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Host-specific transcription of nucleopolyhedrovirus gene homologues in productive and abortive Anticarsia gemmatalis MNPV infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?In a previous report, we showed that Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleo- polyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) infections of Choristoneura fumiferana IPRI-CF-124T and Bombyx mori BM-5 cell lines are abortive, whereas A. gemmatalis UFL-AG-286 cells efficiently produce infectious virus and polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIBs). In the present study, we explored\\u000a transcription patterns in these infections using representative temporal classes of Autographa californica MNPV (AcMNPV) genes.

M. E. B. Castro; M. L. Souza; S. L. Bilimoria



Effects of Fetal Bovine Serum deprivation in cell cultures on the production of Anticarsia gemmatalis Multinucleopolyhedrovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anticarsia gemmatalis is a pest in South America's soybean crops, which could be controlled by the Multinucleopolyhedrovirus of A. gemmatalis (AgMNPV). Currently, its commercial production is based on infected larvae. However, the possibility of using modified baculoviruses in Integrated Pest Management programs has stimulated an interest to develop alternative multiplication processes. This study evaluated the AgMNPV production in UFL-Ag-286

Diego L Mengual Gómez; Mariano N Belaich; Vanina A Rodríguez; Pablo D Ghiringhelli



High genetic stability of peroral infection factors from Anticarsia gemmatalis MNPV over 20years of sampling.  


The Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) has been used as a biopesticide since the early 1980s in Brazil to control the major pest of soybean crops, the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis. To monitor the genetic diversity over space and time we sequenced four pif genes (pif1, pif2, pif3 and pif4) from AgMNPV isolates collected from different regions of South America, as well as of seasonal isolates, sampled during a two-decade field experiment. Although all genes presented low levels of polymorphism, the pif-2 carries a slightly higher number of polymorphic sites. Overall, this study reveals that pif genes have remained stable after 20 years of repeated field application. PMID:24590109

Ferreira, Briana C; Melo, Fernando L; Souza, Marlinda L; Moscardi, Flávio; Báo, Sônia N; Ribeiro, Bergmann M




Microsoft Academic Search

It was evaluated the effect of insecticides as lufenuron, methoxyfenozide, spinosad, endossulfan, novaluron and tebufenozide recommended for the control of velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), by using 2.5% of the recommended dose. All the treatments were sprayed in the field with manual pulverizer propelled by CO2, with cone jet type beaks at 40 lb pol -2 of

Gustavo Storch; Alci Enimar Loeck; Regina da Silva Borba; Deivid Araújo Magano; Caroline Leivas Moraes; Dionei Grützmacher Anderson


Two new Brazilian isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  


Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium used for biopesticides production and pest-resistant plants due to the synthesis of protein crystals by cry genes, which are effective in controlling several insect orders such as Lepidoptera. This work aimed at the evaluation and characterisation of two new B. thuringiensis isolates active against A. gemmatalis (Hübner 1818) larvae, which is the soybean major pest. The results showed that Bt117-4 isolate amplified fragments corresponding to cry2 and cry9 genes, and synthesised protein fragments equivalent to 130, 90 and 45 kDa. The Bt3146-4 isolate amplified DNA fragments corresponding to cry9 gene and synthesised protein fragments of 70, 58 and 38 kDa. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of protein crystals in both isolates. CL50 with Cry purified proteins from Bt117-4 and Bt3146-4, corresponded to 0.195 and 0.191 µg larvae-1, respectively. The two B. thuringiensis isolates selected in this study were effective to control velvetbean caterpillar at laboratory conditions. Field tests should be carried on to develop new biopesticides formulation as well for cry genes resource for Anticarsia gemmatalis resistant transgenic plants. PMID:22735145

Fiuza, L M; Schünemann, R; Pinto, L M N; Zanettini, M H B



Proteomic analyses of baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus budded and occluded virus.  


Baculoviruses infect insects, producing two distinct phenotypes during the viral life cycle: the budded virus (BV) and the occlusion-derived virus (ODV) for intra- and inter-host spread, respectively. Since the 1980s, several countries have been using Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) as a biological control agent against the velvet bean caterpillar, A. gemmatalis. The genome of AgMNPV isolate 2D (AgMNPV-2D) carries at least 152 potential genes, with 24 that possibly code for structural proteins. Proteomic studies have been carried out on a few baculoviruses, with six ODV and two BV proteomes completed so far. Moreover, there are limited data on virion proteins carried by AgMNPV-2D. Therefore, structural proteins of AgMNPV-2D were analysed by MALDI- quadrupole-TOF and liquid chromatography MS/MS. A total of 44 proteins were associated with the ODV and 33 with the BV of AgMNPV-2D. Although 38 structural proteins were already known, we found six new proteins in the ODV and seven new proteins carried by the AgMNPV-2D BV. Eleven cellular proteins that were found on several other enveloped viruses were also identified, which are possibly carried with the virion. These findings may provide novel insights into baculovirus biology and their host interaction. Moreover, our data may be helpful in subsequent applied studies aiming to improve AgMNPV use as a biopesticide and a biotechnology tool for gene expression or delivery. PMID:24443474

Braconi, Carla Torres; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Garcia-Maruniak, Alejandra; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais; Maruniak, James E; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade



Two's a Crowd: Phenotypic Adjustments and Prophylaxis in Anticarsia gemmatalis Larvae Are Triggered by the Presence of Conspecifics  

PubMed Central

Defence from parasites and pathogens involves a cost. Thus, it is expected that organisms use this only at high population densities, where the risk of pathogen transmission may be high, as proposed by the "density-dependent prophylaxis" (DDP) hypothesis. These predictions have been tested in a wide range of insects, both in comparative and experimental studies. We think it pertinent to consider a continuum between solitarious and gregarious living insects, wherein: (1) solitarious insects are those that are constitutively solitary and do not express any phenotypic plasticity, (2) the middle of the continuum is represented by insects that are subject to fluctuations in local density and show a range of facultative and plastic changes; and (3) constitutively gregarious forms live gregariously and show the gregarious phenotype even in the absence of crowding stimuli. We aimed to chart some of the intermediary continuum with an insect that presents solitarious aspects, but that is subject to fluctuations in density. Thus, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae reared at higher densities showed changes in coloration, a greater degree of encapsulation, had higher hemocyte densities and were more resistant to Baculovirus anticarsia, but not to Bacillus thuringiensis. Meanwhile, with increased rearing density there was reduced capsule melanization. Hemocyte density was the only variable that did not vary according to larval phenotype. The observed responses were not a continuous function of larval density, but an all-or-nothing response to the presence of a conspecific. As A. gemmatalis is not known for gregarious living, yet shows these density-dependent changes, it thus seems that this plastic phenotypic adjustment may be a broader phenomenon than previously thought. PMID:23626700

Silva, Farley W. S.; Viol, Daniel L.; Faria, Sirlene V.; Lima, Eraldo; Valicente, Fernando H.; Elliot, Simon L.



Biological characteristics of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for three consecutive generations under different temperatures: understanding the possible impact of global warming on a soybean pest.  


Climate changes can affect the distribution and intensity of insect infestations through direct effects on their life cycles. Experiments were carried out during three consecutive generations to evaluate the effect of different temperatures (25°C, 28°C, 31°C, 34°C and 37±1°C) on biological traits of the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The insects were fed on artificial diet and reared in environmental chambers set at 14 h photophase. The developmental cycle slowed with the increase in the temperature, within the 25°C to 34°C range. Male and female longevities were reduced with an increase in temperature from 25°C to 28°C. Egg viability was highest at 25°C, and the sex ratio was not influenced by temperature, in the three generations. There was no interactive effect between development time and temperature on pupal weight. The results suggested that the increase in the temperature negatively impacted A. gemmatalis development inside the studied temperature range, indicating a possible future reduction of its occurrence on soybean crops, as a consequence of global warming, mainly considering its impact on tropical countries where this plant is cropped. A. gemmatalis was not able to adapt to higher temperatures in a three-generation interval for the studied temperature range. However, a gradual increase and a longer adaptation period may favor insect selection and consequently adaptation, and must be considered in future studies in this area. Moreover, it is important to consider that global warming might turn cold areas more suitable to A. gemmatalis outbreaks. Therefore, more than a future reduction of A. gemmatalis occurrence due to global warming, we might expect changes regarding its area of occurrence on a global perspective. PMID:22112586

da Silva, D M; Hoffmann-Campo, C B; de Freitas Bueno, A; de Freitas Bueno, R C O; de Oliveira, M C N; Moscardi, F



A Recombinant Anticarsia gemmatalis MNPV Harboring chiA and v-cath Genes from Choristoneura fumiferana Defective NPV Induce Host Liquefaction and Increased Insecticidal Activity  

PubMed Central

One of the interesting features of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus isolate 2D (AgMNPV-2D) genome is the absence of chitinase (chiA) and cathepsin (v-cath) genes. This characteristic may be responsible for the lack of liquefaction and melanization in A. gemmatalis larvae killed by AgMNPV-2D infection. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that CHIA and V-CATH proteins from Choristonera fumiferana DEF multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfDEFNPV) are able to liquefy and melanize the cuticle of A. gemmatalis larvae infected by a recombinant AgMNPV containing chiA and v-cath genes inserted in its genome. A fragment from the CfDefNPV genome containing chiA and v-cath genes was inserted into the genome of AgMNPV-2D. The recombinant virus (vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath) was purified and used to infect insect cells and larvae. Transcripts of v-cath and chiA genes were detected along the infection of insect cells by qRT-PCR, from early to late phases of infection. The analysis of A. gemmatalis larvae killed by vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath infection confirmed the hypothesis proposed. The vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath showed higher insecticidal activity against third instar A. gemmatalis larvae when compared to AgMNPV-2D. The mean time to death was also lower for the vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D at 10 days post infection. Occlusion body production was higher in A. gemmatalis larvae infected with vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D. Enzyme assays showed higher chitinase and cysteine protease activities in insect cells and insects infected with vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D. The introduction of chiA and v-cath genes into the genome of AgMNPV improves its insecticidal activity against A. gemmatalis larvae and this recombinant virus could be used as an alternative to the wild type virus to control this important insect pest. PMID:24086357

Lima, Anabele Azevedo; Aragão, Clara Wandenkolck Silva; de Castro, Maria Elita Batista; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Sosa Gómez, Daniel Ricardo; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais



Entomocidal Effects of Beech Apricot, Labramia bojeri, Seed Extract on a Soybean Pest, the Velvetbean Moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and Its Enzymatic Activity  

PubMed Central

The effects of the beech apricot, Labramia bojeri A. de Candolle (Sapotales: Sapotaceae), seed aqueous extract on the larval development of the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was evaluated. The extract inhibited larval development, pupal weight, and survival and emergence of adults. Digestive proteolytic activity in larval midgut and feces extracts was determined. Larvae fed 10 g/L of the aqueous extract showed a significant reduction in trypsin activity (?64%), when compared with control larvae. Trypsin and Chymotrypsin activities were also detected in fecal material in aqueous-extract-fed larvae, with about ?4.5 times more trypsin activity than the controls. The results from dietary utilization experiments with A. gemmatalis larvae showed a reduction in the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. The effect of the extract suggests the potential use of L. bojeri seeds to inhibit the development of A. gemmatalis via oral exposure. The L. bojeri extract can be an alternative to other methods of control.

Macedo, Maria L. R.; Kubo, Carlos E. G.; Freire, Maria G. M.; Junior, Roberto T. A.; Parra, Jose R. P.



Especial2012Agua Produccin de soja  

E-print Network

89 Especial2012Agua Producci�n de soja y uso de agua fre�tica en ambientes medanosos El objetivo de CONICET. Palabras Claves: agua, napa fre�tica, aporte h�drico, salinidad, ambiente medanoso, soja, rendimiento. #12;90 Especial2012Agua RESUMEN Durante los �ltimos 15 a�os el cultivo de soja se ha expandido

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad


Effects of Optical Brighteners Used in Biopesticide Formulations on the Behavior of Pollinators  

E-print Network

wavelengths. These compounds are being extensively tested for control of forest-feeding lepidopterous insects (Miller, 1997). With the growing interest in integrated approaches to pest management, baculoviruses) in the United States (Gemstar, Thermo Trilogy Corp., Columbia, MD), Anticarsia gemmatalis NPV in Brazil


Production of d-amino acid oxidase from Aspergillus sojae  

Microsoft Academic Search

d-Amino acid oxidase activities for d-glutamate (d-Glu), d-aspartate (d-Asp) and d-alanine (d-Ala) were found in cell-free extract of Aspergillus sojae (A. sojae). The enzyme activities for these three substrates increased over 30-fold by the addition of 0.25% d-Ala to the culture medium. Glycerol was an effective carbon source for increasing the enzyme activities. d-Ala, d-serine (d-Ser), and d-tryptophan (d-Trp) were

Mamoru Wakayama; Yuka Takeuchi; Katsuyuki Tasaka; Kenji Sakai; Mitsuaki Moriguchi



Microbial strain improvement for enhanced polygalacturonase production by Aspergillus sojae.  


Strain improvement is a powerful tool in commercial development of microbial fermentation processes. Strains of Aspergillus sojae which were previously identified as polygalacturonase producers were subjected to the cost-effective mutagenesis and selection method, the so-called random screening. Physical (ultraviolet irradiation at 254 nm) and chemical mutagens (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine) were used in the development and implementation of a classical mutation and selection strategy for the improved production of pectic acid-degrading enzymes. Three mutation cycles of both mutagenic treatments and also the combination of them were performed to generate mutants descending from A. sojae ATCC 20235 and mutants of A. sojae CBS 100928. Pectinolytic enzyme production of the mutants was compared to their wild types in submerged and solid-state fermentation. Comparing both strains, higher pectinase activity was obtained by A. sojae ATCC 20235 and mutants thereof. The highest polygalacturonase activity (1,087.2?±?151.9 U/g) in solid-state culture was obtained by mutant M3, which was 1.7 times increased in comparison to the wild strain, A. sojae ATCC 20235. Additional, further mutation of mutant M3 for two more cycles of treatment by UV irradiation generated mutant DH56 with the highest polygalacturonase activity (98.8?±?8.7 U/mL) in submerged culture. This corresponded to 2.4-fold enhanced polygalacturonase production in comparison to the wild strain. The results of this study indicated the development of a classical mutation and selection strategy as a promising tool to improve pectinolytic enzyme production by both fungal strains. PMID:24695827

Heerd, Doreen; Tari, Canan; Fernández-Lahore, Marcelo



Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Phytophthora sojae.  


Phytophthora sojae is a devastating pathogen that causes soybean Phytophthora root rot. This study reports the development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the A3aPro element for visual detection of P. sojae. The A3aPro-LAMP assay efficiently amplified the target element in < 80 min at 64 °C and was evaluated for specificity and sensitivity. The specificity was evaluated against P. sojae, Phytophthora spp., Pythium spp., and true fungi isolates. Magnesium pyrophosphate resulting from the LAMP of P. sojae could be detected by real-time measurement of turbidity. Phytophthora sojae DNA products were visualized as a ladder-like banding pattern on 2% gel electrophoresis. A positive colour (sky blue) was only observed in the presence of P. sojae with the addition of hydroxynaphthol blue prior to amplification, whereas none of other isolates showed a colour change. The detection limit of the A3aPro-specific LAMP assay for P. sojae was 10 pg ?L(-1) of genomic DNA per reaction. The assay also detected P. sojae from diseased soybean tissues and residues. These results suggest that the A3aPro-LAMP assay reported here can be used for the visual detection of P. sojae in plants and production fields. PMID:22697582

Dai, Ting-Ting; Lu, Chen-Chen; Lu, Jing; Dong, SuoMeng; Ye, WenWu; Wang, YuanChao; Zheng, XiaoBo



Peroxidase Activity in Soybeans Following Inoculation with Phytophthora sojae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of race-specific resistance as conditioned by Rps genes (rps, Rps1-k, Rps2, Rps3, Rps6) in two genetic backgrounds (Williams & Harosoy) on accumulation of soluble peroxidases were determined by a soybean peroxidase\\u000a capture assay (SPCA) after inoculation with P. sojae races 2, 7, or 25. Peroxidase activity increased in all isolines during the 72 h after inoculation, but reactions varied

Jose C. Melgar; Thomas S. Abney; Richard A. Vierling



Comparative Analysis of Expressed Sequences in Phytophthora sojae1  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora sojae (Kaufmann and Gerdemann) is an oomycete that causes stem and root rot on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) plants. We have constructed three cDNA libraries using mRNA isolated from axenically grown mycelium and zoospores and from tissue isolated from plant hypocotyls 48 h after inoculation with zoospores. A total of 3,035 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from the three cDNA libraries, representing an estimated 2,189 cDNA transcripts. The ESTs were classified according to putative function based on similarity to known proteins, and were analyzed for redundancy within and among the three source libraries. Distinct expression patterns were observed for each library. By analysis of the percentage G+C content of the ESTs, we estimate that two-thirds of the ESTs from the infected plant library are derived from P. sojae cDNA transcripts. The ESTs originating from this study were also compared with a collection of Phytophthora infestans ESTs and with all other non-human ESTs to assess the similarity of the P. sojae sequences to existing EST data. This collection of cDNA libraries, ESTs, and accompanying annotation will provide a new resource for studies on oomycetes and on soybean responses to pathogen challenge. PMID:10806241

Qutob, Dinah; Hraber, Peter T.; Sobral, Bruno W.S.; Gijzen, Mark



Draft genome sequencing and comparative analysis of Aspergillus sojae NBRC4239.  


We conducted genome sequencing of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus sojae NBRC4239 isolated from the koji used to prepare Japanese soy sauce. We used the 454 pyrosequencing technology and investigated the genome with respect to enzymes and secondary metabolites in comparison with other Aspergilli sequenced. Assembly of 454 reads generated a non-redundant sequence of 39.5-Mb possessing 13 033 putative genes and 65 scaffolds composed of 557 contigs. Of the 2847 open reading frames with Pfam domain scores of >150 found in A. sojae NBRC4239, 81.7% had a high degree of similarity with the genes of A. oryzae. Comparative analysis identified serine carboxypeptidase and aspartic protease genes unique to A. sojae NBRC4239. While A. oryzae possessed three copies of ?-amyalse gene, A. sojae NBRC4239 possessed only a single copy. Comparison of 56 gene clusters for secondary metabolites between A. sojae NBRC4239 and A. oryzae revealed that 24 clusters were conserved, whereas 32 clusters differed between them that included a deletion of 18 508 bp containing mfs1, mao1, dmaT, and pks-nrps for the cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) biosynthesis, explaining the no productivity of CPA in A. sojae. The A. sojae NBRC4239 genome data will be useful to characterize functional features of the koji moulds used in Japanese industries. PMID:21659486

Sato, Atsushi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Noguchi, Hideki; Ogawa, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tadashi; Oguma, Tetsuya; Koyama, Yasuji; Itoh, Takehiko; Hattori, Masahira; Hanya, Yoshiki



Understanding nonaflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus sojae : a windfall of aflatoxin biosynthesis research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. Aspergillus sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical\\u000a relatedness to aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to decipher the underlying mechanisms for its inability to produce aflatoxins. This review addresses the\\u000a relationship between A. sojae and

Perng-Kuang Chang; Kenichiro Matsushima; Tadashi Takahashi; Jiujiang Yu; Keietsu Abe; Deepak Bhatnagar; Gwo-Fang Yuan; Yasuji Koyama; Thomas E. Cleveland



Heterologous expression of a pleiotropic drug resistance transporter from Phytophthora sojae in yeast transporter mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for the expression of an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter from the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae is described. Pdr1, an ABC transporter with homology to the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) family of transporters, was cloned by primer walking\\u000a from a P. sojae genomic library. Reverse transcriptase PCR assays showed that the transcript disappeared after encystment of zoospores and

Mary S. Connolly; Yasuko Sakihama; Vipaporn Phuntumart; Yinjun Jiang; Franklin Warren; Lindsay Mourant; Paul F. Morris



Roles of small RNAs in soybean defense against Phytophthora sojae infection.  


The genus Phytophthora consists of many notorious pathogens of crops and forestry trees. At present, battling Phytophthora diseases is challenging due to a lack of understanding of their pathogenesis. We investigated the role of small RNAs in regulating soybean defense in response to infection by Phytophthora sojae, the second most destructive pathogen of soybean. Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are universal regulators that repress target gene expression in eukaryotes. We identified known and novel small RNAs that differentially accumulated during P. sojae infection in soybean roots. Among them, miR393 and miR166 were induced by heat-inactivated P. sojae hyphae, indicating that they may be involved in soybean basal defense. Indeed, knocking down the level of mature miR393 led to enhanced susceptibility of soybean to P. sojae; furthermore, the expression of isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes was drastically reduced in miR393 knockdown roots. These data suggest that miR393 promotes soybean defense against P. sojae. In addition to miRNAs, P. sojae infection also resulted in increased accumulation of phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) that are predominantly generated from canonical resistance genes encoding nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat proteins and genes encoding pentatricopeptide repeat-containing proteins. This work identifies specific miRNAs and phasiRNAs that regulate defense-associated genes in soybean during Phytophthora infection. PMID:24944042

Wong, James; Gao, Lei; Yang, Yang; Zhai, Jixian; Arikit, Siwaret; Yu, Yu; Duan, Shuyi; Chan, Vicky; Xiong, Qin; Yan, Jun; Li, Shengben; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Yuanchao; Tang, Guiliang; Meyers, Blake C; Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Wenbo



Effect of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron on the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is a common natural predator of defoliating caterpillars in agricultural and forest\\u000a systems. Insecticides acting as growth regulators of insect pests can indirectly affect their predators through consumption\\u000a of contaminated prey. We examined the reproductive performance of P. nigrispinus fed on caterpillars of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on soybean leaves exposed to the

Ancidériton A. Castro; Mabio C. Lacerda; Teresinha V. Zanuncio; Francisco de S. Ramalho; Ricardo A. Polanczyk; José E. Serrão; José C. Zanuncio



Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio analiza el papel del aceite de soja y oliva en la rehabilitación de ratas hembras subnutri- das «in utero» y durante la lactancia. A los 20 días de edad y durante un período de 70 días, los animales sub- nutridos fueron alimentados con 3 dietas diferentes: estándar, estándar enriquecida con aceite de soja (7%) y estándar enriquecida con

Celestino González; Serafina Fernández; Ángeles Menéndez-Patterson


Identification of Phytophthora sojae genes involved in asexual sporogenesis.  


To explore the molecular mechanisms involved in asexual spore development in Phytophthora sojae, the zoospores of strain PS26 were treated with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. After selection, a mutant progeny, termed PS26-U03, was obtained and demonstrated to exhibit no oospore production. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach was developed to investigate differences in gene expression between PS26 and PS26-U03 during asexual sporogenesis. Of the 126 sequences chosen for examination, 39 putative unigenes were identified that exhibit high expression in PS26. These sequences are predicted to encode proteins involved in metabolism, cell cycle, protein biosynthesis, cell signalling, cell defence, and transcription regulation. Seven clones were selected for temporal expression analysis using RT-PCR based on the results of the dot-blot screens. Three of the selected genes, developmental protein DG1037 (UB88), glycoside hydrolase (UB149) and a hypothetical protein (UB145), were expressed only in PS26, whereas the transcripts of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (UB36), FAD-dependent pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase (UB226) and sugar transporter (UB256) were expressed at very low levels in PS26-U03 but at high levels in PS26. PMID:19700851

Wang, Ziying; Wang, Zhaoxia; Shen, Jie; Wang, Guangyue; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Lu, Hongxia



Genomic differences between cultivated soybean, G. max and its wild relative G. soja  

PubMed Central

Background Glycine max is an economically important crop and many different varieties of soybean exist around the world. The first draft sequences and gene models of G. max (domesticated soybean) as well as G. soja (wild soybean), both became available in 2010. This opened the door for comprehensive comparative genomics studies between the two varieties. Results We have further analysed the sequences and identified the 425 genes that are unique to G. max and unavailable in G. soja. We further studied the genes with significant number of non-synonymous SNPs in their upstream regions. 12 genes involved in seed development, 3 in oil and 6 in protein concentration are unique to G. max. A significant number of unique genes are seen to overlap with the QTL regions of the three traits including seed, oil and protein. We have also developed a graphical chromosome visualizer as part of the Soybean Knowledge Base (SoyKB) tools for molecular breeding, which was used in the analysis and visualization of overlapping QTL regions for multiple traits with the deletions and SNPs in G. soja. Conclusions The comparisons between genome sequences of G. max and G. soja show significant differences between the genomic compositions of the two. The differences also highlight the phenotypic differences between the two in terms of seed development, oil and protein traits. These significant results have been integrated into the SoyKB resource and are publicly available for users to browse at PMID:23368680



El dinamismo de la soja y su impacto en la economía paraguaya, 1991-2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se analizan los aspectos más relevantes relacionados con el incremento de la producción de soja en Paraguay en el periodo 1991-2006, así como el contexto internacional. El objetivo es, examinar este fenómeno y su impacto en la economía paraguaya a nivel nacional. Se emplean modelos econométricos para analizar su influencia sobre el PIB nacional, sobre otros sectores

G. Cohener; E. Aguayo



Copy Number Variation and Transcriptional Polymorphisms of Phytophthora sojae RXLR Effector Genes Avr1a and Avr3a  

PubMed Central

The importance of segmental duplications and copy number variants as a source of genetic and phenotypic variation is gaining greater appreciation, in a variety of organisms. Now, we have identified the Phytophthora sojae avirulence genes Avr1a and Avr3a and demonstrate how each of these Avr genes display copy number variation in different strains of P. sojae. The Avr1a locus is a tandem array of four near-identical copies of a 5.2 kb DNA segment. Two copies encoding Avr1a are deleted in some P. sojae strains, causing changes in virulence. In other P. sojae strains, differences in transcription of Avr1a result in gain of virulence. For Avr3a, there are four copies or one copy of this gene, depending on the P. sojae strain. In P. sojae strains with multiple copies of Avr3a, this gene occurs within a 10.8 kb segmental duplication that includes four other genes. Transcriptional differences of the Avr3a gene among P. sojae strains cause changes in virulence. To determine the extent of duplication within the superfamily of secreted proteins that includes Avr1a and Avr3a, predicted RXLR effector genes from the P. sojae and the P. ramorum genomes were compared by counting trace file matches from whole genome shotgun sequences. The results indicate that multiple, near-identical copies of RXLR effector genes are prevalent in oomycete genomes. We propose that multiple copies of particular RXLR effectors may contribute to pathogen fitness. However, recognition of these effectors by plant immune systems results in selection for pathogen strains with deleted or transcriptionally silenced gene copies. PMID:19343173

Kuflu, Kuflom; Pham, Hai; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong; Kale, Shiv D.; Arredondo, Felipe D.; Tyler, Brett M.; Gijzen, Mark



Non-toxic albumin and soja protein borates as ground-contact wood preservatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood preservatives based on protein borates, both obtained by just mixed water solutions of protein and boric acid, as well\\u000a as in the case of premanufactured protein borates salts are shown to be a good method to greatly retard the leaching of boron\\u000a from treated timber. Hence just premixed albumin + boric acid, premanufactured albumin borate and soja protein +

M.-F. Thevenon; A. Pizzi; J.-P. Haluk



Pathogenic diversity of Phytophthora sojae and breeding strategies to develop Phytophthora-resistant soybeans  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora stem and root rot, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and the incidence of this disease has been increasing in several soybean-producing areas around the world. This presents serious limitations for soybean production, with yield losses from 4 to 100%. The most effective method to reduce damage would be to grow Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars, and two types of host resistance have been described. Race-specific resistance conditioned by single dominant Rps (“resistance to Phytophthora sojae”) genes and quantitatively inherited partial resistance conferred by multiple genes could both provide protection from the pathogen. Molecular markers linked to Rps genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying partial resistance have been identified on several molecular linkage groups corresponding to chromosomes. These markers can be used to screen for Phytophthora-resistant plants rapidly and efficiently, and to combine multiple resistance genes in the same background. This paper reviews what is currently known about pathogenic races of P. sojae in the USA and Japan, selection of sources of Rps genes or minor genes providing partial resistance, and the current state and future scope of breeding Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars. PMID:23136490

Sugimoto, Takuma; Kato, Masayasu; Yoshida, Shinya; Matsumoto, Isao; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Kaga, Akito; Hajika, Makita; Yamamoto, Ryo; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Aino, Masataka; Matoh, Toru; Walker, David R.; Biggs, Alan R.; Ishimoto, Masao



Phytophthora sojae TatD nuclease positively regulates sporulation and negatively regulates pathogenesis.  


During pathogenic interactions, both the host and pathogen are exposed to conditions that induce programmed cell death (PCD). Certain aspects of PCD have been recently examined in eukaryotic microbes but not in oomycetes. Here, we identified conserved TatD proteins in Phytophthora sojae; the proteins are key components of DNA degradation in apoptosis. We selected PsTatD4 for further investigation because the enzyme is unique to the oomycete branch of the phylogenetic tree. The purified protein exhibited DNase activity in vitro. Its expression was upregulated in sporangia and later infective stages but downregulated in cysts and during early infection. Functional analysis revealed that the gene was required for sporulation and zoospore production, and the expression levels were associated with the numbers of hydrogen-peroxide-induced terminal dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells. Furthermore, overexpression of PsTatD4 gene reduced the virulence in a susceptible soybean cultivar. Together, these data suggest that apoptosis may play different roles in the early and late infective stages of P. sojae, and that PsTatD4 is a key regulator of infection. The association of PsTatD4 and apoptosis will lay a foundation to understanding the basic biology of apoptosis and its roles in P. sojae disease cycle. PMID:24940989

Chen, Linlin; Shen, Danyu; Sun, Nannan; Xu, Jing; Wang, Wen; Dou, Daolong



Genome Re-Sequencing of Semi-Wild Soybean Reveals a Complex Soja Population Structure and Deep Introgression  

PubMed Central

Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19–0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure. PMID:25265539

Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang



Genome re-sequencing of semi-wild soybean reveals a complex soja population structure and deep introgression.  


Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19-0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure. PMID:25265539

Qiu, Jie; Wang, Yu; Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang



Comparison of three microsatellite analysis methods for detecting genetic diversity in Phytophthora sojae (Stramenopila: Oomycete).  


Analysis of an organism's genetic diversity requires a method that gives reliable, reproducible results. Microsatellites are robust markers, however, detection of allele sizes can be difficult with some systems as well as consistency among laboratories. In this study, our two laboratories used 219 isolates of Phytophthora sojae to compare three microsatellite methods. Two capillary electrophoresis methods, the Applied Biosystems 3730 Genetic Analyzer and the CEQ 8000 Genetic Analysis system, detected an average of 2.4-fold more alleles compared to gel electrophoresis with a mean of 8.8 and 3.6 alleles per locus using capillary and gel methods, respectively. The two capillary methods were comparable, although allele sizes differed consistently by an average of 3.2 bp across isolates. Differences between capillary methods could be overcome if reference standard DNA genotypes are shared between collaborating laboratories. PMID:21744147

Stewart, Silvina; Wickramasinghe, Damitha; Dorrance, Anne E; Robertson, Alison E



Glyceollin is an important component of soybean plant defense against Phytophthora sojae and Macrophomina phaseolina.  


The response of soybean transgenic plants, with suppressed synthesis of isoflavones, and nontransgenic plants to two common soybean pathogens, Macrophomina phaseolina and Phytophthora sojae, was studied. Transgenic soybean plants of one line used in this study were previously generated via bombardment of embryogenic cultures with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chalcone synthase, and isoflavone synthase (IFS2) genes in sense orientation driven by the cotyledon-preferable lectin promoter (to turn genes on in cotyledons), while plants of another line were newly produced using the IFS2 gene in sense orientation driven by the Cassava vein mosaic virus constitutive promoter (to turn genes on in all plant parts). Nearly complete inhibition of isoflavone synthesis was found in the cotyledons of young seedlings of transgenic plants transformed with the IFS2 transgene driven by the cotyledon-preferable lectin promoter compared with the untransformed control during the 10-day observation period, with the precursors of isoflavone synthesis being accumulated in the cotyledons of transgenic plants. These results indicated that the lectin promoter could be active not only during seed development but also during seed germination. Downregulation of isoflavone synthesis only in the seed or in the whole soybean plant caused a strong inhibition of the pathogen-inducible glyceollin in cotyledons after inoculation with P. sojae, which resulted in increased susceptibility of the cotyledons of both transgenic lines to this pathogen compared with inoculated cotyledons of untransformed plants. When stems were inoculated with M. phaseolina, suppression of glyceollin synthesis was found only in stems of transgenic plants expressing the transgene driven by a constitutive promoter, which developed more severe infection. These results provide further evidence that rapid glyceollin accumulation during infection contributes to the innate soybean defense response. PMID:23617338

Lygin, Anatoliy V; Zernova, Olga V; Hill, Curtis B; Kholina, Nadegda A; Widholm, Jack M; Hartman, Glen L; Lozovaya, Vera V



Alkaline-stress response in Glycine soja leaf identifies specific transcription factors and ABA-mediated signaling factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcriptome of Glycine soja leaf tissue during a detailed time course formed a foundation for examining transcriptional processes during NaHCO3 stress treatment. Of a total of 2,310 detected differentially expressed genes, 1,664 genes were upregulated and 1,704 genes\\u000a were downregulated at various time points. The number of stress-regulated genes increased dramatically after a 6-h stress\\u000a treatment. GO category gene enrichment

Ying Ge; Yong Li; De-Kang Lv; Xi Bai; Wei Ji; Hua Cai; Ao-Xue Wang; Yan-Ming Zhu



Cross-species Global Proteomics Reveals Conserved and Unique Processes in Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum*S?  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora sojae are destructive plant pathogens. P. sojae has a narrow host range, whereas P. ramorum has a wide host range. A global proteomics comparison of the vegetative (mycelium) and infective (germinating cyst) life stages of P. sojae and P. ramorum was conducted to identify candidate proteins involved in host range, early infection, and vegetative growth. Sixty-two candidates for early infection, 26 candidates for vegetative growth, and numerous proteins that may be involved in defining host specificity were identified. In addition, common life stage proteomic trends between the organisms were observed. In mycelia, proteins involved in transport and metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and other small molecules were up-regulated. In the germinating cysts, up-regulated proteins associated with lipid transport and metabolism, cytoskeleton, and protein synthesis were observed. It appears that the germinating cyst catabolizes lipid reserves through the ?-oxidation pathway to drive the extensive protein synthesis necessary to produce the germ tube and initiate infection. Once inside the host, the pathogen switches to vegetative growth in which energy is derived from glycolysis and utilized for synthesis of amino acids and other molecules that assist survival in the plant tissue. PMID:18316789

Savidor, Alon; Donahoo, Ryan S.; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar; Land, Miriam L.; Shah, Manesh B.; Lamour, Kurt H.; McDonald, W. Hayes



Genetic diversity of Phytophthora sojae isolates in Heilongjiang Province in China assessed by RAPD and EST-SSR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and EST-SSR markers were used to estimate the genetic relationship among thirty-nine P.sojae isolates from three locations in Heilongjiang Province, and nine isolates from Ohio in America were made as reference strains. 10 of 50 RAPD primers and 5 of 33 EST-SSR were polymorphic across 48 P.sojae isolates. Similarity values among P.sojae isolates were from 49% to 82% based on the RAPD data. The similarities based on EST-SSR markers ranged from 47% to 85%. The genetic diversity revealed by EST-SSR marker analysis was higher than that obtained from RAPD. The similarity matrices for the SSR data and the RAPD data were moderately correlated (r = 0.47). Genetic similarity coefficients were also relatively lower, which demonstrated complicated genetic background within each location. The high similarity values range revealed the ability of RAPD/EST-SSR markers to distinguish even among morphological similar phytophthora.

Wu, J. J.; Xu, P. F.; Liu, L. J.; Wang, J. S.; Lin, W. G.; Zhang, S. Z.; Wei, L.


Joint linkage QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions.  


Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect such QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations provides improved power to detect QTL through increased population size, recombination, and allelic diversity. However, uniform development and phenotyping of multiple RIL populations can prove difficult. In this study, the effectiveness of joint linkage QTL analysis was evaluated on combinations of two to six nested RIL populations differing in inbreeding generation, phenotypic assay method, and/or marker set used in genotyping. In comparison to linkage analysis in a single population, identification of QTL by joint linkage analysis was only minimally affected by different phenotypic methods used among populations once phenotypic data were standardized. In contrast, genotyping of populations with only partially overlapping sets of markers had a marked negative effect on QTL detection by joint linkage analysis. In total, 16 genetic regions with QTL for partial resistance against P. sojae were identified, including four novel QTL on chromosomes 4, 9, 12, and 16, as well as significant genotype-by-isolate interactions. Resistance alleles from PI 427106 or PI 427105B contributed to a major QTL on chromosome 18, explaining 10-45% of the phenotypic variance. This case study provides guidance on the application of joint linkage QTL analysis of data collected from populations with heterogeneous assay conditions and a genetic framework for partial resistance to P. sojae. PMID:24247235

Lee, Sungwoo; Mian, M A Rouf; Sneller, Clay H; Wang, Hehe; Dorrance, Anne E; McHale, Leah K



Generation of Large Chromosomal Deletions in Koji Molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae via a Loop-Out Recombination?  

PubMed Central

We established a technique for efficiently generating large chromosomal deletions in the koji molds Aspergillus oryzae and A. sojae by using a ku70-deficient strain and a bidirectional marker. The approach allowed deletion of 200-kb and 100-kb sections of A. oryzae and A. sojae, respectively. The deleted regions contained putative aflatoxin biosynthetic gene clusters. The large genomic deletions generated by a loop-out deletion method (resolution-type recombination) enabled us to construct multiple deletions in the koji molds by marker recycling. No additional sequence remained in the resultant deletion strains, a feature of considerable value for breeding of food-grade microorganisms. Frequencies of chromosomal deletions tended to decrease in proportion to the length of the deletion range. Deletion efficiency was also affected by the location of the deleted region. Further, comparative genome hybridization analysis showed that no unintended deletion or chromosomal rearrangement occurred in the deletion strain. Strains with large deletions that were previously extremely laborious to construct in the wild-type ku70+ strain due to the low frequency of homologous recombination were efficiently obtained from ?ku70 strains in this study. The technique described here may be broadly applicable for the genomic engineering and molecular breeding of filamentous fungi. PMID:18952883

Takahashi, Tadashi; Jin, Feng Jie; Sunagawa, Misao; Machida, Masayuki; Koyama, Yasuji



Immunity of an Alternative Host Can Be Overcome by Higher Densities of Its Parasitoids Palmistichus elaeisis and Trichospilus diatraeae  

PubMed Central

Interactions of the parasitoids Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle and Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with its alternative host Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affect the success or failure of the mass production of these parasitoids for use in integrated pest management programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the cellular defense and encapsulation ability of A. gemmatalis pupae against P. elaeisis or T. diatraeae in adult parasitoid densities of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 or 13 parasitoids/pupae. We evaluated the total quantity of circulating hemocytes and the encapsulation rate versus density. Increasing parasitoid density reduced the total number of hemocytes in the hemolymph and the encapsulation rate by parasitized pupae. Furthermore, densities of P. elaeisis above 5 parasitoids/pupae caused higher reduction in total hemocyte numbers. The encapsulation rate fell with increasing parasitoid density. However, parasitic invasion by both species induced generally similar responses. The reduction in defensive capacity of A. gemmatalis is related to the adjustment of the density of these parasitoids to their development in this host. Thus, the role of the density of P. elaeisis or T. diatraeae by pupa is induced suppression of cellular defense and encapsulation of the host, even without them possesses a co-evolutionary history. Furthermore, these findings can predict the success of P. elaeisis and T. diatraeae in the control of insect pests through the use of immunology as a tool for evaluation of natural enemies. PMID:20975929

Andrade, Gilberto Santos; Serrao, Jose Eduardo; Zanuncio, Jose Cola; Zanuncio, Teresinha Vinha; Leite, Germano Leao Demolin; Polanczyk, Ricardo Antonio



Genetic diversity and peculiarity of annual wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. et Zucc.) from various eco-regions in China.  


Annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) is believed to be a potential gene source for future soybean improvement in coping with the world climate change for food security. To evaluate the wild soybean genetic diversity and differentiation, we analyzed allelic profiles at 60 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci and variation of eight morph-biological traits of a representative sample with 196 accessions from the natural growing area in China. For comparison, a representative sample with 200 landraces of Chinese cultivated soybean was included in this study. The SSR loci produced 1,067 alleles (17.8 per locus) with a mean gene diversity of 0.857 in the wild sample, which indicated the genetic diversity of G. soja was much higher than that of its cultivated counterpart (total 826 alleles, 13.7 per locus, mean gene diversity 0.727). After domestication, the genetic diversity of the cultigens decreased, with its 65.5% alleles inherited from the wild soybean, while 34.5% alleles newly emerged. AMOVA analysis showed that significant variance did exist among Northeast China, Huang-Huai-Hai Valleys and Southern China subpopulations. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated very significant association between the geographic grouping and genetic clustering, which demonstrated the geographic differentiation of the wild population had its relevant genetic bases. In comparison with the other two subpopulations, the Southern China subpopulation showed the highest allelic richness, diversity index and largest number of specific-present alleles, which suggests Southern China should be the major center of diversity for annual wild soybean. PMID:19449177

Wen, Zixiang; Ding, Yanlai; Zhao, Tuanjie; Gai, Junyi



Molecular and Biological Characterization of an Isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus from Glycine soja by Generating its Infectious Full-genome cDNA Clones  

PubMed Central

Molecular and biological characteristics of an isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from Glycine soja (wild soybean), named as CMV-209, was examined in this study. Comparison of nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analyses of CMV-209 with the other CMV strains revealed that CMV-209 belonged to CMV subgroup I. However, CMV-209 showed some genetic distance from the CMV strains assigned to subgroup IA or subgroup IB. Infectious full-genome cDNA clones of CMV-209 were generated under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Infectivity of the CMV-209 clones was evaluated in Nicotiana benthamiana and various legume species. Our assays revealed that CMV-209 could systemically infect Glycine soja (wild soybean) and Pisum sativum (pea) as well as N. benthamiana, but not the other legume species. PMID:25288998

Phan, Mi Sa Vo; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Kook-Hyung



RNAi Silencing of Genes for Elicitation or Biosynthesis of 5-Deoxyisoflavonoids Suppresses Race-Specific Resistance and Hypersensitive Cell Death in Phytophthora sojae Infected Tissues1[OA  

PubMed Central

Isoflavonoids are thought to play an important role in soybean (Glycine max) resistance to Phytophthora sojae. This was addressed by silencing two genes for their biosynthesis and a third gene controlling their elicitation. Silencing of genes for isoflavone synthase (IFS) or chalcone reductase (CHR) was achieved in soybean roots through an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated RNAi approach. Effectiveness of silencing was followed both by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. Silencing either IFS or CHR led to a breakdown of Rps-mediated resistance to race 1 of P. sojae in ‘W79’ (Rps 1c) or ‘W82’ (Rps 1k) soybean. Loss of resistance was accompanied by suppression of hypersensitive (HR) cell death in both cultivars and suppression of cell death-associated activation of hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase. The various results suggest that the 5-deoxyisoflavonoids play a critical role in the establishment of cell death and race-specific resistance. The P. sojae cell wall glucan elicitor, a potent elicitor of 5-deoxyisoflavonoids, triggered a cell death response in roots that was also suppressed by silencing either CHR or IFS. Furthermore, silencing of the elicitor-releasing endoglucanase (PR-2) led to a loss of HR cell death and race-specific resistance to P. sojae and also to a loss of isoflavone and cell death responses to cell wall glucan elicitor. Taken together, these results suggest that in situ release of active fragments from a general resistance elicitor (pathogen-associated molecular pattern) is necessary for HR cell death in soybean roots carrying resistance genes at the Rps 1 locus, and that this cell death response is mediated through accumulations of the 5-deoxyisoflavones. PMID:17416637

Graham, Terrence L.; Graham, Madge Y.; Subramanian, Senthil; Yu, Oliver



A trypsin inhibitor from Sapindus saponaria L. seeds: purification, characterization, and activity towards pest insect digestive enzyme.  


The present paper describes the purification, characterization and determination of the partial primary structure of the first trypsin inhibitor isolated from the family Sapindaceae. A highly stable, potent trypsin inhibitor (SSTI) was purified to homogeneity. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the protein consists of a two-polypeptide chain with molecular masses of approximately 15 and 3 kDa. The purified inhibitor inhibited bovine trypsin at a 1:1 M ratio. Kinetic analysis revealed that the protein is a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 10?? M for trypsin. The partial NH?- terminal sequence of 36 amino acids in SSTI indicates homology with other members of the trypsin-inhibitor family from different sources. This inhibitor is highly stable in the presence of denaturing agents. SSTI showed significant inhibitory activity against trypsin-like proteases present in the larval midgut on Anagasta kuehniella, Corcyra cephalonica, Diatreae saccharalis and Anticarsia gemmatalis. PMID:21127952

Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Diz Filho, Eduardo B S; Freire, Mariadas Graças M; Oliva, Maria Luiza V; Sumikawa, Joana T; Toyama, Marcos H; Marangoni, Sérgio



Effect of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron on the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).  


Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is a common natural predator of defoliating caterpillars in agricultural and forest systems. Insecticides acting as growth regulators of insect pests can indirectly affect their predators through consumption of contaminated prey. We examined the reproductive performance of P. nigrispinus fed on caterpillars of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on soybean leaves exposed to the chitin synthesis inhibitor, diflubenzuron. Caterpillars of A. gemmatalis were fed for 12 h with treated soybean leaves and offered to adults of the predator P. nigrispinus over five consecutive days. The fertility of P. nigrispinus was reduced when feeding on diflubenzuron treated caterpillars, especially at the beginning of the reproductive period, but recovered 3 weeks later. The effects of diflubenzuron ingestion on the life table parameters of P. nigrispinus included an increase in the period taken to double the population size, and reductions in the intrinsic rate of population increase, generation duration, and net reproductive rate. Diflubenzuron therefore had an indirect negative effect on the reproduction and the population dynamics of the non-target predator P. nigrispinus. Clearly, its use in integrated pest management requires further evaluation. PMID:21858643

Castro, Ancidériton A; Lacerda, Mabio C; Zanuncio, Teresinha V; de S Ramalho, Francisco; Polanczyk, Ricardo A; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, José C



Effets compars de rgimes base de tourteaux de soja ou de colza sur la teneur en histamine de la paroi du tube digestif de rat : rle de la flore totale, par J. F. HUNEAU,J. F. HUNEAU,  

E-print Network

paroi du tube digestif de rat : rôle de la flore totale, par J. F. HUNEAU,J. F. HUNEAU, J. M. WAL comparables entre elles (L. Nugon-Baudon et al, 1987). D'autre part, Wal et al. (1985) ont montré que la celui décrit par Wal et al. (1985). Les teneurs en histamine des différents régimes colza et soja sont

Boyer, Edmond


GsAPK, an ABA-Activated and Calcium-Independent SnRK2Type Kinase from G. soja, Mediates the Regulation of Plant Tolerance to Salinity and ABA Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1) related protein kinase (SnRK), a subfamily of serine\\/threonine kinases, has been implicated as a crucial upstream regulator of ABA and osmotic signaling as in many other signaling cascades. In this paper, we have isolated a novel plant specific ABA activated calcium independent protein kinase (GsAPK) from a highly salt tolerant plant, Glycine soja (50109), which is

Liang Yang; Wei Ji; Peng Gao; Yong Li; Hua Cai; Xi Bai; Qin Chen; Yanming Zhu



Rapid Response of Suspension-cultured Parsley Cells to the Elicitor from Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae: INDUCTION OF THE ENZYMES OF GENERAL PHENYLPROPANOID METABOLISM.  


Large and rapid increases in the activities of two enzymes of general phenylpropanoid metabolism, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, occurred in suspension-cultured parsley cells (Petroselinum hortense) treated with an elicitor preparation from Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae. Highest enzyme activities were obtained with an elicitor concentration similar to that required for maximal phenylalanine ammonialyase induction in cell suspension cultures of soybean, a natural host of the fungal pathogen.The changes in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in parsley cells were caused by corresponding changes in the mRNA activity for this enzyme. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase mRNA activity increased much faster and transiently reached a much higher level in elicitor-treated than in irradiated cell cultures. In contrast to irradiation, treatment of the cells with the elicitor did not induce the enzymes of the flavonoid glycoside pathway, as demonstrated for acetyl-CoA carboxylase and chalcone synthase. Induction of these enzymes by light was abolished by simultaneous application of the elicitor. PMID:16661752

Hahlbrock, K; Lamb, C J; Purwin, C; Ebel, J; Fautz, E; Schäfer, E



Genetic Diversity and Population Structure: Implications for Conservation of Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) Based on Nuclear and Chloroplast Microsatellite Variation  

PubMed Central

Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs) and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY) was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC) and north China (NC), and the other including northeastern China (NEC), Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC). Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority. PMID:23202917

He, Shuilian; Wang, Yunsheng; Volis, Sergei; Li, Dezhu; Yi, Tingshuang



Effects of Rag1 on the preference and performance of soybean defoliators.  


The Rag1 gene confers antibiotic resistance to soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and in 2010, varieties expressing Rag1 were released for commercial use in the United States. We do not know how Rag1 varieties will influence the broader community of defoliating insects that inhabit soybean fields. In 2010 and 2011, the preference and performance of pest insects that defoliate soybeans [Glycines max (L.) Merr] were tested using Rag1 and aphid-susceptible varieties. Three coleopterans and four lepidopterans were used: northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trsifurcata Förster (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); soybean looper, Chrysodeix includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); and velvet-bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The preference of insects was evaluated in choice and no-choice tests using Rag1 and susceptible soybeans. Lepidopterans also were evaluated on Rag1 leaves using four nutritional indices: relative growth rate, approximate digestibility, and efficiency of conversion of ingested material. In the majority of preference tests, no effect of Rag1 was detected, and in cases where preferences were found, there was no consistent pattern of preference for Rag1 vs. susceptible leaf tissue. Helicoverpa zea demonstrated a preference for resistant leaf tissue, but this was dependent on the genetic background of the variety. Evaluations of nutritional indices indicated that three species of Lepidoptera, S. frugiperda, H. zea, and A. gemmatalis, displayed reduced conversion efficiency for Rag1 soybeans, suggesting effects of antibiosis. PMID:24498760

Bruner, Robert F; Hodgson, Erin W; Gassmann, Aaron J



Perception of solar UVB radiation by phytophagous insects: Behavioral responses and ecosystem implications  

PubMed Central

Most of our present knowledge about the impacts of solar UVB radiation on terrestrial ecosystems comes from studies with plants. Recently, the effects of UVB on the growth and survival of consumer species have begun to receive attention, but very little is known about UVB impacts on animal behavior. Here we report that manipulations of the flux of solar UVB received by field-grown soybean crops had large and consistent effects on the density of the thrips (Caliothrips phaseoli, Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations that invaded the canopies, as well as on the amount of leaf damage caused by the insects. Solar UVB strongly reduced thrips herbivory. Thrips not only preferred leaves from plants that were not exposed to solar UVB over leaves from UVB-exposed plants in laboratory and field choice experiments, but they also appeared to directly sense and avoid exposure to solar UVB. Additional choice experiments showed that soybean leaf consumption by the late-season soybean worm Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was much less intense in leaves with even slight symptoms of an early thrips attack than in undamaged leaves. These experiments suggest that phytophagous insects can present direct and indirect behavioral responses to solar UVB. The indirect responses are mediated by changes in the plant host that are induced by UVB and, possibly, by other insects whose behavior is affected by UVB. PMID:9927679

Mazza, Carlos A.; Zavala, Jorge; Scopel, Ana L.; Ballare, Carlos L.



Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans. PMID:24575310

Fiuza, Lidia Mariana



Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture.  


The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans. PMID:24575310

Schünemann, Rogério; Knaak, Neiva; Fiuza, Lidia Mariana



Enzymatic bioconversion of citrus hesperidin by Aspergillus sojae naringinase: enhanced solubility of hesperetin-7-O-glucoside with in vitro inhibition of human intestinal maltase, HMG-CoA reductase, and growth of Helicobacter pylori.  


Hesperetin-7-O-glucoside (Hes-7-G) was produced by the enzymatic conversion of hesperidin by Aspergillus sojae naringinase due to the removal of the terminal rhamnose. Extracts from orange juice and peel containing the hesperidin were so treated by this enzyme that the hesperidin could also be converted to Hes-7-G. The solubility of Hes-7-G in 10% ethanol was enhanced 55- and 88-fold over those of hesperidin and hesperetin, respectively, which may make Hes-7-G more bioavailable. Hes-7-G was 1.7- and 2.4-fold better than hesperidin and hesperetin, respectively, in the inhibition of human intestinal maltase. Hes-7-G was more potent by 2- and 4-fold than hesperidin in the inhibition of human HMG-CoA reductase. Additionally, Hes-7-G exhibited more effective inhibition of the growth of Helicobacter pylori than hesperetin, while its effectiveness was similar to that of hesperidin. Therefore, the results suggest that bioconverted Hes-7-G is more effective and bioavailable than hesperidin, as it has enhanced inhibitory and solubility properties. PMID:22980799

Lee, Young-Su; Huh, Ji-Young; Nam, So-Hyun; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Lee, Soo-Bok



Lipoxygenase-induced defense of soybean varieties to the attack of the velvetbean caterpillar (A nticarsia gemmatalis Hübner)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic elimination of lipoxygenase isozymes (LOX) and the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) from soybean seeds is a way\\u000a to overcome the problems associated with the undesirable beany flavor of soybean products. Although the role of the lipoxygenases\\u000a in higher plants has not yet been established conclusively, several studies have indicated the physiological relevance of\\u000a the lipoxygenase pathway induction in

Frederico da Silva Fortunato; Maria Goreti de Almeida Oliveira; Maria Helena Nasser Brumano; Carlos Henrique Osório Silva; Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes; Maurílio Alves Moreira



An Amino Acid Substitution Inhibits Specialist Herbivore Production of an Antagonist Effector and Recovers Insect-Induced Plant Defenses1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Plants respond to insect herbivory through the production of biochemicals that function as either direct defenses or indirect defenses via the attraction of natural enemies. While attack by closely related insect pests can result in distinctive levels of induced plant defenses, precise biochemical mechanisms responsible for differing responses remain largely unknown. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) responds to Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) herbivory through the detection of fragments of chloroplastic ATP synthase ?-subunit proteins, termed inceptin-related peptides, present in larval oral secretions (OS). In contrast to generalists like Fall armyworm, OS of the legume-specializing velvetbean caterpillar (VBC; Anticarsia gemmatalis) do not elicit ethylene production and demonstrate significantly lower induced volatile emission in direct herbivory comparisons. Unlike all other Lepidoptera OS examined, which preferentially contain inceptin (Vu-In; +ICDINGVCVDA?), VBC OS contain predominantly a C-terminal truncated peptide, Vu-In?A (+ICDINGVCVD?). Vu-In?A is both inactive and functions as a potent naturally occurring antagonist of Vu-In-induced responses. To block antagonist production, amino acid substitutions at the C terminus were screened for differences in VBC gut proteolysis. A valine-substituted peptide (Vu-In?V; +ICDINGVCVDV?) retaining full elicitor activity was found to accumulate in VBC OS. Compared with the native polypeptide, VBC that previously ingested 500 pmol of the valine-modified chloroplastic ATP synthase ?-subunit precursor elicited significantly stronger plant responses in herbivory assays. We demonstrate that a specialist herbivore minimizes the activation of defenses by converting an elicitor into an antagonist effector and identify an amino acid substitution that recovers these induced plant defenses to a level observed with generalist herbivores. PMID:23008466

Schmelz, Eric A.; Huffaker, Alisa; Carroll, Mark J.; Alborn, Hans T.; Ali, Jared G.; Teal, Peter E.A.



Extensive transcription analysis of the Hyposoter didymator Ichnovirus genome in permissive and non-permissive lepidopteran host species.  


Ichnoviruses are large dsDNA viruses that belong to the Polydnaviridae family. They are specifically associated with endoparasitic wasps of the family Ichneumonidae and essential for host parasitization by these wasps. We sequenced the Hyposoter didymator Ichnovirus (HdIV) encapsidated genome for further analysis of the transcription pattern of the entire set of HdIV genes following the parasitization of four different lepidopteran host species. The HdIV genome was found to consist of at least 50 circular dsDNA molecules, carrying 135 genes, 98 of which formed 18 gene families. The HdIV genome had general features typical of Ichnovirus (IV) genomes and closely resembled that of the IV carried by Hyposoter fugitivus. Subsequent transcriptomic analysis with Illumina technology during the course of Spodoptera frugiperda parasitization led to the identification of a small subset of less than 30 genes with high RPKM values in permissive hosts, consisting with these genes encoding crucial virulence proteins. Comparisons of HdIV expression profiles between host species revealed differences in transcript levels for given HdIV genes between two permissive hosts, S. frugiperda and Pseudoplusia includens. However, we found no evident intrafamily gene-specific transcription pattern consistent with the presence of multigenic families within IV genomes reflecting an ability of the wasps concerned to exploit different host species. Interestingly, in two non-permissive hosts, Mamestra brassiccae and Anticarsia gemmatalis (most of the parasitoid eggs were eliminated by the host cellular immune response), HdIV genes were generally less strongly transcribed than in permissive hosts. This suggests that successful parasitism is dependent on the expression of given HdIV genes exceeding a particular threshold value. These results raise questions about the mecanisms involved in regulating IV gene expression according to the nature of the lepidopteran host species encountered. PMID:25117496

Dorémus, Tristan; Cousserans, François; Gyapay, Gabor; Jouan, Véronique; Milano, Patricia; Wajnberg, Eric; Darboux, Isabelle; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie



Molecular characterization of Brevibacillus laterosporus and its potential use in biological control.  


Thirty-three strains of Brevibacillus laterosporus, including three novel strains isolated from Brazilian soil samples, were examined for genetic variability by the use of different PCR-based methods. Molecular markers that could characterize bacterial strains with regards to their pathogenic potential were investigated. In addition, toxicity was assessed by the use of insects belonging to the orders Lepidoptera and Coleoptera and the mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata. Among the targets tested, Biomphalaria glabrata demonstrated the highest degree of sensitivity to B. laterosporus, with some strains inducing 90 to 100% mortality in snails aged 3 and 12 days posteclosion. Larvae of the coleopteron Anthonomus grandis were also susceptible, presenting mortality levels of between 33 and 63%. Toxicity was also noted towards the lepidopteron Anticarsia gemmatalis. In contrast, no mortality was recorded among test populations of Tenebrio molitor or Spodoptera frugiperda. The application of intergenic transcribed spacer PCR and BOX-PCR generated 15 and 17 different genotypes, respectively. None of the molecular techniques allowed the identification of a convenient marker that was associated with any entomopathogenic phenotype. However, a 1,078-bp amplicon was detected for all strains of B. laterosporus when a primer for amplification of the BOXA1R region was used. Similarly, a 900-bp amplicon was generated from all isolates by use of the primer OPA-11 for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. These amplicons were not detected for other phenotypically related Brevibacillus species, indicating that they represent markers that are specific for B. laterosporus, which may prove useful for the isolation and identification of new strains of this species. PMID:15528531

de Oliveira, Edmar Justo; Rabinovitch, Leon; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Passos, Liana Konovaloff Jannotti; Zahner, Viviane



Molecular Characterization of Brevibacillus laterosporus and Its Potential Use in Biological Control  

PubMed Central

Thirty-three strains of Brevibacillus laterosporus, including three novel strains isolated from Brazilian soil samples, were examined for genetic variability by the use of different PCR-based methods. Molecular markers that could characterize bacterial strains with regards to their pathogenic potential were investigated. In addition, toxicity was assessed by the use of insects belonging to the orders Lepidoptera and Coleoptera and the mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata. Among the targets tested, Biomphalaria glabrata demonstrated the highest degree of sensitivity to B. laterosporus, with some strains inducing 90 to 100% mortality in snails aged 3 and 12 days posteclosion. Larvae of the coleopteron Anthonomus grandis were also susceptible, presenting mortality levels of between 33 and 63%. Toxicity was also noted towards the lepidopteron Anticarsia gemmatalis. In contrast, no mortality was recorded among test populations of Tenebrio molitor or Spodoptera frugiperda. The application of intergenic transcribed spacer PCR and BOX-PCR generated 15 and 17 different genotypes, respectively. None of the molecular techniques allowed the identification of a convenient marker that was associated with any entomopathogenic phenotype. However, a 1,078-bp amplicon was detected for all strains of B. laterosporus when a primer for amplification of the BOXA1R region was used. Similarly, a 900-bp amplicon was generated from all isolates by use of the primer OPA-11 for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. These amplicons were not detected for other phenotypically related Brevibacillus species, indicating that they represent markers that are specific for B. laterosporus, which may prove useful for the isolation and identification of new strains of this species. PMID:15528531

de Oliveira, Edmar Justo; Rabinovitch, Leon; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Passos, Liana Konovaloff Jannotti; Zahner, Viviane



Modularity and evolutionary constraints in a baculovirus gene regulatory network  

PubMed Central

Background The structure of regulatory networks remains an open question in our understanding of complex biological systems. Interactions during complete viral life cycles present unique opportunities to understand how host-parasite network take shape and behave. The Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus, whose genome may encode for 152 open reading frames (ORFs). Here we present the analysis of the ordered cascade of the AgMNPV gene expression. Results We observed an earlier onset of the expression than previously reported for other baculoviruses, especially for genes involved in DNA replication. Most ORFs were expressed at higher levels in a more permissive host cell line. Genes with more than one copy in the genome had distinct expression profiles, which could indicate the acquisition of new functionalities. The transcription gene regulatory network (GRN) for 149 ORFs had a modular topology comprising five communities of highly interconnected nodes that separated key genes that are functionally related on different communities, possibly maximizing redundancy and GRN robustness by compartmentalization of important functions. Core conserved functions showed expression synchronicity, distinct GRN features and significantly less genetic diversity, consistent with evolutionary constraints imposed in key elements of biological systems. This reduced genetic diversity also had a positive correlation with the importance of the gene in our estimated GRN, supporting a relationship between phylogenetic data of baculovirus genes and network features inferred from expression data. We also observed that gene arrangement in overlapping transcripts was conserved among related baculoviruses, suggesting a principle of genome organization. Conclusions Albeit with a reduced number of nodes (149), the AgMNPV GRN had a topology and key characteristics similar to those observed in complex cellular organisms, which indicates that modularity may be a general feature of biological gene regulatory networks. PMID:24006890



Screening of candidate proteins interacting with IE-2 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus.  


IE-2 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) has been shown to play important roles in baculovirus infection, which are involved in gene expression and viral replication. However, the mechanism remains unknown. In this paper, by TargetP software, four genes, i.e.-2, odv-e26, odv-e56 and BmNPV-gp101 (Ac-orf116) of BmNPV and Autographa californica multiple NPV (AcMNPV) were predicted to be located in mitochondria. By BLAST tool using BmNPV IE-2 protein sequence, 14 NPVs were found to have IE-2 homologues in GenBank, and most of them were predicted to be located in mitochondria, except for that of Antheraea pernyi NPV (AnpeNPV) and Anticarsia gemmatalis NPV (AngeNPV). To observe the subcellular localization of BmNPV IE-2, a recombinant virus overexpressed the IE-2 and eGFP fusion protein was constructed. In infected BmN cells, the fluorescence specifically enriched in the cellular mitochondria. This evidence was accordant with the prediction. Further, Pull-down assay was used to select protein candidates interacting with IE-2 in B. mori cells infected with BmNPV. Of several isolated protein components, sixteen candidates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry, eight baculoviral proteins (ALK-EXO, F protein, IAP-1, LEF-3, LEF-9, ODV-NC42, TLP, and VP39), and eight proteins from B. mori (Actin, ADP/ATP translocase, ATP synthase subunit beta, Beta-tubulin, DNA topoisomerase 2, Histone H4, Soluble guanylyl cyclae alpha-1 subunit, Transketolase). From the functional point of view, most of these proteins were generally divided into two groups, mitochondrial interaction proteins and viral DNA replication proteins. These results implied that the IE-2 had multiple functions involved in regulating viral gene expression, viral replication and also as a component of mitochondrial factors to regulate the cellular energy supply and apoptosis. PMID:24078157

Wu, Yejun; Wu, Yu; Wu, Yan; Tang, Hui; Wu, Huiling; Zhang, Guozheng; Wang, Wenbing



Infection of Glycine max by Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae  

E-print Network

co d cted sing the ~shown sis stage of the fungus, which is found in the field manifested as pycnidia present in the stem, usually in a linear arrangement, or scattered in pods. The Texas isolates of the pod and stem blight fungus were highly... pathogenic to seeds. Seedling emergence was drastically reduced when seeds were inoculated either with a spore suspension or with toothpicks colonized by the fungus. These results indicate that planting of infected seeds should be avoided. The fungus...

Pastor-Corrales, Marcial Antonio




E-print Network

or topol- ogy of the system (called programmed reconfiguration [7]) or may be requested unexpectedly of abstraction (e.g., process calculi). They do not capture some of the abstractions used by programmers

Boyer, Edmond



Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of hidric and saline stress at germination and vigor of soybeans with high and low vigor (Doko e UFV-10, respectively) there was provided an experiment in laboratory. The seeds were placed in rools of germitest paper soared with solutions of sodium chloride, calcium chloride, calcium sulfate, sodium sulfate and manitol having osmotic potencials of 0, -3,



Estresse hídrico induzido por manitol em sementes de soja de diferentes tamanhos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first event in the germination sequence is imbibition. Water uptake limitation has an effect on germination velocity, decreasing or stopping this process. In water stress conditions seeds with different sizes may present different behaviour. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydric stress induced by mannitol on the physiological seed quality of soybean cultivar 'IAC-18'

Paulo Roberto Costa; Ceci Castilho Custódio; Nelson Barbosa Machado Neto; Oswaldo Massuo Marubayashi



Spectroscopic determination of metabolic and mineral changes of soya-chunk mediated by Aspergillus sojae.  


Time dependent changes of primary (GC-MS), isoflavones (LC-MS) and minerals (ICP-OES) content of fermented soya-chunk were compared with un-fermented (0H) soya-chunk and presented. Results revealed that the amino acid content increased gradually based on the fermentation time; whereas the maltose, sucrose and fructose contents were reduced due to the fungal growth. The glucosides changed extensively during the initial fermentation time resulting in augmentation of aglycones and phytoalexins. This affects the antioxidant potential whereas the DPPH and ABTS of 0H showed lowest activity (18.15% and 54.92%) and increased quite high with fungal fermentation (45.81% and 93.47%). The calcium (0.55%), magnesium (0.47mg/kg), nickel (5.17mg/kgl(-1)), and copper (8.33mg/kgl(-1)) content were increased during the fermentation and in a decrease of iron and aluminium contents. Findings suggest that the soya-chunk prepared by fungal fermentation will improve the antioxidant and mineral content and hence their nutritional property will be enhanced for humans. PMID:25306310

Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Lee, Jiho; Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Keum, Young-Soo; Kim, Doo Hwan



Role of physiological mechanisms and EPSPS gene expression in glyphosate resistance in wild soybeans (Glycine soja).  


The physiological mechanisms underlying glyphosate resistance in wild soybean germplasm and relevant EPSPS gene expression were evaluated. These germplasms were selected by gradually increasing glyphosate selection pressure started from 2010. As indicated by a whole-plant dose response bioassay, ZYD-254 plants were resistant to glyphosate at concentrations of 1230gaeha(-1), but the susceptible plants (ZYD-16) were unable to survive in the presence of 300gaeha(-1) glyphosate. The ED50 values of resistant germplasm were approximately 8.8 times of the susceptible germplasm. Chlorophyll content was significantly decreased in ZYD-16 plants in comparison with ZYD-254 plants. ZYD-16 plants accumulated 10.1 times more shikimate in leaves at 5days after glyphosate treatment at 1230gaeha(-1) than ZYD-254 did. GST activity differed between ZYD-254 and ZYD-16 in three tissues. It was highest in leaves. There were no significant differences in EPSPS1 or EPSPS3 expression between two germplasms before exposure to glyphosate treatment. After glyphosate treatment, there was a 2- to 4-fold increase in EPSPS1 mRNA levels in ZYD-254, but there was no change in EPSPS3 mRNA levels in ZYD-254 or ZYD-16. PMID:24581379

Gao, Yue; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Lijuan; Jin, Longguo; Wu, Jing




Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer of seed storage material from the cotiledons to the embryo axys of soybean seeds (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) was studied. Two lots of cultivar Bragg with germination above 80% and differing in vigor levels, as assessed by the accelerated aging test were used. The initial seed quality was evaluated by moisture content, weight of 1,000 seeds, germination and




E-print Network

to the shelling. VALEUR ALIMENTAIRE DU « GLUTEN FEED » POUR LE PORC EN CROISSANCE-FINITION D. BOURDON Y. HENRY possibilités d'utilisation du « Gluten-Feed » comme source azotée complémentaire, dans des régimes à base de un total de 164 porcs, permettent de conclure à une utilisation optimale du « Gluten-Feed n

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Effets compars de la farine de soja et de coton sur certains paramtres san-  

E-print Network

maïs-coton-lait (MCL: 60%/30%/5%), enrichis par 1 % de vitamines et 4% de sels minéraux, sont donnés croissance et la prise ali- mentaire sont en moyenne pour les lots MSL et MCL de 258 g et 9,5 g/j et de 214 g régime MCL (9,8 g/dl). Les teneurs en carnitine sont semblables. Avec le régime MCL, les acides aminés

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Influência da temperatura no desenvolvimento de teliósporosde Phakopsora pachyrhizi em folíolos de soja  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soybean rust can be caused by two fungus species of the genus Phakopsora: P. meibomiae and P. pachyrhizi. The safest method to separate the both species is based on morphologic characteristics of the teliospores. This study was carried out to determine the effect of temperature in telia formation and to observe both telia and teliospore morphometry present in leaflets

Patrícia Ferreira Cunha Sousa; Eduardo Alves; Hilário Antônio de Castro



Análise da competitividade da produção de soja no sistema de plantio direto no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brazilian agricultural sector, which is underg oing the settlement of new production and trading patterns, faces the challeng e of growing in a competitive and sustainable fashion, in order to attend domestic de mand while acquiring and holding positions in foreign markets, and by providing qual ity products and processes with sustainability and competitive prices. To attend th e

Maria Isabel da Silva Azevedo Alvim; Lourival Batista de Oliveira Júnior



Cintique de la dgradation des protines de soja par la pronase E et poids molculaires des peptides librs  

E-print Network

peptides libérés N Depardon, D Debroas, G Blanchart INRA-ENSAIA, laboratoire de zootechnie, 2, av de la peptides libérés par la pronase sont sem- blables à ceux produits in situ. Dans cette hypo- thèse, ces peptides pourraient être mis à la dis- position d'inoculum de bactéries du rumen, pour permettre de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Comparison of saponin composition and content in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) before and after germination.  


Eight wild soybean accessions with different saponin phenotypes were used to examine saponin composition and relative saponin quantity in various tissues of mature seeds and two-week-old seedlings by LC-PDA/MS/MS. Saponin composition and content were varied according to tissues and accessions. The average total saponin concentration in 1?g mature dry seeds of wild soybean was 16.08?±?3.13??mol. In two-week-old seedlings, produced from 1?g mature seeds, it was 27.94?±?6.52??mol. Group A saponins were highly concentrated in seed hypocotyl (4.04?±?0.71??mol). High concentration of DDMP saponins (7.37?±?5.22??mol) and Sg-6 saponins (2.19?±?0.59??mol) was found in cotyledonary leaf. In seedlings, the amounts of group A and Sg-6 saponins reduced 2.3- and 1.3-folds, respectively, while DDMP?+?B?+?E saponins increased 2.5-fold than those of mature seeds. Our findings show that the group A and Sg-6 saponins in mature seeds were degraded and/or translocated by germination whereas DDMP saponins were newly synthesized. PMID:25127168

Krishnamurthy, Panneerselvam; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Takahashi, Yuya; Hongo, Yuji; Singh, Ram J; Lee, Jeong Dong; Chung, Gyuhwa



Aspects qualitatifs de la digestion intestinale des glucides d'un tourteau de soja par le veau prruminant  

E-print Network

) was the same as in the soya bean. In the large intestine, these carbohydrates were comple- tely utilized acid (4-8 g/l of intestinal contents), and the pH values of the large intestine contents were low (4-Genès-Champanelle, 63110 Beaumonf, France. Summary. Qualitative aspects of intestinal digestion of soya carbohydrates

Boyer, Edmond


This article is from the December 2006 issue of  

E-print Network

or being prepared for Phytophthora sojae, P. ramorum, P. infestans, and P. cap- sici and the development for the soybean pathogen Phytoph- thora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen P. ramorum be- came public in 2004

Lamour, Kurt


Les cultures transgéniques tolérantes à un herbicide permettent-elles de réduire l'usage des pesticides ? Le cas du soja et du maïs aux Etats-Unis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do transgenic herbicide tolerant crops make it possible to reduce the use of pesticides? The case of soybean and corn in the USA. Transgenic herbicide tolerant (HT) crops, the most prevalent of the GM crops used throughout the world, have been strongly criticized, in particular because of the use of herbicides associated with them. However, to what extent is the

S. Bonny


Relações de troca com efeito tecnológico no mercado doméstico de arroz, milho, café e soja  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate, by means of the exchange rate, the profitability of two products directed toward the domestic market and two export products. Other objective was to identify productivity growth compensated the decrease of prices. The geometric rates of the production, area and productivity growth were estimated. The exchange rate was estimated by the relation

Niraldo Jose Ponciano; Paulo Marcelo de Souza; Henrique Tome da Costa Mata; Edenio Detmann



Molho cremoso à base de extrato de soja: estabilidade, propriedades reológicas, valor nutricional e aceitabilidade do consumidor Soy - based low fat emulsion: stability, rheology, nutritional value and consumer acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salad dressing preparation, which replaces for replacing the mayonnaise, uses utilizes emulsifiers and thickeners related or not to the soy protein in order to reduce the egg and oil quantity. In the The present work, used homogenized whole soymilk was used to prepare a creamy low-fat emulsion to replace traditional mayonnaise. The whole soymilk was elaborated with 6-12% of

Denise Carvalho; Pereira CAMPOS; Rosemar ANTONIASSI; Rosires DELIZA; Sidinéa Cordeiro de FREITAS; Ilana FELBERG



ÓLEOS ESSENCIAIS NO CONTROLE DA FERRUGEM ASIÁTICA DA SOJA Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & P. Syd. Essential oils used in the control of asian soybean rust Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & P. Syd  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 de área foliar. Foram também coletadas folhas para preparação de amostras para microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). Constatou-se que os óleos nas concentrações utilizadas inibiram 100% a germinação dos urediniósporos em meio ágar-água. Em casa-de-vegetação observou-se que todos os óleos retardaram a evolução da doença quando comparado com o controle, sendo que a severidade foi reduzida em média de

Regiane Medice; Eduardo Alves; Rafael Tadeu de Assis; Ronaldo Goulart; Magno Júnior


Estimation et volution compare de l'assimilation nette de couverts de mas (Zea mays L.), tournesol  

E-print Network

.), tournesol (Helianthus annuus L.) et soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), au cours de leurs cycles de (Helianthus annuus L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) during development Net assimilation, Canopies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Physiologie vgtale Mesure de l'activit nitrate rductase  

E-print Network

Physiologie végétale Mesure de l'activité nitrate réductase durant le cycle cultural du soja, assimilation du nitrate et fixation de l'azote de l'air, ont été étudiées chez le soja (cv Hodgson), inoculé avec Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 138. L'évolution des 2 activités enzymatiques, nitrate réductase et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


[Genetic variation of SNP loci based on candidate gene for resistance to soybean cyst nematode].  


For clarifying the difference of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) level between cultivated (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.), genetic variation pattern of 8 SNP loci developed from soybean cyst nematode resistance candidate genes rhg1 and Rhg4 in soybean germplasm were analyzed. The results indicated that G. max population, consisted of cultivated soybean mini-core collection and modern cultivars, had a higher LD levels (R2 value is 0.216) than G. soja population. Since 100% of pairwise loci within a gene and 16.6% of pairwise loci between genes were significant in G. max population, two specific LD regions were formed for each gene. A total of 46 haplotypes were detected in 363 soybean germplasm. The population of G. soja had less number of haplotypes and higher haplotype diversity than the population of G. max. Among the 31 population-specific haplotypes, 15 haplotypes were specific for G. soja population. In addition, the frequency of two major predominant haplotypes (Hap_10 and Hap_11) in G. soja population was obviously decreased in G. max population, which might indicate that some new haplotypes were formed and some old haplotypes were lost during the G. max domesticated from G. soja. PMID:20042394

Li, Ying-Hui; Yuan, Cui-Ping; Zhang, Chen; Li, Wei; Nan, Hai-Yang; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Qiu, Li-Juan



Host-Pathogen Interactions  

PubMed Central

The glucan elicitor isolated from the mycelial walls of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae, the fungus which causes stem and root rot in soybeans, stimulates the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the accumulation of glyceollin in suspension-cultured soybean cells. Nigeran, a commercially available fungal wall glucan, was the only other compound tested which has any activity in this system. Glyceollin is a phenylpropanoid-derived phytoalexin which is toxic to P. megasperma var. sojae. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that the action of elicitors in stimulating phytoalexin synthesis is not species or variety specific but, rather, is part of a general defensive response of plants. PMID:16659568

Ebel, Jurgen; Ayers, Arthur R.; Albersheim, Peter



Analysis of specific proteolytic digestion of the peptidoglutaminase-asparaginase of koji molds.  


AsGahB, a peptidoglutaminase-asparaginase acting as the main glutaminase in Aspergillus sojae, was previously purified from the cytoplasm of overexpressing strains. Here, we found that specific proteolytic digestion of AsGahB by extracellular proteases of koji molds is similar to that of AsGahA which exists in proteolytic form under solid-state culture. PMID:24630615

Ito, Kotaro; Koyama, Yasuji



Spaces of Difference: The Contradictions of Alternative Educational Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing upon the concept of "thirdspace" (Soja 1996), this article extends sociocultural theorizations of space in relation to alternative educational programs: programs designed to re-engage youth who have been pushed out of mainstream schools. Snapshots of educational programs, provided by ethnographic research gathered in the United States,…

Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.



Landscapes, Spatial Justice and Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on a study of a community-based adult education initiative, "Cumbria Credits," which took place during the period of serious economic decline which hit sections of the farming and the wider community in Cumbria during 2001. It draws on the principles underpinning Edward Soja's notion of "spatial justice" to explore transformations…

Armstrong, Felicity



An Integrated Genetic Linkage Map of the Soybean Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

highly informative DNA markers evenly spaced throughout the genome. A number of molecular genetic maps of the soybean (Glycine max Using a mapping population derived from an inter- (L.) Merr.) have been developed over the past 10 yr. These maps are specific G. max 3 G. soja cross, Shoemaker and Olson primarily based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) (1993)

P. B. Cregan; T. Jarvik; A. L. Bush; R. C. Shoemaker; K. G. Lark; A. L. Kahler; N. Kaya; T. T. VanToai; D. G. Lohnes; J. Chung; J. E. Specht



Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Mitochondrial Genomics in the Genus  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 243 Mitochondrial Genomics in the Genus The mitochondrial genomes of Phytophthora infestans, P. ramorum and P. sojae have been sequenced and comparative genomics has provided an opportunity to examine the processes involved with genome evolution in the genus

Standiford, Richard B.


Soybean Phytophthora Resistance Gene Rps8 Maps Closely to the Rps3 Region  

E-print Network

Soybean Phytophthora Resistance Gene Rps8 Maps Closely to the Rps3 Region D. SANDHU, K. G of the major diseases of soybean. It is caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. A series of resistance genes (Rps) have been providing soybean with reasonable protection against this pathogen. Among

Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar


Restriction fragment length polymorphism diversity in soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-eight soybean accessions from the genus Glycine, subgenus Soja, were surveyed with 17 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers to assess the level of molecular diversity and to evaluate the usefulness of previously identified RFLP markers. In general, only low levels of molecular diversity were observed: 2 of the 17 markers exhibited three alleles per locus, whereas all others

P. Keim; R. C. Shoemaker; R. G. Palmer



Original article Daily embolism and refilling of root xylem vessels  

E-print Network

.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) by cryo-microscopy. No vessels were esculentum / Glycine max / Helianthus annuus / refilling-vessels Résumé - Cycle journalier de l'embolie et tournesol (Helianthus annuus L.) et du soja (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivés en champ. Aucun vaisseau n

Boyer, Edmond


Selection on Glycine ?-1,3-Endoglucanase Genes Differentially Inhibited by a Phytophthora Glucanase Inhibitor Protein  

PubMed Central

Plant endo-?-1,3-glucanases (EGases) degrade the cell wall polysaccharides of attacking pathogens and release elicitors of additional plant defenses. Isozymes EGaseA and EGaseB of soybean differ in susceptibility to a glucanase inhibitor protein (GIP1) produced by Phytophthora sojae, a major soybean pathogen. EGaseA, the major elicitor-releasing isozyme, is a high-affinity ligand for GIP1, which completely inhibits it, whereas EGaseB is unaffected by GIP1. We tested for departures from neutral evolution on the basis of partial sequences of EGaseA and EGaseB from 20 widespread accessions of Glycine soja (the wild progenitor of soybean), from 4 other Glycine species, and across dicotyledonous plants. G. soja exhibited little intraspecific variation at either locus. Phylogeny-based codon evolution models detected strong evidence of positive selection on Glycine EGaseA and weaker evidence for selection on dicot EGases and Glycine EGaseB. Positively selected peptide sites were identified and located on a structural model of EGase bound to GIP1. Positively selected sites and highly variable sites were found disproportionately within 4.5 Å of bound GIP1. Low variation within G. soja EGases, coupled with positive selection in both Glycine and dicot lineages and the proximity of rapidly evolving sites to GIP1, suggests an arms race involving repeated adaptation to pathogen attack and inhibition. PMID:15545660

Bishop, J. G.; Ripoll, D. R.; Bashir, S.; Damasceno, C. M. B.; Seeds, J. D.; Rose, J. K. C.




E-print Network

such as soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) and Phytophthora root rot (Phytophthora sojae) continue in Indiana Soybean Production Systems Abstract As the disparity in farm size continues to increase for directing applied soybean research efforts. This assessment was conducted through a detailed direct

Ginzel, Matthew


METHODOLOGY ARTICLE Open Access Sequence based polymorphic (SBP) marker  

E-print Network

, and the isolation of genes based on their map positions. Advancements in sequencing technology have made possible, nonhost resistance, Phytophthora sojae, SHORE analysis Background Discovery of molecular markers has, SNP have been discovered for molecular mapping experiments [1-6]. Fingerprinting of genotypes

Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar


Some properties of pea enation mosaic virus isolated from field pea and broad bean plants in Bohemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) was isolated from disea sed field pea (Pisum sativum L.ssp. arvense A.Gr.) and broad bean (Faba vulgaris Moench) plants grown as filed crops at Bohumilice in Bohemia. The virus proved to be pathogenic for the following plant species:Pisum sativum L. cv. Raman,Faba vulgaris Moench,Lens culinaris Med.,Vicia sativa L.,Lathyrus odoratus L.,Glycine soja L.,Phaseolus vulgaris L.,Chenopodium amaranticolor

M. Musil; Olga Lešková



Solid-state fermentation with fungi to enhance the antioxidative activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of black bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, solid-state fermentation of black bean with various GRAS filamentous fungi including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus sojae, Rhizopus azygosporus and Rhizopus sp. No. 2 was preformed to prepared koji. Mycelial propagation of starter organisms and antioxidative activity, including ?-?-diphenyl-2-picyl-hydoxyl (DPPH) radicals, Fe2+-chelating ability, and reducing activity, were examined. Depending upon the starter organism, various amounts of

I-Hsin Lee; Yu-Hsiang Hung; Cheng-Chun Chou



Microfluidic droplet encapsulation of highly motile single zoospores for phenotypic screening of an antioomycete chemical  

PubMed Central

Highly motile Phytophthora sojae (P. sojae) zoospores of an oomycete plant pathogen and antioomycete candidate chemicals were encapsulated into microdroplets. Random fast self-motion of P. sojae zoospores was overcome by choosing an appropriate flow rate for a zoospore suspension. To influence stochastic loading of zoospores into a microfluidic channel, a zoospore suspension was directly preloaded into a microtubing with a largely reduced inner diameter. A relatively high single zoospore encapsulation rate of 60.5% was achieved on a most trivial T-junction droplet generator platform, without involving any specially designed channel geometry. We speculated that spatial reduction in the diameter direction of microtubing added a degree of zoospore ordering in the longitudinal direction of microtubing and thus influenced positively to change the inherent limitation of stochastic encapsulation of zoospores. Comparative phenotypic study of a plant oomycete pathogen at a single zoospore level had not been achieved earlier. Phenotypic changes of zoospores responding to various chemical concentration conditions were measured in multiple droplets in parallel, providing a reliable data set and thus an improved statistic at a low chemical consumption. Since each droplet compartment contained a single zoospore, we were able to track the germinating history of individual zoospores without being interfered by other germinating zoospores, achieving a high spatial resolution. By adapting some existing droplet immobilization and concentration gradient generation techniques, the droplet approach could potentially lead to a medium-to-high throughput, reliable screening assay for chemicals against many other highly motile zoospores of pathogens. PMID:22662055

Yang, Haifeng; Qiao, Xuan; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Dong, Liang



Growth in microgravity increases susceptibility of soybean to a fungal pathogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of microgravity on the susceptibility of soybean roots to Phytophthora sojae was studied during the Space Shuttle Mission STS-87. Seedlings of soybean cultivar Williams 82 grown in spaceflight or at unit gravity were untreated or inoculated with the soybean root rot pathogen P. sojae. At 3, 6 and 7 d after launch while still in microgravity, seedlings were photographed and then fixed for subsequent microscopic analysis. Post-landing analysis of the seedlings revealed that at harvest day 7 the length of untreated roots did not differ between flight and ground samples. However, the flight-grown roots infected with P. sojae showed more disease symptoms (percentage of brown and macerated areas) and the root tissues were more extensively colonized relative to the ground controls exposed to the fungus. Ethylene levels were higher in spaceflight when compared to ground samples. These data suggest that soybean seedlings grown in microgravity are more susceptible to colonization by a fungal pathogen relative to ground controls.

Ryba-White, M.; Nedukha, O.; Hilaire, E.; Guikema, J. A.; Kordyum, E.; Leach, J. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)



Phytophthora Suppressor of RNA Silencing 2 Is a Conserved RxLR Effector that Promotes Infection in Soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana.  


The genus Phytophthora consists of notorious and emerging pathogens of economically important crops. Each Phytophthora genome encodes several hundreds of cytoplasmic effectors, which are believed to manipulate plant immune response inside the host cells. However, the majority of Phytophthora effectors remain functionally uncharacterized. We recently discovered two effectors from the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae with the activity to suppress RNA silencing in plants. These effectors are designated Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing (PSRs). Here, we report that the P. sojae PSR2 (PsPSR2) belongs to a conserved and widespread effector family in Phytophthora. A PsPSR2-like effector produced by P. infestans (PiPSR2) can also suppress RNA silencing in plants and promote Phytophthora infection, suggesting that the PSR2 family effectors have conserved functions in plant hosts. Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots induction, we demonstrated that the expression of PsPSR2 rendered hypersusceptibility of soybean to P. sojae. Enhanced susceptibility was also observed in PsPSR2-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants during Phytophthora but not bacterial infection. These experiments provide strong evidence that PSR2 is a conserved Phytophthora effector family that performs important virulence functions specifically during Phytophthora infection of various plant hosts. PMID:25387135

Xiong, Qin; Ye, Wenwu; Choi, Duseok; Wong, James; Qiao, Yongli; Tao, Kai; Wang, Yuanchao; Ma, Wenbo



Mapping and use of QTLs controlling pod dehiscence in soybean  

PubMed Central

While the cultivated soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., is more recalcitrant to pod dehiscence (shattering-resistant) than wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc., there is also significant genetic variation in shattering resistance among cultivated soybean cultivars. To reveal the genetic basis and develop DNA markers for pod dehiscence, several research groups have conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using segregated populations derived from crosses between G. max accessions or between a G. max and G. soja accession. In the populations of G. max, a major QTL was repeatedly identified near SSR marker Sat_366 on linkage group J (chromosome 16). Minor QTLs were also detected in several studies, although less commonality was found for the magnitudes of effect and location. In G. max × G. soja populations, only QTLs with a relatively small effect were detected. The major QTL found in G. max was further fine-mapped, leading to the development of specific markers for the shattering resistance allele at this locus. The markers were used in a breeding program, resulting in the production of near-isogenic lines with shattering resistance and genetic backgrounds of Japanese elite cultivars. The markers and lines developed will hopefully contribute to the rapid production of a variety of shattering-resistant soybean cultivars. PMID:23136494

Funatsuki, Hideyuki; Hajika, Makita; Yamada, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Masaya; Hagihara, Seiji; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Fujita, Shohei; Ishimoto, Masao; Fujino, Kaien



Host-Pathogen Interactions  

PubMed Central

A ?-glucan isolated from the mycelial walls of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae and a glucan purified from yeast extract stimulate the accumulation of phytoalexins in red kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, and stimulate the accumulation of the phytoalexin, rishitin, in potato tubers, Solanum tuberosum. These glucans have previously been shown to be potent elicitors of glyceollin accumulation in soybean, Glycine max. Treatment of kidney bean cotyledons with the glucan elicitors resulted in the accumulation of at least five fungistatic compounds. These compounds migrate during thin layer chromatography identically to the fungistatic compounds which accumulate in kidney beans which have been inoculated with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, a fungal pathogen of kidney beans. Potatoes accumulate as much as 29 micrograms of rishitin per gram fresh weight following exposure to the glucan from Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae and as much as 19.5 micrograms of rishitin per gram fresh weight following exposure to yeast glucan. Potatoes accumulated 28 micrograms of rishitin per gram fresh weight following inoculation with live Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:16660638

Cline, Kenneth; Wade, Mark; Albersheim, Peter



Host-Pathogen Interactions: XV. Fungal Glucans Which Elicit Phytoalexin Accumulation in Soybean Also Elicit the Accumulation of Phytoalexins in Other Plants.  


A beta-glucan isolated from the mycelial walls of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae and a glucan purified from yeast extract stimulate the accumulation of phytoalexins in red kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, and stimulate the accumulation of the phytoalexin, rishitin, in potato tubers, Solanum tuberosum. These glucans have previously been shown to be potent elicitors of glyceollin accumulation in soybean, Glycine max.Treatment of kidney bean cotyledons with the glucan elicitors resulted in the accumulation of at least five fungistatic compounds. These compounds migrate during thin layer chromatography identically to the fungistatic compounds which accumulate in kidney beans which have been inoculated with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, a fungal pathogen of kidney beans.Potatoes accumulate as much as 29 micrograms of rishitin per gram fresh weight following exposure to the glucan from Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae and as much as 19.5 micrograms of rishitin per gram fresh weight following exposure to yeast glucan. Potatoes accumulated 28 micrograms of rishitin per gram fresh weight following inoculation with live Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae. PMID:16660638

Cline, K; Wade, M; Albersheim, P



[Review of traditional Chinese medicine processed by fermentation].  


The fermentation processing of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), as an important processing method for TCM, originated from the ancient brewing technology. It has a long history in China. Fermented TCMs (FTCMs) are widely applied among folks for preventing and treating many diseases. There are many kinds of TCM processed by spontaneous fermentation, including Massa Medicata Fermentata, Rhizoma Pinelliae Fermentata, Red fermented rice, Semen Sojae Praepaaratum, Mass Galla chinesis et camelliae Fermentata and Pien Tze Huang. This essay summarizes historical origin, main varieties, the effect of microbial strains, current processing techniques and existing problems of FTCM, and look into the prospect of modern development of FTCMs. PMID:23627162

Zhang, Li-Xia; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Hai-Yang



Glyceollin, a soybean phytoalexin with medicinal properties.  


This review covers the biosynthesis of glyceollin and its biological activities including antiproliferative/antitumor action (toward B16 melanoma cells, LNCaP prostate cancer cells, and BG-1 ovarian cancer cells), anti-estrogenic action (through estrogen receptors ?- and ?-), antibacterial action (toward Erwinia carotovora, Escherichia coli, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Sinorhizobium fredii ), antinematode activity, and antifungal activity (toward Fusarium solani, Phakospora pachyrhizi, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Sclerotina sclerotiorum, Phytophthora sojae, Cercospora sojina, Phialophora gregata, and Rhizoctonia solani). Other activities include insulinotropic action and attenuation of vascular contractions in rat aorta. PMID:21336922

Ng, Tzi Bun; Ye, Xiu Juan; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Chan, Yau Sang; Pan, Wenliang; Ye, Xiu Yun; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Zhang, Kalin Yanbo; Liu, Fang; Wang, He Xiang



Studies on lectins. XXXVI. Properties of some lectins prepared by affinity chromatography on O-glycosyl polyacrylamide gels.  


A number of lectins has been purified by affinity chromatography on O-glycosyl polyacrylamide gels. The lectins isolated (and the particular sugar ligands used in the affinity carriers) are as follows: Anguilla anguilla, serum (alpha-L-fucosyl-), Vicia cracca, seeds; Phaseolus lunatus, seeds; Glycine soja, seeds; Dolichos biflorus, seeds; Maclura pomifera, seeds; Sarothamnus scoparius, seeds; Helix pomatia, ablumin glands; Clitocybe nebularis, fruiting bodies (all N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminyl-); Ricinus communis, seeds (beta-lactosyl-); Ononis spinosa, root; Fomes fomentarius, fruiting bodies; Marasmius oreades, fruiting bodies (all alpha-D-galactosyl-), Canavalia ensiformis, seeds, (i.e., concanavalin A) (alpha-D-glucosyl-). Physicochemical properties of Glycine soja, Dolichos biflorus, Phaseolus lunatus, Helix Pomatia and Ricinus communis lectins corresponded well to properties of the preparations studied earlier by other workers. For the other purified lectins the essential physiochemical data (sedimentation coefficient, molecular weight, subunit composition, electrophoretic patterns, amino acid composition, carbohydrate content, isoelectric point) were established and their precipitating, hemagglutinating and mitogenic activities determined. PMID:563738

Horejsí, V; Kocourek, J



Genotypic variability of soybean response to agrobacterium strains harboring the ti or ri plasmids.  


Twenty four diverse cultivars of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill) and three lines of its annual wild progenitor Glycine soja Sieb and Zucc. were tested for their response to Agrobacterium strains harboring either the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid (pTi) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens or the Ri (root-inducing) plasmid (pRi) from Agrobacterium rhizogenes following uniform wounding and inoculation. Based upon gall weight at 8 weeks postinfection, three G. max cultivars (Biloxi, Jupiter, and Peking) and one G. soja line, Plant Introduction (PI) 398.693B, were judged highly susceptible to A. tumefaciens strain A348 (pTiA6), ten genotypes moderately susceptible, 11 weakly susceptible, and two nonsusceptible. Of 26 genotypes inoculated with strain R1000 (pRiA4b), only seven responded in a clearly susceptible fashion by forming small, fleshy roots at internodal infection sites. Cotyledons excised from 1- or 3-day old seedlings of Peking and Biloxi cultivars also formed galls when infected in vitro with agrobacteria carrying either the Ti or Ri plasmid. Tumor lines established from cotyledon and stem galls induced by A. tumefaciens A348 (pTiA6) exhibited the T-DNA borne traits of phytohormone-independent growth and octopine synthesis. Additionally, DNA isolated from cultured tumors hybridized with labeled T-DNA probe. PMID:16664035

Owens, L D; Cress, D E



The wild side of a major crop: Soybean's perennial cousins from Down Under.  


The accumulation of over 30 years of basic research on the biology, genetic variation, and evolution of the wild perennial relatives of soybean (Glycine max) provides a foundation to improve cultivated soybean. The cultivated soybean and its wild progenitor, G. soja, have a center of origin in eastern Asia and are the only two species in the annual subgenus Soja. Systematic and evolutionary studies of the ca. 30 perennial species of subgenus Glycine, native to Australia, have benefited from the availability of the G. max genomic sequence. The perennial species harbor many traits of interest to soybean breeders, among them resistance to major soybean pathogens such as cyst nematode and leaf rust. New species in the Australian subgenus continue to be described, due to the collection of new material and to insights gleaned through systematic studies of accessions in germplasm collections. Ongoing studies in perennial species focus on genomic regions that contain genes for key traits relevant to soybean breeding. These comparisons also include the homoeologous regions that are the result of polyploidy in the common ancestor of all Glycine species. Subgenus Glycine includes a complex of recently formed allopolyploids that are the focus of studies aimed at elucidating genomic, transcriptomic, physiological, taxonomic, morphological, developmental, and ecological processes related to polyploid evolution. Here we review what has been learned over the past 30 years and outline ongoing work on photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and floral biology, much of it drawing on new technologies and resources. PMID:25326613

Sherman-Broyles, Sue; Bombarely, Aureliano; Powell, Adrian F; Doyle, Jane L; Egan, Ashley N; Coate, Jeremy E; Doyle, Jeff J



The CAZyome of Phytophthora spp.: A comprehensive analysis of the gene complement coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes in species of the genus Phytophthora  

PubMed Central

Background Enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism include Carbohydrate esterases (CE), Glycoside hydrolases (GH), Glycosyl transferases (GT), and Polysaccharide lyases (PL), commonly referred to as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). The CE, GH, and PL superfamilies are also known as cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE) due to their role in the disintegration of the plant cell wall by bacterial and fungal pathogens. In Phytophthora infestans, penetration of the plant cells occurs through a specialized hyphal structure called appressorium; however, it is likely that members of the genus Phytophthora also use CWDE for invasive growth because hyphal forces are below the level of tensile strength exhibited by the plant cell wall. Because information regarding the frequency and distribution of CAZyme coding genes in Phytophthora is currently unknown, we have scanned the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae, and P. ramorum for the presence of CAZyme-coding genes using a homology-based approach and compared the gene collinearity in the three genomes. In addition, we have tested the expression of several genes coding for CE in cultures grown in vitro. Results We have found that P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum contain a total of 435, 379, and 310 CAZy homologs; in each genome, most homologs belong to the GH superfamily. Most GH and PL homologs code for enzymes that hydrolyze substances present in the pectin layer forming the middle lamella of the plant cells. In addition, a significant number of CE homologs catalyzing the deacetylation of compounds characteristic of the plant cell cuticle were found. In general, a high degree of gene location conservation was observed, as indicated by the presence of sequential orthologous pairs in the three genomes. Such collinearity was frequently observed among members of the GH superfamily. On the other hand, the CE and PL superfamilies showed less collinearity for some of their putative members. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed that all genes are expressed in P. infestans when this pathogen grown in vitro. However, the levels of expression vary considerably and are lower than the expression levels observed for the constitutive control. Conclusions In conclusion, we have identified a highly complex set of CAZy homologs in the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae, and P. ramorum, a significant number of which could play roles critical for pathogenicity, by participating in the degradation of the plant cell wall. PMID:20920201



Allelic variation of soybean flower color gene W4 encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase 2  

PubMed Central

Background Flower color of soybean is primarily controlled by six genes, viz., W1, W2, W3, W4, Wm and Wp. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic and chemical basis of newly-identified flower color variants including two soybean mutant lines, 222-A-3 (near white flower) and E30-D-1 (light purple flower), a near-isogenic line (Clark-w4), flower color variants (T321 and T369) descended from the w4-mutable line and kw4 (near white flower, Glycine soja). Results Complementation tests revealed that the flower color of 222-A-3 and kw4 was controlled by the recessive allele (w4) of the W4 locus encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase 2 (DFR2). In 222-A-3, a single base was deleted in the first exon resulting in a truncated polypeptide consisting of 24 amino acids. In Clark-w4, base substitution of the first nucleotide of the fourth intron abolished the 5? splice site, resulting in the retention of the intron. The DFR2 gene of kw4 was not expressed. The above results suggest that complete loss-of-function of DFR2 gene leads to near white flowers. Light purple flower of E30-D-1 was controlled by a new allele at the W4 locus, w4-lp. The gene symbol was approved by the Soybean Genetics Committee. In E30-D-1, a single-base substitution changed an amino acid at position 39 from arginine to histidine. Pale flowers of T369 had higher expression levels of the DFR2 gene. These flower petals contained unique dihydroflavonols that have not yet been reported to occur in soybean and G. soja. Conclusions Complete loss-of-function of DFR2 gene leads to near white flowers. A new allele of the W4 locus, w4-lp regulates light purple flowers. Single amino acid substitution was associated with light purple flowers. Flower petals of T369 had higher levels of DFR2 gene expression and contained unique dihydroflavonols that are absent in soybean and G. soja. Thus, mutants of the DFR2 gene have unique flavonoid compositions and display a wide variety of flower color patterns in soybean, from near white, light purple, dilute purple to pale. PMID:24602314



De novo assembly of soybean wild relatives for pan-genome analysis of diversity and agronomic traits.  


Wild relatives of crops are an important source of genetic diversity for agriculture, but their gene repertoire remains largely unexplored. We report the establishment and analysis of a pan-genome of Glycine soja, the wild relative of cultivated soybean Glycine max, by sequencing and de novo assembly of seven phylogenetically and geographically representative accessions. Intergenomic comparisons identified lineage-specific genes and genes with copy number variation or large-effect mutations, some of which show evidence of positive selection and may contribute to variation of agronomic traits such as biotic resistance, seed composition, flowering and maturity time, organ size and final biomass. Approximately 80% of the pan-genome was present in all seven accessions (core), whereas the rest was dispensable and exhibited greater variation than the core genome, perhaps reflecting a role in adaptation to diverse environments. This work will facilitate the harnessing of untapped genetic diversity from wild soybean for enhancement of elite cultivars. PMID:25218520

Li, Ying-Hui; Zhou, Guangyu; Ma, Jianxin; Jiang, Wenkai; Jin, Long-Guo; Zhang, Zhouhao; Guo, Yong; Zhang, Jinbo; Sui, Yi; Zheng, Liangtao; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Zuo, Qiyang; Shi, Xue-Hui; Li, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Hu, Yiyao; Kong, Guanyi; Hong, Hui-Long; Tan, Bing; Song, Jian; Liu, Zhang-Xiong; Wang, Yaoshen; Ruan, Hang; Yeung, Carol K L; Liu, Jian; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Li-Juan; Guan, Rong-Xia; Wang, Ke-Jing; Li, Wen-Bin; Chen, Shou-Yi; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Jiang, Zhi; Jackson, Scott A; Li, Ruiqiang; Qiu, Li-Juan



Soybean knowledge base (SoyKB): a web resource for integration of soybean translational genomics and molecular breeding  

PubMed Central

Soybean Knowledge Base ( is a comprehensive web resource developed for bridging soybean translational genomics and molecular breeding research. It provides information for six entities including genes/proteins, microRNAs/sRNAs, metabolites, single nucleotide polymorphisms, plant introduction lines and traits. It also incorporates many multi-omics datasets including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and molecular breeding data, such as quantitative trait loci, traits and germplasm information. Soybean Knowledge Base has a new suite of tools such as In Silico Breeding Program for soybean breeding, which includes a graphical chromosome visualizer for ease of navigation. It integrates quantitative trait loci, traits and germplasm information along with genomic variation data, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions and genome-wide association studies data, from multiple soybean cultivars and Glycine soja. PMID:24136998

Joshi, Trupti; Fitzpatrick, Michael R.; Chen, Shiyuan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hongxin; Endacott, Ryan Z.; Gaudiello, Eric C.; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T.; Xu, Dong



Structural analysis of cerebrosides from Aspergillus fungi: the existence of galactosylceramide in A. oryzae.  


Glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide were detected in three Aspergillus species: Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus sojae and Aspergillus. awamori, using borate-coated TLC. The cerebrosides from A. oryzae were further purified by ion exchange and iatrobeads column chromatographies with or without borate, and determined the composition of sugar, fatty acid and sphingoid base by GC/MS, MALDI-TOF/MS and (1)H-NMR. We identified them as ?-glucosylceramide and ?-galactosylceramide. The ceramide moiety of both cerebrosides consisted mainly of 2-hydroxystearic acid and either 9-methyl-octadeca-4, 8-sphingadienine or octadeca-4, 8-sphingadienine. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence for the presence of ?-galactosylceramide in A. oryzae. PMID:25129050

Tani, Yasushi; Amaishi, Yasunori; Funatsu, Tori; Ito, Masahiro; Itonori, Saki; Hata, Yoji; Ashida, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Kenji



Studies on lectins. XLIV. The pH dependence of lectin interactions with sugars as determined by affinity electrophoresis.  


The pH dependence of association constants of the lectin-sugar complexes was determined by means of affinity electrophoresis. All the lectins studied (from the seeds of Dolichos biflorus, Glycine soja, Lens esculenta and Vicia cracca and of the fruiting body of Marasmius oreades) were characterized by a similar course of pH dependence of the association constants, with the maximum values at pH 7--9. For concanavalin A and the L-fucose binding Ulex europaeus lectin only the association constants at three selected pH values were determined. Concanavalin A does not interact with immobilized alpha-D-mannosyl residues at pH 2.3. The association constants vs. pH curves measured for lectins isolated from two different lentil varieties slightly differ in accordance with the differences observed in the interaction of these lectins with the Sephadex gel. PMID:33723

Hauzer, K; Tichá, M; Horejsí, V; Kocourek, J



Clinical efficacy comparison of anti-wrinkle cosmetics containing herbal flavonoids.  


Herbal anti-wrinkle cosmetics were formulated from ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), a mixture of tea and rooibos (Camellia sinensis and Aspalathus linearis) and soybean (Glycine soja). These extracts were incorporated into the preliminary developed stable gel base with good preference. The gingko formulation was found to be more stable than the formula containing a mixture of tea and rooibos and the soybean formula. Clinical efficacies of the ginkgo formula and the formula containing a mixture of tea and rooibos were compared following 28 days of application. The ginkgo preparation increased skin moisturization (27.88%) and smoothness (4.32%) and reduced roughness (0.4%) and wrinkles (4.63%), whereas the formula containing tea and rooibos showed the best efficacy on wrinkle reduction (9.9%). In comparison to the tea and rooibos formula, gingko significantly improved skin moisturization (P = 0.05). PMID:20412217

Chuarienthong, P; Lourith, N; Leelapornpisid, P



Expressed Peptide Tags: An additional layer of data for genome annotation  

SciTech Connect

While genome sequencing is becoming ever more routine, genome annotation remains a challenging process. Identification of the coding sequences within the genomic milieu presents a tremendous challenge, especially for eukaryotes with their complex gene architectures. Here we present a method to assist the annotation process through the use of proteomic data and bioinformatics. Mass spectra of digested protein preparations of the organism of interest were acquired and searched against a protein database created by a six frame translation of the genome. The identified peptides were mapped back to the genome, compared to the current annotation, and then categorized as supporting or extending the current genome annotation. We named the classified peptides Expressed Peptide Tags (EPTs). The well annotated bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was used as a control for the method and showed high degree of correlation between EPT mapping and the current annotation, with 86% of the EPTs confirming existing gene calls and less than 1% of the EPTs expanding on the current annotation. The eukaryotic plant pathogens Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora sojae, whose genomes have been recently sequenced and are much less well annotated, were also subjected to this method. A series of algorithmic steps were taken to increase the confidence of EPT identification for these organisms, including generation of smaller sub-databases to be searched against, and definition of EPT criteria that accommodates the more complex eukaryotic gene architecture. As expected, the analysis of the Phytophthora species showed less correlation between EPT mapping and their current annotation. While ~77% of Phytophthora EPTs supported the current annotation, a portion of them (7.2% and 12.6% for P. ramorum and P. sojae, respectively) suggested modification to current gene calls or identified novel genes that were missed by the current genome annotation of these organisms.

Savidor, Alon [ORNL; Donahoo, Ryan S [ORNL; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Lamour, Kurt H [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL



Replicon-Dependent Differentiation of Symbiosis-Related Genes in Sinorhizobium Strains Nodulating Glycine max  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the genetic differentiation of Sinorhizobium strains nodulating Glycine max and related microevolutionary mechanisms, three housekeeping genes (SMc00019, truA, and thrA) and 16 symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome (7 genes), pSymA (6 genes), and pSymB (3 genes) were analyzed. Five distinct species were identified among the test strains by calculating the average nucleotide identity (ANI) of SMc00019-truA-thrA: Sinorhizobium fredii, Sinorhizobium sojae, Sinorhizobium sp. I, Sinorhizobium sp. II, and Sinorhizobium sp. III. These species assignments were also supported by population genetics and phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes and symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome and pSymB. Different levels of genetic differentiation were observed among these species or different replicons. S. sojae was the most divergent from the other test species and was characterized by its low intraspecies diversity and limited geographic distribution. Intergenic recombination dominated the evolution of 19 genes from different replicons. Intraspecies recombination happened frequently in housekeeping genes and symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome and pSymB, whereas pSymA genes showed a clear pattern of lateral-transfer events between different species. Moreover, pSymA genes were characterized by a lower level of polymorphism and recombination than those on the chromosome and pSymB. Taken together, genes from different replicons of rhizobia might be involved in the establishment of symbiosis with legumes, but these symbiosis-related genes might have evolved differently according to their corresponding replicons. PMID:24317084

Guo, Hui Juan; Wang, En Tao; Zhang, Xing Xing; Li, Qin Qin; Zhang, Yan Ming; Chen, Wen Xin



Profiling of dynamic changes in the microbial community during the soy sauce fermentation process.  


Soy sauce is a traditional condiment manufactured by natural inoculation and mixed culture fermentation. As is well known, it is the microbial community that plays an important role in the formation of its flavors. However, to date, its dynamic changes during the long period of fermentation process are still unclear, intensively constraining the improvement and control of the soy sauce quality. In this work, we revealed the dynamic changes of the microbial community by combining a cultured dependent method and a cultured independent method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results indicated that the two methods verified and complemented each other in profiling microbial community, and that significant dynamics of the microbial community existed during the fermentation process, especially the strong inhibition of the growth of most of the microbes when entering into the mash stage from the koji stage. In the analysis of bacterial community, Staphylococcus and Bacillus were found to be the dominant bacteria and detected in the whole fermentation process. Kurthia and Klebsiella began to appear in the koji stage and then fade away in the early stage of the mash fermentation. In the analysis of fungal community, Aspergillus sojae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were found to be the dominant fungi in the koji and mash fermentation, respectively. It was clearly shown that when A. sojae decreased and disappeared in the middle stage of the mash fermentation, Z. rouxii appeared and increased at the meantime. Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon asahii also appeared in the koji and the early period of the mash fermentation and disappeared thereafter. Similar to Z. rouxii, Millerozyma farinosa and Peronospora farinosa were also found spontaneously which appeared in the mid-late period of the mash fermentation. The principal component analysis suggested that the microbial community underwent significant changes in the early period of the fermentation and, thereafter, tended to the stabilization in the mid-late periods. This study gave us important clues to understand the fermentation process and can serve as a foundation for improving the quality of soy sauce in the future. PMID:24037306

Wei, Quanzeng; Wang, Hongbin; Chen, Zhixin; Lv, Zhijia; Xie, Yufeng; Lu, Fuping



Systemic acquired resistance in soybean is regulated by two proteins, Orthologous to Arabidopsis NPR1  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is induced in non-inoculated leaves following infection with certain pathogenic strains. SAR is effective against many pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule of the SAR pathway. The development of SAR is associated with the induction of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. Arabidopsis non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1) is a regulatory gene of the SA signal pathway [1-3]. SAR in soybean was first reported following infection with Colletotrichum trancatum that causes anthracnose disease. We investigated if SAR in soybean is regulated by a pathway, similar to the one characterized in Arabidopsis. Results Pathogenesis-related gene GmPR1 is induced following treatment of soybean plants with the SAR inducer, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) or infection with the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora sojae. In P. sojae-infected plants, SAR was induced against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. Soybean GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 genes showed high identities to Arabidopsis NPR1. They showed similar expression patterns among the organs, studied in this investigation. GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 are the only soybean homologues of NPR1and are located in homoeologous regions. In GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 transformed Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutant plants, SAR markers: (i) PR-1 was induced following INA treatment and (ii) BGL2 following infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and SAR was induced following Pst infection. Of the five cysteine residues, Cys82, Cys150, Cys155, Cys160, and Cys216 involved in oligomer-monomer transition in NPR1, Cys216 in GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 proteins was substituted to Ser and Leu, respectively. Conclusion Complementation analyses in Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutants revealed that homoeologous GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 genes are orthologous to Arabidopsis NPR1. Therefore, SAR pathway in soybean is most likely regulated by GmNPR1 genes. Substitution of Cys216 residue, essential for oligomer-monomer transition of Arabidopsis NPR1, with Ser and Leu residues in GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2, respectively, suggested that there may be differences between the regulatory mechanisms of GmNPR1 and Arabidopsis NPR proteins. PMID:19656407

Sandhu, Devinder; Tasma, I Made; Frasch, Ryan; Bhattacharyya, Madan K



Identification of wild soybean miRNAs and their target genes responsive to aluminum stress  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in development and stress response in plants. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) has undergone long-term natural selection and may have evolved special mechanisms to survive stress conditions as a result. However, little information about miRNAs especially miRNAs responsive to aluminum (Al) stress is available in wild soybean. Results Two small RNA libraries and two degradome libraries were constructed from the roots of Al-treated and Al-free G. soja seedlings. For miRNA identification, a total of 7,287,655 and 7,035,914 clean reads in Al-treated and Al-free small RNAs libraries, respectively, were generated, and 97 known miRNAs and 31 novel miRNAs were identified. In addition, 49 p3 or p5 strands of known miRNAs were found. Among all the identified miRNAs, the expressions of 30 miRNAs were responsive to Al stress. Through degradome sequencing, 86 genes were identified as targets of the known miRNAs and five genes were found to be the targets of the novel miRNAs obtained in this study. Gene ontology (GO) annotations of target transcripts indicated that 52 target genes cleaved by conserved miRNA families might play roles in the regulation of transcription. Additionally, some genes, such as those for the auxin response factor (ARF), domain-containing disease resistance protein (NB-ARC), leucine-rich repeat and toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like protein (LRR-TIR) domain protein, cation transporting ATPase, Myb transcription factors, and the no apical meristem (NAM) protein, that are known to be responsive to stress, were found to be cleaved under Al stress conditions. Conclusions A number of miRNAs and their targets were detected in wild soybean. Some of them that were responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses were regulated by Al stress. These findings provide valuable information to understand the function of miRNAs in Al tolerance. PMID:23040172



In vitro antimycotic activity of some plant extracts towards yeast and yeast-like strains.  


As part of screening aimed at the selection of novel antimycotic compounds of vegetable origin, leaf extracts of Camellia sinensis L., Cupressus sempervirens L. and Pistacia lentiscus L. and the seed extract of Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. were tested against yeast and yeast-like species implicated in human mycoses. Of the extracts only those of C. sinensis (obtained from a commercial preparation of green tea) exhibited broad activity towards Candida glabrata, Clavispora lusitatiae, Cryptococcus laurentii, Filobasidiella neoformans, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Prototheca wickerhamii strains. MICs ranging from 300 to 4800 microg extract/mL (corresponding to 130-2010 microg/mL total polyphenols) were observed. Concentrations of the C. sinensis extract over 25 000 microg/mL caused a rapid decrease of viable cells of Fil. neoformans and its activity was dose-dependent. Tests carried out using the pure polyphenols present in C. sinensis extract composition, showed that only epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) possess antimycotic activity. PMID:15798996

Turchetti, B; Pinelli, P; Buzzini, P; Romani, A; Heimler, D; Franconi, F; Martini, A



Tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of plant pathogenic fungi and the effects of database composition on protein inferences  

PubMed Central

LC-MS/MS has demonstrated potential for detecting plant pathogens. Unlike PCR or ELISA, LC-MS/MS does not require pathogen-specific reagents for the detection of pathogen-specific proteins and peptides. However, the MS/MS approach we and others have explored does require a protein sequence reference database and database-search software to interpret tandem mass spectra. To evaluate the limitations of database composition on pathogen identification, we analyzed proteins from cultured Ustilago maydis, Phytophthora sojae, Fusarium graminearum, and Rhizoctonia solani by LC-MS/MS. When the search database did not contain sequences for a target pathogen, or contained sequences to related pathogens, target pathogen spectra were reliably matched to protein sequences from nontarget organisms, giving an illusion that proteins from nontarget organisms were identified. Our analysis demonstrates that when database-search software is used as part of the identification process, a paradox exists whereby additional sequences needed to detect a wide variety of possible organisms may lead to more cross-species protein matches and misidentification of pathogens. PMID:17922518

Padliya, Neerav D.; Garrett, Wesley M.; Campbell, Kimberly B.; Tabb, David L.; Cooper, Bret



A novel protein elicitor (SsCut) from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum induces multiple defense responses in plants.  


In this study, we report the cloning of the SsCut gene encoding cutinase from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We isolated a 609-bp cDNA encoding a polypeptide of 202 amino acids with a molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. Heterologous expression of SsCut in Escherichia coli (His-SsCut) caused the formation of lesions in tobacco that closely resembled hypersensitive response lesions. Mutational analysis identified the C-terminal-half peptide and the same amino acids indispensable for both enzyme and elicitor activity. His-SsCut was caused cell death in Arabidopsis, soybean (Glycine max), oilseed rape (Brassica napus), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), indicating that both dicot and monocot species are responsive to the elicitor. Furthermore, the elicitation of tobacco was effective in the induction of the activities of hydrogen peroxide, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxides, and polyphenol oxidase. His-SsCut-treated plants exhibited enhanced resistance as indicated by a significant reduction in the number and size of S. sclerotiorum, Phytophthora sojae, and P. nicotianae lesions on leaves relative to controls. Real-time PCR results indicated that the expression of defense-related genes and genes involved in signal transduction were induced by His-SsCut. Our results demonstrate that SsCut is an elicitor that triggers defense responses in plants and will help to clarify its relationship to downstream signaling pathways that induce defense responses. PMID:25149470

Zhang, Huajian; Wu, Qun; Cao, Shun; Zhao, Tongyao; Chen, Ling; Zhuang, Peitong; Zhou, Xiuhong; Gao, Zhimou



Uncovering the Salt Response of Soybean by Unraveling Its Wild and Cultivated Functional Genomes Using Tag Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Soil salinity has very adverse effects on growth and yield of crop plants. Several salt tolerant wild accessions and cultivars are reported in soybean. Functional genomes of salt tolerant Glycine soja and a salt sensitive genotype of Glycine max were investigated to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance in soybean. For this purpose, four libraries were constructed for Tag sequencing on Illumina platform. We identify around 490 salt responsive genes which included a number of transcription factors, signaling proteins, translation factors and structural genes like transporters, multidrug resistance proteins, antiporters, chaperons, aquaporins etc. The gene expression levels and ratio of up/down-regulated genes was greater in tolerant plants. Translation related genes remained stable or showed slightly higher expression in tolerant plants under salinity stress. Further analyses of sequenced data and the annotations for gene ontology and pathways indicated that soybean adapts to salt stress through ABA biosynthesis and regulation of translation and signal transduction of structural genes. Manipulation of these pathways may mitigate the effect of salt stress thus enhancing salt tolerance. PMID:23209559

Ali, Zulfiqar; Zhang, Da Yong; Xu, Zhao Long; Xu, Ling; Yi, Jin Xin; He, Xiao Lan; Huang, Yi Hong; Liu, Xiao Qing; Khan, Asif Ali; Trethowan, Richard M.; Ma, Hong Xiang



Molecular footprints of domestication and improvement in soybean revealed by whole genome re-sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Artificial selection played an important role in the origin of modern Glycine max cultivars from the wild soybean Glycine soja. To elucidate the consequences of artificial selection accompanying the domestication and modern improvement of soybean, 25 new and 30 published whole-genome re-sequencing accessions, which represent wild, domesticated landrace, and Chinese elite soybean populations were analyzed. Results A total of 5,102,244 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 707,969 insertion/deletions were identified. Among the SNPs detected, 25.5% were not described previously. We found that artificial selection during domestication led to more pronounced reduction in the genetic diversity of soybean than the switch from landraces to elite cultivars. Only a small proportion (2.99%) of the whole genomic regions appear to be affected by artificial selection for preferred agricultural traits. The selection regions were not distributed randomly or uniformly throughout the genome. Instead, clusters of selection hotspots in certain genomic regions were observed. Moreover, a set of candidate genes (4.38% of the total annotated genes) significantly affected by selection underlying soybean domestication and genetic improvement were identified. Conclusions Given the uniqueness of the soybean germplasm sequenced, this study drew a clear picture of human-mediated evolution of the soybean genomes. The genomic resources and information provided by this study would also facilitate the discovery of genes/loci underlying agronomically important traits. PMID:23984715



Dt2 is a gain-of-function MADS-domain factor gene that specifies semideterminacy in soybean.  


Similar to Arabidopsis thaliana, the wild soybeans (Glycine soja) and many cultivars exhibit indeterminate stem growth specified by the shoot identity gene Dt1, the functional counterpart of Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1). Mutations in TFL1 and Dt1 both result in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) switching from vegetative to reproductive state to initiate terminal flowering and thus produce determinate stems. A second soybean gene (Dt2) regulating stem growth was identified, which, in the presence of Dt1, produces semideterminate plants with terminal racemes similar to those observed in determinate plants. Here, we report positional cloning and characterization of Dt2, a dominant MADS domain factor gene classified into the APETALA1/SQUAMOSA (AP1/SQUA) subfamily that includes floral meristem (FM) identity genes AP1, FUL, and CAL in Arabidopsis. Unlike AP1, whose expression is limited to FMs in which the expression of TFL1 is repressed, Dt2 appears to repress the expression of Dt1 in the SAMs to promote early conversion of the SAMs into reproductive inflorescences. Given that Dt2 is not the gene most closely related to AP1 and that semideterminacy is rarely seen in wild soybeans, Dt2 appears to be a recent gain-of-function mutation, which has modified the genetic pathways determining the stem growth habit in soybean. PMID:25005919

Ping, Jieqing; Liu, Yunfeng; Sun, Lianjun; Zhao, Meixia; Li, Yinghui; She, Maoyun; Sui, Yi; Lin, Feng; Liu, Xiaodong; Tang, Zongxiang; Nguyen, Hanh; Tian, Zhixi; Qiu, Lijuan; Nelson, Randall L; Clemente, Thomas E; Specht, James E; Ma, Jianxin



Computational Identification and Characterization of Novel Genes from Legumes1[w  

PubMed Central

The Fabaceae, the third largest family of plants and the source of many crops, has been the target of many genomic studies. Currently, only the grasses surpass the legumes for the number of publicly available expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The quantity of sequences from diverse plants enables the use of computational approaches to identify novel genes in specific taxa. We used BLAST algorithms to compare unigene sets from Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, and soybean (Glycine max and Glycine soja) to nonlegume unigene sets, to GenBank's nonredundant and EST databases, and to the genomic sequences of rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis. As a working definition, putatively legume-specific genes had no sequence homology, below a specified threshold, to publicly available sequences of nonlegumes. Using this approach, 2,525 legume-specific EST contigs were identified, of which less than three percent had clear homology to previously characterized legume genes. As a first step toward predicting function, related sequences were clustered to build motifs that could be searched against protein databases. Three families of interest were more deeply characterized: F-box related proteins, Pro-rich proteins, and Cys cluster proteins (CCPs). Of particular interest were the >300 CCPs, primarily from nodules or seeds, with predicted similarity to defensins. Motif searching also identified several previously unknown CCP-like open reading frames in Arabidopsis. Evolutionary analyses of the genomic sequences of several CCPs in M. truncatula suggest that this family has evolved by local duplications and divergent selection. PMID:15266052

Graham, Michelle A.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.; Cannon, Steven B.; VandenBosch, Kathryn A.



Pseudorecombination between Two Distinct Strains of Cucumber mosaic virus Results in Enhancement of Symptom Severity  

PubMed Central

Recently, a Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain, named as CMV-209, was isolated from Glycine soja. In this study, symptom expression of CMV-209 was analyzed in detail in Nicotiana benthamiana by comparing with that of CMV-Fny, which is a representative strain of CMV. Using infectious cDNA clones of CMV strains 209 and Fny, symptom expression of various pseudorecombinants between these two strains were examined in the early and late infection stages. In the early infection stage, the pseudorecombinants containing Fny-RNA2 induced stunting and leaf distortion on the newly emerged leaves whereas the pseudorecombinants containing 209-RNA2 caused no obvious symptoms. In the late infection stage, the pseudorecombinants containing 209-RNA1 and Fny-RNA2 induced severe leaf distortion and stunting, while CMV-209 induced mild symptom and CMV-Fny caused typical mosaic, general stunting, and leaf distortion symptoms, indicating that RNA 2 encodes a symptom determinant(s) of CMV, which is capable of enhancing symptoms. Furthermore, our results support the possibility that natural recombination between compatible viruses can result in emergence of novel viruses causing severe damages in crop fields.

Phan, Mi Sa Vo; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Kook-Hyung



Tryptophan biosynthesis in stramenopiles: eukaryotic winners in the diatom complex chloroplast.  


Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that, in eukaryotes, is synthesized either in the plastids of photoautotrophs or in the cytosol of fungi and oomycetes. Here we present an in silico analysis of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway in stramenopiles, based on analysis of the genomes of the oomycetes Phytophthora sojae and P. ramorum and the diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Although the complete pathway is putatively located in the complex chloroplast of diatoms, only one of the involved enzymes, indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (InGPS), displays a possible cyanobacterial origin. On the other hand, in P. tricornutum this gene is fused with the cyanobacteria-derived hypothetical protein COG4398. Anthranilate synthase is also fused in diatoms. This fusion gene is almost certainly of bacterial origin, although the particular source of the gene cannot be resolved. All other diatom enzymes originate from the nucleus of the primary host (red alga) or secondary host (ancestor of chromalveolates). The entire pathway is of eukaryotic origin and cytosolic localization in oomycetes; however, one of the enzymes, anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase, was likely transferred to the oomycete nucleus from the red algal nucleus during secondary endosymbiosis. This suggests possible retention of the complex plastid in the ancestor of stramenopiles and later loss of this organelle in oomycetes. PMID:17938992

Jiroutová, Katerina; Horák, Ales; Bowler, Chris; Oborník, Miroslav



Pep-13, a plant defense-inducing pathogen-associated pattern from Phytophthora transglutaminases.  


Innate immunity, an ancient form of defense against microbial infection, is well described for animals and is also suggested to be important for plants. Discrimination from self is achieved through receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) not found in the host. PAMPs are evolutionarily conserved structures which are functionally important and, thus, not subject to frequent mutation. Here we report that the previously described peptide elicitor of defense responses in parsley, Pep-13, constitutes a surface-exposed fragment within a novel calcium-dependent cell wall transglutaminase (TGase) from Phytophthora sojae. TGase transcripts and TGase activity are detectable in all Phytophthora species analyzed, among which are some of the most destructive plant pathogens. Mutational analysis within Pep-13 identified the same amino acids indispensable for both TGase and defense-eliciting activity. Pep-13, conserved among Phytophthora TGases, activates defense in parsley and potato, suggesting its function as a genus-specific recognition determinant for the activation of plant defense in host and non-host plants. In summary, plants may recognize PAMPs with characteristics resembling those known to trigger innate immune responses in animals. PMID:12485989

Brunner, Frédéric; Rosahl, Sabine; Lee, Justin; Rudd, Jason J; Geiler, Carola; Kauppinen, Sakari; Rasmussen, Grethe; Scheel, Dierk; Nürnberger, Thorsten



Ensifer meliloti bv. lancerottense establishes nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and shows distinctive symbiotic genotypes and host range.  


Eleven strains were isolated from root nodules of Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and they belonged to the genus Ensifer, a genus never previously described as a symbiont of Lotus. According to their 16S rRNA and atpD gene sequences, two isolates represented minority genotypes that could belong to previously undescribed Ensifer species, but most of the isolates were classified within the species Ensifer meliloti. These isolates nodulated Lotus lancerottensis, Lotus corniculatus and Lotus japonicus, whereas Lotus tenuis and Lotus uliginosus were more restrictive hosts. However, effective nitrogen fixation only occurred with the endemic L. lancerottensis. The E. meliloti strains did not nodulate Medicago sativa, Medicago laciniata Glycine max or Glycine soja, but induced non-fixing nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris roots. nodC and nifH symbiotic gene phylogenies showed that the E. meliloti symbionts of Lotus markedly diverged from strains of Mesorhizobium loti, the usual symbionts of Lotus, as well as from the three biovars (bv. meliloti, bv. medicaginis, and bv. mediterranense) so far described within E. meliloti. Indeed, the nodC and nifH genes from the E. meliloti isolates from Lotus represented unique symbiotic genotypes. According to their symbiotic gene sequences and host range, the Lotus symbionts would represent a new biovar of E. meliloti for which bv. lancerottense is proposed. PMID:19477097

León-Barrios, Milagros; Lorite, María José; Donate-Correa, Javier; Sanjuán, Juan



Phylogenetic relationship of Lotus uliginosus symbionts with bradyrhizobia nodulating genistoid legumes.  


Lotus species are legumes with potential for pastures in soils with low-fertility and environmental constraints. The aim of this work was to characterize bacteria that establish efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the forage species Lotus uliginosus. A total of 39 isolates were obtained from nodules of L. uliginosus naturally growing in two different locations of Portugal. Molecular identification of the isolates plus the commercial inoculant strain NZP2039 was performed by REP-PCR, 16S rRNA RFLP, and 16S rRNA, glnII and recA sequence analyses. Limited genetic diversity was found among the L. uliginosus symbionts, which showed a close phylogenetic relationship with the species Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The symbiotic nifH, nodA and nodC gene sequences were closely related with the corresponding genes of various Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from Lupinus and other genistoid legumes and therefore were phylogenetically separated from other Lotus spp. rhizobia. The L. uliginosus bradyrhizobia were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in association with L. uliginosus, could nodulate Lotus corniculatus with generally poor nitrogen-fixing efficiency, formed nonfixing nodules in Lotus tenuis and Lupinus luteus roots and were unable to nodulate Glycine soja or Glycine max. Thus, L. uliginosus rhizobia seem closely related to B. japonicum biovar genistearum strains. PMID:22092879

Lorite, María J; Videira e Castro, Isabel; Muñoz, Socorro; Sanjuán, Juan



Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis Resistant Glycine Lines  

PubMed Central

Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the mid-South region of the United States. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen. Sixty-one wild and domestic soybean lines were evaluated in replicated growth chamber tests. Six previously untested soybean lines with useful levels of resistance to reniform nematode were identified in both initial screening and subsequent confirmation tests: released germplasm lines DS4-SCN05 (PI 656647) and DS-880 (PI 659348); accession PI 567516 C; and breeding lines DS97-84-1, 02011-126-1-1-2-1 and 02011-126-1-1-5-1. Eleven previously untested moderately susceptible or susceptible lines were also identified: released germplasm lines D68-0099 (PI 573285) and LG01-5087-5; accessions PI 200538, PI 416937, PI 423941, PI 437697, PI 467312, PI 468916, PI 594692, and PI 603751 A; and cultivar Stafford (PI 508269). Results of previously tested lines evaluated in the current study agreed with published reports 69.6% of the time for resistant lines and 87.5% of the time for susceptible lines. Soybean breeders may benefit from incorporating the newly identified resistant lines into their breeding programs. PMID:24643425

Stetina, Salliana R.; Smith, James R.; Ray, Jeffery D.



Host-Pathogen Interactions  

PubMed Central

An elicitor of glyceollin accumulation in soybeans (Glycine max L.) has been isolated from a commercially available extract of brewers' yeast. Yeast is not a known pathogen of plants. The elicitor was isolated by precipitation in 80% (v/v) ethanol followed by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, sulfopropyl-Sephadex, and concanavalin A-Sepharose. Compositional and structural analysis showed the elicitor to be a glucan containing terminal, 3-, 6-, and 3,6-linked glucosyl residues. The yeast elicitor stimulates the accumulation of glyceollin in the cotyledons and hypocotyls of soybeans when as little as 15 nanograms or 100 nanograms of the elicitor is applied to the respective tissues. The yeast elicitor is very similar in both structure and absolute elicitor activity to an elicitor isolated from the mycelial walls of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae, a pathogen of soybeans. These and other results of this laboratory suggest that plants are able to respond to the presence of a wide range of fungi by recognizing, as foreign to the plant, structural polysaccharides of the mycelial walls of the fungi. PMID:16660446

Hahn, Michael G.; Albersheim, Peter



Host-Pathogen Interactions  

PubMed Central

Resistance of soybean (Glycine max L.) seedlings to Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae (Pms) is in part due to the accumulation in infected tissue of a compound which is toxic to Pms. The accumulation of this compound, a phytoalexin called glyceollin, is triggered by infection, but it can also be triggered by molecules, “elicitors,” present in cultures of Pms. The ability of the Pms elicitor to stimulate phytoalexin accumulation in soybean tissues has been used as the basis for biological assays of elicitor activity. Two bioassays were developed and characterized in this study of the Pms elicitor. These bioassays use the cotyledons and the hypocotyls of soybean seedlings. The cotyledon assay was used to characterize the extracellular Pms elicitor. This elicitor was isolated from Pms cultures and purified by ion exchange and molecular sieving chromatography. The extracellular Pms elicitor was determined to be a predominantly 3-linked glucan, which is similar in composition and structure to a polysaccharide component of Pms mycelial walls. PMID:16659565

Ayers, Arthur R.; Ebel, Jurgen; Finelli, Frederick; Berger, Nathan; Albersheim, Peter



Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.  


In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work. PMID:24204767

Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R; Kasschau, Kristin D; Cuperus, Josh T; Press, Caroline M; Sullivan, Christopher M; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Hoyer, J Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Carrington, James C



Major Soybean Maturity Gene Haplotypes Revealed by SNPViz Analysis of 72 Sequenced Soybean Genomes  

PubMed Central

In this Genomics Era, vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data have become publicly available for multiple genomes across hundreds of species. Analyses of these large-scale datasets can become cumbersome, especially when comparing nucleotide polymorphisms across many samples within a dataset and among different datasets or organisms. To facilitate the exploration of allelic variation and diversity, we have developed and deployed an in-house computer software to categorize and visualize these haplotypes. The SNPViz software enables users to analyze region-specific haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) datasets for different sequenced genomes. The examination of allelic variation and diversity of important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] flowering time and maturity genes may provide additional insight into flowering time regulation and enhance researchers' ability to target soybean breeding for particular environments. For this study, we utilized two available soybean genomic datasets for a total of 72 soybean genotypes encompassing cultivars, landraces, and the wild species Glycine soja. The major soybean maturity genes E1, E2, E3, and E4 along with the Dt1 gene for plant growth architecture were analyzed in an effort to determine the number of major haplotypes for each gene, to evaluate the consistency of the haplotypes with characterized variant alleles, and to identify evidence of artificial selection. The results indicated classification of a small number of predominant haplogroups for each gene and important insights into possible allelic diversity for each gene within the context of known causative mutations. The software has both a stand-alone and web-based version and can be used to analyze other genes, examine additional soybean datasets, and view similar genome sequence and SNP datasets from other species. PMID:24727730

Langewisch, Tiffany; Zhang, Hongxin; Vincent, Ryan; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Bilyeu, Kristin



Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov., a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium from root nodules of soybeans in Canada  

PubMed Central

Sixteen strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of Glycine max grown in Ottawa, Canada, were previously characterized and placed in a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized using a polyphasic approach. All strains possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that were 99.79?% similar to the closest relative, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense LMG 18230T. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated atpD, glnII, recA, gyrB, rpoB and dnaK genes divided the 16 strains into three multilocus sequence types that were placed in a highly supported lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium consistent with results of DNA–DNA hybridization. Based on analysis of symbiosis gene sequences (nodC and nifH), all novel strains were placed in a phylogenetic group with five species of the genus Bradyrhizobium that nodulate soybeans. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests including carbon and nitrogen source utilization and antibiotic resistance could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Novel strain OO99T elicits effective nodules on Glycine max, Glycine soja and Macroptilium atropurpureum, partially effective nodules on Desmodium canadense and Vigna unguiculata, and ineffective nodules on Amphicarpaea bracteata and Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on the data presented, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov. is proposed, with OO99T (?=?LMG 26739T?=?HAMBI 3284T) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content is 62.6 mol%. PMID:24969302

Yu, Xiumei; Cloutier, Sylvie; Tambong, James T.



Study of the refirming effect of a plant complex.  


Loss of skin elasticity is one of the main problems of ageing. This is a mechanical property influenced by elastin, a protein in the dermis which, together with collagen and glycosaminoglycans, makes up the connective tissue. This tissue is affected by a large number of events (such as cutaneous ageing, pregnancy, slimming processes and cellulitis) which eventually cause it to change. At the same time, the metabolism of the proteins of the connective tissue decreases and there is an ever greater presence of enzymes, principally elastases and collagenases, which are responsible for breaking down the elastin and the collagen. One way to prevent such a loss of elasticity is to use active ingredients that are able to inhibit elastase enzymes. A plant complex was prepared using the following plants: lady's thistle (Silybum marianum GAERTN), alchemilla or yarrow (Alchemilla vulgaris L.), horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) as well as germinated seeds (Glycine soja Siebold and Zucc., Triticum vulgare Vilars, Medicago sativa L., Raphanus sativus L.). The complex was standardized to give the corresponding active principles, silybin, tannins, silicon and peptides, respectively, and in vitro enzymatic tests were carried out to establish its ability to inhibit elastase. The study of enzymatic inhibition was carried out using two enzymes: (1) porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), and (2) human leukocyte elastase (HLE). The results showed that the plant complex presents non-competitive inhibition in the order of 41.0% against PPE and 50.0% against HLE. An in vivo test was made alongside the in vitro test using an SEM 474 Cutometer (Courage & Khazaka) to study the elasticity of the skin, and positive effects were obtained when applying a cosmetic formulation containing 5% of the plant complex. Image analysis of duplicates of the cutaneous surface, before and after treatment began with a product containing 5% of plant complex and showed that wrinkles were decreased by 36.7%. PMID:18505506

Benaiges, A; Marcet, P; Armengol, R; Betes, C; Gironés, E



Phytophthora niederhauserii sp. nov., a polyphagous species associated with ornamentals, fruit trees and native plants in 13 countries.  


A non-papillate, heterothallic Phytophthora species first isolated in 2001 and subsequently from symptomatic roots, crowns and stems of 33 plant species in 25 unrelated botanical families from 13 countries is formally described here as a new species. Symptoms on various hosts included crown and stem rot, chlorosis, wilting, leaf blight, cankers and gumming. This species was isolated from Australia, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, the United Kingdom and United States in association with shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals grown mainly in greenhouses. The most prevalent hosts are English ivy (Hedera helix) and Cistus (Cistus salvifolius). The association of the species with acorn banksia (Banksia prionotes) plants in natural ecosystems in Australia, in affected vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in South Africa and almond (Prunus dulcis) trees in Spain and Turkey in addition to infection of shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals in a broad range of unrelated families are a sign of a wide ecological adaptation of the species and its potential threat to agricultural and natural ecosystems. The morphology of the persistent non-papillate ellipsoid sporangia, unique toruloid lobate hyphal swellings and amphigynous antheridia does not match any of the described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the ITS rDNA, EF-1?, and ?-tub supported that this organism is a hitherto unknown species. It is closely related to species in ITS clade 7b with the most closely related species being P. sojae. The name Phytophthora niederhauserii has been used in previous studies without the formal description of the holotype. This name is validated in this manuscript with the formal description of Phytophthora niederhauserii Z.G. Abad et J.A. Abad, sp. nov. The name is coined to honor Dr John S. Niederhauser, a notable plant pathologist and the 1990 World Food Prize laureate. PMID:24871599

Abad, Z Gloria; Abad, Jorge A; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Pane, Antonella; Faedda, Roberto; Moralejo, Eduardo; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; Abad-Campos, Paloma; Alvarez-Bernaola, Luis A; Bakonyi, József; Józsa, András; Herrero, Maria Luz; Burgess, Treena I; Cunnington, James H; Smith, Ian W; Balci, Yilmaz; Blomquist, Cheryl; Henricot, Béatrice; Denton, Geoffrey; Spies, Chris; Mcleod, Adele; Belbahri, Lassaad; Cooke, David; Kageyama, Koji; Uematsu, Seiji; Kurbetli, Ilker; De?irmenci, Kemal



Ectopic Expression of GsPPCK3 and SCMRP in Medicago sativa Enhances Plant Alkaline Stress Tolerance and Methionine Content  

PubMed Central

So far, it has been suggested that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs) and PEPC kinases (PPCKs) fulfill several important non-photosynthetic functions. However, the biological functions of soybean PPCKs, especially in alkali stress response, are not yet well known. In previous studies, we constructed a Glycine soja transcriptional profile, and identified three PPCK genes (GsPPCK1, GsPPCK2 and GsPPCK3) as potential alkali stress responsive genes. In this study, we confirmed the induced expression of GsPPCK3 under alkali stress and investigated its tissue expression specificity by using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Then we ectopically expressed GsPPCK3 in Medicago sativa and found that GsPPCK3 overexpression improved plant alkali tolerance, as evidenced by lower levels of relative ion leakage and MDA content and higher levels of chlorophyll content and root activity. In this respect, we further co-transformed the GsPPCK3 and SCMRP genes into alfalfa, and demonstrated the increased alkali tolerance of GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines. Further investigation revealed that GsPPCK3-SCMRP co-overexpression promoted the PEPC activity, net photosynthetic rate and citric acid content of transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. Moreover, we also observed the up-regulated expression of PEPC, CS (citrate synthase), H+-ATPase and NADP-ME genes in GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. As expected, we demonstrated that GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines displayed higher methionine content than wild type alfalfa. Taken together, results presented in this study supported the positive role of GsPPCK3 in plant response to alkali stress, and provided an effective way to simultaneously improve plant alkaline tolerance and methionine content, at least in legume crops. PMID:24586886

Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Chaoyue; DuanMu, Huizi; Yu, Yang; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming



Overexpression of GsZFP1 enhances salt and drought tolerance in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).  


GsZFP1 encodes a Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein. In our previous study, when GsZFP1 was heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited enhanced drought and cold tolerance. However, it is still unknown whether GsZFP1 is also involved in salt stress. GsZFP1 is from the wild legume Glycine soja. Therefore, the aims of this study were to further elucidate the functions of the GsZFP1 gene under salt and drought stress in the forage legume alfalfa and to investigate its biochemical and physiological functions under these stress conditions. Our data showed that overexpression of GsZFP1 in alfalfa resulted in enhanced salt tolerance. Under high salinity stress, greater relative membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were observed and more free proline and soluble sugars accumulated in transgenic alfalfa than in the wild-type (WT) plants; in addition, the transgenic lines accumulated less Na(+) and more K(+) in both the shoots and roots. Overexpression of GsZFP1 also enhanced the drought tolerance of alfalfa. The fold-inductions of stress-responsive marker gene expression, including MtCOR47, MtRAB18, MtP5CS, and MtRD2, were greater in transgenic alfalfa than those of WT under drought stress conditions. In conclusion, the transgenic alfalfa plants generated in this study could be used for farming in salt-affected as well as arid and semi-arid areas. PMID:23867600

Tang, Lili; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Luo, Xiao; Wang, Zhenyu; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xuedong; Cui, Lin; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Yanming; Bai, Xi



Assessment of green cleaning effectiveness on polychrome surfaces by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and microscopic imaging.  


This article proposes an innovative methodology which employs nondestructive techniques to assess the effectiveness of new formulations based on ionic liquids, as alternative solvents for enzymes (proteases), for the removal of proteinaceous materials from painted surfaces during restoration treatments. Ionic liquids (ILs), also known as "designer" solvents, because of their peculiar properties which can be adjusted by selecting different cation-anion combinations, are potentially green solvents due totheir low vapour pressure. In this study, two ionic liquids were selected: IL1 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4 ])) and IL2 (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate ([EMIM][EtSO4 ])). New formulations were prepared with these ILs and two different proteases (E): one acid (E1-pepsin) and one alkaline (E2-obtained from Aspergillus sojae). These formulations were tested on tempera and oil mock-up samples, prepared in accordance with historically documented recipes, and covered with two different types of protein-based varnishes (egg white and isinglass-fish glue). A noninvasive multiscale imaging methodology was applied before and after the treatment to evaluate the cleaning's effectiveness. Different microscopic techniques-optical microscopy (OM) with visible and fluorescent light, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-together with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) were applied on areas cleaned with the new formulations (IL?+?E) and reference areas cleaned only with the commercial enzyme formulations (gels). MALDI-TOF proved particularly very useful for comparing the diversity and abundance of peptides released by using different enzymatic systems. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:574-585, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24825619

Hrdlickova Kuckova, Stepanka; Crhova Krizkova, Michaela; Pereira, Catarina Luísa Cortes; Hynek, Radovan; Lavrova, Olga; Busani, Tito; Branco, Luis Cobra; Sandu, Irina Crina Anca



Overexpression of GmCaM4 in soybean enhances resistance to pathogens and tolerance to salt stress.  


Plant diseases inflict heavy losses on soybean yield, necessitating an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying biotic/abiotic stress responses. Ca(2) (+) is an important universal messenger, and protein sensors, prominently calmodulins (CaMs), recognize cellular changes in Ca(2) (+) in response to diverse signals. Because the development of stable transgenic soybeans is laborious and time consuming, we used the Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-based vector for rapid and efficient protein expression and gene silencing. The present study focuses on the functional roles of the gene encoding the soybean CaM isoform GmCaM4. Overexpression of GmCaM4 in soybean resulted in enhanced resistance to three plant pathogens and increased tolerance to high salt conditions. To gain an understanding of the underlying mechanisms, we examined the potential defence pathways involved. Our studies revealed activation/increased expression levels of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in GmCaM4-overexpressing plants and the accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA). Silencing of GmCaM4, however, markedly repressed the expression of PR genes. We confirmed the in vivo interaction between GmCaM4 and the CaM binding transcription factor Myb2, which regulates the expression of salt-responsive genes, using the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. GmCaM4 and Glycine max CaM binding receptor-like kinase (GmCBRLK) did not interact in the Y2H assays, but the interaction between GmCaM2 and GmCBRLK was confirmed. Thus, a GmCaM2-GmCBRLK-mediated salt tolerance mechanism, similar to that reported in Glycine soja, may also be functional in soybean. Confocal microscopy showed subcellular localization of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-GmCaM4 fusion protein in the nucleus and cytoplasm. PMID:24118726

Rao, Suryadevara S; El-Habbak, Mohamed H; Havens, Wendy M; Singh, Ajay; Zheng, Danman; Vaughn, Laura; Haudenshield, James S; Hartman, Glen L; Korban, Schuyler S; Ghabrial, Said A



DNA sequence polymorphism of the Rhg4 candidate gene conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode in Chinese domesticated and wild soybeans.  


Rhg4 is one of the major resistant genes conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode races 1, 3 and 4. In order to better understand its sequence diversity among different Chinese soybean populations and the impact of human activities on it, we designed 5 primer sets based on its sequence deposited in Genbank (Genbank accession No. AF506518) to obtain the Rhg4 sequence from 104 Chinese cultivated and wild soybean genotypes, and then analyzed the DNA sequence polymorphism in different Chinese soybean populations. The alignment of Rhg4 sequence included 5,216 nucleotide base pairs. A total of 67 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 59 single base changes and 8 DNA insertion-deletions (InDels) were identified with a SNP frequency of 1/78. Except for a 14-base InDel, there were 29 SNPs in coding regions, and among them, 13 were non-synonymous (9 in functional domains with 1 in a leucine-rich repeats region, 2 in a transmembrane region and 6 in a Ser/Thr kinase domain). The probability of substitution at each site was not the same, there were two hot spots, one was in the 5'-untranslated region between positions 124 and 804, and the other was in the region between positions 2520 and 3733. Sequence diversity analysis among 104 soybean genotypes showed ? = 0.00102 and ? = 0.00218 for Rhg4. A domestication bottleneck was found because of lower sequence diversity and 58% unique SNPs loss in landraces compared with Glycine soja. Intensive selection increased the sequence diversity of cultivars, which had higher diversity and more unique SNPs than landraces. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-012-9703-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22924021

Yuan, Cui-Ping; Li, Ying-Hui; Liu, Zhang-Xiong; Guan, Rong-Xia; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Qiu, Li-Juan



Novel core promoter elements in the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans and their influence on expression detected by genome-wide analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The core promoter is the region flanking the transcription start site (TSS) that directs formation of the pre-initiation complex. Core promoters have been studied intensively in mammals and yeast, but not in more diverse eukaryotes. Here we investigate core promoters in oomycetes, a group within the Stramenopile kingdom that includes important plant and animal pathogens. Prior studies of a small collection of genes proposed that oomycete core promoters contain a 16 to 19 nt motif bearing an Initiator-like sequence (INR) flanked by a novel sequence named FPR, but this has not been extended to whole-genome analysis. Results We used expectation maximization to find over-represented motifs near TSSs of Phytophthora infestans, the potato blight pathogen. The motifs corresponded to INR, FPR, and a new element found about 25 nt downstream of the TSS called DPEP. TATA boxes were not detected. Assays of DPEP function by mutagenesis were consistent with its role as a core motif. Genome-wide searches found a well-conserved combined INR+FPR in only about 13% of genes after correcting for false discovery, which contradicted prior reports that INR and FPR are found together in most genes. INR or FPR were found alone near TSSs in 18% and 7% of genes, respectively. Promoters lacking the motifs had pyrimidine-rich regions near the TSS. The combined INR+FPR motif was linked to higher than average mRNA levels, developmentally-regulated transcription, and functions related to plant infection, while DPEP and FPR were over-represented in constitutively-expressed genes. The INR, FPR, and combined INR+FPR motifs were detected in other oomycetes including Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, Phytophthora sojae, Pythium ultimum, and Saprolegnia parasitica, while DPEP was found in all but S. parasitica. Only INR seemed present in a non-oomycete stramenopile. Conclusions The absence of a TATA box and presence of novel motifs show that the oomycete core promoter is diverged from that of model systems, and likely explains the lack of activity of non-oomycete promoters in Phytophthora transformants. The association of the INR+FPR motif with developmentally-regulated genes shows that oomycete core elements influence stage-specific transcription in addition to regulating formation of the pre-initiation complex. PMID:23414203



[Consumption of a supplemented food by pregnant women and wet nurses in a Ribeirão Preto health unit, Brazil].  


The Secretary of Health of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, has implemented a program of supplemental nutrition to pregnant and nursing mothers in all health units. Objective of this work was to verify the acceptability of the program and of the supplemental food itself, Gestal, a protein supplement composed of 15% milk, 5% soja, 35% sugar, and 25% millet flour. Gestal comes in 5 different flavors, in cans or in plastic bags of 500 g. 6 units are given to pregnant mothers, and 9 to nursing mothers; they are to be consumed in 1 month, in a dose of 150 g a day. 54 pregnant and 55 breastfeeding mothers attending the health unit of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, were observed for a period of 6 months, and a questionnaire was filled in. 36.69% of mothers preferred the marango flavor, 28.44% the coconut flavor, 10.09% the vanilla flavor, 12.84% the natural flavor, and 9.17% the caramel flavor; in addition, 0.91% liked all flavors, and 1.83% disliked all flavors. 28.44% of mothers prepared Gestal with milk, 20.18% with milk and water, and 51.37% with water. Only 33% of mothers consumed the given amount of Gestal by themselves; of these, 47.5% liked it, 17.2% were indifferent to it, and 14.3% disliked it. 30.3% of mothers shared Gestal with their children; of these 37.2% liked it, 20.6% were indifferent, and 61.9% disliked it. 36.7% of mothers did not consume the given amount within a month; of these 15.2% liked the product, 62.1% were indifferent, and 61.9% disliked it. It was obvious from these results that the mothers were not following recommendations for intake of supplemental food. 54 mothers were chosen at random to be visited at home; of the 33 who could be reached 70% had stopped taking Gestal either because the food had dried, or for fear of getting fat, for the death of the child, or even under a doctor's recommendation. The sharing of supplemental food with the family is a frequent reality which is impossible to control, since it implies emotional as well as socioeconomic factors. A program of orientation especially directed to recipient of supplemental food, together with a closer examination of the families involved, may obtain better results. PMID:7345558

Costa, J; Taliberti, M P



Genetic characterization of Phytophthora nicotianae by the analysis of polymorphic regions of the mitochondrial DNA.  


A new method based on the analysis of mitochondrial intergenic regions characterized by intraspecific variation in DNA sequences was developed and applied to the study of the plant pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae. Two regions flanked by genes trnY and rns and trnW and cox2 were identified by comparing the whole mitochondrial genomes of Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora ramorum, and Phytophthora sojae and amplified using primers designed from the flanking conserved genes. These regions were sequenced from 51 isolates of P. nicotianae of both A1 and A2 mating type recovered from different hosts and geographic regions. Amplicon length varied from 429bp to 443bp (trnY/rns) and 322bp to 373bp (trnW/cox2) with intraspecific variation due to single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels. Seventeen, seven and 20 different haplotypes were detected by individually analyzing regions trnY-rns, trnW-cox2 and the combined data set of sequences from both regions, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis inferred with three different methods enabled the grouping of isolates in five clades, each containing different mitochondrial haplotypes and revealed diversity in the mitochondrial genome of P. nicotianae. The majority of isolates from citrus grouped in a single clade indicating either movement of isolates on planting stock or an association of particular isolates with this host. Phylogenetic groups were not correlated with the radial growth rate of the isolates or the rapidity of apple flesh colonization. The method developed in the present study represents an innovative molecular tool for the characterization of natural populations of P. nicotianae and should be easily expanded to other species of Phytophthora as well as other plant pathogens. It can be used to track specific haplotypes and, thanks to its high genetic resolution, it could be standardized and applied in a DNA barcoding like strategy for the precise identification of sub-specific taxa. Compared to alternative molecular methods, a major advantage is that results are unbiased (a list of nucleotides) and highly reproducible, thus enabling the comparison of data from different laboratories and time periods. Furthermore, the method could be further enhanced by the identification of additional variable mitochondrial and/or nuclear genomic regions. PMID:21530925

Mammella, Marco Antonio; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Martin, Frank; Schena, Leonardo



Basaltic Martian analogues from the Baikal Rift Zone and Mongolian terranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to compare the results of studies of the western part of the Valles Marineris canyon on Mars there have been done field works on terrestrial surface areas similar with regard to geological setting and environmental conditions. One of the possible terrestrial analogues of the Valles Marineris canyon is the Baikal Rift Zone [1]. Field investigations have been done on the south end of the Baikal Lake, in the Khamar-Daban massif, where the outcrops of volcanic rocks occur. The second part of the field works has been done in the Mongolian terranes: Mandalovoo, Gobi Altay and Bayanhongor, because of environmental conditions being similar to those on Mars. The Mandalovoo terrane comprises a nearly continuous Paleozoic islandarc sequence [2]. In the Gobi Altay terrane an older sequence is capped by younger Devonian-Triassic volcanic-sedimentary deposits [2]. The Bayanhongor terrane forms a northwest-trending, discontinuous, narrow belt that consists of a large ophiolite allochton [3]. The collected samples of basalts derive from various geologic environments. The CORONA satellite-images have been used for the imaging of the Khamar-Daban massif and the Mandalovoo terrane. These images have the same spatial resolution and range as the Mars Orbiter Camera images of the Mars Global Surveyor mission. In the Mandalovoo terrane these images allowed to find an area with large amounts of tectonic structures, mainly faults (part of the Ongi massif), similar to the studied area on Mars. Microscopic observations in thin sections show diversification of composition and structures of basalts. These rocks have mostly a porphyric structure, rarely aphyric. The main components are plagioclases, pyroxenes and olivines phenocrysts, in different proportions. The groundmass usually consist of plagioclases, pyroxenes and opaques. The most diversified are basalts from the Mandalovoo terrane. Infrared spectroscopy has been used to analyse the composition of the rock material and compare these results with those of Martian missions. The range of the recorded spectra is from 400 to 2000 cm-1. Characteristic absorption bands in the spectra confirm the presence of minerals observed in thin sections and moreover, indicate the presence of leucite, analcime and saponite. The analyzed spectra have been compared with those of the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer of the Mars Express mission. The long wavelength channel of this spectrometer has a similar spectral range, from 230 to 2000 cm-1. This comparison indicates the similar absorption bands of clinopyroxenes in both spectra. References: [1] Komatsu G. (2003) Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXIV, abstract 1314. [2] Soja C. M. and White B. (2006) Geol. Soc. Amer., 38, 90. [3] Parfenov L. M. et al. (2002) Northeast Asia geodynamics map.

Gurgurewicz, J.; Kostylew, J.



Pyramided QTL underlying tolerance to Phytophthora root rot in mega-environments from soybean cultivars 'Conrad' and 'Hefeng 25'.  


Phytophthora root rot (PRR) of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is the second most important cause of yield loss by disease in North America, surpassed only by soybean cyst nematode (Wrather et al. in Can J Plant Pathol 23:115-121, 2001). Tolerance can provide economically useful disease control, conditioning partial resistance of soybean to PRR. The aims of this study were to identify new quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying tolerance to PRR, and to evaluate the effects of pyramided or stacked loci on the level of tolerance. A North American cultivar 'Conrad' (tolerant to PRR) was crossed with a northeastern China cultivar 'Hefeng 25' (tolerant to PRR). Through single-seed descent, 140 F2:5 and F2:6 recombinant inbred lines were advanced. A total of 164 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to construct a genetic linkage map. The percentage of seedling death was measured over 2 years (2007 and 2008) in the field at four naturally infested locations in Canada and China following additional soil infestation and in the greenhouse following inoculation with Phytophthora sojae isolate. A total of eight QTL underlying tolerance to PRR were identified, located in five linkage groups (F, D1b+w, A2, B1, and C2). The phenotypic variation contributed by the loci ranged from 4.24 to 27.98%. QPRR-1 (anchored in the interval of SSR markers Satt325 and Satt343 of LG F), QPRR-2 (anchored in the interval of Satt005 and Satt600 of LG D1b+w), and QPRR-3 (anchored in the interval of Satt579 and Sat_089 of LG D1b+w) derived their beneficial allele from 'Conrad'. They were located at chromosomal locations known to underlie PRR tolerance in diverse germplasm. Five QTL that derived beneficial alleles from 'Hefeng 25' were identified. The QTL (QPRR-1 to QPRR-7) that were detected across at least three environments were selected for loci stacking and to analyze the relationship between number of tolerance loci and disease loss percentage. The accumulation of tolerance loci was positively correlated with decreases in disease loss percentage. The pyramid of loci underlying tolerance to PRR provided germplasm useful for crop improvement by marker-assisted selection and may provide durable cultivar tolerance against the PRR disease. PMID:20390244

Li, Xiuping; Han, Yingpeng; Teng, Weili; Zhang, Shuzheng; Yu, Kangfu; Poysa, Vaino; Anderson, Terry; Ding, Junjie; Li, Wenbin



EDITORIAL: Ongoing climatic change in Northern Eurasia: justification for expedient research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview of the ongoing climatic and environmental changes in Northern Eurasia serves as an editorial introduction to this, the second, special Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) focus issue of Environmental Research Letters. Climatic changes in Northern Eurasia over the last hundred years are reflected in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial variables. Many of these are noticeably significant above the confidence level for 'weather' or other (fire regime, ecosystem change) noise and thus should be further investigated in order to adapt to their impacts. In this focus issue, we introduce assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change in Northern Eurasia. Most of these have been presented at one of the NEESPI workshops (for more information see and/or American Geophysical Union and European Geosciences Union NEESPI open sessions during the past year. These studies are diverse, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia. Some of these are focused on smaller spatial scales and/or address only specific aspects of the global change implications across the subcontinent. But the feeling (and observational evidence) that these changes have already been quite rapid and can have global implications inspires us to bring this suite of papers to the readers' attention. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia Contents Preface Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja Editorial Siberia integrated regional study: Multidisciplinary investigations of interrelation between Siberia environment dynamics and global climate change E P Gordov and E A Vaganov Studies of the energy and water cycles in Northern Eurasia Comparison and evaluation of gridded radiation products across northern Eurasia T J Troy and E F Wood Reanalysis data underestimate significant changes in growing season weather in Kazakhstan C K Wright, K M de Beurs, Z K Akhmadieva, P Y Groisman and G M Henebry Climate change in Inner Mongolia from 1955 to 2005—trends at regional, biome and local scales N Lu, B Wilske, J Ni, R John and J Chen Application of the Snowmelt Runoff model in the Kuban river basin using MODIS satellite images M V Georgievsky Record Russian river discharge in 2007 and the limits of analysis A I Shiklomanov and R B Lammers Paleoclimatic reconstructions for the south of Valdai Hills (European Russia) as paleo-analogs of possible regional vegetation changes under global warming E Novenko, A Olchev, O Desherevskaya and I Zuganova Diagnosis of the record discharge of Arctic-draining Eurasian rivers in 2007 Michael A Rawlins, Mark C Serreze, Ronny Schroeder, Xiangdong Zhang and Kyle C McDonald Studies of the cryosphere in Northern Eurasia Groundwater storage changes in arctic permafrost watersheds from GRACE and in situ measurements Reginald R Muskett and Vladimir E Romanovsky Changes in snow cover over Northern Eurasia in the last few decades O N Bulygina, V N Razuvaev and N N Korshunova Modeling sub-sea permafrost in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf: the Dmitry Laptev Strait D Nicolsky and N Shakhova Snow cover basal ice layer changes over Northern Eurasia since 1966 Olga N Bulygina, Pavel Ya Groisman, Vyacheslav N Razuvaev and Vladimir F Radionov Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries I M Shkolnik, E D Nadyozhina, T V Pavlova, E K Molkentin and A A Semioshina Studies of the biosphere in Northern Eurasia The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites A Bartsch, H Balzter and C George Change and persistence in land surface phenologies of the Don and Dnieper river basins V Kovalskyy and G M Henebry Effects of climatic changes on carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes in boreal forest ecosystems of European part of Russia A Olchev, E Novenko, O Desherevskaya, K Krasnorutskaya and J Kurbatova The effects of cli

Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.