Sample records for soja anticarsia gemmatalis

  1. Methods for Detection of Anticarsia gemmatalis Nucleopolyhedrovirus DNA in Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. DE MORAES; J. E. MARUNIAK; J. E. FUNDERBURK

    1999-01-01

    Two methods, phenol-ether and magnetic capture-hybridization (MCH), were developed and compared with regard to their sensitivities and abilities to extract the DNA of the insect baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) from soil and to produce DNA amplifiable by PCR. Laboratory experiments were performed with 0.25 g of autoclaved soil inoculated with different viral concentrations to optimize both methods of baculovirus

  2. In vitro and in vivo host range of Anticarsia Gemmatalis multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Grasela; Arthur H. McIntosh

    1998-01-01

    Summary  A clone of the wild type (wt) Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus AgMNPV, derived from a geographical isolate (Hondrina, Brazil) and designated AgMNPV-CL4-3A1,\\u000a was used to determine the host range of this virus in six established lepidopteran cell lines: Anticarsia gemmatalis (BCIRL-AG-AM1), Helicoverpa zea (BCIRL-HZ-AM1), Heliothis virescens (BCIRL-HV-AM1), Helicoverpa armigera (BCIRL-HA-AM1), Trichoplusia ni (TN-CL1), Bombyx mori (BMN), and a

  3. Growth, metabolism and baculovirus production in suspension cultures of an Anticarsia gemmatalis cell line.

    PubMed

    Gioria, Verónica Viviana; Jäger, Volker; Claus, Juan Daniel

    2006-10-01

    The UFL-AG-286 cell line, established from embryonic tissue of the lepidopteran insect Anticarsia gemmatalis, has been identified as a good candidate to be used as a cellular substrate in the development of a process for in vitro production of the Anticarsia gemmatalis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus, a baculovirus widely used as bioinsecticide. In order to characterize the technological properties of this cell line and evaluate its feasibility to use it for the large-scale production of Anticarsia gemmatalis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus, UFL-AG-286 cells were adapted to grow as agitated suspension cultures in spinner-flasks. Batch suspension cultures of adapted cells in serum-supplemented TC-100 medium grew with a doubling time of about 29 h and reached a maximum cell density higher than 3.5 x 10(6) viable cells ml(-1). At the end of the growth period glucose was completely depleted from the culture medium, but L: -lactate was not produced. Amino acids, with the exception of glutamine, were only negligibly consumed or produced. In contrast to other insect cell lines, UFL-AG-286 cells appeared to be unable to synthesize alanine as a metabolic way to dispose the by-product ammonia. The synchronous infection of suspension cultures with Anticarsia gemmatalis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus in the early to medium exponential growth phase yielded high amounts of both viral progenies per cell and reduced the specific demands of UFL-AG-286 cells for the main nutrients. PMID:19002870

  4. High genetic stability of peroral infection factors from Anticarsia gemmatalis MNPV over 20years of sampling.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Briana C; Melo, Fernando L; Souza, Marlinda L; Moscardi, Flávio; Báo, Sônia N; Ribeiro, Bergmann M

    2014-05-01

    The Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) has been used as a biopesticide since the early 1980s in Brazil to control the major pest of soybean crops, the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis. To monitor the genetic diversity over space and time we sequenced four pif genes (pif1, pif2, pif3 and pif4) from AgMNPV isolates collected from different regions of South America, as well as of seasonal isolates, sampled during a two-decade field experiment. Although all genes presented low levels of polymorphism, the pif-2 carries a slightly higher number of polymorphic sites. Overall, this study reveals that pif genes have remained stable after 20 years of repeated field application. PMID:24590109

  5. Receptors and Lethal Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Crystal Proteins to the Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza, Lidia Mariana; da Silva, Rogério Fernando Pires; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas

    2013-01-01

    Bioassays with insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) from Bacillus thuringiensis have demonstrated that Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ba are the most active toxins on larvae of the Anticarsia gemmatalis. The toxins Cry1Da and Cry1Ea are less toxic, and toxins Cry2Aa are not active. Binding of these ICPs to midgut sections of the A. gemmatalis larvae was studied using streptavidin-mediated detection. The observed staining patterns showed that Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac bound to the brush border throughout the whole length of the midgut. However, the binding sites of Cry1Ba were not evenly distributed in the midgut microvilli. The in vivo assays against larvae of 2nd instar A. gemmatalis confirmed the results from the in vitro binding studies. These binding data correspond well with the bioassay results, demonstrating a correlation between receptors binding and toxicity of the tested ICPs in this insect. PMID:24195006

  6. Ultrastructural and functional analysis of secretory goblet cells in the midgut of the lepidopteran Anticarsia gemmatalis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, F M; Carvalho, D B; Machado, E A; Miranda, K

    2013-05-01

    Defoliation caused by Anticarsia gemmatalis larvae affects the commercial production of the soybean. Although regulation of the digestion of soybean components has become part of the suggested strategy to overcome problems caused by Anticarsia larvae, few studies have focused on the morphological and cellular aspects of Anticarsia intestinal tissue. We have therefore further analyzed the morphology and ultrastructure of the midgut of 5th instar larvae of A. gemmatalis. Dissected midgut was subjected to chemical or cryo-fixation and then to several descriptive and analytical techniques associated with both light and electron microscopy in order to correlate anatomical and physiological aspects of this organ. Histological analysis revealed typical anatomy composed of a cell layer limited by a peritrophic membrane. The identified lepidoptera-specific goblet cells were shown to contain several mitochondria inside microvilli of the goblet cell cavity and a vacuolar H(+)-ATPase possibly coupled to a K(+)-pumping system. Columnar cells were present and exhibited microvilli dispersed along the apical region that also presented secretory characteristics. We additionally found evidence for the secretion of polyphosphate (PolyP) into the midgut, a result corroborating previous reports suggesting an excretion route from the goblet cell cavity toward the luminal space. Thus, our results suggest that the Anticarsia midgut not only possesses several typical lepidopteran features but also presents some unique aspects such as the presence of a tubular network and PolyP-containing apocrine secretions, plus an apparent route for the release of cellular debris by the goblet cells. PMID:23397424

  7. Bioinsecticidal activity of Talisia esculenta reserve protein on growth and serine digestive enzymes during larval development of Anticarsia gemmatalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Lígia R. Macedo; Maria das Graças M. Freire; Carlos Eduardo G. Kubo; José Roberto P. Parra

    2011-01-01

    Plants synthesize a variety of molecules to defend themselves against an attack by insects. Talisin is a reserve protein from Talisia esculenta seeds, the first to be characterized from the family Sapindaceae. In this study, the insecticidal activity of Talisin was tested by incorporating the reserve protein into an artificial diet fed to the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis, the major

  8. The inhibitor of apoptosis gene ( iap-3 ) of Anticarsia gemmatalis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) encodes a functional IAP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Padilha Carpes; M. E. Batista de Castro; E. Filgueiras Soares; A. Guimarães Villela; F. J. Rivera Pinedo; B. Morais Ribeiro

    2005-01-01

    Summary. Programmed cell death or apoptosis is one of the defense mechanisms used by insect cells in response to baculovirus infection. Baculoviruses harbour antiapoptotic genes to prevent apoptosis and to maintain the normal course of infection. In this work, we showed that, like other baculoviruses, Anticarsia gemmatalis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) has a functional inhibitor of apoptosis gene (iap-3). The iap-3

  9. Effects of Fetal Bovine Serum deprivation in cell cultures on the production of Anticarsia gemmatalis Multinucleopolyhedrovirus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anticarsia gemmatalis is a pest in South America's soybean crops, which could be controlled by the Multinucleopolyhedrovirus of A. gemmatalis (AgMNPV). Currently, its commercial production is based on infected larvae. However, the possibility of using modified baculoviruses in Integrated Pest Management programs has stimulated an interest to develop alternative multiplication processes. This study evaluated the AgMNPV production in UFL-Ag-286 cells previously deprived Fetal Bovine Serum. Results Culture media containing 1% FBS during the previous 48 hours achieved a synchronized condition where 90% of cells were found in G0/G1 stage, showing the presence of non-filamentous actin. All characteristics were estimated from cellular viability tests, cell actin detection trials and flow cytometer cell cycle analysis. AgMNPV production was tested by transcript studies and budded viruses (BVs) and occlusion bodies (OBs) yield quantitation. Results showed that the productivity in FBS deprived cells was 9.8 times more in BVs and 3.8 times more in OBs with respect to non-treated cells. Conclusions UFL-Ag-286 cells previously deprived in FBS shown to be a better host for AgMNPV propagation, increasing the useful for both in vitro bioinsecticide production and applications such as recombinant protein expression or gene delivery. PMID:20843354

  10. Proteomic analyses of baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus budded and occluded virus.

    PubMed

    Braconi, Carla Torres; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Garcia-Maruniak, Alejandra; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais; Maruniak, James E; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade

    2014-04-01

    Baculoviruses infect insects, producing two distinct phenotypes during the viral life cycle: the budded virus (BV) and the occlusion-derived virus (ODV) for intra- and inter-host spread, respectively. Since the 1980s, several countries have been using Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) as a biological control agent against the velvet bean caterpillar, A. gemmatalis. The genome of AgMNPV isolate 2D (AgMNPV-2D) carries at least 152 potential genes, with 24 that possibly code for structural proteins. Proteomic studies have been carried out on a few baculoviruses, with six ODV and two BV proteomes completed so far. Moreover, there are limited data on virion proteins carried by AgMNPV-2D. Therefore, structural proteins of AgMNPV-2D were analysed by MALDI- quadrupole-TOF and liquid chromatography MS/MS. A total of 44 proteins were associated with the ODV and 33 with the BV of AgMNPV-2D. Although 38 structural proteins were already known, we found six new proteins in the ODV and seven new proteins carried by the AgMNPV-2D BV. Eleven cellular proteins that were found on several other enveloped viruses were also identified, which are possibly carried with the virion. These findings may provide novel insights into baculovirus biology and their host interaction. Moreover, our data may be helpful in subsequent applied studies aiming to improve AgMNPV use as a biopesticide and a biotechnology tool for gene expression or delivery. PMID:24443474

  11. Development of a recombination system for the generation of occlusion positive genetically modified anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Haase, Santiago; McCarthy, Christina B; Ferrelli, M Leticia; Pidre, Matias L; Sciocco-Cap, Alicia; Romanowski, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Anticarsia gemmatalis is an important pest in legume crops in South America and it has been successfully controlled using Anticarsia gemmatalis Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) in subtropical climate zones. Nevertheless, in temperate climates its speed of kill is too slow. Taking this into account, genetic modification of AgMNPV could lead to improvements of its biopesticidal properties. Here we report the generation of a two-component system that allows the production of recombinant AgMNPV. This system is based on a parental AgMNPV in which the polyhedrin gene (polh) was replaced by a bacterial ?-galactosidase (lacZ) gene flanked by two target sites for the homing endonuclease I-PpoI. Co-transfection of insect cells with linearized (I-PpoI-digested) parental genome and a transfer vector allowed the restitution of polh and the expression of a heterologous gene upon homologous recombination, with a low background of non-recombinant AgMNPV. The system was validated by constructing a recombinant occlusion-positive (polh+) AgMNPV expressing the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp). This recombinant virus infected larvae normally per os and led to the expression of GFP in cell culture as well as in A. gemmatalis larvae. These results demonstrate that the system is an efficient method for the generation of recombinant AgMNPV expressing heterologous genes, which can be used for manifold purposes, including biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications and the production of orally infectious recombinants with improved biopesticidal properties. PMID:25835531

  12. Genome of the most widely used viral biopesticide: Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Wolff, José Luiz Caldas; Garcia-Maruniak, Alejandra; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais; de Castro, Maria Elita Batista; de Souza, Marlinda Lobo; Moscardi, Flavio; Maruniak, James Edward; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade

    2006-11-01

    The genome of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus isolate 2D (AgMNPV-2D), which is the most extensively used virus pesticide in the world, was completely sequenced and shown to have 132 239 bp (G+C content 44.5 mol%) and to be capable of encoding 152 non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). Three ORFs were unique to AgMNPV-2D, one of which (ag31) had similarity to eukaryotic poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. The lack of chiA and v-cath may explain some of the success and growth of the AgMNPV biological control programme, as it may explain the high recovery of polyhedra sequestered inside dead larvae in the field, which are collected and used for further application as biological pesticides in soybean fields. The genome organization was similar to that of the Choristoneura fumiferana defective MNPV (CfDefNPV). Most of the variation between the two genomes took place near highly repetitive regions, which were also closely associated with bro-coding regions. The separation of the NPVs into groups I and II was supported by: (i) a phenogram of the complete genomes of 28 baculovirus and Heliothis zea virus 1, (ii) the most parsimonious reconstruction of gene content along the phenograms and (iii) comparisons of genomic features. Moreover, these data also reinforced the notion that group I of the NPVs can be split further into the AgMNPV lineage (AgMNPV, CfDefNPV, Epiphyas postvittana NPV, Orgyia pseudotsugata MNPV and C. fumiferana MNPV), sharing eight defining genes, and the Autographa californica MNPV (AcMNPV) lineage (AcMNPV, Rachiplusia ou NPV and Bombyx mori NPV), sharing nine defining genes. PMID:17030857

  13. Two's a Crowd: Phenotypic Adjustments and Prophylaxis in Anticarsia gemmatalis Larvae Are Triggered by the Presence of Conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Farley W. S.; Viol, Daniel L.; Faria, Sirlene V.; Lima, Eraldo; Valicente, Fernando H.; Elliot, Simon L.

    2013-01-01

    Defence from parasites and pathogens involves a cost. Thus, it is expected that organisms use this only at high population densities, where the risk of pathogen transmission may be high, as proposed by the "density-dependent prophylaxis" (DDP) hypothesis. These predictions have been tested in a wide range of insects, both in comparative and experimental studies. We think it pertinent to consider a continuum between solitarious and gregarious living insects, wherein: (1) solitarious insects are those that are constitutively solitary and do not express any phenotypic plasticity, (2) the middle of the continuum is represented by insects that are subject to fluctuations in local density and show a range of facultative and plastic changes; and (3) constitutively gregarious forms live gregariously and show the gregarious phenotype even in the absence of crowding stimuli. We aimed to chart some of the intermediary continuum with an insect that presents solitarious aspects, but that is subject to fluctuations in density. Thus, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae reared at higher densities showed changes in coloration, a greater degree of encapsulation, had higher hemocyte densities and were more resistant to Baculovirus anticarsia, but not to Bacillus thuringiensis. Meanwhile, with increased rearing density there was reduced capsule melanization. Hemocyte density was the only variable that did not vary according to larval phenotype. The observed responses were not a continuous function of larval density, but an all-or-nothing response to the presence of a conspecific. As A. gemmatalis is not known for gregarious living, yet shows these density-dependent changes, it thus seems that this plastic phenotypic adjustment may be a broader phenomenon than previously thought. PMID:23626700

  14. Bioinsecticidal activity of Talisia esculenta reserve protein on growth and serine digestive enzymes during larval development of Anticarsia gemmatalis.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Freire, Maria das Graças M; Kubo, Carlos Eduardo G; Parra, José Roberto P

    2011-01-01

    Plants synthesize a variety of molecules to defend themselves against an attack by insects. Talisin is a reserve protein from Talisia esculenta seeds, the first to be characterized from the family Sapindaceae. In this study, the insecticidal activity of Talisin was tested by incorporating the reserve protein into an artificial diet fed to the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis, the major pest of soybean crops in Brazil. At 1.5% (w/w) of the dietary protein, Talisin affected larval growth, pupal weight, development and mortality, adult fertility and longevity, and produced malformations in pupae and adult insects. Talisin inhibited the trypsin-like activity of larval midgut homogenates. The trypsin activity in Talisin-fed larvae was sensitive to Talisin, indicating that no novel protease-resistant to Talisin was induced in Talisin-fed larvae. Affinity chromatography showed that Talisin bound to midgut proteinases of the insect A. gemmatalis, but was resistant to enzymatic digestion by these larval proteinases. The transformation of genes coding for this reserve protein could be useful for developing insect resistant crops. PMID:20692365

  15. Improved replication of the baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) in vitro using proteins from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Álvaro P B; Moraes, Roberto H P; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z

    2015-03-01

    The baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV), a member of the family Baculoviridae, has been widely applied as a biopesticide for the control of the velvetbean caterpillar, a pest of soybean crop field. Baculoviruses are considered safe and efficient agents for this purpose, because they do not infect vertebrates, being safe for the health of humans and animals, as well as to the environment. The objective of this work was to identify proteins obtained from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph with potential application in the optimization of baculovirus AgMNPV replication in Sf9 insect cell culture. In this work the improvement of the cell culture and viral replication of the AgMNPV baculovirus was observed when Grace medium was supplemented with 10 % (v/v) Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 1 % (v/v) hemolymph extract, or 3 % (v/v) of hemolymph fractions or hemolymph sub-fractions obtained by purifying hemolymph through High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Hemolymph presented a positive effect on the synthesis of polyhedra and enhanced baculovirus replication in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells (TCID50/mL), and led to Sf9 cell culture improvement. Grace medium supplemented with 10 % (v/v) FBS and 1 % (v/v) hemolymph provided an increase of baculovirus replication, when the cells were infected with multiplicity of infection of 1. In this case, the baculovirus replication was 6,443.91 times greater than that obtained with the control: Grace medium supplemented with 10 % (v/v) FBS. In addition, this work suggests that hemolymph from L. obliqua could have an interesting application in biotechnology, due to an increase in the viability of the cells and virus replication. PMID:24969017

  16. Biological characteristics of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for three consecutive generations under different temperatures: understanding the possible impact of global warming on a soybean pest.

    PubMed

    da Silva, D M; Hoffmann-Campo, C B; de Freitas Bueno, A; de Freitas Bueno, R C O; de Oliveira, M C N; Moscardi, F

    2012-06-01

    Climate changes can affect the distribution and intensity of insect infestations through direct effects on their life cycles. Experiments were carried out during three consecutive generations to evaluate the effect of different temperatures (25°C, 28°C, 31°C, 34°C and 37±1°C) on biological traits of the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The insects were fed on artificial diet and reared in environmental chambers set at 14 h photophase. The developmental cycle slowed with the increase in the temperature, within the 25°C to 34°C range. Male and female longevities were reduced with an increase in temperature from 25°C to 28°C. Egg viability was highest at 25°C, and the sex ratio was not influenced by temperature, in the three generations. There was no interactive effect between development time and temperature on pupal weight. The results suggested that the increase in the temperature negatively impacted A. gemmatalis development inside the studied temperature range, indicating a possible future reduction of its occurrence on soybean crops, as a consequence of global warming, mainly considering its impact on tropical countries where this plant is cropped. A. gemmatalis was not able to adapt to higher temperatures in a three-generation interval for the studied temperature range. However, a gradual increase and a longer adaptation period may favor insect selection and consequently adaptation, and must be considered in future studies in this area. Moreover, it is important to consider that global warming might turn cold areas more suitable to A. gemmatalis outbreaks. Therefore, more than a future reduction of A. gemmatalis occurrence due to global warming, we might expect changes regarding its area of occurrence on a global perspective. PMID:22112586

  17. A Recombinant Anticarsia gemmatalis MNPV Harboring chiA and v-cath Genes from Choristoneura fumiferana Defective NPV Induce Host Liquefaction and Increased Insecticidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Anabele Azevedo; Aragão, Clara Wandenkolck Silva; de Castro, Maria Elita Batista; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Sosa Gómez, Daniel Ricardo; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-01-01

    One of the interesting features of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus isolate 2D (AgMNPV-2D) genome is the absence of chitinase (chiA) and cathepsin (v-cath) genes. This characteristic may be responsible for the lack of liquefaction and melanization in A. gemmatalis larvae killed by AgMNPV-2D infection. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that CHIA and V-CATH proteins from Choristonera fumiferana DEF multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfDEFNPV) are able to liquefy and melanize the cuticle of A. gemmatalis larvae infected by a recombinant AgMNPV containing chiA and v-cath genes inserted in its genome. A fragment from the CfDefNPV genome containing chiA and v-cath genes was inserted into the genome of AgMNPV-2D. The recombinant virus (vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath) was purified and used to infect insect cells and larvae. Transcripts of v-cath and chiA genes were detected along the infection of insect cells by qRT-PCR, from early to late phases of infection. The analysis of A. gemmatalis larvae killed by vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath infection confirmed the hypothesis proposed. The vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath showed higher insecticidal activity against third instar A. gemmatalis larvae when compared to AgMNPV-2D. The mean time to death was also lower for the vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D at 10 days post infection. Occlusion body production was higher in A. gemmatalis larvae infected with vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D. Enzyme assays showed higher chitinase and cysteine protease activities in insect cells and insects infected with vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D. The introduction of chiA and v-cath genes into the genome of AgMNPV improves its insecticidal activity against A. gemmatalis larvae and this recombinant virus could be used as an alternative to the wild type virus to control this important insect pest. PMID:24086357

  18. Entomocidal Effects of Beech Apricot, Labramia bojeri, Seed Extract on a Soybean Pest, the Velvetbean Moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and Its Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Maria L. R.; Kubo, Carlos E. G.; Freire, Maria G. M.; Júnior, Roberto T. A.; Parra, José R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the beech apricot, Labramia bojeri A. de Candolle (Sapotales: Sapotaceae), seed aqueous extract on the larval development of the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was evaluated. The extract inhibited larval development, pupal weight, and survival and emergence of adults. Digestive proteolytic activity in larval midgut and feces extracts was determined. Larvae fed 10 g/L of the aqueous extract showed a significant reduction in trypsin activity (?64%), when compared with control larvae. Trypsin and Chymotrypsin activities were also detected in fecal material in aqueous-extract-fed larvae, with about ?4.5 times more trypsin activity than the controls. The results from dietary utilization experiments with A. gemmatalis larvae showed a reduction in the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. The effect of the extract suggests the potential use of L. bojeri seeds to inhibit the development of A. gemmatalis via oral exposure. The L. bojeri extract can be an alternative to other methods of control. PMID:25373174

  19. Entomocidal effects of beech apricot, Labramia bojeri, seed extract on a soybean pest, the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and its enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria L R; Kubo, Carlos E G; Freire, Maria G M; Júnior, Roberto T A; Parra, José R P

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the beech apricot, Labramia bojeri A. de Candolle (Sapotales: Sapotaceae), seed aqueous extract on the larval development of the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was evaluated. The extract inhibited larval development, pupal weight, and survival and emergence of adults. Digestive proteolytic activity in larval midgut and feces extracts was determined. Larvae fed 10 g/L of the aqueous extract showed a significant reduction in trypsin activity (~64%), when compared with control larvae. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were also detected in fecal material in aqueous-extract-fed larvae, with about ~4.5 times more trypsin activity than the controls. The results from dietary utilization experiments with A. gemmatalis larvae showed a reduction in the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. The effect of the extract suggests the potential use of L. bojeri seeds to inhibit the development of A. gemmatalis via oral exposure. The L. bojeri extract can be an alternative to other methods of control. PMID:25373174

  20. Immunological effects of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) by stimulation of mice in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Anamelia Lorenzetti; Barros, Maria Creuza do Espirito Santos; Martins, Grace Kelly Menezes; de Araújo, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Souza, Marcio Jerônimo; Ribeiro, Alice Melo; Figueiredo, Florêncio; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-09-01

    Baculoviruses are highly specific and only capable of replication in arthropod hosts. The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is the most studied baculovirus at the molecular level and the Anticarsia gemnatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) is the most used viral insecticide worldwide. AcMNPV have also been shown to stimulate the mammalian immune response acting as an adjuvant. In order to evaluate the effects of AgMNPV in modulating macrophage and lymphocyte activation, we have stimulated these cells in vitro and inoculated BALB/c mice intranasally with the two viral phenotypes (PIBs and BVs) and compared with the response induced by the same phenotypes of AcMNPV. Our results showed that baculoviruses are able to modulate mammalian immune response; in vitro they increase phagocytosis, NO2 production and Th1 cells response. In vivo, AgMNPV BVs or PIBs do not induce an inflammatory reaction in normal lung but during a fungal lung infection they can change the type of adaptive response developed. Considering our data, AgMNPV can be considered more useful as a vaccine vector or immune adjuvant than AcMNPV. PMID:23747526

  1. CROP PROTECTION Avaliação de Danos de Percevejos e de Desfolhadores em Genótipos de Soja de Ciclos Precoce, Semiprecoce e Médio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDRÉ L. LOURENÇÃO; NELSON R. BRAGA; MANOEL A. C. MIRANDA; GIULIANA E. VALLE

    The damage of stinkbugs and defoliators in soybean genotypes was evaluated, under field conditions, at Tarumã and Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Three experiments, one for each of three maturity group, were carried out, in the 1997\\/98 and 1998\\/99 seasons. In Tarumã, infestations of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) and Cerotoma sp. occurred in both seasons and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubn.

  2. Contribution of gut bacteria to digestion and development of the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Visôtto; M. G. A. Oliveira; R. N. C. Guedes; A. O. B. Ribon; P. I. V. Good-God

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria colonies from gut homogenates of fifth instar velvetbean caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity experiments using discs containing 22 antibiotics. The antibiotic tetracycline provided the best results, followed by chloramphenicol. Tetracycline also provided higher inhibition of colony forming units than chloramphenicol and was therefore provided to the caterpillars in increasing diet concentrations to assess the contribution of

  3. Phytophthora sojae: Diversity among and within Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean production is increasing around the world and, to no surprise, so are the reports of soybean diseases caused by Phytophthora sojae, including Phytophthora seed, root, and stem rot. Phytophthora sojae is a diploid oomycete, which is homothallic and is limited to primarily one host: the soybe...

  4. Binary floral lure attractive to velvetbean caterpillar adults (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in northern Florida, revealed that linalool was synergistic in attractiveness with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to the migratory moth velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner). This noctuid was the most common species collected from traps w...

  5. Effects of spinosad and neem on the efficacy of a nucleopolyhedrovirus on pickleworm larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A neem formulation (Neemix® 4.5) and spinosad (SpinTor® 2SC) were tested for their effects when mixed with the multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus virus (AgMNPV) from the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), for control of pickleworm larvae, Diaphania nitidalis...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN STRAINS BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS EFFECTIVE AGAINST SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA AND OTHER INSECT PESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirley Margareth; Buffon da Silva; Joseilde Oliveira Silva-Werneck; Rosana Falcão; Rodrigo Rocha

    Brazilian strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, named S701, S764 and S1265 were analyzed regarding their cry gene and protein contents, crystal type, and activity against larvae of the lepidopteran fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Smith) and the velvet caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis), dipteran (Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti) and coleopteran (Tenebrio molitor). The LC50 of the strains against second instar larvae of S.

  7. Effect of a benzothiadiazole on inducing resistance of soybean to Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Han, Qingmei; Feng, Hao; Zhao, Haiyan; Huang, Lili; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiaodong; Kang, Zhensheng

    2013-04-01

    Effects of benzothidiazole (BTH), an inducer of resistance, were examined in a compatible interaction of soybean seedlings and Phytophthora sojae using electron microscopy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques. Seedlings were sprayed with BTH 2 days before inoculation of hypocotyls with zoospore suspension of P. sojae. In hypocotyls treated with BTH, the infection process of P. sojae was significantly delayed, and also the structures of hyphae and haustorium-like bodies were remarkably altered. These changes included increased vacuolation, plasmolysis, degeneration of cytoplasm, and collapse of hyphae and haustorium-like bodies. Large morphological differences were detected in P. sojae-infected hypocotyl tissue treated with BTH compared with infected but non-treated control tissue. Very thick layers of wall appositions were formed in the host cells contacting with hyphae, whereas such structures were never observed in only P. sojae-infected control hypocotyls. In addition, five pathogenesis-related (PR)-genes were selected to detect their transcription changes using qRT-PCR. Expression of PR-1, PR-3a, PR-3b, PR-9, and PR-10 genes were induced in BTH-treated and P. sojae-inoculated tissue at different times and levels. The up-regulated expression of these genes as well as the morphological defense structures may contribute to disease resistance in soybean hypocotyls to P. sojae. PMID:22777214

  8. Borrelidin, a potent antifungal agent: insight into the antifungal mechanism against Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ya-Mei; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Zhang, Ji; Li, Ming; Liu, Chong-Xi; An, Jing; Jiang, Ling; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Borrelidin has high and specific antifungal activity against Phytophthora sojae . To explore the antifungal mechanism of borrelidin against P. sojae , the relationship between the antifungal activity of borrelidin and the concentration of threonine was evaluated. The results demonstrated that the growth-inhibitory effect of borrelidin on the growth of P. sojae was antagonized by threonine in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) may be the potential target of borrelidin. Subsequently, the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of ThrRS by borrelidin in vitro was confirmed. Furthermore, the detailed interaction between ThrRS and borrelidin was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD), implying a tight binding of borrelidin to ThrRS. Taken together, these results suggest that the antifungal activity of borrelidin against P. sojae was mediated by inhibition of ThrRS via the formation of the ThrRS-borrelidin complex. PMID:22967236

  9. Identification of ?-tocopherol and ?-tocopheryl acetate from the cuticle of soybean pods armyworm (Spodoptera cosmioides).

    PubMed

    Fronza, Edegar; Migues, Ignacio; Specht, Alexandre; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro; Heinzen, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the soybean pods armyworm Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larval cuticles was evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to a mass detector (GC-MS). Among the usual lipids found in the insect cuticle, ?-tocopherol and ?-tocopheryl acetate were also isolated from S. cosmioides. On the other hand, no vitamin E derivative was found in A. gemmatalis exuvia. This is the first report of vitamin E occurrence in the insect's cuticle. PMID:23356865

  10. Chemotactic Preferences and Strain Variation in the Response of Phytophthora sojae Zoospores to Host Isoflavones

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, B. M.; Wu, M.; Wang, J.; Cheung, W.; Morris, P. F.

    1996-01-01

    The zoospores of Phytophthora sojae are chemotactically attracted to the isoflavones genistein and daidzein that are released by soybean roots. In this study we have examined the response of P. sojae zoospores to a wide range of compounds having some structural similarity to genistein and daidzein, including isoflavones, flavones, chalcones, stilbenes, benzoins, benzoates, benzophenones, acetophenones, and coumarins. Of 59 compounds examined, 43 elicited some response. A comparison of the chemotactic responses elicited by the various compounds revealed a primary role for the phenolic 4(prm1)- and 7-hydroxyl groups on the isoflavone structure. A few compounds acted as repellents, notably methylated flavones with a hydrophobic B ring. The chemotactic response to many of the analogs was markedly different among different strains of P. sojae. PMID:16535375

  11. Novel quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean PI 398841.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungwoo; Mian, M A Rouf; McHale, Leah K; Wang, Hehe; Wijeratne, Asela J; Sneller, Clay H; Dorrance, Anne E

    2013-04-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdemann is one of the most severe soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] diseases in the USA. Partial resistance is as effective in managing this disease as single-gene (Rps gene)-mediated resistance and is more durable. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with partial resistance to P. sojae in PI 398841, which originated from South Korea. A population of 305 F7:8 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross of OX20-8 × PI 398841 was used to evaluate partial resistance against P. sojae isolate C2S1 using a tray test. Composite interval mapping using a genome-wide logarithm of odd (LOD) threshold detected three QTL on chromosomes 1, 13, and 18, which individually explained 4-16 % of the phenotypic variance. Seven additional QTL, accounting for 2-3 % of phenotypic variance each, were identified using chromosome-wide LOD thresholds. Seven of the ten QTL for resistance to P. sojae were contributed by PI 398841. Seven QTL co-localized with known Rps genes and previously reported QTL for soil-borne root pathogens, isoflavone, and seed oil. Three QTL on chromosomes 3, 13, and 18 co-localized with known Rps genes, but PI 398841 did not exhibit an Rps gene-mediated resistance response following inoculation with 48 different isolates of P. sojae. PI 398841 is potentially a source of novel genes for improving soybean cultivars for partial resistance to P. sojae. PMID:23354974

  12. INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES CLASSES DE INFESTAÇÃO POR MANCHA PÚRPURA SOBRE O VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE SOJA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUCIANO DOS; REIS VENTUROSO; MARCO ANTÔNIO SEDREZ; FÁBIO RÉGIS DE SOUZA; ANDERSON CRISTIAN BERGAMIN; LENITA APARECIDA CONUS

    RESUMO: O trabalho propôs-se a analisar a influência de diferentes classes de infestação por mancha púrpura (Cercospora kikuchii) no tegumento das sementes de três cultivares de soja, sobre o vigor de plântulas no município de Dourados - MS. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, em outubro de 2006. As classes de infestação foram determinadas visualmente e classificadas em

  13. Understanding Nonaflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus sojae: A Windfall of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. A. sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical relatedness to aflatoxin-producing A. parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to...

  14. Cell Culture Derived AgMNPV Bioinsecticide: Biological Constraints and Bioprocess Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeria M. Rodas; Fabiano H. Marques; Marcelo T. Honda; Daniela M. Soares; Soraia A. C. Jorge; Marta M. Antoniazzi; Claudia Medugno; Maria E. B. Castro; Bergmann M. Ribeiro; Marlinda L. Souza; Aldo Tonso; Carlos A. Pereira

    2005-01-01

    We have studied parameters for optimizing the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell culture and viral infection for the production of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrosis virus (AgMNPV) polyhedra inclusion bodies (PIBs) in shaker-Schott or spinner bottles and bioreactors.\\u000a We have assayed the kLa of the systems, initial cell seeding, cell culture volume, dissolved oxygen (DO), multiplicity of infection (MOI), nutrients\\u000a consumption, and

  15. Fine-scale phylogenetic structure and major events in the history of the current wild soybean (Glycine soja) and taxonomic assignment of semi-wild type (Glycine gracilis Skvortz.) within the Chinese subgenus Soja.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Jing; Li, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Wild and cultivated species of soybeans have coexisted for 5000 years in China. Despite this long history, there is very little information on the genetic relationship of Glycine soja and G. max. To gain insight into the major events in the history of the subgenus Soja, we examined 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of a large number of accessions (910). The results showed no significant differences between wild and semi-wild soybeans in genetic diversity but significant differences between G. soja and G. max. Ancestry and cluster analyses revealed that semi-wild soybeans should belong to the wild category and not to G. max. Our results also showed that differentiation had occurred not only among G. soja, G. gracilis, and G. max but also within G. soja and within G. gracilis. Glycine soja had 3 clear genetic categories: typical small-seeded (?2.0 g 100-seed weight), dual-origin middle-seeded (2.0-2.5 g), and large-seeded plants (2.51-3.0 g). These last were genetically close to G. gracilis, their defining some traits having been acquired mainly by introgression from soybeans. Small-seeded G. gracilis (3.01-3.5 g) were genetically different from larger seeded ones (from 3.51 to 4.0 to over 10 g). Seed size predominated over seed coat color in evolutionary degree. Typical and large-seeded G. soja were found to have 0.7% and 12% introgressive cultivar genes, respectively. The genetic boundary of G. gracilis was at the range of 2.51-3.0 g of G. soja. In the great majority of wild accessions, traits such as white flowers, gray pubescences, no-seed bloom, and colored seed coats were likely introgressive from domesticated soybeans. PMID:21984661

  16. Coffee pulp koji of Aspergillus sojae as stable immobilized catalyst of chlorogenate hydrolase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osao Adachi; Yoshitaka Ano; Yoshihiko Akakabe; Emiko Shinagawa; Kazunobu Matsushita

    2008-01-01

    Chlorogenate hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.42, CHase) was highly induced in mycelia of Aspergillus sojae AKU 3312 grown in Czapek medium containing either instant coffee powder or coffee pulp as inducer. No CHase formation was\\u000a observed in the mycelia when cultivated without the inducer. CHase was purified readily from CHase-induced mycelia to high\\u000a homogeneity, and the purified CHase revealed the molecular weight

  17. Article original Digestion des protines de pois et de soja chez le veau

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article original Digestion des protéines de pois et de soja chez le veau préruminant. II partiellement dégradées puissent échapper à la digestion dans l'intestin grêle dans le cas des aliments pois et - digestion - iléon - veau préruminant Summary ― Digestion of pea and soya-bean proteins in preruminant

  18. Pathogenic diversity of Phytophthora sojae and breeding strategies to develop Phytophthora-resistant soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Takuma; Kato, Masayasu; Yoshida, Shinya; Matsumoto, Isao; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Kaga, Akito; Hajika, Makita; Yamamoto, Ryo; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Aino, Masataka; Matoh, Toru; Walker, David R.; Biggs, Alan R.; Ishimoto, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora stem and root rot, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and the incidence of this disease has been increasing in several soybean-producing areas around the world. This presents serious limitations for soybean production, with yield losses from 4 to 100%. The most effective method to reduce damage would be to grow Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars, and two types of host resistance have been described. Race-specific resistance conditioned by single dominant Rps (“resistance to Phytophthora sojae”) genes and quantitatively inherited partial resistance conferred by multiple genes could both provide protection from the pathogen. Molecular markers linked to Rps genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying partial resistance have been identified on several molecular linkage groups corresponding to chromosomes. These markers can be used to screen for Phytophthora-resistant plants rapidly and efficiently, and to combine multiple resistance genes in the same background. This paper reviews what is currently known about pathogenic races of P. sojae in the USA and Japan, selection of sources of Rps genes or minor genes providing partial resistance, and the current state and future scope of breeding Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars. PMID:23136490

  19. Genepool Variation in Genus Glycine Subgenus Soja Revealed by Polymorphic Nuclear and Chloroplast Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Powell, W.; Morgante, M.; Doyle, J. J.; McNicol, J. W.; Tingey, S. V.; Rafalski, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    A combination of nuclear and chloroplast simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been used to investigate the levels and pattern of variability detected in Glycine max and G. soja genotypes. Based on the analysis of 700 soybean genotypes with 115 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) probes, 12 accessions were identified that represent 92% of the allelic variability detected in this genepool. These 12 core genotypes together with a sample of G. max and G. soja accessions were evaluated with 11 nuclear SSRs that detected 129 alleles. Compared with the other G. max and G. soja genotypes sampled, the core genotypes represent 40% of the allelic variability detected with SSRs. Despite the multi-allelic nature of soybean SSRs, dendrograms representing phenetic relationships between accessions clustered according to their subspecies origin. In addition to biparentally inherited nuclear SSRs, two uniparentally (maternally) transmitted chloroplast SSRs were also studied. A total of seven haplotypes were identified, and diversity indices of 0.405 +/- 0.088 and 0.159 +/- 0.071 were obtained for the two chloroplast SSRs. The availability of polymorphic SSR loci in the chloroplast genome provides new opportunities to investigate cytonuclear interactions in plants. PMID:8889540

  20. Phytophthora sojae TatD nuclease positively regulates sporulation and negatively regulates pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linlin; Shen, Danyu; Sun, Nannan; Xu, Jing; Wang, Wen; Dou, Daolong

    2014-10-01

    During pathogenic interactions, both the host and pathogen are exposed to conditions that induce programmed cell death (PCD). Certain aspects of PCD have been recently examined in eukaryotic microbes but not in oomycetes. Here, we identified conserved TatD proteins in Phytophthora sojae; the proteins are key components of DNA degradation in apoptosis. We selected PsTatD4 for further investigation because the enzyme is unique to the oomycete branch of the phylogenetic tree. The purified protein exhibited DNase activity in vitro. Its expression was upregulated in sporangia and later infective stages but downregulated in cysts and during early infection. Functional analysis revealed that the gene was required for sporulation and zoospore production, and the expression levels were associated with the numbers of hydrogen-peroxide-induced terminal dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells. Furthermore, overexpression of PsTatD4 gene reduced the virulence in a susceptible soybean cultivar. Together, these data suggest that apoptosis may play different roles in the early and late infective stages of P. sojae, and that PsTatD4 is a key regulator of infection. The association of PsTatD4 and apoptosis will lay a foundation to understanding the basic biology of apoptosis and its roles in P. sojae disease cycle. PMID:24940989

  1. Proteomics study of changes in soybean lines resistant and sensitive to Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Phytophthora sojae causes soybean root and stem rot, resulting in an annual loss of 1-2 billion US dollars in soybean production worldwide. A proteomic technique was used to determine the effects on soybean hypocotyls of infection with P. sojae. Results In the present study, 46 differentially expressed proteins were identified in soybean hypocotyls infected with P. sojae, using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The expression levels of 26 proteins were significantly affected at various time points in the tolerant soybean line, Yudou25, (12 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated). In contrast, in the sensitive soybean line, NG6255, only 20 proteins were significantly affected (11 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated). Among these proteins, 26% were related to energy regulation, 15% to protein destination and storage, 11% to defense against disease, 11% to metabolism, 9% to protein synthesis, 4% to secondary metabolism, and 24% were of unknown function. Conclusion Our study provides important information on the use of proteomic methods for studying protein regulation during plant-oomycete interactions. PMID:21899734

  2. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryoji Takahashi; Joseph G Dubouzet; Hisakazu Matsumura; Kentaro Yasuda; Tsukasa Iwashina

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. RESULTS: B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid

  3. Mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with partial resistance to phytophthora sojae and flooding tolerance in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufm. & Gerd. and flooding can limit growth and productivity, of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], especially on poorly drained soils. The primary objective of this research project was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with f...

  4. EVALUATION OF SOYBEAN CULTIVARS WITH THE RPS1K GENE FOR PARTIAL RESISTANCE AND TOLERANCE TO PHYTOPHTHORA SOJAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR) is a soilborne disease caused by Phytophthora sojae that primarily attacks the roots of soybean plants. Race-specific resistance (complete resistance genes), partial resistance (limits pathogen colonization and plant damage), and tolerance (suffering no significant yield ...

  5. Aspects qualitatifs de la digestion intestinale des glucides d'un tourteau de soja par le veau prruminant

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Aspects qualitatifs de la digestion intestinale des glucides d'un tourteau de soja par le veau préruminant J. M. BESLE P. THIVEND Laboratoire de la Digestion des Ruminants, 1. N. R. A., Theix, Saint-Genès-Champanelle, 63110 Beaumonf, France. Summary. Qualitative aspects of intestinal digestion of soya carbohydrates

  6. Genome Re-Sequencing of Semi-Wild Soybean Reveals a Complex Soja Population Structure and Deep Introgression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang

    2014-01-01

    Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19–0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure. PMID:25265539

  7. Automatisation d'une mthode de dosage du fructose application l'tude des oligosides du soja

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Automatisation d'une méthode de dosage du fructose application à l'étude des oligosides du soja J-Genes-Champanelle, 63110 Beaumont, France Summary. Automatization ofa sensitive fructose assay used in the study of soya oligosides. We report the automatization of a sensitive specific assay of free fructose or that contained

  8. Phytophthora sojae Effector PsCRN70 Suppresses Plant Defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Yanyan; Liu, Tingli; Xu, Jing; Liu, Li; Mafurah, Joseph Juma; Dou, Daolong

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen, produces a large number of effector proteins that enter into host cells. The Crinklers (Crinkling and Necrosis, CRN) are cytoplasmic effectors that are conserved in oomycete pathogens and their encoding genes are highly expressed at the infective stages in P. sojae. However, their roles in pathogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we functionally characterized an effector PsCRN70 by transiently and stably overexpressing it in Nicotiana benthamiana. We demonstrated that PsCRN70 was localized to the plant cell nucleus and suppressed cell death elicited by all the tested cell death-inducing proteins, including BAX, PsAvh241, PsCRN63, PsojNIP and R3a/Avr3a. Overexpression of the PsCRN70 gene in N. benthamiana enhanced susceptibility to P. parasitica. The H2O2 accumulation in the PsCRN70-transgenic plants was reduced compared to the GFP-lines. The transcriptional levels of the defense-associated genes, including PR1b, PR2b, ERF1 and LOX, were also down-regulated in the PsCRN70-transgenic lines. Our results suggest that PsCRN70 may function as a universal suppressor of the cell death induced by many elicitors, the host H2O2 accumulation and the expression of defense-associated genes, and therefore promotes pathogen infection. PMID:24858571

  9. The Phytophthora sojae Avr1d gene encodes an RxLR-dEER effector with presence and absence polymorphisms among pathogen strains.

    PubMed

    Yin, Weixiao; Dong, Suomeng; Zhai, Luchong; Lin, Yachun; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2013-08-01

    Soybean root and stem rot is caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. The interaction between P. sojae and soybean fits the "gene-for-gene" hypothesis. Although more than 10 P. sojae avirulence (Avr) effectors have been genetically identified, nearly half of genetically defined avr genes have been cloned. In a previous bioinformatic and global transcriptional analysis, we identified a P. sojae RxLR effector, Avr1d, which was 125 amino acids in length. Mapping data demonstrated that Avr1d presence or absence in the genome was co-segregated with the Avr1d avirulence phenotype in F2 populations. Transient expression of the Avr1d gene using co-bombardment in soybean isogenic lines revealed that this gene triggered a hypersensitive response (HR) in the presence of Rps1d. Sequencing of Avr1d genes in different P. sojae strains revealed two Avr1d alleles. Although polymorphic, the two Avr1d alleles could trigger Rps1d-mediated HR. P. sojae strains carrying either of the alleles were avirulent on Rps1d soybean lines. Avr1d was upregulated during the germinating cyst and early infection stages. Furthermore, transient expression of Avr1d in Nicotiana benthamiana suppressed BAX-induced cell death and enhanced P. capsici infection. Avr1d also suppressed effector-triggered immunity induction by associating with Avr1b and Rps1b, suggestive of a role in suppressing plant immunity. PMID:23594349

  10. Optimization of culture conditions for Aspergillus sojae expressing an Aspergillus fumigatus ?-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Gurkok, Sumeyra; Cekmecelioglu, Deniz; Ogel, Zumrut B

    2011-04-01

    Using Response Surface Methodology, carbon and nitrogen sources and agitation speed for cultivation of Aspergillus sojae expressing the ?-galactosidase gene, aglB of Aspergillus fumigatus IMI 385708 were optimized. Compared to cultivation in modified YpSs medium, cultivation in 250-mL Erlenmeyer flasks agitated at 276 rpm and containing 100 mL of optimized medium consisting of 10.5% molasses (w/v) and 1.3% NH(4)NO(3) (w/v), 0.1% K(2)HPO(4), and 0.005% MgSO(4)·7H(2)O achieved a 4-fold increase in ?-galactosidase production (10.4 U/mL). These results suggest the feasibility of industrial large scale production of an ?-galactosidase known to be valuable in galactomannan modification. PMID:21316941

  11. Glyceollin is an important component of soybean plant defense against Phytophthora sojae and Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Lygin, Anatoliy V; Zernova, Olga V; Hill, Curtis B; Kholina, Nadegda A; Widholm, Jack M; Hartman, Glen L; Lozovaya, Vera V

    2013-10-01

    The response of soybean transgenic plants, with suppressed synthesis of isoflavones, and nontransgenic plants to two common soybean pathogens, Macrophomina phaseolina and Phytophthora sojae, was studied. Transgenic soybean plants of one line used in this study were previously generated via bombardment of embryogenic cultures with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chalcone synthase, and isoflavone synthase (IFS2) genes in sense orientation driven by the cotyledon-preferable lectin promoter (to turn genes on in cotyledons), while plants of another line were newly produced using the IFS2 gene in sense orientation driven by the Cassava vein mosaic virus constitutive promoter (to turn genes on in all plant parts). Nearly complete inhibition of isoflavone synthesis was found in the cotyledons of young seedlings of transgenic plants transformed with the IFS2 transgene driven by the cotyledon-preferable lectin promoter compared with the untransformed control during the 10-day observation period, with the precursors of isoflavone synthesis being accumulated in the cotyledons of transgenic plants. These results indicated that the lectin promoter could be active not only during seed development but also during seed germination. Downregulation of isoflavone synthesis only in the seed or in the whole soybean plant caused a strong inhibition of the pathogen-inducible glyceollin in cotyledons after inoculation with P. sojae, which resulted in increased susceptibility of the cotyledons of both transgenic lines to this pathogen compared with inoculated cotyledons of untransformed plants. When stems were inoculated with M. phaseolina, suppression of glyceollin synthesis was found only in stems of transgenic plants expressing the transgene driven by a constitutive promoter, which developed more severe infection. These results provide further evidence that rapid glyceollin accumulation during infection contributes to the innate soybean defense response. PMID:23617338

  12. Alkaline-stress response in Glycine soja leaf identifies specific transcription factors and ABA-mediated signaling factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Ge; Yong Li; De-Kang Lv; Xi Bai; Wei Ji; Hua Cai; Ao-Xue Wang; Yan-Ming Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome of Glycine soja leaf tissue during a detailed time course formed a foundation for examining transcriptional processes during NaHCO3 stress treatment. Of a total of 2,310 detected differentially expressed genes, 1,664 genes were upregulated and 1,704 genes\\u000a were downregulated at various time points. The number of stress-regulated genes increased dramatically after a 6-h stress\\u000a treatment. GO category gene enrichment

  13. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora sojae isolates in Heilongjiang Province in China assessed by RAPD and EST-SSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. J.; Xu, P. F.; Liu, L. J.; Wang, J. S.; Lin, W. G.; Zhang, S. Z.; Wei, L.

    Random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and EST-SSR markers were used to estimate the genetic relationship among thirty-nine P.sojae isolates from three locations in Heilongjiang Province, and nine isolates from Ohio in America were made as reference strains. 10 of 50 RAPD primers and 5 of 33 EST-SSR were polymorphic across 48 P.sojae isolates. Similarity values among P.sojae isolates were from 49% to 82% based on the RAPD data. The similarities based on EST-SSR markers ranged from 47% to 85%. The genetic diversity revealed by EST-SSR marker analysis was higher than that obtained from RAPD. The similarity matrices for the SSR data and the RAPD data were moderately correlated (r = 0.47). Genetic similarity coefficients were also relatively lower, which demonstrated complicated genetic background within each location. The high similarity values range revealed the ability of RAPD/EST-SSR markers to distinguish even among morphological similar phytophthora.

  14. Effects of microgravity on the susceptibility of soybean to Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Nedukha, O M; Leach, J E; Ryba-White, M; Hilaire, E; Guikema, J; Kordyum, E L

    1998-07-01

    The study of pathogenicity of higher plants under conditions of microgravity is of great importance for the future production of food in space. Previous work suggests that microgravity affects both microbes and plants. Bacterial numbers increased after 17 days in an algae-bacterium association on the biosatellite "Kosmos-1887". This was speculated to result from an increase in the multiplication rate of the bacteria. Sporangia of both Actinomices brevis, in the shuttles "Soyuz-19" and "Appolon", and Phycomyces blakes, in biosatellite "Kosmos-936", formed after 10 days in microgravity. Sporangia did not form in the ground controls in the same time suggesting that the rate of fungal development is enhanced in microgravity. Plant responses to pathogens in microgravity have not been studied, however, microgravity profoundly impacts plant cell development, cytology, and physiology. In microgravity, developing cell walls are thinner and contain less lignin than ground-grown plants. The demonstrated effects of microgravity on both plants and microbes lead us to hypothesize that plants may be more susceptible to pathogens under conditions of microgravity. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microgravity on the susceptibility of soybean to the fungal root rot pathogen, Phytophthora sojae. PMID:11542328

  15. Coffee pulp koji of Aspergillus sojae as stable immobilized catalyst of chlorogenate hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Osao; Ano, Yoshitaka; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Shinagawa, Emiko; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2008-11-01

    Chlorogenate hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.42, CHase) was highly induced in mycelia of Aspergillus sojae AKU 3312 grown in Czapek medium containing either instant coffee powder or coffee pulp as inducer. No CHase formation was observed in the mycelia when cultivated without the inducer. CHase was purified readily from CHase-induced mycelia to high homogeneity, and the purified CHase revealed the molecular weight of 180,000 consisting of two identical subunits of 88 kDa. Equimolar quinate (QA) and caffeate (CA) were confirmed on hydrolysis of chlorogenate (CGA). The purified CHase was only useful for a laboratory scale hydrolysis of CGA. For practical QA and CA production using scaled up hydrolysis of vegetable extracts of natural CGA resources, the enzyme activity of purified CHase decreased and denatured irreversibly. Preparation of coffee pulp koji and its application to QA and CA production were proposed instead of purified CHase. When coffee pulp koji was heated at 60 degrees C for 30 min, CHase survived without any appreciable loss of enzyme activity while vegetative mycelial growth and spore germination were terminated. The heated coffee pulp koji thus prepared was effective itself as stable immobilized catalyst of CHase for QA and CA production from vegetable CGA resources such as coffee powders, coffee pulp, and others. PMID:18773200

  16. Isolation and characterization of a pathogenesis-related protein 10 gene (GmPR10) with induced expression in soybean (Glycine max) during infection with Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Jiang, Liangyu; Wu, Junjiang; Li, Wenbin; Fan, Sujie; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2014-08-01

    In previous study, a cDNA library enriched for mRNAs encoding ESTs that increased in abundance during infection with Phytophthora sojae was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization from leaf tissues of a high resistant soybean, and an EST homologous to the class 10 of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins was identified to be up-regulated by microarray and real-time PCR. Here, the full-length cDNA (termed GmPR10, GenBank accession number FJ960440; ADC31789.1) of the EST was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and contains an open reading frame of 474 bp. The GmPR10 protein included a "P-loop'' motif. The constitutive transcript abundance of GmPR10 in soybean was the highest in leaves, followed by roots and stems. Further analysis showed that GmPR10 mRNA abundance was increased during infection with P. sojae following leaf treatments with gibberellin (GA3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA). The dialytically renatured GmPR10 protein significantly inhibited P. sojae hyphal growth and exhibited RNase activity. Transgenic tobacco and soybean plants overexpressing GmPR10 showed increased resistance to P. nicotianae Breda and P. sojae, respectively. These results suggest that the GmPR10 protein plays an important role in host defense against P. sojae infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the functional characterization of a PR10 protein from soybean in defense against P. sojae. PMID:24737571

  17. Molecular response to the pathogen Phytophthora sojae among ten soybean near isogenic lines revealed by comparative transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR) of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is controlled by Rps genes. However, little is known regarding the Rps-induced molecular responses to P. sojae and how they actually overlap. We thus sequenced, analyzed, and compared the transcriptomes of 10 near isogenic lines (NILs), each with a unique Rps gene/allele, and the susceptible parent Williams, pre- and post-inoculation with the pathogen. Results A total of 4,330 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in Williams versus 2,014 to 5,499 DEGs in individual NILs upon inoculation with the pathogen. Comparisons of the DEGs between the NILs and Williams identified incompatible interaction genes (IIGs) and compatible interaction genes (CIGs). Hierarchical cluster and heatmap analyses consistently grouped the NILs into three clusters: Cluster I (Rps1-a), Cluster II (Rps1-b, 1-c and 1-k) and Cluster III (Rps3-a, 3-b, 3-c, 4, 5, and 6), suggesting an overlap in Rps-induced defense signaling among certain NILs. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed associations between members of the WRKY family and incompatible reactions and between a number of phytohormone signaling pathways and incompatible/compatible interactions. These associations appear to be distinguished according to the NIL clusters. Conclusions This study characterized genes and multiple branches of putative regulatory networks associated with resistance to P. sojae in ten soybean NILs, and depicted functional “fingerprints” of individual Rps-mediated resistance responses through comparative transcriptomic analysis. Of particular interest are dramatic variations of detected DEGs, putatively involved in ethylene (ET)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, (reactive oxygen species) ROS-, and (MAP-kinase) MAPK- signaling, among these soybean NILs, implicating their important roles of these signaling in differentiating molecular defense responses. We hypothesize that different timing and robustness in defense signaling to the same pathogen may be largely responsible for such variations. PMID:24410936

  18. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)] [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Deyholos, Michael K. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada)] [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Chen, Qin [Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Ave., South P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada)] [Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Ave., South P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)] [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: ymzhu@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)] [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from Glycine soja. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of GsJAZ2 enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transcriptions of stress marker genes were higher in GsJAZ2 overexpression lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GsJAZ2 was localized to nucleus. -- Abstract: Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

  19. Population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean (Glycine soja) based on microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Y; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Vaughan, D A

    2006-04-01

    The research objectives were to determine aspects of the population dynamics relevant to effective monitoring of gene flow in the soybean crop complex in Japan. Using 20 microsatellite primers, 616 individuals from 77 wild soybean (Glycine soja) populations were analysed. All samples were of small seed size (< 0.03 g), were directly collected in the field and came from all parts of Japan where wild soybeans grow, except Hokkaido. Japanese wild soybean showed significant reduction in observed heterozygosity, low outcrossing rate (mean 3.4%) and strong genetic differentiation among populations. However, the individual assignment test revealed evidence of rare long-distance seed dispersal (> 10 km) events among populations, and spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed that populations within a radius of 100 km showed a close genetic relationship to one another. When analysis of graphical ordination was applied to compare the microsatellite variation of wild soybean with that of 53 widely grown Japanese varieties of cultivated soybean (Glycine max), the primary factor of genetic differentiation was based on differences between wild and cultivated soybeans and the secondary factor was geographical differentiation of wild soybean populations. Admixture analysis revealed that 6.8% of individuals appear to show introgression from cultivated soybeans. These results indicated that population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean is (i) strongly affected by the founder effect due to seed dispersal and inbreeding strategy, (ii) generally well differentiated from cultivated soybean, but (iii) introgression from cultivated soybean occurs. The implications of the results for the release of transgenic soybeans where wild soybeans grow are discussed. PMID:16599960

  20. La vague dferlante du soja brsilien Publi dans M@ppemonde 74/2004 : http://mappemonde.mgm.fr/num2/articles

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    pays sud- américains ont même dépassé pour l'exportation de grains, d'huile et de tourteaux. Le soja Sustentável (CDS), hthery@aol.com #12;La région des cerrados du Mato Grosso a été colonisée pour l'essentiel

  1. RXLR-Mediated Entry of Phytophthora sojae Effector Avr1b into Soybean Cells Does Not Require Pathogen-Encoded Machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daolong Dou; Shiv D. Kale; Xia Wang; Rays H. Y. Jiang; Nathan A. Bruce; Felipe D. Arredondo; Xuemin Zhang; Brett M. Tyler

    2008-01-01

    Effector proteins secreted by oomycete and fungal pathogens have been inferred to enter host cells, where they interact with host resistnace gene products. Using the effector protein Avr1b of Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean (Glycine max), we show that a pair of sequence motifs, RXLR and dEER, plus surrounding sequences, are both necessary and sufficient to deliver the

  2. Identification of Candidate Signaling Genes Including Regulators of Chromosome Condensation 1 Protein Family Differentially Expressed in the Soybean - Phytophthora Sojae Interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem and root rot caused by the oomycete pathogen, Phytopthora sojae, is a serious soybean disease. Use of Phytophthora resistance genes (Rps) in soybean cultivars has been very effective in controlling this pathogen. Resistance encoded by Rps genes is manifested through activation of defense resp...

  3. Production of antioomycete compounds active against the phytopathogens Phytophthora sojae and Aphanomyces cochlioides by clavicipitoid entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Putri, Sastia Prama; Ishido, Kei-Ichi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Kitani, Shigeru; Ihara, Fumio; Sakihama, Yasuko; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Nihira, Takuya

    2014-05-01

    A total of 412 strains belonging to 14 genera of clavicipitoid entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) were screened for activities against two economically important plant pathogenic oomycetes, Phytophthora sojae and Aphanomyces cochlioides. To identify the antioomycete compounds produced by EPF, the extracts of 13 highly active EPF strains were characterized in detail by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and high-resolution mass spectrometric detection and antioomycete assay. The antioomycete activity of several Metarhizium extracts was associated with previously isolated aurovertins, fungerin, N-(methyl-3-oxodec-6-enoyl)-2-pyrroline, and N-(methyl-3-oxodecanoyl)-2-pyrroline. The depsipeptide beauvericin was confirmed to be one of the active principles of three strains of Isaria tenuipes, which strongly inhibited mycelial growth of both P. sojae and A. cochlioides. Two known bioactive metabolites, paecilosetin and aranorosinol A, together with a novel and potent antioomycete compound, farinomalein, were isolated from the extracts of Isaria farinosa and all compounds were confirmed to have antioomycete activity. Identification of 8 antioomycete compounds from 13 clavicipitioid EPF demonstrated a new potential use of EPF as a source of compounds for the control of soil-borne plant pathogenic oomycetes. PMID:24268864

  4. PsVPS1, a Dynamin-Related Protein, Is Involved in Cyst Germination and Soybean Infection of Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yidan; Lu, Zhaojun; Yao, Meng; Hao, Yujuan; Zhai, Chunhua; Wang, Yuanchao

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress plant immunity. However, the mechanism by which oomycete pathogens deliver effector proteins during plant infection remains unknown. In this report, we characterized a Phytophthora sojae vps1 gene. This gene encodes a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar protein sorting gene vps1 that mediates budding of clathrin-coated vesicles from the late Golgi, which are diverted from the general secretory pathway to the vacuole. PsVPS1-silenced mutants were generated using polyethylene glycol-mediated protoplast stable transformation and were viable but had reduced extracellular protein activity. The PsVPS1-silenced mutants showed impaired hyphal growth, and the shapes of the vacuoles were highly fragmented. Silencing of PsVPS1 affected cyst germination as well as the polarized growth of germinated cysts. Silenced mutants showed impaired invasion of susceptible soybean plants regardless of wounding. These results suggest that PsVPS1 is involved in vacuole morphology and cyst development. Moreover, it is essential for the virulence of P. sojae and extracellular protein secretion. PMID:23516518

  5. Phytophthora sojae Avirulence Effector Avr3b is a Secreted NADH and ADP-ribose Pyrophosphorylase that Modulates Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Suomeng; Yin, Weixiao; Kong, Guanghui; Yang, Xinyu; Qutob, Dinah; Chen, Qinghe; Kale, Shiv D.; Sui, Yangyang; Zhang, Zhengguang; Dou, Daolong; Zheng, Xiaobo; Gijzen, Mark; M. Tyler, Brett; Wang, Yuanchao

    2011-01-01

    Plants have evolved pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) to protect themselves from infection by diverse pathogens. Avirulence (Avr) effectors that trigger plant ETI as a result of recognition by plant resistance (R) gene products have been identified in many plant pathogenic oomycetes and fungi. However, the virulence functions of oomycete and fungal Avr effectors remain largely unknown. Here, we combined bioinformatics and genetics to identify Avr3b, a new Avr gene from Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen that causes soybean root rot. Avr3b encodes a secreted protein with the RXLR host-targeting motif and C-terminal W and Nudix hydrolase motifs. Some isolates of P. sojae evade perception by the soybean R gene Rps3b through sequence mutation in Avr3b and lowered transcript accumulation. Transient expression of Avr3b in Nicotiana benthamiana increased susceptibility to P. capsici and P. parasitica, with significantly reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) around invasion sites. Biochemical assays confirmed that Avr3b is an ADP-ribose/NADH pyrophosphorylase, as predicted from the Nudix motif. Deletion of the Nudix motif of Avr3b abolished enzyme activity. Mutation of key residues in Nudix motif significantly impaired Avr3b virulence function but not the avirulence activity. Some Nudix hydrolases act as negative regulators of plant immunity, and thus Avr3b might be delivered into host cells as a Nudix hydrolase to impair host immunity. Avr3b homologues are present in several sequenced Phytophthora genomes, suggesting that Phytophthora pathogens might share similar strategies to suppress plant immunity. PMID:22102810

  6. paru dans Politique et Management Public, Volume 28, n2, 2010. pp. 3-35 Evolution des rgles d'utilisation du soja transgnique au Brsil

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    première analyse de gouvernance relative au domaine des OGM en agriculture. Cette étude a été réalisée en développement de l'agro-business. Mots clés : Brésil ; Gouvernance ; soja ; OGM ; biotechnologies ; Monsanto commercialisation des organismes génétiquement modifiés (OGM) en agriculture depuis 1996, il est difficile d

  7. Utilization of orange peel, a food industrial waste, in the production of exo-polygalacturonase by pellet forming Aspergillus sojae.

    PubMed

    Buyukkileci, Ali Oguz; Lahore, Marcello Fernandez; Tari, Canan

    2015-04-01

    The production of exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) from orange peel (OP), a food industrial waste, using Aspergillus sojae was studied in submerged culture. A simple, low-cost, industrially significant medium formulation, composed of only OP and (NH4)2SO4 (AS) was developed. At an inoculum size of 2.8 × 10(3) spores/mL, growth was in the form of pellets, which provided better mixing of the culture broth and higher exo-PG activity. These pellets were successfully used as an inoculum for bioreactors and 173.0 U/mL exo-PG was produced. Fed-batch cultivation further enhanced the exo-PG activity to 244.0 U/mL in 127.5 h. The final morphology in the form of pellets is significant to industrial fermentation easing the subsequent downstream processing. Furthermore, the low pH trend obtained during this fermentation serves an advantage to fungal fermentations prone to contamination problems. As a result, an economical exo-PG production process was defined utilizing a food industrial by-product and producing high amount of enzyme. PMID:25352336

  8. Entity evidence for differentiation between Tia and Tib types of soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor: detection of a novel transitional variant type between Tia and Tib in wild soybean ( Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Wang; Y. Takahata; Y. Kono; N. Kaizuma

    2005-01-01

    Soybean Kunit trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) has several polymorphic types. Of these SKTI, there are large differences of nine amino acid substitutions between Tia and Tib. So far no transitional type between them has been found. A novel transitional intermediate variant between Tia and Tib was detected in 11 lines from 720 Japanese wild soybeans (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.). This

  9. The heat shock transcription factor PsHSF1 of Phytophthora sojae is required for oxidative stress tolerance and detoxifying the plant oxidative burst.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yuting; Wang, Yonglin; Meijer, Harold J G; Yang, Xinyu; Hua, Chenlei; Ye, Wenwu; Tao, Kai; Liu, Xiaoyun; Govers, Francine; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-04-01

    In the interaction between plant and microbial pathogens, reactive oxygen species (ROS) rapidly accumulate upon pathogen recognition at the infection site and play a central role in plant defence. However, the mechanisms that plant pathogens use to counteract ROS are still poorly understood especially in oomycetes, filamentous organisms that evolved independently from fungi. ROS detoxification depends on transcription factors (TFs) that are highly conserved in fungi but much less conserved in oomycetes. In this study, we identified the TF PsHSF1 that acts as a modulator of the oxidative stress response in the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae. We found that PsHSF1 is critical for pathogenicity in P.?sojae by detoxifying the plant oxidative burst. ROS produced in plant defence can be detoxified by extracellular peroxidases and laccases which might be regulated by PsHSF1. Our study extends the understanding of ROS detoxification mechanism mediated by a heat shock TF in oomycetes. PMID:25156425

  10. Ectopic overexpression of a novel Glycine soja stress-induced plasma membrane intrinsic protein increases sensitivity to salt and dehydration in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Cai, Hua; Li, Yong; Zhu, Yanming; Ji, Wei; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) belong to the aquaporin family and facilitate water movement across plasma membranes. Existing data indicate that PIP genes are associated with the abilities of plants to tolerate certain stress conditions. A review of our Glycine soja expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset revealed that abiotic stress stimulated expression of a PIP, herein designated as GsPIP2;1 (GenBank_Accn: FJ825766). To understand the roles of this PIP in stress tolerance, we generated a coding sequence for GsPIP2;1 by in silico elongation and cloned the cDNA by 5'-RACE. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that GsPIP2;1 expression was stimulated in G. soja leaves by cold, salt, or dehydration stress, whereas the same stresses suppressed GsPIP2;1 expression in the roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing GsPIP2;1 grew normally under unstressed and cold conditions, but exhibited depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stresses. Moreover, greater changes in water potential were detected in the transgenic A. thaliana shoots, implying that GsPIP2;1 may negatively impact stress tolerance by regulating water potential. These results, deviating from those obtained in previous reports, provide new insights into the relationship between PIPs and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. PMID:25358447

  11. Physiological mechanisms for high salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) from Yellow River Delta, China: photosynthesis, osmotic regulation, ion flux and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Kun; Shao, Hongbo; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Glycine soja (BB52) is a wild soybean cultivar grown in coastal saline land in Yellow River Delta, China. In order to reveal the physiological mechanisms adapting to salinity, we examined photosynthesis, ion flux, antioxidant system and water status in Glycine soja under NaCl treatments, taking a cultivated soybean, ZH13, as control. Upon NaCl exposure, higher relative water content and water potential were maintained in the leaf of BB52 than ZH13, which might depend on the more accumulation of osmotic substances such as glycinebetaine and proline. Compared with ZH13, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and contents of ascorbate, glutathione and phenolics were enhanced to a higher level in BB52 leaf under NaCl stress, which could mitigate the salt-induced oxidative damage in BB52. Consistently, lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde content was lower in BB52 leaf. Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was decreased by NaCl stress in BB52 and ZH13, and the decrease was greater in ZH13. The decreased Pn in BB52 was mainly due to stomatal limitation. The inhibited activation of rubisco enzyme in ZH13 due to the decrease of rubisco activase content became an important limiting factor of Pn, when NaCl concentration increased to 200 mM. Rubisco activase in BB52 was not affected by NaCl stress. Less negative impact in BB52 derived from lower contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the tissues, and non-invasive micro-test technique revealed that BB52 roots had higher ability to extrude Na(+) and Cl(-). Wild soybean is a valuable genetic resource, and our study may provide a reference for molecular biologist to improve the salt tolerance of cultivated soybean in face of farmland salinity. PMID:24349468

  12. Physiological Mechanisms for High Salt Tolerance in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja) from Yellow River Delta, China: Photosynthesis, Osmotic Regulation, Ion Flux and antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Kun; Shao, Hongbo; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Glycine soja (BB52) is a wild soybean cultivar grown in coastal saline land in Yellow River Delta, China. In order to reveal the physiological mechanisms adapting to salinity, we examined photosynthesis, ion flux, antioxidant system and water status in Glycine soja under NaCl treatments, taking a cultivated soybean, ZH13, as control. Upon NaCl exposure, higher relative water content and water potential were maintained in the leaf of BB52 than ZH13, which might depend on the more accumulation of osmotic substances such as glycinebetaine and proline. Compared with ZH13, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and contents of ascorbate, glutathione and phenolics were enhanced to a higher level in BB52 leaf under NaCl stress, which could mitigate the salt-induced oxidative damage in BB52. Consistently, lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde content was lower in BB52 leaf. Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was decreased by NaCl stress in BB52 and ZH13, and the decrease was greater in ZH13. The decreased Pn in BB52 was mainly due to stomatal limitation. The inhibited activation of rubisco enzyme in ZH13 due to the decrease of rubisco activase content became an important limiting factor of Pn, when NaCl concentration increased to 200 mM. Rubisco activase in BB52 was not affected by NaCl stress. Less negative impact in BB52 derived from lower contents of Na+ and Cl- in the tissues, and non-invasive micro-test technique revealed that BB52 roots had higher ability to extrude Na+ and Cl-. Wild soybean is a valuable genetic resource, and our study may provide a reference for molecular biologist to improve the salt tolerance of cultivated soybean in face of farmland salinity. PMID:24349468

  13. A novel Glycine soja cysteine proteinase inhibitor GsCPI14, interacting with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK, regulated plant tolerance to alkali stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Yang, Shanshan; Sun, Mingzhe; Wang, Sunting; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Dan; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Zhao, Chaoyue; Wang, Xuedong; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-05-01

    It has been well demonstrated that cystatins regulated plant stress tolerance through inhibiting the cysteine proteinase activity under environmental stress. However, there was limited information about the role of cystatins in plant alkali stress response, especially in wild soybean. Here, in this study, we focused on the biological characterization of a novel Glycine soja cystatin protein GsCPI14, which interacted with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK and positively regulated plant alkali stress tolerance. The protein-protein interaction between GsCBRLK and GsCPI14 was confirmed by using split-ubiquitin based membrane yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Expression of GsCPI14 was greatly induced by salt, ABA and alkali stress in G. soja, and GsCBRLK overexpression (OX) in Glycine max promoted the stress induction of GmCPI14 expression under stress conditions. Furthermore, we found that GsCPI14-eGFP fusion protein localized in the entire Arabidopsis protoplast and onion epidermal cell, and GsCPI14 showed ubiquitous expression in different tissues of G. soja. In addition, we gave evidence that the GST-GsCPI14 fusion protein inhibited the proteolytic activity of papain in vitro. At last, we demonstrated that OX of GsCPI14 in Arabidopsis promoted the seed germination under alkali stress, as evidenced by higher germination rates. GsCPI14 transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings also displayed better growth performance and physiological index under alkali stress. Taken together, results presented in this study demonstrated that the G. soja cysteine proteinase inhibitor GsCPI14 interacted with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK and regulated plant tolerance to alkali stress. PMID:24407891

  14. Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean. PMID:21122483

  15. GsSKP21, a Glycine soja S-phase kinase-associated protein, mediates the regulation of plant alkaline tolerance and ABA sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailin; Yu, Yang; Duan, Xiangbo; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Plant SKP1-like family proteins, components of the SCF complex E3 ligases, are involved in the regulation of plant development and stress responses. Little is known about the precise function of SKP genes in plant responses to environmental stresses. GsSKP21 was initially identified as a potential stress-responsive gene based on the transcriptome sequencing of Glycine soja. In this study, we found that GsSKP21 protein contains highly conserved SKP domains in its N terminus and an extra unidentified domain in its C terminus. The transcript abundance of GsSKP21, detected by quantitative real-time PCR, was induced under the treatment of alkali and salt stresses. Overexpression of GsSKP21 in Arabidopsis dramatically increased plant tolerance to alkali stress. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsSKP21 resulted in decreased ABA sensitivity during both the seed germination and early seedling growth stages. GsSKP21 mediated ABA signaling by altering the expression levels of the ABA signaling-related and ABA-induced genes. We also investigated the tissue expression specificity and subcellular localization of GsSKP21. These results suggest that GsSKP21 is important for plant tolerance to alkali stress and plays a critical regulatory role in the ABA-mediated stress response. PMID:25477077

  16. GsAPK, an ABA-Activated and Calcium-Independent SnRK2-Type Kinase from G. soja, Mediates the Regulation of Plant Tolerance to Salinity and ABA Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Li, Yong; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Plant Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1) related protein kinase (SnRK), a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases, has been implicated as a crucial upstream regulator of ABA and osmotic signaling as in many other signaling cascades. In this paper, we have isolated a novel plant specific ABA activated calcium independent protein kinase (GsAPK) from a highly salt tolerant plant, Glycine soja (50109), which is a member of the SnRK2 family. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsAPK is localized in the plasma membrane. We found that autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation activity of GsAPK is only activated by ABA and the kinase activity also was observed when calcium was replaced by EGTA, suggesting its independence of calcium in enzyme activity. We also found that cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress alter GsAPK gene transcripts and heterogonous overexpression of GsAPK in Arabidopsis alters plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA stress. In summary, we demonstrated that GsAPK is a Glycine soja ABA activated calcium independent SnRK-type kinase presumably involved in ABA mediated stress signal transduction. PMID:22439004

  17. PsMPK7, a stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Phytophthora sojae, is required for stress tolerance, reactive oxygenated species detoxification, cyst germination, sexual reproduction and infection of soybean.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Cao, Mingna; Ye, Wenwu; Li, Haiyang; Kong, Liang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-01

    The sensing of stress signals and their transduction into appropriate responses are crucial for the adaptation, survival and infection of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Amongst evolutionarily conserved pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades function as key signal transducers that use phosphorylation to convey information. In this study, we identified a gene, designated PsMPK7, one of 14 predicted genes encoding MAPKs in Phytophthora sojae. PsMPK7 was highly transcribed in each tested stage, but was up-regulated in the zoospore, cyst and cyst germination stages. Silencing of PsMPK7 affected the growth of germinated cysts, oospore production and the pathogenicity of soybean. PsMPK7 transcription was induced by stresses from sorbitol, NaCl and hydrogen peroxide. Transformants in which PsMPK7 expression was silenced (PsMPK7-silenced) were significantly more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stress. Aniline blue and diaminobenzidine staining revealed that the silenced lines did not suppress the host reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, indicating that either the inoculated plants activated stronger defence responses to the transformants and/or the PsMPK7-silenced transformants failed to overcome plant defences. In addition, extracellular secretion of laccase decreased in the silenced lines. Overall, our results indicate that the PsMPK7 gene encodes a stress-associated MAPK in P.?sojae that is important not only for responses to various stresses, but also for ROS detoxification, cyst germination, sexual oospore production and infection of soybean. PMID:24889742

  18. Effects of Rag1 on the preference and performance of soybean defoliators.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Robert F; Hodgson, Erin W; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-12-01

    The Rag1 gene confers antibiotic resistance to soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and in 2010, varieties expressing Rag1 were released for commercial use in the United States. We do not know how Rag1 varieties will influence the broader community of defoliating insects that inhabit soybean fields. In 2010 and 2011, the preference and performance of pest insects that defoliate soybeans [Glycines max (L.) Merr] were tested using Rag1 and aphid-susceptible varieties. Three coleopterans and four lepidopterans were used: northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trsifurcata Förster (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); soybean looper, Chrysodeix includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); and velvet-bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The preference of insects was evaluated in choice and no-choice tests using Rag1 and susceptible soybeans. Lepidopterans also were evaluated on Rag1 leaves using four nutritional indices: relative growth rate, approximate digestibility, and efficiency of conversion of ingested material. In the majority of preference tests, no effect of Rag1 was detected, and in cases where preferences were found, there was no consistent pattern of preference for Rag1 vs. susceptible leaf tissue. Helicoverpa zea demonstrated a preference for resistant leaf tissue, but this was dependent on the genetic background of the variety. Evaluations of nutritional indices indicated that three species of Lepidoptera, S. frugiperda, H. zea, and A. gemmatalis, displayed reduced conversion efficiency for Rag1 soybeans, suggesting effects of antibiosis. PMID:24498760

  19. Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans. PMID:24575310

  20. Characterization and identification of proteolytic bacteria from the gut of the velvetbean caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Visôtto, L E; Oliveira, M G A; Ribon, A O B; Mares-Guia, T R; Guedes, R N C

    2009-08-01

    The characterization and identification of proteolytic bacteria from the gut of the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis) were the objectives of this study. Twelve aerobic and anaerobic isolates of proteolytic bacteria were obtained from the caterpillar gut in calcium caseinate agar. The number of colony forming units (CFUs) of proteolytic bacteria was higher when the bacteria were extracted from caterpillars reared on artificial diet rather than on soybean leaves (1.73 +/- 0.35 x 10(3) and 0.55 +/- 0.22 x 10(3) CFU/mg gut, respectively). The isolated bacteria were divided into five distinct groups, according to their polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism profiles. After molecular analysis, biochemical tests and fatty acid profile determination, the bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus mundtii, and Staphylococcus xylosus. Bacterial proteolytic activity was assessed through in vitro colorimetric assays for (general) proteases, serine proteases, and cysteine proteases. The isolated bacteria were able of hydrolyzing all tested substrates, except Staphylococcus xylosus, which did not exhibit serine protease activity. This study provides support for the hypothesis that gut proteases from velvetbean caterpillar are not exclusively secreted by the insect cells but also by their symbiotic gut bacteria. The proteolytic activity from gut symbionts of the velvetbean caterpillar is suggestive of their potential role minimizing the potentially harmful consequences of protease inhibitors from some of this insect host plants, such as soybean, with implications for the management of this insect pest species. PMID:19689886

  1. Cell Culture Derived AgMNPV Bioinsecticide: Biological Constraints and Bioprocess Issues.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Valeria M; Marques, Fabiano H; Honda, Marcelo T; Soares, Daniela M; Jorge, Soraia A C; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Medugno, Claudia; Castro, Maria E B; Ribeiro, Bergmann M; Souza, Marlinda L; Tonso, Aldo; Pereira, Carlos A

    2005-06-01

    We have studied parameters for optimizing the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell culture and viral infection for the production of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrosis virus (AgMNPV) polyhedra inclusion bodies (PIBs) in shaker-Schott or spinner bottles and bioreactors. We have assayed the k(L)a of the systems, initial cell seeding, cell culture volume, dissolved oxygen (DO), multiplicity of infection (MOI), nutrients consumption, and metabolites production. The medium surface oxygen transfer was shown to be higher in shaker bottles than in spinner ones, which was in direct correlation to the higher cell density obtained. Best quantitative performances of PIBs production were obtained with a SF900II medium volume/shaker-bottle volume ratio of 15% and MOI of 0.5 to 1 performed at a cell concentration at infection (CCI) of 1 to 2.5x10(6) cells/ml in a medium containing enough glucose and glutamine. Upon infection, a decrease in the cell multiplication was observed to be dependent on the MOI used, and the muX at the exponential growth phase in infected and non-infected cultures were, respectively, of 0.2832 and 0.3914 (day(-1)). The glucose consumption and lactate production were higher in the infected cultures (muGlucose and muLactate of, respectively, 0.0248 and 0.0089x10(-8) g/cellxday in infected cultures and 0.0151 and 0.0046x10(-8) g/cellxday in non infected ones). The glutamine consumption did not differ in both cultures (muGlutamine of 0.0034 and 0.0037x10(-8) g/cellxday in, respectively, infected and non infected cultures). When a virus MOI of 0.1 to 1 was used for infection, a higher concentration of PIBs/ml was obtained. This was in direct correlation to a higher cell concentration present in these cultures, where a decrease in cell multiplication due to virus infection is minimized. When a MOI of 1 was used, a more effective decrease in cell multiplication was observed and a lower concentration of PIBs/ml was obtained, but with the best performance of PIBs/cell. Correlations between MOI and CCI indicate that a MOI 0.1 to 1.4 and a CCI of 10(6) to 2x10(6) cells/ml led to the best PIBs production performances. The virulence of PIBs produced in cultures infected at low or high MOI showed comparable DL(50). Culture and infection in scaling-up conditions, performed in a bioreactor, were shown to provide the cells with a better environment and be capable of potentially improving the shaker-Schott findings. For an accurate qualitative control of PIB virulence, hemolymph from AgMNPV infected Anticarsia gemmatalis was used as starting material for passages in Sf9 cells. These led to a loss of virulence among the PIBs with an increase in the DL(50). The loss of virulence was accompanied by a loss in budded virus titer, a decreased number of PIBs produced and an altered DNA restriction pattern, suggesting the generation of defective interference particles (DIPs). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed that after cell passages, PIBs lacking virions were progressively synthesized. The study described here point out the biological constraints and bioprocess issues for the preparation of AgMNPV PIBs for biological control. PMID:19003030

  2. An Amino Acid Substitution Inhibits Specialist Herbivore Production of an Antagonist Effector and Recovers Insect-Induced Plant Defenses1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Schmelz, Eric A.; Huffaker, Alisa; Carroll, Mark J.; Alborn, Hans T.; Ali, Jared G.; Teal, Peter E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to insect herbivory through the production of biochemicals that function as either direct defenses or indirect defenses via the attraction of natural enemies. While attack by closely related insect pests can result in distinctive levels of induced plant defenses, precise biochemical mechanisms responsible for differing responses remain largely unknown. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) responds to Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) herbivory through the detection of fragments of chloroplastic ATP synthase ?-subunit proteins, termed inceptin-related peptides, present in larval oral secretions (OS). In contrast to generalists like Fall armyworm, OS of the legume-specializing velvetbean caterpillar (VBC; Anticarsia gemmatalis) do not elicit ethylene production and demonstrate significantly lower induced volatile emission in direct herbivory comparisons. Unlike all other Lepidoptera OS examined, which preferentially contain inceptin (Vu-In; +ICDINGVCVDA?), VBC OS contain predominantly a C-terminal truncated peptide, Vu-In?A (+ICDINGVCVD?). Vu-In?A is both inactive and functions as a potent naturally occurring antagonist of Vu-In-induced responses. To block antagonist production, amino acid substitutions at the C terminus were screened for differences in VBC gut proteolysis. A valine-substituted peptide (Vu-In?V; +ICDINGVCVDV?) retaining full elicitor activity was found to accumulate in VBC OS. Compared with the native polypeptide, VBC that previously ingested 500 pmol of the valine-modified chloroplastic ATP synthase ?-subunit precursor elicited significantly stronger plant responses in herbivory assays. We demonstrate that a specialist herbivore minimizes the activation of defenses by converting an elicitor into an antagonist effector and identify an amino acid substitution that recovers these induced plant defenses to a level observed with generalist herbivores. PMID:23008466

  3. Gene organization and sequencing of the Choristoneura fumiferana defective nucleopolyhedrovirus genome.

    PubMed

    Lauzon, Hilary A M; Jamieson, Peter B; Krell, Peter J; Arif, Basil M

    2005-04-01

    Two distinct nucleopolyhedrovirus species of the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, exist in a symbiont-like relationship. C. fumiferana defective nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfDEFNPV) only infects C. fumiferana larvae per os in the presence of C. fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus Ireland strain (CfMNPV), but is infective when injected into the haemolymph. CfDEFNPV synergizes CfMNPV in per os infections and CfMNPV is always the predominant progeny. This study was undertaken to report the genomic makeup and organization of CfDEFNPV in an attempt to identify its defect and understand its synergistic role. The genome was mapped, sequenced, characterized and compared to other baculoviruses. The CfDEFNPV genome was 131,160 nt long with 149 putative open reading frames (ORFs) and a G + C content of 45.8 mol%. Homologues of all 62 conserved lepidopteran baculovirus genes were found including those implicated in per os infectivity, p74, per os infectivity factor (pif) and pif-2. Although no obvious deletions were observed to explain the defect, two ORFs, Cfdef79 and Cfdef99 (inhibitor of apoptosis-4), contained potential deletions. Cfdef50 (late expression factor-10)/Cfdef51 (vp1054) and Cfdef76/Cfdef77 (telokin-like protein) had large overlaps and a potential homologue to ac105/he65 was split. Four baculovirus repeat ORFs were present, as were two unique genes, but no enhancins were identified. CfDEFNPV contained 13 homologous regions, each with one to five palindromes. Comparison with fully sequenced baculovirus genomes identified CfDEFNPV as a group I NPV with the closest average amino acid identity to Epiphyas postvittana NPV, followed by Orgyia pseudotsugata MNPV and CfMNPV, with its closest matches being to individual Anticarsia gemmatalis MNPV gene sequences. PMID:15784888

  4. Modularity and evolutionary constraints in a baculovirus gene regulatory network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The structure of regulatory networks remains an open question in our understanding of complex biological systems. Interactions during complete viral life cycles present unique opportunities to understand how host-parasite network take shape and behave. The Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus, whose genome may encode for 152 open reading frames (ORFs). Here we present the analysis of the ordered cascade of the AgMNPV gene expression. Results We observed an earlier onset of the expression than previously reported for other baculoviruses, especially for genes involved in DNA replication. Most ORFs were expressed at higher levels in a more permissive host cell line. Genes with more than one copy in the genome had distinct expression profiles, which could indicate the acquisition of new functionalities. The transcription gene regulatory network (GRN) for 149 ORFs had a modular topology comprising five communities of highly interconnected nodes that separated key genes that are functionally related on different communities, possibly maximizing redundancy and GRN robustness by compartmentalization of important functions. Core conserved functions showed expression synchronicity, distinct GRN features and significantly less genetic diversity, consistent with evolutionary constraints imposed in key elements of biological systems. This reduced genetic diversity also had a positive correlation with the importance of the gene in our estimated GRN, supporting a relationship between phylogenetic data of baculovirus genes and network features inferred from expression data. We also observed that gene arrangement in overlapping transcripts was conserved among related baculoviruses, suggesting a principle of genome organization. Conclusions Albeit with a reduced number of nodes (149), the AgMNPV GRN had a topology and key characteristics similar to those observed in complex cellular organisms, which indicates that modularity may be a general feature of biological gene regulatory networks. PMID:24006890

  5. VII SEMINRIO TCNICO CIENTFICO DE ANLISE DOS DADOS DO DESMATAMENTO

    E-print Network

    MonitoramentoMonitoramentoMonitoramento ---- MoratMoratMoratMoratóóóória da soja (Palsar + Landsat )ria da soja (Palsar + Landsat )ria da soja (Palsar + Landsat )ria da soja (Palsar + Landsat ) #12;Monitoramento: MoratMonitoramento: MoratMonitoramento: MoratMonitoramento: Moratóóóória da soja (2008)ria da soja (2008)ria da soja (2008)ria da soja (2008

  6. Screening of candidate proteins interacting with IE-2 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yejun; Wu, Yu; Wu, Yan; Tang, Hui; Wu, Huiling; Zhang, Guozheng; Wang, Wenbing

    2013-10-01

    IE-2 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) has been shown to play important roles in baculovirus infection, which are involved in gene expression and viral replication. However, the mechanism remains unknown. In this paper, by TargetP software, four genes, i.e.-2, odv-e26, odv-e56 and BmNPV-gp101 (Ac-orf116) of BmNPV and Autographa californica multiple NPV (AcMNPV) were predicted to be located in mitochondria. By BLAST tool using BmNPV IE-2 protein sequence, 14 NPVs were found to have IE-2 homologues in GenBank, and most of them were predicted to be located in mitochondria, except for that of Antheraea pernyi NPV (AnpeNPV) and Anticarsia gemmatalis NPV (AngeNPV). To observe the subcellular localization of BmNPV IE-2, a recombinant virus overexpressed the IE-2 and eGFP fusion protein was constructed. In infected BmN cells, the fluorescence specifically enriched in the cellular mitochondria. This evidence was accordant with the prediction. Further, Pull-down assay was used to select protein candidates interacting with IE-2 in B. mori cells infected with BmNPV. Of several isolated protein components, sixteen candidates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry, eight baculoviral proteins (ALK-EXO, F protein, IAP-1, LEF-3, LEF-9, ODV-NC42, TLP, and VP39), and eight proteins from B. mori (Actin, ADP/ATP translocase, ATP synthase subunit beta, Beta-tubulin, DNA topoisomerase 2, Histone H4, Soluble guanylyl cyclae alpha-1 subunit, Transketolase). From the functional point of view, most of these proteins were generally divided into two groups, mitochondrial interaction proteins and viral DNA replication proteins. These results implied that the IE-2 had multiple functions involved in regulating viral gene expression, viral replication and also as a component of mitochondrial factors to regulate the cellular energy supply and apoptosis. PMID:24078157

  7. Gene Flow and Genetic Structure of Wild Soybean (Glycine soja) in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yosuke Kuroda; Akito Kaga; Norihiko Tomooka; Duncan A. Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    In many parts of Japan cultivated soybean and wild soybean are sympatric. The objective of this study was to measure gene movement from cul- tivated soybean to wild soybean and within wild soybean in natural populations in Japan. Seven microsatellite markers that were found to have particularly high ability to discriminate compo- nents of the soybean complex in Japan were

  8. Allelic differentiation of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor in wild soybean ( Glycine soja )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Wang; Y. Takahata; Y. Kono; N. Kaizuma

    2008-01-01

    Soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) has several polymorphic types, which are controlled by co-dominant multiple alleles\\u000a at a single locus. Of these types, Tia and Tib are predominant types, and there are nine differences in amino acids between Tia and Tib. Recently, an intermediate transitional type (Tib\\u000a \\u000a i5\\u000a ) between them was detected. However, other transitional types have not been

  9. Propriedades mecânicas dos grãos de soja em função do teor de água

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deise M. Ribeiro; Paulo C. Corrêa; Bruno F. Furtado; André L. D. Goneli; Osvaldo Resende

    2007-01-01

    This work aimed to determine the effect of the soybean grain moisture content in the maximum compression force values for a fixed deformation (2 mm) and the proportional deformity modulus under different compression positions. Soybean grains varying from 0.58 to 0.093 (d.b.) of moisture content were compressed uniaxialy between two parallel plates towards its three main dimensions under compression speed

  10. Rede Bayesiana aplicada ao monitoramento da Moratria da Soja Marcio Pupin Mello1

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    sensing, soy moratorium, artificial intelligence, deforestation, Brazilian Amazon, sensoriamento remoto, 12227-010, Brasil {mello, adami, bernardo, daniel}@dsr.inpe.br Abstract. The Soy Moratorium is intended to reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Its monitoring is supported by remote sensing satellite

  11. Homologous RXLR effectors from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and Phytophthora sojae suppress immunity in distantly related plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse pathogens secrete effector proteins into plant cells to manipulate host cellular processes. Oomycete pathogens contain very large complements of predicted effector genes defined by an RXLR host cell entry motif. The genome of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa, downy mildew of Arabidopsis) ...

  12. Etude de l'activit nitrognase des nodosits de soja inocul avec une souche croissance rapide

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    de Rhizobium Vu Ti THU, Jean-Jacques DREVON Louis SALSAC Ecole d'Agriculture, Truong Dai Hoc Nong rapide Rhizobium GA et d'une souche à croissance lente R. japonicum PJ17 ont été comparées sur 3-growing strain of Rhizobium. The nitrogen-fixation capacities of the fast-growing Rhizobium GA and the slow

  13. Ectopic expression of a WRKY homolog from Glycine soja alters flowering time in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Cao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Mingchao; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-01-01

    Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO) and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG). Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time. PMID:23991184

  14. EFFET DE L'INGESTION D'HUILE DE SOJA CHAUFFE SUR L'LIMINATION URINAIRE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    'efficacité biologique de certains constituants de la ration, en particulier de diverses vitamines. Cette modification a été observée dans le cas de la pyridoxine et de la riboflavine (WITTING et al., ig57), de la vitamine A (REPORTER et HARRIS, ig6i), et de la vitamine E !AL>!IN-SLATER, AUERBACH et AFTERGOOD, 1959). Peu d

  15. TUDE D'UNE SUBSTITUTION PROGRESSIVE DU TOURTEAU DE SOJA PAR LA FVEROLE DCORTIQUE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to the shelling. VALEUR ALIMENTAIRE DU « GLUTEN FEED » POUR LE PORC EN CROISSANCE-FINITION D. BOURDON Y. HENRY possibilités d'utilisation du « Gluten-Feed » comme source azotée complémentaire, dans des régimes à base de un total de 164 porcs, permettent de conclure à une utilisation optimale du « Gluten-Feed n

  16. Efecto de las terrazas sobre la diversidad de artrópodos caminadores en cultivos de soja

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FEDERICO WEYLAND; MARÍA ELENA ZACCAGNINI

    Effect of terraces on soil dwelling arthropod diversity in soybean production: The loss of biodiversity in agroecosystems constitutes a main issue in ecological research. Steep backslope terraces, used for soil erosion control, could act as refuges for arthropods in agricultural landscapes. Total and predator arthropod species richness and abundance were surveyed in soybean fields in Entre Ríos under a no-till

  17. Glyceollin is an important component of soybean plant defense against Phytophthora sojae and Macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic soybean plants were generated using bombardment of embryogenic cultures with the PAL5 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase), CHS6 (chalcone synthase) and IFS2 (isoflavone synthase) genes in sense orientation, driven by the cotyledon-preferable lectin promoter, or with the IFS2 (isoflavone synthas...

  18. Filières soja OGM et non OGM : à quelles conditions la coexistence est-elle possible ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romain Bourgier; Raùl Green; Marianne Le Bail; Louis-Georges Soler

    2006-01-01

    L'Union européenne a mis en place une réglementation dont l'objectif est d’encadrer les disséminations volontaires d’organismes génétiquement modifiés (OGM) dans l’environnement. Elle laisse aux Etats membres la possibilité de fixer des mesures de coexistence des cultures OGM et non OGM pour satisfaire au libre choix des producteurs agricoles et des consommateurs face aux produits issus, ou non, d'organismes génétiquement modifiés.

  19. Spectroscopic determination of metabolic and mineral changes of soya-chunk mediated by Aspergillus sojae.

    PubMed

    Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Lee, Jiho; Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Keum, Young-Soo; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-03-01

    Time dependent changes of primary (GC-MS), isoflavones (LC-MS) and minerals (ICP-OES) content of fermented soya-chunk were compared with un-fermented (0H) soya-chunk and presented. Results revealed that the amino acid content increased gradually based on the fermentation time; whereas the maltose, sucrose and fructose contents were reduced due to the fungal growth. The glucosides changed extensively during the initial fermentation time resulting in augmentation of aglycones and phytoalexins. This affects the antioxidant potential whereas the DPPH and ABTS of 0H showed lowest activity (18.15% and 54.92%) and increased quite high with fungal fermentation (45.81% and 93.47%). The calcium (0.55%), magnesium (0.47 mg/kg), nickel (5.17 mg/kg l(-1)), and copper (8.33 mg/kg l(-1)) content were increased during the fermentation and in a decrease of iron and aluminium contents. Findings suggest that the soya-chunk prepared by fungal fermentation will improve the antioxidant and mineral content and hence their nutritional property will be enhanced for humans. PMID:25306310

  20. Identification of quantitative trait loci conditioning partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean PI 407861A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving resistance for Phytophthora root and stem rot is an important goal in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] breeding. Partial resistance can be as effective in managing this disease as single-gene (Rps) mediated resistance and is more durable. The objective of this study was to identify QTL con...

  1. Urides et asparagine chez deux varits de soja cultives au champ : stockage dans la tige et uti-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , nutrition azotée, Glycine max. SUMMARY Ureides and asparagine in two field-grown soybean varieties :amounts). Nitrogenous compounds were abundant in the stem : highest amounts were found in the middle part of the plant of pods. The amounts in the stem increased from flowering stage until the beginning of seed filling

  2. EFEITO DA ÉPOCA DE SEMEADURA SOBRE A QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTE DE SOJA NO ESTADO DO MATO GROSSO1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NILTON PEREIRA DA COSTA; JOSÉ DE BARROS; FRANÇA NETO; ADEMIR ASSIS HENNING; FRANCISCO CARLOS KRZYZANOWSKI; NORIVAL TIAGO CABRAL; MÁRCIO C. MENDES

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of planting date on soybean seed quality. The cultivars evaluated were Cristalina, IAC-2, Tropical, Doko, and IAC-8. The sowing dates were stablished between October 29, 1983 and January 7, 1984 (10\\/29, 11\\/11, 11\\/25, 12\\/10, 12\\/24 and 01\\/7), at Lucas do Rio Verde in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. In the plantings carried out

  3. Identification and functional characterization of the soybean GmaPPO12 promoter conferring Phytophthora sojae induced expression.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chunyue; Lin, Yanling; Shen, Danyu; Wu, Yuren; Li, Hongjuan; Dou, Daolong

    2013-01-01

    Identification of pathogen-inducible promoters largely lags behind cloning of the genes for disease resistance. Here, we cloned the soybean GmaPPO12 gene and found that it was rapidly and strongly induced by Phytophthorasojae infection. Computational analysis revealed that its promoter contained many known cis-elements, including several defense related transcriptional factor-binding boxes. We showed that the promoter could mediate induction of GUS expression upon infection in both transient expression assays in Nicotianabenthamiana and stable transgenic soybean hairy roots. Importantly, we demonstrated that pathogen-induced expression of the GmaPPO12 promoter was higher than that of the soybean GmaPR1a promoter. A progressive 5' and 3' deletion analysis revealed two fragments that were essential for promoter activity. Thus, the cloned promoter could be used in transgenic plants to enhance resistance to phytophthora pathogens, and the identified fragment could serve as a candidate to produce synthetic pathogen-induced promoters. PMID:23840763

  4. The Diaporthe sojae species complex: phylogenetic re-assessment of pathogens associated with soybean, cucurbits and other field crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytopathogenic species of Diaporthe are associated with the serious diseases including seed decay, pod and stem blight and stem canker of soybean leading to considerable loss of crop production worldwide. Accurate identification of the species that cause these diseases has been difficult due to the...

  5. Remplacement du tourteau de soja par de la farine de viande et des associations de protagineux dans l'alimentation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    protéagineux : lupin (Lupin us albus L.), féverole (Vicia faba L.), pois (Pisum Sativum L.) et un concentré finition, des associations lupin-féverole-pois ou lupin féverole-PX. n'affecte pas significativement les d'envisager la production nationale de sources de protéines de remplacement. A cet effet, le lupin

  6. Influência da geometria de aquisiccão sobre 'indices de vegetaccão e estimativas de iaf com dados MODIS, Hyperion e simulaccões PROSAIL para a soja

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Marcelo Breunig

    2011-01-01

    INFLUENCE OF DATA ACQUISITION GEOMETRY ON VEGETATION INDICES AND LAI ESTIMATES WITH MODIS, HYPERION AND PROSAIL SIMULATIONS FOR SOYBEAN ABSTRACT In order to reduce cloud cover effects on the acquisition of optical images, the temporal resolution of the satellites can be improved by using large swath width sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). MODIS acquires data over

  7. Integration of the draft sequence and physical map as a framework for genomic research in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a model for the legume research community due to its importance as a crop, a well populated genetic map, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole genome shotgun sequence and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution chromosome-b...

  8. Summa Phytopathol., Botucatu, v. 32, n. 3, p. 247-254, 2006 247 Incompatibilidade somtica em Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA da soja

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Bruce

    pathogens affecting soybean in Brazil, causing the aerial or foliar blight. This disease is associated of isolates and to avoid the introduction of clones in the assay. The isolates were paired in all possible the occurrence of clones in the population of the pathogen, i.e., isolates that share the same phenotypic RAPD

  9. Economie Rurale, N 320 nov-dc. 2010, pp. 53-68 Un tat de coexistence du soja transgnique et conventionnel au Paran, Brsil

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    agro-alimentaires recourant ou non aux matières premières contenant des OGM (Bourgier et al., 2006 compte dans les lois sur les OGM (Furet, 2008 ; Nicolas, 2008). L'objet de cet article est de traiter d variétés transgéniques, un débat a opposé partisans et opposants des OGM à

  10. Caracterização de risco de déficit hídrico nas regiões produtoras de soja no Brasil Characterization of the water deficit for brazilian soybean producing regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Renato Bouças Farias; Eduardo Delgado Assad; Ivan Rodrigues de Almeida; Balbino Antônio; Cláudio Lazzarotto; Norman Neumaier; Alexandre Lima Nepomuceno

    2001-01-01

    In the current globalized agro-scenario, increments in yield and reductions in costs and in risks of failure became basic requirements to the competitiveness. Increased efficiency in the use of resources and inputs, improved quality of farm products and preserved environments are challenges of the modern agriculture. Tools for helping the decision making process are essential to tackle these challenges and

  11. M. LESSIRE -B. LECLERCQ -L. CONAN* INRA Nouzilly

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    soja est, par sa richesse en protéines, en huile et acides gras essentiels, une matière première qui concurrencer l'association du tourteau et de l'huile dans l'alimentation des volailles. La graine entière de faible que celle d'un mélange reconstitué de tourteau et d'huile de soja (Hill et Renner 1963), peut être

  12. Influence de la nature des protines alimentaires sur la composition en acides amins

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) milk-replacer : 81 p. 100 fish protein concentrate, 19 p. 100 whey ; soya protein concentrate (« soja concentre») milk-replacer : 78 p. 100 soya protein concentrate, 22 p. 100 whey ; fermented soya (« soja fermented) milk-replacer : 77 p. 100 fermented soya meal protein, 23 p. 100 whey ; horse- bean (« féverole

  13. GENETIC VARIATION AND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG CULTIVATED, WILD, AND SEMI-WILD SOYBEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some Glycine accessions are intermediate between the standard phenotypes of G. ma and G. soja and have been labeled semi-wild. Few studies have examined both the genetic and phenotypic relationships among G. soja, G. max, and semi-wild types by combining morphological traits and DNA markers. The ob...

  14. SOYBEAN GENES AFFECTING POD DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild soybeans (Glycine soja) offer tremendous genetic resources for cultivated soybeans. The pod-shatter trait is critical for successful reseeding of G. soja in the wild. Modern soybean (Glycine max) cultivars have been selected for pod-shatter resistance. Coordinately- regulated expression of thre...

  15. Etude des interactions entre fourrage et aliment concentr chez le mouton

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    de pellicules de soja, de son de blé, de céréales, de pulpe de betteraves et de lupin. Dans le second pulpe, de lupin et de pellicules de soja. Dans le même temps, pour une proportion faible de concentré

  16. Quantitative Trait Loci for Partial Resistance to Phytophthora Sojaei in Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean, caused by the oomycete, Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases to limit soybean production in the US. Although fourteen resistance genes (Rps) to P. sojae have been identified, adaptation of by the pathogen has made many of these ineffe...

  17. Phytophthora root rot resistance in soybean E00003

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a devastating disease in soybean production. Using resistant cultivars has been suggested as the best solution for disease management. Michigan elite soybean E00003 is resistant to P. sojae and has been used as a PRR resist...

  18. QTL affecting fitness of hybrids between wild and cultivated soybeans in experimental fields

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yosuke; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Yano, Hiroshi; Takada, Yoshitake; Kato, Shin; Vaughan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fitness of hybrids between wild soybean (Glycine soja) and cultivated soybean (Glycine max). Seed dormancy and seed number, both of which are important for fitness, were evaluated by testing artificial hybrids of G. soja × G. max in a multiple-site field trial. Generally, the fitness of the F1 hybrids and hybrid derivatives from self-pollination was lower than that of G. soja due to loss of seed dormancy, whereas the fitness of hybrid derivatives with higher proportions of G. soja genetic background was comparable with that of G. soja. These differences were genetically dissected into QTL for each population. Three QTLs for seed dormancy and one QTL for total seed number were detected in the F2 progenies of two diverse cross combinations. At those four QTLs, the G. max alleles reduced seed number and severely reduced seed survival during the winter, suggesting that major genes acquired during soybean adaptation to cultivation have a selective disadvantage in natural habitats. In progenies with a higher proportion of G. soja genetic background, the genetic effects of the G. max alleles were not expressed as phenotypes because the G. soja alleles were dominant over the G. max alleles. Considering the highly inbreeding nature of these species, most hybrid derivatives would disappear quickly in early self-pollinating generations in natural habitats because of the low fitness of plants carrying G. max alleles. PMID:23919159

  19. Phytophthora Resistance of Soybean Germplasm with High Potential for Asian Soybean Rust Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple disease resistance is an important component of production agriculture. Major challenges include resistance to Phytophthora root rot caused by evolving Phytophthora sojae races and the recently introduced invasive Asian soybean rust (ASBR) caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi. The diseases cause...

  20. Plant physiology Influence of photon flux density and fluctuation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    activity. nitrogenase / nodules / photosynthesis / Rhizobium / Glycine max = soybean Résumé &mdash spécifiquement la fixation d'azote. nitrogénase/ nodule / photosynthèse/ Rhizobium / Glycine max = soja

  1. 77 FR 76979 - Pesticides; Revisions to Minimum Risk Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...example, some products use Latin names for some ingredients, such as a product that listed some of its inert ingredients as Glycine Soja Oil, Cymbopogon Nardus Oil, and Pimenta Acris Leaf Oil, which most inspectors and members of the public...

  2. Antifungal activity of borrelidin produced by a Streptomyces strain isolated from soybean.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong-Xi; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Qian, Ping-Ting; Wang, Ji-Dong; Gao, Ya-Mei; Yan, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Zhen; Xu, Peng-Fei; Li, Wen-Bin; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    In this study, an endophytic Streptomyces sp. neau-D50 with strong antifungal activity against Phytophthora sojae was isolated from healthy soybean root, using an in vitro screening technique. A bioactivity-guided approach was then employed to isolate and determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents with antifungal activity from strain neau-D50. The structure of the antifungal metabolite was elucidated as borrelidin on the basis of spectral analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report that borrelidin has strong antifungal activity against dominant race 1 of P. sojae with EC(50) and EC(95) of 0.0056 and 0.026 mg/L, respectively. The values were respectively 62.5- and 262.3-fold lower than those of the commercial fungicide metalaxyl, which has been used to treat soybean seed for the control of P. sojae . The in situ bioassays demonstrated that borrelidin at 10 mg/L reduced P. sojae race 1 lesions on soybean seedlings by 94.72% without affecting root growth. Thus, borrelidin might be a promising candidate for new antifungal agents against P. sojae. PMID:22242825

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF A LARGE CLUSTER OF COILED COIL-NUCLEOTIDE BINDING SITE-LEUCINE RICH REPEAT-TYPE GENES FROM THE RPS1 REGION CONTAINING PHYTOPHTHORA RESISTANCE GENES IN SOYBEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen Rps genes confer resistance against the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae that causes the root and stem rot disease in soybean. We have isolated a disease resistance gene-like sequence from the genomic region containing Rps1-k. Four classes of cDNAs of the sequence were isolated from eti...

  4. Effets du calcium, du magnsium et des sels biliaires sur l'nergie mtabolisable apparente

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    lipides de deux régimes. Ceux-ci sont essentiellement composés de maïs et de tourteau de soja et contiennent 15 p. 100 de graisse animale (RI) ou 15 p. 100 d'huile de maïs (R2). Chaque régime est utilisé tel

  5. POSSIBILITS D'ALIMENTATION DU LAPIN EN CROISSANCE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'amidon de maïs, d'huile et de paille d'orge, l'autre de tourteau de soja, de maïs et de paille, ont été performances (régime B) la granulation semble avoir un effet favorable. Toutefois, la conclusion essentielle de

  6. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGEN AND ANTINUTRITIONAL PROTEINS IN WILD AND CULTIVATED SOYBEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, profiles of allergen and antinutritional proteins both in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seeds were compared. We used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) for the separation of proteins at two different pH ranges and applied a combine...

  7. COMMON GENOTYPES (RFLP) WITHIN A DIVERSE COLLECTION OF YELLOW-GREEN ASPERGILLI USED TO PRODUCE TRADITIONAL ORIENTAL FERMENTED FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA fingerprinting was performed on 72 strains of Aspergillus oryzae and 9 strains of Aspergillus sojae isolated from chu (China) or koji (Japan), mold inoculum used in the production of traditional oriental fermented beverages or foods including soy sauce, miso, and sake. The cultures were deposit...

  8. Dt2 is a gain-of-function MADS-Domain factor gene that controls semi-determinacy in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Similar to Arabidopsis, the wild soybean (Glycine soja) and many soybean (Glycine max) cultivars exhibit indeterminate stem growth controlled by a gene Dt1 – the functional counterpart of the Arabidopsis TFL1. Mutations in TFL1 and Dt1 both result in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) switching from ve...

  9. Host range of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal organism of soybean rust, was first described in 1903 from leaves of Glycine max subsp. soja, or wild soybean, in Japan. Since that time, there have been numerous reports of the pathogen on various leguminous species around the world, first in Asia, followed by Aust...

  10. What Can Availability of the Phytophthora ramorum Genome Do for Us?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genomes of Phytophthora ramorum and P. sojae were sequenced in 2004. Two obvious questions arise, What contributions does the availability of a genome sequence make toward understanding the biology of Phytophthora spp.? What are the implications for management of sudden oak death in the...

  11. Effets du GRF1-44 sur le comportement alimentaire du mouton en fonction de la nature du rgime alimentaire (foin vs concentr)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    graminées de qualité moyenne ou d'un aliment concentré composé de maïs et de soja (10 % CB et 18 % MAT h après la distribution. Entre chaque essai les animaux sont soumis à une période d'adaptation de 15 repas de foin. Le test t (séries indépendantes) de Student a été retenu pour l'analyse statistique des

  12. NECTAR COMPOSITION OF WILD PERENNIAL GLYCINE (SOYBEAN) SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Glycine contains the cultivated annual soybean G. max, the wild annual, G. soja, and about 21 wild perennial Glycine species. The perennials are largely indigenous to Australia, but are found in Papua New Guinea, Timor, Philippines, Japan and Taiwan. Outcrossing rates in the cultivated s...

  13. Alternate Intron Processing of Family 5 Endoglucanase Transcripts from Genus Phytophthora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, twenty-one paralogs of family 5 endo-(1-4)-'-glucanase genes (EGs) were identified and characterized in the oomycete plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these genes are in a unique group, with closest similarity being ba...

  14. Genome sequences of Phytophthora enable translational plant disease management and accelerate research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niklaus J. Grünwald

    2012-01-01

    Whole and partial genome sequences are becoming available at an ever-increasing pace. For many plant pathogen systems, we are moving into the era of genome resequencing. The first Phytophthora genomes, P. ramorum and P. sojae, became available in 2004, followed shortly by P. infestans in 2006. Availability of whole genome sequences has provided rapid and immediate advances in several areas

  15. Footprints of evolution: the dynamics of effector genes in the Phytophthora genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Y. Jiang

    2006-01-01

    Phytophthora is a genus comprised of over 65 destructive plant pathogenic species that cause severe damages in agriculture, forestry and natural habitats. Economically important pathogens are Phytophthora infestans (causing potato late blight) and Phytophthora sojae (causing soybean root and stem rot). A newly discovered species, Phytophthora ramorum is destroying oak trees along the west-coast of the USA by causing the

  16. PROTEOMIC AND GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF KUNITZ TRYPSIN INHIBITORS IN WILD AND CULTIVATED SOYBEAN GENOTYPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated protein and genetic profiles of Kunitz trypsin inhibitors (KTIs) in seeds of sixteen different soybean genotypes that included four groups consisting of wild soybean (Glycine soja), the cultivated soybean (G. max) ancestors of modern N. American soybean cultivars, mode...

  17. Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Mitochondrial Genomics in the Genus

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 243 Mitochondrial Genomics in the Genus The mitochondrial genomes of Phytophthora infestans, P. ramorum and P. sojae have been sequenced and comparative genomics has provided an opportunity to examine the processes involved with genome evolution in the genus

  18. Cytoplasmic glycosylation of protein-hydroxyproline and its relationship to other glycosylation pathways

    E-print Network

    Gaucher, Eric

    to the mucin-type polypeptide N-acetyl-a-galactosaminyltransferase in the Golgi of animals. Its, including diatoms, oomycetes, and possibly Chlamydomonas and Toxoplasma, and an evolutionary precursor: Glycosyltransferase evolution; Multifunctional protein; Mucin-type O-glycosylation; Thalassiosira; Phytophthora sojae

  19. Spaces of Difference: The Contradictions of Alternative Educational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon the concept of "thirdspace" (Soja 1996), this article extends sociocultural theorizations of space in relation to alternative educational programs: programs designed to re-engage youth who have been pushed out of mainstream schools. Snapshots of educational programs, provided by ethnographic research gathered in the United States,…

  20. Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

  1. Selection on Glycine ?-1,3-Endoglucanase Genes Differentially Inhibited by a Phytophthora Glucanase Inhibitor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, J. G.; Ripoll, D. R.; Bashir, S.; Damasceno, C. M. B.; Seeds, J. D.; Rose, J. K. C.

    2005-01-01

    Plant endo-?-1,3-glucanases (EGases) degrade the cell wall polysaccharides of attacking pathogens and release elicitors of additional plant defenses. Isozymes EGaseA and EGaseB of soybean differ in susceptibility to a glucanase inhibitor protein (GIP1) produced by Phytophthora sojae, a major soybean pathogen. EGaseA, the major elicitor-releasing isozyme, is a high-affinity ligand for GIP1, which completely inhibits it, whereas EGaseB is unaffected by GIP1. We tested for departures from neutral evolution on the basis of partial sequences of EGaseA and EGaseB from 20 widespread accessions of Glycine soja (the wild progenitor of soybean), from 4 other Glycine species, and across dicotyledonous plants. G. soja exhibited little intraspecific variation at either locus. Phylogeny-based codon evolution models detected strong evidence of positive selection on Glycine EGaseA and weaker evidence for selection on dicot EGases and Glycine EGaseB. Positively selected peptide sites were identified and located on a structural model of EGase bound to GIP1. Positively selected sites and highly variable sites were found disproportionately within 4.5 Å of bound GIP1. Low variation within G. soja EGases, coupled with positive selection in both Glycine and dicot lineages and the proximity of rapidly evolving sites to GIP1, suggests an arms race involving repeated adaptation to pathogen attack and inhibition. PMID:15545660

  2. PHYTOPHTHORA GENOME SEQUENCES UNCOVER EVOLUTIONARY ORIGINS AND MECHANISMS OF PATHOGENESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Draft genome sequences of the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum have been determined. Oomycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopiles with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms, and the Phytophthora sequences sugges...

  3. Antifungal Activity of Aroma Chemicals Against Seed-borne Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Dev; C. Devakumar; J. Mohan; P. C. Agarwal

    2004-01-01

    In vitro inhibition of 16 aroma chemicals was studied against five seed-borne fungal pathogens in the concentration range of 100 to 8000 ppm: Drechslera sorokiniana (Sacc.) Subram. et Jain, Phomompsis sojae Leh., Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., Colletotrichum graminicola (Ces.) Wilson and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was computed for each chemical against each fungus. All the chemicals

  4. Extrait 1000 57,9 J. MAILLAItD. -Lt; r~AIT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    minérales 3,1 Vitamine 0 ;.... Absen te Vitamine A : la vitamine A de ce lait est complètement oxydée et pal un litre de lait 'de vache ': - Lait do soja Lait de vache Vitamine A , , .' , . Vitamine BI .: ' , , . : , . VitamineB2······ .' .....· ~, ...·. ,'. Vitamine pp ' : . Vitamine C , . 750 U. 1. 1.050 U. I. o mgr. 43 1

  5. Analyses of genome architecture and gene expression reveal novel candidate virulence factors in the secretome of Phytophthora infestans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Raffaele; Joe Win; Liliana M Cano; Sophien Kamoun

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phytophthora infestans is the most devastating pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes. It exhibits high evolutionary potential and rapidly adapts to host plants. The P. infestans genome experienced a repeat-driven expansion relative to the genomes of Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum and shows a discontinuous distribution of gene density. Effector genes, such as members of

  6. NECTAR COMPOSITION OF WILD PERENNIAL GLYCINE (SOYBEAN) SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Glycine contains the cultivated annual soybean G. max, the wild annual soybean G. soja, and about 21 wild perennial Glycine species. The perennials are largely indigenous to Australia, but are found in Papua New Guinea, Timor, Philippines, Japan and Taiwan. Outcrossing by insects occurs ...

  7. Amlioration des plantes (synthse) Les cultures in vitro chez les lgumineuses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ,2 Mha. Puis viennent le pois, la fève, le lupin ainsi que les Vigna. Dans ces régions, les progrès des des espèces légumi- #12;neuses concernées (soja, arachide, pois, févero- le, lupin essentiellement

  8. DOMESTICATION, FOUNDING EFFECTS AND ARTIFICIAL SELECTION - GENETIC BOTTLENECKS AND SOYBEAN GENETIC VARIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic vulnerability is the condition of being broadly susceptible to attack by pests and is assumed to be proportional to genetic uniformity. Genetic variability of North American soybean at the DNA sequence level was assessed in fragments from 102 genes in each of 26 accessions of G. soja, 52 As...

  9. Mapping QTL tolerance to Phytophthora root rot in soybean using microsatellite and RAPD\\/SCAR derived markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingpeng Han; Weili Teng; Kangfu Yu; Vaino Poysa; Terry Anderson; Lijuan Qiu; David A. Lightfoot; Wenbin Li

    2008-01-01

    Broad tolerance to phytophthora root rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae has become an important goal for the improvement of soybean (Glycine max) because of the rapid spread of races that defeat the available resistance genes. The aim of this research was to identify the location of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in ‘Conrad’, a soybean cultivar with\\u000a broad tolerance to

  10. Response of soybean pathogens to glyceollin.

    PubMed

    Lygin, Anatoly V; Hill, Curtis B; Zernova, Olga V; Crull, Laura; Widholm, Jack M; Hartman, Glen L; Lozovaya, Vera V

    2010-09-01

    Plants recognize invading pathogens and respond biochemically to prevent invasion or inhibit colonization in plant cells. Enhancing this response in crop plants could improve sustainable methods to manage plant diseases. To enhance disease resistance in soybean, the soybean phytoalexin glyceollin was assessed in soybean hairy roots of two soybean genotypes, Spencer and PI 567374, transformed with either soybean isoflavone synthase (IFS2) or chalcone synthase (CHS6) genes that were inoculated with the soybean pathogens Diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionales, Macrophomina phaseolina, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Phytophthora sojae. The hairy-root-transformed lines had several-fold decreased levels of isoflavone daidzein, the precursor of glyceollin, and considerably lower concentrations of glyceollin induced by pathogens measured 5 days after fungal inoculation compared with the nontransformed controls without phenolic transgenes. M. phaseolina, P. sojae, and S. sclerotiorum grew much more on IFS2- and CHS6-transformed roots than on control roots, although there was no significant difference in growth of D. phaseolorum var. meridionales on the transformed hairy-root lines. In addition, glyceollin concentration was lower in D. phaseolorum var. meridionales-inoculated transformed and control roots than roots inoculated with the other pathogens. Glyceollin inhibited the growth of D. phaseolorum var. meridionales, M. phaseolina, P. sojae, S. sclerotiorum, and three additional soybean pathogens: Cercospora sojina, Phialophora gregata, and Rhizoctonia solani. The most common product of glyceollin conversion or degradation by the pathogens, with the exception of P. sojae, which had no glyceollin degradation products found in the culture medium, was 7-hydroxyglyceollin. PMID:20701487

  11. Genetic mapping and characterization of two novel Phytophthora resistance genes from soybean landrace PI567139B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR) disease, caused by P. sojae, is a widespread soybean disease resulting in an annual yield loss of $1~2 billion worldwide. To control the disease, breeders primarily employ race-specific resistant genes which are named Rps genes which have been identified to be lo...

  12. [Prostate cancer prevention].

    PubMed

    Wisard, M; Leisinger, H-J

    2006-01-11

    The prevention of prostate cancer is conceivable. Finasteride, even though it diminishes the risk of cancer in the male adult, cannot be used as a prophylaxis in chemoprevention so far as we do not know if they produce more aggressive cancers. On the other hand, weight control, through a varied and balanced diet, rich in lycopene, soja beans, omega 3 acid, selenium, vit E, physical and sexual activity and no smoking are without risks, efficient and commendable. PMID:16463803

  13. Phenotype Prediction Using Regularized Regression on Genetic Data in the DREAM5 Systems Genetics B Challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Po-Ru Loh; George Tucker; Bonnie Berger

    2011-01-01

    A major goal of large-scale genomics projects is to enable the use of data from high-throughput experimental methods to predict complex phenotypes such as disease susceptibility. The DREAM5 Systems Genetics B Challenge solicited algorithms to predict soybean plant resistance to the pathogen Phytophthora sojae from training sets including phenotype, genotype, and gene expression data. The challenge test set was divided

  14. Efficacy of pyrazophos in controlling agromyzid flies on legumes in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. Talekar; C. C. Huang

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of an organophosphorus fungicide, pyrazophos, against agromyzids, Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon), O. centrosematis (De Meijere) and Melanagromyza sojae (Zehntner) was studied in the laboratory, greenhouse and field tests on three crops: soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris (L.)) and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). Pyrazophos applied as a spray on plants at 0.3 kg a.i.\\/ha controlled M.

  15. The aspartic proteinase family of three Phytophthora species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Kay; Harold JG Meijer; Arjen ten Have; Jan AL van Kan

    2011-01-01

    Background  \\u000a Phytophthora species are oomycete plant pathogens with such major social and economic impact that genome sequences have been determined\\u000a for Phytophthora infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum. Pepsin-like aspartic proteinases (APs) are produced in a wide variety of species (from bacteria to humans) and contain conserved\\u000a motifs and landmark residues. APs fulfil critical roles in infectious organisms and their

  16. Daniel Nepstad, PhD Executive Director & Senior Scientist

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    #12;Proof of concept: the Brazilian Amazon 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Amazon) Rebanho Bovino (milhões de cabeças) Produção de Soja (milhões de t) Cattle Herd Soy Production #12

  17. La complmentation azote du cactus inerme pour les ovins. Effet de la source d'azote

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    La complémentation azotée du cactus inerme pour les ovins. Effet de la source d'azote A Nefzaoui1 H ARIANA, Tunisie 2Direction des Ressources Alimentaires, OEP, rue Alain Savary - TUNIS, Tunisie Le cactus cactus et de comparer l'effet de différentes sources d'azote (urée, tourteau de soja, Atriplex halimus

  18. DGRADATION DANS LE JABOT DU COQ ET EFFICACIT D'AMIDONS DE MAS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    DÉGRADATION DANS LE JABOT DU COQ ET EFFICACITÉ D'AMIDONS DE MAÏS A DIFFÉRENTS TAUX D'AMYLOSE SUR LA cireux (I), normal (0) ou d'amylomaïs (Y), il est possible d'évaluer l'influence du taux d'amylose sur la recevant entre 3 etsemaines un régime à base de tourteau de soja et d'amidon de maïs, le taux d'amylose le

  19. Alternate intron processing of family 5 endoglucanase transcripts from the genus Phytophthora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Costanzo; Manuel D. Ospina-Giraldo; Kenneth L. Deahl; C. Jacyn Baker; Richard W. Jones

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one homologs of family 5 endo-(1–4)-?-glucanase genes (EGLs) were identified and characterized in the oomycete plant\\u000a pathogens Phytophthora infestans, P. sojae, and P. ramorum, providing the first comprehensive analysis of this family in Phytophthora. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these genes constitute a unique eukaryotic group, with closest similarity to bacterial\\u000a endoglucanases. Many of the identified EGL copies were clustered in

  20. Temperature interactions with transpiration response to vapor pressure deficit among cultivated and wild soybean genotypes.

    PubMed

    Seversike, Thomas M; Sermons, Shannon M; Sinclair, Thomas R; Carter, Thomas E; Rufty, Thomas W

    2013-05-01

    A key strategy in soybean drought research is increased stomatal sensitivity to high vapor pressure deficit (VPD), which contributes to the 'slow wilting' trait observed in the field. These experiments examined whether temperature of the growth environment affected the ability of plants to respond to VPD, and thus control transpiration rate (TR). Two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and four wild soybean [Glycine soja (Sieb. and Zucc.)] genotypes were studied. The TR was measured over a range of VPD when plants were growing at 25 or 30°C, and again after an abrupt increase of 5°C. In G. max, a restriction of TR became evident as VPD increased above 2.0?kPa when temperature was near its growth optimum of 30°C. 'Slow wilting' genotype plant introduction (PI) 416937 exhibited greater TR control at high VPD compared with Hutcheson, and only PI 416937 restrained TR after the shift to 35°C. Three of the four G. soja genotypes exhibited control over TR with increasing VPD when grown at 25°C, which is near their estimated growth optimum. The TR control became engaged at lower VPD than in G. max and was retained to differing degrees after a shift to 30°C. The TR control systems in G. max and G. soja clearly were temperature-sensitive and kinetically definable, and more restrictive in the 'slow wilting' soybean genotype. For the favorable TR control traits observed in G. soja to be useful for soybean breeding in warmer climates, the regulatory linkage with lower temperatures must be uncoupled. PMID:22989317

  1. Utilisation du lupin (Lupinus albus L.) chez le poulet de chair pendant la priode de finition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Utilisation du lupin (Lupinus albus L.) chez le poulet de chair pendant la période de finition G. UZU Developpement Ali!nentation animale A.E.C., F 03600 Commentry Résumé L'utilisation du lupin blanc lupin (40 p. 100) en remplacement du tourteau de soja, et sont équilibrés en acides aminés essentiels

  2. L. LACASSAGNE INRA Nouzilly

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , féverole et lupin. Les oléagineux feront l'objet d'un prochain article. 1 / Principales caractéristiques tryptophane des trois protéagineux : pois, féverole et lupin, comparés au tourteau de soja. Cette déficience peut être gênante, en particulier pour l'utilisation du lupin, du fait de la relative richesse de sa

  3. Accumulation potentielle de matire sche et d'azote chez le lupin blanc de printemps (Lupi-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Accumulation potentielle de matière sèche et d'azote chez le lupin blanc de printemps (Lupi- nus'acquérir les premières références sur le comportement potentiel de l'espèce en culture de printemps, le lupin connus pour le soja, dont le lupin blanc est un possible substitut, a montré que les potentiels de

  4. Phytophthora Suppressor of RNA Silencing 2 Is a Conserved RxLR Effector that Promotes Infection in Soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qin; Ye, Wenwu; Choi, Duseok; Wong, James; Qiao, Yongli; Tao, Kai; Wang, Yuanchao; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-12-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of notorious and emerging pathogens of economically important crops. Each Phytophthora genome encodes several hundreds of cytoplasmic effectors, which are believed to manipulate plant immune response inside the host cells. However, the majority of Phytophthora effectors remain functionally uncharacterized. We recently discovered two effectors from the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae with the activity to suppress RNA silencing in plants. These effectors are designated Phytophthora suppressor of RNA silencing (PSRs). Here, we report that the P. sojae PSR2 (PsPSR2) belongs to a conserved and widespread effector family in Phytophthora. A PsPSR2-like effector produced by P. infestans (PiPSR2) can also suppress RNA silencing in plants and promote Phytophthora infection, suggesting that the PSR2 family effectors have conserved functions in plant hosts. Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots induction, we demonstrated that the expression of PsPSR2 rendered hypersusceptibility of soybean to P. sojae. Enhanced susceptibility was also observed in PsPSR2-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants during Phytophthora but not bacterial infection. These experiments provide strong evidence that PSR2 is a conserved Phytophthora effector family that performs important virulence functions specifically during Phytophthora infection of various plant hosts. PMID:25387135

  5. Growth in microgravity increases susceptibility of soybean to a fungal pathogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryba-White, M.; Nedukha, O.; Hilaire, E.; Guikema, J. A.; Kordyum, E.; Leach, J. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The influence of microgravity on the susceptibility of soybean roots to Phytophthora sojae was studied during the Space Shuttle Mission STS-87. Seedlings of soybean cultivar Williams 82 grown in spaceflight or at unit gravity were untreated or inoculated with the soybean root rot pathogen P. sojae. At 3, 6 and 7 d after launch while still in microgravity, seedlings were photographed and then fixed for subsequent microscopic analysis. Post-landing analysis of the seedlings revealed that at harvest day 7 the length of untreated roots did not differ between flight and ground samples. However, the flight-grown roots infected with P. sojae showed more disease symptoms (percentage of brown and macerated areas) and the root tissues were more extensively colonized relative to the ground controls exposed to the fungus. Ethylene levels were higher in spaceflight when compared to ground samples. These data suggest that soybean seedlings grown in microgravity are more susceptible to colonization by a fungal pathogen relative to ground controls.

  6. Conidium Germination Rate in Wild and Domesticated Yellow-Green Aspergilli

    PubMed Central

    Wicklow, D. T.

    1984-01-01

    Conidia of domesticated yellow-green aspergilli from strains of Aspergillus oryzae (Ahlburg) Cohn and Aspergillus sojae Sakaguchi and Yamada ex Murakami, used in the preparation of koji inoculum, germinate approximately 3 h sooner than conidia produced by related wild species, Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fr. and Aspergillus parasiticus Speare. There was no consistent relationship between average conidium size and estimated 50% germination time. Germination trials were conducted on Czapek agar at 28°C. A hypothesis is offered that, in the propagation of koji inoculum, selection has favored those individuals capable of rapid conidium germination and germ tube extension, attributes that enable them to gain the available substrate during intraspecific competition. PMID:16346471

  7. Arabidopsis nonhost resistance gene PSS1 confers immunity against an oomycete and a fungal pathogen but not a bacterial pathogen that cause diseases in soybean

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonhost resistance (NHR) provides immunity to all members of a plant species against all isolates of a microorganism that is pathogenic to other plant species. Three Arabidopsis thaliana PEN (penetration deficient) genes, PEN1, 2 and 3 have been shown to provide NHR against the barley pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei at the prehaustorial level. Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant lacking the PEN1 gene is penetrated by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, the causal organism of the root and stem rot disease in soybean. We investigated if there is any novel nonhost resistance mechanism in Arabidopsis against the soybean pathogen, P. sojae. Results The P.sojaesusceptible (pss) 1 mutant was identified by screening a mutant population created in the Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant that lacks penetration resistance against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Segregation data suggested that PEN1 is not epistatic to PSS1. Responses of pss1 and pen1-1 to P. sojae invasion were distinct and suggest that PSS1 may act at both pre- and post-haustorial levels, while PEN1 acts at the pre-haustorial level against this soybean pathogen. Therefore, PSS1 encodes a new form of nonhost resistance. The pss1 mutant is also infected by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, which causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. Thus, a common NHR mechanism is operative in Arabidopsis against both hemibiotrophic oomycetes and necrotrophic fungal pathogens that are pathogenic to soybean. However, PSS1 does not play any role in immunity against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, that causes bacterial blight in soybean. We mapped PSS1 to a region very close to the southern telomere of chromosome 3 that carries no known disease resistance genes. Conclusions The study revealed that Arabidopsis PSS1 is a novel nonhost resistance gene that confers a new form of nonhost resistance against both a hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen, P. sojae and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen, F. virguliforme that cause diseases in soybean. However, this gene does not play any role in the immunity of Arabidopsis to the bacterial pathogen, P. syringae pv. glycinea, which causes bacterial blight in soybean. Identification and further characterization of the PSS1 gene would provide further insights into a new form of nonhost resistance in Arabidopsis, which could be utilized in improving resistance of soybean to two serious pathogens. PMID:22694952

  8. Utilisation des graines protagineuses dans l'alimentation de la chvre en dbut de lactation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    utilisées pour étudier le remplacement du soja par des graines protéagineuses (féverole, pois et lupin) dans premières, l'utilisation des graines protéagineuses riches en protéines (pois, féverole et lupin) est lot F de la féverole (variété Ascott), le lot P du pois (variété Amino) et le lot L du lupin blanc

  9. Glyceollin, a soybean phytoalexin with medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Ye, Xiu Juan; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Chan, Yau Sang; Pan, Wenliang; Ye, Xiu Yun; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Zhang, Kalin Yanbo; Liu, Fang; Wang, He Xiang

    2011-04-01

    This review covers the biosynthesis of glyceollin and its biological activities including antiproliferative/antitumor action (toward B16 melanoma cells, LNCaP prostate cancer cells, and BG-1 ovarian cancer cells), anti-estrogenic action (through estrogen receptors ?- and ?-), antibacterial action (toward Erwinia carotovora, Escherichia coli, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Sinorhizobium fredii ), antinematode activity, and antifungal activity (toward Fusarium solani, Phakospora pachyrhizi, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Sclerotina sclerotiorum, Phytophthora sojae, Cercospora sojina, Phialophora gregata, and Rhizoctonia solani). Other activities include insulinotropic action and attenuation of vascular contractions in rat aorta. PMID:21336922

  10. Structural and functional profile of the carbohydrate esterase gene complement in Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel D; McWalters, Jessica; Seyer, Lauren

    2010-12-01

    The plant cell cuticle is the first obstacle for penetration of the host by plant pathogens. To breach this barrier, most pathogenic fungi employ a complex assortment of cell wall-degrading enzymes including carbohydrate esterases, glycoside hydrolases, and polysaccharide lyases. We characterized the full complement of carbohydrate esterase-coding genes in three Phytophthora species and analyzed the expression of cutinase in vitro and in planta; we also determined the cutinase allele distribution in multiple isolates of P. infestans. Our investigations revealed that there are 49, 21, and 37 esterase homologs in the P. infestans, P. ramorum, and P. sojae genomes, respectively, with a considerable number predicted to be extracellular. Four cutinase gene copies were found in both the P. infestans and P. ramorum genomes, while 16 copies were found in P. sojae. Transcriptional analyses of cutinase in P. infestans revealed that its expression level during infection is significantly upregulated at all time points compared to that of the same gene in mycelium grown in vitro. Expression achieves maximum values at 15 hpi, declining at subsequent time points. These results may suggest, therefore, that cutinase most likely plays a role in P. infestans pathogenicity. PMID:20725833

  11. Polymorphism of DNA sequences of cryptochrome genes is not associated with the photoperiodic flowering of wild soybean along a latitudinal cline.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Nobuchika; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2012-07-01

    Both cultivated soybean and its wild relative Glycine soja exhibit strong photoperiodic sensitivity at different latitudes. Recent studies have demonstrated that the blue light-absorbing cryptochrome gene, CRY1a, is involved in the photoperiodic flowering of soybeans. However, no sequence variation was found in the cDNA among cultivars at different latitudinal clines. In the present study, we examined whether positive selection due to polymorphisms in the cryptochrome genes of G. soja occurs. Partial DNA sequences, mainly exons, of cryptochrome genes CRY1a-1d and CRY2a-2c were analyzed for 18 accessions in the Japanese archipelago. The neutral evolutionary pattern of the polymorphisms for all cryptochrome genes except for CRY1a was summarized using Tajima's D test and low nucleotide diversity was shown for all genes. Although CRY1a did not show neutral evolution, balancing selection was recognized in the intron while not in the exon. No geographical pattern of polymorphisms was observed in the cryptochrome genes. These results reject the possibility of cryptochrome genes being involved in the photoperiodic flowering of wild soybeans along a latitudinal cline. PMID:22252378

  12. The CAZyome of Phytophthora spp.: A comprehensive analysis of the gene complement coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes in species of the genus Phytophthora

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism include Carbohydrate esterases (CE), Glycoside hydrolases (GH), Glycosyl transferases (GT), and Polysaccharide lyases (PL), commonly referred to as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). The CE, GH, and PL superfamilies are also known as cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE) due to their role in the disintegration of the plant cell wall by bacterial and fungal pathogens. In Phytophthora infestans, penetration of the plant cells occurs through a specialized hyphal structure called appressorium; however, it is likely that members of the genus Phytophthora also use CWDE for invasive growth because hyphal forces are below the level of tensile strength exhibited by the plant cell wall. Because information regarding the frequency and distribution of CAZyme coding genes in Phytophthora is currently unknown, we have scanned the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae, and P. ramorum for the presence of CAZyme-coding genes using a homology-based approach and compared the gene collinearity in the three genomes. In addition, we have tested the expression of several genes coding for CE in cultures grown in vitro. Results We have found that P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum contain a total of 435, 379, and 310 CAZy homologs; in each genome, most homologs belong to the GH superfamily. Most GH and PL homologs code for enzymes that hydrolyze substances present in the pectin layer forming the middle lamella of the plant cells. In addition, a significant number of CE homologs catalyzing the deacetylation of compounds characteristic of the plant cell cuticle were found. In general, a high degree of gene location conservation was observed, as indicated by the presence of sequential orthologous pairs in the three genomes. Such collinearity was frequently observed among members of the GH superfamily. On the other hand, the CE and PL superfamilies showed less collinearity for some of their putative members. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed that all genes are expressed in P. infestans when this pathogen grown in vitro. However, the levels of expression vary considerably and are lower than the expression levels observed for the constitutive control. Conclusions In conclusion, we have identified a highly complex set of CAZy homologs in the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae, and P. ramorum, a significant number of which could play roles critical for pathogenicity, by participating in the degradation of the plant cell wall. PMID:20920201

  13. Proteins related to green algal striated fiber assemblin are present in stramenopiles and alveolates.

    PubMed

    Harper, John D I; Thuet, Jacques; Lechtreck, Karl F; Hardham, Adrienne R

    2009-07-01

    In green algae, striated fiber assemblin (SFA) is the major protein of the striated microtubule-associated fibers that are structural elements in the flagellar basal apparatus. Using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) searches of recently established databases, SFA-like sequences were detected in the genomes not only of green algal species but also of a range of other protists. These included species in two alveolate subgroups, the ciliates (Tetrahymena thermophila, Paramecium tetraurelia) and the dinoflagellates (Perkinsus marinus), and two stramenopile subgroups, the oomycetes (Phytophthora sojae, Phytophthora ramorum, Phytophthora infestans) and the diatoms (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum). Together with earlier identification of SFA-like sequences in the apicomplexans, these results indicate that homologs of SFA are present across the alveolates and stramenopiles. Antibodies raised against SFA from the green alga, Spermatozopsis similis, react in immunofluorescence assays with the two basal bodies and an anteriorly directed striated fiber in the flagellar apparatus of biflagellate Phytophthora zoospores. PMID:19333716

  14. Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingli; Song, Tianqiao; Zhang, Xiong; Yuan, Hongbo; Su, Liming; Li, Wanlin; Xu, Jing; Liu, Shiheng; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Tianzi; Zhang, Meixiang; Gu, Lichuan; Zhang, Baolong; Dou, Daolong

    2014-01-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes pose an increasing threat to food security and ecosystem health worldwide. These filamentous pathogens, while taxonomically distinct, modulate host defense responses by secreting effectors, which are typically identified based on the presence of signal peptides. Here we show that Phytophthora sojae and Verticillium dahliae secrete isochorismatases (PsIsc1 and VdIsc1, respectively) that are required for full pathogenesis. PsIsc1 and VdIsc1 can suppress salicylate-mediated innate immunity in planta and hydrolyse isochorismate in vitro. A conserved triad of catalytic residues is essential for both functions. Thus, the two proteins are isochorismatase effectors that disrupt the plant salicylate metabolism pathway by suppressing its precursor. Furthermore, these proteins lack signal peptides, but exhibit characteristics that lead to unconventional secretion. Therefore, this secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for delivering effectors and might play an important role in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25156390

  15. Soybean knowledge base (SoyKB): a web resource for integration of soybean translational genomics and molecular breeding.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Trupti; Fitzpatrick, Michael R; Chen, Shiyuan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hongxin; Endacott, Ryan Z; Gaudiello, Eric C; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T; Xu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Soybean Knowledge Base (http://soykb.org) is a comprehensive web resource developed for bridging soybean translational genomics and molecular breeding research. It provides information for six entities including genes/proteins, microRNAs/sRNAs, metabolites, single nucleotide polymorphisms, plant introduction lines and traits. It also incorporates many multi-omics datasets including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and molecular breeding data, such as quantitative trait loci, traits and germplasm information. Soybean Knowledge Base has a new suite of tools such as In Silico Breeding Program for soybean breeding, which includes a graphical chromosome visualizer for ease of navigation. It integrates quantitative trait loci, traits and germplasm information along with genomic variation data, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions and genome-wide association studies data, from multiple soybean cultivars and Glycine soja. PMID:24136998

  16. Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingli; Song, Tianqiao; Zhang, Xiong; Yuan, Hongbo; Su, Liming; Li, Wanlin; Xu, Jing; Liu, Shiheng; Chen, Linlin; Chen, Tianzi; Zhang, Meixiang; Gu, Lichuan; Zhang, Baolong; Dou, Daolong

    2014-01-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes pose an increasing threat to food security and ecosystem health worldwide. These filamentous pathogens, while taxonomically distinct, modulate host defense responses by secreting effectors, which are typically identified based on the presence of signal peptides. Here we show that Phytophthora sojae and Verticillium dahliae secrete isochorismatases (PsIsc1 and VdIsc1, respectively) that are required for full pathogenesis. PsIsc1 and VdIsc1 can suppress salicylate-mediated innate immunity in planta and hydrolyse isochorismate in vitro. A conserved triad of catalytic residues is essential for both functions. Thus, the two proteins are isochorismatase effectors that disrupt the plant salicylate metabolism pathway by suppressing its precursor. Furthermore, these proteins lack signal peptides, but exhibit characteristics that lead to unconventional secretion. Therefore, this secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for delivering effectors and might play an important role in host–pathogen interactions. PMID:25156390

  17. [Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues combustion: a case study of Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-hua; Jiang, Jing-yan; Zong, Liang-gang

    2011-05-01

    Burning of agricultural crop residues was a major source greenhouse gases. In this study, the proportion of crop straws (rice, wheat, maize, oil rape, cotton and soja) in Jiangsu used as household fuel and direct open burning in different periods (1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2008) was estimated through questionnaire. The emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and NO20 from the above six types of crop straws were calculated by the simulated burning experiment. Thus the emission inventory of greenhouse gases from crop straws burning was established according to above the burning percentages and emission factors, ratios of dry residues to production and crop productions of different periods in Jiangsu province. Results indicated that emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O depended on crop straw type. The emission factors of CO2 and CH4 were higher for oil rape straw than the other straws, while the maize and the rice straw had the higher N2O and CO emission factor. Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues burning in Jiangsu province showed, the annual average global warming potential (GWP) of six tested crop straws were estimated to be 9.18 (rice straw), 4.35 (wheat straw), 2.55 (maize straw), 1.63 (oil rape straw), 0.55 (cotton straw) and 0. 39 (soja straw) Tg CO2 equivalent, respectively. Among the four study periods, the annual average GWP had no obvious difference between the 1990-1995 and 2006-2008 periods, while the maximal annual average GWP (23.83 Tg CO2 equivalent) happened in the 1996-2000 period, and the minimum (20.30 Tg CO2 equivalent) in 1996-2000 period. PMID:21780575

  18. Isolation and characterization of rhizobitoxine mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Ruan, X; Peters, N K

    1992-06-01

    To explore the role of rhizobitoxine in Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis, 11 rhizobitoxine mutants of B. japonicum USDA61 were isolated on the basis of their inability to synthesize the toxin in culture. Each mutant is prototrophic and symbiotically effective on soybean, cowpea, siratro, and Glycine soja. The rhizobitoxine mutants differ in their chlorosis phenotypes and rhizobitoxine production in planta. As expected, one group of mutant fail to make toxin in planta, resulting in the absence of chlorosis. Another group of mutants causes severe chlorosis on all cultivars of soybean tested. Surprisingly, this group of mutants makes more rhizobitoxine in soybean nodules than the wild-type strain does. This phenotype is only observed on soybean and not on other hosts such as cowpea, siratro, or G. soja. The remaining mutants all produce rhizobitoxine in planta but vary in the amount of toxin they produce and the severity of chlorosis they induce in soybean plants. Biochemical analysis of mutants demonstrates that one mutant is unable to synthesize serinol, a molecule hypothesized to be an intermediate in rhizobitoxine biosynthesis. By using these mutants, it was found that rhizobitoxine plays no apparent role in the nodulation of rj1 soybeans. Recently, it was found that inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis allows Rhizobium meliloti to overcome nitrate inhibition of nodule formation on alfalfa. Because rhizobitoxine also inhibits ethylene biosynthesis, we tested the ability of mutants which accumulate high levels of toxin in planta to overcome nitrate inhibition of nodule formation on soybean plants and found that the nodule formation induced by the wild type and that induced by mutant strains were equally suppressed in the presence of nitrate. PMID:1317377

  19. Expression of the early nodulin, ENOD40, in soybean roots in response to various lipo-chitin signal molecules.

    PubMed

    Minami, E; Kouchi, H; Cohn, J R; Ogawa, T; Stacey, G

    1996-07-01

    The lipo-chitin (LCO) nodulation signal (nod signal) purified from Bradyrhizobium japonicum induced nodule primordia on soybean (i.e. Glycine soja) roots. These primordia were characterized by a bifurcated vascular connection, cortical cell division, and the accumulation of mRNA of the early nodulin gene, ENOD40. A chemically synthesized LCO identical in structure to the Nod signal purified from B. japonicum cultures showed the same activity when inoculated on to soybean roots. Surprisingly, synthetic LCO or chitin pentamer, inactive in inducing root hair curling (HAD) or cortical cell division (NOI) in G. soja, induced the transient accumulation of ENOD40 mRNA. In roots inoculated with such LCO, ENOD40 mRNA was abundant at 40 h after inoculation but decreased to the background levels 6 days after inoculation. In contrast, nod signals active in inducing HAD and NOI induced high levels of ENOD40 accumulation at 40 h and 6 days after inoculation. In situ hybridization analysis showed that ENOD40 mRNA accumulated in the pericycle of the vascular bundle at 24 h after root inoculation with nod signal. At 6 days post-inoculation with nod signal, ENOD40 expression was seen in dividing subepidermal cortical cells. These results provide morphological and molecular evidence that nodule induction in soybean in response to purified or synthetic nod signal is similar, if not identical, to nodule formation induced by bacterial inoculation. Surprisingly, ENOD40 mRNA accumulation occurs in response to non-specific chitin signals. This suggests that, in the case of ENOD40, nodulation specificity is not determined at the level of initial gene expression. PMID:8758977

  20. Identification of wild soybean miRNAs and their target genes responsive to aluminum stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in development and stress response in plants. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) has undergone long-term natural selection and may have evolved special mechanisms to survive stress conditions as a result. However, little information about miRNAs especially miRNAs responsive to aluminum (Al) stress is available in wild soybean. Results Two small RNA libraries and two degradome libraries were constructed from the roots of Al-treated and Al-free G. soja seedlings. For miRNA identification, a total of 7,287,655 and 7,035,914 clean reads in Al-treated and Al-free small RNAs libraries, respectively, were generated, and 97 known miRNAs and 31 novel miRNAs were identified. In addition, 49 p3 or p5 strands of known miRNAs were found. Among all the identified miRNAs, the expressions of 30 miRNAs were responsive to Al stress. Through degradome sequencing, 86 genes were identified as targets of the known miRNAs and five genes were found to be the targets of the novel miRNAs obtained in this study. Gene ontology (GO) annotations of target transcripts indicated that 52 target genes cleaved by conserved miRNA families might play roles in the regulation of transcription. Additionally, some genes, such as those for the auxin response factor (ARF), domain-containing disease resistance protein (NB-ARC), leucine-rich repeat and toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like protein (LRR-TIR) domain protein, cation transporting ATPase, Myb transcription factors, and the no apical meristem (NAM) protein, that are known to be responsive to stress, were found to be cleaved under Al stress conditions. Conclusions A number of miRNAs and their targets were detected in wild soybean. Some of them that were responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses were regulated by Al stress. These findings provide valuable information to understand the function of miRNAs in Al tolerance. PMID:23040172

  1. Systemic acquired resistance in soybean is regulated by two proteins, Orthologous to Arabidopsis NPR1

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Devinder; Tasma, I Made; Frasch, Ryan; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2009-01-01

    Background Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is induced in non-inoculated leaves following infection with certain pathogenic strains. SAR is effective against many pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule of the SAR pathway. The development of SAR is associated with the induction of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. Arabidopsis non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1) is a regulatory gene of the SA signal pathway [1-3]. SAR in soybean was first reported following infection with Colletotrichum trancatum that causes anthracnose disease. We investigated if SAR in soybean is regulated by a pathway, similar to the one characterized in Arabidopsis. Results Pathogenesis-related gene GmPR1 is induced following treatment of soybean plants with the SAR inducer, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) or infection with the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora sojae. In P. sojae-infected plants, SAR was induced against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. Soybean GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 genes showed high identities to Arabidopsis NPR1. They showed similar expression patterns among the organs, studied in this investigation. GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 are the only soybean homologues of NPR1and are located in homoeologous regions. In GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 transformed Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutant plants, SAR markers: (i) PR-1 was induced following INA treatment and (ii) BGL2 following infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and SAR was induced following Pst infection. Of the five cysteine residues, Cys82, Cys150, Cys155, Cys160, and Cys216 involved in oligomer-monomer transition in NPR1, Cys216 in GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 proteins was substituted to Ser and Leu, respectively. Conclusion Complementation analyses in Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutants revealed that homoeologous GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 genes are orthologous to Arabidopsis NPR1. Therefore, SAR pathway in soybean is most likely regulated by GmNPR1 genes. Substitution of Cys216 residue, essential for oligomer-monomer transition of Arabidopsis NPR1, with Ser and Leu residues in GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2, respectively, suggested that there may be differences between the regulatory mechanisms of GmNPR1 and Arabidopsis NPR proteins. PMID:19656407

  2. Chronostratigraphical Subdivision of the Late Glacial and the Holocene for the Alaska Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michczynska, D. J.; Hajdas, I.

    2009-04-01

    Our work is a kind of so called data mining. The first step of our work was collection of the radiocarbon data for samples coming from Alaska. We construct data base using Radiocarbon Measurements Lists published by different radiocarbon laboratories (mainly in the journal 'Radiocaron'). The next step was careful analysis of collected dates. We excluded from our analysis all dates suspected of contamination by younger or older organic matter. Such fact could be stated, for instance, on the base of inconsistency of radiocarbon age and stratigraphy or palynology. Finally, we calibrated whole large set of chosen radiocarbon dates and construct probability density function (PDF). Analysis of the shape of PDF was the subject of the previous research (eg. Michczynska and Pazdur, 2004; Macklin et al., 2006; Starkel et al., 2006, Michczynska et al., 2007). In our analysis we take into account the distinct tendency to collect samples from specific horizons. It is a general rule to take samples for radiocarbon dating from places of visible sedimentation changes or changes in palynological diagram. Therefore the culminations of the PDF represent periods of environmental changes and could be helpful in identifying the chronostratigraphical boundaries on the calendar time scale. References: Michczy?ska D.J., Pazdur A., 2004. A shape analysis of cumulative probability density function of radiocarbon dates set in the study of climate change in Late Glacial and Holocene. Radiocarbon 46(2): 733-744. Michczy?ska D.J., Michczy?ski A., Pazdur A. 2007. Frequency distribution of radiocarbon dates as a tool for reconstructing environmental changes. Radiocarbon 49(2): 799-806. Macklin M.G., Benito G., Gregory K.J., Johnstone E., Lewin J., Michczy?ska D.J., Soja R., Starkel L., Thorndycraft V.R., 2006. Past hydrological events reflected in the Holocene fluvial record of Europe. CATENA 66: 145-154. Starkel L., Soja R., Michczy?ska D.J., 2006. Past hydrological events reflected in Holocene history of Polish rivers. CATENA 66: 24-33.

  3. Exploration of presence/absence variation and corresponding polymorphic markers in soybean genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Lu, Jiangjie; Chen, Shouyi; Shu, Liping; Palmer, Reid G; Xing, Guangnan; Li, Yan; Yang, Shouping; Yu, Deyue; Zhao, Tuanjie; Gai, Junyi

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to reveal the genome-wide distribution of presence/absence variation (PAV) and to establish a database of polymorphic PAV markers in soybean. The 33 soybean whole-genome sequences were compared to each other with that of Williams 82 as a reference genome. A total of 33,127 PAVs were detected and 28,912 PAV markers with their primer sequences were designed as the database NJAUSoyPAV_1.0. The PAVs scattered on whole genome while only 518 (1.8%) overlapped with simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in BARCSOYSSR_1.0 database. In a random sample of 800 PAVs, 713 (89.13%) showed polymorphism among the 12 differential genotypes. Using 126 PAVs and 108 SSRs to test a Chinese soybean germplasm collection composed of 828 Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. and Glycine max (L.) Merr. accessions, the per locus allele number and its variation appeared less in PAVs than in SSRs. The distinctness among alleles/bands of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) products showed better in PAVs than in SSRs, potential in accurate marker-assisted allele selection. The association mapping results showed SSR?+?PAV was more powerful than any single marker systems. The NJAUSoyPAV_1.0 database has enriched the source of PCR markers, and may fit the materials with a range of per locus allele numbers, if jointly used with SSR markers. PMID:24751174

  4. Haemoglobin M-Hyde Park associated with polyagglutinable red blood cells in a South African family.

    PubMed

    Bird, A R; Kent, P; Moores, P P; Elliott, T

    1988-04-01

    Twelve of 35 members tested in a large ethnically-mixed South African family were found to have both haemoglobin M type Hyde Park and persistent polyagglutinable red blood cells. The characteristics of the polyagglutination have not been recorded previously. The cells of affected family members were not agglutinated by Arachis hypogea, Dolichos biflorus or Salvia sclarea, but were agglutinated weakly by Salvia horminum and BSII (GSII) and reacted strongly with Glycine soja and Sophora japonica lectins. BSI (GSI) lectin agglutinated the group A but not the group O cells. The N and MN cells were agglutinated more strongly than normal by Vicia graminea, other anti-N lectins and human anti-N but the M and MN cells reacted as expected with human anti-M. The name 'Hyde Park' is provisionally suggested for this type of polyagglutination, although it appears unlikely that the evidently complete association between the polyagglutination and the variant haemoglobin is the result of a single genetic mutation. More likely, the connection has a post-genetic origin, perhaps showing that bonds, possibly affected adversely by precocious senescence, normally occur between the haemoglobin and alpha-sialoglycoprotein molecules in red blood cells. PMID:3377987

  5. Uneventful administration of plasma products in a recipient with T-activated red cells.

    PubMed

    Eversole, M; Nonemaker, B; Zurek, K; South, S; Simon, T

    1986-01-01

    A patient with T-polyagglutinable red cells and a severe coagulopathy provided an opportunity to observe the results of plasma transfusion in the face of T-activation. The patient was a 52-year-old Navajo Indian with a perforated gall bladder and related sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens. The gall bladder was removed surgically. Postoperatively, he had severe thrombocytopenia, and prolonged partial thromboplastin and prothrombin times. The patient's red cells were agglutinated by Arachis hypogaea and Glycine soja lectins but were unagglutinated by extracts of Salvia horminum, Salvia sclarea, and Bandeiraea simplicifolia. No untoward reactions or any evidence of hemolysis were observed when the patient was given platelet concentrates and 4 units of single-donor plasma. Serial plasma hemoglobin and haptoglobin levels documented that there was no hemolysis. His coagulopathy responded, and he had a successful surgical re-exploration and recovery. This case documents that serious adverse consequences do not necessarily follow transfusion of plasma in a recipient with T-activated red cells. T-activation is a relative but not absolute contraindication to plasma transfusion. PMID:2869600

  6. Plant-derived antifungal agent poacic acid targets ?-1,3-glucan.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Jeff S; Okada, Hiroki; Lu, Fachuang; Li, Sheena C; Hinchman, Li; Ranjan, Ashish; Smith, Damon L; Higbee, Alan J; Ulbrich, Arne; Coon, Joshua J; Deshpande, Raamesh; Bukhman, Yury V; McIlwain, Sean; Ong, Irene M; Myers, Chad L; Boone, Charles; Landick, Robert; Ralph, John; Kabbage, Mehdi; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-24

    A rise in resistance to current antifungals necessitates strategies to identify alternative sources of effective fungicides. We report the discovery of poacic acid, a potent antifungal compound found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates of grasses. Chemical genomics using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that loss of cell wall synthesis and maintenance genes conferred increased sensitivity to poacic acid. Morphological analysis revealed that cells treated with poacic acid behaved similarly to cells treated with other cell wall-targeting drugs and mutants with deletions in genes involved in processes related to cell wall biogenesis. Poacic acid causes rapid cell lysis and is synergistic with caspofungin and fluconazole. The cellular target was identified; poacic acid localized to the cell wall and inhibited ?-1,3-glucan synthesis in vivo and in vitro, apparently by directly binding ?-1,3-glucan. Through its activity on the glucan layer, poacic acid inhibits growth of the fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Alternaria solani as well as the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. A single application of poacic acid to leaves infected with the broad-range fungal pathogen S. sclerotiorum substantially reduced lesion development. The discovery of poacic acid as a natural antifungal agent targeting ?-1,3-glucan highlights the potential side use of products generated in the processing of renewable biomass toward biofuels as a source of valuable bioactive compounds and further clarifies the nature and mechanism of fermentation inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:25775513

  7. Plant-derived antifungal agent poacic acid targets ?-1,3-glucan

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Okada, Hiroki; Lu, Fachuang; Li, Sheena C.; Hinchman, Li; Ranjan, Ashish; Smith, Damon L.; Higbee, Alan J.; Ulbrich, Arne; Coon, Joshua J.; Deshpande, Raamesh; Bukhman, Yury V.; McIlwain, Sean; Ong, Irene M.; Myers, Chad L.; Boone, Charles; Landick, Robert; Ralph, John; Kabbage, Mehdi; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    A rise in resistance to current antifungals necessitates strategies to identify alternative sources of effective fungicides. We report the discovery of poacic acid, a potent antifungal compound found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates of grasses. Chemical genomics using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that loss of cell wall synthesis and maintenance genes conferred increased sensitivity to poacic acid. Morphological analysis revealed that cells treated with poacic acid behaved similarly to cells treated with other cell wall-targeting drugs and mutants with deletions in genes involved in processes related to cell wall biogenesis. Poacic acid causes rapid cell lysis and is synergistic with caspofungin and fluconazole. The cellular target was identified; poacic acid localized to the cell wall and inhibited ?-1,3-glucan synthesis in vivo and in vitro, apparently by directly binding ?-1,3-glucan. Through its activity on the glucan layer, poacic acid inhibits growth of the fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Alternaria solani as well as the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. A single application of poacic acid to leaves infected with the broad-range fungal pathogen S. sclerotiorum substantially reduced lesion development. The discovery of poacic acid as a natural antifungal agent targeting ?-1,3-glucan highlights the potential side use of products generated in the processing of renewable biomass toward biofuels as a source of valuable bioactive compounds and further clarifies the nature and mechanism of fermentation inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:25775513

  8. A model to predict the frequency of integration of fitness-related QTLs from cultivated to wild soybean.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, N; Kaga, A; Kuroda, Y; Ohsawa, R

    2012-02-01

    With the proliferation of genetically modified (GM) products and the almost exponential growth of land use for GM crops, there is a growing need to develop quantitative approaches to estimating the risk of escape of transgenes into wild populations of crop relatives by natural hybridization. We assessed the risk of transgene escape by constructing a population genetic model based on information on fitness-related QTLs obtained from an F (2) population of wild soybean G. soja × cultivated soybean Glycine max. Simulation started with ten F (1) and 990 wild soybeans reproducing by selfing or outcrossing. Seed production was determined from the genetic effects of two QTLs for number of seeds (SN). Each seed survived winter according to the maternal genotype at three QTLs for winter survival (WS). We assumed that one neutral transgene was inserted at various sites and calculated its extinction rate. The presence of G. max alleles at SN and WS QTLs significantly decreased the probability of introgression of the neutral transgene at all insertion sites equally. The presence of G. max alleles at WS QTLs lowered the risk more than their presence at SN QTLs. Although most model studies have concentrated only on genotypic effects of transgenes, we show that the presence of fitness-related domestication genes has a large effect on the risk of transgene escape. Our model offers the advantage of considering the effects of both domestication genes and a transgene, and they can be widely applied to other wild × crop relative complexes. PMID:21544624

  9. Culture condition-dependent metabolite profiling of Aspergillus fumigatus with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daejung; Son, Gun Hee; Park, Hye Min; Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Jung Nam; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Lee, Sarah; Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2013-03-01

    Three sections of Aspergillus (five species, 21 strains) were classified according to culture medium-dependent and time-dependent secondary metabolite profile-based chemotaxonomy. Secondary metabolites were analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) and multivariate statistical methods. From the Aspergillus sections that were cultured on malt extract agar (MEA) and Czapek yeast extract agar (CYA) for 7, 12, and 16 d, Aspergillus sections Fumigati (A. fumigatus), Nigri (A. niger), and Flavi (A. flavus, A. oryzae, and A. sojae) clustered separately on the basis of the results of the secondary metabolite analyses at 16 d regardless of culture medium. Based on orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), we identified the secondary metabolites that helped differentiate sections between A. fumigatus and Aspergillus section Flavi to be gliotoxin G, fumigatin oxide, fumigatin, pseurotin A or D, fumiquinazoline D, fumagillin, helvolic acid, 1,2-dihydrohelvolic acid, and 5,8-dihydroxy-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (5,8-diHODE). Among these compounds, fumagillin, helvolic acid, and 1,2-dihydrohelvolic acid of A. fumigatus showed antifungal activities against Malassezia furfur, which is lipophilic yeast that causes epidermal skin disorders. PMID:23537878

  10. A putative soybean GmsSOS1 confers enhanced salt tolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis sos1-1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Nie, Wang-Xing; Xu, Lin; Yu, Bing-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The cDNA of GmsSOS1, a putative plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene isolated from Glycine max, Glycine soja, and their hybrid, was constructed into plant expression vector pCAMBIA 1300 and then transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens under the control of CaMV 35S promoter to Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (WT) and mutant (atsos1-1) plants. By hygromycin resistance detection and PCR analysis, transgenic plants (WT35S:GmsSOS1 and atsos1-1 35S:GmsSOS1) were obtained. Seed germination, seedling growth, and Na(+) contents in roots and shoots were analytically compared among WT, atsos1-1 mutant, and their transgenic lines under salt stress. The results showed that when GmsSOS1 was integrated into the genome of A. thaliana, the inhibitions of salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth were all significantly improved, and enhanced salt tolerance was displayed, which may be attributed to the decrease of Na(+) absorption in roots and transportation in shoots of the transgenic lines, especially for that of atsos1-1 mutant. PMID:24934653

  11. Identification and Retting Efficiencies of Fungi Isolated from Dew-Retted Flax in the United States and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, G.; Akin, D. E.; Hanlin, R. T.; Rodriguez, C.; Archibald, D. D.; Rigsby, L. L.; Eriksson, K. L.

    1997-01-01

    Seven strains of filamentous fungi and one yeast were isolated from flax that was dew retted in the United States. These filamentous fungi were subcultured to purity and identified, and six appear not to have been reported earlier as isolates from dew-retted flax. Five of the purified U.S. strains, two fungi isolated from flax that was dew retted in Europe, and a laboratory culture of Aspergillus sojae were tested for their ability to ret flax stems. The monocultures were evaluated for the degree of retting, fiber strength, dry weight loss, and tactile response (i.e., feel of softness) as reflected in the retted fiber. Structural modifications of representative samples of the retted flax were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. All of the filamentous fungi were able to carry out some retting, whereas the isolated yeast could not. All organisms produced pectinases when they were cultivated in shake flasks on ball-milled flax as the sole carbon source. Some fungi also produced cellulases, mannanases, and xylanases. Rhizomucor pusillus and Fusarium lateritium were noteworthy as retting organisms by their high level of pectinase activity, ability to attack noncellulosic cell types without attacking cellulose, capacity to penetrate the cuticular surface of the stem, and efficient fiber release from the core. The results indicated that these organisms deserve further study as potential organisms for retting of bast fibers in industrial applications. PMID:16535708

  12. Identification of Novel QTL Governing Root Architectural Traits in an Interspecific Soybean Population

    PubMed Central

    Musket, Theresa A.; Chaky, Julian; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Vuong, Tri D.; Song, Li; Cregan, Perry B.; Nelson, James C.; Shannon, J. Grover; Specht, James E.; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Cultivated soybean (Glycine max L.) cv. Dunbar (PI 552538) and wild G. soja (PI 326582A) exhibited significant differences in root architecture and root-related traits. In this study, phenotypic variability for root traits among 251 BC2F5 backcross inbred lines (BILs) developed from the cross Dunbar/PI 326582A were identified. The root systems of the parents and BILs were evaluated in controlled environmental conditions using a cone system at seedling stage. The G. max parent Dunbar contributed phenotypically favorable alleles at a major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 8 (Satt315-I locus) that governed root traits (tap root length and lateral root number) and shoot length. This QTL accounted for >10% of the phenotypic variation of both tap root and shoot length. This QTL region was found to control various shoot- and root-related traits across soybean genetic backgrounds. Within the confidence interval of this region, eleven transcription factors (TFs) were identified. Based on RNA sequencing and Affymetrix expression data, key TFs including MYB, AP2-EREBP and bZIP TFs were identified in this QTL interval with high expression in roots and nodules. The backcross inbred lines with different parental allelic combination showed different expression pattern for six transcription factors selected based on their expression pattern in root tissues. It appears that the marker interval Satt315–I locus on chromosome 8 contain an essential QTL contributing to early root and shoot growth in soybean. PMID:25756528

  13. Genome sequences of two Phytophthora species responsible for Sudden Oak Death and Soybean Root Rot provide novel insights into their evolutionary origins and mechanisms of pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Brett M.; Tripathi, Sucheta; Aerts, Andrea; Bensasson, Douda; Dehal, Paramvir; Dubchak, Inna; Garbelotto, Matteo; Gijzen, Mark; Huang, Wayne; Ivors, Kelly; Jiang, Rays; Kamoun, Sophien; Krampis, Konstantinos; Lamour, Kurt; McDonald, Hayes; Medina, Monica; Morris, Paul; Putnam, Nik; Rash, Sam; Salamov, Asaf; Smith, Brian; Smith, Joe; Terry, Astrid; Torto, Trudy; Grigoriev, Igor; Rokhsar, Daniel; Boore, Jeffrey

    2005-12-01

    The approximately 60 species of Phytophthora are all destructive pathogens, causing rots of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of a wide range of agriculturally and ornamentally important plants (1). Some species, such as P. cinnamomi, P. parasitica and P. cactorum, each attack hundreds of different plant host species, whereas others are more restricted. Some of the crops where Phytophthora infections cause the greatest financial losses include potato, soybean, tomato, alfalfa, tobacco, peppers, cucurbits, pineapple, strawberry, raspberry and a wide range of perennial tree crops, especially citrus, avocado, almonds, walnuts, apples and cocoa, and they also heavily affect the ornamental, nursery and forestry industries. The economic damage overall to crops in the United States by Phytophthora species is estimated in the tens of billions of dollars, including the costs of control measures, and worldwide it is many times this amount (1). In the northern midwest of the U.S., P. sojae causes $200 million in annual losses to soybean alone, and worldwide causes around $1-2 billion in losses per year. P. infestans infections resulted in the Irish potato famine last century and continues to be a difficult and worsening problem for potato and tomato growers worldwide, with worldwide costs estimated at $5 billion per year.

  14. Competence for Elicitation of H2O2 in Hypocotyls of Cucumber Is Induced by Breaching the Cuticle and Is Enhanced by Salicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Fauth, M.; Merten, A.; Hahn, M. G.; Jeblick, W.; Kauss, H.

    1996-02-01

    To study H2O2 production, the epidermal surfaces of hypocotyl segments from etiolated seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were gently abraded. Freshly abraded segments were not constitutively competent for rapid H2O2 elicitation. This capacity developed subsequent to abrasion in a time-dependent process that was greatly enhanced in segments exhibiting an acquired resistance to penetration of their epidermal cell walls by Colletotrichum lagenarium, because of root pretreatment of the respective seedlings with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. When this compound or salicylic acid was applied to abraded segments, it also greatly enhanced the induction of competence for H2O2 elicitation. This process was fully inhibited by 5 [mu]M cycloheximide or 200 [mu]M puromycin, suggesting a requirement for translational protein synthesis. Both a crude elicitor preparation and a partially purified oligoglucan mixture from Phytophthora sojae also induced, in addition to H2O2 production, a refractory state, which explains the transient nature of H2O2 elicitation. Taken together, these results suggest that the cucumber hypocotyl epidermis becomes conditioned for competence to produce H2O2 in response to elicitors by a stimulus resulting from breaching the cuticle and/or cutting segments. This conditioning process is associated with protein synthesis and is greatly enhanced when substances able to induce systemic acquired resistance are present in the tissue. PMID:12226186

  15. Molecular footprints of domestication and improvement in soybean revealed by whole genome re-sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artificial selection played an important role in the origin of modern Glycine max cultivars from the wild soybean Glycine soja. To elucidate the consequences of artificial selection accompanying the domestication and modern improvement of soybean, 25 new and 30 published whole-genome re-sequencing accessions, which represent wild, domesticated landrace, and Chinese elite soybean populations were analyzed. Results A total of 5,102,244 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 707,969 insertion/deletions were identified. Among the SNPs detected, 25.5% were not described previously. We found that artificial selection during domestication led to more pronounced reduction in the genetic diversity of soybean than the switch from landraces to elite cultivars. Only a small proportion (2.99%) of the whole genomic regions appear to be affected by artificial selection for preferred agricultural traits. The selection regions were not distributed randomly or uniformly throughout the genome. Instead, clusters of selection hotspots in certain genomic regions were observed. Moreover, a set of candidate genes (4.38% of the total annotated genes) significantly affected by selection underlying soybean domestication and genetic improvement were identified. Conclusions Given the uniqueness of the soybean germplasm sequenced, this study drew a clear picture of human-mediated evolution of the soybean genomes. The genomic resources and information provided by this study would also facilitate the discovery of genes/loci underlying agronomically important traits. PMID:23984715

  16. Comparative Ecophysiological Study of Salt Stress for Wild and Cultivated Soybean Species from the Yellow River Delta, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Zhou, Zhengda; Chen, Peng; Tang, Xiaoli; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic and ionic stresses were the primary and instant damage produced by salt stress. They can also bring about other secondary stresses. Soybean is an important economic crop and the wild soybean aroused increasing attention for its excellent performance in salt resistance. For this reason, we compared the different performances of Glycine max L. (ZH13) and Glycine soja L. (BB52) in both young and mature seedlings, hoping to clarify the specific reasons. Our research revealed that, compared to the cultivated soybean, the wild soybean was able to maintain higher water potential and relative water content (RWC), accumulate more amount of proline and glycine betaine, reduce the contents of Na+ and Cl? by faster efflux, and cut down the efflux of the K+ as well as keep higher K+/Na+ ratio. And what is more is that, almost all the excel behaviors became particularly obvious under higher NaCl concentration (300?mM). Therefore, according to all the detections and comparisons, we concluded that the wild soybean had different tolerance mechanisms and better salt resistance. It should be used as eminent germplasm resource to enhance the resistant ability of cultivated soybean or even other crops. PMID:24999494

  17. Interactions between preparations containing female sex hormones and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Zab?ocka-S?owi?ska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of premenopausal women use contraception whereas postmenopausal women use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This long-term hormone therapy poses a high risk of interactions with dietary supplements. Taking estrogens at the same time as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), biologically-active compounds of glycine soja, Ginkgo biloba or Pimpinella anisum, may distort the final effect of the hormone agent. On the other hand, estrogen therapy coupled with melatonin or retinol supplementation may lead to an increased level of dietary supplements in the serum as studies have proved a concomitant beneficial effect of HRT and vitamin E supplementation on lipid profiles. In turn, taking preparations containing St John's wort during hormone therapy may lead to a reduction in hormone concentrations in serum and debilitation of the pharmacological effect. It results from the inductive effect of the biologically-active compounds of St John's wort on the metabolism of hormones as a result of the enhanced activity of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4. PMID:25166453

  18. Adaptive Evolution Has Targeted the C-Terminal Domain of the RXLR Effectors of Plant Pathogenic Oomycetes[W

    PubMed Central

    Win, Joe; Morgan, William; Bos, Jorunn; Krasileva, Ksenia V.; Cano, Liliana M.; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Ammar, Randa; Staskawicz, Brian J.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2007-01-01

    Oomycete plant pathogens deliver effector proteins inside host cells to modulate plant defense circuitry and to enable parasitic colonization. These effectors are defined by a conserved motif, termed RXLR (for Arg, any amino acid, Leu, Arg), that is located downstream of the signal peptide and that has been implicated in host translocation. Because the phenotypes of RXLR effectors extend to plant cells, their genes are expected to be the direct target of the evolutionary forces that drive the antagonistic interplay between pathogen and host. We used the draft genome sequences of three oomycete plant pathogens, Phytophthora sojae, Phytophthora ramorum, and Hyaloperonospora parasitica, to generate genome-wide catalogs of RXLR effector genes and determine the extent to which these genes are under positive selection. These analyses revealed that the RXLR sequence is overrepresented and positionally constrained in the secretome of Phytophthora relative to other eukaryotes. The three examined plant pathogenic oomycetes carry complex and diverse sets of RXLR effector genes that have undergone relatively rapid birth and death evolution. We obtained robust evidence of positive selection in more than two-thirds of the examined paralog families of RXLR effectors. Positive selection has acted for the most part on the C-terminal region, consistent with the view that RXLR effectors are modular, with the N terminus involved in secretion and host translocation and the C-terminal domain dedicated to modulating host defenses inside plant cells. PMID:17675403

  19. Multiple Horizontal Gene Transfer Events and Domain Fusions Have Created Novel Regulatory and Metabolic Networks in the Oomycete Genome

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Paul Francis; Schlosser, Laura Rose; Onasch, Katherine Diane; Wittenschlaeger, Tom; Austin, Ryan; Provart, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Complex enzymes with multiple catalytic activities are hypothesized to have evolved from more primitive precursors. Global analysis of the Phytophthora sojae genome using conservative criteria for evaluation of complex proteins identified 273 novel multifunctional proteins that were also conserved in P. ramorum. Each of these proteins contains combinations of protein motifs that are not present in bacterial, plant, animal, or fungal genomes. A subset of these proteins were also identified in the two diatom genomes, but the majority of these proteins have formed after the split between diatoms and oomycetes. Documentation of multiple cases of domain fusions that are common to both oomycetes and diatom genomes lends additional support for the hypothesis that oomycetes and diatoms are monophyletic. Bifunctional proteins that catalyze two steps in a metabolic pathway can be used to infer the interaction of orthologous proteins that exist as separate entities in other genomes. We postulated that the novel multifunctional proteins of oomycetes could function as potential Rosetta Stones to identify interacting proteins of conserved metabolic and regulatory networks in other eukaryotic genomes. However ortholog analysis of each domain within our set of 273 multifunctional proteins against 39 sequenced bacterial and eukaryotic genomes, identified only 18 candidate Rosetta Stone proteins. Thus the majority of multifunctional proteins are not Rosetta Stones, but they may nonetheless be useful in identifying novel metabolic and regulatory networks in oomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis of all the enzymes in three pathways with one or more novel multifunctional proteins was conducted to determine the probable origins of individual enzymes. These analyses revealed multiple examples of horizontal transfer from both bacterial genomes and the photosynthetic endosymbiont in the ancestral genome of Stramenopiles. The complexity of the phylogenetic origins of these metabolic pathways and the paucity of Rosetta Stones relative to the total number of multifunctional proteins suggests that the proteome of oomycetes has few features in common with other Kingdoms. PMID:19582169

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of Pythium insidiosum Thai strains using cytochrome oxidase II (COX II) DNA coding sequences and internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS).

    PubMed

    Kammarnjesadakul, Patcharee; Palaga, Tanapat; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Mendoza, Leonel; Krajaejun, Theerapong; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Tongchusak, Songsak; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the phylogenetic relationship among Pythium insidiosum isolates in Thailand, we investigated the genomic DNA of 31 P. insidiosum strains isolated from humans and environmental sources from Thailand, and two from North and Central America. We used PCR to amplify the partial COX II DNA coding sequences and the ITS regions of these isolates. The nucleotide sequences of both amplicons were analyzed by the Bioedit program. Phylogenetic analysis using genetic distance method with Neighbor Joining (NJ) approach was performed using the MEGA4 software. Additional sequences of three other Pythium species, Phytophthora sojae and Lagenidium giganteum were employed as outgroups. The sizes of the COX II amplicons varied from 558-564 bp, whereas the ITS products varied from approximately 871-898 bp. Corrected sequence divergences with Kimura 2-parameter model calculated for the COX II and the ITS DNA sequences ranged between 0.0000-0.0608 and 0.0000-0.2832, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using both the COX II and the ITS DNA sequences showed similar trees, where we found three sister groups (A(TH), B(TH), and C(TH)) among P. insidiosum strains. All Thai isolates from clinical cases and environmental sources were placed in two separated sister groups (B(TH) and C(TH)), whereas the Americas isolates were grouped into A(TH.) Although the phylogenetic tree based on both regions showed similar distribution, the COX II phylogenetic tree showed higher resolution than the one using the ITS sequences. Our study indicates that COX II gene is the better of the two alternatives to study the phylogenetic relationships among P. insidiosum strains. PMID:20818919

  1. Characterization of chemical constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Yin, Ran; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 × 3.0 mm, 2.2 ?m) using a gradient elution program. The detection was performed on a Waters Xevo G2 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 82 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Of the 82 compounds, 21 compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing MS data and retrieving the reference literature. In addition, 31 compounds were identified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, ten compounds were identified from Rheum palmatum L., 33 compounds were identified from Citrus aurantium L., and eight compounds were identified from Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Results indicated that iridoids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumarins, glycosides of crocetin, monoterpenoids, and organic acids were major constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. It is concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. PMID:25195935

  2. The Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene GmMMP2 Is Activated in Response to Pathogenic Infections in Soybean1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongqing; Dammann, Christian; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.

    2001-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in host defense responses against pathogens in mammals where their activities lead to the production of antimicrobial peptides. We have identified a novel soybean (Glycine max) metalloproteinase gene, GmMMP2, that is transcriptionally up-regulated in infected tissues. The deduced amino acid sequence indicates that this gene belongs to the MMP family. It is a preproprotein containing an N-terminal signal peptide, a cysteine switch, a zinc-binding catalytic motif, and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. The GmMMP2 expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli exhibited an in vitro enzymatic activity in digesting myelin basic protein. All plant metalloproteinases reported so far have no known functions. However, they have been suggested to be involved in extracellular cell matrix degradation during development or senescence. Our investigations demonstrate that the GmMMP2 transcript levels were rapidly increased in compatible and incompatible interactions of soybean tissues with the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae or the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. In agreement with the GmMMP2 activation, a metalloproteinase activity was gradually increased in suspension-cultured cells following the bacterial infection. GmMMP2 was also activated in response to wounding and dehydration. However, GmMMP2 activation did not correlate with the oxidative burst leading to the hypersensitive response cell death or the tissue senescence progress that involves programmed cell death. Our investigations suggest that GmMMP2 may be involved in a novel defense response of soybean against pathogenic infections. PMID:11743122

  3. Differential mRNA Degradation of Two ?-Tubulin Isoforms Correlates with Cytosolic Ca2+ Changes in Glucan-Elicited Soybean Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, Chantal; Gómez, Lourdes Gómez; Schmit, Anne-Catherine; Neuhaus-Url, Gabriele; Boller, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic soybean (Glycine max) culture cells expressing apoaequorin, a Ca2+ indicator, were exposed to glucan fragments derived from Phytophthora sojae or to chitin oligomers. The effects of these elicitors on cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations and on mRNA levels of two ?-tubulin isoforms, tubB1 and tubB2, were investigated. The glucan elicitors, to which the cells are known to react with a biphasic cytosolic Ca2+ increase, induced a down-regulation of the tubB1 mRNA levels while the tubB2 mRNA level remained constant. The decrease of tubB1 mRNA level was observed after 1 hour of glucan treatment. In contrast, chitin oligomers, known to provoke a monophasic Ca2+ increase of short duration, did not affect the tubB1 mRNA level. Pre-incubation with 10 mm 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid, an extracellular Ca2+ chelator, blocked the cytosolic Ca2+ increase as well as the decrease of tubB1 mRNA levels induced by glucan elicitors. Likewise, pre-incubation with 1 mm neomycin, which reduced only the second glucan-induced Ca2+ peak, blocked the decrease of tubB1 mRNA level. Experiments with cordycepin, a transcription inhibitor, indicated that glucan fragments induced the degradation of tubB1 mRNA. In conclusion, the glucan-induced cytosolic Ca2+ changes are correlated with a strong increase in tubB1 mRNA degradation. PMID:11351073

  4. Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov., a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium from root nodules of soybeans in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiumei; Cloutier, Sylvie; Tambong, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of Glycine max grown in Ottawa, Canada, were previously characterized and placed in a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized using a polyphasic approach. All strains possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that were 99.79?% similar to the closest relative, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense LMG 18230T. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated atpD, glnII, recA, gyrB, rpoB and dnaK genes divided the 16 strains into three multilocus sequence types that were placed in a highly supported lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium consistent with results of DNA–DNA hybridization. Based on analysis of symbiosis gene sequences (nodC and nifH), all novel strains were placed in a phylogenetic group with five species of the genus Bradyrhizobium that nodulate soybeans. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests including carbon and nitrogen source utilization and antibiotic resistance could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Novel strain OO99T elicits effective nodules on Glycine max, Glycine soja and Macroptilium atropurpureum, partially effective nodules on Desmodium canadense and Vigna unguiculata, and ineffective nodules on Amphicarpaea bracteata and Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on the data presented, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov. is proposed, with OO99T (?=?LMG 26739T?=?HAMBI 3284T) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content is 62.6 mol%. PMID:24969302

  5. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  6. Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov., a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium from root nodules of soybeans in Canada.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiumei; Cloutier, Sylvie; Tambong, James T; Bromfield, Eden S P

    2014-09-01

    Sixteen strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of Glycine max grown in Ottawa, Canada, were previously characterized and placed in a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized using a polyphasic approach. All strains possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that were 99.79?% similar to the closest relative, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense LMG 18230(T). Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated atpD, glnII, recA, gyrB, rpoB and dnaK genes divided the 16 strains into three multilocus sequence types that were placed in a highly supported lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium consistent with results of DNA-DNA hybridization. Based on analysis of symbiosis gene sequences (nodC and nifH), all novel strains were placed in a phylogenetic group with five species of the genus Bradyrhizobium that nodulate soybeans. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests including carbon and nitrogen source utilization and antibiotic resistance could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Novel strain OO99(T) elicits effective nodules on Glycine max, Glycine soja and Macroptilium atropurpureum, partially effective nodules on Desmodium canadense and Vigna unguiculata, and ineffective nodules on Amphicarpaea bracteata and Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on the data presented, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov. is proposed, with OO99(T) (?=?LMG 26739(T)?=?HAMBI 3284(T)) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content is 62.6 mol%. PMID:24969302

  7. Major Soybean Maturity Gene Haplotypes Revealed by SNPViz Analysis of 72 Sequenced Soybean Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Langewisch, Tiffany; Zhang, Hongxin; Vincent, Ryan; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Bilyeu, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    In this Genomics Era, vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data have become publicly available for multiple genomes across hundreds of species. Analyses of these large-scale datasets can become cumbersome, especially when comparing nucleotide polymorphisms across many samples within a dataset and among different datasets or organisms. To facilitate the exploration of allelic variation and diversity, we have developed and deployed an in-house computer software to categorize and visualize these haplotypes. The SNPViz software enables users to analyze region-specific haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) datasets for different sequenced genomes. The examination of allelic variation and diversity of important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] flowering time and maturity genes may provide additional insight into flowering time regulation and enhance researchers' ability to target soybean breeding for particular environments. For this study, we utilized two available soybean genomic datasets for a total of 72 soybean genotypes encompassing cultivars, landraces, and the wild species Glycine soja. The major soybean maturity genes E1, E2, E3, and E4 along with the Dt1 gene for plant growth architecture were analyzed in an effort to determine the number of major haplotypes for each gene, to evaluate the consistency of the haplotypes with characterized variant alleles, and to identify evidence of artificial selection. The results indicated classification of a small number of predominant haplogroups for each gene and important insights into possible allelic diversity for each gene within the context of known causative mutations. The software has both a stand-alone and web-based version and can be used to analyze other genes, examine additional soybean datasets, and view similar genome sequence and SNP datasets from other species. PMID:24727730

  8. Glycinin Composition of Several Perennial Species Related to Soybean 1

    PubMed Central

    Staswick, Paul E.; Broué, Paul; Nielsen, N. C.

    1983-01-01

    The 7S and 11S seed storage proteins from four perennials related to soybean (Glycine canescens, G. tomentella, G. tabacina, and G. clandestina) were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. Each species yielded a unique electrophoretic pattern that varied in the total number of bands and their relative mobilities. In every case, the electrophoretic patterns were substantially different from CX635-1-1-1, the strain of G. max used in this study for comparison. Size heterogeneities among both the 7S and 11S polypeptides of the perennials were evident. Abundant proteins in the 11S fraction from G. tomentella (CSIRO No. 1133) were separated by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex and then their apparent molecular weights, amino acid compositions, and NH2-terminal amino acid sequences were determined. A group of proteins were obtained which resembled the A1b-polypeptide components of glycinin from G. max. They had the same size (Mr ? 37,000), identical NH2-terminal sequences, and similar amino acid compositions to A1b. A second group of acidic proteins (Mr ? 50,000) in G. tomentella had NH2-terminal sequences homologous to the A5 component (Mr ? 10,000) of glycinin. The latter group of polypeptides had a substantially higher apparent molecular weight than any acidic polypeptide components of glycinin analyzed previously. A third group of polypeptides purified from G. tomentella were the same size as basic polypeptides of glycinin and had homologus NH2-terminal sequences. The results indicated that the perennials exhibit variability in their seed proteins at a level not found among the cultivars of G. max and G. soja and may be useful in studies concerning the origin and organization of genes involved in the synthesis of storage proteins in cultivated soybeans. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:16663129

  9. Divergence of flowering genes in soybean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Young; Shin, Jin Hee; Kang, Yang Jae; Shim, Sang Rea; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2012-11-01

    Soybean genome sequences were blasted with Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory genes involved in photoperioddependent flowering. This approach enabled the identification of 118 genes involved in the flowering pathway. Two genome sequences of cultivated (Williams 82) and wild (IT182932) soybeans were employed to survey functional DNA variations in the flowering-related homologs. Forty genes exhibiting nonsynonymous substitutions between G. max and G. soja were catalogued. In addition, 22 genes were found to co-localize with QTLs for six traits including flowering time, first flower, pod maturity, beginning of pod, reproductive period, and seed filling period. Among the genes overlapping the QTL regions, two LHY/CCA1 genes, GI and SFR6 contained amino acid changes. The recently duplicated sequence regions of the soybean genome were used as additional criteria for the speculation of the putative function of the homologs. Two duplicated regions showed redundancy of both flowering-related genes and QTLs. ID 12398025, which contains the homeologous regions between chr 7 and chr 16, was redundant for the LHY/CCA1 and SPA1 homologs and the QTLs. Retaining of the CRY1 gene and the pod maturity QTLs were observed in the duplicated region of ID 23546507 on chr 4 and chr 6. Functional DNA variation of the LHY/CCA1 gene (Glyma07g05410) was present in a counterpart of the duplicated region on chr 7, while the gene (Glyma16g01980) present in the other portion of the duplicated region on chr 16 did not show a functional sequence change. The gene list catalogued in this study provides primary insight for understanding the regulation of flowering time and maturity in soybean. PMID:23107921

  10. Association of the circadian rhythmic expression of GmCRY1a with a latitudinal cline in photoperiodic flowering of soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingzhu; Li, Hongyu; Li, Rui; Hu, Ruibo; Fan, Chengming; Chen, Fulu; Wang, Zonghua; Liu, Xu; Fu, Yongfu; Lin, Chentao

    2008-12-30

    Photoperiodic control of flowering time is believed to affect latitudinal distribution of plants. The blue light receptor CRY2 regulates photoperiodic flowering in the experimental model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it is unclear whether genetic variations affecting cryptochrome activity or expression is broadly associated with latitudinal distribution of plants. We report here an investigation of the function and expression of two cryptochromes in soybean, GmCRY1a and GmCRY2a. Soybean is a short-day (SD) crop commonly cultivated according to the photoperiodic sensitivity of cultivars. Both cultivated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild relative (G. soja) exhibit a strong latitudinal cline in photoperiodic flowering. Similar to their Arabidopsis counterparts, both GmCRY1a and GmCRY2a affected blue light inhibition of cell elongation, but only GmCRY2a underwent blue light- and 26S proteasome-dependent degradation. However, in contrast to Arabidopsis cryptochromes, soybean GmCRY1a, but not GmCRY2a, exhibited a strong activity promoting floral initiation, and the level of protein expression of GmCRY1a, but not GmCRY2a, oscillated with a circadian rhythm that has different phase characteristics in different photoperiods. Consistent with the hypothesis that GmCRY1a is a major regulator of photoperiodic flowering in soybean, the photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythmic expression of the GmCRY1a protein correlates with photoperiodic flowering and latitudinal distribution of soybean cultivars. We propose that genes affecting protein expression of the GmCRY1a protein play an important role in determining latitudinal distribution of soybeans. PMID:19106300

  11. Major soybean maturity gene haplotypes revealed by SNPViz analysis of 72 sequenced soybean genomes.

    PubMed

    Langewisch, Tiffany; Zhang, Hongxin; Vincent, Ryan; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Bilyeu, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    In this Genomics Era, vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data have become publicly available for multiple genomes across hundreds of species. Analyses of these large-scale datasets can become cumbersome, especially when comparing nucleotide polymorphisms across many samples within a dataset and among different datasets or organisms. To facilitate the exploration of allelic variation and diversity, we have developed and deployed an in-house computer software to categorize and visualize these haplotypes. The SNPViz software enables users to analyze region-specific haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) datasets for different sequenced genomes. The examination of allelic variation and diversity of important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] flowering time and maturity genes may provide additional insight into flowering time regulation and enhance researchers' ability to target soybean breeding for particular environments. For this study, we utilized two available soybean genomic datasets for a total of 72 soybean genotypes encompassing cultivars, landraces, and the wild species Glycine soja. The major soybean maturity genes E1, E2, E3, and E4 along with the Dt1 gene for plant growth architecture were analyzed in an effort to determine the number of major haplotypes for each gene, to evaluate the consistency of the haplotypes with characterized variant alleles, and to identify evidence of artificial selection. The results indicated classification of a small number of predominant haplogroups for each gene and important insights into possible allelic diversity for each gene within the context of known causative mutations. The software has both a stand-alone and web-based version and can be used to analyze other genes, examine additional soybean datasets, and view similar genome sequence and SNP datasets from other species. PMID:24727730

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of soybean flowering genes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  13. Study of the refirming effect of a plant complex.

    PubMed

    Benaiges, A; Marcet, P; Armengol, R; Betes, C; Gironés, E

    1998-08-01

    Loss of skin elasticity is one of the main problems of ageing. This is a mechanical property influenced by elastin, a protein in the dermis which, together with collagen and glycosaminoglycans, makes up the connective tissue. This tissue is affected by a large number of events (such as cutaneous ageing, pregnancy, slimming processes and cellulitis) which eventually cause it to change. At the same time, the metabolism of the proteins of the connective tissue decreases and there is an ever greater presence of enzymes, principally elastases and collagenases, which are responsible for breaking down the elastin and the collagen. One way to prevent such a loss of elasticity is to use active ingredients that are able to inhibit elastase enzymes. A plant complex was prepared using the following plants: lady's thistle (Silybum marianum GAERTN), alchemilla or yarrow (Alchemilla vulgaris L.), horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) as well as germinated seeds (Glycine soja Siebold and Zucc., Triticum vulgare Vilars, Medicago sativa L., Raphanus sativus L.). The complex was standardized to give the corresponding active principles, silybin, tannins, silicon and peptides, respectively, and in vitro enzymatic tests were carried out to establish its ability to inhibit elastase. The study of enzymatic inhibition was carried out using two enzymes: (1) porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), and (2) human leukocyte elastase (HLE). The results showed that the plant complex presents non-competitive inhibition in the order of 41.0% against PPE and 50.0% against HLE. An in vivo test was made alongside the in vitro test using an SEM 474 Cutometer (Courage & Khazaka) to study the elasticity of the skin, and positive effects were obtained when applying a cosmetic formulation containing 5% of the plant complex. Image analysis of duplicates of the cutaneous surface, before and after treatment began with a product containing 5% of plant complex and showed that wrinkles were decreased by 36.7%. PMID:18505506

  14. Assessment of green cleaning effectiveness on polychrome surfaces by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and microscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Hrdlickova Kuckova, Stepanka; Crhova Krizkova, Michaela; Pereira, Catarina Luísa Cortes; Hynek, Radovan; Lavrova, Olga; Busani, Tito; Branco, Luis Cobra; Sandu, Irina Crina Anca

    2014-08-01

    This article proposes an innovative methodology which employs nondestructive techniques to assess the effectiveness of new formulations based on ionic liquids, as alternative solvents for enzymes (proteases), for the removal of proteinaceous materials from painted surfaces during restoration treatments. Ionic liquids (ILs), also known as "designer" solvents, because of their peculiar properties which can be adjusted by selecting different cation-anion combinations, are potentially green solvents due totheir low vapour pressure. In this study, two ionic liquids were selected: IL1 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4 ])) and IL2 (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate ([EMIM][EtSO4 ])). New formulations were prepared with these ILs and two different proteases (E): one acid (E1-pepsin) and one alkaline (E2-obtained from Aspergillus sojae). These formulations were tested on tempera and oil mock-up samples, prepared in accordance with historically documented recipes, and covered with two different types of protein-based varnishes (egg white and isinglass-fish glue). A noninvasive multiscale imaging methodology was applied before and after the treatment to evaluate the cleaning's effectiveness. Different microscopic techniques-optical microscopy (OM) with visible and fluorescent light, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-together with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) were applied on areas cleaned with the new formulations (IL?+?E) and reference areas cleaned only with the commercial enzyme formulations (gels). MALDI-TOF proved particularly very useful for comparing the diversity and abundance of peptides released by using different enzymatic systems. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:574-585, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24825619

  15. GsZFP1, a new Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein, is a positive regulator of plant tolerance to cold and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Dan; Li, Yong; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Wu, Jing; Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-06-01

    Plant acclimation to environmental stress is controlled by a complex network of regulatory genes that compose distinct stress-response regulons. The C2H2-type zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) have been implicated in different cellular processes involved in plant development and stress responses. Through microarray analysis, an alkaline (NaHCO(3))-responsive ZFP gene GsZFP1 was identified and subsequently cloned from Glyycine soja. GsZFP1 encodes a 35.14 kDa protein with one C2H2-type zinc-finger motif. The QALGGH domain, conserved in most plant C2H2-type ZFPs, is absent in the GsZFP1 protein sequence. A subcellular localization study using a GFP fusion protein indicated that GsZFP1 is localized to the nucleus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that GsZFP1 was induced in the leaf by ABA (100 ?M), salt (200 mM NaCl), and cold (4°C), and in the root by ABA (100 ?M), cold (4°C), and drought (30% PEG 6000). Over-expression of GsZFP1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in a greater tolerance to cold and drought stress, a decreased water loss rate, and an increase in proline irrespective of environmental conditions. The over-expression of GsZFP1 also increased the expression of a number of stress-response marker genes, including CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, NCED3, COR47, and RD29A in response to cold stress and RAB18, NCED3, P5CS, RD22, and RD29A in response to drought stress, especially early during stress treatments. Our studies suggest that GsZFP1 plays a crucial role in the plant response to cold and drought stress. PMID:22160567

  16. Development and Evaluation of SoySNP50K, a High-Density Genotyping Array for Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L.; Jia, Gaofeng; Quigley, Charles V.; Fickus, Edward W.; Nelson, Randall L.; Cregan, Perry B.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to develop an Illumina Infinium BeadChip that contained over 50,000 SNPs from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). A total of 498,921,777 reads 35–45bp in length were obtained from DNA sequence analysis of reduced representation libraries from several soybean accessions which included six cultivated and two wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. et Zucc.) genotypes. These reads were mapped to the soybean whole genome sequence and 209,903 SNPs were identified. After applying several filters, a total of 146,161 of the 209,903 SNPs were determined to be ideal candidates for Illumina Infinium II BeadChip design. To equalize the distance between selected SNPs, increase assay success rate, and minimize the number of SNPs with low minor allele frequency, an iteration algorithm based on a selection index was developed and used to select 60,800 SNPs for Infinium BeadChip design. Of the 60,800 SNPs, 50,701 were targeted to euchromatic regions and 10,000 to heterochromatic regions of the 20 soybean chromosomes. In addition, 99 SNPs were targeted to unanchored sequence scaffolds. Of the 60,800 SNPs, a total of 52,041 passed Illumina’s manufacturing phase to produce the SoySNP50K iSelect BeadChip. Validation of the SoySNP50K chip with 96 landrace genotypes, 96 elite cultivars and 96 wild soybean accessions showed that 47,337 SNPs were polymorphic and generated successful SNP allele calls. In addition, 40,841 of the 47,337 SNPs (86%) had minor allele frequencies ?10% among the landraces, elite cultivars and the wild soybean accessions. A total of 620 and 42 candidate regions which may be associated with domestication and recent selection were identified, respectively. The SoySNP50K iSelect SNP beadchip will be a powerful tool for characterizing soybean genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium, and for constructing high resolution linkage maps to improve the soybean whole genome sequence assembly. PMID:23372807

  17. Evolution and association analysis of GmCYP78A10 gene with seed size/weight and pod number in soybean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Yinhui; Zhang, Haowei; Sun, Genlou; Zhang, Wenming; Qiu, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Seed-size/weight traits, controlled by multiple genes in soybean, play an important role in determining seed yield. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the seed size and weight in soybean remain unclear. In Arabidopsis, P450/CYP78A gene family has been proved extremely relevant to seed size (such as AtCYP78A5, AtCYP78A6 and AtCYP78A9). We found that a soybean GmCYP78A10 gene underwent artificial selection during soybean breeding. The GmCYP78A10a allele mainly distributed in wild soybean (Glycine soja), but has been eliminated in the cultivars during early stage of soybean breeding, while the GmCYP78A10b allele has been accumulated and become the predominant allele in cultivated soybean (G. max). ANOVA analysis showed that the mean seed weight, seed width and seed thickness of soybean varieties with GmCYP78A10b allele was significantly heavier/bigger than those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01). The allele could explain 7.2 % variation in seed weight. The pod number of the soybeans with GmCYP78A10b allele significantly decreased compared to those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01, R(2) = 5.8 %), while other agronomic traits including seed weight/plant were not significantly affected by these two alleles. We speculated that during the early stage of soybean breeding, breeders selected big seed carrying GmCYP78A10b allele, but lowered pod number simultaneously. Overall, the selection did not cause the significantly change in soybean seed yield. Our results suggests that the soybean GmCYP78A10 gene may have a similar function to those genes belonging to P450/CYP78A subfamily in Arabidopsis and provides new information for the genetic control of seed size in soybean. PMID:25324172

  18. The Malarial Host-Targeting Signal Is Conserved in the Irish Potato Famine Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Liolios, Konstantinos; Win, Joe; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Young, Carolyn; Kamoun, Sophien; Haldar, Kasturi

    2006-01-01

    Animal and plant eukaryotic pathogens, such as the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the potato late blight agent Phytophthora infestans, are widely divergent eukaryotic microbes. Yet they both produce secretory virulence and pathogenic proteins that alter host cell functions. In P. falciparum, export of parasite proteins to the host erythrocyte is mediated by leader sequences shown to contain a host-targeting (HT) motif centered on an RxLx (E, D, or Q) core: this motif appears to signify a major pathogenic export pathway with hundreds of putative effectors. Here we show that a secretory protein of P. infestans, which is perceived by plant disease resistance proteins and induces hypersensitive plant cell death, contains a leader sequence that is equivalent to the Plasmodium HT-leader in its ability to export fusion of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the P. falciparum parasite to the host erythrocyte. This export is dependent on an RxLR sequence conserved in P. infestans leaders, as well as in leaders of all ten secretory oomycete proteins shown to function inside plant cells. The RxLR motif is also detected in hundreds of secretory proteins of P. infestans, Phytophthora sojae, and Phytophthora ramorum and has high value in predicting host-targeted leaders. A consensus motif further reveals E/D residues enriched within ~25 amino acids downstream of the RxLR, which are also needed for export. Together the data suggest that in these plant pathogenic oomycetes, a consensus HT motif may reside in an extended sequence of ~25–30 amino acids, rather than in a short linear sequence. Evidence is presented that although the consensus is much shorter in P. falciparum, information sufficient for vacuolar export is contained in a region of ~30 amino acids, which includes sequences flanking the HT core. Finally, positional conservation between Phytophthora RxLR and P. falciparum RxLx (E, D, Q) is consistent with the idea that the context of their presentation is constrained. These studies provide the first evidence to our knowledge that eukaryotic microbes share equivalent pathogenic HT signals and thus conserved mechanisms to access host cells across plant and animal kingdoms that may present unique targets for prophylaxis across divergent pathogens. PMID:16733545

  19. The malarial host-targeting signal is conserved in the Irish potato famine pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Souvik; Hiller, N Luisa; Liolios, Konstantinos; Win, Joe; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Young, Carolyn; Kamoun, Sophien; Haldar, Kasturi

    2006-05-01

    Animal and plant eukaryotic pathogens, such as the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the potato late blight agent Phytophthora infestans, are widely divergent eukaryotic microbes. Yet they both produce secretory virulence and pathogenic proteins that alter host cell functions. In P. falciparum, export of parasite proteins to the host erythrocyte is mediated by leader sequences shown to contain a host-targeting (HT) motif centered on an RxLx (E, D, or Q) core: this motif appears to signify a major pathogenic export pathway with hundreds of putative effectors. Here we show that a secretory protein of P. infestans, which is perceived by plant disease resistance proteins and induces hypersensitive plant cell death, contains a leader sequence that is equivalent to the Plasmodium HT-leader in its ability to export fusion of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the P. falciparum parasite to the host erythrocyte. This export is dependent on an RxLR sequence conserved in P. infestans leaders, as well as in leaders of all ten secretory oomycete proteins shown to function inside plant cells. The RxLR motif is also detected in hundreds of secretory proteins of P. infestans, Phytophthora sojae, and Phytophthora ramorum and has high value in predicting host-targeted leaders. A consensus motif further reveals E/D residues enriched within approximately 25 amino acids downstream of the RxLR, which are also needed for export. Together the data suggest that in these plant pathogenic oomycetes, a consensus HT motif may reside in an extended sequence of approximately 25-30 amino acids, rather than in a short linear sequence. Evidence is presented that although the consensus is much shorter in P. falciparum, information sufficient for vacuolar export is contained in a region of approximately 30 amino acids, which includes sequences flanking the HT core. Finally, positional conservation between Phytophthora RxLR and P. falciparum RxLx (E, D, Q) is consistent with the idea that the context of their presentation is constrained. These studies provide the first evidence to our knowledge that eukaryotic microbes share equivalent pathogenic HT signals and thus conserved mechanisms to access host cells across plant and animal kingdoms that may present unique targets for prophylaxis across divergent pathogens. PMID:16733545

  20. EDITORIAL: Ongoing climatic change in Northern Eurasia: justification for expedient research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    A brief overview of the ongoing climatic and environmental changes in Northern Eurasia serves as an editorial introduction to this, the second, special Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) focus issue of Environmental Research Letters. Climatic changes in Northern Eurasia over the last hundred years are reflected in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial variables. Many of these are noticeably significant above the confidence level for 'weather' or other (fire regime, ecosystem change) noise and thus should be further investigated in order to adapt to their impacts. In this focus issue, we introduce assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change in Northern Eurasia. Most of these have been presented at one of the NEESPI workshops (for more information see neespi.org) and/or American Geophysical Union and European Geosciences Union NEESPI open sessions during the past year. These studies are diverse, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia. Some of these are focused on smaller spatial scales and/or address only specific aspects of the global change implications across the subcontinent. But the feeling (and observational evidence) that these changes have already been quite rapid and can have global implications inspires us to bring this suite of papers to the readers' attention. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia Contents Preface Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja Editorial Siberia integrated regional study: Multidisciplinary investigations of interrelation between Siberia environment dynamics and global climate change E P Gordov and E A Vaganov Studies of the energy and water cycles in Northern Eurasia Comparison and evaluation of gridded radiation products across northern Eurasia T J Troy and E F Wood Reanalysis data underestimate significant changes in growing season weather in Kazakhstan C K Wright, K M de Beurs, Z K Akhmadieva, P Y Groisman and G M Henebry Climate change in Inner Mongolia from 1955 to 2005—trends at regional, biome and local scales N Lu, B Wilske, J Ni, R John and J Chen Application of the Snowmelt Runoff model in the Kuban river basin using MODIS satellite images M V Georgievsky Record Russian river discharge in 2007 and the limits of analysis A I Shiklomanov and R B Lammers Paleoclimatic reconstructions for the south of Valdai Hills (European Russia) as paleo-analogs of possible regional vegetation changes under global warming E Novenko, A Olchev, O Desherevskaya and I Zuganova Diagnosis of the record discharge of Arctic-draining Eurasian rivers in 2007 Michael A Rawlins, Mark C Serreze, Ronny Schroeder, Xiangdong Zhang and Kyle C McDonald Studies of the cryosphere in Northern Eurasia Groundwater storage changes in arctic permafrost watersheds from GRACE and in situ measurements Reginald R Muskett and Vladimir E Romanovsky Changes in snow cover over Northern Eurasia in the last few decades O N Bulygina, V N Razuvaev and N N Korshunova Modeling sub-sea permafrost in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf: the Dmitry Laptev Strait D Nicolsky and N Shakhova Snow cover basal ice layer changes over Northern Eurasia since 1966 Olga N Bulygina, Pavel Ya Groisman, Vyacheslav N Razuvaev and Vladimir F Radionov Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries I M Shkolnik, E D Nadyozhina, T V Pavlova, E K Molkentin and A A Semioshina Studies of the biosphere in Northern Eurasia The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites A Bartsch, H Balzter and C George Change and persistence in land surface phenologies of the Don and Dnieper river basins V Kovalskyy and G M Henebry Effects of climatic changes on carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes in boreal forest ecosystems of European part of Russia A Olchev, E Novenko, O Desherevskaya, K Krasnorutskaya and J Kurbatova The effects of cli