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Effects of Fetal Bovine Serum deprivation in cell cultures on the production of Anticarsia gemmatalis Multinucleopolyhedrovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anticarsia gemmatalis is a pest in South America's soybean crops, which could be controlled by the Multinucleopolyhedrovirus of A. gemmatalis (AgMNPV). Currently, its commercial production is based on infected larvae. However, the possibility of using modified baculoviruses in Integrated Pest Management programs has stimulated an interest to develop alternative multiplication processes. This study evaluated the AgMNPV production in UFL-Ag-286

Diego L Mengual Gómez; Mariano N Belaich; Vanina A Rodríguez; Pablo D Ghiringhelli



Predatory behaviour of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on different densities of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional response of the predatory bug Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on its prey, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was studied in a greenhouse compartment. Each cage enclosed three soybean plants plus two, four, six, eight, 10, 12 or 14 prey larvae. One adult predator was released and kept inside the cages for 24h. The predation rate of

João A. M. Ferreira; José C. Zanuncio; Jorge B. Torres; Adrián J. Molina-Rugama



High genetic stability of peroral infection factors from Anticarsia gemmatalis MNPV over 20years of sampling.  


The Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) has been used as a biopesticide since the early 1980s in Brazil to control the major pest of soybean crops, the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis. To monitor the genetic diversity over space and time we sequenced four pif genes (pif1, pif2, pif3 and pif4) from AgMNPV isolates collected from different regions of South America, as well as of seasonal isolates, sampled during a two-decade field experiment. Although all genes presented low levels of polymorphism, the pif-2 carries a slightly higher number of polymorphic sites. Overall, this study reveals that pif genes have remained stable after 20 years of repeated field application. PMID:24590109

Ferreira, Briana C; Melo, Fernando L; Souza, Marlinda L; Moscardi, Flávio; Báo, Sônia N; Ribeiro, Bergmann M



Characterization of an Iridescent Virus Isolated from the Velvetbean Caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An insect iridescent virus has heen isolated from diseased velvetbean caterpillars, Anticarsia gemmatalis, found in Argentina. The cytopathology is similar to that reported for other iridescent viruses with infected larvae exhibiting blue-purple opalescence. Icosahedral particles (n = 119) purified by sucrose gradient rate zonal centrifugation had dimensions of 145 ± 7 nm (point-to-point) and 136 ± 12 nm (side-to-side). The

Gary R. Kinard; O. W. Barnett; Gerald R. Carner



Receptors and Lethal Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Crystal Proteins to the Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)  

PubMed Central

Bioassays with insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) from Bacillus thuringiensis have demonstrated that Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ba are the most active toxins on larvae of the Anticarsia gemmatalis. The toxins Cry1Da and Cry1Ea are less toxic, and toxins Cry2Aa are not active. Binding of these ICPs to midgut sections of the A. gemmatalis larvae was studied using streptavidin-mediated detection. The observed staining patterns showed that Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac bound to the brush border throughout the whole length of the midgut. However, the binding sites of Cry1Ba were not evenly distributed in the midgut microvilli. The in vivo assays against larvae of 2nd instar A. gemmatalis confirmed the results from the in vitro binding studies. These binding data correspond well with the bioassay results, demonstrating a correlation between receptors binding and toxicity of the tested ICPs in this insect. PMID:24195006

Fiuza, Lidia Mariana; da Silva, Rogério Fernando Pires; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas



Hemagglutinin activity in the hemolymph of Anticarsia gemmatalis larvae infected with the fungus Nomuraea rileyi.  


Hemolymph samples from larvae of 3 lepidopteran species (Anticarsia gemmatalis, Trichoplusia ni and Spodoptera frugiperda) were tested for hemagglutination activity. Samples from A. gemmatalis larvae which had been injected 12-24 hrs previously with hyphal bodies of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi showed agglutination activity against human 0, rabbit and sheep erythrocytes. Little or no activity was detected in samples from the other 2 larval species. Low titers (approximately 1:2) were observed when rabbit and sheep erythrocytes were tested with hemolymph from non-injected or water-injected A. gemmatalis control larvae. Higher titers (1:256-1:1024) were obtained when human erythrocytes were incubated with control hemolymph, but values were greater in the hyphal body-injected samples (1:2048-1: greater than 32,000). These results indicate a direct correlation between agglutinin production and the presence of fungal cells in the larval hemolymph. Injection with heat-killed or homogenated hyphal bodies did not cause increased activity. Decreases in titer values after these injections and for 1-12 hrs after injection with viable hyphal bodies suggest that the agglutinin(s) may function in immune surveillance. Agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes was inhibited by lactose, galactose and L-fucose. N-acetylneuraminic acid inhibited agglutination of human erythrocytes. PMID:3996705

Pendland, J C; Boucias, D G



Effects of Fetal Bovine Serum deprivation in cell cultures on the production of Anticarsia gemmatalis Multinucleopolyhedrovirus  

PubMed Central

Background Anticarsia gemmatalis is a pest in South America's soybean crops, which could be controlled by the Multinucleopolyhedrovirus of A. gemmatalis (AgMNPV). Currently, its commercial production is based on infected larvae. However, the possibility of using modified baculoviruses in Integrated Pest Management programs has stimulated an interest to develop alternative multiplication processes. This study evaluated the AgMNPV production in UFL-Ag-286 cells previously deprived Fetal Bovine Serum. Results Culture media containing 1% FBS during the previous 48 hours achieved a synchronized condition where 90% of cells were found in G0/G1 stage, showing the presence of non-filamentous actin. All characteristics were estimated from cellular viability tests, cell actin detection trials and flow cytometer cell cycle analysis. AgMNPV production was tested by transcript studies and budded viruses (BVs) and occlusion bodies (OBs) yield quantitation. Results showed that the productivity in FBS deprived cells was 9.8 times more in BVs and 3.8 times more in OBs with respect to non-treated cells. Conclusions UFL-Ag-286 cells previously deprived in FBS shown to be a better host for AgMNPV propagation, increasing the useful for both in vitro bioinsecticide production and applications such as recombinant protein expression or gene delivery. PMID:20843354



Proteomic analyses of baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus budded and occluded virus.  


Baculoviruses infect insects, producing two distinct phenotypes during the viral life cycle: the budded virus (BV) and the occlusion-derived virus (ODV) for intra- and inter-host spread, respectively. Since the 1980s, several countries have been using Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) as a biological control agent against the velvet bean caterpillar, A. gemmatalis. The genome of AgMNPV isolate 2D (AgMNPV-2D) carries at least 152 potential genes, with 24 that possibly code for structural proteins. Proteomic studies have been carried out on a few baculoviruses, with six ODV and two BV proteomes completed so far. Moreover, there are limited data on virion proteins carried by AgMNPV-2D. Therefore, structural proteins of AgMNPV-2D were analysed by MALDI- quadrupole-TOF and liquid chromatography MS/MS. A total of 44 proteins were associated with the ODV and 33 with the BV of AgMNPV-2D. Although 38 structural proteins were already known, we found six new proteins in the ODV and seven new proteins carried by the AgMNPV-2D BV. Eleven cellular proteins that were found on several other enveloped viruses were also identified, which are possibly carried with the virion. These findings may provide novel insights into baculovirus biology and their host interaction. Moreover, our data may be helpful in subsequent applied studies aiming to improve AgMNPV use as a biopesticide and a biotechnology tool for gene expression or delivery. PMID:24443474

Braconi, Carla Torres; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Garcia-Maruniak, Alejandra; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais; Maruniak, James E; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade



Yolk hydrolases in the eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a role for inorganic polyphosphate towards yolk mobilization.  


Despite being the main insect pest on soybean crops in the Americas, very few studies have approached the general biology of the lepidopteran Anticarsia gemmatalis and there is a paucity of studies with embryo formation and yolk mobilization in this species. In the present work, we identified an acid phosphatase activity in the eggs of A. gemmatalis (agAP) that we further characterized by means of biochemistry and cell biology experiments. By testing several candidate substrates, this enzyme proved chiefly active with phosphotyrosine; in vitro assays suggested a link between agAP activity and dephosphorylation of egg yolk phosphotyrosine. We also detected strong activity with endogenous and exogenous short chain polyphosphates (PolyP), which are polymers of phosphate residues involved in a number of physiological processes. Both agAP activity and PolyP were shown to initially concentrate in small vesicles clearly distinct from typically larger yolk granules, suggesting subcellular compartmentalization. As PolyP has been implicated in inhibition of yolk proteases, we performed in vitro enzymatic assays with a cysteine protease to test whether it would be inhibited by PolyP. This cysteine protease is prominent in Anticarsia egg homogenates. Accordingly, short chain PolyP was a potent inhibitor of cysteine protease. We thereby suggest that PolyP hydrolysis by agAP is a triggering mechanism of yolk mobilization in A. gemmatalis. PMID:24140472

Oliveira, Danielle M P; Gomes, Fabio M; Carvalho, Danielle B; Ramos, Isabela; Carneiro, Alan B; Silva-Neto, Mario A C; de Souza, Wanderley; Lima, Ana P C A; Miranda, Kildare; Machado, Ednildo A



Characterization of an iridescent virus isolated from the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis.  


An insect iridescent virus has been isolated from diseased velvetbean caterpillars, Anticarsia gemmatalis, found in Argentina. The cytopathology is similar to that reported for other iridescent viruses with infected larvae exhibiting blue-purple opalescence. Icosahedral particles (n = 119) purified by sucrose gradient rate zonal centrifugation had dimensions of 145 +/- 7 nm (point-to-point) and 136 +/- 12 nm (side-to-side). The sedimentation coefficient was 2250 +/- 10 S20,w when the virus was suspended in phosphate buffer. Characterization of proteins by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed 24 polypeptides with a single major species of 53.6 kDa. Purified viral DNA had a density of 1.6902 g cm-3 in equilibrium ultracentrifugation, corresponding to a guanine:cytosine content of 32.2%. Analysis of digests of this DNA with two restriction enzymes revealed an average molecular size of 181.8 +/- 5.6 kbp. A 499-bp fragment was amplified from the genome of this isolate using the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced; data suggest this virus is very closely related to IV 1, originally isolated from Tipula paludosa. These properties indicate this virus is an isolate of the genus Iridovirus. PMID:8568281

Kinard, G R; Barnett, O W; Carner, G R



Two's a Crowd: Phenotypic Adjustments and Prophylaxis in Anticarsia gemmatalis Larvae Are Triggered by the Presence of Conspecifics  

PubMed Central

Defence from parasites and pathogens involves a cost. Thus, it is expected that organisms use this only at high population densities, where the risk of pathogen transmission may be high, as proposed by the "density-dependent prophylaxis" (DDP) hypothesis. These predictions have been tested in a wide range of insects, both in comparative and experimental studies. We think it pertinent to consider a continuum between solitarious and gregarious living insects, wherein: (1) solitarious insects are those that are constitutively solitary and do not express any phenotypic plasticity, (2) the middle of the continuum is represented by insects that are subject to fluctuations in local density and show a range of facultative and plastic changes; and (3) constitutively gregarious forms live gregariously and show the gregarious phenotype even in the absence of crowding stimuli. We aimed to chart some of the intermediary continuum with an insect that presents solitarious aspects, but that is subject to fluctuations in density. Thus, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae reared at higher densities showed changes in coloration, a greater degree of encapsulation, had higher hemocyte densities and were more resistant to Baculovirus anticarsia, but not to Bacillus thuringiensis. Meanwhile, with increased rearing density there was reduced capsule melanization. Hemocyte density was the only variable that did not vary according to larval phenotype. The observed responses were not a continuous function of larval density, but an all-or-nothing response to the presence of a conspecific. As A. gemmatalis is not known for gregarious living, yet shows these density-dependent changes, it thus seems that this plastic phenotypic adjustment may be a broader phenomenon than previously thought. PMID:23626700

Silva, Farley W. S.; Viol, Daniel L.; Faria, Sirlene V.; Lima, Eraldo; Valicente, Fernando H.; Elliot, Simon L.



Improved replication of the baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) in vitro using proteins from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph.  


The baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV), a member of the family Baculoviridae, has been widely applied as a biopesticide for the control of the velvetbean caterpillar, a pest of soybean crop field. Baculoviruses are considered safe and efficient agents for this purpose, because they do not infect vertebrates, being safe for the health of humans and animals, as well as to the environment. The objective of this work was to identify proteins obtained from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph with potential application in the optimization of baculovirus AgMNPV replication in Sf9 insect cell culture. In this work the improvement of the cell culture and viral replication of the AgMNPV baculovirus was observed when Grace medium was supplemented with 10 % (v/v) Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 1 % (v/v) hemolymph extract, or 3 % (v/v) of hemolymph fractions or hemolymph sub-fractions obtained by purifying hemolymph through High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Hemolymph presented a positive effect on the synthesis of polyhedra and enhanced baculovirus replication in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells (TCID50/mL), and led to Sf9 cell culture improvement. Grace medium supplemented with 10 % (v/v) FBS and 1 % (v/v) hemolymph provided an increase of baculovirus replication, when the cells were infected with multiplicity of infection of 1. In this case, the baculovirus replication was 6,443.91 times greater than that obtained with the control: Grace medium supplemented with 10 % (v/v) FBS. In addition, this work suggests that hemolymph from L. obliqua could have an interesting application in biotechnology, due to an increase in the viability of the cells and virus replication. PMID:24969017

Sousa, Álvaro P B; Moraes, Roberto H P; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z



Entomocidal Effects of Beech Apricot, Labramia bojeri, Seed Extract on a Soybean Pest, the Velvetbean Moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and Its Enzymatic Activity  

PubMed Central

The effects of the beech apricot, Labramia bojeri A. de Candolle (Sapotales: Sapotaceae), seed aqueous extract on the larval development of the velvetbean moth, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was evaluated. The extract inhibited larval development, pupal weight, and survival and emergence of adults. Digestive proteolytic activity in larval midgut and feces extracts was determined. Larvae fed 10 g/L of the aqueous extract showed a significant reduction in trypsin activity (?64%), when compared with control larvae. Trypsin and Chymotrypsin activities were also detected in fecal material in aqueous-extract-fed larvae, with about ?4.5 times more trypsin activity than the controls. The results from dietary utilization experiments with A. gemmatalis larvae showed a reduction in the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and digested food and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. The effect of the extract suggests the potential use of L. bojeri seeds to inhibit the development of A. gemmatalis via oral exposure. The L. bojeri extract can be an alternative to other methods of control. PMID:25373174

Macedo, Maria L. R.; Kubo, Carlos E. G.; Freire, Maria G. M.; Júnior, Roberto T. A.; Parra, José R. P.



Immunological effects of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) by stimulation of mice in vivo and in vitro.  


Baculoviruses are highly specific and only capable of replication in arthropod hosts. The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is the most studied baculovirus at the molecular level and the Anticarsia gemnatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) is the most used viral insecticide worldwide. AcMNPV have also been shown to stimulate the mammalian immune response acting as an adjuvant. In order to evaluate the effects of AgMNPV in modulating macrophage and lymphocyte activation, we have stimulated these cells in vitro and inoculated BALB/c mice intranasally with the two viral phenotypes (PIBs and BVs) and compared with the response induced by the same phenotypes of AcMNPV. Our results showed that baculoviruses are able to modulate mammalian immune response; in vitro they increase phagocytosis, NO2 production and Th1 cells response. In vivo, AgMNPV BVs or PIBs do not induce an inflammatory reaction in normal lung but during a fungal lung infection they can change the type of adaptive response developed. Considering our data, AgMNPV can be considered more useful as a vaccine vector or immune adjuvant than AcMNPV. PMID:23747526

Bocca, Anamelia Lorenzetti; Barros, Maria Creuza do Espirito Santos; Martins, Grace Kelly Menezes; de Araújo, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Souza, Marcio Jerônimo; Ribeiro, Alice Melo; Figueiredo, Florêncio; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais



Effects of spinosad and neem on the efficacy of a nucleopolyhedrovirus on pickleworm larvae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A neem formulation (Neemix® 4.5) and spinosad (SpinTor® 2SC) were tested for their effects when mixed with the multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus virus (AgMNPV) from the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), for control of pickleworm larvae, Diaphania nitidalis...



E-print Network

CUISSON DU TOURTEAU SUR SES TENEURS EN THIAMINE, ACIDE PANTOTH�NIQUE ET M�THIONINE J. ADRIAN Centre de cuisson du soja, la thiamine est fortement endommagée et disparaît même totalement dans les traitements les plus drastiques, la forme libre se révélant légèrement plus fragile que la thiamine présente à l

Boyer, Edmond


A Multiplexed, Probe-Based Quantitative PCR Assay for DNA of Phytophthora sojae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora sojae (Kaufm. & Gerd.) causes seed rot, pre- and post-emergence damping off, and sometimes foliar blight in soybean (Glycine max). Crop loss may approach 100% with susceptible cultivars. We report here the development of a unique quantitative PCR assay specific to DNA of P. sojae, and a...


Isolation of six isoflavones from Semen sojae praeparatum by preparative HPLC.  


A method for the isolation of six isoflavones (genistein, genistin, daidzein, daidzin, glycitein and glycitin) with high purity from Semen sojae praeparatum, a famous traditional Chinese medicine, by preparative HPLC is described. PMID:17343991

Qu, Li-ping; Fan, Guo-rong; Peng, Jin-yong; Mi, He-ming



Isozyme differentiation among three pathotypes of the entomogenous fungus Nomuraea rileyi.  


The zymogram technique has been applied to three pathotypes of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi. Isozyme profiles of isolates from Heliothis zea, Pseudoplusia includens, and Anticarsia gemmatalis were compared for 17 enzymes of known metabolic function. Electrophoretic data supported the taxonomic differences inferred for the three pathotypes based on host specificity. The isolate from A. gemmatalis was found consistently to be the most distinct. This study demonstrates that isozyme analysis may be used to distinguish closely related fungal isolates of N. rileyi. PMID:7195298

Joslyn, D J; Boucias, D G



Identification of ?-tocopherol and ?-tocopheryl acetate from the cuticle of soybean pods armyworm (Spodoptera cosmioides).  


The chemical composition of the soybean pods armyworm Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larval cuticles was evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to a mass detector (GC-MS). Among the usual lipids found in the insect cuticle, ?-tocopherol and ?-tocopheryl acetate were also isolated from S. cosmioides. On the other hand, no vitamin E derivative was found in A. gemmatalis exuvia. This is the first report of vitamin E occurrence in the insect's cuticle. PMID:23356865

Fronza, Edegar; Migues, Ignacio; Specht, Alexandre; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro; Heinzen, Horacio



Occurrence of Soybean Sleeping Blight Caused by Septogloeum sojae in Korea.  


Sleeping blight was observed on soybean plants grown in Yanggu, Suwon and Geumsan from 2005 to 2011. Symptoms developed on stems and pods of affected soybean plants. Five fungal isolates were obtained from the diseased plants and identified as Septogloeum sojae based on their morphological, cultural and molecular characteristics. Pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed on soybean plants by artificial inoculation. This is the first report of S. sojae causing sleeping blight in soybean plants in Korea. PMID:23323054

Hong, Sung Kee; Choi, Hyo Won; Lee, Young Kee; Lee, Sang Yeob; Shim, Hong Sik



Copyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Genetic and Physical Mapping of Avr1a in Phytophthora sojae  

E-print Network

Copyright 2002 by the Genetics Society of America Genetic and Physical Mapping of Avr1a Phytophthora sojae is controlled by host resistance (Rps) genes and pathogen avirulence (Avr) genes. We have mapped the Avr1a locus in F2 populations derived from four different P. sojae races. Four RAPD and nine

Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar


Association mapping for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).  


Association mapping is a powerful high-resolution mapping tool for complex traits. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae. In this study, we evaluated a total of 214 soybean accessions by the hypocotyl inoculation method, and 175 were susceptible. The 175 susceptible accessions were then evaluated for P. sojae partial resistance using slant board assays. The 175 accessions were screened with 138 SSR markers that generated 730 SSR alleles. A subset of 495 SSR loci with minor allele frequency (MAF) ? 0.05 was used for association mapping by the Tassel general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) programmes. This soybean population could be divided into two subpopulations and no or weak relatedness was detected between pairwise accessions. Four SSR alleles, Satt634-133, Satt634-149, Sat_222-168 and Satt301-190, associated with partial resistance to P. sojae were detected by both GLM and MLM methods. Of these identified markers, one marker, Satt301, was located in regions where P. sojae resistance QTL have been previously mapped using linkage analysis. The identified markers will help to understand the genetic basis of partial resistance, and facilitate future marker-assistant selection aimed to improve resistance to P. sojae and reduce disease-related mortality in soybean. PMID:25189230

Sun, Jutao; Guo, Na; Lei, Jun; Li, Lihong; Hu, Guanjun; Xing, Han



Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Phytophthora sojae in Soil and Infected Soybeans by Species-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays.  


ABSTRACT Root and stem rot caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean (Glycine max) worldwide. P. sojae can survive as oospores in soil for many years. In order to develop a rapid and accurate method for the specific detection of P. sojae in soil, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of eight P. sojae isolates were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the universal primers DC6 and ITS4. The sequences of PCR products were aligned with published sequences of 50 other Phytophthora species, and a region specific to P. sojae was used to design the specific PCR primers, PS1 and PS2. More than 245 isolates representing 25 species of Phytophthora and at least 35 other species of pathogens were used to test the specificity of the primers. PCR amplification with PS primers resulted in the amplification of a product of approximately 330 bp, exclusively from isolates of P. sojae. Tests with P. sojae genomic DNA determined that the sensitivity of the PS primer set is approximately 1 fg. This PCR assay, combined with a simple soil screening method developed in this work, allowed the detection of P. sojae from soil within 6 h, with a detection sensitivity of two oospores in 20 g of soil. PCR with the PS primers could also be used to detect P. sojae from diseased soybean tissue and residues. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assays were also developed to detect the pathogen directly in soil samples. The PS primer-based PCR assay provides a rapid and sensitive tool for the detection of P. sojae in soil and infected soybean tissue. PMID:18943663

Wang, Yuanchao; Zhang, Wenli; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Xiaobo



Chemotactic Preferences and Strain Variation in the Response of Phytophthora sojae Zoospores to Host Isoflavones  

PubMed Central

The zoospores of Phytophthora sojae are chemotactically attracted to the isoflavones genistein and daidzein that are released by soybean roots. In this study we have examined the response of P. sojae zoospores to a wide range of compounds having some structural similarity to genistein and daidzein, including isoflavones, flavones, chalcones, stilbenes, benzoins, benzoates, benzophenones, acetophenones, and coumarins. Of 59 compounds examined, 43 elicited some response. A comparison of the chemotactic responses elicited by the various compounds revealed a primary role for the phenolic 4(prm1)- and 7-hydroxyl groups on the isoflavone structure. A few compounds acted as repellents, notably methylated flavones with a hydrophobic B ring. The chemotactic response to many of the analogs was markedly different among different strains of P. sojae. PMID:16535375

Tyler, B. M.; Wu, M.; Wang, J.; Cheung, W.; Morris, P. F.



Novel quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean PI 398841.  


Phytophthora root and stem rot caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdemann is one of the most severe soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] diseases in the USA. Partial resistance is as effective in managing this disease as single-gene (Rps gene)-mediated resistance and is more durable. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with partial resistance to P. sojae in PI 398841, which originated from South Korea. A population of 305 F7:8 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross of OX20-8 × PI 398841 was used to evaluate partial resistance against P. sojae isolate C2S1 using a tray test. Composite interval mapping using a genome-wide logarithm of odd (LOD) threshold detected three QTL on chromosomes 1, 13, and 18, which individually explained 4-16 % of the phenotypic variance. Seven additional QTL, accounting for 2-3 % of phenotypic variance each, were identified using chromosome-wide LOD thresholds. Seven of the ten QTL for resistance to P. sojae were contributed by PI 398841. Seven QTL co-localized with known Rps genes and previously reported QTL for soil-borne root pathogens, isoflavone, and seed oil. Three QTL on chromosomes 3, 13, and 18 co-localized with known Rps genes, but PI 398841 did not exhibit an Rps gene-mediated resistance response following inoculation with 48 different isolates of P. sojae. PI 398841 is potentially a source of novel genes for improving soybean cultivars for partial resistance to P. sojae. PMID:23354974

Lee, Sungwoo; Mian, M A Rouf; McHale, Leah K; Wang, Hehe; Wijeratne, Asela J; Sneller, Clay H; Dorrance, Anne E



Pathogenic diversity of Phytophthora sojae and breeding strategies to develop Phytophthora-resistant soybeans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora stem and root rot disease, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and has been increasing in several soybean-producing areas around the world. This disease induces serious limitations on soybean production, with yield l...


Two host cytoplasmic effectors are required for pathogenesis of Phytophthora sojae by suppression of host defenses.  


Phytophthora sojae encodes hundreds of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling- and necrosis-inducing proteins (CRN) or Crinkler. Their functions and mechanisms in pathogenesis are mostly unknown. Here, we identify a group of five P. sojae-specific CRN-like genes with high levels of sequence similarity, of which three are putative pseudogenes. Functional analysis shows that the two functional genes encode proteins with predicted nuclear localization signals that induce contrasting responses when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and soybean (Glycine max). PsCRN63 induces cell death, while PsCRN115 suppresses cell death elicited by the P. sojae necrosis-inducing protein (PsojNIP) or PsCRN63. Expression of CRN fragments with deleted signal peptides and FLAK motifs demonstrates that the carboxyl-terminal portions of PsCRN63 or PsCRN115 are sufficient for their activities. However, the predicted nuclear localization signal is required for PsCRN63 to induce cell death but not for PsCRN115 to suppress cell death. Furthermore, silencing of the PsCRN63 and PsCRN115 genes in P. sojae stable transformants leads to a reduction of virulence on soybean. Intriguingly, the silenced transformants lose the ability to suppress host cell death and callose deposition on inoculated plants. These results suggest a role for CRN effectors in the suppression of host defense responses. PMID:21071601

Liu, Tingli; Ye, Wenwu; Ru, Yanyan; Yang, Xinyu; Gu, Biao; Tao, Kai; Lu, Shan; Dong, Suomeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Shan, Weixing; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong



Understanding Nonaflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus sojae: A Windfall of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. A. sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical relatedness to aflatoxin-producing A. parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora root rot, caused by PHYTOPHTHORA SOJAE, is a serious yield-limiting disease in most soybean production regions of the U.S. Major emphasis for the control of this disease has been directed toward the use of Rps1-c, Rps1-k, and/or Rps3-a resistance genes until the recent identification o...


Transcriptional Programming and Functional Interactions within the Phytophthora sojae RXLR Effector Repertoire[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The genome of the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae contains nearly 400 genes encoding candidate effector proteins carrying the host cell entry motif RXLR-dEER. Here, we report a broad survey of the transcription, variation, and functions of a large sample of the P. sojae candidate effectors. Forty-five (12%) effector genes showed high levels of polymorphism among P. sojae isolates and significant evidence for positive selection. Of 169 effectors tested, most could suppress programmed cell death triggered by BAX, effectors, and/or the PAMP INF1, while several triggered cell death themselves. Among the most strongly expressed effectors, one immediate-early class was highly expressed even prior to infection and was further induced 2- to 10-fold following infection. A second early class, including several that triggered cell death, was weakly expressed prior to infection but induced 20- to 120-fold during the first 12 h of infection. The most strongly expressed immediate-early effectors could suppress the cell death triggered by several early effectors, and most early effectors could suppress INF1-triggered cell death, suggesting the two classes of effectors may target different functional branches of the defense response. In support of this hypothesis, misexpression of key immediate-early and early effectors severely reduced the virulence of P. sojae transformants. PMID:21653195

Wang, Qunqing; Han, Changzhi; Ferreira, Adriana O.; Yu, Xiaoli; Ye, Wenwu; Tripathy, Sucheta; Kale, Shiv D.; Gu, Biao; Sheng, Yuting; Sui, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Zhengguang; Cheng, Baoping; Dong, Suomeng; Shan, Weixing; Zheng, Xiaobo; Dou, Daolong; Tyler, Brett M.; Wang, Yuanchao



Novel quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean PI 398841  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora root and stem rot caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdmann is one of the most severe soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] diseases in the US. Partial resistance is as effective in managing this disease as single-gene (Rps) mediated resistance and is more durable. The objective of t...


Expression of a Phytophthora sojae necrosis-inducing protein occurs during transition from biotrophy to necrotrophy.  


Phytophthora sojae is an oomycete that causes stem and root rot on soybean plants. To discover pathogen factors that produce disease symptoms or activate plant defense responses, we identified putative secretory proteins from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and tested selected candidates using a heterologous expression assay. From an analysis of 3035 ESTs originating from mycelium, zoospore, and infected soybean tissues, we identified 176 putative secreted proteins. A total of 16 different cDNAs predicted to encode secreted proteins ranging in size from 6 to 26 kDa were selected for expression analysis in Nicotiana benthamiana using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary potato virus X (PVX) vector. This resulted in the identification of a 25.6-kDa necrosis-inducing protein that is similar in sequence to other proteins from eukaryotic and prokaryotic species. The genomic region encoding the P. sojae necrosis-inducing protein was isolated and the expression pattern of the corresponding gene determined by RNA blot hybridization and by RT-PCR. The activity of this P. sojae protein was compared to proteins of similar sequence from Fusarium oxysporum, Bacillus halodurans, and Streptomyces coelicolor by PVX-based expression in N. benthamiana and by transient expression via particle bombardment in soybean tissues. The P. sojae protein was a powerful inducer of necrosis and cell death in both assays, whereas related proteins from other species varied in their activity. This study suggests that the P. sojae necrosis-inducing protein facilitates the colonization of host tissues during the necrotrophic phase of growth. PMID:12410814

Qutob, Dinah; Kamoun, Sophien; Gijzen, Mark



Article original Digestion des protines de pois et de soja chez le veau  

E-print Network

Article original Digestion des protéines de pois et de soja chez le veau préruminant. II partiellement dégradées puissent échapper à la digestion dans l'intestin grêle dans le cas des aliments pois et - digestion - iléon - veau préruminant Summary ― Digestion of pea and soya-bean proteins in preruminant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Characterization of Components of Partial Resistance, Rps2, and Root Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.  


ABSTRACT Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybeans caused by Phytophthora sojae is a serious limitation to soybean production in the United States. Partial resistance to P. sojae in soybeans is effective against all the races of the pathogen and is a form of incomplete resistance in which the level of colonization of the root is reduced following inoculation. Other forms of incomplete resistance include the single dominant gene Rps2 and Ripley's root resistance, which are both race-specific. To differentiate partial resistance from the other types of incomplete resistance, the components lesion length, numbers of oospores, and infection frequency were measured in eight soybean genotypes inoculated with two P. sojae isolates. The Rps2 and root-resistant genotypes had significantly lower oospore production and infection frequency compared with the partially resistant genotype Conrad, while the root-resistant genotype also had significantly smaller lesion lengths. However, the high levels of partial resistance in Jack were indistinguishable from Rps2 in L76-1988, based on the evaluation of these components. Root resistance in Ripley and Rps2 in L76-1988 had similar responses for all components measured in this study. Partial resistance expressed in Conrad, Williams, Jack, and General was comprised of various components that interact for defense against P. sojae in the roots, and different levels of each component were found in each of the genotypes. However, forms of incomplete resistance expressed via single genes in Ripley and Rps2 in L76-1988, could not be distinguished from high levels of partial resistance based on lesion length, oospore production, and infection frequency. PMID:18943586

Mideros, Santiago; Nita, Mizuho; Dorrance, Anne E



Global transcriptome profiling of wild soybean (Glycine soja) roots under NaHCO3 treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant roots are the primary site of perception and injury for saline-alkaline stress. The current knowledge of saline-alkaline stress transcriptome is mostly focused on saline (NaCl) stress and only limited information on alkaline (NaHCO3) stress is available. RESULTS: Using Affymetrix® Soybean GeneChip®, we conducted transcriptional profiling on Glycine soja roots subjected to 50 mmol\\/L NaHCO3 treatment. In a total

Ying Ge; Yong Li; Yan-Ming Zhu; Xi Bai; De-Kang Lv; Dianjing Guo; Wei Ji; Hua Cai




E-print Network

NOTE EFFET DE L'INGESTION D'HUILE DE SOJA CHAUFF�E SUR L'�LIMINATION URINAIRE DE LA THIAMINE CHEZ'auteurs semblent s'être intéressés au cas de la thiamine. Seuls RAju, NARAYANA RAO et RAJAGOPALAN, en 1965, ont'arachide chauffée à 27ooC pendant 8 heures, la teneur du foie en thiamine s'accroît moins fortement que chez des

Boyer, Edmond


[Effects of adult feeding on the reproduction and longevity of Noctuidae, Crambidae, Tortricidae and Elachistidae species].  


This research evaluates the effect of the adult diet on the reproduction of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, Heliothis virescens (Fabr.), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Noctuidae), Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) (Crambidae), Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Tortricidae) and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Elachistidae). Adults of all species were fed either water or a 10% honey solution. The egg viability for the 1st and 2nd egg masses, adult fecundity, longevity, number of mating and the ovigeny index (OI) (degree of ovarian maturation) were evaluated. Fecundity of A. gemmatalis and H. virescens was drastically reduced when females were fed only on water. Egg viability from both 1st and 2nd egg masses was variable between treatments. Females of A. gemmatalis, H. virescens and S. frugiperda, and males of some species had a reduced longevity when fed only on water. The number of matings was higher for A. gemmatalis and D. saccharalis when fed on water only. The OI was < 1.0 for all species evaluated indicating that all females may develop new oocytes as they age. Based on the OI and the reduced fecundity of A. gemmatalis and H. virescens, one observes that adult feeding is important for the reproduction of both species, and the IO is not a good parameter to indicate such condition. Spodoptera frugiperda, G. aurantianum, D. saccharalis and S. catenifer do not require any source of carbohydrates as adults to sustain their reproduction. PMID:20498952

Milano, Patrícia; Berti Filho, Evoneo; Parra, José R P; Oda, Melissa L; Cônsoli, Fernando L



Cross-species global proteomics reveals conserved and unique processes in Phytophthora sojae and P. ramorum  

SciTech Connect

Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora sojae are destructive plant pathogens. Phytophthora sojae has a narrow host range whereas P. ramorum has a wide host range. A global proteomic comparison of the vegetative (mycelium) and infective (germinating-cyst) life-stages of P. sojae and P. ramorum was conducted to identify candidate proteins involved in host range, early infection and vegetative growth. Sixty-two candidates for early infection, 26 candidates for vegetative growth, and numerous proteins that may be involved in defining host specificity were identified. In addition, common life stage proteomic trends between the organisms were observed. In mycelia, proteins involved in transport and metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and other small molecules were up-regulated. In the germinating cysts, up-regulated proteins associated with lipid transport and metabolism, cytoskeleton and protein synthesis were observed. It appears that the germinating cyst catabolizes lipid reserves through the -oxidation pathway to drive the extensive protein synthesis necessary to produce the germ tube and initiate infection. Once inside the host, the pathogen switches to vegetative growth, where energy is derived from glycolysis and utilized for synthesis of amino acids and other molecules that assist survival in the plant tissue.

Savidor, Alon [ORNL; Donahoo, Ryan S [ORNL; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Lamour, Kurt H [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL



Pathogenic diversity of Phytophthora sojae and breeding strategies to develop Phytophthora-resistant soybeans  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora stem and root rot, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and the incidence of this disease has been increasing in several soybean-producing areas around the world. This presents serious limitations for soybean production, with yield losses from 4 to 100%. The most effective method to reduce damage would be to grow Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars, and two types of host resistance have been described. Race-specific resistance conditioned by single dominant Rps (“resistance to Phytophthora sojae”) genes and quantitatively inherited partial resistance conferred by multiple genes could both provide protection from the pathogen. Molecular markers linked to Rps genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying partial resistance have been identified on several molecular linkage groups corresponding to chromosomes. These markers can be used to screen for Phytophthora-resistant plants rapidly and efficiently, and to combine multiple resistance genes in the same background. This paper reviews what is currently known about pathogenic races of P. sojae in the USA and Japan, selection of sources of Rps genes or minor genes providing partial resistance, and the current state and future scope of breeding Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars. PMID:23136490

Sugimoto, Takuma; Kato, Masayasu; Yoshida, Shinya; Matsumoto, Isao; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Kaga, Akito; Hajika, Makita; Yamamoto, Ryo; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Aino, Masataka; Matoh, Toru; Walker, David R.; Biggs, Alan R.; Ishimoto, Masao



Proteomics study of changes in soybean lines resistant and sensitive to Phytophthora sojae  

PubMed Central

Background Phytophthora sojae causes soybean root and stem rot, resulting in an annual loss of 1-2 billion US dollars in soybean production worldwide. A proteomic technique was used to determine the effects on soybean hypocotyls of infection with P. sojae. Results In the present study, 46 differentially expressed proteins were identified in soybean hypocotyls infected with P. sojae, using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The expression levels of 26 proteins were significantly affected at various time points in the tolerant soybean line, Yudou25, (12 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated). In contrast, in the sensitive soybean line, NG6255, only 20 proteins were significantly affected (11 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated). Among these proteins, 26% were related to energy regulation, 15% to protein destination and storage, 11% to defense against disease, 11% to metabolism, 9% to protein synthesis, 4% to secondary metabolism, and 24% were of unknown function. Conclusion Our study provides important information on the use of proteomic methods for studying protein regulation during plant-oomycete interactions. PMID:21899734



Phytophthora sojae TatD nuclease positively regulates sporulation and negatively regulates pathogenesis.  


During pathogenic interactions, both the host and pathogen are exposed to conditions that induce programmed cell death (PCD). Certain aspects of PCD have been recently examined in eukaryotic microbes but not in oomycetes. Here, we identified conserved TatD proteins in Phytophthora sojae; the proteins are key components of DNA degradation in apoptosis. We selected PsTatD4 for further investigation because the enzyme is unique to the oomycete branch of the phylogenetic tree. The purified protein exhibited DNase activity in vitro. Its expression was upregulated in sporangia and later infective stages but downregulated in cysts and during early infection. Functional analysis revealed that the gene was required for sporulation and zoospore production, and the expression levels were associated with the numbers of hydrogen-peroxide-induced terminal dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells. Furthermore, overexpression of PsTatD4 gene reduced the virulence in a susceptible soybean cultivar. Together, these data suggest that apoptosis may play different roles in the early and late infective stages of P. sojae, and that PsTatD4 is a key regulator of infection. The association of PsTatD4 and apoptosis will lay a foundation to understanding the basic biology of apoptosis and its roles in P. sojae disease cycle. PMID:24940989

Chen, Linlin; Shen, Danyu; Sun, Nannan; Xu, Jing; Wang, Wen; Dou, Daolong



Genetic analysis and identification of DNA markers linked to a novel Phytophthora sojae resistance gene in the Japanese soybean cultivar Waseshiroge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Waseshiroge is considered to be strongly resistant to several races of Phytophthora sojae in Japan. In order to characterize the inheritance of Waseshiroge resistance to P. sojae isolates, 42 F2 progeny plants and 94 F7:8 families were produced from crosses between the sus...


Distribution and diversity of rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in Northwest China.  


A total of 155 nodule isolates that originated from seven sites in Northwest China were characterized by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA gene and sequence analysis of multiple core genes (16S rRNA, recA, atpD, and glnII) in order to investigate the diversity and biogeography of Glycine soja-nodulating rhizobia. Among the isolates, 80 were Ensifer fredii, 19 were Ensifer morelense, 49 were Rhizobium radiobacter, and 7 were putative novel Rhizobium species. The phylogenies of E. fredii and E. morelense isolates in a concatenate tree (assembly of all housekeeping genes) were generally consistent with those in individual gene trees. However, incongruence was found in the phylogenies of the different genes of Rhizobium isolates, indicating that lateral transfer or recombination possibly occurred in these gene loci. Despite their species identity, all the isolates in this study formed a single lineage related to E. fredii in nodAand nifH gene phylogenies, which also indicated that the symbiotic genes were laterally transferred between different species. Biogeographic patterns were found at the species and strain genomic type levels, as revealed by BOXA1R fingerprinting, demonstrating that the evolution of rhizobial populations in different geographic locations was related to soil types, altitude and spatial effects. This study is the first to report that E. morelense, R. radiobacter, and Rhizobium sp. are microsymbionts of G. soja, as well as showing that the diversity of G. soja rhizobia is enhanced and new rhizobia have evolved in Northwest China. PMID:25052953

Zhao, Liang; Fan, Miaochun; Zhang, Dehui; Yang, Ruiping; Zhang, Feilong; Xu, Lin; Wei, Xiuli; Shen, Yaoyao; Wei, Gehong



Purification and characterization of two xylanases and an arabinofuranosidase from Aspergillus sojae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two isoenzymes of xylanase (endo-1,4-?-xylanase, EC and an arabinofuranosidase (?-l-arabino-furanosidase, EC were purified as electrophoretically homogeneous proteins from a solid-state culture of Aspergillus sojae. The molecular weights of the xylanases (X-I and X-II-B) and arabinofuranosidase (X-II-A) were estimated to be 32,700, 35,500 and 34,300, respectively, by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Gel filtration chromatography gave molecular weight

Isao Kimura; Hiroyuki Sasahara; Shigeyuki Tajima



The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.  


Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function. PMID:22397404

Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao



Aspects qualitatifs de la digestion intestinale des glucides d'un tourteau de soja par le veau prruminant  

E-print Network

Aspects qualitatifs de la digestion intestinale des glucides d'un tourteau de soja par le veau préruminant J. M. BESLE P. THIVEND Laboratoire de la Digestion des Ruminants, 1. N. R. A., Theix, Saint-Genès-Champanelle, 63110 Beaumonf, France. Summary. Qualitative aspects of intestinal digestion of soya carbohydrates

Boyer, Edmond


Genome Re-Sequencing of Semi-Wild Soybean Reveals a Complex Soja Population Structure and Deep Introgression  

PubMed Central

Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19–0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure. PMID:25265539

Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang



Joint QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect these QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred li...


Phytophthora sojae Effector PsCRN70 Suppresses Plant Defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen, produces a large number of effector proteins that enter into host cells. The Crinklers (Crinkling and Necrosis, CRN) are cytoplasmic effectors that are conserved in oomycete pathogens and their encoding genes are highly expressed at the infective stages in P. sojae. However, their roles in pathogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we functionally characterized an effector PsCRN70 by transiently and stably overexpressing it in Nicotiana benthamiana. We demonstrated that PsCRN70 was localized to the plant cell nucleus and suppressed cell death elicited by all the tested cell death-inducing proteins, including BAX, PsAvh241, PsCRN63, PsojNIP and R3a/Avr3a. Overexpression of the PsCRN70 gene in N. benthamiana enhanced susceptibility to P. parasitica. The H2O2 accumulation in the PsCRN70-transgenic plants was reduced compared to the GFP-lines. The transcriptional levels of the defense-associated genes, including PR1b, PR2b, ERF1 and LOX, were also down-regulated in the PsCRN70-transgenic lines. Our results suggest that PsCRN70 may function as a universal suppressor of the cell death induced by many elicitors, the host H2O2 accumulation and the expression of defense-associated genes, and therefore promotes pathogen infection. PMID:24858571

Ru, Yanyan; Liu, Tingli; Xu, Jing; Liu, Li; Mafurah, Joseph Juma; Dou, Daolong



paru dans Politique et Management Public, Volume 28, n2, 2010. pp. 3-35 Evolution des rgles d'utilisation du soja transgnique au Brsil  

E-print Network

rendu tolérant à l'herbicide RoundUp® de Monsanto, dit soja SRR, est un sujet qui a attiré l développement de l'agro-business. Mots clés : Brésil ; Gouvernance ; soja ; OGM ; biotechnologies ; Monsanto, rendered tolerant to RoundUp herbicide of Monsanto (RRS), is a topic which has attracted attention

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Gene Duplication and Fragment Recombination Drive Functional Diversification of a Superfamily of Cytoplasmic Effectors in Phytophthora sojae  

PubMed Central

Phytophthora and other oomycetes secrete a large number of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling and necrosis inducing proteins (CRN), or Crinkler. Here, we first investigated the evolutionary patterns and mechanisms of CRN effectors in Phytophthora sojae and compared them to two other Phytophthora species. The genes encoding CRN effectors could be divided into 45 orthologous gene groups (OGG), and most OGGs unequally distributed in the three species, in which each underwent large number of gene gains or losses, indicating that the CRN genes expanded after species evolution in Phytophthora and evolved through pathoadaptation. The 134 expanded genes in P. sojae encoded family proteins including 82 functional genes and expressed at higher levels while the other 68 genes encoding orphan proteins were less expressed and contained 50 pseudogenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that most expanded genes underwent gene duplication or/and fragment recombination. Three different mechanisms that drove gene duplication or recombination were identified. Finally, the expanded CRN effectors exhibited varying pathogenic functions, including induction of programmed cell death (PCD) and suppression of PCD through PAMP-triggered immunity or/and effector-triggered immunity. Overall, these results suggest that gene duplication and fragment recombination may be two mechanisms that drive the expansion and neofunctionalization of the CRN family in P. sojae, which aids in understanding the roles of CRN effectors within each oomycete pathogen. PMID:23922898

Shen, Danyu; Liu, Tingli; Ye, Wenwu; Liu, Li; Liu, Peihan; Wu, Yuren; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong



Gene duplication and fragment recombination drive functional diversification of a superfamily of cytoplasmic effectors in Phytophthora sojae.  


Phytophthora and other oomycetes secrete a large number of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling and necrosis inducing proteins (CRN), or Crinkler. Here, we first investigated the evolutionary patterns and mechanisms of CRN effectors in Phytophthora sojae and compared them to two other Phytophthora species. The genes encoding CRN effectors could be divided into 45 orthologous gene groups (OGG), and most OGGs unequally distributed in the three species, in which each underwent large number of gene gains or losses, indicating that the CRN genes expanded after species evolution in Phytophthora and evolved through pathoadaptation. The 134 expanded genes in P. sojae encoded family proteins including 82 functional genes and expressed at higher levels while the other 68 genes encoding orphan proteins were less expressed and contained 50 pseudogenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that most expanded genes underwent gene duplication or/and fragment recombination. Three different mechanisms that drove gene duplication or recombination were identified. Finally, the expanded CRN effectors exhibited varying pathogenic functions, including induction of programmed cell death (PCD) and suppression of PCD through PAMP-triggered immunity or/and effector-triggered immunity. Overall, these results suggest that gene duplication and fragment recombination may be two mechanisms that drive the expansion and neofunctionalization of the CRN family in P. sojae, which aids in understanding the roles of CRN effectors within each oomycete pathogen. PMID:23922898

Shen, Danyu; Liu, Tingli; Ye, Wenwu; Liu, Li; Liu, Peihan; Wu, Yuren; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong



A Myb Transcription Factor of Phytophthora sojae, Regulated by MAP Kinase PsSAK1, Is Required for Zoospore Development  

PubMed Central

PsSAK1, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase from Phytophthora sojae, plays an important role in host infection and zoospore viability. However, the downstream mechanism of PsSAK1 remains unclear. In this study, the 3'-tag digital gene expression (DGE) profiling method was applied to sequence the global transcriptional sequence of PsSAK1-silenced mutants during the cysts stage and 1.5 h after inoculation onto susceptible soybean leaf tissues. Compared with the gene expression levels of the recipient P. sojae strain, several candidates of Myb family were differentially expressed (up or down) in response to the loss of PsSAK1, including of a R2R3-type Myb transcription factor, PsMYB1. qRT-PCR indicated that the transcriptional level of PsMYB1 decreased due to PsSAK1 silencing. The transcriptional level of PsMYB1 increased during sporulating hyphae, in germinated cysts, and early infection. Silencing of PsMYB1 results in three phenotypes: a) no cleavage of the cytoplasm into uninucleate zoospores or release of normal zoospores, b) direct germination of sporangia, and c) afunction in zoospore-mediated plant infection. Our data indicate that the PsMYB1 transcription factor functions downstream of MAP kinase PsSAK1 and is required for zoospore development of P. sojae. PMID:22768262

Zhang, Meng; Lu, Jing; Tao, Kai; Ye, Wenwu; Li, Aining; Liu, Xiaoyun; Kong, Liang; Dong, Suomeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao



Sequence Variants of the Phytophthora sojae RXLR Effector Avr3a/5 Are Differentially Recognized by Rps3a and Rps5 in Soybean  

PubMed Central

The perception of Phytophthora sojae avirulence (Avr) gene products by corresponding soybean resistance (Rps) gene products causes effector triggered immunity. Past studies have shown that the Avr3a and Avr5 genes of P. sojae are genetically linked, and the Avr3a gene encoding a secreted RXLR effector protein was recently identified. We now provide evidence that Avr3a and Avr5 are allelic. Genetic mapping data from F2 progeny indicates that Avr3a and Avr5 co-segregate, and haplotype analysis of P. sojae strain collections reveal sequence and transcriptional polymorphisms that are consistent with a single genetic locus encoding Avr3a/5. Transformation of P. sojae and transient expression in soybean were performed to test how Avr3a/5 alleles interact with soybean Rps3a and Rps5. Over-expression of Avr3a/5 in a P. sojae strain that is normally virulent on Rps3a and Rps5 results in avirulence to Rps3a and Rps5; whereas silencing of Avr3a/5 causes gain of virulence in a P. sojae strain that is normally avirulent on Rps3a and Rps5 soybean lines. Transient expression and co-bombardment with a reporter gene confirms that Avr3a/5 triggers cell death in Rps5 soybean leaves in an appropriate allele-specific manner. Sequence analysis of the Avr3a/5 gene identifies crucial residues in the effector domain that distinguish recognition by Rps3a and Rps5. PMID:21779316

Cui, Linkai; Qutob, Dinah; Tedman-Jones, Jennifer; Kale, Shiv D.; Tyler, Brett M.; Wang, Yuanchao; Gijzen, Mark



Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from Glycine soja. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of GsJAZ2 enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transcriptions of stress marker genes were higher in GsJAZ2 overexpression lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GsJAZ2 was localized to nucleus. -- Abstract: Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)] [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Deyholos, Michael K. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada)] [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Chen, Qin [Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Ave., South P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada)] [Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Ave., South P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)] [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)] [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)



Joint linkage QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions.  


Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect such QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations provides improved power to detect QTL through increased population size, recombination, and allelic diversity. However, uniform development and phenotyping of multiple RIL populations can prove difficult. In this study, the effectiveness of joint linkage QTL analysis was evaluated on combinations of two to six nested RIL populations differing in inbreeding generation, phenotypic assay method, and/or marker set used in genotyping. In comparison to linkage analysis in a single population, identification of QTL by joint linkage analysis was only minimally affected by different phenotypic methods used among populations once phenotypic data were standardized. In contrast, genotyping of populations with only partially overlapping sets of markers had a marked negative effect on QTL detection by joint linkage analysis. In total, 16 genetic regions with QTL for partial resistance against P. sojae were identified, including four novel QTL on chromosomes 4, 9, 12, and 16, as well as significant genotype-by-isolate interactions. Resistance alleles from PI 427106 or PI 427105B contributed to a major QTL on chromosome 18, explaining 10-45% of the phenotypic variance. This case study provides guidance on the application of joint linkage QTL analysis of data collected from populations with heterogeneous assay conditions and a genetic framework for partial resistance to P. sojae. PMID:24247235

Lee, Sungwoo; Mian, M A Rouf; Sneller, Clay H; Wang, Hehe; Dorrance, Anne E; McHale, Leah K



[Influence of bean yellow mosaic virus on metabolism of photosynthetic pigments, proteins and carbohydrates in Glycine soja L].  


This paper presents data on BYMV effects on some physiological processes of Glycine soja L. cultivated in the right-bank forest-steppe regions. Pigment content (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids), soluble proteins and water soluble carbohydrates were estimated and, as has been shown, are subjected to significant changes as compared with control plants, namely: a decrease in the content of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids was 64%, 53% and 36% compared with the control plants. The significant increase in carbohydrates (56% compared to the control) was observed at the end of the test period. PMID:24800515

Kyrychenko, A M



The PsCZF1 gene encoding a C2H2 zinc finger protein is required for growth, development and pathogenesis in Phytophthora sojae.  


The C(2)H(2) zinc finger proteins form one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in eukaryotes. We identified a Phytophthora sojae C(2)H(2) zinc finger (PsCZF1), that is highly conserved in sequenced oomycete pathogens. In transformants of P. sojae containing the PsCZF1 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, GUS activity was highly induced in the P. sojae oospore stage and upregulated after infection. To elucidate the function of PsCZF1, its expression was silenced by introducing anti-sense constructs into P sojae. PsCZF1-silenced transformants did not exhibit altered cell size or morphology of sporangia and hyphae; however, hyphal growth rate was reduced by around 50% in the mutants. PsCZF1-deficient mutants were also impaired in production of oospores, swimming zoospores and germinating cysts, indicating that the gene is involved in various stages of the life cycle. Furthermore, we found that PsCZF1-deficient mutants lost virulence on host soybean cultivars. Our results suggest that this oomycete-specific C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger protein plays an important role in growth, development, and pathogenesis; therefore, PsCZF1 might be an attractive oomycete-specific target for chemical fungicide screening. PMID:19447167

Wang, Yonglin; Dou, Daolong; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Aining; Sheng, Yuting; Hua, Chenlei; Cheng, Binyan; Chen, Xiaoren; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao



Identification of Candidate Signaling Genes Including Regulators of Chromosome Condensation 1 Protein Family Differentially Expressed in the Soybean - Phytophthora Sojae Interaction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stem and root rot caused by the oomycete pathogen, Phytopthora sojae, is a serious soybean disease. Use of Phytophthora resistance genes (Rps) in soybean cultivars has been very effective in controlling this pathogen. Resistance encoded by Rps genes is manifested through activation of defense resp...


Phytophthora sojae Avirulence Effector Avr3b is a Secreted NADH and ADP-ribose Pyrophosphorylase that Modulates Plant Immunity  

PubMed Central

Plants have evolved pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) to protect themselves from infection by diverse pathogens. Avirulence (Avr) effectors that trigger plant ETI as a result of recognition by plant resistance (R) gene products have been identified in many plant pathogenic oomycetes and fungi. However, the virulence functions of oomycete and fungal Avr effectors remain largely unknown. Here, we combined bioinformatics and genetics to identify Avr3b, a new Avr gene from Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen that causes soybean root rot. Avr3b encodes a secreted protein with the RXLR host-targeting motif and C-terminal W and Nudix hydrolase motifs. Some isolates of P. sojae evade perception by the soybean R gene Rps3b through sequence mutation in Avr3b and lowered transcript accumulation. Transient expression of Avr3b in Nicotiana benthamiana increased susceptibility to P. capsici and P. parasitica, with significantly reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) around invasion sites. Biochemical assays confirmed that Avr3b is an ADP-ribose/NADH pyrophosphorylase, as predicted from the Nudix motif. Deletion of the Nudix motif of Avr3b abolished enzyme activity. Mutation of key residues in Nudix motif significantly impaired Avr3b virulence function but not the avirulence activity. Some Nudix hydrolases act as negative regulators of plant immunity, and thus Avr3b might be delivered into host cells as a Nudix hydrolase to impair host immunity. Avr3b homologues are present in several sequenced Phytophthora genomes, suggesting that Phytophthora pathogens might share similar strategies to suppress plant immunity. PMID:22102810

Dong, Suomeng; Yin, Weixiao; Kong, Guanghui; Yang, Xinyu; Qutob, Dinah; Chen, Qinghe; Kale, Shiv D.; Sui, Yangyang; Zhang, Zhengguang; Dou, Daolong; Zheng, Xiaobo; Gijzen, Mark; M. Tyler, Brett; Wang, Yuanchao



Molecular and Biological Characterization of an Isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus from Glycine soja by Generating its Infectious Full-genome cDNA Clones  

PubMed Central

Molecular and biological characteristics of an isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from Glycine soja (wild soybean), named as CMV-209, was examined in this study. Comparison of nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analyses of CMV-209 with the other CMV strains revealed that CMV-209 belonged to CMV subgroup I. However, CMV-209 showed some genetic distance from the CMV strains assigned to subgroup IA or subgroup IB. Infectious full-genome cDNA clones of CMV-209 were generated under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Infectivity of the CMV-209 clones was evaluated in Nicotiana benthamiana and various legume species. Our assays revealed that CMV-209 could systemically infect Glycine soja (wild soybean) and Pisum sativum (pea) as well as N. benthamiana, but not the other legume species. PMID:25288998

Phan, Mi Sa Vo; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Kook-Hyung



Genetic diversity of nodulating and non-nodulating rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in different ecoregions of China.  


A total of 99 bacterial isolates that originated from root nodules of Glycine soja were characterized with restriction analyses of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacers (ITS), and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB, atpD, recA and nodC genes. When tested for nodulation of G. soja, 72 of the isolates were effective symbionts, and these belonged to five species: Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium elkanii, Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and Sinorhizobium fredii. All of these, except some B. yuanmingense strains, also formed effective nodules on the domesticated soybean Glycine max. The remaining 27 isolates did not nodulate either host, but were identified as Rhizobium. Phylogeny nodC in the G. soja symbionts suggested that this symbiosis gene was mainly maintained by vertical gene transfer. Different nodC sublineages and rrs-ITS clusters reflected the geographic origins of isolates in this study. PMID:21303397

Wu, Li Juan; Wang, Hai Qing; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin; Tian, Chang Fu



Genome Re-Sequencing and Functional Analysis Places the Phytophthora sojae Avirulence Genes Avr1c and Avr1a in a Tandem Repeat at a Single Locus  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to map and identify the Phytophthora sojae Avr1c gene. Progeny from a cross of P. sojae strains ACR10×P7076 were tested for virulence on plants carrying Rps1c. Results indicate that avirulence segregates as a dominant trait. We mapped the Avr1c locus by performing whole genome re-sequencing of composite libraries created from pooled samples. Sequence reads from avirulent (Pool1) and virulent (Pool2) samples were aligned to the reference genome and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified for each pool. High quality SNPs were filtered to select for positions where SNP frequency was close to expected values for each pool. Only three SNP positions fit all requirements, and these occurred in close proximity. Additional DNA markers were developed and scored in the F2 progeny, producing a fine genetic map that places Avr1c within the Avr1a gene cluster. Transient expression of Avr1c or Avr1a triggers cell death on Rps1c plants, but Avr1c does not trigger cell death on Rps1a plants. Sequence comparisons show that the RXLR effector genes Avr1c and Avr1a are closely related paralogs. Gain of virulence on Rps1c in P. sojae strain P7076 is achieved by gene deletion, but in most other strains this is accomplished by gene silencing. This work provides practical tools for crop breeding and diagnostics, as the Rps1c gene is widely deployed in commercial soybean cultivars. PMID:24586999

Na, Ren; Yu, Dan; Chapman, B. Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Kuflu, Kuflom; Austin, Ryan; Qutob, Dinah; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Yuanchao; Gijzen, Mark



Detection and identification of multiple baculoviruses using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction endonuclease analysis.  


A technique using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction analysis was developed for the simultaneous detection of eight baculoviruses. The baculoviruses detected by this technique were Autographa californica multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (MNPV). Anticarsia gemmatalis MNPV, Bombyx mori MNPV, Orgyia pseudotsugata MNPV. Spodoptera frugiperda MNPV, S. exigua MNPV, Anagrapha falcifera MNPV, Heliothis zea single-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SNPV). A highly conserved DNA sequence within the coding region of the polyhedrin gene was targeted for amplification. One pair of degenerate primers was designed, and PCR conditions were optimized to produce 575 base pair fragments for all eight baculoviruses. Restriction analysis of the PCR products resulted in distinct profiles for each virus. This technique would be useful in monitoring the release of wild type as well as genetically engineered baculoviruses. PMID:9015292

de Moraes, R R; Maruniak, J E



Ectopic overexpression of a novel Glycine soja stress-induced plasma membrane intrinsic protein increases sensitivity to salt and dehydration in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.  


Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) belong to the aquaporin family and facilitate water movement across plasma membranes. Existing data indicate that PIP genes are associated with the abilities of plants to tolerate certain stress conditions. A review of our Glycine soja expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset revealed that abiotic stress stimulated expression of a PIP, herein designated as GsPIP2;1 (GenBank_Accn: FJ825766). To understand the roles of this PIP in stress tolerance, we generated a coding sequence for GsPIP2;1 by in silico elongation and cloned the cDNA by 5'-RACE. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that GsPIP2;1 expression was stimulated in G. soja leaves by cold, salt, or dehydration stress, whereas the same stresses suppressed GsPIP2;1 expression in the roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing GsPIP2;1 grew normally under unstressed and cold conditions, but exhibited depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stresses. Moreover, greater changes in water potential were detected in the transgenic A. thaliana shoots, implying that GsPIP2;1 may negatively impact stress tolerance by regulating water potential. These results, deviating from those obtained in previous reports, provide new insights into the relationship between PIPs and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. PMID:25358447

Wang, Xi; Cai, Hua; Li, Yong; Zhu, Yanming; Ji, Wei; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Xiaoli



Assessment of the application of baculoviruses for control of Lepidoptera.  


Baculoviruses, among other insect viruses, are regarded as safe and selective bioinsecticides, restricted to invertebrates. They have been used worldwide against many insect pests, mainly Lepidoptera. Their application as microbial pesticides, however, has not met their potential to control pests in crops, forests, and pastures, with the exception of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of the soybean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis), which is used on approximately 1 million ha annually in Brazil. Problems that have limited expansion of baculovirus use include narrow host range, slow killing speed, technical and economical difficulties for in vitro commercial production, timing of application based on frequent host population monitoring, variability of field efficacy due to climatic conditions, and farmers' attitudes toward pest control, which have been based on application of fast-killing chemical insecticides. Farmer education regarding use of biological insecticides and their characteristics is considered one of the major actions necessary for increased use of baculoviruses. Strategies to counteract some of the limitations of baculoviruses, especially their slow killing activity, have been investigated and are promising. These include the use of chemical or biological substances added to virus formulations and genetic engineering of the viruses themselves to express insect toxins or hormones. Such strategies can enhance viral activity and increase speed of kill as well as reduce larval feeding activity. The use of baculoviruses against Lepidoptera is reviewed, with the utilization of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of A. gemmatalis in Brazil serving as a case-study. PMID:15012374

Moscardi, F



Physiological Mechanisms for High Salt Tolerance in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja) from Yellow River Delta, China: Photosynthesis, Osmotic Regulation, Ion Flux and antioxidant Capacity  

PubMed Central

Glycine soja (BB52) is a wild soybean cultivar grown in coastal saline land in Yellow River Delta, China. In order to reveal the physiological mechanisms adapting to salinity, we examined photosynthesis, ion flux, antioxidant system and water status in Glycine soja under NaCl treatments, taking a cultivated soybean, ZH13, as control. Upon NaCl exposure, higher relative water content and water potential were maintained in the leaf of BB52 than ZH13, which might depend on the more accumulation of osmotic substances such as glycinebetaine and proline. Compared with ZH13, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and contents of ascorbate, glutathione and phenolics were enhanced to a higher level in BB52 leaf under NaCl stress, which could mitigate the salt-induced oxidative damage in BB52. Consistently, lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde content was lower in BB52 leaf. Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was decreased by NaCl stress in BB52 and ZH13, and the decrease was greater in ZH13. The decreased Pn in BB52 was mainly due to stomatal limitation. The inhibited activation of rubisco enzyme in ZH13 due to the decrease of rubisco activase content became an important limiting factor of Pn, when NaCl concentration increased to 200 mM. Rubisco activase in BB52 was not affected by NaCl stress. Less negative impact in BB52 derived from lower contents of Na+ and Cl- in the tissues, and non-invasive micro-test technique revealed that BB52 roots had higher ability to extrude Na+ and Cl-. Wild soybean is a valuable genetic resource, and our study may provide a reference for molecular biologist to improve the salt tolerance of cultivated soybean in face of farmland salinity. PMID:24349468

Chen, Peng; Yan, Kun; Shao, Hongbo; Zhao, Shijie



GsSKP21, a Glycine soja S-phase kinase-associated protein, mediates the regulation of plant alkaline tolerance and ABA sensitivity.  


Plant SKP1-like family proteins, components of the SCF complex E3 ligases, are involved in the regulation of plant development and stress responses. Little is known about the precise function of SKP genes in plant responses to environmental stresses. GsSKP21 was initially identified as a potential stress-responsive gene based on the transcriptome sequencing of Glycine soja. In this study, we found that GsSKP21 protein contains highly conserved SKP domains in its N terminus and an extra unidentified domain in its C terminus. The transcript abundance of GsSKP21, detected by quantitative real-time PCR, was induced under the treatment of alkali and salt stresses. Overexpression of GsSKP21 in Arabidopsis dramatically increased plant tolerance to alkali stress. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsSKP21 resulted in decreased ABA sensitivity during both the seed germination and early seedling growth stages. GsSKP21 mediated ABA signaling by altering the expression levels of the ABA signaling-related and ABA-induced genes. We also investigated the tissue expression specificity and subcellular localization of GsSKP21. These results suggest that GsSKP21 is important for plant tolerance to alkali stress and plays a critical regulatory role in the ABA-mediated stress response. PMID:25477077

Liu, Ailin; Yu, Yang; Duan, Xiangbo; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Yanming



Conserved C-Terminal Motifs Required for Avirulence and Suppression of Cell Death by Phytophthora sojae effector Avr1b[W  

PubMed Central

The sequenced genomes of oomycete plant pathogens contain large superfamilies of effector proteins containing the protein translocation motif RXLR-dEER. However, the contributions of these effectors to pathogenicity remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the Phytophthora sojae effector protein Avr1b can contribute positively to virulence and can suppress programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by the mouse BAX protein in yeast, soybean (Glycine max), and Nicotiana benthamiana cells. We identify three conserved motifs (K, W, and Y) in the C terminus of the Avr1b protein and show that mutations in the conserved residues of the W and Y motifs reduce or abolish the ability of Avr1b to suppress PCD and also abolish the avirulence interaction of Avr1b with the Rps1b resistance gene in soybean. W and Y motifs are present in at least half of the identified oomycete RXLR-dEER effector candidates, and we show that three of these candidates also suppress PCD in soybean. Together, these results indicate that the W and Y motifs are critical for the interaction of Avr1b with host plant target proteins and support the hypothesis that these motifs are critical for the functions of the very large number of predicted oomycete effectors that contain them. PMID:18390593

Dou, Daolong; Kale, Shiv D.; Wang, Xinle; Chen, Yubo; Wang, Qunqing; Wang, Xia; Jiang, Rays H.Y.; Arredondo, Felipe D.; Anderson, Ryan G.; Thakur, Poulami B.; McDowell, John M.; Wang, Yuanchao; Tyler, Brett M.



Structural and phylogenetic analyses of the GP42 transglutaminase from Phytophthora sojae reveal an evolutionary relationship between oomycetes and marine Vibrio bacteria.  


Transglutaminases (TGases) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze selective cross-linking between protein-bound glutamine and lysine residues; the resulting isopeptide bond confers high resistance to proteolysis. Phytophthora sojae, a pathogen of soybean, secretes a Ca(2+)-dependent TGase (GP42) that is activating defense responses in both host and non-host plants. A GP42 fragment of 13 amino acids, termed Pep-13, was shown to be absolutely indispensable for both TGase and elicitor activity. GP42 does not share significant primary sequence similarity with known TGases from mammals or bacteria. This suggests that GP42 has evolved novel structural and catalytic features to support enzymatic activity. We have solved the crystal structure of the catalytically inactive point mutant GP42 (C290S) at 2.95 ? resolution and identified residues involved in catalysis by mutational analysis. The protein comprises three domains that assemble into an elongated structure. Although GP42 has no structural homolog, its core region displays significant similarity to the catalytic core of the Mac-1 cysteine protease from Group A Streptococcus, a member of the papain-like superfamily of cysteine proteases. Proteins that are taxonomically related to GP42 are only present in plant pathogenic oomycetes belonging to the order of the Peronosporales (e.g. Phytophthora, Hyaloperonospora, and Pythium spp.) and in marine Vibrio bacteria. This suggests that a lateral gene transfer event may have occurred between bacteria and oomycetes. Our results offer a basis to design and use highly specific inhibitors of the GP42-like TGase family that may impair the growth of important oomycete and bacterial pathogens. PMID:21994936

Reiss, Kerstin; Kirchner, Eva; Gijzen, Mark; Zocher, Georg; Löffelhardt, Birgit; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Stehle, Thilo; Brunner, Frédéric



Effects of Rag1 on the preference and performance of soybean defoliators.  


The Rag1 gene confers antibiotic resistance to soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and in 2010, varieties expressing Rag1 were released for commercial use in the United States. We do not know how Rag1 varieties will influence the broader community of defoliating insects that inhabit soybean fields. In 2010 and 2011, the preference and performance of pest insects that defoliate soybeans [Glycines max (L.) Merr] were tested using Rag1 and aphid-susceptible varieties. Three coleopterans and four lepidopterans were used: northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trsifurcata Förster (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); soybean looper, Chrysodeix includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); and velvet-bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The preference of insects was evaluated in choice and no-choice tests using Rag1 and susceptible soybeans. Lepidopterans also were evaluated on Rag1 leaves using four nutritional indices: relative growth rate, approximate digestibility, and efficiency of conversion of ingested material. In the majority of preference tests, no effect of Rag1 was detected, and in cases where preferences were found, there was no consistent pattern of preference for Rag1 vs. susceptible leaf tissue. Helicoverpa zea demonstrated a preference for resistant leaf tissue, but this was dependent on the genetic background of the variety. Evaluations of nutritional indices indicated that three species of Lepidoptera, S. frugiperda, H. zea, and A. gemmatalis, displayed reduced conversion efficiency for Rag1 soybeans, suggesting effects of antibiosis. PMID:24498760

Bruner, Robert F; Hodgson, Erin W; Gassmann, Aaron J



PsMPK7, a stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Phytophthora sojae, is required for stress tolerance, reactive oxygenated species detoxification, cyst germination, sexual reproduction and infection of soybean.  


The sensing of stress signals and their transduction into appropriate responses are crucial for the adaptation, survival and infection of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Amongst evolutionarily conserved pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades function as key signal transducers that use phosphorylation to convey information. In this study, we identified a gene, designated PsMPK7, one of 14 predicted genes encoding MAPKs in Phytophthora sojae. PsMPK7 was highly transcribed in each tested stage, but was up-regulated in the zoospore, cyst and cyst germination stages. Silencing of PsMPK7 affected the growth of germinated cysts, oospore production and the pathogenicity of soybean. PsMPK7 transcription was induced by stresses from sorbitol, NaCl and hydrogen peroxide. Transformants in which PsMPK7 expression was silenced (PsMPK7-silenced) were significantly more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stress. Aniline blue and diaminobenzidine staining revealed that the silenced lines did not suppress the host reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, indicating that either the inoculated plants activated stronger defence responses to the transformants and/or the PsMPK7-silenced transformants failed to overcome plant defences. In addition, extracellular secretion of laccase decreased in the silenced lines. Overall, our results indicate that the PsMPK7 gene encodes a stress-associated MAPK in P.?sojae that is important not only for responses to various stresses, but also for ROS detoxification, cyst germination, sexual oospore production and infection of soybean. PMID:24889742

Gao, Jian; Cao, Mingna; Ye, Wenwu; Li, Haiyang; Kong, Liang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao



Characterization of an Indonesian isolate of Paecilomyces reniformis.  


An entomopathogenic fungus (IndGH 96), identified as Paecilomyces reniformis, was isolated from long-horned grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in Sulawesi, Indonesia. The phenotypic and molecular data identified the IndGH 96 as a P. reniformis. We present the first comprehensive characterization of this species using morphological features, sequencing of the ITS1-5.8s-ITS2 region, D1/D2 region of 28S of rDNA, and a portion of the tubulin gene, and laboratory bioassays. Distinguishing features include a hyphal body stage during vegetative growth and the production of distinctly curved, light-green conidia. High dosage bioassays showed that IndGH 96 was infectious to both long-horned and short-horned grasshoppers but not to the house cricket, Acheta domestica, or to the lepidopterans velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis or fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Phenotypic and genetic analyses suggest that IndGH 96 and other isolates of P. reniformis are more closely related to Nomuraea rileyi than to other species of Paecilomyces. PMID:16463094

Kalkar, O; Carner, G R; Scharf, D; Boucias, D G



Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans. PMID:24575310

Fiuza, Lidia Mariana



Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo effects of semipurified proteinase inhibitors from Theobroma seeds on midgut protease activity of Lepidopteran pest insects.  


We have characterized in vitro and in vivo effects of trypsin inhibitors from Theobroma seeds on the activity of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteins from Lepidopteran pest insects. The action of semipurified trypsin inhibitors from Theobroma was evaluated by the inhibition of bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin activities determined by the hydrolysis of N-Benzoyl-DL-Arginine-p-Nitroanilide (BAPA) and N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pho-Phe p-Nitroanilide (S-(Ala)2ProPhe-pNA). Proteinase inhibitor activities from Theobroma cacao and T. obovatum seeds were the most effective in inhibiting trypsin-like proteins, whereas those from T. obovatum and T. sylvestre were the most efficient against chymotrypsin-like proteins. All larvae midgut extracts showed trypsin-like proteolytic activities, and the putative trypsin inhibitors from Theobroma seeds significantly inhibited purified bovine trypsin. With respect to the influence of Theobroma trypsin inhibitors on intact insects, the inclusion of T. cacao extracts in artificial diets of velvet bean caterpillars (Anticarsia gemmatalis) and sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis) produced a significant increase in the percentage of adult deformation, which is directly related to both the survival rate of the insects and oviposition. PMID:22806759

Paulillo, Luis Cesar Maffei Sartini; Sebbenn, Alexandre Magno; de Carvalho Derbyshire, Maria Tereza Vitral; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; de Paula Brotto, Marco Aurélio; Figueira, Antonio



Evaluation of pest vulnerability of 'Benning' soybean value added and insect resistant near isogenic lines.  


Crop enhancement with value added traits may affect vulnerability to insects, and evaluating the susceptibility levels of the various value added traits in elite germplasm would aid in developing integrated pest management strategies. During 2007-2008, five 'Benning' soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) lines with different value added nutritional traits and four insect resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL) lines were evaluated in an effort to determine their pest vulnerability under artificial and natural insect pest populations. The lines showed variable susceptibility to lepidopterous insect pests classified as defoliators and stem feeders in replicated greenhouse and field tests. The study was carried out in Athens and Midville, GA. The green cloverworm (Hypena scabra (F.)) was the most common lepidopteran defoliator occurring in the fields. Other caterpillar pests found included the soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)), the bollworm (Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)), and the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner)). Data indicated that there was no significantly increased pest susceptibility among the value added cultivars with improved nutritional qualities, with the insect resistant quantitative trait loci lines Benning M and Benning MGH consistently being less susceptible to lepidopterous (Noctuidae) leaf injury. PMID:23786071

Samuel-Foo, Michelle; All, John N; Boerma, H Roger



Perception of solar UVB radiation by phytophagous insects: behavioral responses and ecosystem implications.  


Most of our present knowledge about the impacts of solar UVB radiation on terrestrial ecosystems comes from studies with plants. Recently, the effects of UVB on the growth and survival of consumer species have begun to receive attention, but very little is known about UVB impacts on animal behavior. Here we report that manipulations of the flux of solar UVB received by field-grown soybean crops had large and consistent effects on the density of the thrips (Caliothrips phaseoli, Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations that invaded the canopies, as well as on the amount of leaf damage caused by the insects. Solar UVB strongly reduced thrips herbivory. Thrips not only preferred leaves from plants that were not exposed to solar UVB over leaves from UVB-exposed plants in laboratory and field choice experiments, but they also appeared to directly sense and avoid exposure to solar UVB. Additional choice experiments showed that soybean leaf consumption by the late-season soybean worm Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was much less intense in leaves with even slight symptoms of an early thrips attack than in undamaged leaves. These experiments suggest that phytophagous insects can present direct and indirect behavioral responses to solar UVB. The indirect responses are mediated by changes in the plant host that are induced by UVB and, possibly, by other insects whose behavior is affected by UVB. PMID:9927679

Mazza, C A; Zavala, J; Scopel, A L; Ballaré, C L



Perception of solar UVB radiation by phytophagous insects: Behavioral responses and ecosystem implications  

PubMed Central

Most of our present knowledge about the impacts of solar UVB radiation on terrestrial ecosystems comes from studies with plants. Recently, the effects of UVB on the growth and survival of consumer species have begun to receive attention, but very little is known about UVB impacts on animal behavior. Here we report that manipulations of the flux of solar UVB received by field-grown soybean crops had large and consistent effects on the density of the thrips (Caliothrips phaseoli, Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations that invaded the canopies, as well as on the amount of leaf damage caused by the insects. Solar UVB strongly reduced thrips herbivory. Thrips not only preferred leaves from plants that were not exposed to solar UVB over leaves from UVB-exposed plants in laboratory and field choice experiments, but they also appeared to directly sense and avoid exposure to solar UVB. Additional choice experiments showed that soybean leaf consumption by the late-season soybean worm Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was much less intense in leaves with even slight symptoms of an early thrips attack than in undamaged leaves. These experiments suggest that phytophagous insects can present direct and indirect behavioral responses to solar UVB. The indirect responses are mediated by changes in the plant host that are induced by UVB and, possibly, by other insects whose behavior is affected by UVB. PMID:9927679

Mazza, Carlos A.; Zavala, Jorge; Scopel, Ana L.; Ballaré, Carlos L.



Establishment and characterization of insect cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species.  


Cell lines from selected lepidopteran species were established for the overall purpose of use in baculovirus production. A total of 36 new cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species were generated, including cell lines from a pyralid, the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, a plutellid, the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, as well as eight noctuids: the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon, the celery looper, Anagrapha falcifera, the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis, the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, and the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. Tissues used for cell line establishment included fat bodies, ovaries, testes, or whole embryos/larvae/pupae. All the cell lines were subcultured numerous times, characterized by isoenzyme analysis and/or deoxyribonucleic acid amplification fingerprinting using polymerase chain reaction, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Many of the cell lines were adapted to grow in serum-free medium, with cell lines from A. ipsilon and H. virescens being adapted to suspension culture using shaker flasks. The potential use for these cell lines in baculovirus production is discussed. PMID:11515970

Goodman, C L; El Sayed, G N; McIntosh, A H; Grasela, J J; Stiles, B



Influence of herbicide tolerant soybean production systems on insect pest populations and pest-induced crop damage.  


Conventional soybean weed management and transgenic herbicide-tolerant management were examined to assess their effects on soybean insect pest populations in south Georgia in 1997 and 1998. Soybean variety had very little impact on the insect species observed, except that maturity group effects were observed for stink bug, primarily Nezara viridula (L.), population densities on some sampling dates. Stink bugs were more abundant on the early maturing varieties in mid-season. Velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), and grasshoppers Melanoplus spp. were more numerous on either conventional or herbicide-tolerant varieties on certain dates, although these differences were not consistent throughout the season. Soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), threecornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus (Say), and whitefringed beetles, Graphognathus spp , demonstrated no varietal preference in this study. Few weed treatment differences were observed, but if present on certain sampling dates, then pest numbers were higher in plots where weeds were reduced (either postemergence herbicides or preplant herbicide plus postemergence herbicide). The exception to this weed treatment effect was grasshoppers, which were more numerous in weedy plots when differences were present. In post emergence herbicide plots, there were no differences in insect pest densities between the conventional herbicides (e.g., Classic, Select, Cobra, and Storm) compared with specific gene-inserted herbicide-tolerant materials (i.e., Roundup and Liberty). Defoliation, primarily by velvetbean caterpillar, was different between soybean varieties at some test sites but not different between herbicide treatments. We did not observe differences in seasonal abundance of arthropod pests between conventional and transgenic herbicide-tolerant soybean. PMID:12852606

McPherson, R M; Johnson, W C; Mullinix, B G; Mills, W A; Peebles, F S



Extensive Transcription Analysis of the Hyposoter didymator Ichnovirus Genome in Permissive and Non-Permissive Lepidopteran Host Species  

PubMed Central

Ichnoviruses are large dsDNA viruses that belong to the Polydnaviridae family. They are specifically associated with endoparasitic wasps of the family Ichneumonidae and essential for host parasitization by these wasps. We sequenced the Hyposoter didymator Ichnovirus (HdIV) encapsidated genome for further analysis of the transcription pattern of the entire set of HdIV genes following the parasitization of four different lepidopteran host species. The HdIV genome was found to consist of at least 50 circular dsDNA molecules, carrying 135 genes, 98 of which formed 18 gene families. The HdIV genome had general features typical of Ichnovirus (IV) genomes and closely resembled that of the IV carried by Hyposoter fugitivus. Subsequent transcriptomic analysis with Illumina technology during the course of Spodoptera frugiperda parasitization led to the identification of a small subset of less than 30 genes with high RPKM values in permissive hosts, consisting with these genes encoding crucial virulence proteins. Comparisons of HdIV expression profiles between host species revealed differences in transcript levels for given HdIV genes between two permissive hosts, S. frugiperda and Pseudoplusia includens. However, we found no evident intrafamily gene-specific transcription pattern consistent with the presence of multigenic families within IV genomes reflecting an ability of the wasps concerned to exploit different host species. Interestingly, in two non-permissive hosts, Mamestra brassiccae and Anticarsia gemmatalis (most of the parasitoid eggs were eliminated by the host cellular immune response), HdIV genes were generally less strongly transcribed than in permissive hosts. This suggests that successful parasitism is dependent on the expression of given HdIV genes exceeding a particular threshold value. These results raise questions about the mecanisms involved in regulating IV gene expression according to the nature of the lepidopteran host species encountered. PMID:25117496

Dorémus, Tristan; Cousserans, François; Gyapay, Gabor; Jouan, Véronique; Milano, Patricia; Wajnberg, Eric; Darboux, Isabelle; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie



An Amino Acid Substitution Inhibits Specialist Herbivore Production of an Antagonist Effector and Recovers Insect-Induced Plant Defenses1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Plants respond to insect herbivory through the production of biochemicals that function as either direct defenses or indirect defenses via the attraction of natural enemies. While attack by closely related insect pests can result in distinctive levels of induced plant defenses, precise biochemical mechanisms responsible for differing responses remain largely unknown. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) responds to Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) herbivory through the detection of fragments of chloroplastic ATP synthase ?-subunit proteins, termed inceptin-related peptides, present in larval oral secretions (OS). In contrast to generalists like Fall armyworm, OS of the legume-specializing velvetbean caterpillar (VBC; Anticarsia gemmatalis) do not elicit ethylene production and demonstrate significantly lower induced volatile emission in direct herbivory comparisons. Unlike all other Lepidoptera OS examined, which preferentially contain inceptin (Vu-In; +ICDINGVCVDA?), VBC OS contain predominantly a C-terminal truncated peptide, Vu-In?A (+ICDINGVCVD?). Vu-In?A is both inactive and functions as a potent naturally occurring antagonist of Vu-In-induced responses. To block antagonist production, amino acid substitutions at the C terminus were screened for differences in VBC gut proteolysis. A valine-substituted peptide (Vu-In?V; +ICDINGVCVDV?) retaining full elicitor activity was found to accumulate in VBC OS. Compared with the native polypeptide, VBC that previously ingested 500 pmol of the valine-modified chloroplastic ATP synthase ?-subunit precursor elicited significantly stronger plant responses in herbivory assays. We demonstrate that a specialist herbivore minimizes the activation of defenses by converting an elicitor into an antagonist effector and identify an amino acid substitution that recovers these induced plant defenses to a level observed with generalist herbivores. PMID:23008466

Schmelz, Eric A.; Huffaker, Alisa; Carroll, Mark J.; Alborn, Hans T.; Ali, Jared G.; Teal, Peter E.A.



Isolation and Characterization of a Baculovirus Associated with the Insect Parasitoid Wasp, Cotesia marginiventris, or Its Host, Trichoplusia ni  

PubMed Central

A multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (MNPV) was isolated from Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae that had been stung by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The wild type virus was plaque purified by infecting a Heliothis subflexa (BCIRL- HsAM1) cell line and isolating several clones. The mean estimated genomic size of this virus based on PstI, BstEII, StyI, HindIII restriction profiles was estimated to be 106 ± 2.5 kbp (mean±SE). A clone designated as TnMNPV/CmBCL9 was used in bioassays against several lepidopteran pests and in comparative studies with the baculoviruses AcMNPV, AgMNPV, AfMNPV, PxMNPV and HzSNPV of Autographa califomica, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Anagrapha falcifera, Plutella xylostella, and Helicoverpa zea, respectively. Infectivity studies showed that TnMNPV/CmBCL9 was highly infectious for Heliothis subflexa and T. ni, with an LC50 value 0.07 occlusion bodies/mm2 in both species and also infectious for H. zea and Heliothis virescens with LC50 values of 0.22 and 0.27 occlusion bodies/mm2, respectively. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the isolate and selected baculoviruses revealed profiles that were very similar to AfMNPV but different from the restriction endonuclease profiles of the other baculoviruses. Hybridization studies suggest that the TnMNPV/CmBCL9 was closely related to AfMNPV and AcMNPV-HPP. Further support for this comes from a phylogenetic analysis employing a split-graphs network, comparing the polh, egt, and p10 genes from TnMNPV/CmBCL9 with those from other baculoviruses and suggests that this virus is closely related to the AcMNPV variants, AfMNPV and RoMNPV of Rachiplusia ou. PMID:20334593

Grasela, James J.; McIntosh, Arthur H.; Shelby, Kent S.; Long, Steve



New cell lines derived from the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon, that support replication of the A. ipsilon multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus and several group I nucleopolyhedroviruses.  


New cell lines were recently developed from the embryos of the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A primary culture was initiated from 4-day-old A. ipsilon eggs in ExCell420 medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. This initial culture produced sufficient cell growth to allow subcultivation and eventually led to the establishment of eight distinct strains. Two of these strains (AiE1611T and AiEd6T) were selected for further characterization. Extracts of these strains were compared to an extract from A. ipsilon eggs by isozyme analysis and shown to be from the same species. Both strains were susceptible to infection by the A. ipsilon multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgipMNPV), as well as to lepidopteran group I NPVs from A. californica, Anagrapha falcifera, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Galleria mellonella, Helicoverpa armigera, Plutella xylostella, and Rachiplusia ou, with large numbers of occlusion bodies produced in most of the inoculated cells. The cell lines did not support the replication of group II NPVs from Helicoverpa zea, Lymantria dispar, and Spodoptera exigua. Both cell lines produced confluent monolayers in plaque assays and supported the formation of plaques upon infection with AgipMNPV and Autographa californica (Ac)MNPV. Twenty AgipMNPV plaques were picked from either AiE1611T or AiEd6T monolayers, and the plaque isolates were serially passaged three times through A. ipsilon cells. Only one isolate from AiE1611T cells exhibited genotypic variation in the form of an altered restriction fragment profile. Our results suggest these new lines can be useful in the study of AgipMNPV and A. ipsilon cellular and molecular biology. PMID:18395741

Harrison, Robert L; Lynn, Dwight E



Isolation and characterization of a baculovirus associated with the insect parasitoid wasp, Cotesia marginiventris, or its host, Trichoplusia ni.  


A multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (MNPV) was isolated from Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae that had been stung by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The wild type virus was plaque purified by infecting a Heliothis subflexa (BCIRL- HsAM1) cell line and isolating several clones. The mean estimated genomic size of this virus based on PstI, BstEII, StyI, HindIII restriction profiles was estimated to be 106 +/- 2.5 kbp (mean+/-SE). A clone designated as TnMNPV/CmBCL9 was used in bioassays against several lepidopteran pests and in comparative studies with the baculoviruses AcMNPV, AgMNPV, AfMNPV, PxMNPV and HzSNPV of Autographa califomica, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Anagrapha falcifera, Plutella xylostella, and Helicoverpa zea, respectively. Infectivity studies showed that TnMNPV/CmBCL9 was highly infectious for Heliothis subflexa and T. ni, with an LC(50) value 0.07 occlusion bodies/mm(2) in both species and also infectious for H. zea and Heliothis virescens with LC(50) values of 0.22 and 0.27 occlusion bodies/mm(2), respectively. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the isolate and selected baculoviruses revealed profiles that were very similar to AfMNPV but different from the restriction endonuclease profiles of the other baculoviruses. Hybridization studies suggest that the TnMNPV/CmBCL9 was closely related to AfMNPV and AcMNPV-HPP. Further support for this comes from a phylogenetic analysis employing a split-graphs network, comparing the polh, egt, and p10 genes from TnMNPV/CmBCL9 with those from other baculoviruses and suggests that this virus is closely related to the AcMNPV variants, AfMNPV and RoMNPV of Rachiplusia ou. PMID:20334593

Grasela, James J; McIntosh, Arthur H; Shelby, Kent S; Long, Steve



Molecular Characterization of Brevibacillus laterosporus and Its Potential Use in Biological Control  

PubMed Central

Thirty-three strains of Brevibacillus laterosporus, including three novel strains isolated from Brazilian soil samples, were examined for genetic variability by the use of different PCR-based methods. Molecular markers that could characterize bacterial strains with regards to their pathogenic potential were investigated. In addition, toxicity was assessed by the use of insects belonging to the orders Lepidoptera and Coleoptera and the mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata. Among the targets tested, Biomphalaria glabrata demonstrated the highest degree of sensitivity to B. laterosporus, with some strains inducing 90 to 100% mortality in snails aged 3 and 12 days posteclosion. Larvae of the coleopteron Anthonomus grandis were also susceptible, presenting mortality levels of between 33 and 63%. Toxicity was also noted towards the lepidopteron Anticarsia gemmatalis. In contrast, no mortality was recorded among test populations of Tenebrio molitor or Spodoptera frugiperda. The application of intergenic transcribed spacer PCR and BOX-PCR generated 15 and 17 different genotypes, respectively. None of the molecular techniques allowed the identification of a convenient marker that was associated with any entomopathogenic phenotype. However, a 1,078-bp amplicon was detected for all strains of B. laterosporus when a primer for amplification of the BOXA1R region was used. Similarly, a 900-bp amplicon was generated from all isolates by use of the primer OPA-11 for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. These amplicons were not detected for other phenotypically related Brevibacillus species, indicating that they represent markers that are specific for B. laterosporus, which may prove useful for the isolation and identification of new strains of this species. PMID:15528531

de Oliveira, Edmar Justo; Rabinovitch, Leon; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Passos, Liana Konovaloff Jannotti; Zahner, Viviane



Screening of candidate proteins interacting with IE-2 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus.  


IE-2 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) has been shown to play important roles in baculovirus infection, which are involved in gene expression and viral replication. However, the mechanism remains unknown. In this paper, by TargetP software, four genes, i.e.-2, odv-e26, odv-e56 and BmNPV-gp101 (Ac-orf116) of BmNPV and Autographa californica multiple NPV (AcMNPV) were predicted to be located in mitochondria. By BLAST tool using BmNPV IE-2 protein sequence, 14 NPVs were found to have IE-2 homologues in GenBank, and most of them were predicted to be located in mitochondria, except for that of Antheraea pernyi NPV (AnpeNPV) and Anticarsia gemmatalis NPV (AngeNPV). To observe the subcellular localization of BmNPV IE-2, a recombinant virus overexpressed the IE-2 and eGFP fusion protein was constructed. In infected BmN cells, the fluorescence specifically enriched in the cellular mitochondria. This evidence was accordant with the prediction. Further, Pull-down assay was used to select protein candidates interacting with IE-2 in B. mori cells infected with BmNPV. Of several isolated protein components, sixteen candidates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry, eight baculoviral proteins (ALK-EXO, F protein, IAP-1, LEF-3, LEF-9, ODV-NC42, TLP, and VP39), and eight proteins from B. mori (Actin, ADP/ATP translocase, ATP synthase subunit beta, Beta-tubulin, DNA topoisomerase 2, Histone H4, Soluble guanylyl cyclae alpha-1 subunit, Transketolase). From the functional point of view, most of these proteins were generally divided into two groups, mitochondrial interaction proteins and viral DNA replication proteins. These results implied that the IE-2 had multiple functions involved in regulating viral gene expression, viral replication and also as a component of mitochondrial factors to regulate the cellular energy supply and apoptosis. PMID:24078157

Wu, Yejun; Wu, Yu; Wu, Yan; Tang, Hui; Wu, Huiling; Zhang, Guozheng; Wang, Wenbing



Valor energético do óleo ácido de soja para aves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of soybean acid oil as energy source in poultry nutrition, has been limited by its uncertain metabolizable energy value. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of bird age and methodology on the metabolizable energy of commercial soybean acid oil. First and second trials were conducted using total collection excreta methodology with chicks of 12

Paulo Donato Castellane




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A microRNA (miRNA) is a 21-24 nucleotide RNA product of a non-protein-coding gene. miRNAs are the most abundant small RNAs and have to date been described in the animal and plant kingdoms but not for the Stramenopiles. The biogenesis of miRNAs in plants is similar to that in animals in that miRNAs a...


Etude comparative des migrations d'assimilats chez deux varits de soja, de type dtermin ou  

E-print Network

71, photosynthetic fixation of 14CO2, relative specific activities, translocated compounds. I type). Developing vegetative organs acted as major sinks in young plants ; the highest relative compounds towards the roots was increased. Additional key words : Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv M 13 and Amsoy

Boyer, Edmond


Role of physiological mechanisms and EPSPS gene expression in glyphosate resistance in wild soybeans (Glycine soja).  


The physiological mechanisms underlying glyphosate resistance in wild soybean germplasm and relevant EPSPS gene expression were evaluated. These germplasms were selected by gradually increasing glyphosate selection pressure started from 2010. As indicated by a whole-plant dose response bioassay, ZYD-254 plants were resistant to glyphosate at concentrations of 1230gaeha(-1), but the susceptible plants (ZYD-16) were unable to survive in the presence of 300gaeha(-1) glyphosate. The ED50 values of resistant germplasm were approximately 8.8 times of the susceptible germplasm. Chlorophyll content was significantly decreased in ZYD-16 plants in comparison with ZYD-254 plants. ZYD-16 plants accumulated 10.1 times more shikimate in leaves at 5days after glyphosate treatment at 1230gaeha(-1) than ZYD-254 did. GST activity differed between ZYD-254 and ZYD-16 in three tissues. It was highest in leaves. There were no significant differences in EPSPS1 or EPSPS3 expression between two germplasms before exposure to glyphosate treatment. After glyphosate treatment, there was a 2- to 4-fold increase in EPSPS1 mRNA levels in ZYD-254, but there was no change in EPSPS3 mRNA levels in ZYD-254 or ZYD-16. PMID:24581379

Gao, Yue; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Lijuan; Jin, Longguo; Wu, Jing



Homologous RXLR effectors from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and Phytophthora sojae suppress immunity in distantly related plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diverse pathogens secrete effector proteins into plant cells to manipulate host cellular processes. Oomycete pathogens contain very large complements of predicted effector genes defined by an RXLR host cell entry motif. The genome of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa, downy mildew of Arabidopsis) ...


Article original Digestion des protines de pois et de soja chez le veau  

E-print Network

blood levels of nutrients, antibody formation and gut permeability to macromolecules. Three milk entirely provided by skim-milk powder. In the pea diet a pregelatinized dehulled pea flour provided 33.5 % of the protein, the remainder being supplied by skim-milk powder. In the soya-bean diet, 73.2 % of the protein

Boyer, Edmond


Glyceollin is an important component of soybean plant defense against Phytophthora sojae and Macrophomina phaseolina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic soybean plants were generated using bombardment of embryogenic cultures with the PAL5 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase), CHS6 (chalcone synthase) and IFS2 (isoflavone synthase) genes in sense orientation, driven by the cotyledon-preferable lectin promoter, or with the IFS2 (isoflavone synthas...



E-print Network

DE LA THIAMINE ET DE LA RIBOFLAVINE (CHEZ LE RAT) M. LHUISSIER B. POTTEAU Françoise NIVET, Geneviève thiamine et4mg de riboflavine par kg. ,', La quantité globale de l'ensemble lipides + saccharose étant est prélevé pour le dosage de l'azote, du phosphore, de la thiamine, de la riboflavine et des lipides

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Identification of quantitative trait loci conditioning partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean PI 407861A  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improving resistance for Phytophthora root and stem rot is an important goal in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] breeding. Partial resistance can be as effective in managing this disease as single-gene (Rps) mediated resistance and is more durable. The objective of this study was to identify QTL con...


Efecto de las terrazas sobre la diversidad de artrópodos caminadores en cultivos de soja  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of terraces on soil dwelling arthropod diversity in soybean production: The loss of biodiversity in agroecosystems constitutes a main issue in ecological research. Steep backslope terraces, used for soil erosion control, could act as refuges for arthropods in agricultural landscapes. Total and predator arthropod species richness and abundance were surveyed in soybean fields in Entre Ríos under a no-till



Ectopic Expression of a WRKY Homolog from Glycine soja Alters Flowering Time in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO) and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG). Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time. PMID:23991184

Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Cao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Mingchao; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yanming



Influence d'un dficit hydrique sur trois varits de soja : effet sur la protogense des graines  

E-print Network

déficitaire. Le marquage, après incorporation de 14CO2, des composés insolubles non protéiques est plus fruiting. After 14CO2 incorporation, labelling of non- protein insoluble compounds was greater in water of this treatment were studied on vegetative growth and fruiting, gaseous exchange, carbon and nitrogen metabolism

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the effect of planting date on soybean seed quality. The cultivars evaluated were Cristalina, IAC-2, Tropical, Doko, and IAC-8. The sowing dates were stablished between October 29, 1983 and January 7, 1984 (10\\/29, 11\\/11, 11\\/25, 12\\/10, 12\\/24 and 01\\/7), at Lucas do Rio Verde in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. In the plantings carried out



Identification and Functional Characterization of the Soybean GmaPPO12 Promoter Conferring Phytophthora sojae Induced Expression  

PubMed Central

Identification of pathogen-inducible promoters largely lags behind cloning of the genes for disease resistance. Here, we cloned the soybean GmaPPO12 gene and found that it was rapidly and strongly induced by Phytophthorasojae infection. Computational analysis revealed that its promoter contained many known cis-elements, including several defense related transcriptional factor-binding boxes. We showed that the promoter could mediate induction of GUS expression upon infection in both transient expression assays in Nicotianabenthamiana and stable transgenic soybean hairy roots. Importantly, we demonstrated that pathogen-induced expression of the GmaPPO12 promoter was higher than that of the soybean GmaPR1a promoter. A progressive 5’ and 3’ deletion analysis revealed two fragments that were essential for promoter activity. Thus, the cloned promoter could be used in transgenic plants to enhance resistance to phytophthora pathogens, and the identified fragment could serve as a candidate to produce synthetic pathogen-induced promoters. PMID:23840763

Chai, Chunyue; Lin, Yanling; Shen, Danyu; Wu, Yuren; Li, Hongjuan; Dou, Daolong



Análise da competitividade da produção de soja no sistema de plantio direto no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brazilian agricultural sector, which is underg oing the settlement of new production and trading patterns, faces the challeng e of growing in a competitive and sustainable fashion, in order to attend domestic de mand while acquiring and holding positions in foreign markets, and by providing qual ity products and processes with sustainability and competitive prices. To attend th e

Maria Isabel da Silva Azevedo Alvim; Lourival Batista de Oliveira Júnior



O Biodiesel e sua relação com a incorporação de novas áreas e produção de soja no Paraná  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects that the increment in the demand of biodiesel will be able to have in the incorporation of new areas and production of soybean in the Paraná State, as well as, to make some reflections about the production of biodiesel in Brazil. The results had shown that the impact in

Ronaldo Bulhões


Integration of the draft sequence and physical map as a framework for genomic research in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean is a model for the legume research community due to its importance as a crop, a well populated genetic map, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole genome shotgun sequence and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution chromosome-b...


Efecto de la adición de harina de soja y concentrado proteico de suero de queso sobre la calidad del pan y la dializabilidad de minerales  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Effect of the addition of soy flour and whey pro- tein concentrate on bread quality and mineral dialyzability. The effects of the addition of soy flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on dough properties and mold bread quality were studied. Farinograph and alveograph were used to evaluate dough proper- ties. Mold bread quality was evaluated by assessing sensory attributes

Alexis N. Visentín; Silvina R. Drago; Carlos A. Osella; María A. de la Torre; Hugo D. Sánchez; Rolando J. González


Phytophthora root rot resistance in soybean E00003  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a devastating disease in soybean production. Using resistant cultivars has been suggested as the best solution for disease management. Michigan elite soybean E00003 is resistant to P. sojae and has been used as a PRR resist...


Quantitative Trait Loci for Partial Resistance to Phytophthora Sojaei in Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean, caused by the oomycete, Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases to limit soybean production in the US. Although fourteen resistance genes (Rps) to P. sojae have been identified, adaptation of by the pathogen has made many of these ineffe...


QTL affecting fitness of hybrids between wild and cultivated soybeans in experimental fields  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fitness of hybrids between wild soybean (Glycine soja) and cultivated soybean (Glycine max). Seed dormancy and seed number, both of which are important for fitness, were evaluated by testing artificial hybrids of G. soja × G. max in a multiple-site field trial. Generally, the fitness of the F1 hybrids and hybrid derivatives from self-pollination was lower than that of G. soja due to loss of seed dormancy, whereas the fitness of hybrid derivatives with higher proportions of G. soja genetic background was comparable with that of G. soja. These differences were genetically dissected into QTL for each population. Three QTLs for seed dormancy and one QTL for total seed number were detected in the F2 progenies of two diverse cross combinations. At those four QTLs, the G. max alleles reduced seed number and severely reduced seed survival during the winter, suggesting that major genes acquired during soybean adaptation to cultivation have a selective disadvantage in natural habitats. In progenies with a higher proportion of G. soja genetic background, the genetic effects of the G. max alleles were not expressed as phenotypes because the G. soja alleles were dominant over the G. max alleles. Considering the highly inbreeding nature of these species, most hybrid derivatives would disappear quickly in early self-pollinating generations in natural habitats because of the low fitness of plants carrying G. max alleles. PMID:23919159

Kuroda, Yosuke; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Yano, Hiroshi; Takada, Yoshitake; Kato, Shin; Vaughan, Duncan



Host Recognition in the Rhizobium-Soybean Symbiosis 1  

PubMed Central

Polar binding of Rhizobium japonicum to roots and root hairs of Glycine soja (L.) Sieb. and Zucc. is specifically inhibited by d-galactose and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, haptens of Glycine max seed lectin. A protein, immunologically cross-reactive with the G. max seed lectin, is present in G. soja seed extracts. Peptide mapping of the purified G. max and G. soja lectins indicates that the two are similar in structure. Soybean lectin can be localized on the surface of both G. max and G. soja roots by indirect immunolatex techniques. These observations indicate that the Rhizobium-binding lectin, previously isolated from seeds, also is present on the root surface—the site of the initial steps in the infection. This lectin is capable of binding Rhizobium japonicum to the root. Images PMID:16661488

Stacey, Gary; Paau, Alan S.; Brill, Winston J.



Phytophthora Have Distinct Endogenous Small RNA Populations That Include Short Interfering and  

E-print Network

gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Corvallis, Oregon, United States components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic

Grünwald, Niklaus J.


Estimation et volution compare de l'assimilation nette de couverts de mas (Zea mays L.), tournesol  

E-print Network

.), tournesol (Helianthus annuus L.) et soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), au cours de leurs cycles de (Helianthus annuus L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) during development Net assimilation, Canopies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Physiologie vgtale Mesure de l'activit nitrate rductase  

E-print Network

Physiologie végétale Mesure de l'activité nitrate réductase durant le cycle cultural du soja, assimilation du nitrate et fixation de l'azote de l'air, ont été étudiées chez le soja (cv Hodgson), inoculé avec Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 138. L'évolution des 2 activités enzymatiques, nitrate réductase et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Identification of putative QTL that underlie yield in interspecific soybean backcross populations.  


Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is a potential source of useful genetic variation in soybean improvement. The objective of our study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) from G. soja that could improve the crop. Five populations of BC(2)F(4)-derived lines were developed using the Glycine max cultivar IA2008 as a recurrent parent and the G. soja plant introduction (PI) 468916 as a donor parent. There were between 57 and 112 BC(2)F(4)-derived lines in each population and a total of 468 lines for the five populations. The lines were evaluated with simple sequence repeat markers and in field tests for yield, maturity, plant height, and lodging. The field testing was done over 2 years and at two locations each year. Marker data were analyzed for linkage and combined with field data to identify QTL. Using an experimentwise significance threshold of P=0.05, four yield QTL were identified across environments on linkage groups C2, E, K, and M. For these yield QTL, the IA2008 marker allele was associated with significantly greater yield than the marker allele from G. soja. In addition, one lodging QTL, four maturity QTL, and five QTL for plant height were identified across environments. Of the 14 QTL identified, eight mapped to regions where QTL with similar effects were previously mapped. Many regions carrying the yield QTL were also significant for other traits, such as plant height and lodging. When the significance threshold was reduced and the data were analyzed with simple linear regression, four QTL with a positive allele for yield from G. soja were mapped. One epistatic interaction between two genetic regions was identified for yield using an experimentwise significance threshold of P=0.05. Additional research is needed to establish whether multiple trait associations are the result of pleiotropy or genetic linkage and to retest QTL with a positive effect from G. soja. PMID:14504749

Wang, D; Graef, G L; Procopiuk, A M; Diers, B W



Host-Pathogen Interactions  

PubMed Central

The glucan elicitor isolated from the mycelial walls of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae, the fungus which causes stem and root rot in soybeans, stimulates the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the accumulation of glyceollin in suspension-cultured soybean cells. Nigeran, a commercially available fungal wall glucan, was the only other compound tested which has any activity in this system. Glyceollin is a phenylpropanoid-derived phytoalexin which is toxic to P. megasperma var. sojae. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that the action of elicitors in stimulating phytoalexin synthesis is not species or variety specific but, rather, is part of a general defensive response of plants. PMID:16659568

Ebel, Jürgen; Ayers, Arthur R.; Albersheim, Peter



Everywhere and nowhereVancouver, fan pilgrimage and the urban imaginary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses fan pilgrimage, using as a case study the city of Vancouver, Canada — a location that has been used as the basis for several cult television series. It draws on theories of urban geography, particularly of postmodern suburbia (Edward Relph, Jean Baudrillard, Umberto Eco, Fredric Jameson, Edward Soja) to argue that while Vancouver may be valued by

Will Brooker



Diversity of Aspergillus oryzae genotypes (RFLP) isolated from traditional soy sauce production within Malaysia and Southeast Asia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DNA fingerprinting was performed on 64 strains of Aspergillus oryzae and one strain of A. sojae isolated from soysauce factories within Malaysia and Southeast Asia that use primitive traditional methods in producing 'tamari type' Cantonese soy sauce. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each isol...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic vulnerability is the condition of being broadly susceptible to attack by pests and is assumed to be proportional to genetic uniformity. Genetic variability of North American soybean at the DNA sequence level was assessed in fragments from 102 genes in each of 26 accessions of G. soja, 52 As...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Draft genome sequences of the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum have been determined to depths of 9x and 7.7x, respectively. Oomycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopiles with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Glycine contains the cultivated annual soybean G. max, the wild annual soybean G. soja, and about 21 wild perennial Glycine species. The perennials are largely indigenous to Australia, but are found in Papua New Guinea, Timor, Philippines, Japan and Taiwan. Outcrossing by insects occurs ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Glycine contains the cultivated annual soybean G. max, the wild annual, G. soja, and about 21 wild perennial Glycine species. The perennials are largely indigenous to Australia, but are found in Papua New Guinea, Timor, Philippines, Japan and Taiwan. Outcrossing rates in the cultivated s...


EFEITO DOS MÉTODOS DE COCÇÃO NA COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL E COLESTEROL DO PEITO DE FRANGOS DE DIFERENTES LINHAGENS 1 Effect of cooking methods on the chemical composition and cholesterol of the breast in different chickens strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos métodos de cocção: cozimento em água (CA), fritura em óleo de soja (FO), assado em forno convencional (FC) e assado em microondas (MO) sobre perda de peso por cocção (PPC), composição química e colesterol em peitos de frangos das linhagens Super pesadão (Sp), Carijó (Cr) e Cobb (Cb). O delineamento experimental foi

Milena Wolff Ferreira; Sibelli Passini; Barbosa Ferrão; Xisto Rodrigues de Souza



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, we investigated protein and genetic profiles of Kunitz trypsin inhibitors (KTIs) in seeds of sixteen different soybean genotypes that included four groups consisting of wild soybean (Glycine soja), the cultivated soybean (G. max) ancestors of modern N. American soybean cultivars, mode...


Sea Level Rise, Green Greenland & Fantabulous Inference To be removed from Jim Hansen's e-mail list respond to sender with REMOVE as subject  

E-print Network

on changes occurring in the past few years on Antarctica and Greenland. Mass loss from West Antarctica with observations (Soja et al., Climate induced boreal forest change: predictions versus current observations et al. to suggest the possibility of "...a potential non-linear rapid response to changes in climate

Hansen, James E.


Selection on Glycine ?-1,3-Endoglucanase Genes Differentially Inhibited by a Phytophthora Glucanase Inhibitor Protein  

PubMed Central

Plant endo-?-1,3-glucanases (EGases) degrade the cell wall polysaccharides of attacking pathogens and release elicitors of additional plant defenses. Isozymes EGaseA and EGaseB of soybean differ in susceptibility to a glucanase inhibitor protein (GIP1) produced by Phytophthora sojae, a major soybean pathogen. EGaseA, the major elicitor-releasing isozyme, is a high-affinity ligand for GIP1, which completely inhibits it, whereas EGaseB is unaffected by GIP1. We tested for departures from neutral evolution on the basis of partial sequences of EGaseA and EGaseB from 20 widespread accessions of Glycine soja (the wild progenitor of soybean), from 4 other Glycine species, and across dicotyledonous plants. G. soja exhibited little intraspecific variation at either locus. Phylogeny-based codon evolution models detected strong evidence of positive selection on Glycine EGaseA and weaker evidence for selection on dicot EGases and Glycine EGaseB. Positively selected peptide sites were identified and located on a structural model of EGase bound to GIP1. Positively selected sites and highly variable sites were found disproportionately within 4.5 Å of bound GIP1. Low variation within G. soja EGases, coupled with positive selection in both Glycine and dicot lineages and the proximity of rapidly evolving sites to GIP1, suggests an arms race involving repeated adaptation to pathogen attack and inhibition. PMID:15545660

Bishop, J. G.; Ripoll, D. R.; Bashir, S.; Damasceno, C. M. B.; Seeds, J. D.; Rose, J. K. C.




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - No Rio Grande do Sul, os sistemas integrados de agricultura e pecuária estão sendo adotados em extensas áreas que historicamente estavam submetidas ao binômio trigo-soja. Esta mudança na forma de exploração da terra origina uma nova condição que deve ser pesquisada para evitar efeitos indesejáveis no solo. Procurando determinar alterações nas propriedades físicas e mecânicas do solo, durante



Original article Daily embolism and refilling of root xylem vessels  

E-print Network

.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) by cryo-microscopy. No vessels were esculentum / Glycine max / Helianthus annuus / refilling-vessels Résumé - Cycle journalier de l'embolie et tournesol (Helianthus annuus L.) et du soja (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivés en champ. Aucun vaisseau n

Boyer, Edmond



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relationship between ergosterol content and biomass was determined for the soybean fungal pathogens Diaporthe phaseolorum (Cooke & Ellis) Sacc. var. sojae [Dp] causative agent of Phomopsis Seed Decay and Cercospora kikuchii (Matsumoto & Tomoyasu) [Ck] causative agent of leaf blight and purple se...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fourteen Rps genes confer resistance against the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae that causes the root and stem rot disease in soybean. We have isolated a disease resistance gene-like sequence from the genomic region containing Rps1-k. Four classes of cDNAs of the sequence were isolated from eti...


This article is from the November 2008 issue of  

E-print Network

a higher market price than yellow soybeans, is very susceptible to this pathogen (27,34). Black soybeans-Hikarikuro, which is one of the most famous commercial black soybean cultivars produced in Japan and fetches)2 dramatically suppressed disease incidence caused by P. sojae in black soybean (cv. Chusei-Hikarikuro) and white

Biggs, Alan R.



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Draft genome sequences of the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum have been determined. Oomycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopiles with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms, and the Phytophthora sequences sugges...


Landscapes, Spatial Justice and Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on a study of a community-based adult education initiative, "Cumbria Credits," which took place during the period of serious economic decline which hit sections of the farming and the wider community in Cumbria during 2001. It draws on the principles underpinning Edward Soja's notion of "spatial justice" to explore transformations…

Armstrong, Felicity




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, profiles of allergen and antinutritional proteins both in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seeds were compared. We used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) for the separation of proteins at two different pH ranges and applied a combine...


Spaces of Difference: The Contradictions of Alternative Educational Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing upon the concept of "thirdspace" (Soja 1996), this article extends sociocultural theorizations of space in relation to alternative educational programs: programs designed to re-engage youth who have been pushed out of mainstream schools. Snapshots of educational programs, provided by ethnographic research gathered in the United States,…

Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.



Dt2 is a gain-of-function MADS-Domain factor gene that controls semi-determinacy in soybean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Similar to Arabidopsis, the wild soybean (Glycine soja) and many soybean (Glycine max) cultivars exhibit indeterminate stem growth controlled by a gene Dt1 – the functional counterpart of the Arabidopsis TFL1. Mutations in TFL1 and Dt1 both result in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) switching from ve...


Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...


Expression of key hydrolases for soy sauce fermentation in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.  


Several key hydrolases in soy sauce fermentation such as proteases, peptidases, and glutaminases are supplied by Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. The genes encoding these hydrolases were successfully expressed in salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. These transformants are expected to supply extra hydrolases during soy sauce fermentation process. PMID:25073685

Yuzuki, Masanobu; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Koyama, Yasuji



New cell lines from Ephestia kuehniella: characterization and susceptibility to baculoviruses.  


New cell lines from embryos of Ephestia kuehniella were recently developed. Primary cultures were initiated in September 2002 from 2 to 4 day old eggs in either modified TC-100 or ExCell 400 medium. From these initial cultures, one, originally isolated in the Ex-Cell medium, produced sufficient cell growth to allow subcultivation and eventually led to the establishment of two cell strains, one that forms multicellular vesicles in suspension and one consisting of tightly attached epithelial-like cells. The strains were compared to an extract from E. kuehniella eggs by isozyme analysis and shown to be from the same species. Both strains were inoculated with various insect viruses, including nucleopolyhedroviruses from Autographa californica, Anagrapha falcifera, Anticarsa gemmatalis, Galleria mellonella, Heliothis armigera, Helicoverpa zea, Lymantria dispar, Plutella xylostella, and Rachoplusia ou. Both strains were highly susceptible to most of the nucleopolyhedroviruses (with the exception of the viruses from Helicoverpa zea and Lymantria dispar which did not show cytopathology to either cell strain) with large numbers of occlusion bodies produced in most of the inoculated cells. Our results suggest these new lines can be useful in biocontrol research. PMID:15861225

Lynn, Dwight E; Ferkovich, Stephen M



New cell lines from Ephestia kuehniella: characterization and susceptibility to baculoviruses  

PubMed Central

New cell lines from embryos of Ephestia kuehniella were recently developed. Primary cultures were initiated in September 2002 from 2 to 4 day old eggs in either modified TC-100 or ExCell 400 medium. From these initial cultures, one, originally isolated in the Ex-Cell medium, produced sufficient cell growth to allow subcultivation and eventually led to the establishment of two cell strains, one that forms multicellular vesicles in suspension and one consisting of tightly attached epithelial-like cells. The strains were compared to an extract from E. kuehniella eggs by isozyme analysis and shown to be from the same species. Both strains were inoculated with various insect viruses, including nucleopolyhedroviruses from Autographa californica, Anagrapha falcifera, Anticarsa gemmatalis, Galleria mellonella, Heliothis armigera, Helicoverpa zea, Lymantria dispar, Plutella xylostella, and Rachoplusia ou. Both strains were highly susceptible to most of the nucleopolyhedroviruses (with the exception of the viruses from Helicoverpa zea and Lymantria dispar which did not show cytopathology to either cell strain) with large numbers of occlusion bodies produced in most of the inoculated cells. Our results suggest these new lines can be useful in biocontrol research. Abbreviation: NPV nucleopolyhedrovirus, the prefix M or S refers to multiple or single nucleocapsids Ek-x4T an attached cell line from E. kuehniella Ek-x4V a vesicular cell line from E. kuehniella PMID:15861225

Lynn, Dwight E.; Ferkovich, Stephen M.



Transgenerational gene silencing causes gain of virulence in a plant pathogen  

PubMed Central

Avirulence (Avr) genes of plant pathogens encode effector proteins that trigger immunity in plants carrying appropriate resistance (R) genes. The Phytophthora sojae Avr3a gene displays allelic variation in messenger RNA transcript levels. P. sojae strains with detectable Avr3a gene transcripts are avirulent on plants carrying the R-gene Rps3a, whereas strains lacking Avr3a mRNA escape detection by Rps3a and are virulent. Here we show non-Mendelian interactions between naturally occurring Avr3a alleles that result in transgenerational gene silencing, and we identify small RNA molecules of 25 nucleotides that are abundant in gene-silenced strains but not in strains with Avr3a mRNA. This example of transgenerational gene silencing is exceptional because it is naturally occurring and results in gain of virulence in a pathogenic organism. PMID:23322037

Qutob, Dinah; Patrick Chapman, B.; Gijzen, Mark



Somatic embryogenesis in cell cultures of Glycine species.  


This report describes the development of procedures for the production of somatic embryos in cell cultures of Glycine species including soybean. The conditions for callus induction and initiation of rapidly growing cell suspension cultures were defined. Methods for inducing embryogenesis were tested on 16 lines of several Glycine species and cultivars of soybean. The SB-26 Culture of a G. soja gave the best results and was used in the experiments. Embryogenesis required the presence of picloram or 2,4-D. AMO 1618, CCC, PP-333 and Ancymidol enhanced the embryogenesis frequency. Plants of the G. soja (SB-26) were grown to maturity from seed-derived shoot tips. Characteristics of the plants are discussed. PMID:24258054

Gamborg, O L; Davis, B P; Stahlhut, R W



CROP PROTECTION Nymphal Development, Lipid Content, Growth and Weight Gain of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Fed on Soybean Genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Os efeitos de cinco genótipos de soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) ('BR-16', 'IAC-100,' PI 227687, PI 229358, PI 274454) no desenvolvimento ninfal, peso de adulto e quantidade de lipídio em Nezara viridula (L.) foram avaliados em laboratório. Quando as ninfas se alimentaram de vagens de PI 227687 (resistente) e 'BR-16' (suscetível), sua mortalidade foi de 66,2% e 27,5%,



Cultured parsley cells, a model system for the rapid testing of abiotic and natural substances as inducers of systemic acquired resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cultured parsley (Petroselinum crispumL.) cells, chemical and natural agents that are known to induce systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in different plant species were checked for their ability to condition the cells for an enhanced response to low doses of an elicitor from the cell wall of the fungal pathogenPhytophthora sojae. Use of the fluorescence properties of elicitor-induced furanocoumarin phytoalexins

J Siegrist; S Mühlenbeck; H Buchenauer



Suppression of fungal ?-glucan-induced plant defence in soybean ( Glycine max L.) by cyclic 1,3-1,6-?-glucans from the symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of antimicrobial phytoalexins is one of the best-known inducible defence responses following microbial infection of plants or treatment with elicitors. In the legume soybean (Glycine max L.), 1,3-1,6-ß-glucans derived from the fungal pathogen Phytophthora sojae have been identified as potent elicitors of the synthesis of the phytoalexin, glyceollin. Recently it has been reported that during symbiotic interaction between

Axel Mithöfer; Arvind A. Bhagwat; Markus Feger; Jiirgen Ebel



Influence de la nature des fibres alimentaires sur la digestibilit des constituants de la ration chez le rat, par Martine CHAMP, J. L. BARRY, Christine HOEBLER. I.N.R.A., Labora-Martine CHAMP, J. L. BARRY, Christine HOEBLER. /.N.R.A., Labora-  

E-print Network

4 matières premières (son de blé (SB), pulpe de betterave (PB), coques de soja (CS) ou tourteau de digestibilité des polyosides pariétaux (cf. tabl.) des fibres alimentaires varie de 20 à 63 % pour la cellulose.) observées notamment avec la pulpe de betterave et le tourteau de coprah restent faibles. La diminution de la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


La complmentation azote du cactus inerme pour les ovins. Effet de la source d'azote  

E-print Network

La complémentation azotée du cactus inerme pour les ovins. Effet de la source d'azote A Nefzaoui1 H ARIANA, Tunisie 2Direction des Ressources Alimentaires, OEP, rue Alain Savary - TUNIS, Tunisie Le cactus cactus et de comparer l'effet de différentes sources d'azote (urée, tourteau de soja, Atriplex halimus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Identification of a large cluster of coiled coil-nucleotide binding site–leucine rich repeat-type genes from the Rps1 region containing Phytophthora resistance genes in soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen Rps genes confer resistance against the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, which causes root and stem rot disease in soybean. We have isolated a disease resistance gene-like sequence from the genomic region containing Rps1-k. Four classes of cDNA of the sequence were isolated from etiolated hypocotyl tissues that express the Rps1-k-encoded Phytophthora resistance. Sequence analyses of a cDNA clone showed

M. K. Bhattacharyya; N. N. Narayanan; H. Gao; D. K. Santra; S. S. Salimath; T. Kasuga; Y. Liu; B. Espinosa; L. Ellison; L. Marek; R. Shoemaker; M. Gijzen; R. I. Buzzell



Growth in microgravity increases susceptibility of soybean to a fungal pathogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of microgravity on the susceptibility of soybean roots to Phytophthora sojae was studied during the Space Shuttle Mission STS-87. Seedlings of soybean cultivar Williams 82 grown in spaceflight or at unit gravity were untreated or inoculated with the soybean root rot pathogen P. sojae. At 3, 6 and 7 d after launch while still in microgravity, seedlings were photographed and then fixed for subsequent microscopic analysis. Post-landing analysis of the seedlings revealed that at harvest day 7 the length of untreated roots did not differ between flight and ground samples. However, the flight-grown roots infected with P. sojae showed more disease symptoms (percentage of brown and macerated areas) and the root tissues were more extensively colonized relative to the ground controls exposed to the fungus. Ethylene levels were higher in spaceflight when compared to ground samples. These data suggest that soybean seedlings grown in microgravity are more susceptible to colonization by a fungal pathogen relative to ground controls.

Ryba-White, M.; Nedukha, O.; Hilaire, E.; Guikema, J. A.; Kordyum, E.; Leach, J. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)



New cell lines from heliothis virescens: characterization and susceptibility to baculoviruses  


New cell lines from embryos of Heliothis virescens were recently developed. Six primary cultures were initiated in June 1995. From these initial cultures, two produced sufficient cell growth to allow subcultivation and eventually led to the establishment of seven cell strains, three of which are maintained at low temperatures (17 degreesC). The strains were compared with a previously established cell line from H. virescens by isozyme analysis and shown to be from the same species. All the strains were inoculated with various baculoviruses, including Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), Anagrapha falcifera NPV, Anticarsa gemmatalis NPV, Rachoplusia ou NPV, Lymantria dispar NPV (LdMNPV), Orgyia pseudotsugata NPV (OpSNPV), O. leucostigma NPV (OlMNPV), and Helicoverpa zea NPV (HzSNPV). All seven strains were highly susceptible to the noctuid NPVs, and large numbers of occlusion bodies (OBs) were produced in most of the inoculated cells. The HzSNPV infection developed at a slower rate (requiring 1 week or more before a substantial number of cells contained OBs compared with 2-3 days for the other three noctuid NPVs). Three of the H. virescens strains were also susceptible to OpSNPV although only 10-20% of the cells produced OBs with this virus. We did not observe cytopathology (CPE) in any cells inoculated with OlMNPV or LdMNPV. Our results suggest that these new strains can be useful for the study and possibly the production of baculoviruses for which no effective cell systems are available and for comparative studies on multiple virus species. PMID:9784351

Lynn; Shapiro



Genetic characterization and fine mapping of the novel Phytophthora resistance gene in a Chinese soybean cultivar.  


Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann & Gerdemann, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Deployment of resistance genes is the most economical and effective way of controlling the disease. The soybean cultivar 'Yudou 29' is resistant to many P. sojae isolates in China. The genetic basis of the resistance in 'Yudou 29' was elucidated through an inheritance study and molecular mapping. In response to 25 P. sojae isolates, 'Yudou 29' displayed a new resistance reaction pattern distinct from those of differentials carrying known Rps genes. A population of 214 F2:3 families from a cross between 'Jikedou 2' (PRR susceptible) and 'Yudou 29' was used for Rps gene mapping. The segregation fit a ratio of 1:2:1 for resistance:segregation:susceptibility within this population, indicating that resistance in 'Yudou 29' is controlled by a single dominant gene. This gene was temporarily named RpsYD29 and mapped on soybean chromosome 03 (molecular linkage group N; MLG N) flanked by SSR markers SattWM82-50 and Satt1k4b at a genetic distance of 0.5 and 0.2 cM, respectively. Two nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) type genes were detected in the 204.8 kb region between SattWM82-50 and Satt1k4b. These two genes showed high similarity to Rps1k in amino acid sequence and could be candidate genes for PRR resistance. Based on the phenotype reactions and the physical position on soybean chromosome 03, RpsYD29 might be a novel allele at, or a novel gene tightly linked to, the Rps1 locus. PMID:23467992

Zhang, Jiqing; Xia, Changjian; Wang, Xiaoming; Duan, Canxing; Sun, Suli; Wu, Xiaofei; Zhu, Zhendong



[Review of traditional Chinese medicine processed by fermentation].  


The fermentation processing of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), as an important processing method for TCM, originated from the ancient brewing technology. It has a long history in China. Fermented TCMs (FTCMs) are widely applied among folks for preventing and treating many diseases. There are many kinds of TCM processed by spontaneous fermentation, including Massa Medicata Fermentata, Rhizoma Pinelliae Fermentata, Red fermented rice, Semen Sojae Praepaaratum, Mass Galla chinesis et camelliae Fermentata and Pien Tze Huang. This essay summarizes historical origin, main varieties, the effect of microbial strains, current processing techniques and existing problems of FTCM, and look into the prospect of modern development of FTCMs. PMID:23627162

Zhang, Li-Xia; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Hai-Yang



Phytophthora Genome Sequences Uncover Evolutionary Origins and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Draft genome sequences have been determined for the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Oömycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopila with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms, and the presence of many Phytophthora genes of probable phototroph origin supports a photosynthetic ancestry for the stramenopiles. Comparison of the two species' genomes reveals a rapid expansion and diversification of many protein families associated with plant infection such as hydrolases, ABC transporters, protein toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and, in particular, a superfamily of 700 proteins with similarity to known oömycete avirulence genes.

Tyler, Brett M.; Tripathy, Sucheta; Zhang, Xuemin; Dehal, Paramvir; Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Aerts, Andrea; Arredondo, Felipe D.; Baxter, Laura; Bensasson, Douda; Beynon, JIm L.; Chapman, Jarrod; Damasceno, Cynthia M. B.; Dorrance, Anne E.; Dou, Daolong; Dickerman, Allan W.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Garbelotto, Matteo; Gijzen, Mark; Gordon, Stuart G.; Govers, Francine; Grunwald, NIklaus J.; Huang, Wayne; Ivors, Kelly L.; Jones, Richard W.; Kamoun, Sophien; Krampis, Konstantinos; Lamour, Kurt H.; Lee, Mi-Kyung; McDonald, W. Hayes; Medina, Monica; Meijer, Harold J. G.; Nordberg, Erik K.; Maclean, Donald J.; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel D.; Morris, Paul F.; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Putnam, Nicholas J.; Rash, Sam; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Sakihama, Yasuko; Salamov, Asaf A.; Savidor, Alon; Scheuring, Chantel F.; Smith, Brian M.; Sobral, Bruno W. S.; Terry, Astrid; Torto-Alalibo, Trudy A.; Win, Joe; Xu, Zhanyou; Zhang, Hongbin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Boore, Jeffrey L.



Gestin del agua en producciones  

E-print Network

160 cm 220cm PER 240cm Gestión del agua en producciones de secano #12;#12;Sitio Prof. cm pH CE mmoh 31 oct s/napa soja Maíz Girasol Uso del agua - PER ­ sección control- relación con precipitaciones: Escenario lluvia alta -180,0 -160,0 -140,0 -120,0 -100,0 -80,0 -60,0 -40,0 -20,0 0,0 20/07/2012 19

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad


Arabidopsis nonhost resistance gene PSS1 confers immunity against an oomycete and a fungal pathogen but not a bacterial pathogen that cause diseases in soybean  

PubMed Central

Background Nonhost resistance (NHR) provides immunity to all members of a plant species against all isolates of a microorganism that is pathogenic to other plant species. Three Arabidopsis thaliana PEN (penetration deficient) genes, PEN1, 2 and 3 have been shown to provide NHR against the barley pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei at the prehaustorial level. Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant lacking the PEN1 gene is penetrated by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, the causal organism of the root and stem rot disease in soybean. We investigated if there is any novel nonhost resistance mechanism in Arabidopsis against the soybean pathogen, P. sojae. Results The P.sojaesusceptible (pss) 1 mutant was identified by screening a mutant population created in the Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant that lacks penetration resistance against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Segregation data suggested that PEN1 is not epistatic to PSS1. Responses of pss1 and pen1-1 to P. sojae invasion were distinct and suggest that PSS1 may act at both pre- and post-haustorial levels, while PEN1 acts at the pre-haustorial level against this soybean pathogen. Therefore, PSS1 encodes a new form of nonhost resistance. The pss1 mutant is also infected by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, which causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. Thus, a common NHR mechanism is operative in Arabidopsis against both hemibiotrophic oomycetes and necrotrophic fungal pathogens that are pathogenic to soybean. However, PSS1 does not play any role in immunity against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, that causes bacterial blight in soybean. We mapped PSS1 to a region very close to the southern telomere of chromosome 3 that carries no known disease resistance genes. Conclusions The study revealed that Arabidopsis PSS1 is a novel nonhost resistance gene that confers a new form of nonhost resistance against both a hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen, P. sojae and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen, F. virguliforme that cause diseases in soybean. However, this gene does not play any role in the immunity of Arabidopsis to the bacterial pathogen, P. syringae pv. glycinea, which causes bacterial blight in soybean. Identification and further characterization of the PSS1 gene would provide further insights into a new form of nonhost resistance in Arabidopsis, which could be utilized in improving resistance of soybean to two serious pathogens. PMID:22694952



Intestinal absorption of D-galactose and L-leucine and intestinal disaccharidase activities in growing chickens fed different raw legume diets.  


A significant (P less than .01) impairment in the rate of growth, along with a significant (P less than .01) inhibition in the rate of in vivo intestinal absorption of D-galactose and L-leucine, and in the in vitro intestinal absorption of D-galactose, was found in growing chickens fed ad libitum over a 60-day period, diets containing the raw legumes Vicia faba, Glycine soja, Vicia ervilia, and Phaseolus vulgaris as the main source of protein. Furthermore, a significant (P less than .01) reduction in the intestinal disaccharidase activity was found in the legume-fed chickens. The possible nature of these effects was discussed. PMID:7301750

Santidrian, S; Lasheras, B; Cenarruzabeitia, M N; Bolufer, J; Larralde, J



Effect of raw legume diets on intestinal absorption of D-galactose by chick.  


The effect of four raw legume diets on the intestinal absorption of D-galactose and oxygen consumption were studied in chick. Field beans (Vicia faba), soybeans (Glycine soja), bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia), and navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), were used. The intestinal absorption was determined by both in vivo and in vitro techniques. In vivo, only navy beans and soybeans inhibit intestinal transport of D-galactose, while in vitro all the diets do. Oxygen consumption by intestinal rings increases in chicks fed on bitter vetch diet. PMID:7394275

Lasheras, B; Bolufer, J; Cenarruzabeitia, M N; Lluch, M; Larralde, J



[A new case of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome].  


We report a case of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) with milk whose signs of milk intolerance began in the 1st days of life, consisting in minor and nonspecific symptoms. The 3 foods in question were cow's milk, soja, and wheat. The diagnosis of FPIES was suspected at the age of 9 months, after 3 hospitalizations for vomiting, sometimes associated with lethargy and hypotension, which occurred around 2h after cow's milk ingestion. Symptoms were not associated with positive specific IgE and cutaneous tests. Signs then occurred with soja and wheat. Because of the late diagnosis, 3 anaphylactic shock episodes occurred. FPIES is an uncommon cell-mediated food allergy reaction. This syndrome is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, especially severe vomiting, sometimes associated with anaphylactic shock. Usually signs occur 2h after ingestion. These reactions begin early, in the 1st months of life, and regress by the age of 3 years in 38-100% of cases depending on the responsible food. They are usually induced by cow's milk and soy proteins. Diagnosis is difficult and delayed because of nonspecific symptoms. Oral food challenge is the only examination that confirms the diagnosis. Treatment involves the exclusion of the specific food involved. Severe reactions require treatment of shock and adjunction of corticosteroids. PMID:20346636

Chaabane, M; Bidat, E; Chevallier, B



Soybean phytophthora resistance gene Rps8 maps closely to the Rps3 region.  


Root and stem rot is one of the major diseases of soybean. It is caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. A series of resistance genes (Rps) have been providing soybean with reasonable protection against this pathogen. Among these genes, Rps8, which confers resistance to most P. sojae isolates, recently has been mapped. However, the most closely linked molecular marker was mapped at about 10 cM from Rps8. In this investigation, we attempted to develop a high-density genetic map of the Rps8 region and identify closely linked SSR markers for marker-assisted selection of this invaluable gene. Bulk segregant analysis was conducted for the identification of SSR markers that are tightly linked to Rps8. Polymorphic SSR markers selected from the Rps8 region failed to show cosegregation with Phytophthora resistance. Subsequently, bulk segregant analysis of the whole soybean genome and mapping experiments revealed that the Rps8 gene maps closely to the disease resistance gene-rich Rps3 region. PMID:15958793

Sandhu, D; Schallock, K G; Rivera-Velez, N; Lundeen, P; Cianzio, S; Bhattacharyya, M K



Alternate intron processing of family 5 endoglucanase transcripts from the genus Phytophthora.  


Twenty-one homologs of family 5 endo-(1-4)-beta-glucanase genes (EGLs) were identified and characterized in the oomycete plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, P. sojae, and P. ramorum, providing the first comprehensive analysis of this family in Phytophthora. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these genes constitute a unique eukaryotic group, with closest similarity to bacterial endoglucanases. Many of the identified EGL copies were clustered in a few genomic regions, and contained from zero to three introns. Using reverse transcription PCR to study in vitro and in planta gene expression levels of P. sojae, we detected partially processed RNA transcripts retaining one or more of their introns. In some cases, the positions of intron/exon splicing sites were also found to be variable. The relative proportions of these transcripts remain apparently unchanged under various growing conditions, but differ among orthologous copies of the three Phytophthora species. The alternate processing of introns in this group of EGLs generates both coding and non-coding RNA isoforms. This is the first report on Phytophthora family 5 endoglucanases, and the first record for alternative intron processing of oomycete transcripts. PMID:17661047

Costanzo, Stefano; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel D; Deahl, Kenneth L; Baker, C Jacyn; Jones, Richard W



Phenotypic diversification by gene silencing in Phytophthora plant pathogens  

PubMed Central

Advances in genome sequencing technologies have enabled generation of unprecedented information on genome content and organization. Eukaryote genomes in particular may contain large populations of transposable elements (TEs) and other repeated sequences. Active TEs can result in insertional mutations, altered transcription levels and ectopic recombination of DNA. The genome of the oomycete plant pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, contains vast numbers of TE sequences. There are also hundreds of predicted disease-promoting effector proteins, predominantly located in TE-rich genomic regions. Expansion of effector gene families is also a genomic signature of related oomycetes such as P. sojae. Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) from P. infestans has identified sRNAs derived from all families of transposons, highlighting the importance of RNA silencing for maintaining these genomic invaders in an inactive form. Small RNAs were also identified from specific effector encoding genes, possibly leading to RNA silencing of these genes and variation in pathogenicity and virulence toward plant resistance genes. Similar findings have also recently been made for the distantly related species, P. sojae. Small RNA “hotspots” originating from arrays of amplified gene sequences, or from genes displaying overlapping antisense transcription, were also identified in P. infestans. These findings suggest a major role for RNA silencing processes in the adaptability and diversification of these economically important plant pathogens. Here we review the latest progress and understanding of gene silencing in oomycetes with emphasis on transposable elements and sRNA-associated events. PMID:24563702

Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Åsman, Anna KM; Jahan, Sultana N; Avrova, Anna O; Whisson, Stephen C; Dixelius, Christina



The CAZyome of Phytophthora spp.: A comprehensive analysis of the gene complement coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes in species of the genus Phytophthora  

PubMed Central

Background Enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism include Carbohydrate esterases (CE), Glycoside hydrolases (GH), Glycosyl transferases (GT), and Polysaccharide lyases (PL), commonly referred to as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). The CE, GH, and PL superfamilies are also known as cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE) due to their role in the disintegration of the plant cell wall by bacterial and fungal pathogens. In Phytophthora infestans, penetration of the plant cells occurs through a specialized hyphal structure called appressorium; however, it is likely that members of the genus Phytophthora also use CWDE for invasive growth because hyphal forces are below the level of tensile strength exhibited by the plant cell wall. Because information regarding the frequency and distribution of CAZyme coding genes in Phytophthora is currently unknown, we have scanned the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae, and P. ramorum for the presence of CAZyme-coding genes using a homology-based approach and compared the gene collinearity in the three genomes. In addition, we have tested the expression of several genes coding for CE in cultures grown in vitro. Results We have found that P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum contain a total of 435, 379, and 310 CAZy homologs; in each genome, most homologs belong to the GH superfamily. Most GH and PL homologs code for enzymes that hydrolyze substances present in the pectin layer forming the middle lamella of the plant cells. In addition, a significant number of CE homologs catalyzing the deacetylation of compounds characteristic of the plant cell cuticle were found. In general, a high degree of gene location conservation was observed, as indicated by the presence of sequential orthologous pairs in the three genomes. Such collinearity was frequently observed among members of the GH superfamily. On the other hand, the CE and PL superfamilies showed less collinearity for some of their putative members. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed that all genes are expressed in P. infestans when this pathogen grown in vitro. However, the levels of expression vary considerably and are lower than the expression levels observed for the constitutive control. Conclusions In conclusion, we have identified a highly complex set of CAZy homologs in the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae, and P. ramorum, a significant number of which could play roles critical for pathogenicity, by participating in the degradation of the plant cell wall. PMID:20920201



Soybean knowledge base (SoyKB): a web resource for integration of soybean translational genomics and molecular breeding.  


Soybean Knowledge Base ( is a comprehensive web resource developed for bridging soybean translational genomics and molecular breeding research. It provides information for six entities including genes/proteins, microRNAs/sRNAs, metabolites, single nucleotide polymorphisms, plant introduction lines and traits. It also incorporates many multi-omics datasets including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and molecular breeding data, such as quantitative trait loci, traits and germplasm information. Soybean Knowledge Base has a new suite of tools such as In Silico Breeding Program for soybean breeding, which includes a graphical chromosome visualizer for ease of navigation. It integrates quantitative trait loci, traits and germplasm information along with genomic variation data, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions and genome-wide association studies data, from multiple soybean cultivars and Glycine soja. PMID:24136998

Joshi, Trupti; Fitzpatrick, Michael R; Chen, Shiyuan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hongxin; Endacott, Ryan Z; Gaudiello, Eric C; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T; Xu, Dong



Soybean knowledge base (SoyKB): a web resource for integration of soybean translational genomics and molecular breeding  

PubMed Central

Soybean Knowledge Base ( is a comprehensive web resource developed for bridging soybean translational genomics and molecular breeding research. It provides information for six entities including genes/proteins, microRNAs/sRNAs, metabolites, single nucleotide polymorphisms, plant introduction lines and traits. It also incorporates many multi-omics datasets including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and molecular breeding data, such as quantitative trait loci, traits and germplasm information. Soybean Knowledge Base has a new suite of tools such as In Silico Breeding Program for soybean breeding, which includes a graphical chromosome visualizer for ease of navigation. It integrates quantitative trait loci, traits and germplasm information along with genomic variation data, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions, deletions and genome-wide association studies data, from multiple soybean cultivars and Glycine soja. PMID:24136998

Joshi, Trupti; Fitzpatrick, Michael R.; Chen, Shiyuan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hongxin; Endacott, Ryan Z.; Gaudiello, Eric C.; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T.; Xu, Dong



De novo assembly of soybean wild relatives for pan-genome analysis of diversity and agronomic traits.  


Wild relatives of crops are an important source of genetic diversity for agriculture, but their gene repertoire remains largely unexplored. We report the establishment and analysis of a pan-genome of Glycine soja, the wild relative of cultivated soybean Glycine max, by sequencing and de novo assembly of seven phylogenetically and geographically representative accessions. Intergenomic comparisons identified lineage-specific genes and genes with copy number variation or large-effect mutations, some of which show evidence of positive selection and may contribute to variation of agronomic traits such as biotic resistance, seed composition, flowering and maturity time, organ size and final biomass. Approximately 80% of the pan-genome was present in all seven accessions (core), whereas the rest was dispensable and exhibited greater variation than the core genome, perhaps reflecting a role in adaptation to diverse environments. This work will facilitate the harnessing of untapped genetic diversity from wild soybean for enhancement of elite cultivars. PMID:25218520

Li, Ying-hui; Zhou, Guangyu; Ma, Jianxin; Jiang, Wenkai; Jin, Long-guo; Zhang, Zhouhao; Guo, Yong; Zhang, Jinbo; Sui, Yi; Zheng, Liangtao; Zhang, Shan-shan; Zuo, Qiyang; Shi, Xue-hui; Li, Yan-fei; Zhang, Wan-ke; Hu, Yiyao; Kong, Guanyi; Hong, Hui-long; Tan, Bing; Song, Jian; Liu, Zhang-xiong; Wang, Yaoshen; Ruan, Hang; Yeung, Carol K L; Liu, Jian; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Li-juan; Guan, Rong-xia; Wang, Ke-jing; Li, Wen-bin; Chen, Shou-yi; Chang, Ru-zhen; Jiang, Zhi; Jackson, Scott A; Li, Ruiqiang; Qiu, Li-juan



Effect of the raw legume Vicia ervilia on muscle and liver protein metabolism in growing rats.  


Body weight gain (BWG), food intake, food efficiency rate (FER: food intake, g/protein intake, g), gastrocnemius muscle and liver weights, protein, RNA and DNA contents of gastrocnemius muscle and liver have been measured in growing rats (80-90 g initial body weight) fed ad libitum over a period of 11 days on 12.00% protein diets containing either heated and defatted Glycinae sojae (HSB) as control or the raw legume Vicia ervilia as the main sources of protein. It has been found that, as compared to HSB-fed rats, those fed the legume Vicia ervilia diet exhibited a significant reduction in growth, PER, FER, as well as, in RNA-activity (protein, g/day/RNA, g) and RNA/DNA ratio in both muscle and liver. Protein synthesis capacity (PSC:RNA, microgram/protein, mg), was found significantly increased in liver but not in muscle. The possible nature of these findings is discussed. PMID:2484317

Goena, M; Marzo, F; Fernández-González, A L; Tosar, A; Frühbeck, G; Santidrián, S



Effect of raw legume diets on disaccharidase activity in the small intestine of chicks.  


The effect of four raw legume diets: field beans (Vicia faba) (RFB), navy beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (RNB), soybeans (Glycine soja) (RSB) and bitter vetch (VICIA ervilia) (RBV), on disaccharidase activities in chick small intestine have been studied. Maltase and sucrase activities, which vary with age, were determined in 1 to 60 day old animals, RFB and RBV diets had no effect on maltase activity and only increased sucrase activity in 60 day old chicks. Both maltase and sucrase activities decreased in chicks on RSB diet, regardless of their age, and the decrease was even more pronounced in chicks on RNB diet. Contrarywise, chicks fed on autoclaved navy beans and soybeans showed a considerably higher activity of these disaccharidases. PMID:7192009

Lasheras, B; Cenarruzabeitia, M N; Fontán, J; Lluch, M; Larralde, J



Expressed Peptide Tags: An additional layer of data for genome annotation  

SciTech Connect

While genome sequencing is becoming ever more routine, genome annotation remains a challenging process. Identification of the coding sequences within the genomic milieu presents a tremendous challenge, especially for eukaryotes with their complex gene architectures. Here we present a method to assist the annotation process through the use of proteomic data and bioinformatics. Mass spectra of digested protein preparations of the organism of interest were acquired and searched against a protein database created by a six frame translation of the genome. The identified peptides were mapped back to the genome, compared to the current annotation, and then categorized as supporting or extending the current genome annotation. We named the classified peptides Expressed Peptide Tags (EPTs). The well annotated bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was used as a control for the method and showed high degree of correlation between EPT mapping and the current annotation, with 86% of the EPTs confirming existing gene calls and less than 1% of the EPTs expanding on the current annotation. The eukaryotic plant pathogens Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora sojae, whose genomes have been recently sequenced and are much less well annotated, were also subjected to this method. A series of algorithmic steps were taken to increase the confidence of EPT identification for these organisms, including generation of smaller sub-databases to be searched against, and definition of EPT criteria that accommodates the more complex eukaryotic gene architecture. As expected, the analysis of the Phytophthora species showed less correlation between EPT mapping and their current annotation. While ~77% of Phytophthora EPTs supported the current annotation, a portion of them (7.2% and 12.6% for P. ramorum and P. sojae, respectively) suggested modification to current gene calls or identified novel genes that were missed by the current genome annotation of these organisms.

Savidor, Alon [ORNL; Donahoo, Ryan S [ORNL; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Lamour, Kurt H [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL



Identification and Candidate Gene Analysis of a Novel Phytophthora Resistance Gene Rps10 in a Chinese Soybean Cultivar  

PubMed Central

Resistance to Phytophthora sojae isolate PsMC1 was evaluated in 102 F2?3 families derived from a cross between the resistant soybean cultivar Wandou 15 and the susceptible cultivar Williams and genotyped using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The segregation ratio of resistant, segregating, and susceptible phenotypes in the population suggested that the resistance in Wandou 15 was dominant and monogenic. Twenty-six polymorphic SSR markers were identified on soybean chromosome 17 (Molecular linkage group D2; MLG D2), which were linked to the resistance gene based on bulked segregation analysis (BSA). Markers Sattwd15-24/25 and Sattwd15-47 flanked the resistance gene at a distance of 0.5 cM and 0.8 cM, respectively. Two cosegregating markers, Sattwd15-28 and Sattwd15-32, were also screened in this region. This is the first Rps resistance gene mapped on chromosome 17, which is designated as Rps10. Eight putative genes were found in the mapped region between markers Sattwd15-24/25 and Sattwd15-47. Among them, two candidate genes encoding serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases in Wandou 15 and Williams were identified and sequenced. And the differences in genomic sequence and the putative amino acid sequence, respectively, were identified within each candidate gene between Wandou 15 and Williams. This novel gene Rps10 and the linked markers should be useful in developing soybean cultivars with durable resistance to P. sojae. PMID:23936102

Zhang, Jiqing; Xia, Changjian; Duan, Canxing; Sun, Suli; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Zhu, Zhendong



Replicon-Dependent Differentiation of Symbiosis-Related Genes in Sinorhizobium Strains Nodulating Glycine max  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the genetic differentiation of Sinorhizobium strains nodulating Glycine max and related microevolutionary mechanisms, three housekeeping genes (SMc00019, truA, and thrA) and 16 symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome (7 genes), pSymA (6 genes), and pSymB (3 genes) were analyzed. Five distinct species were identified among the test strains by calculating the average nucleotide identity (ANI) of SMc00019-truA-thrA: Sinorhizobium fredii, Sinorhizobium sojae, Sinorhizobium sp. I, Sinorhizobium sp. II, and Sinorhizobium sp. III. These species assignments were also supported by population genetics and phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes and symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome and pSymB. Different levels of genetic differentiation were observed among these species or different replicons. S. sojae was the most divergent from the other test species and was characterized by its low intraspecies diversity and limited geographic distribution. Intergenic recombination dominated the evolution of 19 genes from different replicons. Intraspecies recombination happened frequently in housekeeping genes and symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome and pSymB, whereas pSymA genes showed a clear pattern of lateral-transfer events between different species. Moreover, pSymA genes were characterized by a lower level of polymorphism and recombination than those on the chromosome and pSymB. Taken together, genes from different replicons of rhizobia might be involved in the establishment of symbiosis with legumes, but these symbiosis-related genes might have evolved differently according to their corresponding replicons. PMID:24317084

Guo, Hui Juan; Wang, En Tao; Zhang, Xing Xing; Li, Qin Qin; Zhang, Yan Ming; Chen, Wen Xin



Profiling of dynamic changes in the microbial community during the soy sauce fermentation process.  


Soy sauce is a traditional condiment manufactured by natural inoculation and mixed culture fermentation. As is well known, it is the microbial community that plays an important role in the formation of its flavors. However, to date, its dynamic changes during the long period of fermentation process are still unclear, intensively constraining the improvement and control of the soy sauce quality. In this work, we revealed the dynamic changes of the microbial community by combining a cultured dependent method and a cultured independent method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results indicated that the two methods verified and complemented each other in profiling microbial community, and that significant dynamics of the microbial community existed during the fermentation process, especially the strong inhibition of the growth of most of the microbes when entering into the mash stage from the koji stage. In the analysis of bacterial community, Staphylococcus and Bacillus were found to be the dominant bacteria and detected in the whole fermentation process. Kurthia and Klebsiella began to appear in the koji stage and then fade away in the early stage of the mash fermentation. In the analysis of fungal community, Aspergillus sojae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were found to be the dominant fungi in the koji and mash fermentation, respectively. It was clearly shown that when A. sojae decreased and disappeared in the middle stage of the mash fermentation, Z. rouxii appeared and increased at the meantime. Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon asahii also appeared in the koji and the early period of the mash fermentation and disappeared thereafter. Similar to Z. rouxii, Millerozyma farinosa and Peronospora farinosa were also found spontaneously which appeared in the mid-late period of the mash fermentation. The principal component analysis suggested that the microbial community underwent significant changes in the early period of the fermentation and, thereafter, tended to the stabilization in the mid-late periods. This study gave us important clues to understand the fermentation process and can serve as a foundation for improving the quality of soy sauce in the future. PMID:24037306

Wei, Quanzeng; Wang, Hongbin; Chen, Zhixin; Lv, Zhijia; Xie, Yufeng; Lu, Fuping



Zoospore interspecific signaling promotes plant infection by Phytophthora  

PubMed Central

Background Oomycetes attack a huge variety of economically and ecologically important plants. These pathogens release, detect and respond to signal molecules to coordinate their communal behaviors including the infection process. When signal molecules are present at or above threshold level, single zoospores can infect plants. However, at the beginning of a growing season population densities of individual species are likely below those required to reach a quorum and produce threshold levels of signal molecules to trigger infection. It is unclear whether these molecules are shared among related species and what their chemistries are. Results Zoospore-free fluids (ZFF) from Phytophthora capsici, P. hydropathica, P. nicotianae (ZFFnic), P. sojae (ZFFsoj) and Pythium aphanidermatum were cross tested for stimulating plant infection in three pathosystems. All ZFFs tested significantly increased infection of Catharanthus roseus by P. nicotianae. Similar cross activities were observed in infection of Lupinus polyphyllus and Glycine max by P. sojae. Only ZFFnic and ZFFsoj cross induced zoospore aggregation at a density of 2 × 103 ml-1. Pure autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a component in ZFF, caused zoospore lysis of P. nicotianae before encystment and did not stimulate plant infection at concentrations from 0.01 to 1000 ?M. P. capsici transformants with a transiently silenced AI-2 synthase gene, ribose phosphate isomerase (RPI), infected Capsicum annuum seedlings at the same inoculum concentration as the wild type. Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) were not detected in any ZFFs. After freeze-thaw treatments, ZFF remained active in promoting plant infection but not zoospore aggregation. Heat treatment by boiling for 5 min also did not affect the infection-stimulating property of ZFFnic. Conclusion Oomycetes produce and use different molecules to regulate zoospore aggregation and plant infection. We found that some of these signal molecules could act in an inter-specific manner, though signals for zoospore aggregation were somewhat restricted. This self-interested cooperation among related species gives individual pathogens of the same group a competitive advantage over pathogens and microbes from other groups for limited resources. These findings help to understand why these pathogens often are individually undetectable until severe disease epidemics have developed. The signal molecules for both zoospore aggregation and plant infection are distinct from AI-2 and AHL. PMID:21138563



A putative soybean GmsSOS1 confers enhanced salt tolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis sos1-1 mutant.  


The cDNA of GmsSOS1, a putative plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene isolated from Glycine max, Glycine soja, and their hybrid, was constructed into plant expression vector pCAMBIA 1300 and then transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens under the control of CaMV 35S promoter to Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (WT) and mutant (atsos1-1) plants. By hygromycin resistance detection and PCR analysis, transgenic plants (WT35S:GmsSOS1 and atsos1-1 35S:GmsSOS1) were obtained. Seed germination, seedling growth, and Na(+) contents in roots and shoots were analytically compared among WT, atsos1-1 mutant, and their transgenic lines under salt stress. The results showed that when GmsSOS1 was integrated into the genome of A. thaliana, the inhibitions of salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth were all significantly improved, and enhanced salt tolerance was displayed, which may be attributed to the decrease of Na(+) absorption in roots and transportation in shoots of the transgenic lines, especially for that of atsos1-1 mutant. PMID:24934653

Nie, Wang-Xing; Xu, Lin; Yu, Bing-Jun



Tryptophan biosynthesis in stramenopiles: eukaryotic winners in the diatom complex chloroplast.  


Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that, in eukaryotes, is synthesized either in the plastids of photoautotrophs or in the cytosol of fungi and oomycetes. Here we present an in silico analysis of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway in stramenopiles, based on analysis of the genomes of the oomycetes Phytophthora sojae and P. ramorum and the diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Although the complete pathway is putatively located in the complex chloroplast of diatoms, only one of the involved enzymes, indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (InGPS), displays a possible cyanobacterial origin. On the other hand, in P. tricornutum this gene is fused with the cyanobacteria-derived hypothetical protein COG4398. Anthranilate synthase is also fused in diatoms. This fusion gene is almost certainly of bacterial origin, although the particular source of the gene cannot be resolved. All other diatom enzymes originate from the nucleus of the primary host (red alga) or secondary host (ancestor of chromalveolates). The entire pathway is of eukaryotic origin and cytosolic localization in oomycetes; however, one of the enzymes, anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase, was likely transferred to the oomycete nucleus from the red algal nucleus during secondary endosymbiosis. This suggests possible retention of the complex plastid in the ancestor of stramenopiles and later loss of this organelle in oomycetes. PMID:17938992

Jiroutová, Katerina; Horák, Ales; Bowler, Chris; Oborník, Miroslav



Pericentromeric Effects Shape the Patterns of Divergence, Retention, and Expression of Duplicated Genes in the Paleopolyploid Soybean[C][W  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary forces that govern the divergence and retention of duplicated genes in polyploids are poorly understood. In this study, we first investigated the rates of nonsynonymous substitution (Ka) and the rates of synonymous substitution (Ks) for a nearly complete set of genes in the paleopolyploid soybean (Glycine max) by comparing the orthologs between soybean and its progenitor species Glycine soja and then compared the patterns of gene divergence and expression between pericentromeric regions and chromosomal arms in different gene categories. Our results reveal strong associations between duplication status and Ka and gene expression levels and overall low Ks and low levels of gene expression in pericentromeric regions. It is theorized that deleterious mutations can easily accumulate in recombination-suppressed regions, because of Hill-Robertson effects. Intriguingly, the genes in pericentromeric regions—the cold spots for meiotic recombination in soybean—showed significantly lower Ka and higher levels of expression than their homoeologs in chromosomal arms. This asymmetric evolution of two members of individual whole genome duplication (WGD)-derived gene pairs, echoing the biased accumulation of singletons in pericentromeric regions, suggests that distinct genomic features between the two distinct chromatin types are important determinants shaping the patterns of divergence and retention of WGD-derived genes. PMID:22227891

Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Sui, Yi; Zhao, Meixia; Song, Qijian; Cannon, Steven B.; Cregan, Perry; Ma, Jianxin



Molecular footprints of domestication and improvement in soybean revealed by whole genome re-sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Artificial selection played an important role in the origin of modern Glycine max cultivars from the wild soybean Glycine soja. To elucidate the consequences of artificial selection accompanying the domestication and modern improvement of soybean, 25 new and 30 published whole-genome re-sequencing accessions, which represent wild, domesticated landrace, and Chinese elite soybean populations were analyzed. Results A total of 5,102,244 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 707,969 insertion/deletions were identified. Among the SNPs detected, 25.5% were not described previously. We found that artificial selection during domestication led to more pronounced reduction in the genetic diversity of soybean than the switch from landraces to elite cultivars. Only a small proportion (2.99%) of the whole genomic regions appear to be affected by artificial selection for preferred agricultural traits. The selection regions were not distributed randomly or uniformly throughout the genome. Instead, clusters of selection hotspots in certain genomic regions were observed. Moreover, a set of candidate genes (4.38% of the total annotated genes) significantly affected by selection underlying soybean domestication and genetic improvement were identified. Conclusions Given the uniqueness of the soybean germplasm sequenced, this study drew a clear picture of human-mediated evolution of the soybean genomes. The genomic resources and information provided by this study would also facilitate the discovery of genes/loci underlying agronomically important traits. PMID:23984715



Computational Identification and Characterization of Novel Genes from Legumes1[w  

PubMed Central

The Fabaceae, the third largest family of plants and the source of many crops, has been the target of many genomic studies. Currently, only the grasses surpass the legumes for the number of publicly available expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The quantity of sequences from diverse plants enables the use of computational approaches to identify novel genes in specific taxa. We used BLAST algorithms to compare unigene sets from Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, and soybean (Glycine max and Glycine soja) to nonlegume unigene sets, to GenBank's nonredundant and EST databases, and to the genomic sequences of rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis. As a working definition, putatively legume-specific genes had no sequence homology, below a specified threshold, to publicly available sequences of nonlegumes. Using this approach, 2,525 legume-specific EST contigs were identified, of which less than three percent had clear homology to previously characterized legume genes. As a first step toward predicting function, related sequences were clustered to build motifs that could be searched against protein databases. Three families of interest were more deeply characterized: F-box related proteins, Pro-rich proteins, and Cys cluster proteins (CCPs). Of particular interest were the >300 CCPs, primarily from nodules or seeds, with predicted similarity to defensins. Motif searching also identified several previously unknown CCP-like open reading frames in Arabidopsis. Evolutionary analyses of the genomic sequences of several CCPs in M. truncatula suggest that this family has evolved by local duplications and divergent selection. PMID:15266052

Graham, Michelle A.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.; Cannon, Steven B.; VandenBosch, Kathryn A.



Phylogenetic relationship of Lotus uliginosus symbionts with bradyrhizobia nodulating genistoid legumes.  


Lotus species are legumes with potential for pastures in soils with low-fertility and environmental constraints. The aim of this work was to characterize bacteria that establish efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the forage species Lotus uliginosus. A total of 39 isolates were obtained from nodules of L. uliginosus naturally growing in two different locations of Portugal. Molecular identification of the isolates plus the commercial inoculant strain NZP2039 was performed by REP-PCR, 16S rRNA RFLP, and 16S rRNA, glnII and recA sequence analyses. Limited genetic diversity was found among the L. uliginosus symbionts, which showed a close phylogenetic relationship with the species Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The symbiotic nifH, nodA and nodC gene sequences were closely related with the corresponding genes of various Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from Lupinus and other genistoid legumes and therefore were phylogenetically separated from other Lotus spp. rhizobia. The L. uliginosus bradyrhizobia were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in association with L. uliginosus, could nodulate Lotus corniculatus with generally poor nitrogen-fixing efficiency, formed nonfixing nodules in Lotus tenuis and Lupinus luteus roots and were unable to nodulate Glycine soja or Glycine max. Thus, L. uliginosus rhizobia seem closely related to B. japonicum biovar genistearum strains. PMID:22092879

Lorite, María J; Videira e Castro, Isabel; Muñoz, Socorro; Sanjuán, Juan



Physical and chemical studies of a low-molecular-weight form of urease  

PubMed Central

1. A new form of enzymically active jack-bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC] urease corresponding to an S20,w value of 11·8s and a molecular weight of 260000 was investigated. 2. Conversion of 18s urease (EC into the 12s form depends on both low protein concentration and pH. Above pH5·3 urease exists in the 18s form and below pH4·8 in the 12s form; between these two pH values a 12s–18s rapid-equilibrium process is observed. 3. Comparison of the properties of 18s and 12s urease indicated no major differences. 4. A survey of other good urease sources revealed that the 12s form can also be obtained from soya bean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc. cultivar Biloxi) and the bacterium Bacillus pasteurii (Miguel) Migula, but not from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. cultivar Congo). 5. The 12s forms from jack bean and Bacillus pasteurii did not hybridize. ImagesFig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:5691753

Tanis, Robert J.; Naylor, Aubrey W.



Development of a high resolution interstellar dust engineering model - overview of the project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beyond 3 AU heliocentric distance, the flow of interstellar dust through the solar system is a dominant component of the total dust population. The modulation of this flux with the solar cycle and the position in the solar system has been predicted by theoretical studies since the seventies. The modulation was proven to exist by matching dust trajectory simulations with real spacecraft data from Ulysses in 1998. The modulations were further analyzed and studies in detail in 2012. The current ESA interplanetary meteoroid model IMEM includes an interstellar dust component, but this component was modelled only with straight line trajectories through the solar system. For the new ESA IMEX model, a high-resolution interstellar dust component is implemented separately from a dust streams module. The dust streams module focuses on dust in streams that was released from comets (cf. Abstract R. Soja). Parallel processing techniques are used to improve computation time (cf. Abstract P. Strub). The goal is to make predictions for the interstellar dust flux as close to the Sun as 1 AU or closer, for future space mission design.

Sterken, V. J.; Strub, P.; Soja, R. H.; Srama, R.; Krüger, H.; Grün, E.



Toxic metal contamination in Artemisia annua L. herbal preparations from different commercial sources in China.  


Toxic metal contamination was investigated in Artemisia annua L. herbal preparations from different commercial sources in China. Measurable amounts of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and aluminium (Al) were detected in commercial dried Artemisia annua L., Massa Medicata Fermentata (Shenqu), Semen Sojae Praeparatum, medicated leaven (Jianqu) and an oral dose of Zhongganling-pian by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). A total of 69 samples were collected from different sources in the Chinese market. Toxic metals contents in the investigated samples were found at different levels. Results showed that 94.20, 100, 97.10, 91.30 and 94.20% of the products fully complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in China pertaining to Cu, Pb, As, Hg and Cd, respectively. Although toxic metal concentrations measured in this study do not pose a serious health risk, they do affect the quality of herbal preparations. Moreover, on the basis of the results obtained in the present work, it is concluded that the present techniques are suitable for the routine determination of toxic metals concentration in various pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:21293935

Wu, Jianwei; Tan, Yinfeng; Wang, Yuqi; Xu, Rong



Anxiolytic effects of flavonoids in animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder.  


The dysregulation of the serotonergic system has long been recognized as an important factor underlying the pathophysiology of PTSD. To date, SSRIs have already been established as the firstline pharmacotherapeutic agents for treating acute and chronic PTSD. However, SSRIs largely have several disadvantages which limit their utility. Our previous study has also shown that administration of the total flavonoids, isolated from the extract of Xiaobuxin-Tang (XBXT, mild mind-easing decoction), comprising four Chinese medicines including Haematitum, Flos Inulae, Folium Phyllostachydis Henonis, and Semen Sojae Preparatum, exerted significant antidepressant-like effect in chronically mildly stressed rats, possibly mediated by serotonergic activation. Since the central serotonergic dysfunction is an important and well-known cause mediating the pathophysiology of trauma-related symptoms in PTSD, it is reasonable to predict that flavonoids may exert therapeutic effects on PTSD in animal models. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the effect of flavonoids in alleviating the enhanced anxiety and fear response induced in two PTSD animal models. Ser, an SSRI, was administered as a positive control. Furthermore, the changes of brain monoaminergic neurotransmitters after chronic flavonoids administration have also been assessed in SPS-treated rats. PMID:23316258

Zhang, Li-Ming; Yao, Jia-Zhi; Li, Yang; Li, Kai; Chen, Hong-Xia; Zhang, You-Zhi; Li, Yun-Feng



An improved method for basic hydrolysis of isoflavone malonylglucosides and quality evaluation of Chinese soy materials.  


Basic hydrolysis procedure is often included in the sample preparation in order to quantify malonylglucosides or acetylglucosides of soy materials. However, it is preferable not to use NaOH as a hydrolytic reagent considering the effect of its alkalinity on the successive injection to HPLC and low acidity of soy isoflavones. This paper presents an improved method for basic hydrolysis using ammonia as a hydrolytic reagent without the additional neutralization step. Moreover, by means of HPLC and LC-MS methods, a systematic quality evaluation of natural soy materials from Chinese markets were established and discussed, inclusive of soybeans, black soybeans, defatted soy flours, as well as the distribution of isoflavones in the seed coat, hypocotyl and cotyledon. The results indicate that HPLC profiling patterns of originating various isoflavone constituents of Chinese soybeans was similar to those of Japanese ones, and those of Chinese black soybeans was similar to those of American ones. The average content level of total soy isoflavones of Chinese soybeans and black soybeans were a little lower than that of American and Japanese ones. Additionally, the thorough analysis for Semen Sojae Praeparatum, a Chinese herbal medicine made from fermented black soybeans or soybeans was done for the first time and the characteristic of its HPLC profiling patterns shows the higher content of isoflavone glucosides and aglycones than those of natural soy materials. PMID:18175965

Yuan, Dan; Pan, Yingni; Chen, Yan; Uno, Toshio; Zhang, Shaohui; Kano, Yoshihiro



Tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of plant pathogenic fungi and the effects of database composition on protein inferences  

PubMed Central

LC-MS/MS has demonstrated potential for detecting plant pathogens. Unlike PCR or ELISA, LC-MS/MS does not require pathogen-specific reagents for the detection of pathogen-specific proteins and peptides. However, the MS/MS approach we and others have explored does require a protein sequence reference database and database-search software to interpret tandem mass spectra. To evaluate the limitations of database composition on pathogen identification, we analyzed proteins from cultured Ustilago maydis, Phytophthora sojae, Fusarium graminearum, and Rhizoctonia solani by LC-MS/MS. When the search database did not contain sequences for a target pathogen, or contained sequences to related pathogens, target pathogen spectra were reliably matched to protein sequences from nontarget organisms, giving an illusion that proteins from nontarget organisms were identified. Our analysis demonstrates that when database-search software is used as part of the identification process, a paradox exists whereby additional sequences needed to detect a wide variety of possible organisms may lead to more cross-species protein matches and misidentification of pathogens. PMID:17922518

Padliya, Neerav D.; Garrett, Wesley M.; Campbell, Kimberly B.; Tabb, David L.; Cooper, Bret



Comparative ecophysiological study of salt stress for wild and cultivated soybean species from the Yellow River Delta, China.  


Osmotic and ionic stresses were the primary and instant damage produced by salt stress. They can also bring about other secondary stresses. Soybean is an important economic crop and the wild soybean aroused increasing attention for its excellent performance in salt resistance. For this reason, we compared the different performances of Glycine max L. (ZH13) and Glycine soja L. (BB52) in both young and mature seedlings, hoping to clarify the specific reasons. Our research revealed that, compared to the cultivated soybean, the wild soybean was able to maintain higher water potential and relative water content (RWC), accumulate more amount of proline and glycine betaine, reduce the contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) by faster efflux, and cut down the efflux of the K(+) as well as keep higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio. And what is more is that, almost all the excel behaviors became particularly obvious under higher NaCl concentration (300 mM). Therefore, according to all the detections and comparisons, we concluded that the wild soybean had different tolerance mechanisms and better salt resistance. It should be used as eminent germplasm resource to enhance the resistant ability of cultivated soybean or even other crops. PMID:24999494

Wu, Gang; Zhou, Zhengda; Chen, Peng; Tang, Xiaoli; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan



Molecular and Chromosomal Evidence for Allopolyploidy in Soybean1[OA  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have documented that the soybean (Glycine max) genome has undergone two rounds of large-scale genome and/or segmental duplication. To shed light on the timing and nature of these duplication events, we characterized and analyzed two subfamilies of high-copy centromeric satellite repeats, CentGm-1 and CentGm-2, using a combination of computational and molecular cytogenetic approaches. These two subfamilies of satellite repeats mark distinct subsets of soybean centromeres and, in at least one case, a pair of homologs, suggesting their origins from an allopolyploid event. The satellite monomers of each subfamily are arranged in large tandem arrays, and intermingled monomers of the two subfamilies were not detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization on extended DNA fibers nor at the sequence level. This indicates that there has been little recombination and homogenization of satellite DNA between these two sets of centromeres. These satellite repeats are also present in Glycine soja, the proposed wild progenitor of soybean, but could not be detected in any other relatives of soybean examined in this study, suggesting the rapid divergence of the centromeric satellite DNA within the Glycine genus. Together, these observations provide direct evidence, at molecular and chromosomal levels, in support of the hypothesis that the soybean genome has experienced a recent allopolyploidization event. PMID:19605552

Gill, Navdeep; Findley, Seth; Walling, Jason G.; Hans, Christian; Ma, Jianxin; Doyle, Jeff; Stacey, Gary; Jackson, Scott A.



Pericentromeric Regions of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Chromosomes Consist of Retroelements and Tandemly Repeated DNA and Are Structurally and Evolutionarily Labile  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the physical makeup of heterochromatin in the soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) genome. Using DNA sequencing and molecular cytogenetics, an initial analysis of the repetitive fraction of the soybean genome is presented. BAC 076J21, derived from linkage group L, has sequences conserved in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of all 20 chromosomes. FISH analysis of this BAC and three subclones on pachytene chromosomes revealed relatively strict partitioning of the heterochromatic and euchromatic regions. Sequence analysis showed that this BAC consists primarily of repetitive sequences such as a 102-bp tandem repeat with sequence identity to a previously characterized ?120-bp repeat (STR120). Fragments of Calypso-like retroelements, a recently inserted SIRE1 element, and a SIRE1 solo LTR were present within this BAC. Some of these sequences are methylated and are not conserved outside of G. max and G. soja, a close relative of soybean, except for STR102, which hybridized to a restriction fragment from G. latifolia. These data present a picture of the repetitive fraction of the soybean genome that is highly concentrated in the pericentromeric regions, consisting of rapidly evolving tandem repeats with interspersed retroelements. PMID:15879505

Lin, Jer-Young; Jacobus, Barbara Hass; SanMiguel, Phillip; Walling, Jason G.; Yuan, Yinan; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Young, Nevin D.; Jackson, Scott A.



A novel protein elicitor (SsCut) from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum induces multiple defense responses in plants.  


In this study, we report the cloning of the SsCut gene encoding cutinase from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We isolated a 609-bp cDNA encoding a polypeptide of 202 amino acids with a molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. Heterologous expression of SsCut in Escherichia coli (His-SsCut) caused the formation of lesions in tobacco that closely resembled hypersensitive response lesions. Mutational analysis identified the C-terminal-half peptide and the same amino acids indispensable for both enzyme and elicitor activity. His-SsCut was caused cell death in Arabidopsis, soybean (Glycine max), oilseed rape (Brassica napus), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), indicating that both dicot and monocot species are responsive to the elicitor. Furthermore, the elicitation of tobacco was effective in the induction of the activities of hydrogen peroxide, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxides, and polyphenol oxidase. His-SsCut-treated plants exhibited enhanced resistance as indicated by a significant reduction in the number and size of S. sclerotiorum, Phytophthora sojae, and P. nicotianae lesions on leaves relative to controls. Real-time PCR results indicated that the expression of defense-related genes and genes involved in signal transduction were induced by His-SsCut. Our results demonstrate that SsCut is an elicitor that triggers defense responses in plants and will help to clarify its relationship to downstream signaling pathways that induce defense responses. PMID:25149470

Zhang, Huajian; Wu, Qun; Cao, Shun; Zhao, Tongyao; Chen, Ling; Zhuang, Peitong; Zhou, Xiuhong; Gao, Zhimou



Comparative Ecophysiological Study of Salt Stress for Wild and Cultivated Soybean Species from the Yellow River Delta, China  

PubMed Central

Osmotic and ionic stresses were the primary and instant damage produced by salt stress. They can also bring about other secondary stresses. Soybean is an important economic crop and the wild soybean aroused increasing attention for its excellent performance in salt resistance. For this reason, we compared the different performances of Glycine max L. (ZH13) and Glycine soja L. (BB52) in both young and mature seedlings, hoping to clarify the specific reasons. Our research revealed that, compared to the cultivated soybean, the wild soybean was able to maintain higher water potential and relative water content (RWC), accumulate more amount of proline and glycine betaine, reduce the contents of Na+ and Cl? by faster efflux, and cut down the efflux of the K+ as well as keep higher K+/Na+ ratio. And what is more is that, almost all the excel behaviors became particularly obvious under higher NaCl concentration (300?mM). Therefore, according to all the detections and comparisons, we concluded that the wild soybean had different tolerance mechanisms and better salt resistance. It should be used as eminent germplasm resource to enhance the resistant ability of cultivated soybean or even other crops. PMID:24999494

Wu, Gang; Zhou, Zhengda; Chen, Peng; Tang, Xiaoli; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan



Interactions between preparations containing female sex hormones and dietary supplements.  


An increasing number of premenopausal women use contraception whereas postmenopausal women use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This long-term hormone therapy poses a high risk of interactions with dietary supplements. Taking estrogens at the same time as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), biologically-active compounds of glycine soja, Ginkgo biloba or Pimpinella anisum, may distort the final effect of the hormone agent. On the other hand, estrogen therapy coupled with melatonin or retinol supplementation may lead to an increased level of dietary supplements in the serum as studies have proved a concomitant beneficial effect of HRT and vitamin E supplementation on lipid profiles. In turn, taking preparations containing St John's wort during hormone therapy may lead to a reduction in hormone concentrations in serum and debilitation of the pharmacological effect. It results from the inductive effect of the biologically-active compounds of St John's wort on the metabolism of hormones as a result of the enhanced activity of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4. PMID:25166453

Zab?ocka-S?owi?ska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga



Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis Resistant Glycine Lines  

PubMed Central

Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the mid-South region of the United States. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen. Sixty-one wild and domestic soybean lines were evaluated in replicated growth chamber tests. Six previously untested soybean lines with useful levels of resistance to reniform nematode were identified in both initial screening and subsequent confirmation tests: released germplasm lines DS4-SCN05 (PI 656647) and DS-880 (PI 659348); accession PI 567516 C; and breeding lines DS97-84-1, 02011-126-1-1-2-1 and 02011-126-1-1-5-1. Eleven previously untested moderately susceptible or susceptible lines were also identified: released germplasm lines D68-0099 (PI 573285) and LG01-5087-5; accessions PI 200538, PI 416937, PI 423941, PI 437697, PI 467312, PI 468916, PI 594692, and PI 603751 A; and cultivar Stafford (PI 508269). Results of previously tested lines evaluated in the current study agreed with published reports 69.6% of the time for resistant lines and 87.5% of the time for susceptible lines. Soybean breeders may benefit from incorporating the newly identified resistant lines into their breeding programs. PMID:24643425

Stetina, Salliana R.; Smith, James R.; Ray, Jeffery D.



Effects of Aspergillus Species Inoculation and Their Enzymatic Activities on the Formation of Volatile Components in Fermented Soybean Paste (doenjang).  


The volatile components of rice-koji doenjang produced in association with various Aspergillus species (A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. kawachii) during 8 weeks of fermentation were compared using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. In addition, the activities of diverse enzymes (?-amylase, protease, lipase, and esterase) were determined to investigate their effects on the formation of volatile compounds. Regardless of the fungi types, carbonyls including 4-methylheptan-2-one, heptan-2-one, (E)-hept-2-enal, and hexanal were found to contribute mainly to early phase fermentation, whereas the contents of ethyl esters of long-chained fatty acids were considerably enhanced in the latter stage of fermentation. With the exception of ?-amylase, the activities of the studied enzymes generally increased as fermentation proceeded, and there were significant differences in enzymes activities between the species of fungi. The lipase activity was strongly correlated with the formation of long-chain fatty acid esters, which could be related to the distinctive organoleptic properties of rice-koji doenjang. PMID:25590895

Kum, Sun-Joo; Yang, Seung-Ok; Lee, Sang Mi; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Jae Jung; Hurh, Byung Serk; Kim, Young-Suk



FISH mapping of the 5S and 18S-28S rDNA loci in different species of Glycine.  


Wild germplasms are often the only significant sources of useful traits for crops, such as soybean, that have limited genetic variability. Before these germplasms can be effectively manipulated they must be characterized at the cytological and molecular levels. Modern soybean probably arose through an ancient allotetraploid event and subsequent diploidization of the genome. However, wild Glycine species have not been intensively investigated for this ancient polyploidy. In this article we determined the number of both the 5S and 18S-28S rDNA sequences in various members of the genus Glycine using FISH. Our results distinctly establish the loss of a 5S rDNA locus from the "diploid" (2n = 40) species and the loss of two from the (2n = 80) polyploids of GLYCINE: A similar diploidization of the 18S-28S rDNA gene family has occurred in G. canescens, G. clandestina, G. soja, and G. max (L.) Merr. (2n = 40). Although of different genome types, G. tabacina and G. tomentella (2n = 80) both showed two major 18S-28S rDNA loci per haploid genome, in contrast to the four loci that would be expected in chromosomes that have undergone two doubling events in their evolutionary history. It is evident that the evolution of the subgenus Glycine is more complex than that represented in a simple diploid-doubled to tetraploid model. PMID:11447252

Krishnan, P; Sapra, V T; Soliman, K M; Zipf, A



Exploration of presence/absence variation and corresponding polymorphic markers in soybean genome.  


This study was designed to reveal the genome-wide distribution of presence/absence variation (PAV) and to establish a database of polymorphic PAV markers in soybean. The 33 soybean whole-genome sequences were compared to each other with that of Williams 82 as a reference genome. A total of 33,127 PAVs were detected and 28,912 PAV markers with their primer sequences were designed as the database NJAUSoyPAV_1.0. The PAVs scattered on whole genome while only 518 (1.8%) overlapped with simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in BARCSOYSSR_1.0 database. In a random sample of 800 PAVs, 713 (89.13%) showed polymorphism among the 12 differential genotypes. Using 126 PAVs and 108 SSRs to test a Chinese soybean germplasm collection composed of 828 Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. and Glycine max (L.) Merr. accessions, the per locus allele number and its variation appeared less in PAVs than in SSRs. The distinctness among alleles/bands of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) products showed better in PAVs than in SSRs, potential in accurate marker-assisted allele selection. The association mapping results showed SSR?+?PAV was more powerful than any single marker systems. The NJAUSoyPAV_1.0 database has enriched the source of PCR markers, and may fit the materials with a range of per locus allele numbers, if jointly used with SSR markers. PMID:24751174

Wang, Yufeng; Lu, Jiangjie; Chen, Shouyi; Shu, Liping; Palmer, Reid G; Xing, Guangnan; Li, Yan; Yang, Shouping; Yu, Deyue; Zhao, Tuanjie; Gai, Junyi



Genetic Variation in an Inbred Plant: Variation in Tissue Cultures of Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merrill  

PubMed Central

Although soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grows as an inbreeding, generally homozygous, plant, the germplasm of the species contains large amounts of genetic variation. Analysis of soybean DNA has indicated that variation of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers within the species usually entails only two alleles at any one locus and that mixtures of such dimorphic loci account for virtually all of the restriction fragment variation seen in soybean (G. max), and in its ancestors, G. soja and G. gracilis. We report here that tissue cultures prepared from root tissue of individual soybean plants develop RFLP allelic differences at various loci. However, these newly generated alleles are almost always the same as ones previously found and characterized in other varieties of cultivated soybean (cultivars). This repeated generation of particular alleles suggests that much of the genetic variation seen in soybean could be the consequence of specific, relatively frequently employed, recombinational events. Such a mechanism would allow inbred cultivars to generate genetic variation (in the form of alternative alleles) in a controlled manner, perhaps in response to stress. PMID:2567263

Roth, E. J.; Frazier, B. L.; Apuya, N. R.; Lark, K. G.



Uncovering the Salt Response of Soybean by Unraveling Its Wild and Cultivated Functional Genomes Using Tag Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Soil salinity has very adverse effects on growth and yield of crop plants. Several salt tolerant wild accessions and cultivars are reported in soybean. Functional genomes of salt tolerant Glycine soja and a salt sensitive genotype of Glycine max were investigated to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance in soybean. For this purpose, four libraries were constructed for Tag sequencing on Illumina platform. We identify around 490 salt responsive genes which included a number of transcription factors, signaling proteins, translation factors and structural genes like transporters, multidrug resistance proteins, antiporters, chaperons, aquaporins etc. The gene expression levels and ratio of up/down-regulated genes was greater in tolerant plants. Translation related genes remained stable or showed slightly higher expression in tolerant plants under salinity stress. Further analyses of sequenced data and the annotations for gene ontology and pathways indicated that soybean adapts to salt stress through ABA biosynthesis and regulation of translation and signal transduction of structural genes. Manipulation of these pathways may mitigate the effect of salt stress thus enhancing salt tolerance. PMID:23209559

Ali, Zulfiqar; Zhang, Da Yong; Xu, Zhao Long; Xu, Ling; Yi, Jin Xin; He, Xiao Lan; Huang, Yi Hong; Liu, Xiao Qing; Khan, Asif Ali; Trethowan, Richard M.; Ma, Hong Xiang



Carbohydrate-related enzymes of important Phytophthora plant pathogens.  


Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes) form particularly interesting targets to study in plant pathogens. Despite the fact that many CAZymes are pathogenicity factors, oomycete CAZymes have received significantly less attention than effectors in the literature. Here we present an analysis of the CAZymes present in the Phytophthora infestans, Ph. ramorum, Ph. sojae and Pythium ultimum genomes compared to growth of these species on a range of different carbon sources. Growth on these carbon sources indicates that the size of enzyme families involved in degradation of cell-wall related substrates like cellulose, xylan and pectin is not always a good predictor of growth on these substrates. While a capacity to degrade xylan and cellulose exists the products are not fully saccharified and used as a carbon source. The Phytophthora genomes encode larger CAZyme sets when compared to Py. ultimum, and encode putative cutinases, GH12 xyloglucanases and GH10 xylanases that are missing in the Py. ultimum genome. Phytophthora spp. also encode a larger number of enzyme families and genes involved in pectin degradation. No loss or gain of complete enzyme families was found between the Phytophthora genomes, but there are some marked differences in the size of some enzyme families. PMID:25192612

Brouwer, Henk; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; de Vries, Ronald P



Wrinkle reduction in post-menopausal women consuming a novel oral supplement: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Objective The maintenance of youthful skin appearance is strongly desired by a large proportion of the world's population. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the effect on skin wrinkling, of a combination of ingredients reported to influence key factors involved in skin ageing, namely inflammation, collagen synthesis and oxidative/UV stress. A supplemented drink was developed containing soy isoflavones, lycopene, vitamin C and vitamin E and given to post-menopausal women with a capsule containing fish oil. Method We have performed a double-blind randomized controlled human clinical study to assess whether this cocktail of dietary ingredients can significantly improve the appearance of facial wrinkles. Results We have shown that this unique combination of micronutrients can significantly reduce the depth of facial wrinkles and that this improvement is associated with increased deposition of new collagen fibres in the dermis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that consumption of a mixture of soy isoflavones, lycopene, vitamin C, vitamin E and fish oil is able to induce a clinically measureable improvement in the depth of facial wrinkles following long-term use. We have also shown, for the first time with an oral product, that the improvement is associated with increased deposition of new collagen fibres in the dermis. Résumé Objectif Le maintien de l'apparence d'une peau jeune est vivement souhaité par une grande proportion de la population mondiale. L'objectif de la présente étude était donc d'évaluer l'effet sur les rides de la peau, d'une combinaison d'ingrédients rapportés à influer sur les facteurs clés impliqués dans le vieillissement de la peau, à savoir l'inflammation, la synthèse du collagène et le stress oxydatif / UV. Une boisson supplémentée a été élaborée contenant des isoflavones de soja, le lycopène, la vitamine C et la vitamine E et donnée aux femmes ménopausées avec une capsule contenant de l'huile de poisson. Méthode Nous avons effectué une étude clinique humaine contrôlée randomisée en double aveugle afin de déterminer si ce cocktail d'ingrédients alimentaires pouvait améliorer considérablement l'apparence des rides du visage. Résultats Nous avons montré que cette combinaison unique de micronutriments peut réduire considérablement la profondeur des rides du visage et que cette amélioration est associée à un dépôt de nouvelles fibres de collagène dans le derme. Conclusion Cette étude montre que la consommation d'un mélange d'isoflavones de soja, de lycopène, de la vitamine C et de la vitamine E et de l'huile de poisson est capable d'induire une amélioration cliniquement mesurable dans la profondeur des rides du visage après utilisation à long terme. Nous avons également montré, pour la première fois avec un produit oral, que l'amélioration est associée à une augmentation du dépôt de nouvelles fibres de collagène dans le derme. PMID:23927381

Jenkins, G; Wainwright, L J; Holland, R; Barrett, K E; Casey, J



Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense sp. nov., an effective symbiotic bacterium isolated from soybean (Glycine max L.) nodules.  


In a survey of the biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with soybean (Glycine max L.) in different sites of the Northern (Huang-Huai-Hai) Plain of China, ten strains were defined as representing a novel genomic species in the genus of Bradyrhizobium. They were distinguished from defined species in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer (IGS). In BOX-PCR, these strains presented two patterns that shared 94% similarity, demonstrating that they were a homogenous group with limited diversity. In phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, IGS and housekeeping gene sequences, four representative strains formed a distant lineage within the genus Bradyrhizobium, which was consistent with the results of DNA-DNA hybridization. The strains of this novel group formed effective nodules with G. max, Glycine soja and Vigna unguiculata in cross-nodulation tests and harboured symbiotic genes (nodC and nifH) identical to those of reference strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and 'Bradyrhizobium daqingense' originating from soybean, implying that the novel group may have obtained these symbiotic genes by lateral gene transfer. In analyses of cellular fatty acids and phenotypic features, some differences were found between the novel group and related Bradyrhizobium species, demonstrating that the novel group is distinct phenotypically from other Bradyrhizobium species. Based upon the data obtained, these strains are proposed to represent a novel species, Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense sp. nov., with CCBAU 23303(T) (?=?LMG 26136(T) ?=?CGMCC 1.10948(T) ?=?HAMBI 3180(T)) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content of strain CCBAU 23303(T) is 61.5 mol% (T(m)). PMID:22003042

Zhang, Yan Ming; Li, Ying; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, En Tao; Sui, Xin Hua; Li, Qin Qin; Zhang, Yun Zeng; Zhou, Yu Guang; Chen, Wen Xin



Phytophthora Have Distinct Endogenous Small RNA Populations That Include Short Interfering and microRNAs  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work. PMID:24204767

Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R.; Kasschau, Kristin D.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Press, Caroline M.; Sullivan, Christopher M.; Chapman, Elisabeth J.; Hoyer, J. Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.; Carrington, James C.



Characterization of chemical constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  


A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75  × 3.0 mm, 2.2 ?m) using a gradient elution program. The detection was performed on a Waters Xevo G2 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 82 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Of the 82 compounds, 21 compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing MS data and retrieving the reference literature. In addition, 31 compounds were identified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, ten compounds were identified from Rheum palmatum L., 33 compounds were identified from Citrus aurantium L., and eight compounds were identified from Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Results indicated that iridoids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumarins, glycosides of crocetin, monoterpenoids, and organic acids were major constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. It is concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. PMID:25195935

Zhu, Heyun; Yin, Ran; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Bi, Kaishun



Phytophthora niederhauserii sp. nov., a polyphagous species associated with ornamentals, fruit trees and native plants in 13 countries.  


A non-papillate, heterothallic Phytophthora species first isolated in 2001 and subsequently from symptomatic roots, crowns and stems of 33 plant species in 25 unrelated botanical families from 13 countries is formally described here as a new species. Symptoms on various hosts included crown and stem rot, chlorosis, wilting, leaf blight, cankers and gumming. This species was isolated from Australia, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, the United Kingdom and United States in association with shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals grown mainly in greenhouses. The most prevalent hosts are English ivy (Hedera helix) and Cistus (Cistus salvifolius). The association of the species with acorn banksia (Banksia prionotes) plants in natural ecosystems in Australia, in affected vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in South Africa and almond (Prunus dulcis) trees in Spain and Turkey in addition to infection of shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals in a broad range of unrelated families are a sign of a wide ecological adaptation of the species and its potential threat to agricultural and natural ecosystems. The morphology of the persistent non-papillate ellipsoid sporangia, unique toruloid lobate hyphal swellings and amphigynous antheridia does not match any of the described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the ITS rDNA, EF-1?, and ?-tub supported that this organism is a hitherto unknown species. It is closely related to species in ITS clade 7b with the most closely related species being P. sojae. The name Phytophthora niederhauserii has been used in previous studies without the formal description of the holotype. This name is validated in this manuscript with the formal description of Phytophthora niederhauserii Z.G. Abad et J.A. Abad, sp. nov. The name is coined to honor Dr John S. Niederhauser, a notable plant pathologist and the 1990 World Food Prize laureate. PMID:24871599

Abad, Z Gloria; Abad, Jorge A; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Pane, Antonella; Faedda, Roberto; Moralejo, Eduardo; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; Abad-Campos, Paloma; Alvarez-Bernaola, Luis A; Bakonyi, József; Józsa, András; Herrero, Maria Luz; Burgess, Treena I; Cunnington, James H; Smith, Ian W; Balci, Yilmaz; Blomquist, Cheryl; Henricot, Béatrice; Denton, Geoffrey; Spies, Chris; Mcleod, Adele; Belbahri, Lassaad; Cooke, David; Kageyama, Koji; Uematsu, Seiji; Kurbetli, Ilker; De?irmenci, Kemal



Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov., a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium from root nodules of soybeans in Canada.  


Sixteen strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of Glycine max grown in Ottawa, Canada, were previously characterized and placed in a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized using a polyphasic approach. All strains possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that were 99.79?% similar to the closest relative, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense LMG 18230(T). Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated atpD, glnII, recA, gyrB, rpoB and dnaK genes divided the 16 strains into three multilocus sequence types that were placed in a highly supported lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium consistent with results of DNA-DNA hybridization. Based on analysis of symbiosis gene sequences (nodC and nifH), all novel strains were placed in a phylogenetic group with five species of the genus Bradyrhizobium that nodulate soybeans. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests including carbon and nitrogen source utilization and antibiotic resistance could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Novel strain OO99(T) elicits effective nodules on Glycine max, Glycine soja and Macroptilium atropurpureum, partially effective nodules on Desmodium canadense and Vigna unguiculata, and ineffective nodules on Amphicarpaea bracteata and Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on the data presented, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium ottawaense sp. nov. is proposed, with OO99(T) (?=?LMG 26739(T)?=?HAMBI 3284(T)) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content is 62.6 mol%. PMID:24969302

Yu, Xiumei; Cloutier, Sylvie; Tambong, James T; Bromfield, Eden S P



Major Soybean Maturity Gene Haplotypes Revealed by SNPViz Analysis of 72 Sequenced Soybean Genomes  

PubMed Central

In this Genomics Era, vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data have become publicly available for multiple genomes across hundreds of species. Analyses of these large-scale datasets can become cumbersome, especially when comparing nucleotide polymorphisms across many samples within a dataset and among different datasets or organisms. To facilitate the exploration of allelic variation and diversity, we have developed and deployed an in-house computer software to categorize and visualize these haplotypes. The SNPViz software enables users to analyze region-specific haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) datasets for different sequenced genomes. The examination of allelic variation and diversity of important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] flowering time and maturity genes may provide additional insight into flowering time regulation and enhance researchers' ability to target soybean breeding for particular environments. For this study, we utilized two available soybean genomic datasets for a total of 72 soybean genotypes encompassing cultivars, landraces, and the wild species Glycine soja. The major soybean maturity genes E1, E2, E3, and E4 along with the Dt1 gene for plant growth architecture were analyzed in an effort to determine the number of major haplotypes for each gene, to evaluate the consistency of the haplotypes with characterized variant alleles, and to identify evidence of artificial selection. The results indicated classification of a small number of predominant haplogroups for each gene and important insights into possible allelic diversity for each gene within the context of known causative mutations. The software has both a stand-alone and web-based version and can be used to analyze other genes, examine additional soybean datasets, and view similar genome sequence and SNP datasets from other species. PMID:24727730

Langewisch, Tiffany; Zhang, Hongxin; Vincent, Ryan; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Bilyeu, Kristin



Salinity tolerance in soybean is modulated by natural variation in GmSALT3.  


The identification of genes that improve the salt tolerance of crops is essential for the effective utilization of saline soils for agriculture. Here, we use fine mapping in a soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) population derived from the commercial cultivars Tiefeng 8 and 85-140 to identify GmSALT3 (salt tolerance-associated gene on chromosome 3), a dominant gene associated with limiting the accumulation of sodium ions (Na+) in shoots and a substantial enhancement in salt tolerance in soybean. GmSALT3 encodes a protein from the cation/H+ exchanger family that we localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and which is preferentially expressed in the salt-tolerant parent Tiefeng 8 within root cells associated with phloem and xylem. We identified in the salt-sensitive parent, 85-140, a 3.78-kb copia retrotransposon insertion in exon 3 of Gmsalt3 that truncates the transcript. By sequencing 31 soybean landraces and 22 wild soybean (Glycine soja) a total of nine haplotypes including two salt-tolerant haplotypes and seven salt-sensitive haplotypes were identified. By analysing the distribution of haplotypes among 172 Chinese soybean landraces and 57 wild soybean we found that haplotype 1 (H1, found in Tiefeng 8) was strongly associated with salt tolerance and is likely to be the ancestral allele. Alleles H2-H6, H8 and H9, which do not confer salinity tolerance, were acquired more recently. H1, unlike other alleles, has a wide geographical range including saline areas, which indicates it is maintained when required but its potent stress tolerance can be lost during natural selection and domestication. GmSALT3 is a gene associated with salt tolerance with great potential for soybean improvement. PMID:25292417

Guan, Rongxia; Qu, Yue; Guo, Yong; Yu, Lili; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Jinghan; Chen, Jiangang; Ren, Yulong; Liu, Guangyu; Tian, Lei; Jin, Longguo; Liu, Zhangxiong; Hong, Huilong; Chang, Ruzhen; Gilliham, Matthew; Qiu, Lijuan



Divergence of flowering genes in soybean.  


Soybean genome sequences were blasted with Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory genes involved in photoperioddependent flowering. This approach enabled the identification of 118 genes involved in the flowering pathway. Two genome sequences of cultivated (Williams 82) and wild (IT182932) soybeans were employed to survey functional DNA variations in the flowering-related homologs. Forty genes exhibiting nonsynonymous substitutions between G. max and G. soja were catalogued. In addition, 22 genes were found to co-localize with QTLs for six traits including flowering time, first flower, pod maturity, beginning of pod, reproductive period, and seed filling period. Among the genes overlapping the QTL regions, two LHY/CCA1 genes, GI and SFR6 contained amino acid changes. The recently duplicated sequence regions of the soybean genome were used as additional criteria for the speculation of the putative function of the homologs. Two duplicated regions showed redundancy of both flowering-related genes and QTLs. ID 12398025, which contains the homeologous regions between chr 7 and chr 16, was redundant for the LHY/CCA1 and SPA1 homologs and the QTLs. Retaining of the CRY1 gene and the pod maturity QTLs were observed in the duplicated region of ID 23546507 on chr 4 and chr 6. Functional DNA variation of the LHY/CCA1 gene (Glyma07g05410) was present in a counterpart of the duplicated region on chr 7, while the gene (Glyma16g01980) present in the other portion of the duplicated region on chr 16 did not show a functional sequence change. The gene list catalogued in this study provides primary insight for understanding the regulation of flowering time and maturity in soybean. PMID:23107921

Kim, Moon Young; Shin, Jin Hee; Kang, Yang Jae; Shim, Sang Rea; Lee, Suk-Ha



Fungal avirulence genes: structure and possible functions.  


Avirulence (Avr) genes exist in many fungi that share a gene-for-gene relationship with their host plant. They represent unique genetic determinants that prevent fungi from causing disease on plants that possess matching resistance (R) genes. Interaction between elicitors (primary or secondary products of Avr genes) and host receptors in resistant plants causes induction of various defense responses often involving a hypersensitive response. Avr genes have been successfully isolated by reverse genetics and positional cloning. Five cultivar-specific Avr genes (Avr4, Avr9, and Ecp2 from Cladosporium fulvum; nip1 from Rhynchosporium secalis; and Avr2-YAMO from Magnaporthe grisea) and three species-specific Avr genes (PWL1 and PWL2 from M. grisea and inf1 from Phytophthora infestans) have been cloned. Isolation of additional Avr genes from these fungi, but also from other fungi such as Uromyces vignae, Melampsora lini, Phytophthora sojae, and Leptosphaeria maculans, is in progress. Molecular analyses of nonfunctional Avr gene alleles show that these originate from deletions or mutations in the open reading frame or the promoter sequence of an Avr gene. Although intrinsic biological functions of most Avr gene products are still unknown, recent studies have shown that two Avr genes, nip1 and Ecp2, encode products that are important pathogenicity factors. All fungal Avr genes cloned so far have been demonstrated or predicted to encode extracellular proteins. Current studies focus on unraveling the mechanisms of perception of avirulence factors by plant receptors. The exploitation of Avr genes and the matching R genes in engineered resistance is also discussed. PMID:9756710

Laugé, R; De Wit, P J



Novel core promoter elements in the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans and their influence on expression detected by genome-wide analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The core promoter is the region flanking the transcription start site (TSS) that directs formation of the pre-initiation complex. Core promoters have been studied intensively in mammals and yeast, but not in more diverse eukaryotes. Here we investigate core promoters in oomycetes, a group within the Stramenopile kingdom that includes important plant and animal pathogens. Prior studies of a small collection of genes proposed that oomycete core promoters contain a 16 to 19 nt motif bearing an Initiator-like sequence (INR) flanked by a novel sequence named FPR, but this has not been extended to whole-genome analysis. Results We used expectation maximization to find over-represented motifs near TSSs of Phytophthora infestans, the potato blight pathogen. The motifs corresponded to INR, FPR, and a new element found about 25 nt downstream of the TSS called DPEP. TATA boxes were not detected. Assays of DPEP function by mutagenesis were consistent with its role as a core motif. Genome-wide searches found a well-conserved combined INR+FPR in only about 13% of genes after correcting for false discovery, which contradicted prior reports that INR and FPR are found together in most genes. INR or FPR were found alone near TSSs in 18% and 7% of genes, respectively. Promoters lacking the motifs had pyrimidine-rich regions near the TSS. The combined INR+FPR motif was linked to higher than average mRNA levels, developmentally-regulated transcription, and functions related to plant infection, while DPEP and FPR were over-represented in constitutively-expressed genes. The INR, FPR, and combined INR+FPR motifs were detected in other oomycetes including Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, Phytophthora sojae, Pythium ultimum, and Saprolegnia parasitica, while DPEP was found in all but S. parasitica. Only INR seemed present in a non-oomycete stramenopile. Conclusions The absence of a TATA box and presence of novel motifs show that the oomycete core promoter is diverged from that of model systems, and likely explains the lack of activity of non-oomycete promoters in Phytophthora transformants. The association of the INR+FPR motif with developmentally-regulated genes shows that oomycete core elements influence stage-specific transcription in addition to regulating formation of the pre-initiation complex. PMID:23414203



Evolution and association analysis of GmCYP78A10 gene with seed size/weight and pod number in soybean.  


Seed-size/weight traits, controlled by multiple genes in soybean, play an important role in determining seed yield. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the seed size and weight in soybean remain unclear. In Arabidopsis, P450/CYP78A gene family has been proved extremely relevant to seed size (such as AtCYP78A5, AtCYP78A6 and AtCYP78A9). We found that a soybean GmCYP78A10 gene underwent artificial selection during soybean breeding. The GmCYP78A10a allele mainly distributed in wild soybean (Glycine soja), but has been eliminated in the cultivars during early stage of soybean breeding, while the GmCYP78A10b allele has been accumulated and become the predominant allele in cultivated soybean (G. max). ANOVA analysis showed that the mean seed weight, seed width and seed thickness of soybean varieties with GmCYP78A10b allele was significantly heavier/bigger than those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01). The allele could explain 7.2 % variation in seed weight. The pod number of the soybeans with GmCYP78A10b allele significantly decreased compared to those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01, R(2) = 5.8 %), while other agronomic traits including seed weight/plant were not significantly affected by these two alleles. We speculated that during the early stage of soybean breeding, breeders selected big seed carrying GmCYP78A10b allele, but lowered pod number simultaneously. Overall, the selection did not cause the significantly change in soybean seed yield. Our results suggests that the soybean GmCYP78A10 gene may have a similar function to those genes belonging to P450/CYP78A subfamily in Arabidopsis and provides new information for the genetic control of seed size in soybean. PMID:25324172

Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Yinhui; Zhang, Haowei; Sun, Genlou; Zhang, Wenming; Qiu, Lijuan



Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire events. Extreme fires burned in Sakha and Tuva in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and in contrast, a normal fire season burned in Sakha and Tuva in 1999 and 2002, respectively. For this reason, we focus on the fire season (April - September) for 1999, 2002, and 2004. We assess these data sets for evidence of relationships between the net radiative fluxes and fire onset as well as evidence for residual influence of the fires upon the radiative budgets.

Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.



EDITORIAL: Ongoing climatic change in Northern Eurasia: justification for expedient research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview of the ongoing climatic and environmental changes in Northern Eurasia serves as an editorial introduction to this, the second, special Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) focus issue of Environmental Research Letters. Climatic changes in Northern Eurasia over the last hundred years are reflected in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial variables. Many of these are noticeably significant above the confidence level for 'weather' or other (fire regime, ecosystem change) noise and thus should be further investigated in order to adapt to their impacts. In this focus issue, we introduce assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change in Northern Eurasia. Most of these have been presented at one of the NEESPI workshops (for more information see and/or American Geophysical Union and European Geosciences Union NEESPI open sessions during the past year. These studies are diverse, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia. Some of these are focused on smaller spatial scales and/or address only specific aspects of the global change implications across the subcontinent. But the feeling (and observational evidence) that these changes have already been quite rapid and can have global implications inspires us to bring this suite of papers to the readers' attention. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia Contents Preface Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja Editorial Siberia integrated regional study: Multidisciplinary investigations of interrelation between Siberia environment dynamics and global climate change E P Gordov and E A Vaganov Studies of the energy and water cycles in Northern Eurasia Comparison and evaluation of gridded radiation products across northern Eurasia T J Troy and E F Wood Reanalysis data underestimate significant changes in growing season weather in Kazakhstan C K Wright, K M de Beurs, Z K Akhmadieva, P Y Groisman and G M Henebry Climate change in Inner Mongolia from 1955 to 2005—trends at regional, biome and local scales N Lu, B Wilske, J Ni, R John and J Chen Application of the Snowmelt Runoff model in the Kuban river basin using MODIS satellite images M V Georgievsky Record Russian river discharge in 2007 and the limits of analysis A I Shiklomanov and R B Lammers Paleoclimatic reconstructions for the south of Valdai Hills (European Russia) as paleo-analogs of possible regional vegetation changes under global warming E Novenko, A Olchev, O Desherevskaya and I Zuganova Diagnosis of the record discharge of Arctic-draining Eurasian rivers in 2007 Michael A Rawlins, Mark C Serreze, Ronny Schroeder, Xiangdong Zhang and Kyle C McDonald Studies of the cryosphere in Northern Eurasia Groundwater storage changes in arctic permafrost watersheds from GRACE and in situ measurements Reginald R Muskett and Vladimir E Romanovsky Changes in snow cover over Northern Eurasia in the last few decades O N Bulygina, V N Razuvaev and N N Korshunova Modeling sub-sea permafrost in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf: the Dmitry Laptev Strait D Nicolsky and N Shakhova Snow cover basal ice layer changes over Northern Eurasia since 1966 Olga N Bulygina, Pavel Ya Groisman, Vyacheslav N Razuvaev and Vladimir F Radionov Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries I M Shkolnik, E D Nadyozhina, T V Pavlova, E K Molkentin and A A Semioshina Studies of the biosphere in Northern Eurasia The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites A Bartsch, H Balzter and C George Change and persistence in land surface phenologies of the Don and Dnieper river basins V Kovalskyy and G M Henebry Effects of climatic changes on carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes in boreal forest ecosystems of European part of Russia A Olchev, E Novenko, O Desherevskaya, K Krasnorutskaya and J Kurbatova The effects of cli

Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.