resistance of soybean to P. sojae f.sp. glycines and in response to various external stresses. PMID:9856343

  12. Comparative metabolomics in Glycine max and Glycine soja under salt stress to reveal the phenotypes of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonghai; Lam, Honming; Pi, Erxu; Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-09-11

    Metabolomics is developing as an important functional genomics tool for understanding plant systems' response to genetic and environmental changes. Here, we characterized the metabolic changes of cultivated soybean C08 (Glycine max L. Merr) and wild soybean W05 (Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.) under salt stress using MS-based metabolomics, in order to reveal the phenotypes of their eight hybrid offspring (9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590). Total small molecule extracts of soybean seedling leaves were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FT/MS). We found that wild soybean contained higher amounts of disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acetylated amino acids than cultivated soybean, but with lower amounts of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of soybean to tolerate salt was mainly based on synthesis of compatible solutes, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, cell membrane modifications, and induction of plant hormones. On the basis of metabolic phenotype, the salt-tolerance abilities of 9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590 were discriminated. Our results demonstrated that MS-based metabolomics provides a fast and powerful approach to discriminate the salt-tolerance characteristics of soybeans. PMID:23930713

  13. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. Results B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. Conclusions B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. soja. B09121 may be a useful tool for studies of the structural and functional properties of F3'5'H genes as well as investigations on the role of flower color in relation to adaptation of G. soja to natural habitats. PMID:20663233

  14. Ectopic overexpression of a novel Glycine soja stress-induced plasma membrane intrinsic protein increases sensitivity to salt and dehydration in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Cai, Hua; Li, Yong; Zhu, Yanming; Ji, Wei; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) belong to the aquaporin family and facilitate water movement across plasma membranes. Existing data indicate that PIP genes are associated with the abilities of plants to tolerate certain stress conditions. A review of our Glycine soja expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset revealed that abiotic stress stimulated expression of a PIP, herein designated as GsPIP2;1 (GenBank_Accn: FJ825766). To understand the roles of this PIP in stress tolerance, we generated a coding sequence for GsPIP2;1 by in silico elongation and cloned the cDNA by 5'-RACE. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that GsPIP2;1 expression was stimulated in G. soja leaves by cold, salt, or dehydration stress, whereas the same stresses suppressed GsPIP2;1 expression in the roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing GsPIP2;1 grew normally under unstressed and cold conditions, but exhibited depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stresses. Moreover, greater changes in water potential were detected in the transgenic A. thaliana shoots, implying that GsPIP2;1 may negatively impact stress tolerance by regulating water potential. These results, deviating from those obtained in previous reports, provide new insights into the relationship between PIPs and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. PMID:25358447

  15. Ectopic Expression of a Glycine soja myo-Inositol Oxygenase Gene (GsMIOX1a) in Arabidopsis Enhances Tolerance to Alkaline Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Yu, Yang; Liu, Ailin; Xiao, Jialei; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Myo-inositol participates in various aspects of plant physiology, and myo-inositol oxygenase is the key enzyme of the myo-inositol oxygenation pathway. Previous studies indicated that myo-inositol oxygenase may play a role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, we focused on the functional characterization of GsMIOX1a, a remarkable alkaline stress-responsive gene of Glycine soja 07256, based on RNA-seq data. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we demonstrated that GsMIOX1a is rapidly induced by alkaline stress and expressed predominantly in flowers. We also elucidated the positive function of GsMIOX1a in the alkaline response in the wild type, atmiox1 mutant as well as GsMIOX1a-overexpressing Arabidopsis. We determined that atmiox1 mutant decreased Arabidopsis tolerance to alkaline stress, whereas GsMIOX1a overexpression increased tolerance. Moreover, the expression levels of some alkaline stress-responsive and inducible marker genes, including H+-Ppase, NADP-ME, KIN1 and RD29B, were also up-regulated in GsMIOX1a overexpression lines compared with the wild type and atmiox1 mutant. Together, these results suggest that the GsMIOX1a gene positively regulates plant tolerance to alkaline stress. This is the first report to demonstrate that ectopic expression of myo-inositol oxygenase improves alkaline tolerance in plants. PMID:26091094

  16. GsAPK, an ABA-activated and calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase from G. soja, mediates the regulation of plant tolerance to salinity and ABA stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Ji, Wei; Gao, Peng; Li, Yong; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Plant Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1) related protein kinase (SnRK), a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases, has been implicated as a crucial upstream regulator of ABA and osmotic signaling as in many other signaling cascades. In this paper, we have isolated a novel plant specific ABA activated calcium independent protein kinase (GsAPK) from a highly salt tolerant plant, Glycine soja (50109), which is a member of the SnRK2 family. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsAPK is localized in the plasma membrane. We found that autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation activity of GsAPK is only activated by ABA and the kinase activity also was observed when calcium was replaced by EGTA, suggesting its independence of calcium in enzyme activity. We also found that cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress alter GsAPK gene transcripts and heterogonous overexpression of GsAPK in Arabidopsis alters plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA stress. In summary, we demonstrated that GsAPK is a Glycine soja ABA activated calcium independent SnRK-type kinase presumably involved in ABA mediated stress signal transduction. PMID:22439004

  17. Detection and identification of multiple baculoviruses using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction endonuclease analysis.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, R R; Maruniak, J E

    1997-01-01

    A technique using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction analysis was developed for the simultaneous detection of eight baculoviruses. The baculoviruses detected by this technique were Autographa californica multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (MNPV). Anticarsia gemmatalis MNPV, Bombyx mori MNPV, Orgyia pseudotsugata MNPV. Spodoptera frugiperda MNPV, S. exigua MNPV, Anagrapha falcifera MNPV, Heliothis zea single-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SNPV). A highly conserved DNA sequence within the coding region of the polyhedrin gene was targeted for amplification. One pair of degenerate primers was designed, and PCR conditions were optimized to produce 575 base pair fragments for all eight baculoviruses. Restriction analysis of the PCR products resulted in distinct profiles for each virus. This technique would be useful in monitoring the release of wild type as well as genetically engineered baculoviruses. PMID:9015292

  18. Biological safety of liposome-fullerene consisting of hydrogenated lecithin, glycine soja sterols, and fullerene-C60 upon photocytotoxicity and bacterial reverse mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Kato, S; Aoshima, H; Saitoh, Y; Miwa, N

    2009-04-01

    Various water-soluble derivatives of fullerene-C60 (C60) have been developed as detoxifiers for reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas C60 incorporated in liposome (Lpsm) has not been reported yet. We prepared the liposome-fullerene (0.2% aqueous phase, Lpsm-Flln) which was composed of hydrogenated lecithin, glycine soja (soybean) sterols, and C60 in the weight ratio of 89.7:10:0.3, then examined the photocytotoxicity and bacterial reverse mutagenicity, as comparing with the Lpsm containing no C60. Photocytoxicity of Lpsm-Flln or Lpsm was examined using Balb/3T3 fibroblastic cells at graded doses of 0.49-1000 microg/mL under the condition of UVA- or sham-irradiation. The cells were irradiated with UVA (5 J/cm2, 320-400 nm, lambda max = 360 nm) at room temperature for 50 min. The resultant cell viability (% of control) did not decrease dose-dependently to 50% or less regardless of the UVA-irradiation. These results show that Lpsm-Flln or Lpsm does not possess photocytotoxicity to Balb/3T3 fibroblasts, and Lpsm-Flln may not exert a UVA-catalytic ROS-increasing action. A possibility for the reverse mutation by Lpsm-Flln or Lpsm was examined on four histidine-demanding strains of Salmonella typhimurium and a tryptophan-demanding strain of Escherichia coli. As for the dosages of Lpsm-Flln or Lpsm (313-5000 microg/plate), the dose-dependency of the number of reverse mutation colonies of each strain did not show a twice or more difference versus the negative control regardless of the metabolic activation, and, in contrast, marked differences for five positive controls (sodium azide, N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, 2-nitrofluorene, 9-aminoacridine, and 2-aminoanthracene). The growth inhibition of bacterial strains and the deposition of Lpsm-Flln or Lpsm were not found. As a result, the bacterial reverse mutagenicity of Lpsm-Flln or Lpsm was judged to be negative under the conditions of this test. Thus, Lpsm-Flln and Lpsm may not give any significant biological toxic effects, such as photocytotoxicity and bacterial reverse mutagenicity. PMID:19482914

  19. PsMPK7, a stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Phytophthora sojae, is required for stress tolerance, reactive oxygenated species detoxification, cyst germination, sexual reproduction and infection of soybean.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Cao, Mingna; Ye, Wenwu; Li, Haiyang; Kong, Liang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-01

    The sensing of stress signals and their transduction into appropriate responses are crucial for the adaptation, survival and infection of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Amongst evolutionarily conserved pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades function as key signal transducers that use phosphorylation to convey information. In this study, we identified a gene, designated PsMPK7, one of 14 predicted genes encoding MAPKs in Phytophthora sojae. PsMPK7 was highly transcribed in each tested stage, but was up-regulated in the zoospore, cyst and cyst germination stages. Silencing of PsMPK7 affected the growth of germinated cysts, oospore production and the pathogenicity of soybean. PsMPK7 transcription was induced by stresses from sorbitol, NaCl and hydrogen peroxide. Transformants in which PsMPK7 expression was silenced (PsMPK7-silenced) were significantly more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stress. Aniline blue and diaminobenzidine staining revealed that the silenced lines did not suppress the host reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, indicating that either the inoculated plants activated stronger defence responses to the transformants and/or the PsMPK7-silenced transformants failed to overcome plant defences. In addition, extracellular secretion of laccase decreased in the silenced lines. Overall, our results indicate that the PsMPK7 gene encodes a stress-associated MAPK in P.?sojae that is important not only for responses to various stresses, but also for ROS detoxification, cyst germination, sexual oospore production and infection of soybean. PMID:24889742

  20. Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture.

    PubMed

    Schünemann, Rogério; Knaak, Neiva; Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans. PMID:24575310

  1. Evaluation of pest vulnerability of 'Benning' soybean value added and insect resistant near isogenic lines.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Foo, Michelle; All, John N; Boerma, H Roger

    2013-04-01

    Crop enhancement with value added traits may affect vulnerability to insects, and evaluating the susceptibility levels of the various value added traits in elite germplasm would aid in developing integrated pest management strategies. During 2007-2008, five 'Benning' soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) lines with different value added nutritional traits and four insect resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL) lines were evaluated in an effort to determine their pest vulnerability under artificial and natural insect pest populations. The lines showed variable susceptibility to lepidopterous insect pests classified as defoliators and stem feeders in replicated greenhouse and field tests. The study was carried out in Athens and Midville, GA. The green cloverworm (Hypena scabra (F.)) was the most common lepidopteran defoliator occurring in the fields. Other caterpillar pests found included the soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)), the bollworm (Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)), and the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner)). Data indicated that there was no significantly increased pest susceptibility among the value added cultivars with improved nutritional qualities, with the insect resistant quantitative trait loci lines Benning M and Benning MGH consistently being less susceptible to lepidopterous (Noctuidae) leaf injury. PMID:23786071

  2. Influence of pheromone trap color and design on capture of male velvetbean caterpillar and fall armyworm moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, E R; Agee, H R; Heath, R R

    1989-06-01

    Three pheromone traps were evaluated in paired field trials for effectiveness in capturing wild male velvetbean caterpillar moths (VBC),Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and fall armyworm moths (FAW),Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), using a wind-oriented trapping device. The traps were: (1) the standard multicolored bucket trap consisting of a forest green canopy, yellow funnel, white bucket and open (i.e., single wire) pheromone holder; (2) a forest green monocolored bucket trap; and (3) the Multi-Pher-1 trap consisting of a blue-green canopy, white funnel, white bucket, and white, multislotted pheromone holder. The Multi-Pher-1 trap differs primarily from the other two in that its entrance is smaller in diameter and is partially obstructed by the pheromone holder. Significantly fewer VBC and FAW males were captured in pheromone-baited monocolored (forest green) bucket traps than standard multicolored bucket traps. The Multi-Pher-1 trap also caught significantly fewer VBC moths than the standard multicolored bucket trap, but there was no significant difference in numbers of FAW moths caught in the two traps. The results further demonstrate the importance of considering visual cues, in this case color, in the design of pheromone traps for nocturnal insects. PMID:24272181

  3. Establishment and characterization of insect cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C L; El Sayed, G N; McIntosh, A H; Grasela, J J; Stiles, B

    2001-06-01

    Cell lines from selected lepidopteran species were established for the overall purpose of use in baculovirus production. A total of 36 new cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species were generated, including cell lines from a pyralid, the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, a plutellid, the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, as well as eight noctuids: the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon, the celery looper, Anagrapha falcifera, the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis, the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, and the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. Tissues used for cell line establishment included fat bodies, ovaries, testes, or whole embryos/larvae/pupae. All the cell lines were subcultured numerous times, characterized by isoenzyme analysis and/or deoxyribonucleic acid amplification fingerprinting using polymerase chain reaction, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Many of the cell lines were adapted to grow in serum-free medium, with cell lines from A. ipsilon and H. virescens being adapted to suspension culture using shaker flasks. The potential use for these cell lines in baculovirus production is discussed. PMID:11515970

  4. Isolation and Characterization of a Baculovirus Associated with the Insect Parasitoid Wasp, Cotesia marginiventris, or Its Host, Trichoplusia ni

    PubMed Central

    Grasela, James J.; McIntosh, Arthur H.; Shelby, Kent S.; Long, Steve

    2008-01-01

    A multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (MNPV) was isolated from Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae that had been stung by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The wild type virus was plaque purified by infecting a Heliothis subflexa (BCIRL- HsAM1) cell line and isolating several clones. The mean estimated genomic size of this virus based on PstI, BstEII, StyI, HindIII restriction profiles was estimated to be 106 ± 2.5 kbp (mean±SE). A clone designated as TnMNPV/CmBCL9 was used in bioassays against several lepidopteran pests and in comparative studies with the baculoviruses AcMNPV, AgMNPV, AfMNPV, PxMNPV and HzSNPV of Autographa califomica, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Anagrapha falcifera, Plutella xylostella, and Helicoverpa zea, respectively. Infectivity studies showed that TnMNPV/CmBCL9 was highly infectious for Heliothis subflexa and T. ni, with an LC50 value 0.07 occlusion bodies/mm2 in both species and also infectious for H. zea and Heliothis virescens with LC50 values of 0.22 and 0.27 occlusion bodies/mm2, respectively. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the isolate and selected baculoviruses revealed profiles that were very similar to AfMNPV but different from the restriction endonuclease profiles of the other baculoviruses. Hybridization studies suggest that the TnMNPV/CmBCL9 was closely related to AfMNPV and AcMNPV-HPP. Further support for this comes from a phylogenetic analysis employing a split-graphs network, comparing the polh, egt, and p10 genes from TnMNPV/CmBCL9 with those from other baculoviruses and suggests that this virus is closely related to the AcMNPV variants, AfMNPV and RoMNPV of Rachiplusia ou. PMID:20334593

  5. Isolation and characterization of a baculovirus associated with the insect parasitoid wasp, Cotesia marginiventris, or its host, Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Grasela, James J; McIntosh, Arthur H; Shelby, Kent S; Long, Steve

    2008-01-01

    A multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (MNPV) was isolated from Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae that had been stung by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The wild type virus was plaque purified by infecting a Heliothis subflexa (BCIRL- HsAM1) cell line and isolating several clones. The mean estimated genomic size of this virus based on PstI, BstEII, StyI, HindIII restriction profiles was estimated to be 106 +/- 2.5 kbp (mean+/-SE). A clone designated as TnMNPV/CmBCL9 was used in bioassays against several lepidopteran pests and in comparative studies with the baculoviruses AcMNPV, AgMNPV, AfMNPV, PxMNPV and HzSNPV of Autographa califomica, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Anagrapha falcifera, Plutella xylostella, and Helicoverpa zea, respectively. Infectivity studies showed that TnMNPV/CmBCL9 was highly infectious for Heliothis subflexa and T. ni, with an LC(50) value 0.07 occlusion bodies/mm(2) in both species and also infectious for H. zea and Heliothis virescens with LC(50) values of 0.22 and 0.27 occlusion bodies/mm(2), respectively. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the isolate and selected baculoviruses revealed profiles that were very similar to AfMNPV but different from the restriction endonuclease profiles of the other baculoviruses. Hybridization studies suggest that the TnMNPV/CmBCL9 was closely related to AfMNPV and AcMNPV-HPP. Further support for this comes from a phylogenetic analysis employing a split-graphs network, comparing the polh, egt, and p10 genes from TnMNPV/CmBCL9 with those from other baculoviruses and suggests that this virus is closely related to the AcMNPV variants, AfMNPV and RoMNPV of Rachiplusia ou. PMID:20334593

  6. New cell lines derived from the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon, that support replication of the A. ipsilon multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus and several group I nucleopolyhedroviruses.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert L; Lynn, Dwight E

    2008-09-01

    New cell lines were recently developed from the embryos of the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A primary culture was initiated from 4-day-old A. ipsilon eggs in ExCell420 medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. This initial culture produced sufficient cell growth to allow subcultivation and eventually led to the establishment of eight distinct strains. Two of these strains (AiE1611T and AiEd6T) were selected for further characterization. Extracts of these strains were compared to an extract from A. ipsilon eggs by isozyme analysis and shown to be from the same species. Both strains were susceptible to infection by the A. ipsilon multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgipMNPV), as well as to lepidopteran group I NPVs from A. californica, Anagrapha falcifera, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Galleria mellonella, Helicoverpa armigera, Plutella xylostella, and Rachiplusia ou, with large numbers of occlusion bodies produced in most of the inoculated cells. The cell lines did not support the replication of group II NPVs from Helicoverpa zea, Lymantria dispar, and Spodoptera exigua. Both cell lines produced confluent monolayers in plaque assays and supported the formation of plaques upon infection with AgipMNPV and Autographa californica (Ac)MNPV. Twenty AgipMNPV plaques were picked from either AiE1611T or AiEd6T monolayers, and the plaque isolates were serially passaged three times through A. ipsilon cells. Only one isolate from AiE1611T cells exhibited genotypic variation in the form of an altered restriction fragment profile. Our results suggest these new lines can be useful in the study of AgipMNPV and A. ipsilon cellular and molecular biology. PMID:18395741

  7. Physiologie vgtale Fixation d'azote par le soja vietnamien

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    : SMX11symbiosis was resist- ant to acid pH whatever the host soybean, while G3/171-16 symbiosis cultivées sur milieu liquide à pH 6,3 dépourvu d'azote minéral. Les plantes dont les nodosités sont déjà en des plantes) et de la fixation de N2 (N organique total des plantes) des plantes transférées à celles

  8. Screening of candidate proteins interacting with IE-2 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yejun; Wu, Yu; Wu, Yan; Tang, Hui; Wu, Huiling; Zhang, Guozheng; Wang, Wenbing

    2013-10-01

    IE-2 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) has been shown to play important roles in baculovirus infection, which are involved in gene expression and viral replication. However, the mechanism remains unknown. In this paper, by TargetP software, four genes, i.e.-2, odv-e26, odv-e56 and BmNPV-gp101 (Ac-orf116) of BmNPV and Autographa californica multiple NPV (AcMNPV) were predicted to be located in mitochondria. By BLAST tool using BmNPV IE-2 protein sequence, 14 NPVs were found to have IE-2 homologues in GenBank, and most of them were predicted to be located in mitochondria, except for that of Antheraea pernyi NPV (AnpeNPV) and Anticarsia gemmatalis NPV (AngeNPV). To observe the subcellular localization of BmNPV IE-2, a recombinant virus overexpressed the IE-2 and eGFP fusion protein was constructed. In infected BmN cells, the fluorescence specifically enriched in the cellular mitochondria. This evidence was accordant with the prediction. Further, Pull-down assay was used to select protein candidates interacting with IE-2 in B. mori cells infected with BmNPV. Of several isolated protein components, sixteen candidates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry, eight baculoviral proteins (ALK-EXO, F protein, IAP-1, LEF-3, LEF-9, ODV-NC42, TLP, and VP39), and eight proteins from B. mori (Actin, ADP/ATP translocase, ATP synthase subunit beta, Beta-tubulin, DNA topoisomerase 2, Histone H4, Soluble guanylyl cyclae alpha-1 subunit, Transketolase). From the functional point of view, most of these proteins were generally divided into two groups, mitochondrial interaction proteins and viral DNA replication proteins. These results implied that the IE-2 had multiple functions involved in regulating viral gene expression, viral replication and also as a component of mitochondrial factors to regulate the cellular energy supply and apoptosis. PMID:24078157

  9. Ectopic Expression of a WRKY Homolog from Glycine soja Alters Flowering Time in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Cao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Mingchao; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-01-01

    Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO) and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG). Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time. PMID:23991184

  10. Glyceollin is an important component of soybean plant defense against Phytophthora sojae and Macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic soybean plants were generated using bombardment of embryogenic cultures with the PAL5 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase), CHS6 (chalcone synthase) and IFS2 (isoflavone synthase) genes in sense orientation, driven by the cotyledon-preferable lectin promoter, or with the IFS2 (isoflavone synthas...

  11. Article original Digestion des protines de pois et de soja chez le veau

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    .5 % of the protein, the remainder being supplied by skim-milk powder. In the soya-bean diet, 73.2 % of the protein were provided by a soya-bean isolate and the remainder by #12;whey powder. The concentrations of plasma préruminant Summary ― Digestion of pea and soya-bean proteins In preruminant calves. I. Circulating

  12. Mapeamento da cultura da soja com imagens Landsat 5\\/TM utilizando algoritmos de classificação supervisionada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliana Rezeck Ganan; Jansle Vieira Rocha; Erivelto Mercante; João Francisco Gonçalves Antunes

    The goal of this study was to produce a map of soybean cultivation areas in west region of Paraná state, through LANDSAT5\\/TM (Thematic Mapper) images from the 2003\\/2004 yield, from november 2003 to february 2004. In order to do this, there were made automatic digital classifications, which were based on regions of interest made before, in a study of monitoring

  13. Gestión del riesgo de asma por haba de soja: monitorización y vigilancia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan R. Villalbí; Dolors Carrascal; Joan A. Caylà; Pau Rodríguez; M. Cruz; Josep M. Pintó

    ObjectivesAllergen emissions during soybean unloading operations in the Barcelona harbor have caused asthma epidemics. The present article aimed to describe the surveillance and control measures carried out by the public health services.

  14. Descargas de cascarilla de soja en Tarragona y riesgo de epidemias de asma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enric Rovira; Anna Cuadras; Pere Gaig; Vanessa Gázquez; Gaspar Dalmau; Susana Gómez-Ollés; Ma Jesús Cruz

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesFrom 2007 to 2008, 215,000 tons of soybean hull were unloaded in the Port of Tarragona. Soybean hull was identified as the etiologic agent causing bronchial asthma outbreaks. The aim of the present study was to identify the characteristics of soybean unloading, soybean allergen dispersion, and the population risk.

  15. Etude de l'activit nitrognase des nodosits de soja inocul avec une souche croissance rapide

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    were not significantly different. The supply of additional mineral nitrogen did not increase growth avec des variétés sélectionnées en Chine présente une #12;bonne capacité de fixation de l'azote (KEYSER

  16. Absorção de água e potencial fisiológico em sementes de soja de diferentes tamanhos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osmar Paulo Beckert; Marcelo Hissnauer Miguel; Júlio Marcos Filho

    2000-01-01

    Water uptake of soybean seeds, depending on seed size, occur at different intensities and can be related to the physiological potential. With the purpose of determining the pattern of water uptake of soybean seeds and its relationship to their physiological potential, one soybean seed lot, cv. BRS-155, was separated into different sizes (6.75; 6.35; 5.95; 5.55; 5.15; 4.75 e 4.35

  17. Effets compars de la farine de soja et de coton sur certains paramtres san-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    régime MCL (9,8 g/dl). Les teneurs en carnitine sont semblables. Avec le régime MCL, les acides aminés diffusion entérocytaire du calcium. Evaluation quantitative. C Bellaton C Roche C Rémy F Bronner, D Pansu

  18. Association mapping of yield-related traits and SSR markers in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Guozheng; Kan, Guizhen; Hong, Delin; Yu, Deyue

    2014-01-01

    Wild soybean, the progenitor of cultivated soybean, is an important gene pool for ongoing soybean breeding efforts. To identify yield-enhancing quantitative trait locus (QTL) or gene from wild soybean, 113 wild soybeans accessions were phenotyped for five yield-related traits and genotyped with 85 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to conduct association mapping. A total of 892 alleles were detected for the 85 SSR markers, with an average 10.49 alleles; the corresponding PIC values ranged from 0.07 to 0.92, with an average 0.73. The genetic diversity of each SSR marker ranged from 0.07 to 0.93, with an average 0.75. A total of 18 SSR markers were identified for the five traits. Two SSR markers, sct_010 and satt316, which are associated with the yield per plant were stably expressed over two years at two experimental locations. Our results suggested that association mapping can be an effective approach for identifying QTL from wild soybean. PMID:24757383

  19. Interações entre monensina sódica, óleo de soja e fontes de nitrogênio no desempenho de novilhos Aberdeen Angus em confinamento

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rogério de Paula Lana; Danny G. Fox

    2001-01-01

    Fourty Aberdeen Angus steers were used to evaluate the effects of monensin, soybean oil and nitrogen source (soybean meal or urea) on feedlot performance of steers fed 90% concentrate diets. The monensin decreased dry matter intake of soybean meal supplemented diets and decreased the body weight at 56 and 112 days. The soybean oil decreased the average daily gain from

  20. Fast Neutron Mutagenesis of Soybean (Glycine soja L.) Produces a Supernodulating Mutant Containing a Large Deletion in Linkage Group H

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artem E. Men; Titeki S. Laniya; Iain R. Searle; Inaki Iturbe-Ormaetxe; Irma Gresshoff; Qunyi Jiang; Bernard J. Carroll; Peter M. Gresshoff

    2002-01-01

    We describe for the érst time the application of fast neutron mutagenesis to the genetic dissection of root nodulation in legumes. We demonstrate the utility of chromosomal deletion mutations through production of a soybean supernodulation mutant FN37 that lacks the internal autoregulation of nodulation mechanism. After inoculation with microsymbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, FN37 forms at least 10 times more nodules than

  1. Cintique de la dgradation des protines de soja par la pronase E et poids molculaires des peptides librs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    peptides libérés N Depardon, D Debroas, G Blanchart INRA-ENSAIA, laboratoire de zootechnie, 2, av de la peptides libérés par la pronase sont sem- blables à ceux produits in situ. Dans cette hypo- thèse, ces peptides pourraient être mis à la dis- position d'inoculum de bactéries du rumen, pour permettre de

  2. Identification and Functional Characterization of the Soybean GmaPPO12 Promoter Conferring Phytophthora sojae Induced Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Chunyue; Lin, Yanling; Shen, Danyu; Wu, Yuren; Li, Hongjuan; Dou, Daolong

    2013-01-01

    Identification of pathogen-inducible promoters largely lags behind cloning of the genes for disease resistance. Here, we cloned the soybean GmaPPO12 gene and found that it was rapidly and strongly induced by Phytophthorasojae infection. Computational analysis revealed that its promoter contained many known cis-elements, including several defense related transcriptional factor-binding boxes. We showed that the promoter could mediate induction of GUS expression upon infection in both transient expression assays in Nicotianabenthamiana and stable transgenic soybean hairy roots. Importantly, we demonstrated that pathogen-induced expression of the GmaPPO12 promoter was higher than that of the soybean GmaPR1a promoter. A progressive 5’ and 3’ deletion analysis revealed two fragments that were essential for promoter activity. Thus, the cloned promoter could be used in transgenic plants to enhance resistance to phytophthora pathogens, and the identified fragment could serve as a candidate to produce synthetic pathogen-induced promoters. PMID:23840763

  3. Identification and functional characterization of the soybean GmaPPO12 promoter conferring Phytophthora sojae induced expression.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chunyue; Lin, Yanling; Shen, Danyu; Wu, Yuren; Li, Hongjuan; Dou, Daolong

    2013-01-01

    Identification of pathogen-inducible promoters largely lags behind cloning of the genes for disease resistance. Here, we cloned the soybean GmaPPO12 gene and found that it was rapidly and strongly induced by Phytophthorasojae infection. Computational analysis revealed that its promoter contained many known cis-elements, including several defense related transcriptional factor-binding boxes. We showed that the promoter could mediate induction of GUS expression upon infection in both transient expression assays in Nicotianabenthamiana and stable transgenic soybean hairy roots. Importantly, we demonstrated that pathogen-induced expression of the GmaPPO12 promoter was higher than that of the soybean GmaPR1a promoter. A progressive 5' and 3' deletion analysis revealed two fragments that were essential for promoter activity. Thus, the cloned promoter could be used in transgenic plants to enhance resistance to phytophthora pathogens, and the identified fragment could serve as a candidate to produce synthetic pathogen-induced promoters. PMID:23840763

  4. Integration of the draft sequence and physical map as a framework for genomic research in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a model for the legume research community due to its importance as a crop, a well populated genetic map, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole genome shotgun sequence and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution chromosome-b...

  5. EFICIÊNCIA DO HERBICIDA SETHOXYDIM EM FUNÇÃO DO VOLUME DE CALDA NO CONTROLE DE PAPUÃ (Brachiara plantaginea (Link.) Hitch.) NA CULTURA DA SOJA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRACAMONTE Enzo; PINTO Jesus

    CONTROL OF ALEXANDERGRASS (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link.) Hitch.) WITH DIFFERENT SPRAY VOLUMES OF SETHOXYDIM IN SOYBEANS. The effect of herbicide sethoxydim (0.230 kg \\/ha + 1.25 l\\/ha of mineral oil) at different spray volumes applied in the morning, at noon and afternoon at field conditions and at noon in the greenhouse, was evaluated regarding control of alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea). Spray volumes

  6. RNA Interference of Soybean Isoflavone Synthase Genes Leads to Silencing in Tissues Distal to the Transformation Site and to Enhanced Susceptibility to Phytophthora sojae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Senthil Subramanian; Madge Y. Graham; Oliver Yu; Terrence L. Graham

    2005-01-01

    Isoflavones are thought to play diverse roles in plant-microbe interactions and are also potentially important to human nutrition and medicine. Isoflavone synthase (IFS) is a key enzyme for the formation of the isoflavones. Here, we examined the consequences of RNAi silencing of genes for this enzyme in soybean (Glycine max). Soybean cotyledon tissues were transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying an

  7. DOSES DE MUL TIFOSFATO MAGNESIANO APLICADOS A LANÇO EM PRÉ-SEMEADURA, SOB SISTEMA PLANTIO DIRET O CULTURA DA SOJA Rates of magnesium multiphosphate applied by throwing in pre-sowing, under no-tillage - soybean crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina Maria Quintão Lana; Guilherme Bossi Buck; Ângela Maria Quintão Lana; Rildo Prudente Pereira

    The phosphorus efficiency is influenced by several attributes of the soil that affect the answer of the cultures to the P application, including soil management. The experiment was carried out at the Água Limpa Farm, which belongs to the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, in the period from 1998 to 2003. It had as objective

  8. COMPORTAMENTO DOS ÓLEOS DE GIRASSOL, SOJA E MILHO EM FRITURAS DE PRODUTO CÁRNEO EMP ANADO PRÉ-FRITO CONGELADO Sunflower, soybean and corn oils behavior in frozen pre-fried coated meat product frying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia Vieira Del Ré; Neuza Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The ever growing utilization of fast food determined the expansion of an industry of pre-fried and fried products. The understanding of the changes that the oil undergoes during the frying processes is outstanding because it may lead to the optimization of such processes as well as to improvements on the quality of both frying oil and the finished product. The

  9. Physiologie vgtale Mesure de l'activit nitrate rductase

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Physiologie végétale Mesure de l'activité nitrate réductase durant le cycle cultural du soja, assimilation du nitrate et fixation de l'azote de l'air, ont été étudiées chez le soja (cv Hodgson), inoculé avec Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 138. L'évolution des 2 activités enzymatiques, nitrate réductase et

  10. SOYBEAN GENES AFFECTING POD DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild soybeans (Glycine soja) offer tremendous genetic resources for cultivated soybeans. The pod-shatter trait is critical for successful reseeding of G. soja in the wild. Modern soybean (Glycine max) cultivars have been selected for pod-shatter resistance. Coordinately- regulated expression of thre...

  11. Evaluation of Glycine Germplasm for Nulls of the Immunodominant Allergen P34\\/Gly m Bd 30k

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leina M. Joseph; Theodore Hymowitz; Monica A. Schmidt; Eliot M. Herman

    2006-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed contains an immunodomi- nant human allergen P34 or Gly m Bd 30k (mentioned as P34) of the cysteine protease family. Of approximately 16266 accessions from USDA soybean germplasm screened, 12 P34 null lines were identified among soybean (G. max), wild annual (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.), and wild perennial Glycine spp. Glycine soja were

  12. GENETIC VARIATION AND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CULTIVATED, WILD, AND SEMI-WILD SOYBEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some Glycine accessions are intermediate between the standard phenotypes of G. ma and G. soja and have been labeled semi-wild. Few studies have examined both the genetic and phenotypic relationships among G. soja, G. max, and semi-wild types by combining morphological traits and DNA markers. The ob...

  13. Estimation et volution compare de l'assimilation nette de couverts de mas (Zea mays L.), tournesol

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .), tournesol (Helianthus annuus L.) et soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), au cours de leurs cycles de (Helianthus annuus L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) during development Net assimilation, Canopies

  14. Effet d'un rgime riche en fibres sur la lipmie du rat Zucker gntiquement

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Rémésy, C DemignéA Mazur C Rémésy C Demigné (Laboratoire des maladies métaboliques, INRA, Theix, 63122 pomme 5%, son de blé 15%, fibre de soja 22%, amidon cru de pomme de terre 23%), soit avec un régime té

  15. Research Article Five-Month-Old Infants Have

    E-print Network

    Hespos, Susan J.

    in shape (Imai & Mazuka, 2007; Soja, Carey, & Spelke, 1991). The substances tested in the studies yielding to follow over gaps in time (Chiang & Wynn, 2000; Huntley-Fenner, Carey, & Solimando, 2002). For example

  16. Le succès des cultures transgéniques aux États-Unis: facteurs agro-économiques et perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Bonny

    2002-01-01

    [fre] A partir du cas du soja tolérant à l'herbicide gly- phosate, l'article analyse un certain nombre de facteurs expliquant la progression rapide des cultures transgéniques aux USA. Après avoir passé en revue leurs surfaces dans le monde et aux USA, on examine divers facteurs agro-économiques à l'origine de la diffusion rapide du soja tolérant au glyphosate dans les exploitations

  17. Evolutionary changes in the structures of the cox2 and atp6 loci in the mitochondrial genome of soybean involving recombination across small interspersed sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumie Kato; Akira Kanazawa; Tetsuo Mikami; Yoshiya Shimamoto

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments that contained cox2 or atp6 loci were cloned from three accessions of wild soybean (Glycine soja) in order to understand the evolutionary changes of mitochondrial genomes in the genus Glycine subgenus Soja. Cox2 was cloned as a single configuration, while atp6 was cloned as either one or two configurations from each accession. Structural variations were detected

  18. tude du rationnement de la poule pondeuse avec distribution de rgimes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Étude du rationnement de la poule pondeuse avec distribution de régimes à teneurs différentes en consommées; le besoin est estimé alors à 20 g /j et par poule (maïs, soja, méthionine). Cependant, pour l'ensemble de la ponte, le besoin de la poule ne dépasse pas 18 g et les résultats ne peuvent être entièrement

  19. Phytophthora Have Distinct Endogenous Small RNA Populations That Include Short Interfering and

    E-print Network

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs

  20. Martens and Van de Peer BMC Genomics 2010, 11:353 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/353

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    ]. Furthermore, they occupy similar ecological niches and share many cell wall degrad- ing enzymes to weaken host of Phytophthora genomes uncovered many genes, large gene families and large genome sizes that can partially people died and another million emigrated [9,10]. Another spe- cies, P. sojae, causes root and stem rot

  1. Original article Daily embolism and refilling of root xylem vessels

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    .), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) by cryo-microscopy. No vessels were esculentum / Glycine max / Helianthus annuus / refilling-vessels Résumé - Cycle journalier de l'embolie et tournesol (Helianthus annuus L.) et du soja (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivés en champ. Aucun vaisseau n

  2. Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Mitochondrial Genomics in the Genus

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 243 Mitochondrial Genomics in the Genus The mitochondrial genomes of Phytophthora infestans, P. ramorum and P. sojae have been sequenced and comparative genomics has provided an opportunity to examine the processes involved with genome evolution in the genus

  3. ADAPTABILIDADE E EST ABILIDADE DE GENÓTIPOS DE GIRASSOL NOS ESTADOS DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL E P ARANÁ Adaptability and stability of sunflower genotypes from the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Karolina Grunvald; Claudio Guilherme; Portela de Carvalho; Ana Cláudia; Barneche de Oliveira; Carlos Alberto de Bastos

    The objective of this paper was to study the adaptability and stability of sunflower genotypes from the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná, according to their grain and oil yield. The analyzed data were obtained from the Official Sunflower Trials Network, coordinated by Embrapa Soja, from the year 2003 to 2007. The experiment was carried out in randomized

  4. UNIVERSITE DE BOURGOGNE Ecole Doctorale Environnement-Sant-STIC

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    adulte, et une étude d'interaction d'un régime riche en soja sur les effets du BPA. Sur la base de tests. Deux expérimentations ont été conduites : une étude dose-effet du BPA (5µg à 12,5 mg/kj/j) chez le rat première fois une action du BPA sur la sècheresse buccale. Nous avons

  5. Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

  6. Host range of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal organism of soybean rust, was first described in 1903 from leaves of Glycine max subsp. soja, or wild soybean, in Japan. Since that time, there have been numerous reports of the pathogen on various leguminous species around the world, first in Asia, followed by Aust...

  7. PROTEOMIC AND GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF KUNITZ TRYPSIN INHIBITORS IN WILD AND CULTIVATED SOYBEAN GENOTYPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated protein and genetic profiles of Kunitz trypsin inhibitors (KTIs) in seeds of sixteen different soybean genotypes that included four groups consisting of wild soybean (Glycine soja), the cultivated soybean (G. max) ancestors of modern N. American soybean cultivars, mode...

  8. VARIATION IN EARLY PLANT HEIGHT IN WILD SOYBEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant height at maturity is a common trait evaluated in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) germplasm. It is difficult to evaluate wild soybean (Glycine soja [Sieb. & Zucc.]) accessions for this trait because of the viney nature of the stem. In 1999, large differences were observed in plant height th...

  9. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA IN SOYBEAN ( GLYCINE SP.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pham Quang Hung; K. Annapurna

    Plant-associated bacteria that live inside plant tissues without causing any harm to plants are defined as endophytic bacteria. The present investigation was carried out to analyse the phenotypic and genotypic diversity in the bacterial endophytes of two species of soybean viz. Glycine max and G. soja . A total of 65 bacterial endophytes were isolated from three tissues: stem, root

  10. Footprints of evolution: the dynamics of effector genes in the Phytophthora genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Y. Jiang

    2006-01-01

    Phytophthora is a genus comprised of over 65 destructive plant pathogenic species that cause severe damages in agriculture, forestry and natural habitats. Economically important pathogens are Phytophthora infestans (causing potato late blight) and Phytophthora sojae (causing soybean root and stem rot). A newly discovered species, Phytophthora ramorum is destroying oak trees along the west-coast of the USA by causing the

  11. Finding a Space for Professional Development: Creating Thirdspace through After-School Writing Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, Robert; Coyle, Deborah; Walden, Anne; Healey, Conniem; Larson, Kim; Laughridge, Virginia; Ridder, Kim; Williams, Molly; Williams, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a teacher study group focusing on After School Writing Circles for elementary students as a site of Thirdspace professional development. Borrowing the concept of Thirdspace from postmodern geographer Edward Soja, the authors argue that professional development works best when teachers engage in the dual work of imagining and…

  12. NECTAR COMPOSITION OF WILD PERENNIAL GLYCINE (SOYBEAN) SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Glycine contains the cultivated annual soybean G. max, the wild annual, G. soja, and about 21 wild perennial Glycine species. The perennials are largely indigenous to Australia, but are found in Papua New Guinea, Timor, Philippines, Japan and Taiwan. Outcrossing rates in the cultivated s...

  13. Influência do óleo de linhaça sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Janete Gouveia de Souza; José Humberto Vilar da Silva; Carlos Bôa-Viagem Rabello; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; Raul da Cunha Lima Neto

    2008-01-01

    RESUMO - O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a influência da adição de óleo de linhaça em substituição ao óleo de soja em rações para poedeiras semipesadas sobre o desempenho e a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos. Utilizaram-se 192 poedeiras da linhagem Bovans Godline com 29 semanas de idade, distribuídas em seis tratamentos, que consistiram de uma dieta controle

  14. Plant-Pathogen Interactions: From Genome Sequences to Genetic Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Arredondo; Nathan Bruce; Marcus Chibucos; Daolong Dou; Lee Falin; Adriana Fereirra; Nik Galloway; Regina Hanlon; Rays Jiang; Shiv Kale; Konstantinos Krampis; Robert Presler; Brian Smith; Vignesh Sundararajan; Ken Tian; Trudy Torto-Alalibo; Sucheta Tripathy; Lachelle Waller; Xia Wang; Lecong Zhou

    Interconnected genetic regulatory networks govern the interactions of hosts and pathogens as a result of an ongoing co-evolutionary battle between the organisms. We are building data collections and tool sets for dissecting host-pathogen genetic networks, with a principal focus on oomycete pathogens of plants. To catalog the interacting genes we have sequenced the genomes of the oomycetes Phytophthora sojae, Phytophthora

  15. Changing Course: Locating Third Space in a College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    The author reflects on her experience teaching undergraduate children's literature over several semesters and the impact of her action research study on her teaching. Using theoretical concepts of Third Space (Bhabha, 1994; Soja, 1996), the author examines the evolution of her philosophy of education and classroom practice. The author determines…

  16. NECTAR COMPOSITION OF WILD PERENNIAL GLYCINE (SOYBEAN) SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Glycine contains the cultivated annual soybean G. max, the wild annual soybean G. soja, and about 21 wild perennial Glycine species. The perennials are largely indigenous to Australia, but are found in Papua New Guinea, Timor, Philippines, Japan and Taiwan. Outcrossing by insects occurs ...

  17. Analyses of genome architecture and gene expression reveal novel candidate virulence factors in the secretome of Phytophthora infestans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Raffaele; Joe Win; Liliana M Cano; Sophien Kamoun

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phytophthora infestans is the most devastating pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes. It exhibits high evolutionary potential and rapidly adapts to host plants. The P. infestans genome experienced a repeat-driven expansion relative to the genomes of Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum and shows a discontinuous distribution of gene density. Effector genes, such as members of

  18. Proteomic and genetic analysis of glycinin subunits of sixteen soybean genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated proteomic and genomic profiles of glycinin, a family of major storage proteins in sixteen different soybean genotypes consisting of four groups including wild soybean (Glycine soja), unimproved cultivated soybean landraces from Asia (G. max), ancestors of N. American soybean, and mod...

  19. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Department of Geography

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Martin

    Foucault, Michel de Certeau, Henri Lefebvre, Gunnar Olsson, Derek Gregory, David Harvey, Ed Soja, Doreen) Henri Lefebvre. The Production of Space. Wiley-Blackwell, 1995. ($35) Michel Foucault. Discipline on disciplinary and social movement practice. We will work through selected texts by, among others, Michel

  20. DOMESTICATION, FOUNDING EFFECTS AND ARTIFICIAL SELECTION - GENETIC BOTTLENECKS AND SOYBEAN GENETIC VARIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic vulnerability is the condition of being broadly susceptible to attack by pests and is assumed to be proportional to genetic uniformity. Genetic variability of North American soybean at the DNA sequence level was assessed in fragments from 102 genes in each of 26 accessions of G. soja, 52 As...

  1. Multiple Horizontal Gene Transfer Events and Domain Fusions Have Created Novel Regulatory and Metabolic Networks in the Oomycete Genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Francis Morris; Laura Rose Schlosser; Katherine Diane Onasch; Tom Wittenschlaeger; Ryan Austin; Nicholas Provart; Berend Snel

    2009-01-01

    Complex enzymes with multiple catalytic activities are hypothesized to have evolved from more primitive precursors. Global analysis of the Phytophthora sojae genome using conservative criteria for evaluation of complex proteins identified 273 novel multifunctional proteins that were also conserved in P. ramorum. Each of these proteins contains combinations of protein motifs that are not present in bacterial, plant, animal, or

  2. Landscapes, Spatial Justice and Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Felicity

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of a community-based adult education initiative, "Cumbria Credits," which took place during the period of serious economic decline which hit sections of the farming and the wider community in Cumbria during 2001. It draws on the principles underpinning Edward Soja's notion of "spatial justice" to explore transformations…

  3. Gene duplication event in family 12 glycosyl hydrolase from Phytophthora spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Costanzo; M. D. Ospina-Giraldo; K. L. Deahl; C. J. Baker; Richard W. Jones

    2006-01-01

    A total of 18 paralogs of xyloglucan-specific endoglucanases (EGLs) from the glycosyl hydrolase family 12 were identified and characterized in Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum. These genes encode predicted extracellular enzymes, with sizes ranging from 189 to 435 amino acid residues, that would be capable of hydrolyzing the xyloglucan component of the host cell wall. In two cases, four and

  4. Common genotypes (RFLP) within a diverse collection of yellow-green aspergilli used to produce traditional Oriental fermented foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald T. Wicklow; Cesaria E. McAlpin; Stephen W. Peterson

    2002-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting was performed on 72 strains of Aspergillus oryzae and 9 strains of Aspergillus sojae isolated from chu (China) or koji (Japan) mold inoculum used in the production of traditional Oriental fermented beverages\\u000a or foods including soy sauce, miso, and sake. The cultures were deposited with the ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) between 1909\\u000a and 2001. PstI digests of total

  5. Cultured parsley cells, a model system for the rapid testing of abiotic and natural substances as inducers of systemic acquired resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Siegrist; S Mühlenbeck; H Buchenauer

    1998-01-01

    In cultured parsley (Petroselinum crispumL.) cells, chemical and natural agents that are known to induce systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in different plant species were checked for their ability to condition the cells for an enhanced response to low doses of an elicitor from the cell wall of the fungal pathogenPhytophthora sojae. Use of the fluorescence properties of elicitor-induced furanocoumarin phytoalexins

  6. Effect of CO2 enrichment and nitrate application on vegetative growth and dinitrogen fixation of wild and cultivated soybean varieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taizo Masuda; Kounosuke Fujita; Kazutoshi Kogure; Shoitsu Ogata

    1989-01-01

    A wild soybean variety (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc. line Nakei-No. 1) and a cultivated soybean variety (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Tamahomare) were subjected to CO2 enrichment and\\/or NO3-N application (50 and 300 ppm), and the growth and dinitrogen fixation in the vegetative growth stage were examined.1. The whole plant weight of the cultivated soybean variety was more promoted

  7. Identification of soybean microRNAs and their targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baohong Zhang; Xiaoping Pan; Edmund J. Stellwag

    2008-01-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly identified class of small non-protein-coding regulatory RNA. Using comparative genomics,\\u000a we identified 69 miRNAs belonging to 33 families in the domesticated soybean (Glycine max) as well as five miRNAs in the soybean wild species Glycine soja and Glycine clandestine. TaqMan® MicroRNA Assay analyses demonstrated that these miRNAs were differentially expressed in soybean tissues, with

  8. Small interspersed sequences that serve as recombination sites at the cox2 and atp6 loci in the mitochondrial genome of soybean are widely distributed in higher plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Kanazawa; Azumi Tozuka; Sumie Kato; Tetsuo Mikami; Jun Abe; Yoshiya Shimamoto

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments that contain cox2 and atp6 were cloned from a wild soybean (Glycine soja, accession `B09002') and from a cultivated soybean (G. max, `Harosoy'). Comparison of these DNAs revealed that two sets of repeated sequences, namely, 299 bp and 23 bp, were present\\u000a in the 5? regions of cox2 and atp6. The 299-bp and 23-bp repeats were

  9. Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing 2 is a conserved RxLR effector that promotes infection in soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qin; Ye, Wenwu; Choi, Duseok; Wong, James; Qiao, Yongli; Tao, Kai; Wang, Yuanchao; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-12-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of notorious and emerging pathogens of economically important crops. Each Phytophthora genome encodes several hundreds of cytoplasmic effectors, which are believed to manipulate plant immune response inside the host cells. However, the majority of Phytophthora effectors remain functionally uncharacterized. We recently discovered two effectors from the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae with the activity to suppress RNA silencing in plants. These effectors are designated Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing (PSRs). Here, we report that the P. sojae PSR2 (PsPSR2) belongs to a conserved and widespread effector family in Phytophthora. A PsPSR2-like effector produced by P. infestans (PiPSR2) can also suppress RNA silencing in plants and promote Phytophthora infection, suggesting that the PSR2 family effectors have conserved functions in plant hosts. Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots induction, we demonstrated that the expression of PsPSR2 rendered hypersusceptibility of soybean to P. sojae. Enhanced susceptibility was also observed in PsPSR2-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants during Phytophthora but not bacterial infection. These experiments provide strong evidence that PSR2 is a conserved Phytophthora effector family that performs important virulence functions specifically during Phytophthora infection of various plant hosts. PMID:25387135

  10. Growth in microgravity increases susceptibility of soybean to a fungal pathogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryba-White, M.; Nedukha, O.; Hilaire, E.; Guikema, J. A.; Kordyum, E.; Leach, J. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The influence of microgravity on the susceptibility of soybean roots to Phytophthora sojae was studied during the Space Shuttle Mission STS-87. Seedlings of soybean cultivar Williams 82 grown in spaceflight or at unit gravity were untreated or inoculated with the soybean root rot pathogen P. sojae. At 3, 6 and 7 d after launch while still in microgravity, seedlings were photographed and then fixed for subsequent microscopic analysis. Post-landing analysis of the seedlings revealed that at harvest day 7 the length of untreated roots did not differ between flight and ground samples. However, the flight-grown roots infected with P. sojae showed more disease symptoms (percentage of brown and macerated areas) and the root tissues were more extensively colonized relative to the ground controls exposed to the fungus. Ethylene levels were higher in spaceflight when compared to ground samples. These data suggest that soybean seedlings grown in microgravity are more susceptible to colonization by a fungal pathogen relative to ground controls.

  11. New cell lines from Ephestia kuehniella: characterization and susceptibility to baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Dwight E; Ferkovich, Stephen M

    2004-01-01

    New cell lines from embryos of Ephestia kuehniella were recently developed. Primary cultures were initiated in September 2002 from 2 to 4 day old eggs in either modified TC-100 or ExCell 400 medium. From these initial cultures, one, originally isolated in the Ex-Cell medium, produced sufficient cell growth to allow subcultivation and eventually led to the establishment of two cell strains, one that forms multicellular vesicles in suspension and one consisting of tightly attached epithelial-like cells. The strains were compared to an extract from E. kuehniella eggs by isozyme analysis and shown to be from the same species. Both strains were inoculated with various insect viruses, including nucleopolyhedroviruses from Autographa californica, Anagrapha falcifera, Anticarsa gemmatalis, Galleria mellonella, Heliothis armigera, Helicoverpa zea, Lymantria dispar, Plutella xylostella, and Rachoplusia ou. Both strains were highly susceptible to most of the nucleopolyhedroviruses (with the exception of the viruses from Helicoverpa zea and Lymantria dispar which did not show cytopathology to either cell strain) with large numbers of occlusion bodies produced in most of the inoculated cells. Our results suggest these new lines can be useful in biocontrol research. PMID:15861225

  12. New cell lines from Ephestia kuehniella: characterization and susceptibility to baculoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Dwight E.; Ferkovich, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    New cell lines from embryos of Ephestia kuehniella were recently developed. Primary cultures were initiated in September 2002 from 2 to 4 day old eggs in either modified TC-100 or ExCell 400 medium. From these initial cultures, one, originally isolated in the Ex-Cell medium, produced sufficient cell growth to allow subcultivation and eventually led to the establishment of two cell strains, one that forms multicellular vesicles in suspension and one consisting of tightly attached epithelial-like cells. The strains were compared to an extract from E. kuehniella eggs by isozyme analysis and shown to be from the same species. Both strains were inoculated with various insect viruses, including nucleopolyhedroviruses from Autographa californica, Anagrapha falcifera, Anticarsa gemmatalis, Galleria mellonella, Heliothis armigera, Helicoverpa zea, Lymantria dispar, Plutella xylostella, and Rachoplusia ou. Both strains were highly susceptible to most of the nucleopolyhedroviruses (with the exception of the viruses from Helicoverpa zea and Lymantria dispar which did not show cytopathology to either cell strain) with large numbers of occlusion bodies produced in most of the inoculated cells. Our results suggest these new lines can be useful in biocontrol research. Abbreviation: NPV nucleopolyhedrovirus, the prefix M or S refers to multiple or single nucleocapsids Ek-x4T an attached cell line from E. kuehniella Ek-x4V a vesicular cell line from E. kuehniella PMID:15861225

  13. Use of genome sequence data in the design and testing of SSR markers for Phytophthora species

    PubMed Central

    Schena, Leonardo; Cardle, Linda; Cooke, David EL

    2008-01-01

    Background Microsatellites or single sequence repeats (SSRs) are a powerful choice of marker in the study of Phytophthora population biology, epidemiology, ecology, genetics and evolution. A strategy was tested in which the publicly available unigene datasets extracted from genome sequences of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum were mined for candidate SSR markers that could be applied to a wide range of Phytophthora species. Results A first approach, aimed at the identification of polymorphic SSR loci common to many Phytophthora species, yielded 171 reliable sequences containing 211 SSRs. Microsatellites were identified from 16 target species representing the breadth of diversity across the genus. Repeat number ranged from 3 to 16 with most having seven repeats or less and four being the most commonly found. Trinucleotide repeats such as (AAG)n, (AGG)n and (AGC)n were the most common followed by pentanucleotide, tetranucleotide and dinucleotide repeats. A second approach was aimed at the identification of useful loci common to a restricted number of species more closely related to P. sojae (P. alni, P. cambivora, P. europaea and P. fragariae). This analysis yielded 10 trinucleotide and 2 tetranucleotide SSRs which were repeated 4, 5 or 6 times. Conclusion Key studies on inter- and intra-specific variation of selected microsatellites remain. Despite the screening of conserved gene coding regions, the sequence diversity between species was high and the identification of useful SSR loci applicable to anything other than the most closely related pairs of Phytophthora species was challenging. That said, many novel SSR loci for species other than the three 'source species' (P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum) are reported, offering great potential for the investigation of Phytophthora populations. In addition to the presence of microsatellites, many of the amplified regions may represent useful molecular marker regions for other studies as they are highly variable and easily amplifiable from different Phytophthora species. PMID:19099584

  14. Phytophthora genome sequences uncover evolutionary origins and mechanisms of pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Brett M; Tripathy, Sucheta; Zhang, Xuemin; Dehal, Paramvir; Jiang, Rays H Y; Aerts, Andrea; Arredondo, Felipe D; Baxter, Laura; Bensasson, Douda; Beynon, Jim L; Chapman, Jarrod; Damasceno, Cynthia M B; Dorrance, Anne E; Dou, Daolong; Dickerman, Allan W; Dubchak, Inna L; Garbelotto, Matteo; Gijzen, Mark; Gordon, Stuart G; Govers, Francine; Grunwald, Niklaus J; Huang, Wayne; Ivors, Kelly L; Jones, Richard W; Kamoun, Sophien; Krampis, Konstantinos; Lamour, Kurt H; Lee, Mi-Kyung; McDonald, W Hayes; Medina, Mónica; Meijer, Harold J G; Nordberg, Eric K; Maclean, Donald J; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel D; Morris, Paul F; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Putnam, Nicholas H; Rash, Sam; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Sakihama, Yasuko; Salamov, Asaf A; Savidor, Alon; Scheuring, Chantel F; Smith, Brian M; Sobral, Bruno W S; Terry, Astrid; Torto-Alalibo, Trudy A; Win, Joe; Xu, Zhanyou; Zhang, Hongbin; Grigoriev, Igor V; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Boore, Jeffrey L

    2006-09-01

    Draft genome sequences have been determined for the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Oömycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopila with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms, and the presence of many Phytophthora genes of probable phototroph origin supports a photosynthetic ancestry for the stramenopiles. Comparison of the two species' genomes reveals a rapid expansion and diversification of many protein families associated with plant infection such as hydrolases, ABC transporters, protein toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and, in particular, a superfamily of 700 proteins with similarity to known oömycete avirulence genes. PMID:16946064

  15. Phytophthora genome sequences uncover evolutionary origins and mechanisms of pathogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett M. Tyler; Sucheta Tripathy; Xuemin Zhang; Paramvir Dehal; Rays H. Y. Jiang; Andrea Aerts; Felipe D. Arredondo; Laura Baxter; Douda Bensasson; Jim L. Beynon; Jarrod Chapman; Cynthia M. B. Damasceno; Anne E. Dorrance; Daolong Dou; Allan W. Dickerman; Inna L. Dubchak; Matteo Garbelotto; Mark Gijzen; Stuart G. Gordon; Francine Govers; Niklaus J. Grunwald; Wayne Huang; Kelly L. Ivors; Richard W. Jones; Sophien Kamoun; Konstantinos Krampis; Kurt H. Lamour; Mi-Kyung Lee; W. Hayes McDonald; Mónica Medina; Harold J. G. Meijer; Eric K. Nordberg; Donald J. Maclean; Manuel D. Ospina-Giraldo; Paul F. Morris; Vipaporn Phuntumart; Nicholas H. Putnam; Sam Rash; Jocelyn K. C. Rose; Yasuko Sakihama; Asaf A. Salamov; Alon Savidor; Chantel F. Scheuring; Brian M. Smith; Bruno W. S. Sobral; Astrid Terry; Trudy A. Torto-Alalibo; Joe Win; Zhanyou Xu; Hongbin Zhang; Igor V. Grigoriev; Daniel S. Rokhsar; Jeffrey L. Boore

    2006-01-01

    Draft genome sequences have been determined for the soybean pathogen\\u000a Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora\\u000a ramorum. Oomycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom\\u000a Stramenopila with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms, and the presence\\u000a of many Phytophthora genes of probable phototroph origin supports a\\u000a photosynthetic ancestry for the stramenopiles. Comparison of the two\\u000a species' genomes

  16. Phytophthora Genome Sequences Uncover Evolutionary Origins and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Brett M.; Tripathy, Sucheta; Zhang, Xuemin; Dehal, Paramvir; Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Aerts, Andrea; Arredondo, Felipe D.; Baxter, Laura; Bensasson, Douda; Beynon, JIm L.; Chapman, Jarrod; Damasceno, Cynthia M. B.; Dorrance, Anne E.; Dou, Daolong; Dickerman, Allan W.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Garbelotto, Matteo; Gijzen, Mark; Gordon, Stuart G.; Govers, Francine; Grunwald, NIklaus J.; Huang, Wayne; Ivors, Kelly L.; Jones, Richard W.; Kamoun, Sophien; Krampis, Konstantinos; Lamour, Kurt H.; Lee, Mi-Kyung; McDonald, W. Hayes; Medina, Monica; Meijer, Harold J. G.; Nordberg, Erik K.; Maclean, Donald J.; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel D.; Morris, Paul F.; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Putnam, Nicholas J.; Rash, Sam; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Sakihama, Yasuko; Salamov, Asaf A.; Savidor, Alon; Scheuring, Chantel F.; Smith, Brian M.; Sobral, Bruno W. S.; Terry, Astrid; Torto-Alalibo, Trudy A.; Win, Joe; Xu, Zhanyou; Zhang, Hongbin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2006-04-17

    Draft genome sequences have been determined for the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Oömycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopila with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms, and the presence of many Phytophthora genes of probable phototroph origin supports a photosynthetic ancestry for the stramenopiles. Comparison of the two species' genomes reveals a rapid expansion and diversification of many protein families associated with plant infection such as hydrolases, ABC transporters, protein toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and, in particular, a superfamily of 700 proteins with similarity to known oömycete avirulence genes.

  17. New cell lines from heliothis virescens: characterization and susceptibility to baculoviruses

    PubMed

    Lynn; Shapiro

    1998-11-01

    New cell lines from embryos of Heliothis virescens were recently developed. Six primary cultures were initiated in June 1995. From these initial cultures, two produced sufficient cell growth to allow subcultivation and eventually led to the establishment of seven cell strains, three of which are maintained at low temperatures (17 degreesC). The strains were compared with a previously established cell line from H. virescens by isozyme analysis and shown to be from the same species. All the strains were inoculated with various baculoviruses, including Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), Anagrapha falcifera NPV, Anticarsa gemmatalis NPV, Rachoplusia ou NPV, Lymantria dispar NPV (LdMNPV), Orgyia pseudotsugata NPV (OpSNPV), O. leucostigma NPV (OlMNPV), and Helicoverpa zea NPV (HzSNPV). All seven strains were highly susceptible to the noctuid NPVs, and large numbers of occlusion bodies (OBs) were produced in most of the inoculated cells. The HzSNPV infection developed at a slower rate (requiring 1 week or more before a substantial number of cells contained OBs compared with 2-3 days for the other three noctuid NPVs). Three of the H. virescens strains were also susceptible to OpSNPV although only 10-20% of the cells produced OBs with this virus. We did not observe cytopathology (CPE) in any cells inoculated with OlMNPV or LdMNPV. Our results suggest that these new strains can be useful for the study and possibly the production of baculoviruses for which no effective cell systems are available and for comparative studies on multiple virus species. PMID:9784351

  18. Host-pathogen interactions. XVII. Hydrolysis of biologically active fungal glucans by enzymes isolated from soybean cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, K.; Albersheim, P.

    1981-07-01

    The ability of ..beta..-glucosylase I, a soybean cell wall ..beta..-glucosyl hydrolase, to degrade elicitors of phytoalexin accumulation was studied. Extensive ..beta..-glucosylase I treatment of the glucan elicitor isolated from the mycelial walls of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae results in hydrolysis of 77% of the glucosidic bonds of the elicitor and destruction of 94% of its activity. Soybean cell walls contain some additional factor, probably one or more additional enzymes, which can assist ..beta..-glucosylase I in hydrolyzing the glucan elicitor. In a single treatment, the mixture of cell wall enzymes hydrolyzed 91% of the glucosidic bonds and destroyed 85% of the activity of the elicitor. The enzymes from soybean cell walls will also hydrolyze elicitor-active oligoglucosides prepared from the mycelial walls of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae. The active oligoglucosides are more susceptible than the glucan elicitor to hydrolysis by these enzymes. The mixture of cell wall enzymes or ..beta..-glucosylase I, by itself, hydrolyzes more than 96% of the glucosidic bonds and destroys more than 99% of the activity of the oligoglucoside elicitor. Two possible advantages for the existence of these enzymes in the walls of soybean cells are discussed.

  19. The wild side of a major crop: soybean's perennial cousins from Down Under.

    PubMed

    Sherman-Broyles, Sue; Bombarely, Aureliano; Powell, Adrian F; Doyle, Jane L; Egan, Ashley N; Coate, Jeremy E; Doyle, Jeff J

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of over 30 years of basic research on the biology, genetic variation, and evolution of the wild perennial relatives of soybean (Glycine max) provides a foundation to improve cultivated soybean. The cultivated soybean and its wild progenitor, G. soja, have a center of origin in eastern Asia and are the only two species in the annual subgenus Soja. Systematic and evolutionary studies of the ca. 30 perennial species of subgenus Glycine, native to Australia, have benefited from the availability of the G. max genomic sequence. The perennial species harbor many traits of interest to soybean breeders, among them resistance to major soybean pathogens such as cyst nematode and leaf rust. New species in the Australian subgenus continue to be described, due to the collection of new material and to insights gleaned through systematic studies of accessions in germplasm collections. Ongoing studies in perennial species focus on genomic regions that contain genes for key traits relevant to soybean breeding. These comparisons also include the homoeologous regions that are the result of polyploidy in the common ancestor of all Glycine species. Subgenus Glycine includes a complex of recently formed allopolyploids that are the focus of studies aimed at elucidating genomic, transcriptomic, physiological, taxonomic, morphological, developmental, and ecological processes related to polyploid evolution. Here we review what has been learned over the past 30 years and outline ongoing work on photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and floral biology, much of it drawing on new technologies and resources. PMID:25326613

  20. Allelic variation of soybean flower color gene W4 encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase 2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Flower color of soybean is primarily controlled by six genes, viz., W1, W2, W3, W4, Wm and Wp. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic and chemical basis of newly-identified flower color variants including two soybean mutant lines, 222-A-3 (near white flower) and E30-D-1 (light purple flower), a near-isogenic line (Clark-w4), flower color variants (T321 and T369) descended from the w4-mutable line and kw4 (near white flower, Glycine soja). Results Complementation tests revealed that the flower color of 222-A-3 and kw4 was controlled by the recessive allele (w4) of the W4 locus encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase 2 (DFR2). In 222-A-3, a single base was deleted in the first exon resulting in a truncated polypeptide consisting of 24 amino acids. In Clark-w4, base substitution of the first nucleotide of the fourth intron abolished the 5? splice site, resulting in the retention of the intron. The DFR2 gene of kw4 was not expressed. The above results suggest that complete loss-of-function of DFR2 gene leads to near white flowers. Light purple flower of E30-D-1 was controlled by a new allele at the W4 locus, w4-lp. The gene symbol was approved by the Soybean Genetics Committee. In E30-D-1, a single-base substitution changed an amino acid at position 39 from arginine to histidine. Pale flowers of T369 had higher expression levels of the DFR2 gene. These flower petals contained unique dihydroflavonols that have not yet been reported to occur in soybean and G. soja. Conclusions Complete loss-of-function of DFR2 gene leads to near white flowers. A new allele of the W4 locus, w4-lp regulates light purple flowers. Single amino acid substitution was associated with light purple flowers. Flower petals of T369 had higher levels of DFR2 gene expression and contained unique dihydroflavonols that are absent in soybean and G. soja. Thus, mutants of the DFR2 gene have unique flavonoid compositions and display a wide variety of flower color patterns in soybean, from near white, light purple, dilute purple to pale. PMID:24602314

  1. Comparative structural and functional analysis of genes encoding pectin methylesterases in Phytophthora spp.

    PubMed

    Mingora, Christina; Ewer, Jason; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel

    2014-03-15

    We have scanned the Phytophthora infestans, P. ramorum, and P. sojae genomes for the presence of putative pectin methylesterase genes and conducted a sequence analysis of all gene models found. We also searched for potential regulatory motifs in the promoter region of the proposed P. infestans models, and investigated the gene expression levels throughout the course of P. infestans infection on potato plants, using in planta and detached leaf assays. We found that genes located on contiguous chromosomal regions contain similar motifs in the promoter region, indicating the possibility of a shared regulatory mechanism. Results of our investigations also suggest that, during the pathogenicity process, the expression levels of some of the analyzed genes vary considerably when compared to basal expression observed in in vitro cultures of non-sporulating mycelium. These results were observed both in planta and in detached leaf assays. PMID:24434809

  2. Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingli; Song, Tianqiao; Zhang, Xiong; Yuan, Hongbo; Su, Liming; Li, Wanlin; Xu, Jing; Liu, Shiheng; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Tianzi; Zhang, Meixiang; Gu, Lichuan; Zhang, Baolong; Dou, Daolong

    2014-01-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes pose an increasing threat to food security and ecosystem health worldwide. These filamentous pathogens, while taxonomically distinct, modulate host defense responses by secreting effectors, which are typically identified based on the presence of signal peptides. Here we show that Phytophthora sojae and Verticillium dahliae secrete isochorismatases (PsIsc1 and VdIsc1, respectively) that are required for full pathogenesis. PsIsc1 and VdIsc1 can suppress salicylate-mediated innate immunity in planta and hydrolyse isochorismate in vitro. A conserved triad of catalytic residues is essential for both functions. Thus, the two proteins are isochorismatase effectors that disrupt the plant salicylate metabolism pathway by suppressing its precursor. Furthermore, these proteins lack signal peptides, but exhibit characteristics that lead to unconventional secretion. Therefore, this secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for delivering effectors and might play an important role in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25156390

  3. Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingli; Song, Tianqiao; Zhang, Xiong; Yuan, Hongbo; Su, Liming; Li, Wanlin; Xu, Jing; Liu, Shiheng; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Tianzi; Zhang, Meixiang; Gu, Lichuan; Zhang, Baolong; Dou, Daolong

    2014-01-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes pose an increasing threat to food security and ecosystem health worldwide. These filamentous pathogens, while taxonomically distinct, modulate host defense responses by secreting effectors, which are typically identified based on the presence of signal peptides. Here we show that Phytophthora sojae and Verticillium dahliae secrete isochorismatases (PsIsc1 and VdIsc1, respectively) that are required for full pathogenesis. PsIsc1 and VdIsc1 can suppress salicylate-mediated innate immunity in planta and hydrolyse isochorismate in vitro. A conserved triad of catalytic residues is essential for both functions. Thus, the two proteins are isochorismatase effectors that disrupt the plant salicylate metabolism pathway by suppressing its precursor. Furthermore, these proteins lack signal peptides, but exhibit characteristics that lead to unconventional secretion. Therefore, this secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for delivering effectors and might play an important role in host–pathogen interactions. PMID:25156390

  4. Soybean knowledge base (SoyKB): a web resource for integration of soybean translational genomics and molecular breeding

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Trupti; Fitzpatrick, Michael R.; Chen, Shiyuan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hongxin; Endacott, Ryan Z.; Gaudiello, Eric C.; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T.; Xu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Soybean Knowledge Base (http://soykb.org) is a comprehensive web resource developed for bridging soybean translational genomics and molecular breeding research. It provides information for six entities including genes/proteins, microRNAs/sRNAs, metabolites, single nucleotide polymorphisms, plant introduction lines and traits. It also incorporates many multi-omics datasets including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and molecular breeding data, such as quantitative trait loci, traits and germplasm information. Soybean Knowledge Base has a new suite of tools such as In Silico Breeding Program for soybean breeding, which includes a graphical chromosome visualizer for ease of navigation. It integrates quantitative trait loci, traits and germplasm information along with genomic variation data, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions and genome-wide association studies data, from multiple soybean cultivars and Glycine soja. PMID:24136998

  5. The Top 10 oomycete pathogens in molecular plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, Sophien; Furzer, Oliver; Jones, Jonathan D G; Judelson, Howard S; Ali, Gul Shad; Dalio, Ronaldo J D; Roy, Sanjoy Guha; Schena, Leonardo; Zambounis, Antonios; Panabières, Franck; Cahill, David; Ruocco, Michelina; Figueiredo, Andreia; Chen, Xiao-Ren; Hulvey, Jon; Stam, Remco; Lamour, Kurt; Gijzen, Mark; Tyler, Brett M; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Mukhtar, M Shahid; Tomé, Daniel F A; Tör, Mahmut; Van Den Ackerveken, Guido; McDowell, John; Daayf, Fouad; Fry, William E; Lindqvist-Kreuze, Hannele; Meijer, Harold J G; Petre, Benjamin; Ristaino, Jean; Yoshida, Kentaro; Birch, Paul R J; Govers, Francine

    2015-05-01

    Oomycetes form a deep lineage of eukaryotic organisms that includes a large number of plant pathogens which threaten natural and managed ecosystems. We undertook a survey to query the community for their ranking of plant-pathogenic oomycete species based on scientific and economic importance. In total, we received 263 votes from 62 scientists in 15 countries for a total of 33 species. The Top 10 species and their ranking are: (1) Phytophthora infestans; (2, tied) Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis; (2, tied) Phytophthora ramorum; (4) Phytophthora sojae; (5) Phytophthora capsici; (6) Plasmopara viticola; (7) Phytophthora cinnamomi; (8, tied) Phytophthora parasitica; (8, tied) Pythium ultimum; and (10) Albugo candida. This article provides an introduction to these 10 taxa and a snapshot of current research. We hope that the list will serve as a benchmark for future trends in oomycete research. PMID:25178392

  6. Isolation and characterization of rhizobitoxine mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, X; Peters, N K

    1992-01-01

    To explore the role of rhizobitoxine in Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis, 11 rhizobitoxine mutants of B. japonicum USDA61 were isolated on the basis of their inability to synthesize the toxin in culture. Each mutant is prototrophic and symbiotically effective on soybean, cowpea, siratro, and Glycine soja. The rhizobitoxine mutants differ in their chlorosis phenotypes and rhizobitoxine production in planta. As expected, one group of mutant fail to make toxin in planta, resulting in the absence of chlorosis. Another group of mutants causes severe chlorosis on all cultivars of soybean tested. Surprisingly, this group of mutants makes more rhizobitoxine in soybean nodules than the wild-type strain does. This phenotype is only observed on soybean and not on other hosts such as cowpea, siratro, or G. soja. The remaining mutants all produce rhizobitoxine in planta but vary in the amount of toxin they produce and the severity of chlorosis they induce in soybean plants. Biochemical analysis of mutants demonstrates that one mutant is unable to synthesize serinol, a molecule hypothesized to be an intermediate in rhizobitoxine biosynthesis. By using these mutants, it was found that rhizobitoxine plays no apparent role in the nodulation of rj1 soybeans. Recently, it was found that inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis allows Rhizobium meliloti to overcome nitrate inhibition of nodule formation on alfalfa. Because rhizobitoxine also inhibits ethylene biosynthesis, we tested the ability of mutants which accumulate high levels of toxin in planta to overcome nitrate inhibition of nodule formation on soybean plants and found that the nodule formation induced by the wild type and that induced by mutant strains were equally suppressed in the presence of nitrate. Images PMID:1317377

  7. PCR Amplification of Ribosomal DNA for Species Identification in the Plant Pathogen Genus Phytophthora

    PubMed Central

    Ristaino, Jean B.; Madritch, Michael; Trout, Carol L.; Parra, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a PCR procedure to amplify DNA for quick identification of the economically important species from each of the six taxonomic groups in the plant pathogen genus Phytophthora. This procedure involves amplification of the 5.8S ribosomal DNA gene and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) with the ITS primers ITS 5 and ITS 4. Restriction digests of the amplified DNA products were conducted with the restriction enzymes RsaI, MspI, and HaeIII. Restriction fragment patterns were similar after digestions with RsaI for the following species: P. capsici and P. citricola; P. infestans, P. cactorum, and P. mirabilis; P. fragariae, P. cinnamomi, and P. megasperma from peach; P. palmivora, P. citrophthora, P. erythroseptica, and P. cryptogea; and P. megasperma from raspberry and P. sojae. Restriction digests with MspI separated P. capsici from P. citricola and separated P. cactorum from P. infestans and P. mirabilis. Restriction digests with HaeIII separated P. citrophthora from P. cryptogea, P. cinnamomi from P. fragariae and P. megasperma on peach, P. palmivora from P. citrophthora, and P. megasperma on raspberry from P. sojae. P. infestans and P. mirabilis digests were identical and P. cryptogea and P. erythroseptica digests were identical with all restriction enzymes tested. A unique DNA sequence from the ITS region I in P. capsici was used to develop a primer called PCAP. The PCAP primer was used in PCRs with ITS 1 and amplified only isolates of P. capsici, P. citricola, and P. citrophthora and not 13 other species in the genus. Restriction digests with MspI separated P. capsici from the other two species. PCR was superior to traditional isolation methods for detection of P. capsici in infected bell pepper tissue in field samples. The techniques described will provide a powerful tool for identification of the major species in the genus Phytophthora. PMID:9501434

  8. PCR amplification of ribosomal DNA for species identification in the plant pathogen genus Phytophthora.

    PubMed

    Ristaino, J B; Madritch, M; Trout, C L; Parra, G

    1998-03-01

    We have developed a PCR procedure to amplify DNA for quick identification of the economically important species from each of the six taxonomic groups in the plant pathogen genus Phytophthora. This procedure involves amplification of the 5.8S ribosomal DNA gene and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) with the ITS primers ITS 5 and ITS 4. Restriction digests of the amplified DNA products were conducted with the restriction enzymes RsaI, MspI, and HaeIII. Restriction fragment patterns were similar after digestions with RsaI for the following species: P. capsici and P. citricola; P. infestans, P. cactorum, and P. mirabilis; P. fragariae, P. cinnamomi, and P. megasperma from peach; P. palmivora, P. citrophthora, P. erythroseptica, and P. cryptogea; and P. megasperma from raspberry and P. sojae. Restriction digests with MspI separated P. capsici from P. citricola and separated P. cactorum from P. infestans and P. mirabilis. Restriction digests with HaeIII separated P. citrophthora from P. cryptogea, P. cinnamomi from P. fragariae and P. megasperma on peach, P. palmivora from P. citrophthora, and P. megasperma on raspberry from P. sojae. P. infestans and P. mirabilis digests were identical and P. cryptogea and P. erythroseptica digests were identical with all restriction enzymes tested. A unique DNA sequence from the ITS region I in P. capsici was used to develop a primer called PCAP. The PCAP primer was used in PCRs with ITS 1 and amplified only isolates of P. capsici, P. citricola, and P. citrophthora and not 13 other species in the genus. Restriction digests with MspI separated P. capsici from the other two species. PCR was superior to traditional isolation methods for detection of P. capsici in infected bell pepper tissue in field samples. The techniques described will provide a powerful tool for identification of the major species in the genus Phytophthora. PMID:9501434

  9. Analyses of genome architecture and gene expression reveal novel candidate virulence factors in the secretome of Phytophthora infestans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Phytophthora infestans is the most devastating pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes. It exhibits high evolutionary potential and rapidly adapts to host plants. The P. infestans genome experienced a repeat-driven expansion relative to the genomes of Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum and shows a discontinuous distribution of gene density. Effector genes, such as members of the RXLR and Crinkler (CRN) families, localize to expanded, repeat-rich and gene-sparse regions of the genome. This distinct genomic environment is thought to contribute to genome plasticity and host adaptation. Results We used in silico approaches to predict and describe the repertoire of P. infestans secreted proteins (the secretome). We defined the "plastic secretome" as a subset of the genome that (i) encodes predicted secreted proteins, (ii) is excluded from genome segments orthologous to the P. sojae and P. ramorum genomes and (iii) is encoded by genes residing in gene sparse regions of P. infestans genome. Although including only ~3% of P. infestans genes, the plastic secretome contains ~62% of known effector genes and shows >2 fold enrichment in genes induced in planta. We highlight 19 plastic secretome genes induced in planta but distinct from previously described effectors. This list includes a trypsin-like serine protease, secreted oxidoreductases, small cysteine-rich proteins and repeat containing proteins that we propose to be novel candidate virulence factors. Conclusions This work revealed a remarkably diverse plastic secretome. It illustrates the value of combining genome architecture with comparative genomics to identify novel candidate virulence factors from pathogen genomes. PMID:21080964

  10. Replicon-Dependent Differentiation of Symbiosis-Related Genes in Sinorhizobium Strains Nodulating Glycine max

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hui Juan; Wang, En Tao; Zhang, Xing Xing; Li, Qin Qin; Zhang, Yan Ming; Chen, Wen Xin

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the genetic differentiation of Sinorhizobium strains nodulating Glycine max and related microevolutionary mechanisms, three housekeeping genes (SMc00019, truA, and thrA) and 16 symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome (7 genes), pSymA (6 genes), and pSymB (3 genes) were analyzed. Five distinct species were identified among the test strains by calculating the average nucleotide identity (ANI) of SMc00019-truA-thrA: Sinorhizobium fredii, Sinorhizobium sojae, Sinorhizobium sp. I, Sinorhizobium sp. II, and Sinorhizobium sp. III. These species assignments were also supported by population genetics and phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes and symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome and pSymB. Different levels of genetic differentiation were observed among these species or different replicons. S. sojae was the most divergent from the other test species and was characterized by its low intraspecies diversity and limited geographic distribution. Intergenic recombination dominated the evolution of 19 genes from different replicons. Intraspecies recombination happened frequently in housekeeping genes and symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome and pSymB, whereas pSymA genes showed a clear pattern of lateral-transfer events between different species. Moreover, pSymA genes were characterized by a lower level of polymorphism and recombination than those on the chromosome and pSymB. Taken together, genes from different replicons of rhizobia might be involved in the establishment of symbiosis with legumes, but these symbiosis-related genes might have evolved differently according to their corresponding replicons. PMID:24317084

  11. [Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues combustion: a case study of Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-hua; Jiang, Jing-yan; Zong, Liang-gang

    2011-05-01

    Burning of agricultural crop residues was a major source greenhouse gases. In this study, the proportion of crop straws (rice, wheat, maize, oil rape, cotton and soja) in Jiangsu used as household fuel and direct open burning in different periods (1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2008) was estimated through questionnaire. The emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and NO20 from the above six types of crop straws were calculated by the simulated burning experiment. Thus the emission inventory of greenhouse gases from crop straws burning was established according to above the burning percentages and emission factors, ratios of dry residues to production and crop productions of different periods in Jiangsu province. Results indicated that emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O depended on crop straw type. The emission factors of CO2 and CH4 were higher for oil rape straw than the other straws, while the maize and the rice straw had the higher N2O and CO emission factor. Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues burning in Jiangsu province showed, the annual average global warming potential (GWP) of six tested crop straws were estimated to be 9.18 (rice straw), 4.35 (wheat straw), 2.55 (maize straw), 1.63 (oil rape straw), 0.55 (cotton straw) and 0. 39 (soja straw) Tg CO2 equivalent, respectively. Among the four study periods, the annual average GWP had no obvious difference between the 1990-1995 and 2006-2008 periods, while the maximal annual average GWP (23.83 Tg CO2 equivalent) happened in the 1996-2000 period, and the minimum (20.30 Tg CO2 equivalent) in 1996-2000 period. PMID:21780575

  12. Dynamic genetic features of chromosomes revealed by comparison of soybean genetic and sequence-based physical maps.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Kyu; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Jiwoong; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Jeong, Namhee; Choi, Ik-Young; Kim, Sang Cheol; Chung, Won-Hyong; Kim, Hong Sig; Lee, Suk-Ha; Jeong, Soon-Chun

    2013-04-01

    Despite the intensive soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genome studies, the high chromosome number (20) of the soybean plant relative to many other major crops has hindered the development of a high-resolution genomewide genetic map derived from a single population. Here, we report such a map, which was constructed in an F15 population derived from a cross between G. max and G. soja lines using indel polymorphisms detected via a G. soja genome resequencing. By targeting novel indel markers to marker-poor regions, all marker intervals were reduced to under 6 cM on a genome scale. Comparison of the Williams 82 soybean reference genome sequence and our genetic map indicated that marker orders of 26 regions were discrepant with each other. In addition, our comparison showed seven misplaced and two absent markers in the current Williams 82 assembly and six markers placed on the scaffolds that were not incorporated into the pseudomolecules. Then, we showed that, by determining the missing sequences located at the presumed beginning points of the five major discordant segments, these observed discordant regions are mostly errors in the Williams 82 assembly. Distributions of the recombination rates along the chromosomes were similar to those of other organisms. Genotyping of indel markers and genome resequencing of the two parental lines suggested that some marker-poor chromosomal regions may represent introgression regions, which appear to be prevalent in soybean. Given the even and dense distribution of markers, our genetic map can serve as a bridge between genomics research and breeding programs. PMID:23306355

  13. Profiling of dynamic changes in the microbial community during the soy sauce fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Wei, Quanzeng; Wang, Hongbin; Chen, Zhixin; Lv, Zhijia; Xie, Yufeng; Lu, Fuping

    2013-10-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional condiment manufactured by natural inoculation and mixed culture fermentation. As is well known, it is the microbial community that plays an important role in the formation of its flavors. However, to date, its dynamic changes during the long period of fermentation process are still unclear, intensively constraining the improvement and control of the soy sauce quality. In this work, we revealed the dynamic changes of the microbial community by combining a cultured dependent method and a cultured independent method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results indicated that the two methods verified and complemented each other in profiling microbial community, and that significant dynamics of the microbial community existed during the fermentation process, especially the strong inhibition of the growth of most of the microbes when entering into the mash stage from the koji stage. In the analysis of bacterial community, Staphylococcus and Bacillus were found to be the dominant bacteria and detected in the whole fermentation process. Kurthia and Klebsiella began to appear in the koji stage and then fade away in the early stage of the mash fermentation. In the analysis of fungal community, Aspergillus sojae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were found to be the dominant fungi in the koji and mash fermentation, respectively. It was clearly shown that when A. sojae decreased and disappeared in the middle stage of the mash fermentation, Z. rouxii appeared and increased at the meantime. Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon asahii also appeared in the koji and the early period of the mash fermentation and disappeared thereafter. Similar to Z. rouxii, Millerozyma farinosa and Peronospora farinosa were also found spontaneously which appeared in the mid-late period of the mash fermentation. The principal component analysis suggested that the microbial community underwent significant changes in the early period of the fermentation and, thereafter, tended to the stabilization in the mid-late periods. This study gave us important clues to understand the fermentation process and can serve as a foundation for improving the quality of soy sauce in the future. PMID:24037306

  14. Oceanobacillus aidingensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenyan; Yang, Su Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Two Gram-positive, rod-shaped moderately halophilic bacterial strains, designated AD7-25(T) and AB-11, were isolated from Aiding and Manasi salt lakes in Xinjiang of China, respectively. The strains were found to be able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0-21 % (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 6-8 % (w/v) NaCl. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were determined to be 33-37 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Cells of the strains are motile by means of polar flagella. Both strains can produce ellipsoidal spores. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C14:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C16:0. The diamino acid in the peptidoglycan and the major quinone system were determined to be meso-diaminopimelic acid (meso-DAP) and MK-7, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of stains AD7-25(T) and AB-11 were 39.8 and 40.0 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these two novel strains are closely related to the genus Oceanobacillus showing 90-99.5 % similarity with respect to type strains. These two novel strains were most closely related to Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi subsp. incaldanensis DSM 16557(T) (99.1 and 99.5 %), followed by O. oncorhynchi subsp. oncorhynchi JCM 12661(T) (99.1 and 99.4 %), Oceanobacillus neutriphilus CGMCC 1.7693(T) (97.0 and 97.5 %), Oceanobacillus sojae JCM 15792(T) (97.6 and 98.0 %) and Oceanobacillus locisalsi KCTC 13253(T) (96.5 and 96.9 %). The DNA-DNA hybridization data indicated that DNA relatedness between strains AD7-25(T) and AB-11 was 91.0 %, and the genomic homology of representative strain AD7-25(T) with O. oncorhynchi subsp. incaldanensis DSM 16557(T), O. oncorhynchi subsp. oncorhynchi JCM 12661(T), O. neutriphilus CGMCC 1.7693(T), O. sojae JCM 15792(T) and O. locisalsi KCTC 13253(T) were 41, 39, 20, 23 and 17 %, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strains AD7-25(T) and AB-11 should be assigned to the genus Oceanobacillus as a new species, for which the name Oceanobacillus aidingensis sp. nov. was proposed. The type strain is AD7-25(T) (=CGMCC 1.9106 (T) = NBRC 105904(T)). PMID:24595860

  15. Plant-derived antifungal agent poacic acid targets ?-1,3-glucan

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Okada, Hiroki; Lu, Fachuang; Li, Sheena C.; Hinchman, Li; Ranjan, Ashish; Smith, Damon L.; Higbee, Alan J.; Ulbrich, Arne; Coon, Joshua J.; Deshpande, Raamesh; Bukhman, Yury V.; McIlwain, Sean; Ong, Irene M.; Myers, Chad L.; Boone, Charles; Landick, Robert; Ralph, John; Kabbage, Mehdi; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    A rise in resistance to current antifungals necessitates strategies to identify alternative sources of effective fungicides. We report the discovery of poacic acid, a potent antifungal compound found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates of grasses. Chemical genomics using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that loss of cell wall synthesis and maintenance genes conferred increased sensitivity to poacic acid. Morphological analysis revealed that cells treated with poacic acid behaved similarly to cells treated with other cell wall-targeting drugs and mutants with deletions in genes involved in processes related to cell wall biogenesis. Poacic acid causes rapid cell lysis and is synergistic with caspofungin and fluconazole. The cellular target was identified; poacic acid localized to the cell wall and inhibited ?-1,3-glucan synthesis in vivo and in vitro, apparently by directly binding ?-1,3-glucan. Through its activity on the glucan layer, poacic acid inhibits growth of the fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Alternaria solani as well as the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. A single application of poacic acid to leaves infected with the broad-range fungal pathogen S. sclerotiorum substantially reduced lesion development. The discovery of poacic acid as a natural antifungal agent targeting ?-1,3-glucan highlights the potential side use of products generated in the processing of renewable biomass toward biofuels as a source of valuable bioactive compounds and further clarifies the nature and mechanism of fermentation inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:25775513

  16. Plant-derived antifungal agent poacic acid targets ?-1,3-glucan.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Jeff S; Okada, Hiroki; Lu, Fachuang; Li, Sheena C; Hinchman, Li; Ranjan, Ashish; Smith, Damon L; Higbee, Alan J; Ulbrich, Arne; Coon, Joshua J; Deshpande, Raamesh; Bukhman, Yury V; McIlwain, Sean; Ong, Irene M; Myers, Chad L; Boone, Charles; Landick, Robert; Ralph, John; Kabbage, Mehdi; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-24

    A rise in resistance to current antifungals necessitates strategies to identify alternative sources of effective fungicides. We report the discovery of poacic acid, a potent antifungal compound found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates of grasses. Chemical genomics using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that loss of cell wall synthesis and maintenance genes conferred increased sensitivity to poacic acid. Morphological analysis revealed that cells treated with poacic acid behaved similarly to cells treated with other cell wall-targeting drugs and mutants with deletions in genes involved in processes related to cell wall biogenesis. Poacic acid causes rapid cell lysis and is synergistic with caspofungin and fluconazole. The cellular target was identified; poacic acid localized to the cell wall and inhibited ?-1,3-glucan synthesis in vivo and in vitro, apparently by directly binding ?-1,3-glucan. Through its activity on the glucan layer, poacic acid inhibits growth of the fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Alternaria solani as well as the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. A single application of poacic acid to leaves infected with the broad-range fungal pathogen S. sclerotiorum substantially reduced lesion development. The discovery of poacic acid as a natural antifungal agent targeting ?-1,3-glucan highlights the potential side use of products generated in the processing of renewable biomass toward biofuels as a source of valuable bioactive compounds and further clarifies the nature and mechanism of fermentation inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:25775513

  17. Single-strand-conformation polymorphism of ribosomal DNA for rapid species differentiation in genus Phytophthora.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ping; Hong, Chuanxue; Richardson, Patricia A; Gallegly, Mannon E

    2003-08-01

    Single-strand-conformation polymorphism (SSCP) of ribosomal DNA of 29 species (282 isolates) of Phytophthora was characterized in this study. Phytophthora boehmeriae, Phytophthora botryosa, Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora capsici, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Phytophthora colocasiae, Phytophthora fragariae, Phytophthora heveae, Phytophthora hibernalis, Phytophthora ilicis, Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora katsurae, Phytophthora lateralis, Phytophthora meadii, Phytophthora medicaginis, Phytophthora megakarya, Phytophthora nicotianae, Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora phaseoli, Phytophthora pseudotsugae, Phytophthora sojae, Phytophthora syringae, and Phytophthora tropicalis each showed a unique SSCP pattern. Phytophthora citricola, Phytophthora citrophthora, Phytophthora cryptogea, Phytophthora drechsleri, and Phytophthora megasperma each had more than one distinct pattern. A single-stranded DNA ladder also was developed, which facilitates comparison of SSCP patterns within and between gels. With a single DNA fingerprint, 277 isolates of Phytophthora recovered from irrigation water and plant tissues in Virginia were all correctly identified into eight species at substantially reduced time, labor, and cost. The SSCP analysis presented in this work will aid in studies on taxonomy, genetics, and ecology of the genus Phytophthora. PMID:12892637

  18. Molecular and Chromosomal Evidence for Allopolyploidy in Soybean1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Navdeep; Findley, Seth; Walling, Jason G.; Hans, Christian; Ma, Jianxin; Doyle, Jeff; Stacey, Gary; Jackson, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have documented that the soybean (Glycine max) genome has undergone two rounds of large-scale genome and/or segmental duplication. To shed light on the timing and nature of these duplication events, we characterized and analyzed two subfamilies of high-copy centromeric satellite repeats, CentGm-1 and CentGm-2, using a combination of computational and molecular cytogenetic approaches. These two subfamilies of satellite repeats mark distinct subsets of soybean centromeres and, in at least one case, a pair of homologs, suggesting their origins from an allopolyploid event. The satellite monomers of each subfamily are arranged in large tandem arrays, and intermingled monomers of the two subfamilies were not detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization on extended DNA fibers nor at the sequence level. This indicates that there has been little recombination and homogenization of satellite DNA between these two sets of centromeres. These satellite repeats are also present in Glycine soja, the proposed wild progenitor of soybean, but could not be detected in any other relatives of soybean examined in this study, suggesting the rapid divergence of the centromeric satellite DNA within the Glycine genus. Together, these observations provide direct evidence, at molecular and chromosomal levels, in support of the hypothesis that the soybean genome has experienced a recent allopolyploidization event. PMID:19605552

  19. Pericentromeric Regions of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Chromosomes Consist of Retroelements and Tandemly Repeated DNA and Are Structurally and Evolutionarily Labile

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jer-Young; Jacobus, Barbara Hass; SanMiguel, Phillip; Walling, Jason G.; Yuan, Yinan; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Young, Nevin D.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the physical makeup of heterochromatin in the soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) genome. Using DNA sequencing and molecular cytogenetics, an initial analysis of the repetitive fraction of the soybean genome is presented. BAC 076J21, derived from linkage group L, has sequences conserved in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of all 20 chromosomes. FISH analysis of this BAC and three subclones on pachytene chromosomes revealed relatively strict partitioning of the heterochromatic and euchromatic regions. Sequence analysis showed that this BAC consists primarily of repetitive sequences such as a 102-bp tandem repeat with sequence identity to a previously characterized ?120-bp repeat (STR120). Fragments of Calypso-like retroelements, a recently inserted SIRE1 element, and a SIRE1 solo LTR were present within this BAC. Some of these sequences are methylated and are not conserved outside of G. max and G. soja, a close relative of soybean, except for STR102, which hybridized to a restriction fragment from G. latifolia. These data present a picture of the repetitive fraction of the soybean genome that is highly concentrated in the pericentromeric regions, consisting of rapidly evolving tandem repeats with interspersed retroelements. PMID:15879505

  20. RXLR effector reservoir in two Phytophthora species is dominated by a single rapidly evolving superfamily with more than 700 members

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Tripathy, Sucheta; Govers, Francine; Tyler, Brett M.

    2008-01-01

    Pathogens secrete effector molecules that facilitate the infection of their hosts. A number of effectors identified in plant pathogenic Phytophthora species possess N-terminal motifs (RXLR-dEER) required for targeting these effectors into host cells. Here, we bioinformatically identify >370 candidate effector genes in each of the genomes of P. sojae and P. ramorum. A single superfamily, termed avirulence homolog (Avh) genes, accounts for most of the effectors. The Avh proteins show extensive sequence divergence but are all related and likely evolved from a common ancestor by rapid duplication and divergence. More than half of the Avh proteins contain conserved C-terminal motifs (termed W, Y, and L) that are usually arranged as a module that can be repeated up to eight times. The Avh genes belong to the most rapidly evolving part of the genome, and they are nearly always located at synteny breakpoints. The superfamily includes all experimentally identified oomycete effector and avirulence genes, and its rapid pace of evolution is consistent with a role for Avh proteins in interaction with plant hosts. PMID:18344324

  1. Haemoglobin M-Hyde Park associated with polyagglutinable red blood cells in a South African family.

    PubMed

    Bird, A R; Kent, P; Moores, P P; Elliott, T

    1988-04-01

    Twelve of 35 members tested in a large ethnically-mixed South African family were found to have both haemoglobin M type Hyde Park and persistent polyagglutinable red blood cells. The characteristics of the polyagglutination have not been recorded previously. The cells of affected family members were not agglutinated by Arachis hypogea, Dolichos biflorus or Salvia sclarea, but were agglutinated weakly by Salvia horminum and BSII (GSII) and reacted strongly with Glycine soja and Sophora japonica lectins. BSI (GSI) lectin agglutinated the group A but not the group O cells. The N and MN cells were agglutinated more strongly than normal by Vicia graminea, other anti-N lectins and human anti-N but the M and MN cells reacted as expected with human anti-M. The name 'Hyde Park' is provisionally suggested for this type of polyagglutination, although it appears unlikely that the evidently complete association between the polyagglutination and the variant haemoglobin is the result of a single genetic mutation. More likely, the connection has a post-genetic origin, perhaps showing that bonds, possibly affected adversely by precocious senescence, normally occur between the haemoglobin and alpha-sialoglycoprotein molecules in red blood cells. PMID:3377987

  2. Uneventful administration of plasma products in a recipient with T-activated red cells.

    PubMed

    Eversole, M; Nonemaker, B; Zurek, K; South, S; Simon, T

    1986-01-01

    A patient with T-polyagglutinable red cells and a severe coagulopathy provided an opportunity to observe the results of plasma transfusion in the face of T-activation. The patient was a 52-year-old Navajo Indian with a perforated gall bladder and related sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens. The gall bladder was removed surgically. Postoperatively, he had severe thrombocytopenia, and prolonged partial thromboplastin and prothrombin times. The patient's red cells were agglutinated by Arachis hypogaea and Glycine soja lectins but were unagglutinated by extracts of Salvia horminum, Salvia sclarea, and Bandeiraea simplicifolia. No untoward reactions or any evidence of hemolysis were observed when the patient was given platelet concentrates and 4 units of single-donor plasma. Serial plasma hemoglobin and haptoglobin levels documented that there was no hemolysis. His coagulopathy responded, and he had a successful surgical re-exploration and recovery. This case documents that serious adverse consequences do not necessarily follow transfusion of plasma in a recipient with T-activated red cells. T-activation is a relative but not absolute contraindication to plasma transfusion. PMID:2869600

  3. Uncovering the Salt Response of Soybean by Unraveling Its Wild and Cultivated Functional Genomes Using Tag Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Zhang, Da Yong; Xu, Zhao Long; Xu, Ling; Yi, Jin Xin; He, Xiao Lan; Huang, Yi Hong; Liu, Xiao Qing; Khan, Asif Ali; Trethowan, Richard M.; Ma, Hong Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity has very adverse effects on growth and yield of crop plants. Several salt tolerant wild accessions and cultivars are reported in soybean. Functional genomes of salt tolerant Glycine soja and a salt sensitive genotype of Glycine max were investigated to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance in soybean. For this purpose, four libraries were constructed for Tag sequencing on Illumina platform. We identify around 490 salt responsive genes which included a number of transcription factors, signaling proteins, translation factors and structural genes like transporters, multidrug resistance proteins, antiporters, chaperons, aquaporins etc. The gene expression levels and ratio of up/down-regulated genes was greater in tolerant plants. Translation related genes remained stable or showed slightly higher expression in tolerant plants under salinity stress. Further analyses of sequenced data and the annotations for gene ontology and pathways indicated that soybean adapts to salt stress through ABA biosynthesis and regulation of translation and signal transduction of structural genes. Manipulation of these pathways may mitigate the effect of salt stress thus enhancing salt tolerance. PMID:23209559

  4. Ensifer meliloti bv. lancerottense establishes nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and shows distinctive symbiotic genotypes and host range.

    PubMed

    León-Barrios, Milagros; Lorite, María José; Donate-Correa, Javier; Sanjuán, Juan

    2009-09-01

    Eleven strains were isolated from root nodules of Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and they belonged to the genus Ensifer, a genus never previously described as a symbiont of Lotus. According to their 16S rRNA and atpD gene sequences, two isolates represented minority genotypes that could belong to previously undescribed Ensifer species, but most of the isolates were classified within the species Ensifer meliloti. These isolates nodulated Lotus lancerottensis, Lotus corniculatus and Lotus japonicus, whereas Lotus tenuis and Lotus uliginosus were more restrictive hosts. However, effective nitrogen fixation only occurred with the endemic L. lancerottensis. The E. meliloti strains did not nodulate Medicago sativa, Medicago laciniata Glycine max or Glycine soja, but induced non-fixing nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris roots. nodC and nifH symbiotic gene phylogenies showed that the E. meliloti symbionts of Lotus markedly diverged from strains of Mesorhizobium loti, the usual symbionts of Lotus, as well as from the three biovars (bv. meliloti, bv. medicaginis, and bv. mediterranense) so far described within E. meliloti. Indeed, the nodC and nifH genes from the E. meliloti isolates from Lotus represented unique symbiotic genotypes. According to their symbiotic gene sequences and host range, the Lotus symbionts would represent a new biovar of E. meliloti for which bv. lancerottense is proposed. PMID:19477097

  5. Phylogenetic relationship of Lotus uliginosus symbionts with bradyrhizobia nodulating genistoid legumes.

    PubMed

    Lorite, María J; Videira e Castro, Isabel; Muñoz, Socorro; Sanjuán, Juan

    2012-02-01

    Lotus species are legumes with potential for pastures in soils with low-fertility and environmental constraints. The aim of this work was to characterize bacteria that establish efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the forage species Lotus uliginosus. A total of 39 isolates were obtained from nodules of L. uliginosus naturally growing in two different locations of Portugal. Molecular identification of the isolates plus the commercial inoculant strain NZP2039 was performed by REP-PCR, 16S rRNA RFLP, and 16S rRNA, glnII and recA sequence analyses. Limited genetic diversity was found among the L. uliginosus symbionts, which showed a close phylogenetic relationship with the species Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The symbiotic nifH, nodA and nodC gene sequences were closely related with the corresponding genes of various Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from Lupinus and other genistoid legumes and therefore were phylogenetically separated from other Lotus spp. rhizobia. The L. uliginosus bradyrhizobia were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in association with L. uliginosus, could nodulate Lotus corniculatus with generally poor nitrogen-fixing efficiency, formed nonfixing nodules in Lotus tenuis and Lupinus luteus roots and were unable to nodulate Glycine soja or Glycine max. Thus, L. uliginosus rhizobia seem closely related to B. japonicum biovar genistearum strains. PMID:22092879

  6. Calcium Deficiency of Dark-grown Seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Katie

    1971-01-01

    Hypocotyl collapse in dark-grown seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto was due to calcium deficiency. There was no evidence of an associated pathogen. The number of seedlings with hypocotyl collapse decreased and the mean hypocotyl length increased when increasing levels of calcium (0-100 micrograms per gram) were supplied in an external nutrient solution to seedlings grown under sterile conditions. When seedlings were supplied with a complete nutrient solution, containing calcium at 100 micrograms per gram, but minus potassium, magnesium, sulfur, nitrogen, or phosphorus, occasional plants developed hypocotyl collapse symptoms; however, the lengths of hypocotyls varied little from those of controls grown in complete nutrient. When the calcium level in the deficient nutrient solutions was raised to 200 micrograms per gram, the number of plants with hypocotyl collapse was reduced markedly. With complete nutrient solution minus calcium, seedlings developed symptoms of calcium deficiency irrespective of seed size, i.e., irrespective of whether or not the seed contained a total calcium content that was low or relatively high. An increase in hypocotyl length in response to an external supply of calcium was obtained with five cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and with one of Soja max Piper. A similar response to calcium was obtained for epicotyl growth of a cultivar of Vicia faba L., but not for a cultivar of Pisum sativum L. Images PMID:16657708

  7. Effects of light treatment on isoflavone content of germinated soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Phommalth, Siviengkhek; Jeong, Yeon-Shin; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Dhakal, Krishna Hari; Hwang, Young-Hyun

    2008-11-12

    Our research objective was to increase isoflavone content in the germinated soybean seeds of four different varieties (Pungsannamulkong, Cheongjakong, Aga4, and Aga3) by optimizing light treatments (dark, greenhouse, fluorescent, incandescent, and ultraviolet lamps). The results demonstrated that the highest isoflavone content was produced from the Aga3 variety, which was developed by an interspecific cross between Eunhakong (Glycine max) and KLG10084 (G. soja) at the Plant Genetic Laboratory, Kyunpook National University. Aga3 is known to have one of the highest isoflavone content in the world at present. Our results recommend exposure of 7-day-old Aga3 sprouts to a combined light treatment of greenhouse lamps (12 h per day) and ultraviolet light (40 min per day) for maximum isoflavone production. Aga3 produced high levels of isoflavone because, in part, it contained very high isoflavone levels within the seed as compared with the other varieties. Under stress conditions, Aga3 could produce over 1.90 times more isoflavone than its seed content and 1.53 times more isoflavone than when grown under dark conditions. PMID:18841981

  8. Diversifying selection on flavanone 3-hydroxylase and isoflavone synthase genes in cultivated soybean and its wild progenitors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao; Wang, Jiao; Chu, Shanshan; Yan, Hong-Lang; Yu, Deyue

    2013-01-01

    Soybean isoflavone synthase (IFS) and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) are two key enzymes catalyzing the biosynthesis of isoflavonoids and flavonoids, both of which play diverse roles in stress responses. However, little is known about the evolutionary pattern of these genes in cultivated soybean and its wild progenitors. Herein, we investigated the nucleotide polymorphisms in Isoflavone synthase (IFS1, IFS2) and Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H2) genes from 33 soybean accessions, including 17 cultivars (Glycine max) and 16 their wild progenitors (Glycine soja). Our data showed that the target genes shared the levels of nucleotide polymorphism with three reference genes involved in plant-microbe interactions, but possessed a much higher nucleotide polymorphism than other reference genes. Moreover, no significant genetic differentiation was found between cultivated soybean and its wild relatives in three target genes, despite of considering bottleneck and founder effect during domestication. These results indicate that IFS and F3H genes could have experienced gene introgressions or diversifying selection events during domestication process. Especially, F3H2 gene appears to evolve under positive selection and enjoy a faster evolutionary rate than IFS1 and IFS2 genes. PMID:23342093

  9. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Diaporthe species associated with grapevine trunk disease in China.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Asha J; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Zhen; Udayanga, Dhanushka; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Li, XingHong; Yan, JiYe; Hyde, Kevin D

    2015-05-01

    Trunk diseases in grapevine (Vitis spp.) are major problems in the wine and table-grape industries reducing the productivity, quality and longevity of vineyards. Species of Diaporthe are important fungal pathogens of grapevine trunk disease worldwide. A survey of 14 grape vineyards located in different provinces of China was yielded Diaporthe isolates associated with symptomatic grapevine wood. These isolates were identified based on morphology and a combined data matrix of rDNA ITS, partial sequences of translation elongation factor 1-? (EF 1-?), ?-tubulin (TUB) and calmodulin (CAL) gene regions. Four species of Diaporthe were identified, which included Diaporthe eres, Diaporthe hongkongensis, Diaporthe phaseolorum and Diaporthe sojae. All isolates of Diaporthe caused disease on detached grape shoots in pathogenicity experiments but differed in virulence. The incidence in local vineyards and the pathogenicity results indicate that D. eres is an important pathogen of grapevine in Chinese vineyards, where it may significantly limit grape production. This is the first detailed report of Diaporthe species associated with grapevine trunk diseases in China with morphology, pathogenicity and molecular data. PMID:25937058

  10. In vitro antimycotic activity of some plant extracts towards yeast and yeast-like strains.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, B; Pinelli, P; Buzzini, P; Romani, A; Heimler, D; Franconi, F; Martini, A

    2005-01-01

    As part of screening aimed at the selection of novel antimycotic compounds of vegetable origin, leaf extracts of Camellia sinensis L., Cupressus sempervirens L. and Pistacia lentiscus L. and the seed extract of Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. were tested against yeast and yeast-like species implicated in human mycoses. Of the extracts only those of C. sinensis (obtained from a commercial preparation of green tea) exhibited broad activity towards Candida glabrata, Clavispora lusitatiae, Cryptococcus laurentii, Filobasidiella neoformans, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Prototheca wickerhamii strains. MICs ranging from 300 to 4800 microg extract/mL (corresponding to 130-2010 microg/mL total polyphenols) were observed. Concentrations of the C. sinensis extract over 25 000 microg/mL caused a rapid decrease of viable cells of Fil. neoformans and its activity was dose-dependent. Tests carried out using the pure polyphenols present in C. sinensis extract composition, showed that only epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) possess antimycotic activity. PMID:15798996

  11. Dt2 Is a Gain-of-Function MADS-Domain Factor Gene That Specifies Semideterminacy in Soybean[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Jieqing; Liu, Yunfeng; Sun, Lianjun; Zhao, Meixia; Li, Yinghui; She, Maoyun; Sui, Yi; Lin, Feng; Liu, Xiaodong; Tang, Zongxiang; Nguyen, Hanh; Tian, Zhixi; Qiu, Lijuan; Nelson, Randall L.; Clemente, Thomas E.; Specht, James E.; Ma, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Similar to Arabidopsis thaliana, the wild soybeans (Glycine soja) and many cultivars exhibit indeterminate stem growth specified by the shoot identity gene Dt1, the functional counterpart of Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1). Mutations in TFL1 and Dt1 both result in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) switching from vegetative to reproductive state to initiate terminal flowering and thus produce determinate stems. A second soybean gene (Dt2) regulating stem growth was identified, which, in the presence of Dt1, produces semideterminate plants with terminal racemes similar to those observed in determinate plants. Here, we report positional cloning and characterization of Dt2, a dominant MADS domain factor gene classified into the APETALA1/SQUAMOSA (AP1/SQUA) subfamily that includes floral meristem (FM) identity genes AP1, FUL, and CAL in Arabidopsis. Unlike AP1, whose expression is limited to FMs in which the expression of TFL1 is repressed, Dt2 appears to repress the expression of Dt1 in the SAMs to promote early conversion of the SAMs into reproductive inflorescences. Given that Dt2 is not the gene most closely related to AP1 and that semideterminacy is rarely seen in wild soybeans, Dt2 appears to be a recent gain-of-function mutation, which has modified the genetic pathways determining the stem growth habit in soybean. PMID:25005919

  12. Genetic studies on saline and sodic tolerances in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Donghe; Tuyen, Do Duc

    2012-01-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories: saline and sodic (alkaline). Developing and using soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) cultivars with high salt tolerance is an effective way of maintaining sustainable production in areas where soybean growth is threatened by salt stress. Early classical genetics studies revealed that saline tolerance was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Recently, a series of studies consistently revealed a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for saline tolerance located on linkage group N (chromosome 3) around the SSR markers Satt255 and Sat_091; other minor QTLs were also reported. In the case of sodic tolerance, most studies focused on iron deficiency caused by a high soil pH, and several QTLs associated with iron deficiency were identified. A wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accession with high sodic tolerance was recently identified, and a significant QTL for sodic tolerance was detected on linkage group D2 (chromosome 17). These studies demonstrated that saline and sodic tolerances were controlled by different genes in soybean. DNA markers closely associated with these QTLs can be used for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both saline and sodic stresses. PMID:23136495

  13. FISH mapping of the 5S and 18S-28S rDNA loci in different species of Glycine.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P; Sapra, V T; Soliman, K M; Zipf, A

    2001-01-01

    Wild germplasms are often the only significant sources of useful traits for crops, such as soybean, that have limited genetic variability. Before these germplasms can be effectively manipulated they must be characterized at the cytological and molecular levels. Modern soybean probably arose through an ancient allotetraploid event and subsequent diploidization of the genome. However, wild Glycine species have not been intensively investigated for this ancient polyploidy. In this article we determined the number of both the 5S and 18S-28S rDNA sequences in various members of the genus Glycine using FISH. Our results distinctly establish the loss of a 5S rDNA locus from the "diploid" (2n = 40) species and the loss of two from the (2n = 80) polyploids of GLYCINE: A similar diploidization of the 18S-28S rDNA gene family has occurred in G. canescens, G. clandestina, G. soja, and G. max (L.) Merr. (2n = 40). Although of different genome types, G. tabacina and G. tomentella (2n = 80) both showed two major 18S-28S rDNA loci per haploid genome, in contrast to the four loci that would be expected in chromosomes that have undergone two doubling events in their evolutionary history. It is evident that the evolution of the subgenus Glycine is more complex than that represented in a simple diploid-doubled to tetraploid model. PMID:11447252

  14. Genome sequences of two Phytophthora species responsible for Sudden Oak Death and Soybean Root Rot provide novel insights into their evolutionary origins and mechanisms of pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Brett M.; Tripathi, Sucheta; Aerts, Andrea; Bensasson, Douda; Dehal, Paramvir; Dubchak, Inna; Garbelotto, Matteo; Gijzen, Mark; Huang, Wayne; Ivors, Kelly; Jiang, Rays; Kamoun, Sophien; Krampis, Konstantinos; Lamour, Kurt; McDonald, Hayes; Medina, Monica; Morris, Paul; Putnam, Nik; Rash, Sam; Salamov, Asaf; Smith, Brian; Smith, Joe; Terry, Astrid; Torto, Trudy; Grigoriev, Igor; Rokhsar, Daniel; Boore, Jeffrey

    2005-12-01

    The approximately 60 species of Phytophthora are all destructive pathogens, causing rots of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of a wide range of agriculturally and ornamentally important plants (1). Some species, such as P. cinnamomi, P. parasitica and P. cactorum, each attack hundreds of different plant host species, whereas others are more restricted. Some of the crops where Phytophthora infections cause the greatest financial losses include potato, soybean, tomato, alfalfa, tobacco, peppers, cucurbits, pineapple, strawberry, raspberry and a wide range of perennial tree crops, especially citrus, avocado, almonds, walnuts, apples and cocoa, and they also heavily affect the ornamental, nursery and forestry industries. The economic damage overall to crops in the United States by Phytophthora species is estimated in the tens of billions of dollars, including the costs of control measures, and worldwide it is many times this amount (1). In the northern midwest of the U.S., P. sojae causes $200 million in annual losses to soybean alone, and worldwide causes around $1-2 billion in losses per year. P. infestans infections resulted in the Irish potato famine last century and continues to be a difficult and worsening problem for potato and tomato growers worldwide, with worldwide costs estimated at $5 billion per year.

  15. Comparative Ecophysiological Study of Salt Stress for Wild and Cultivated Soybean Species from the Yellow River Delta, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Zhou, Zhengda; Chen, Peng; Tang, Xiaoli; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic and ionic stresses were the primary and instant damage produced by salt stress. They can also bring about other secondary stresses. Soybean is an important economic crop and the wild soybean aroused increasing attention for its excellent performance in salt resistance. For this reason, we compared the different performances of Glycine max L. (ZH13) and Glycine soja L. (BB52) in both young and mature seedlings, hoping to clarify the specific reasons. Our research revealed that, compared to the cultivated soybean, the wild soybean was able to maintain higher water potential and relative water content (RWC), accumulate more amount of proline and glycine betaine, reduce the contents of Na+ and Cl? by faster efflux, and cut down the efflux of the K+ as well as keep higher K+/Na+ ratio. And what is more is that, almost all the excel behaviors became particularly obvious under higher NaCl concentration (300?mM). Therefore, according to all the detections and comparisons, we concluded that the wild soybean had different tolerance mechanisms and better salt resistance. It should be used as eminent germplasm resource to enhance the resistant ability of cultivated soybean or even other crops. PMID:24999494

  16. Comparative ecophysiological study of salt stress for wild and cultivated soybean species from the Yellow River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Zhou, Zhengda; Chen, Peng; Tang, Xiaoli; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic and ionic stresses were the primary and instant damage produced by salt stress. They can also bring about other secondary stresses. Soybean is an important economic crop and the wild soybean aroused increasing attention for its excellent performance in salt resistance. For this reason, we compared the different performances of Glycine max L. (ZH13) and Glycine soja L. (BB52) in both young and mature seedlings, hoping to clarify the specific reasons. Our research revealed that, compared to the cultivated soybean, the wild soybean was able to maintain higher water potential and relative water content (RWC), accumulate more amount of proline and glycine betaine, reduce the contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) by faster efflux, and cut down the efflux of the K(+) as well as keep higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio. And what is more is that, almost all the excel behaviors became particularly obvious under higher NaCl concentration (300 mM). Therefore, according to all the detections and comparisons, we concluded that the wild soybean had different tolerance mechanisms and better salt resistance. It should be used as eminent germplasm resource to enhance the resistant ability of cultivated soybean or even other crops. PMID:24999494

  17. Wrinkle reduction in post-menopausal women consuming a novel oral supplement: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, G; Wainwright, L J; Holland, R; Barrett, K E; Casey, J

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Objective The maintenance of youthful skin appearance is strongly desired by a large proportion of the world's population. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the effect on skin wrinkling, of a combination of ingredients reported to influence key factors involved in skin ageing, namely inflammation, collagen synthesis and oxidative/UV stress. A supplemented drink was developed containing soy isoflavones, lycopene, vitamin C and vitamin E and given to post-menopausal women with a capsule containing fish oil. Method We have performed a double-blind randomized controlled human clinical study to assess whether this cocktail of dietary ingredients can significantly improve the appearance of facial wrinkles. Results We have shown that this unique combination of micronutrients can significantly reduce the depth of facial wrinkles and that this improvement is associated with increased deposition of new collagen fibres in the dermis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that consumption of a mixture of soy isoflavones, lycopene, vitamin C, vitamin E and fish oil is able to induce a clinically measureable improvement in the depth of facial wrinkles following long-term use. We have also shown, for the first time with an oral product, that the improvement is associated with increased deposition of new collagen fibres in the dermis. Résumé Objectif Le maintien de l'apparence d'une peau jeune est vivement souhaité par une grande proportion de la population mondiale. L'objectif de la présente étude était donc d'évaluer l'effet sur les rides de la peau, d'une combinaison d'ingrédients rapportés à influer sur les facteurs clés impliqués dans le vieillissement de la peau, à savoir l'inflammation, la synthèse du collagène et le stress oxydatif / UV. Une boisson supplémentée a été élaborée contenant des isoflavones de soja, le lycopène, la vitamine C et la vitamine E et donnée aux femmes ménopausées avec une capsule contenant de l'huile de poisson. Méthode Nous avons effectué une étude clinique humaine contrôlée randomisée en double aveugle afin de déterminer si ce cocktail d'ingrédients alimentaires pouvait améliorer considérablement l'apparence des rides du visage. Résultats Nous avons montré que cette combinaison unique de micronutriments peut réduire considérablement la profondeur des rides du visage et que cette amélioration est associée à un dépôt de nouvelles fibres de collagène dans le derme. Conclusion Cette étude montre que la consommation d'un mélange d'isoflavones de soja, de lycopène, de la vitamine C et de la vitamine E et de l'huile de poisson est capable d'induire une amélioration cliniquement mesurable dans la profondeur des rides du visage après utilisation à long terme. Nous avons également montré, pour la première fois avec un produit oral, que l'amélioration est associée à une augmentation du dépôt de nouvelles fibres de collagène dans le derme. PMID:23927381

  18. Main dynamics and drivers of boreal forests fire regimes during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, Chiara; Lehsten, Veiko; Blarquez, Olivier; Clear, Jennifer; Carcaillet, Christopher; Bradshaw, Richard HW

    2015-04-01

    Forest fire is one of the most critical ecosystem processes in the boreal megabiome, and it is likely that its frequency, size and severity have had a primary role in vegetation dynamics since the Last Ice Age (Kasischke & Stocks 2000). Fire not only organizes the physical and biological attributes of boreal forests, but also affects biogeochemical cycling, particularly the carbon balance (Balshi et al. 2007). Due to their location at climatically sensitive northern latitudes, boreal forests are likely to be significantly affected by global warming with a consequent increase in biomass burning (Soja et al. 2007), a variation in vegetation structure and composition (Johnstone et al. 2004) and a rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (Bond-Lamberty et al. 2007). Even if the ecological role of wildfire in boreal forest is widely recognized, a clearer understanding of the environmental factors controlling fire dynamics and how variations in fire regimes impact forest ecosystems is essential in order to place modern fire processes in a meaningful context for projecting ecosystem behaviour in a changing environment (Kelly et al. 2013). Because fire return intervals and successional cycles in boreal forests occur over decadal to centennial timescales (Hu et al. 2006), palaeoecological research seems to be one of the most promising tool for elucidating ecosystem changes over a broad range of environmental conditions and temporal scales. Within this context, our first aim is to reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of boreal forests fire dynamics during the Holocene based on sedimentary charcoal records. As a second step, trends in biomass burning will be statistically analysed in order to disentangle between regional and local drivers. The use of European and north-American sites will give us the unique possibility to perform a large scale analysis on one of the broadest biome in the world and to underline the different patterns of fire in these two continents. Balshi MS, McGuire AD, Zhuang Q et al. (2007) The role of historical fire disturbance in the carbon dynamics of the pan-boreal region: A process-based analysis. J. Geophys. Res. 112:G2. Bond-Lamberty B, Peckham SD, Ahl DE et al. (2007) Fire as the dominant driver of central Canadian boreal forest carbon balance. Nature 450: 89-92. Hu FS, Brubaker LB, Gavin DG et al. (2006) How climate and vegetation influence the fire regime of the Alaskan boreal biome: the Holocene perspective. Mitigation Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Chang. 11: 829-846. Johnstone JF, Chapin III FS, Foote J et al. (2004) Decadal observations of tree regeneration following fire in boreal forests. Can. J. For. Res. 34: 267-273. Kasischke ES & Stocks BJ (2000) Fire, Climate Change and Carbon Cycling in the Boreal Forest. Ecological Studies 138, Springer-Verlag, New York. Kelly RF, Chipman ML, Higuera PE et al. (2013) Recent burning of boreal forests exceeds fire regime limits of the past 10,000 years. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110: 13055-13060. Soja AJ, Tchebakova NM, French NHF et al. (2007) Climate-induced boreal forest change: predictions versus current observations. Glob. Planet. Chang. 56: 274-296.

  19. Major Soybean Maturity Gene Haplotypes Revealed by SNPViz Analysis of 72 Sequenced Soybean Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Langewisch, Tiffany; Zhang, Hongxin; Vincent, Ryan; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Bilyeu, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    In this Genomics Era, vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data have become publicly available for multiple genomes across hundreds of species. Analyses of these large-scale datasets can become cumbersome, especially when comparing nucleotide polymorphisms across many samples within a dataset and among different datasets or organisms. To facilitate the exploration of allelic variation and diversity, we have developed and deployed an in-house computer software to categorize and visualize these haplotypes. The SNPViz software enables users to analyze region-specific haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) datasets for different sequenced genomes. The examination of allelic variation and diversity of important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] flowering time and maturity genes may provide additional insight into flowering time regulation and enhance researchers' ability to target soybean breeding for particular environments. For this study, we utilized two available soybean genomic datasets for a total of 72 soybean genotypes encompassing cultivars, landraces, and the wild species Glycine soja. The major soybean maturity genes E1, E2, E3, and E4 along with the Dt1 gene for plant growth architecture were analyzed in an effort to determine the number of major haplotypes for each gene, to evaluate the consistency of the haplotypes with characterized variant alleles, and to identify evidence of artificial selection. The results indicated classification of a small number of predominant haplogroups for each gene and important insights into possible allelic diversity for each gene within the context of known causative mutations. The software has both a stand-alone and web-based version and can be used to analyze other genes, examine additional soybean datasets, and view similar genome sequence and SNP datasets from other species. PMID:24727730

  20. Identification of the absorbed components and metabolites of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction in rat plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Bi, Kaishun; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Yin, Ran

    2015-07-10

    Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), consisting of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Rheum palmatum L., Citrus aurantium L. and Sojae Semen Praeparatum, is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine preparation for the treatment of acute or chronic hepatic diseases. In the present study, a sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed to separate and identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of ZZDHD. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation and separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75mm×3.0mm, 2.2?m) using a gradient elution program. Mass spectrometric detection was performed on an Agilent 6520 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive and negative ion modes. By comparing the retention time, high resolution mass data of blank plasma and dosed plasma, a total of 43 constituents, including 21 prototype compounds and 22 metabolites were identified or tentatively characterized. Results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones, glucuronidation was the main metabolic pathways of flavanone-related compounds. It is concluded the developed UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the absorbed components and metabolites of ZZDHD, and the results will provide essential data for further studying the relationship between the chemical components and pharmacological activity of ZZDHD. PMID:25912849

  1. GsCBRLK, a calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase, is a positive regulator of plant tolerance to salt and ABA stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming; Gao, Peng; Li, Yong; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Guo, Dianjing

    2010-05-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases play vital roles in protein phosphorylation in eukaryotes, yet little is known about the phosphorylation process of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and its role in stress signal transduction in plants. A novel plant-specific calcium-dependent calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase (GsCBRLK) has been isolated from Glycine soja. A subcellular localization study using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsCBRLK is localized in the plasma membrane. Binding assays demonstrated that calmodulin binds to GsCBRLK with an affinity of 25.9 nM in a calcium-dependent manner and the binding motif lies between amino acids 147 to169 within subdomain II of the kinase domain. GsCBRLK undergoes autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation in the presence of calcium. It was also found that calcium/calmodulin positively regulates GsCBRLK kinase activity through direct interaction between the calmodulin-binding domain and calmodulin. So, it is likely that GsCBRLK responds to an environmental stimulus in two ways: by increasing the protein expression level and by regulating its kinase activity through the calcium/calmodulin complex. Furthermore, cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress induce GsCBRLK gene transcripts. Over-expression of GsCBRLK in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA and increased the expression pattern of a number of stress gene markers in response to ABA and high salt. These results identify GsCBRLK as a molecular link between the stress- and ABA-induced calcium/calmodulin signal and gene expression in plant cells. PMID:20400529

  2. Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov., a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium from root nodules of soybeans in Canada.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiumei; Cloutier, Sylvie; Tambong, James T; Bromfield, Eden S P

    2014-09-01

    Sixteen strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of Glycine max grown in Ottawa, Canada, were previously characterized and placed in a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized using a polyphasic approach. All strains possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that were 99.79?% similar to the closest relative, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense LMG 18230(T). Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated atpD, glnII, recA, gyrB, rpoB and dnaK genes divided the 16 strains into three multilocus sequence types that were placed in a highly supported lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium consistent with results of DNA-DNA hybridization. Based on analysis of symbiosis gene sequences (nodC and nifH), all novel strains were placed in a phylogenetic group with five species of the genus Bradyrhizobium that nodulate soybeans. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests including carbon and nitrogen source utilization and antibiotic resistance could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Novel strain OO99(T) elicits effective nodules on Glycine max, Glycine soja and Macroptilium atropurpureum, partially effective nodules on Desmodium canadense and Vigna unguiculata, and ineffective nodules on Amphicarpaea bracteata and Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on the data presented, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov. is proposed, with OO99(T) (?=?LMG 26739(T)?=?HAMBI 3284(T)) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content is 62.6 mol%. PMID:24969302

  3. Study of the refirming effect of a plant complex.

    PubMed

    Benaiges, A; Marcet, P; Armengol, R; Betes, C; Gironés, E

    1998-08-01

    Loss of skin elasticity is one of the main problems of ageing. This is a mechanical property influenced by elastin, a protein in the dermis which, together with collagen and glycosaminoglycans, makes up the connective tissue. This tissue is affected by a large number of events (such as cutaneous ageing, pregnancy, slimming processes and cellulitis) which eventually cause it to change. At the same time, the metabolism of the proteins of the connective tissue decreases and there is an ever greater presence of enzymes, principally elastases and collagenases, which are responsible for breaking down the elastin and the collagen. One way to prevent such a loss of elasticity is to use active ingredients that are able to inhibit elastase enzymes. A plant complex was prepared using the following plants: lady's thistle (Silybum marianum GAERTN), alchemilla or yarrow (Alchemilla vulgaris L.), horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) as well as germinated seeds (Glycine soja Siebold and Zucc., Triticum vulgare Vilars, Medicago sativa L., Raphanus sativus L.). The complex was standardized to give the corresponding active principles, silybin, tannins, silicon and peptides, respectively, and in vitro enzymatic tests were carried out to establish its ability to inhibit elastase. The study of enzymatic inhibition was carried out using two enzymes: (1) porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), and (2) human leukocyte elastase (HLE). The results showed that the plant complex presents non-competitive inhibition in the order of 41.0% against PPE and 50.0% against HLE. An in vivo test was made alongside the in vitro test using an SEM 474 Cutometer (Courage & Khazaka) to study the elasticity of the skin, and positive effects were obtained when applying a cosmetic formulation containing 5% of the plant complex. Image analysis of duplicates of the cutaneous surface, before and after treatment began with a product containing 5% of plant complex and showed that wrinkles were decreased by 36.7%. PMID:18505506

  4. Are algal genes in nonphotosynthetic protists evidence of historical plastid endosymbioses?

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, John W; Huang, Jinling; Ding, Qin; Tian, Jing; Goodwillie, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Background How photosynthetic organelles, or plastids, were acquired by diverse eukaryotes is among the most hotly debated topics in broad scale eukaryotic evolution. The history of plastid endosymbioses commonly is interpreted under the "chromalveolate" hypothesis, which requires numerous plastid losses from certain heterotrophic groups that now are entirely aplastidic. In this context, discoveries of putatively algal genes in plastid-lacking protists have been cited as evidence of gene transfer from a photosynthetic endosymbiont that subsequently was lost completely. Here we examine this evidence, as it pertains to the chromalveolate hypothesis, through genome-level statistical analyses of similarity scores from queries with two diatoms, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana, and two aplastidic sister taxa, Phytophthora ramorum and P. sojae. Results Contingency tests of specific predictions of the chromalveolate model find no evidence for an unusual red algal contribution to Phytophthora genomes, nor that putative cyanobacterial sequences that are present entered these genomes through a red algal endosymbiosis. Examination of genes unrelated to plastid function provide extraordinarily significant support for both of these predictions in diatoms, the control group where a red endosymbiosis is known to have occurred, but none of that support is present in genes specifically conserved between diatoms and oomycetes. In addition, we uncovered a strong association between overall sequence similarities among taxa and relative sizes of genomic data sets in numbers of genes. Conclusion Signal from "algal" genes in oomycete genomes is inconsistent with the chromalveolate hypothesis, and better explained by alternative models of sequence and genome evolution. Combined with the numerous sources of intragenomic phylogenetic conflict characterized previously, our results underscore the potential to be mislead by a posteriori interpretations of variable phylogenetic signals contained in complex genome-level data. They argue strongly for explicit testing of the different a priori assumptions inherent in competing evolutionary hypotheses. PMID:19843329

  5. GsZFP1, a new Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein, is a positive regulator of plant tolerance to cold and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Dan; Li, Yong; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Wu, Jing; Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-06-01

    Plant acclimation to environmental stress is controlled by a complex network of regulatory genes that compose distinct stress-response regulons. The C2H2-type zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) have been implicated in different cellular processes involved in plant development and stress responses. Through microarray analysis, an alkaline (NaHCO(3))-responsive ZFP gene GsZFP1 was identified and subsequently cloned from Glyycine soja. GsZFP1 encodes a 35.14 kDa protein with one C2H2-type zinc-finger motif. The QALGGH domain, conserved in most plant C2H2-type ZFPs, is absent in the GsZFP1 protein sequence. A subcellular localization study using a GFP fusion protein indicated that GsZFP1 is localized to the nucleus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that GsZFP1 was induced in the leaf by ABA (100 ?M), salt (200 mM NaCl), and cold (4°C), and in the root by ABA (100 ?M), cold (4°C), and drought (30% PEG 6000). Over-expression of GsZFP1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in a greater tolerance to cold and drought stress, a decreased water loss rate, and an increase in proline irrespective of environmental conditions. The over-expression of GsZFP1 also increased the expression of a number of stress-response marker genes, including CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, NCED3, COR47, and RD29A in response to cold stress and RAB18, NCED3, P5CS, RD22, and RD29A in response to drought stress, especially early during stress treatments. Our studies suggest that GsZFP1 plays a crucial role in the plant response to cold and drought stress. PMID:22160567

  6. The hidden duplication past of the plant pathogen Phytophthora and its consequences for infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oomycetes of the genus Phytophthora are pathogens that infect a wide range of plant species. For dicot hosts such as tomato, potato and soybean, Phytophthora is even the most important pathogen. Previous analyses of Phytophthora genomes uncovered many genes, large gene families and large genome sizes that can partially be explained by significant repeat expansion patterns. Results Analysis of the complete genomes of three different Phytophthora species, using a newly developed approach, unveiled a large number of small duplicated blocks, mainly consisting of two or three consecutive genes. Further analysis of these duplicated genes and comparison with the known gene and genome duplication history of ten other eukaryotes including parasites, algae, plants, fungi, vertebrates and invertebrates, suggests that the ancestor of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum most likely underwent a whole genome duplication (WGD). Genes that have survived in duplicate are mainly genes that are known to be preferentially retained following WGDs, but also genes important for pathogenicity and infection of the different hosts seem to have been retained in excess. As a result, the WGD might have contributed to the evolutionary and pathogenic success of Phytophthora. Conclusions The fact that we find many small blocks of duplicated genes indicates that the genomes of Phytophthora species have been heavily rearranged following the WGD. Most likely, the high repeat content in these genomes have played an important role in this rearrangement process. As a consequence, the paucity of retained larger duplicated blocks has greatly complicated previous attempts to detect remnants of a large-scale duplication event in Phytophthora. However, as we show here, our newly developed strategy to identify very small duplicated blocks might be a useful approach to uncover ancient polyploidy events, in particular for heavily rearranged genomes. PMID:20525264

  7. Characterization of chemical constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Yin, Ran; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 × 3.0 mm, 2.2 ?m) using a gradient elution program. The detection was performed on a Waters Xevo G2 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 82 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Of the 82 compounds, 21 compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing MS data and retrieving the reference literature. In addition, 31 compounds were identified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, ten compounds were identified from Rheum palmatum L., 33 compounds were identified from Citrus aurantium L., and eight compounds were identified from Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Results indicated that iridoids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumarins, glycosides of crocetin, monoterpenoids, and organic acids were major constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. It is concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. PMID:25195935

  8. Phytophthora niederhauserii sp. nov., a polyphagous species associated with ornamentals, fruit trees and native plants in 13 countries.

    PubMed

    Abad, Z Gloria; Abad, Jorge A; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Pane, Antonella; Faedda, Roberto; Moralejo, Eduardo; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; Abad-Campos, Paloma; Alvarez-Bernaola, Luis A; Bakonyi, József; Józsa, András; Herrero, Maria Luz; Burgess, Treena I; Cunnington, James H; Smith, Ian W; Balci, Yilmaz; Blomquist, Cheryl; Henricot, Béatrice; Denton, Geoffrey; Spies, Chris; Mcleod, Adele; Belbahri, Lassaad; Cooke, David; Kageyama, Koji; Uematsu, Seiji; Kurbetli, Ilker; De?irmenci, Kemal

    2014-01-01

    A non-papillate, heterothallic Phytophthora species first isolated in 2001 and subsequently from symptomatic roots, crowns and stems of 33 plant species in 25 unrelated botanical families from 13 countries is formally described here as a new species. Symptoms on various hosts included crown and stem rot, chlorosis, wilting, leaf blight, cankers and gumming. This species was isolated from Australia, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, the United Kingdom and United States in association with shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals grown mainly in greenhouses. The most prevalent hosts are English ivy (Hedera helix) and Cistus (Cistus salvifolius). The association of the species with acorn banksia (Banksia prionotes) plants in natural ecosystems in Australia, in affected vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in South Africa and almond (Prunus dulcis) trees in Spain and Turkey in addition to infection of shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals in a broad range of unrelated families are a sign of a wide ecological adaptation of the species and its potential threat to agricultural and natural ecosystems. The morphology of the persistent non-papillate ellipsoid sporangia, unique toruloid lobate hyphal swellings and amphigynous antheridia does not match any of the described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the ITS rDNA, EF-1?, and ?-tub supported that this organism is a hitherto unknown species. It is closely related to species in ITS clade 7b with the most closely related species being P. sojae. The name Phytophthora niederhauserii has been used in previous studies without the formal description of the holotype. This name is validated in this manuscript with the formal description of Phytophthora niederhauserii Z.G. Abad et J.A. Abad, sp. nov. The name is coined to honor Dr John S. Niederhauser, a notable plant pathologist and the 1990 World Food Prize laureate. PMID:24871599

  9. Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov., a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium from root nodules of soybeans in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiumei; Cloutier, Sylvie; Tambong, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of Glycine max grown in Ottawa, Canada, were previously characterized and placed in a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized using a polyphasic approach. All strains possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that were 99.79?% similar to the closest relative, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense LMG 18230T. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated atpD, glnII, recA, gyrB, rpoB and dnaK genes divided the 16 strains into three multilocus sequence types that were placed in a highly supported lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium consistent with results of DNA–DNA hybridization. Based on analysis of symbiosis gene sequences (nodC and nifH), all novel strains were placed in a phylogenetic group with five species of the genus Bradyrhizobium that nodulate soybeans. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests including carbon and nitrogen source utilization and antibiotic resistance could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Novel strain OO99T elicits effective nodules on Glycine max, Glycine soja and Macroptilium atropurpureum, partially effective nodules on Desmodium canadense and Vigna unguiculata, and ineffective nodules on Amphicarpaea bracteata and Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on the data presented, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov. is proposed, with OO99T (?=?LMG 26739T?=?HAMBI 3284T) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content is 62.6 mol%. PMID:24969302

  10. Infection and genotype remodel the entire soybean transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lecong; Mideros, Santiago X; Bao, Lei; Hanlon, Regina; Arredondo, Felipe D; Tripathy, Sucheta; Krampis, Konstantinos; Jerauld, Adam; Evans, Clive; St Martin, Steven K; Maroof, MA Saghai; Hoeschele, Ina; Dorrance, Anne E; Tyler, Brett M

    2009-01-01

    Background High throughput methods, such as high density oligonucleotide microarray measurements of mRNA levels, are popular and critical to genome scale analysis and systems biology. However understanding the results of these analyses and in particular understanding the very wide range of levels of transcriptional changes observed is still a significant challenge. Many researchers still use an arbitrary cut off such as two-fold in order to identify changes that may be biologically significant. We have used a very large-scale microarray experiment involving 72 biological replicates to analyze the response of soybean plants to infection by the pathogen Phytophthora sojae and to analyze transcriptional modulation as a result of genotypic variation. Results With the unprecedented level of statistical sensitivity provided by the high degree of replication, we show unambiguously that almost the entire plant genome (97 to 99% of all detectable genes) undergoes transcriptional modulation in response to infection and genetic variation. The majority of the transcriptional differences are less than two-fold in magnitude. We show that low amplitude modulation of gene expression (less than two-fold changes) is highly statistically significant and consistent across biological replicates, even for modulations of less than 20%. Our results are consistent through two different normalization methods and two different statistical analysis procedures. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the entire plant genome undergoes transcriptional modulation in response to infection and genetic variation. The pervasive low-magnitude remodeling of the transcriptome may be an integral component of physiological adaptation in soybean, and in all eukaryotes. PMID:19171053

  11. A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in an Endo-1,4-?-Glucanase Gene Controls Seed Coat Permeability in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seong-Jin; Sato, Masako; Sato, Kei; Jitsuyama, Yutaka; Fujino, Kaien; Mori, Haruhide; Takahashi, Ryoji; Benitez, Eduardo R; Liu, Baohui; Yamada, Tetsuya; Abe, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Physical dormancy, a structural feature of the seed coat known as hard seededness, is an important characteristic for adaptation of plants against unstable and unpredictable environments. To dissect the molecular basis of qHS1, a quantitative trait locus for hard seededness in soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.), we developed a near-isogenic line (NIL) of a permeable (soft-seeded) cultivar, Tachinagaha, containing a hard-seed allele from wild soybean (G. soja) introduced by successive backcrossings. The hard-seed allele made the seed coat of Tachinagaha more rigid by increasing the amount of ?-1,4-glucans in the outer layer of palisade cells of the seed coat on the dorsal side of seeds, known to be a point of entrance of water. Fine-mapping and subsequent expression and sequencing analyses revealed that qHS1 encodes an endo-1,4-?-glucanase. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) introduced an amino acid substitution in a substrate-binding cleft of the enzyme, possibly reducing or eliminating its affinity for substrates in permeable cultivars. Introduction of the genomic region of qHS1 from the impermeable (hard-seeded) NIL into the permeable cultivar Kariyutaka resulted in accumulation of ?-1,4-glucan in the outer layer of palisade cells and production of hard seeds. The SNP allele found in the NIL was further associated with the occurrence of hard seeds in soybean cultivars of various origins. The findings of this and previous studies may indicate that qHS1 is involved in the accumulation of ?-1,4-glucan derivatives such as xyloglucan and/or ?-(1,3)(1,4)-glucan that reinforce the impermeability of seed coats in soybean. PMID:26039079

  12. Phytophthora Have Distinct Endogenous Small RNA Populations That Include Short Interfering and microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R.; Kasschau, Kristin D.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Press, Caroline M.; Sullivan, Christopher M.; Chapman, Elisabeth J.; Hoyer, J. Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.; Carrington, James C.

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work. PMID:24204767

  13. A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in an Endo-1,4-?-Glucanase Gene Controls Seed Coat Permeability in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seong-Jin; Sato, Masako; Sato, Kei; Jitsuyama, Yutaka; Fujino, Kaien; Mori, Haruhide; Takahashi, Ryoji; Benitez, Eduardo R.; Liu, Baohui; Yamada, Tetsuya; Abe, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Physical dormancy, a structural feature of the seed coat known as hard seededness, is an important characteristic for adaptation of plants against unstable and unpredictable environments. To dissect the molecular basis of qHS1, a quantitative trait locus for hard seededness in soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.), we developed a near-isogenic line (NIL) of a permeable (soft-seeded) cultivar, Tachinagaha, containing a hard-seed allele from wild soybean (G. soja) introduced by successive backcrossings. The hard-seed allele made the seed coat of Tachinagaha more rigid by increasing the amount of ?-1,4-glucans in the outer layer of palisade cells of the seed coat on the dorsal side of seeds, known to be a point of entrance of water. Fine-mapping and subsequent expression and sequencing analyses revealed that qHS1 encodes an endo-1,4-?-glucanase. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) introduced an amino acid substitution in a substrate-binding cleft of the enzyme, possibly reducing or eliminating its affinity for substrates in permeable cultivars. Introduction of the genomic region of qHS1 from the impermeable (hard-seeded) NIL into the permeable cultivar Kariyutaka resulted in accumulation of ?-1,4-glucan in the outer layer of palisade cells and production of hard seeds. The SNP allele found in the NIL was further associated with the occurrence of hard seeds in soybean cultivars of various origins. The findings of this and previous studies may indicate that qHS1 is involved in the accumulation of ?-1,4-glucan derivatives such as xyloglucan and/or ?-(1,3)(1,4)-glucan that reinforce the impermeability of seed coats in soybean. PMID:26039079

  14. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R; Kasschau, Kristin D; Cuperus, Josh T; Press, Caroline M; Sullivan, Christopher M; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Hoyer, J Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Carrington, James C

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work. PMID:24204767

  15. Multiple horizontal gene transfer events and domain fusions have created novel regulatory and metabolic networks in the oomycete genome.

    PubMed

    Morris, Paul Francis; Schlosser, Laura Rose; Onasch, Katherine Diane; Wittenschlaeger, Tom; Austin, Ryan; Provart, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Complex enzymes with multiple catalytic activities are hypothesized to have evolved from more primitive precursors. Global analysis of the Phytophthora sojae genome using conservative criteria for evaluation of complex proteins identified 273 novel multifunctional proteins that were also conserved in P. ramorum. Each of these proteins contains combinations of protein motifs that are not present in bacterial, plant, animal, or fungal genomes. A subset of these proteins were also identified in the two diatom genomes, but the majority of these proteins have formed after the split between diatoms and oomycetes. Documentation of multiple cases of domain fusions that are common to both oomycetes and diatom genomes lends additional support for the hypothesis that oomycetes and diatoms are monophyletic. Bifunctional proteins that catalyze two steps in a metabolic pathway can be used to infer the interaction of orthologous proteins that exist as separate entities in other genomes. We postulated that the novel multifunctional proteins of oomycetes could function as potential Rosetta Stones to identify interacting proteins of conserved metabolic and regulatory networks in other eukaryotic genomes. However ortholog analysis of each domain within our set of 273 multifunctional proteins against 39 sequenced bacterial and eukaryotic genomes, identified only 18 candidate Rosetta Stone proteins. Thus the majority of multifunctional proteins are not Rosetta Stones, but they may nonetheless be useful in identifying novel metabolic and regulatory networks in oomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis of all the enzymes in three pathways with one or more novel multifunctional proteins was conducted to determine the probable origins of individual enzymes. These analyses revealed multiple examples of horizontal transfer from both bacterial genomes and the photosynthetic endosymbiont in the ancestral genome of Stramenopiles. The complexity of the phylogenetic origins of these metabolic pathways and the paucity of Rosetta Stones relative to the total number of multifunctional proteins suggests that the proteome of oomycetes has few features in common with other Kingdoms. PMID:19582169

  16. Multiple Horizontal Gene Transfer Events and Domain Fusions Have Created Novel Regulatory and Metabolic Networks in the Oomycete Genome

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Paul Francis; Schlosser, Laura Rose; Onasch, Katherine Diane; Wittenschlaeger, Tom; Austin, Ryan; Provart, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Complex enzymes with multiple catalytic activities are hypothesized to have evolved from more primitive precursors. Global analysis of the Phytophthora sojae genome using conservative criteria for evaluation of complex proteins identified 273 novel multifunctional proteins that were also conserved in P. ramorum. Each of these proteins contains combinations of protein motifs that are not present in bacterial, plant, animal, or fungal genomes. A subset of these proteins were also identified in the two diatom genomes, but the majority of these proteins have formed after the split between diatoms and oomycetes. Documentation of multiple cases of domain fusions that are common to both oomycetes and diatom genomes lends additional support for the hypothesis that oomycetes and diatoms are monophyletic. Bifunctional proteins that catalyze two steps in a metabolic pathway can be used to infer the interaction of orthologous proteins that exist as separate entities in other genomes. We postulated that the novel multifunctional proteins of oomycetes could function as potential Rosetta Stones to identify interacting proteins of conserved metabolic and regulatory networks in other eukaryotic genomes. However ortholog analysis of each domain within our set of 273 multifunctional proteins against 39 sequenced bacterial and eukaryotic genomes, identified only 18 candidate Rosetta Stone proteins. Thus the majority of multifunctional proteins are not Rosetta Stones, but they may nonetheless be useful in identifying novel metabolic and regulatory networks in oomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis of all the enzymes in three pathways with one or more novel multifunctional proteins was conducted to determine the probable origins of individual enzymes. These analyses revealed multiple examples of horizontal transfer from both bacterial genomes and the photosynthetic endosymbiont in the ancestral genome of Stramenopiles. The complexity of the phylogenetic origins of these metabolic pathways and the paucity of Rosetta Stones relative to the total number of multifunctional proteins suggests that the proteome of oomycetes has few features in common with other Kingdoms. PMID:19582169

  17. Development and Evaluation of SoySNP50K, a High-Density Genotyping Array for Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L.; Jia, Gaofeng; Quigley, Charles V.; Fickus, Edward W.; Nelson, Randall L.; Cregan, Perry B.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to develop an Illumina Infinium BeadChip that contained over 50,000 SNPs from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). A total of 498,921,777 reads 35–45bp in length were obtained from DNA sequence analysis of reduced representation libraries from several soybean accessions which included six cultivated and two wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. et Zucc.) genotypes. These reads were mapped to the soybean whole genome sequence and 209,903 SNPs were identified. After applying several filters, a total of 146,161 of the 209,903 SNPs were determined to be ideal candidates for Illumina Infinium II BeadChip design. To equalize the distance between selected SNPs, increase assay success rate, and minimize the number of SNPs with low minor allele frequency, an iteration algorithm based on a selection index was developed and used to select 60,800 SNPs for Infinium BeadChip design. Of the 60,800 SNPs, 50,701 were targeted to euchromatic regions and 10,000 to heterochromatic regions of the 20 soybean chromosomes. In addition, 99 SNPs were targeted to unanchored sequence scaffolds. Of the 60,800 SNPs, a total of 52,041 passed Illumina’s manufacturing phase to produce the SoySNP50K iSelect BeadChip. Validation of the SoySNP50K chip with 96 landrace genotypes, 96 elite cultivars and 96 wild soybean accessions showed that 47,337 SNPs were polymorphic and generated successful SNP allele calls. In addition, 40,841 of the 47,337 SNPs (86%) had minor allele frequencies ?10% among the landraces, elite cultivars and the wild soybean accessions. A total of 620 and 42 candidate regions which may be associated with domestication and recent selection were identified, respectively. The SoySNP50K iSelect SNP beadchip will be a powerful tool for characterizing soybean genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium, and for constructing high resolution linkage maps to improve the soybean whole genome sequence assembly. PMID:23372807

  18. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire events. Extreme fires burned in Sakha and Tuva in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and in contrast, a normal fire season burned in Sakha and Tuva in 1999 and 2002, respectively. For this reason, we focus on the fire season (April - September) for 1999, 2002, and 2004. We assess these data sets for evidence of relationships between the net radiative fluxes and fire onset as well as evidence for residual influence of the fires upon the radiative budgets.

  19. [RAPD analysis of Aspergilli and its application in brewing industry].

    PubMed

    Pan, Li; Wang, Bin; Guo, Yong

    2007-06-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of sixteen Aspergilli was done by RAPD technology, using Aspergillus oryzae AS3.951, Aspergillus flavus GIM3.18 and Aspergillus sojae AS3.495 as controls. First, genome DNA of the sixteen test strains were prepared by improved extraction method, and their quality was verified by electrophoresis and spectrophotometry. They displayed an identical band (approximately 20 kb) in agarose gel electrophoresis, which conformed to the fact that these strains all belong to Aspergillus. OD260/OD280 of the prepared DNA ranged from 1.80 to 1.90, illustrating that they were good enough to be used as templates in the following RAPD-PCR experiment. Then, three appropriate primers (Primerl, Primer2, Primer5) for RAPD-PCR were screened from nine random primers, and repetitive experiments demonstrated that the RAPD-PCR polymorphic patterns of the sixteen test strains based on these three primers were stable. There were usually 8-14 bands in their RADP-PCR patterns, where the number of the main bands was 4-9 and the secondary bands were abundant. There were totally 181 bands in their RAPD-PCR patterns, where the percentage of polymorphic bands reached to 40.9% (74 bands). The similarity coefficient between the strains was calculated based on their RAPD-PCR patterns, ranging from 8.0% to 96.6%. All these data suggests that the genetic polymorphism of the strains is abundant and they have evident genetic differentiation. The phylogenetic tree of the sixteen test strains was reconstructed according to their RAPD-PCR patterns with Primer1, Primer2 and Primer5. It basically corresponded to traditional morphological taxonomy, demonstrating that the application of RAPD molecular marker in the phylogenetic analysis of these Aspergilli is feasible. Besides, the aflatoxin-producing strains (GIM3.17, CICC2219, CICC2357, CICC2390, CICC2402, CICC2404) could be easily discriminated by RAPD molecular marker, whereas it is difficult to distinguish them by conventional morphological taxonomy. Consequently, RAPD molecular marker provides a novel clue to discriminating aflatoxin-producing strains in brewing industry. PMID:17672321

  20. EDITORIAL: Ongoing climatic change in Northern Eurasia: justification for expedient research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    A brief overview of the ongoing climatic and environmental changes in Northern Eurasia serves as an editorial introduction to this, the second, special Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) focus issue of Environmental Research Letters. Climatic changes in Northern Eurasia over the last hundred years are reflected in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial variables. Many of these are noticeably significant above the confidence level for 'weather' or other (fire regime, ecosystem change) noise and thus should be further investigated in order to adapt to their impacts. In this focus issue, we introduce assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change in Northern Eurasia. Most of these have been presented at one of the NEESPI workshops (for more information see neespi.org) and/or American Geophysical Union and European Geosciences Union NEESPI open sessions during the past year. These studies are diverse, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia. Some of these are focused on smaller spatial scales and/or address only specific aspects of the global change implications across the subcontinent. But the feeling (and observational evidence) that these changes have already been quite rapid and can have global implications inspires us to bring this suite of papers to the readers' attention. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia Contents Preface Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja Editorial Siberia integrated regional study: Multidisciplinary investigations of interrelation between Siberia environment dynamics and global climate change E P Gordov and E A Vaganov Studies of the energy and water cycles in Northern Eurasia Comparison and evaluation of gridded radiation products across northern Eurasia T J Troy and E F Wood Reanalysis data underestimate significant changes in growing season weather in Kazakhstan C K Wright, K M de Beurs, Z K Akhmadieva, P Y Groisman and G M Henebry Climate change in Inner Mongolia from 1955 to 2005—trends at regional, biome and local scales N Lu, B Wilske, J Ni, R John and J Chen Application of the Snowmelt Runoff model in the Kuban river basin using MODIS satellite images M V Georgievsky Record Russian river discharge in 2007 and the limits of analysis A I Shiklomanov and R B Lammers Paleoclimatic reconstructions for the south of Valdai Hills (European Russia) as paleo-analogs of possible regional vegetation changes under global warming E Novenko, A Olchev, O Desherevskaya and I Zuganova Diagnosis of the record discharge of Arctic-draining Eurasian rivers in 2007 Michael A Rawlins, Mark C Serreze, Ronny Schroeder, Xiangdong Zhang and Kyle C McDonald Studies of the cryosphere in Northern Eurasia Groundwater storage changes in arctic permafrost watersheds from GRACE and in situ measurements Reginald R Muskett and Vladimir E Romanovsky Changes in snow cover over Northern Eurasia in the last few decades O N Bulygina, V N Razuvaev and N N Korshunova Modeling sub-sea permafrost in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf: the Dmitry Laptev Strait D Nicolsky and N Shakhova Snow cover basal ice layer changes over Northern Eurasia since 1966 Olga N Bulygina, Pavel Ya Groisman, Vyacheslav N Razuvaev and Vladimir F Radionov Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries I M Shkolnik, E D Nadyozhina, T V Pavlova, E K Molkentin and A A Semioshina Studies of the biosphere in Northern Eurasia The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites A Bartsch, H Balzter and C George Change and persistence in land surface phenologies of the Don and Dnieper river basins V Kovalskyy and G M Henebry Effects of climatic changes on carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes in boreal forest ecosystems of European part of Russia A Olchev, E Novenko, O Desherevskaya, K Krasnorutskaya and J Kurbatova The effects of cli