Sample records for solar cell experiments

  1. A Photoelectrochemical Solar Cell: An Undergraduate Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sharon M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Preparation and testing of a cadmium selenide photoelectrical solar cell was introduced into an environmental chemistry course to illustrate solid state semiconductor and electrochemical principles. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment which can be accomplished in a three- to four-hour laboratory session…

  2. Design & fabrication of the Lockheed Martin solar cell demonstration experiment for the ISS Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gasner; M. Tresemer; S. Billets; D. Bhatt; P. Wallis

    2009-01-01

    The Naval Research Labs (NRL) has been funded for the second Forward Solar Cell Technology Experiment (FTSCE). As part of a risk reduction effort for future programs, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) fabricated a flight experiment for FTSCE II. The experiment consists of two coupons. The first coupon has UTJ and BTJM solar cells from Spectrolab and Emcore respectively.

  3. Initial results from the second Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip P. Jenkins; Robert J. Walters; Maria Gonzalez; Jeffrey H. Warner; Justin R. Lorentzen; J. M. Flatico; Lawrence C. Greer; Michael J. Krasowski

    2010-01-01

    The success of the first Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE) which flew as part of the 5th Materials on the International Space Station Experiments (MISSE-5) [1,2,3], led to a follow on experiment, FTSCE II. This experiment is currently operating on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of MISSE7. Solar cells are characterized with I-V curves. The test cells

  4. Gallium Arsenide solar cell radiation damage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.; Herbert, G. A.; Meulenberg, A.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells for space applications from three different manufactures were irradiated with 10 MeV protons or 1 MeV electrons. The electrical performance of the cells was measured at several fluence levels and compared. Silicon cells were included for reference and comparison. All the GaAs cell types performed similarly throughout the testing and showed a 36 to 56 percent power areal density advantage over the silicon cells. Thinner (8-mil versus 12-mil) GaAs cells provide a significant weight reduction. The use of germanium (Ge) substrates to improve mechanical integrity can be implemented with little impact on end of life performance in a radiation environment.

  5. TACSAT-4 solar cell experiment: Advanced solar cell technologies in a high radiation environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip Jenkins; Michael Krasowski; Norman Prokop; Robert Walters; D. Spina; M. Eskenazi; R. Skalitzky; T. Duffey; B. Davis; S. Koss; S. Messenger; E. Downard; K. Crist; M. O'Neill; B. Fu; D. Bentz

    2009-01-01

    The TACSAT-4 Solar Cell Experiment will measure the current and voltage characteristics of advanced EMCORE BTJM solar cells thinned to 100 microns and ATJM cells under an 8.5X ENTECH Stretched Lens. TACSAT-4 will fly in a highly elliptical orbit, passing through the electron and proton belts every six hours. This orbit is expected to induce a 25% power reduction in

  6. Results from the IMP-J violet solar cell experiment and violet cell balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-J violet solar cell experiment was flown in an orbit with mild thermal cycling and low hard-particle radiation. The results of the experiment show that violet cells degrade at about the same rate as conventional cells in such an orbit. Balloon flight measurements show that violet solar cells produce approximately 20% more power than conventional cells.

  7. A Dust Characterization Experiment for Solar Cells Operating on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Krasowski, Michael; Greer, Lawrence; Wilt, David; Baraona, Cosmo; Scheiman, David; Lekki, John

    2001-01-01

    During the Viking and Pathfinder missions to Mars, significant amounts of dust accumulated on the spacecrafts. In Pathfinder's case, the dust obscured the solar panels on the lander and the rover degrading their output current. The material adherence experiment aboard the Pathfinder rover quantified the rate of decrease in short circuit current at 0.28% per day. This rate is unacceptably high for long duration missions. In response, NASA has developed the Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiment. DART has three instruments for characterizing dust settling out of the atmosphere and tests two methods to keep dust from settling on solar cells.

  8. ATS6 - Solar cell flight experiment after 325 days in synchronous orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Goldhammer

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary results of the Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6) solar cell flight experiment to isolate and identify solar cell degradation mechanisms resulting from particulate radiation and to obtain specific design data applicable to extended synchronous spacecraft missions are presented. The experiment includes 80 individual cells representing 16 different solar cell\\/cover glass configurations. Most of the cells are 0.030 cm thick boron

  9. Solar cell calibration for the Pico Satellite solar cell testbed (PSSC Testbed) space flight experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Simburger; Simon Liu; John Halpine; David Hinkley; Daniel Rumsey; James Swenson; Jennifer Granata; Henry Yoo

    2008-01-01

    The results of this preflight calibration of the measurement electronics and the individual solar arrays will allow corrections to be made to flight data for determining the actual degradation of the test solar cells as a result of exposure to the space environment.

  10. Results of the solar cell experiment of the first Brazilian satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Veissid; P. Nubile; A. F. Beloto

    1997-01-01

    The first satellite of the Brazilian Complete Space Mission, launched on 9 February 1993, hosts a solar cell experiment (SCE). The objective of the SCE is to qualify in mission and real time the silicon solar cells for space use developed and manufactured in Brazil. The solar cells have the following characteristics: 4 cm2 of area, base resistivity of 10

  11. The Solar Cell Experiment of the first Brazilian satellite: 500 days of data analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Nubile; Nelson Veissid; Antonio F. Beloto

    1994-01-01

    The experiments conducted aboard satellites show the importance of the study of joint effects of thermal cycles, ionizing radiation damage, UV light and vacuum degradation on solar cells. The first satellite of the Brazilian Complete Space Mission, launched on February 9, 1993, hosts the Solar Cell Experiment (SCE). The objective of this experiment is to qualify in mission and real-time

  12. A dust characterization experiment for solar cells operating on Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Jenkins; G. A. Landis; M. Krasowski; L. Greer; D. Wilt; C. Baraona; D. Scheiman; J. Lekki

    2000-01-01

    During the Viking and Pathfinder missions to Mars, significant amounts of dust accumulated on the spacecraft. In Pathfinder's case, the dust obscured the solar panels on the lander and the rover degrading their output current. The material adherence experiment aboard the Pathfinder rover quantified the rate of decrease in short circuit current at 0.28% per day. This rate is unacceptably

  13. Materials on the International Space Station—forward technology solar cell experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Walters; J. C. Garner; S. N. Lam; J. A. Vasquez; W. R. Braun; R. E. Ruth; S. R. Messenger; J. R. Lorentzen; R. Bruninga; P. P. Jenkins; J. M. Flatico; D. M. Wilt; M. F. Piszczor; L. C. Greer; M. J. Krasowski

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the forward technology solar cell experiment (FTSCE), which is a space experiment built by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and the US Naval Academy (USNA) as part of the materials on the International Space Station (MISSE) program. The goal is to rapidly put current and future generation space solar

  14. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells: Results of the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (S0014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.; Scheiman, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of post-flight performance testing of the solar cells flown on the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment are reported. Comparison of post-flight current-voltage characteristics with similar pre-flight data revealed little or no change in solar cell conversion efficiency, confirming the reliability and endurance of space photovoltaic cells. This finding is in agreement with the lack of significant physical changes in the solar cells despite nearly six years in the low Earth orbit environment.

  15. Pilot production experience of LPE GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillanders, M.; Cavicchi, B.; Lillington, D.; Mardesich, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is a follow-up to a previous paper written following the completion of Spectrolab's LPE GaAs production facility in 1985 (Mardesich et al., 1985). Progress made since that time is discussed. Significant improvements in the manufacture of these devices, resulting in better cell performance and higher yields, are described. Pilot production cell performance data are presented, including lot distribution of efficiency, Jsc, Voc and CFF. 1-MeV electron radiation damage results are reported.

  16. Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) produces high efficiency crystal ingots in an automated well-insulated furnace offering low equipment, labor and energy costs. The "grown" silicon crystals are used to make solar cells, or photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into electricity. The HEM method is used by Crystal Systems, Inc. and was developed under a NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory contract. The square wafers which are the result of the process are sold to companies manufacturing solar panels.

  17. Displacement Damage Effects in Solar Cells: Mining Damage From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Walters, R. J.; Morton, T. L.; Messenger, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to develop an improved space solar cell radiation response analysis capability and to produce a computer modeling tool which implements the analysis. This was accomplished through analysis of solar cell flight data taken on the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed experiment. This effort specifically addresses issues related to rapid technological change in the area of solar cells for space applications in order to enhance system performance, decrease risk, and reduce cost for future missions.

  18. Solar array flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Emerging satellite designs require increasing amounts of electrical power to operate spacecraft instruments and to provide environments suitable for human habitation. In the past, electrical power was generated by covering rigid honeycomb panels with solar cells. This technology results in unacceptable weight and volume penalties when large amounts of power are required. To fill the need for large-area, lightweight solar arrays, a fabrication technique in which solar cells are attached to a copper printed circuit laminated to a plastic sheet was developed. The result is a flexible solar array with one-tenth the stowed volume and one-third the weight of comparably sized rigid arrays. An automated welding process developed to attack the cells to the printed circuit guarantees repeatable welds that are more tolerant of severe environments than conventional soldered connections. To demonstrate the flight readiness of this technology, the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) was developed and flown on the space shuttle Discovery in September 1984. The tests showed the modes and frequencies of the array to be very close to preflight predictions. Structural damping, however, was higher than anticipated. Electrical performance of the active solar panel was also tested. The flight performance and postflight data evaluation are described.

  19. Processing experiments for development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.M.; Basore, P.A.; King, D.L.; McBrayer, J.D.; Ruby, D.S.; Buck, M.E.; Tingley, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells requires processing technology capable of maintaining long bulk carrier lifetime and low surface recombination. Development of long-lifetime processing techniques using experimental designs based on statistical methods is described. The first three experiments investigated pre-oxidation cleans, phosphorus gettering, and a comparison of different phosphorus diffusion sources. Optimal processing parameters were found to depend on type of silicon material. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Germany's Solar Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NOVA

    This NOVA video podcast is about Germany's solar experiment. Munich's solar panel farm lines the Autobahn and countryside in a massive effort to prove solar's feasibility as a practical renewable energy source.

  1. Experiment M0003-4: Advanced solar cell and coverglass analysis, an overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumble, Terry M.

    1992-01-01

    The experiment consists of 51 coverglass samples and 12 solar cell strings. Sixteen (16) of the coverglass samples were on the leading edge and 16 on the trailing edge. An additional 16 samples were used as control samples and were not flown. The scenario for analysis was established for the coverglasses as follows. A photographic and a Nomarski survey were taken. Selected sites were then analyzed in their 'dirty' condition for optical transmission, reflectance, and absorbance. The coverglass samples have yet to be cleaned and resulting residue analyzed. The next stage of the analysis of the filters will be by probing through their layers to evaluate the multilayers used in their design. The solar cells were visually inspected and photographed. Tape recorder data is being analyzed and selected cell strings are being evaluated for their electrical properties. The first phase of the optical studies were completed.

  2. solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Minnaert; Marc Burgelman

    Basic solar cell characteristics were examined in an organic bulk heterojunction device. The active layer is a spincoated organic blend of a p- material (MEH-PPV) and an n-material (the fullerene derivative PCBM), sandwiched between a transparent ITO-PEDOT\\/PSS electrode and an Al\\/LiF back-contact. We carried out light and dark I-V and spectral response measurements and measured the transparency of the active

  3. Flight of the pico satellite solar cell testbed (PSSC Testbed) space experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Simburger; S. H. Liu; D. Hinkley; D. Rumsey; J. Swenson

    2009-01-01

    The primary mission of the PSSC Testbed is to provide space flight data on two types of advanced solar cells, XTJ and ZTJ, produced by the two U.S. solar cell manufacturers, Spectrolab and Emcore, respectively. The PSSC Testbed flight data confirmed that the picosatellite can be used for measuring l-V characteristics of solar cells. Continuing monitoring of the l-V measurement

  4. Post-flight investigation of the ASGA solar cell experiment on EURECA

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, C.; Campesato, R.; Paletta, F.; Timo, G.L. [CISE SpA, Segrate (Italy); Svelto, F. [ASI, Rome (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    After eleven months in orbit, at the altitude of 500 km, the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) was retrieved by Shuttle Endeavor in June 1993. ASGA, a solar cell test facility, was installed on EURECA to test in-orbit performances of advanced GaAs solar cells and solar panel components. This paper describes the investigations carried out on the solar panels after the flight and critically reviews the telemetry data after post-flight solar cell calibration. Essentially, the physical effects o the hardware, arisen from a one-year exposure to a LEO environment, are the degradation of some components consequent to the atomic oxygen erosion and the micrometeroids impacts. The solar cells (GaAs/Ge, GaAs ultrathin and concentrator cells) have run properly and post-flight calibration confirms a negligible degradation in electric performances.

  5. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Gavrin; B. T. Cleveland

    2007-01-01

    Radiochemical experiments have been crucial to solar neutrino research. Even today, they provide the only direct measurement of the rate of the proton-proton fusion reaction, p + p --> d + e^+ + nu_e, which generates most of the Sun's energy. We first give a little history of radiochemical solar neutrino experiments with emphasis on the gallium experiment SAGE --

  6. CARRIER COLLECTION IN THIN-FILM CDTE SOLAR CELLS: THEORY AND EXPERIMENT

    E-print Network

    -dependent dark current term and a constant (voltage-independent) light current term. However, thin film CdTe different wavelengths. Keywords: CdTe, thin film solar cell, modeling 1 INTRODUCTION Traditional Si p, Jsc, is independent of voltage, i.e. superposition holds. Thin film CdTe solar cells deviate from

  7. Amorphous silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Takahashi; M. Konagai

    1986-01-01

    The fabrication, performance, and applications of a-Si solar cells are discussed, summarizing the results of recent experimental investigations and trial installations. Topics examined include the fundamental principles and design strategies of solar power installations; the characteristics of monocrystalline-Si solar cells; techniques for reducing the cost of solar cells; independent, linked, and hybrid solar power systems; proposed satellite solar power systems;

  8. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells: Results of the advanced photovoltaic experiment (S0014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (APEX), containing over 150 solar cells and sensors, was designed to generate laboratory reference standards as well as to explore the durability of a wide variety of space solar cells. Located on the leading edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), APEX received the maximum possible dosage of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation, as well as enormous numbers of impacts from micrometeoroids and debris. The effect of the low earth orbital (LEO) environment on the solar cells and materials of APEX will be discussed in this paper. The on-orbit performance of the solar cells, as well as a comparison of pre- and postflight laboratory performance measurements, will be presented.

  9. Sublinear current response in high-efficiency, high-resistivity silicon solar cells: Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Zhao, J.; King, D.L.

    1988-04-18

    Improvements in the efficiency of high-resistivity silicon concentrator solar cells with conventional top and rear contacts are reported. These improvements have been obtained despite a substantially sublinear increase in cell short-circuit current with increasing solar concentration. The theory of operation of cells of this type under short circuit is outlined. This theory accurately describes the observed current sublinearity and indicates how it can be eliminated.

  10. Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE) for MISSE-5 Verified and Readied for Flight on STS-114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip P.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence C.; Flatico, Joseph M.

    2005-01-01

    The Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE) is a space solar cell experiment built as part of the Fifth Materials on the International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-5): Data Acquisition and Control Hardware and Software. It represents a collaborative effort between the NASA Glenn Research Center, the Naval Research Laboratory, and the U.S. Naval Academy. The purpose of this experiment is to place current and future solar cell technologies on orbit where they will be characterized and validated. This is in response to recent on-orbit and ground test results that raised concerns about the in-space survivability of new solar cell technologies and about current ground test methodology. The various components of the FTSCE are assembled into a passive experiment container--a 2- by 2- by 4-in. folding metal container that will be attached by an astronaut to the outer structure of the International Space Station. Data collected by the FTSCE will be relayed to the ground through a transmitter assembled by the U.S. Naval Academy. Data-acquisition electronics and software were designed to be tolerant of the thermal and radiation effects expected on orbit. The experiment has been verified and readied for flight on STS-114.

  11. Experiences with solar power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselring, P.

    1985-11-01

    Experience with solar thermal plants is reviewed. The component and subsystems development of the last decade and particularly the receiver, collector and heliostat field development is a technical success. Solar specific problems on the system and component level arose, when off the shelf solutions of fossile fired plants were transferred uncritically. It is shown that concentrated solar radiation is a relatively cheap high quality fuel. Other uses than electricity generation are high temperature processes and the production of solar fuels and chemicals. A technical and economic comparison of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is made.

  12. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Gavrin; B. T. Cleveland

    2007-01-01

    Radiochemical experiments have been crucial to solar neutrino research. Even\\u000atoday, they provide the only direct measurement of the rate of the\\u000aproton-proton fusion reaction, p + p --> d + e^+ + nu_e, which generates most\\u000aof the Sun's energy. We first give a little history of radiochemical solar\\u000aneutrino experiments with emphasis on the gallium experiment SAGE --

  13. TIMED Solar EUV experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas N. Woods; Scott Bailey; Frank Eparvier; George Lawrence; Judith Lean; Bill McClintock; Raymond Roble; Gary J. Rottman; Stanley C. Solomon; W. Kent Tobiska

    2000-01-01

    The Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) selected for the NASA Thermosphere, Ionosphere, and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission will measure the solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral irradiance from 0.1 to 200 nm. To cover this wide spectral range two different types of instruments are used: a grating spectrograph for spectra above 25 nm and a set of silicon soft x-ray

  14. Direct glassing of silicon space solar cells: approach and manufacturing experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Koch; P. A. White

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of direct glassing, using electrostatic forces to fix CMZ coverglasses to silicon solar cells is described. The aim is to establish direct glassing as an economic production alternative to the conventional glassing techniques. The milestones of the investigations are: fit of CMZ glass to direct glassing demands; evaluation of boundary conditions concerning cell and cover; optimization of the

  15. Array of solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement or array of solar cells comprises a plurality of cells each having contacting connectors which establish an electrically conducting connection between the individual solar cells. Each solar cell has a connector which projects slightly from the edge thereof and is of a selected profile or shape such that the contacting connectors of adjacent cells may be overlapped and

  16. In-flight performance of III-V multi-junction solar cells from the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip P. Jenkins; Robert J. Walters; Lawrence C. Greer; Michael J. Krasowski; Joseph. M. Flatico; Robert Bruninga; David Myre; Justin R. Lorentzen; Kevin Crist; Kenneth Edmondson; Andreea Boca

    2008-01-01

    The Materials on the International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) present a unique opportunity in space science by offering a low-cost platform to expose materials directly to the space environment on the International Space Station (ISS). MISSE experiments consist of a “suitcase” like package known as the “Passive Experiment Carrier” (PEC) that can be carried by astronauts and mounted externally to

  17. Solar cell shingle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Forestieri; A. F. Ratajczak; L. G. Sidorak

    1977-01-01

    A solar cell shingle was made of an array of solar cells on a lower portion of a substantially rectangular shingle substrate made of fiberglass cloth or the like. The solar cells may be encapsulated in flourinated ethylene propylene or some other weatherproof translucent or transparent encapsulant to form a combined electrical module and a roof shingle. The interconnected solar

  18. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiments

    E-print Network

    V. N. Gavrin; B. T. Cleveland

    2007-03-06

    Radiochemical experiments have been crucial to solar neutrino research. Even today, they provide the only direct measurement of the rate of the proton-proton fusion reaction, p + p --> d + e^+ + nu_e, which generates most of the Sun's energy. We first give a little history of radiochemical solar neutrino experiments with emphasis on the gallium experiment SAGE -- the only currently operating detector of this type. The combined result of all data from the Ga experiments is a capture rate of 67.6 +/- 3.7 SNU. For comparison to theory, we use the calculated flux at the Sun from a standard solar model, take into account neutrino propagation from the Sun to the Earth and the results of neutrino source experiments with Ga, and obtain 67.3 ^{+3.9}_{-3.5} SNU. Using the data from all solar neutrino experiments we calculate an electron neutrino pp flux at the earth of (3.41 ^{+0.76}_{-0.77}) x 10^{10}/(cm^2-s), which agrees well with the prediction from a detailed solar model of (3.30 ^{+0.13} _{-0.14}) x 10^{10}/(cm^2-s). Four tests of the Ga experiments have been carried out with very intense reactor-produced neutrino sources and the ratio of observed to calculated rates is 0.88 +/- 0.05. One explanation for this unexpectedly low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in 71Ge has been overestimated. We end with consideration of possible time variation in the Ga experiments and an enumeration of other possible radiochemical experiments that might have been.

  19. Two years of on-orbit gallium arsenide performance from the LIPS solar cell panel experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Francis; F. E. Betz

    1985-01-01

    The LIPS on-orbit performance of the gallium arsenide panel experiment was analyzed from flight operation telemetry data. Algorithms were developed to calculate the daily maximum power and associated solar array parameters by two independent methods. The first technique utilizes a least mean square polynomial fit to the power curve obtained with intensity and temperature corrected currents and voltages; whereas, the

  20. Molybdenum solar neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfsberg, K.; Cowan, G.A.; Bryant, E.A.; Daniels, K.S.; Downey, S.W.; Haxton, W.C.; Niesen, V.G.; Nogar, N.S.; Miller, C.M.; Rokop, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of the molybdenum solar neutrino experiment is to deduce the /sup 8/B solar neutrino flux, averaged over the past several million years, from the concentration of /sup 98/Tc in a deeply buried molybdenum deposit. The experiment is important to an understanding of stellar processes because it will shed light on the reason for the discrepancy between theory and observation of the chlorine solar neutrino experiment. Possible reasons for the discrepancy may lie in the properties of neutrinos (neutrino oscillations or massive neutrinos) or in deficiencies of the standard solar model. The chlorine experiment only measures the /sup 8/B neutrino flux in current times and does not address possible temporal variations in the interior of the sun, which are also not considered in the standard model. In the molybdenum experiment, we plan to measure /sup 98/Tc (4.2 Myr), also produced by /sup 8/B neutrinos, and possibly /sup 97/Tc (2.6 Myr), produced by lower energy neutrinos.

  1. Polymer solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Li; Rui Zhu; Yang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of polymer solar cells has improved power-conversion efficiencies from 3% to almost 9%. Based on semiconducting polymers, these solar cells are fabricated from solution-processing techniques and have unique prospects for achieving low-cost solar energy harvesting, owing to their material and manufacturing advantages. The potential applications of polymer solar cells are broad, ranging from flexible solar

  2. Indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    The direction for InP solar cell research; reduction of cell cost; increase of cell efficiency; measurements needed to better understand cell performance; n/p versus p/n; radiation effects; major problems in cell contacting; and whether the present level of InP solar cell research in the USA should be maintained, decreased, or increased were considered.

  3. TIMED solar EUV experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Bailey, Scott M.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Lawrence, George M.; Lean, Judith; McClintock, William E.; Roble, Raymond G.; Rottman, Gary J.; Solomon, Stanley C.; Tobiska, W. K.; Ucker, Gregory J.; White, O. R.

    1998-11-01

    The solar EUV experiment (SEE) selected for the NASA Thermosphere, Ionosphere, and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics mission will measure the solar vacuum UV (VUV) spectral irradiance from 0.1 to 200 nm. To cover this wide spectral range two different types of instruments are used: grating spectrograph for spectra above 25 nm and a set of silicon soft x-ray (XUV) photodiodes with thin film filters for below 30 nm. Redundant channels of the spectrograph and XUV photodiodes provide in-flight calibration checks on the time scale of a week, and annual rocket underflight measurements provide absolute calibration checks traceable to radiometric standards. Both types of instrument have been developed and flight proven as part of a NASA solar EUV irradiance rocket experiment.

  4. Chlorine solar neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.K.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis R. Jr.

    1985-01-25

    The chlorine solar neutrino experiment in the Homestake Gold Mine is described and the results obtained with the chlorine detector over the last fourteen years are summarized and discussed. Background processes producing /sup 37/Ar and the question of the constancy of the production rate of /sup 37/Ar are given special emphasis.

  5. Chlorine solar neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.K.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The chlorine solar neutrino experiment in the Homestake Gold Mine is described and the results obtained with the chlorine detector over the last fourteen years are summarized and discussed. Background processes producing /sup 37/Ar and the question of the constancy of the production rate of /sup 37/Ar are given special emphasis.

  6. Amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, K.; Konagai, M.

    1986-01-01

    The fabrication, performance, and applications of a-Si solar cells are discussed, summarizing the results of recent experimental investigations and trial installations. Topics examined include the fundamental principles and design strategies of solar power installations; the characteristics of monocrystalline-Si solar cells; techniques for reducing the cost of solar cells; independent, linked, and hybrid solar power systems; proposed satellite solar power systems; and the use of solar cells in consumer appliances. Consideration is given to the history of a-Si, a-Si fabrication techniques, quality criteria for a-Si films, solar cells based on a-Si, and techniques for increasing the efficiency and lowering the cost of a-Si solar cells. Graphs, diagrams, drawings, and black-and-white and color photographs are provided. 136 references.

  7. Amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.; Konagai, M.

    The fabrication, performance, and applications of a-Si solar cells are discussed, summarizing the results of recent experimental investigations and trial installations. Topics examined include the fundamental principles and design strategies of solar power installations; the characteristics of monocrystalline-Si solar cells; techniques for reducing the cost of solar cells; independent, linked, and hybrid solar power systems; proposed satellite solar power systems; and the use of solar cells in consumer appliances. Consideration is given to the history of a-Si, a-Si fabrication techniques, quality criteria for a-Si films, solar cells based on a-Si, and techniques for increasing the efficiency and lowering the cost of a-Si solar cells. Graphs, diagrams, drawings, and black-and-white and color photographs are provided.

  8. Solar cell shingle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Forestieri; A. F. Ratajczak; L. G. Sidorak

    1976-01-01

    A solar cell shingle may be made of an array of solar cells on a lower portion of a substantially rectangular shingle substrate made of fiberglass cloth or the like. The solar cells may be encapsulated in fluorinated ethylene propylene or some other weatherproof translucent or transparent encapsulant to form a combined electrical module and a roof shingle. The interconnected

  9. Solar-cell project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mortensen; J. Jensen

    1980-01-01

    Commercially available solar cells and battery systems were tested. The details of the experimental solar cell\\/battery array placed on the roof of the Jutland Telephone telestation near Aarhus, Denmark are described. A survey of module calculations and meteorological data in this region is given. The systems tested, their components, solar cell arrays and mechanical and electrical equipment are described and

  10. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  11. Space flight experiment: Advanced solar cells and protective materials on the ISS exterior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore D. Sahlstrom; Paul E. Hausgen; David M. Wilt; Alexander D. Howard; Michael D. Anderson Jr; Neil A. Snyder

    2010-01-01

    A space flight opportunity was seized to fly emerging solar cell, coating, and coverglass technologies in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment while attached to the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Included in the flight manifest were nano-crystalline optimized amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film, Indium Phosphide (InP), and Inverted Metamorphic (IMM) Photovoltaic (PV) technologies. An array of experimental coatings

  12. Temperature dependent electron beam induced current experiments on chalcopyrite thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, R.; Wilhelm, M. [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Alteilung Grenzflaechen, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Alteilung Grenzflaechen, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Stolt, L. [Uppsala University, Teknikum, P.B. 534, S-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)] [Uppsala University, Teknikum, P.B. 534, S-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) profiles of Mo/CuInX{sub 2}/CdS/ZnO thin film solar cells with X=Se, S were recorded at different temperatures. We measure the collection efficiency of cells as a function of the beam energy and subsequently identify the depth dependent collection function. For a CuInS{sub 2} based cell, charge collection is maintained by diffusion transport of minority carriers to the junction with an effective diffusion length of 1.3{plus_minus}0.2 {mu}m. This value is independent on temperature between 123 and 373 K. A CuInSe{sub 2} based cell exhibits increased collection of charge carriers created at the back contact on decreasing temperature. The temperature variation of the EBIC profiles is discussed considering the effect of bulk and grain boundary recombination. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. On-orbit results of the LIPS 3/InP homojunction solar cell experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.

    1989-01-01

    The flight performance of NASA Lewis Research Center's indium phosphide homojunction solar cell module on the LIPS 3 satellite is presented. A module of four n+p cells was fabricated and has been on-orbit on the LIPS 3 spacecraft since 1987. The experimental objective is the measurement of InP cell performance in the natural radiation environment of the 1100 kilometer altitude, 60 deg inclination, circular orbit. Flight data from the first year is near expected values, with no degradation in short-circuit current. The temperature dependence of current-voltage parameters is included along with the laboratory radiation tolerance studies necessary for normalization and analysis of the data. Details of the cell structure and flight module design are also discussed.

  14. Predicted solar cell edge radiation effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markland T. Gates

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Cell Orbital Test (ASCOT) will test six types of solar cells in a high energy proton environment. During the design of the experiment a question was raised about the effects of proton radiation incident on the edge of the solar cells and whether edge radiation shielding was required. Historical geosynchronous data indicated that edge radiation damage is

  15. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer.

  16. Solar cell encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Ingham, John D. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A polymer syrup for encapsulating solar cell assemblies. The syrup includes uncrosslinked poly(n-butyl)acrylate dissolved in n-butyl acrylate monomer. Preparation of the poly(n-butyl)acrylate and preparation of the polymer syrup is disclosed. Methods for applying the polymer syrup to solar cell assemblies as an encapsulating pottant are described. Also included is a method for solar cell construction utilizing the polymer syrup as a dual purpose adhesive and encapsulating material.

  17. Solar cell design study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Lamorte; J. R. Hauser; M. A. Littlejohn; M. Simons

    1977-01-01

    This report reviews the present state-of-the-art in the technology of selected III-V compounds most applicable to solar cells. Emphasis is placed on those areas of III-V materials technology that can be advanced most effectively in the development of high efficiency solar cells for use in the near-earth space environment. Solar cell configurations evaluated or modeled include homojunctions, heterojunctions, Schottky barriers,

  18. Space solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the scope of the NASA space solar cell research and development program. Silicon cells, gallium arsenide cells, indium phosphide cells, and superlattice solar cells are addressed, indicating the state of the art of each type in outer space and their advantages and drawbacks for use in outer space. Contrasts between efficiency in space and on earth are pointed out.

  19. Fundamentals of solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Farhenbruch; R. H. Bube

    1983-01-01

    This text is addressed to upper level graduate students with background in solid state physics and to scientists and engineers involved in solar cell research. The author aims to present fundamental physical principles rather than the state-of-the-art. Specific devices are used to illustrate basic phenomena and to indicate possibilities for innovative design. Contents, abridged: Solar insolation. The calculation of solar

  20. Lateral superlattice solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mascarenhas; Yong Zhang; J. Mirecki Millunchick; R. D. Twesten; E. D. Jones

    1997-01-01

    A novel structure which comprises of a lateral superlattice as the active layer of a solar cell is proposed. If the alternating regions A and B of a lateral superlattice ABABAB... are chosen to have a Type-II band offset, it is shown that the performance of the active absorbing region of the solar cell is optimized. In essence, the Type-II

  1. Intermediate band solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Marti

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate band (IB)solar cells aim to exploit the energy of below bandgap energy photons in solar cells. They are based in a material that, in addition to the conventional conduction and valence bands, have an electronic band (named intermediate band) located inside the bandgap and separated from the conduction and valence band by a null density of states. The theoretical

  2. Solar cell radiation handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Solar cell theory cells are manufactured, and how they are modeled mathematically is reviewed. The interaction of energetic charged particle radiation with solar cells is discussed in detail and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Finally, an extensive body of data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence is presented.

  3. Solar neutrinos: theory vs experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    I review the standard solar model, the disparities between its predictions and the solar neutrino flux measurements of the Homestake and Kamioka II collaborations, and possible particle physics resolutions of this puzzle. The effects of matter, including density fluctuations and turbulence, on solar neutrino oscillations are reviewed, including possibilities for generating time variations in the solar neutrino flux. Finally, I consider possible outcomes and implications of the SAGE/GALLEX gallium experiments.

  4. Solar neutrinos: theory vs experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1991-12-31

    I review the standard solar model, the disparities between its predictions and the solar neutrino flux measurements of the Homestake and Kamioka II collaborations, and possible particle physics resolutions of this puzzle. The effects of matter, including density fluctuations and turbulence, on solar neutrino oscillations are reviewed, including possibilities for generating time variations in the solar neutrino flux. Finally, I consider possible outcomes and implications of the SAGE/GALLEX gallium experiments.

  5. Sub-bandgap absorption in organic solar cells: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Beenken, Wichard J D; Herrmann, Felix; Presselt, Martin; Hoppe, Harald; Shokhovets, Sviatoslav; Gobsch, Gerhard; Runge, Erich

    2013-10-21

    Most high-performance organic solar cells involve bulk-heterojunctions in order to increase the active donor-acceptor interface area. The power conversion efficiency depends critically on the nano-morphology of the blend and the interface. Spectroscopy of the sub-bandgap region, i.e., below the bulk absorption of the individual components, provides unique opportunities to study interface-related properties. We present absorption measurements in the sub-bandgap region of bulk heterojunctions made of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) as an electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) as an electron acceptor and compare them with quantum-chemical calculations and recently published data on the external quantum efficiency (EQE). The very weak absorption of the deep sub-bandgap region measured by the ultra-sensitive Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) features Urbach tails, polaronic transitions, conventional excitons, and possibly charge-transfer states. The quantum-chemical calculations allow characterizing some of the unsettled spectral features. PMID:23929440

  6. Organic solar cells with inverted layer sequence incorporating optical spacers - simulation and experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Birger; Glatthaar, Markus; Niggemann, Michael; Riede, Moritz Kilian; Ziegler, Tobias; Gombert, Andreas

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we present detailed optical simulations of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells built with inverted layer sequence as compared to the commonly used setup which is based on indium tin oxide (ITO) covered glass or plastic substrates and where the metal electrode is evaporated on top of the active absorber blend. The inverted setup may have production related advantages over the conventional setup, as the metal electrode is first evaporated onto the substrate and afterwards only wet chemical processes are needed. Additionally ITO can be replaced with a suited module concept. The effects of light trapping with an optical spacer, namely a transparent conductive layer between the absorber and the metallic electrode are investigated for the inverted setup. The results show that the insertion of an optical spacer does not increase the maximal obtainable short circuit current density and is only beneficial if a decrease of film thickness of the active absorber results in a higher internal quantum efficiency, open circuit voltage or fill factor. In the experimental section we show that the inversion of the layer sequence can be realised without any loss in device efficiency as compared to devices with the conventional layer sequence.

  7. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  8. Lateral superlattice solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, A.; Zhang, Y. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Millunchick, J.M.; Twesten, R.D.; Jones, E.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A novel structure which comprises of a lateral superlattice as the active layer of a solar cell is proposed. If the alternating regions A and B of a lateral superlattice ABABAB{hor_ellipsis} are chosen to have a Type-II band offset, it is shown that the performance of the active absorbing region of the solar cell is optimized. In essence, the Type-II lateral superlattice region can satisfy the material requirements for an ideal solar cells active absorbing region, i.e. simultaneously having a very high transition probability for photogeneration and a very long minority carrier recombination lifetime. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Lateral superlattice solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, A.; Zhang, Y. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Millunchick, J.M.; Twesten, R.D.; Jones, E.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A novel structure which comprises of a lateral superlattice as the active layer of a solar cell is proposed. If the alternating regions A and B of a lateral superlattice ABABAB... are chosen to have a Type-II band offset, it is shown that the performance of the active absorbing region of the solar cell is optimized. In essence, the Type-II lateral superlattice region can satisfy the material requirements for an ideal solar cells active absorbing region, i.e. simultaneously having a very high transition probability for photogeneration and a very long minority carrier recombination lifetime.

  10. Quantum dot solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J Nozik

    2002-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells have the potential to increase the maximum attainable thermodynamic conversion efficiency of solar photon conversion up to about 66% by utilizing hot photogenerated carriers to produce higher photovoltages or higher photocurrents. The former effect is based on miniband transport and collection of hot carriers in QD array photoelectrodes before they relax to the band edges

  11. Solar Neutrino Experiments: New Physics?

    E-print Network

    John N. Bahcall

    1993-07-07

    Physics beyond the simplest version of the standard electroweak model is required to reconcile the results of the chlorine and the Kamiokande solar neutrino experiments. None of the 1000 solar models in a full Monte Carlo simulation is consistent with the results of the chlorine or the Kamiokande experiments. Even if the solar models are forced articficially to have a ${}^8 B$ neutrino flux in agreement with the Kamiokande experiment, none of the fudged models agrees with the chlorine observations. This comparison shows that consistency of the chlorine and Kamiokande experiments requires some physical process that changes the shape of the ${}^8 B$ neutrino energy spectrum. The GALLEX and SAGE experiments, which currently have large statistical uncertainties, differ from the predictions of the standard solar model by $2 \\sigma$ and $3 \\sigma$, respectively. The possibility that the neutrino experiments are incorrect is briefly discussed.

  12. Viking solar corona experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. LEONARD Tyler; Joseph P. Brenkle; Thomas A. Komarek; Arthur I. Zygielbaum

    1977-01-01

    The 1976 Mars solar conjunction resulted in complete occulations of the Viking spacecraft by the sun at solar minimum. During the conjunction period, coherent 3.5- and 13-cm wavelength radio waves from the orbiters passed through the solar corona and were received with the 64-m antennas of the NASA Deep Space Network. Data were obtained within at least 0.3 and 0.8

  13. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-12-15

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  14. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  15. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  16. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  17. Screening of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Because solar cells in a production batch are not identical, screening is performed to obtain similar cells for aggregation into arrays. A common technique for screening is based on a single operating point of the I-V characteristic of the cell, usually the maximum power point. As a result, inferior cell matching may occur at the actual operating points. Screening solar cells based on the entire I-V characteristic will inherently result in more similar cells in the array. An array consisting of more similar cells is likely to have better overall characteristics and more predictable performance. Solar cell screening methods and cell ranking are discussed. The concept of a mean cell is defined as a cell 'best' representing all the cells in the production batch. The screening and ranking of all cells are performed with respect to the mean cell. The comparative results of different screening methods are illustrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells of the Space Station Freedom.

  18. Lateral superlattice solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mascarenhas; Yong Zhang; J. Mirecki Millunchick; R. D. Twesten; E. D. Jones

    1997-01-01

    A novel structure which comprises of a lateral superlattice as the active layer of a solar cell is proposed. If the alternating regions A and B of a lateral superlattice ABABAB&ellip; are chosen to have a Type-II band offset, it is shown that the performance of the active absorbing region of the solar cell is optimized. In essence, the Type-II

  19. Thin silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.B.; Bacon, C.; DiReda, V.; Ford, D.H.; Ingram, A.E.; Cotter, J.; Hughes-Lampros, T.; Rand, J.A.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M. [Astro Power Inc., Solar Park, Newark, DE (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The silicon-film design achieves high performance by using a dun silicon layer and incorporating light trapping. Optimally designed thin crystalline solar cells (<50 microns thick) have performance advantages over conventional thick devices. The high-performance silicon-film design employs a metallurgical barrier between the low-cost substrate and the thin silicon layer. Light trapping properties of silicon-film on ceramic solar cells are presented and analyzed. Recent advances in process development are described here.

  20. LIPS III-burst anneal solar array experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Thompson; M. Morgan; W. E. Horne; S. Cannaday

    1989-01-01

    The burst anneal solar array, which is one of three solar power experiments developed space deployment on the US Naval Research Laboratory third Living Plume Shield (LIPS III) satellite, is discussed. Burst annealing involves rapidly cycling solar cells to an elevated temperature to completely recover cell damage caused by electron and proton radiation. The LIPS III experimental array consists of

  1. Home-made experiment of Dye-sensitized TiO2 Nanocrystalline Solar Cells and its education evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, M. F.; Shieh, M. C.; Chen, T. W.

    2010-03-01

    Dyes extracted from some natural fruits including anthocyanins absorb sunlight and effectively activate electrons of anthocyanins. Thus these activated electrons are conducted between TiO2 nanocrystals and form electric potential and current between two electrodes. The dyes can be gotten from the natural fruits, such as blackberries, raspberry, pomegranate seeds and bing cherries. This principle permits making a dye sensitized TiO2 nanocrystallines solar cell (DSSC). All required materials and tools for fabricating a home- made DSSC are easy to obtain around home. The procedures are perfect hands-on experiment as well as demonstration in K-12 schools or home settings. We have designed several protocols for fabricating DSSC and have successfully demonstrated in more than 100 activities with different level students. K-12 Students were able to build their own working DSSC's within 2-3 hours sessions and learned about alternative energy sources. These experiments can inspire students and general public about the modern technology in daily life. Low cost (low than US 3 in Taiwan)and safety are also ensured in our DSSC experiments.

  2. An Experiment To Demonstrate Spacecraft Power Beaming and Solar Cell Annealing Using High-Energy Lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Luce; Sherif Michael

    2003-01-01

    Satellite lifetime is often limited by degradation of the electrical power subsystem, e.g. radiation-damaged solar arrays or failed batteries. Being able to beam power from terrestrial sites could alleviate this limitation, extending the lifetime of billions of dollars of satellite assets, as well as providing additional energy for electric propulsion that can be used for stationkeeping and orbital changes. In

  3. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 06 · Solar Cell Materials & Structures 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar Cells Solar Cell Technologies · A) Crystalline Silicon · B) Thin Film · C) Group III-IV Cells 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar

  4. Parameterization of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D.

    1992-01-01

    The aggregation (sorting) of the individual solar cells into an array is commonly based on a single operating point on the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve. An alternative approach for cell performance prediction and cell screening is provided by modeling the cell using an equivalent electrical circuit, in which the parameters involved are related to the physical phenomena in the device. These analytical models may be represented by a double exponential I-V characteristic with seven parameters, by a double exponential model with five parameters, or by a single exponential equation with four or five parameters. In this article we address issues concerning methodologies for the determination of solar cell parameters based on measured data points of the I-V characteristic, and introduce a procedure for screening of solar cells for arrays. We show that common curve fitting techniques, e.g., least squares, may produce many combinations of parameter values while maintaining a good fit between the fitted and measured I-V characteristics of the cell. Therefore, techniques relying on curve fitting criteria alone cannot be directly used for cell parameterization. We propose a consistent procedure which takes into account the entire set of parameter values for a batch of cells. This procedure is based on a definition of a mean cell representing the batch, and takes into account the relative contribution of each parameter to the overall goodness of fit. The procedure is demonstrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells for Space Station Freedom.

  5. Transparent solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonides, G. J.; Dillard, P. A.; Fritz, W. M.; Lott, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Modified solar cell module uses high transmission glass and adhesives, and heat dissipation to boost power per unit area by 25% (9.84% efficiency based on cell area at 60 C and 100 mW/sq cm flux). Design is suited for automatic production and is potentially more cost effective.

  6. Characterizing Variability in Smestad and Gratzel's Nanocrystalline Solar Cells: A Collaborative Learning Experience in Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, John; Aggarwal, Pankaj; Leininger, Thomas; Fairchild, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative learning experience in experimental design that closely approximates what practicing statisticians and researchers in applied science experience during consulting. Statistics majors worked with a teaching assistant from the chemistry department to conduct a series of experiments characterizing the variation…

  7. Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

  8. Solar cell radiation damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Crabb

    1994-01-01

    During the past 34 years, silicon or gallium arsenide solar cells have remained the main power source for nearly all spacecraft; power output levels having risen from a few milliwatts (Vanguard 1, 1958) to many kilowatts in the 1970s and 1980s (Skylab, 21 kW; MIR, 10 kW; Hubble Space Telescope, 5 kW). The steady technological progress made in improving solar

  9. Flexible dye solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Rossier-Iten; Toby B. Meyer; Jessica Krueger; Michael Graetzel

    2004-01-01

    Strategies towards flexible solid state solar cells based on nanocrystalline titanium oxide and organic hole conductor were investigated. For the flexible cell geometry a metal foil was used as substrate and a semi-transparent gold layer as counter electrode which allows light transmission (back illumination). The device performance of solid state cells based on SnO2:F coated glass on the one hand

  10. Amorphous silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Carlson; R. S. Crandall; J. Dresner; D. Goldstein; J. J. Hanak; A. R. Moore; R. E. Schade; D. L. Staebler; H. A. Weakliem; R. Williams

    1981-01-01

    The photoconductive response of Schottky-barrier and p-i-n solar cell structures was analyzed. It shows that the photoconductivity determines the fill factor, rather than the dark current, as in crystalline silicon cells. An analysis of the I-V curves of p-i-n cells shows that the electron and hole drift lengths are comparable. High conductivity p and n type films (sigma = 1-10

  11. Amorphous silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Juergens; W. Kruehler; M. Moeller; H. Pfleiderer; R. Plaettner; B. Rauscher; W. Stetter

    1983-01-01

    A technique for manufacturing amorphous silicon solar cells is described. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) with excellent photoconductivity (ratio of photo and dark conductivity = 10,000 for 0,25 mW\\/sqcm light intensity) photoluminescence, and low density of states was manufactured. Doping behavior in a-Si:H-films and dependence of geometrical cell structure on electrical properties were investigated. A-Si:H-Schottky barrier cells with Pt, Pd, Au

  12. Silicon for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciszek, T. F.

    1984-04-01

    An introduction to silicon solar cell technology and photovoltaic device operation is presented. The conventional semiconductor industry techniques for extraction of Si from quartz, purification of silanes, chemical vapor deposition of polycrystalline silicon rods, melt growth of silicon crystals, and fabrication of silicon polished wafers are reviewed. The specific requirements of silicon for solar cells, particularly impurity effects are discussed. Nineteen different crystal growth methods of silicon for solar cells are reviewed (both ingots and sheets). Sheet growth methods are categorized by solid/liquid interface meniscus geometry and degree of shaper/melt interaction. Crystal growth rates and surface area generation rates are analyzed for sheet growth configurations as well as combined ingot growth and wafering approaches. Several methods show promise of achieving high throughput rates. Some of the characteristics of silicon which have led to its role as both a near term and long range premier photovoltaic material are summarized.

  13. Design, characterization and fabrication of silicon solar cells for ?50% efficient 6-junction tandem solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ngwe Soe Zin; Andrew Blakers; Evan Franklin; Vernie Everett

    2008-01-01

    A major objective for photovoltaic conversion is to develop high efficiency solar cells. Many approaches are under investigation - Multiple Junction Solar Cell, Multiple Spectrum Solar Cell, Multiple Absorption Path Solar Cell, Multiple Energy Solar Cell, and Multiple Temperature Solar Cells [1]. The Multiple Junction Solar Cell approach based on a six-junction tandem solar cell has been adopted to achieve

  14. Developing a Solar Experiment Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Kuan-Chong

    1983-01-01

    Suggesting that selected research activities be integrated into engineering technology programs to give students experiences in new technology, this article discusses a project incorporating teaching, research, and service. A photograph and description of the solar experiment unit resulting from the project are provided. The unit runs on air,…

  15. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. The solar cell can be provided as a two-terminal device or a three-terminal device.

  16. Solar cell radiation handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. R., Jr.; Tada, H. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the degradation of a solar array in a space radiation environment. Solar cell technology which emphasizes the cell parameters that degrade in a radiation environment, is discussed along with the experimental techniques used in the evaluation of radiation effects. Other topics discussed include: theoretical aspects of radiation damage, methods for developing relative damage coefficients, nature of the space radiation environment, method of calculating equivalent fluence from electron and proton energy spectrums and relative damage coefficients, and comparison of flight data with estimated degradation.

  17. Photovoltaic Experiment Using Light from a Solar Simulator Lamp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell experiment utilizing the convenience of a solar simulating type lamp is described. Insight into the solid state aspect of a solar cell is gained by the student in studying the characteristics, and deducing from them cell parameters and efficiency. (Author/CS)

  18. Solar neutrino experiments: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    The situation in solar neutrino physics has changed drastically in the past few years, so that now there are four neutrino experiments in operation, using different methods to look at different regions of the solar neutrino energy spectrum. These experiments are the radiochemical {sup 37}Cl Homestake detector, the realtime Kamiokande detector, and the different forms of radiochemical {sup 71}Ga detectors used in the GALLEX and SAGE projects. It is noteworthy that all of these experiments report a deficit of observed neutrinos relative to the predictions of standard solar models (although in the case of the gallium detectors, the statistical errors are still relatively large). This paper reviews the basic principles of operation of these neutrino detectors, reports their latest results and discusses some theoretical interpretations. The progress of three realtime neutrino detectors that are currently under construction, SuperKamiok, SNO and Borexino, is also discussed.

  19. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 08 · Solar Cell Characterization 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 8: Characterization Solar Cell Operation n Emitter p Base Rear completing the circuit 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 8: Characterization Solar Cell

  20. Coating Processes Boost Performance of Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    NASA currently has spacecraft orbiting Mercury (MESSENGER), imaging the asteroid Vesta (Dawn), roaming the red plains of Mars (the Opportunity rover), and providing a laboratory for humans to advance scientific research in space (the International Space Station, or ISS). The heart of the technology that powers those missions and many others can be held in the palm of your hand - the solar cell. Solar, or photovoltaic (PV), cells are what make up the panels and arrays that draw on the Sun s light to generate electricity for everything from the Hubble Space Telescope s imaging equipment to the life support systems for the ISS. To enable NASA spacecraft to utilize the Sun s energy for exploring destinations as distant as Jupiter, the Agency has invested significant research into improving solar cell design and efficiency. Glenn Research Center has been a national leader in advancing PV technology. The Center s Photovoltaic and Power Technologies Branch has conducted numerous experiments aimed at developing lighter, more efficient solar cells that are less expensive to manufacture. Initiatives like the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiments I and II in which PV cells developed by NASA and private industry were mounted outside the ISS have tested how various solar technologies perform in the harsh conditions of space. While NASA seeks to improve solar cells for space applications, the results are returning to Earth to benefit the solar energy industry.

  1. Nanostructured SIS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuechsel, K.; Schulz, U.; Kaiser, N.; Käsebier, T.; Kley, E.-B.; Tünnermann, A.

    2010-05-01

    Due to their electrical conductivity and transparency in the visible spectral range, transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) are suitable as transparent front electrodes for multiple cell concepts. One promising device is a semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) solar cell, in which the TCO induces the pn juntion and acts as a transparent electrode at the same time. Due to its work function, the thin TCO layer leads to the inversion of the subsurface region. The high refractive index of transparent conductive oxides enables antireflection coating in a limited spectral range. One approach to achieve broadband antireflection properties with effective light coupling into the absorber is a nanostructured silicon interface. For large area modifications of silicon, the inductive coupled plasma (ICP) etching technology is a possible technique. The combination of the nanostructured surface and the SIS system leads to a novel solar cell concept with promising properties and a simple production process. In our study, we used pulsed dc magnetron sputtering for the deposition of thin ITO films on p-doped unstructured and ICP-structured silicon substrates. Optical and structural properties have been analyzed. Furthermore, the solar cell performance of the first devices under AM1.5G illumination will be shown and discussed.

  2. Very high efficiency solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Allen; Kirkpatrick, Douglas; Honsberg, Christiana

    2006-08-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has initiated the Very High Efficiency Solar Cell (VHESC) program to address the critical need of the soldier for power in the field. Very High Efficiency Solar Cells for portable applications that operate at greater than 55 percent efficiency in the laboratory and 50 percent in production are being developed. We are integrating the optical design with the solar cell design, and have entered previously unoccupied design space that leads to a new architecture paradigm. An integrated team effort is now underway that requires us to invent, develop and transfer to production these new solar cells. Our approach is driven by proven quantitative models for the solar cell design, the optical design and the integration of these designs. We start with a very high performance crystalline silicon solar cell platform. Examples will be presented. Initial solar cell device results are shown for devices fabricated in geometries designed for this VHESC Program.

  3. Solar PV- How A Solar Cell Works

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Levander, Alejandro

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this document which will help instructors or anyone who would like to understand the basics of solar power and solar cells. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  4. Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Hepp, Aloysius; Bailey, Sheila G.

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe, CuInS2, and CuInSe2 for use in an intermediate bandgap solar cell. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Bawendi, et. al., in the early 1990's. However, unlike previous work in this area we have also utilized single-source precursor molecules in the synthesis process. We will present XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS characterization of our initial attempts at fabricating these quantum dots. Investigation of the size distributions of these nanoparticles via laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy will be presented. Theoretical estimates on appropriate quantum dot composition, size, and inter-dot spacing along with potential scenarios for solar cell fabrication will be discussed.

  5. Solar-Cell String Conveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasch, W.; Ciavola, S.

    1982-01-01

    String-conveyor portion of solar-array assembly line holds silicon solar cells while assembled into strings and tested. Cells are transported collector-side-down, while uniform cell spacing and registration are maintained. Microprocessor on machine controls indexing of cells.

  6. Compound polycrystalline solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Birkmire

    2001-01-01

    A historical perspective on the development of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells based on CdTe and CuInSe2 is presented, and recent progress of these thin-film technologies is discussed. Impressive improvements in the efficiency of laboratory scale devices has not been easy to translate to the manufacturing environment, principally due to our lack of understanding of the basic science and engineering of

  7. Investigating the efficiency of Silicon Solar cells at

    E-print Network

    Attari, Shahzeen Z.

    at the moment. What we need to do is to increase solar cell efficiency and cheaper to make using new energy is converted to electrical energy [2]. In this experiment we used a silicon solar cell (boughtInvestigating the efficiency of Silicon Solar cells at different temperatures and wavelengths

  8. Assembly technology of GaAs solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Matsumoto; S. Yoshida; T. Oda; M. Okubo; Y. Okawa

    1989-01-01

    The parallel gap welding technique used on GaAs solar cells is described. To find the lowest thickness of solar cell that can be welded by this technique, welding experiments are carried out on GaAs solar cells with thicknesses ranging between 100 and 280 microns. Results of these tests are presented. Coupon modules of 4 cm by 4 cm and 2

  9. Telescience operations with the solar array module plasma interaction experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence W. Wald; Irene K. Bibyk

    1995-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. The overall objective of SAMPIE was to determine the adverse environmental interactions within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO) on modern solar cells and space power system materials which

  10. Nanocrystalline electrochemical solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    McEvoy, A.J.; Graetzel, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Chimie-Physique; Wittkopf, H.; Jestel, D.; Benemann, J. [Flachglas AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Standard solar cells exploit the physics of semiconductors in which the energy of absorbed photons excites charge-carrier pairs which are subsequently separated by the influence of a solid state junction to provide a photovoltage. In the nanocrystalline electrochemical cell, the optical absorber is a dye monolayer which after photo-excitation injects electrons into a semiconductor substrate, with charge neutrality being restored by a chemical redox reaction. The circuit is completed through an electrolyte and a metallic counterlectrode. Present performance, industrial engagement in research and development and commercial prospects are presented.

  11. Solar cells - A technology assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Bolton

    1983-01-01

    A qualitative assessment is made of the state-of-the-art in solar cell development and materials, together with projections of areas of future progress. The benefits and deficiencies of solar cells are surveyed, including the passive, low maintenance qualities of solar cell panels, the necessity of having a back-up system at night, and the low power conversion efficiencies available from current cells,

  12. A miniature high voltage plasma interaction flight experiment - Project MINX. [for measuring solar cell array parasitic current drain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, T. J.; Triner, J. E.; Sater, B. L.; Cohen, D.; Somberg, H.

    1974-01-01

    A miniature high-voltage array was fabricated, incorporating the multi-junction edge illuminated (MJC) cell technique. The array consists of 32 2x2.2 cm MJCs, series connected, capable of 1600 V open circuit at 1 AMO and 1.2 mA short circuit. A solid state, high-voltage relay is connected across each 4-cell subgroup of the array. It was built to test plasma current drain on space systems using high voltage as might occur when a high-voltage solar array is operated from low to synchronous orbit.

  13. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Schock

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination\\/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate

  14. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Schock

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination\\/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate

  15. Experiments to evaluate high-temperature rolling as a low-cost process for silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noel, G. T.; Kulkarni, S.; Wolf, M.; Pope, D. P.; Graham, C. D., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Mechanical rolling (a process used in industry for producing large quantities of metallic sheet and strip) has been suggested for the rapid low-cost manufacture of silicon sheet to be used for photovoltaic power generation equipment, such as solar arrays. The advantages of rolling include: high rates of production, wide sheets as products, good control of dimension, and (in the case of solar grade silicon) minimal development of impurities. Experiments have been performed using high-temperature, high-speed compression of polycrystalline silicon cylinders. Metallography and X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to examine the samples both before and after compression, and a model process has been designed to evaluate the technical practicality and economic feasibility of the method.

  16. Solar cell module lamination process

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Tracy, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell module lamination process using fluoropolymers to provide protection from adverse environmental conditions and thus enable more extended use of solar cells, particularly in space applications. A laminate of fluoropolymer material provides a hermetically sealed solar cell module structure that is flexible and very durable. The laminate is virtually chemically inert, highly transmissive in the visible spectrum, dimensionally stable at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. highly abrasion resistant, and exhibits very little ultra-violet degradation.

  17. A space-borne solar stereoscope experiment in solar physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Grigoryev

    1993-01-01

    A space experiment project is proposed, with the main purpose of obtaining 3-dimensional images of the solar atmosphere. We give a list of problems and objectives which can be resolved through the space-borne solar stereoscope.

  18. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched.

  19. Radiative cooling for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Wang, Ken X.; Anoma, Marc A.; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-03-01

    Standard solar cells heat up under sunlight, and the resulting increased temperature of the solar cell has adverse consequences on both its efficiency and its reliability. We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the operating temperature of a solar cell through sky access, while maintaining its sunlight absorption. We present first an ideal scheme for the radiative cooling of solar cells. For an example case of a bare crystalline silicon solar cell, we show that the ideal scheme can passively lower the operating temperature by 18.3 K. We then show a microphotonic design based on realistic material properties, that approaches the performance of the ideal scheme. We also show that the radiative cooling effect is substantial, even in the presence of significant non-radiative heat change, and parasitic solar absorption in the cooling layer, provided that we design the cooling layer to be sufficiently thin.

  20. Solar Panel of Photovoltaic Cells

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Solar panels or arrays of photovoltaic cells convert renewable solar radiation into electricity by a clean and environmentally sound means. Collected solar energy can either be used instantly or stored in batteries for later use. These systems can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic syst...

  1. High intensity solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.J.; Gray, J.L.; Lundstrom, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Two computer codes, SCAP1D and SCAP2D, are being used to analyze silicon concentrator solar cells. The models used in these codes are constantly being evaluated for accuracy and are updated as necessary. For example, the effects of carrier-carrier scattering on mobility have been included and documented in this report. In addition, modifications to SCAP2D have been made to allow the modeling of minority carrier reflecting contacts. A semianalytical model was developed and used to estimate the theoretical limit of efficiency of silicon concentrator cells. It is predicted that efficiencies near 30% may be possible at high concentration. Reprints of published papers are included in the appendices.

  2. Development of a large area space solar cell assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Spitzer

    1982-01-01

    The development of a large area high efficiency solar cell assembly is described. The assembly consists of an ion implanted silicon solar cell and glass cover. The important attributes of fabrication are the use of a back surface field which is compatible with a back surface reflector, and integration of coverglass application and cell fabrications. Cell development experiments concerned optimization

  3. Thin film solar cell workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Joe; Jeffrey, Frank

    1993-01-01

    A summation of responses to questions posed to the thin-film solar cell workshop and the ensuing discussion is provided. Participants in the workshop included photovoltaic manufacturers (both thin film and crystalline), cell performance investigators, and consumers.

  4. Testing of gallium arsenide solar cells on the CRRES vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumble, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    A flight experiment was designed to determine the optimum design for gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell panels in a radiation environment. Elements of the experiment design include, different coverglass material and thicknesses, welded and soldered interconnects, different solar cell efficiencies, different solar cell types, and measurement of annealing properties. This experiment is scheduled to fly on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). This satellite will simultaneously measure the radiation environment and provide engineering data on solar cell degradation that can be directly related to radiation damage.

  5. Mechanically-stacked multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of experiments to simulate the performance of mechanically-stacked, multijunction solar cells are reported. The simulation consisted of stacking an AlGaAs optical filter on top of a silicon cell and measuring the silicon cell's output. Analysis of the experimental results was able to quantify the various mechanisms (absorption and reflection) that resulted in the loss of silicon cell output. Calculations were also performed to compare the relative merits of two different types of silicon cells and an InGaAs cell for stacked cell applications.

  6. Review of Radiation Damage to Silicon Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Curtin; Richard Statler

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews a large number of silicon solar cell irradiation experiments performed over the last 10 years, including 1-MeV and energy spectrum electron studies, and low-(100-keV) and high-energy (up to 155-MeV) proton studies on bare and covered silicon solar cells of several types. The results of satellite flight experiments on individual solar cells are also presented, as well as

  7. Commercialization of Novel Organic Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

    Commercialization of Novel Organic Solar Cells Master of Engineering Final Report Shanel C. Miller................................................................................................................... 12 2.1 How do Solar Cells Work?.................................................................................................. 12 2.2 Types of Solar Cells that Exist Today

  8. The challenges of organic polymer solar cells

    E-print Network

    Saif Addin, Burhan K. (Burhan Khalid)

    2011-01-01

    The technical and commercial prospects of polymer solar cells were evaluated. Polymer solar cells are an attractive approach to fabricate and deploy roll-to-roll processed solar cells that are reasonably efficient (total ...

  9. Thermomechanical stressing of solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Novotný; L. Jakubka; P. Cejtchaml; I. Szendiuch

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes recent developments made to the finite element modeling of solar cells, extending its capability to handle viscoplastic behavior. It also presents the validation of this approach and results obtained for an interconnection of solar cells. Lifetime predictions are made using the creep strain energy based models of Darveaux. This study discusses the analysis methodologies as implemented in

  10. An Introduction to Solar Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Most likely, solar cells will play a significant role in this country's strategy to address the two interrelated issues of global warming and dependence on imported oil. The purpose of this paper is to present an explanation of how solar cells work at an introductory high school, college, or university physics course level. The treatment presented…

  11. Thin monocrystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Muenzer, K.A.; Holdermann, K.T.; Schlosser, R.E.; Sterk, S.

    1999-10-01

    One of the most effective approaches for a cost reduction of crystalline silicon solar cells is the better utilization of the crystals by cutting thinner wafers. However, such thin silicon wafer must have sufficient mechanical strength to maintain a high mechanical yield in cell and module manufacturing. The electrical performance of thin cells drops strongly with decreasing cell thickness if solar cell manufacturing technologies without a backside passivation of a back-surface-field (BSF) are applied. However, with the application of a BSF, stable efficiencies of over 17%, even with decreasing cell thickness, have been reached. Thin solar cells show lower photodegradation, as is normally observed for Cz-silicon cells with today's standard thickness (about 300 {micro}m) because of a higher ratio of the diffusion length compared to the cell thickness. Cells of about 100--150 {micro}m thickness fabricated with the production Cz-silicon show almost no photodegradation. Furthermore, thin boron BSF cells have a pronounced efficiency response under backside illumination. The backside efficiency increases with decreasing cell thickness and reaches 60% of the frontside cell efficiency for 150 {micro}m solar cells and also for solar modules assembled of 36 cells of a thickness of 150 {mu}m. Assuming, for example, a rearside illumination of 150 W/m{sub 2}, this results in an increased module power output of about 10% relatively.

  12. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    History of GaAs solar cell development is provided. Photovoltaic equations are described along with instrumentation techniques for measuring solar cells. Radiation effects in solar cells, electrical performance, and spacecraft flight data for solar cells are discussed. The space radiation environment and solar array degradation calculations are addressed.

  13. An improved solar cell circuit model for organic solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mazhari

    2006-01-01

    The validity of conventional circuit model for interpreting results obtained using organic solar cells is examined. It is shown that the central assumption in the model that photo-generated current remains constant from short-circuit to open-circuit condition may not hold for organic cells. An improved model based on the photovoltaic response of organic solar cells is proposed and a method of

  14. Back wall solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar cell is disclosed which comprises a first semiconductor material of one conductivity type with one face having the same conductivity type but more heavily doped to form a field region arranged to receive the radiant energy to be converted to electrical energy, and a layer of a second semiconductor material, preferably highly doped, of opposite conductivity type on the first semiconductor material adjacent the first semiconductor material at an interface remote from the heavily doped field region. Instead of the opposite conductivity layer, a metallic Schottky diode layer may be used, in which case no additional back contact is needed. A contact such as a gridded contact, previous to the radiant energy may be applied to the heavily doped field region of the more heavily doped, same conductivity material for its contact.

  15. Germanium Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Zachary Charles

    Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere are approaching historically unprecedented levels from burning fossil fuels to meet the ever-increasing world energy demand. A rapid transition to clean energy sources is necessary to avoid the potentially catastrophic consequences of global warming. The sun provides more than enough energy to power the world, and solar cells that convert sunlight to electricity are commercially available. However, the high cost and low efficiency of current solar cells prevent their widespread implementation, and grid parity is not anticipated to be reached for at least 15 years without breakthrough technologies. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) show promise for cheap multi-junction photovoltaic devices. To compete with photovoltaic materials that are currently commercially available, NCs need to be inexpensively cast into dense thin films with bulk-like electrical mobilities and absorption spectra that can be tuned by altering the NC size. The Group II-VI and IV-VI NC communities have had some success in achieving this goal by drying and then chemically treating colloidal particles, but the more abundant and less toxic Group IV NCs have proven more challenging. This thesis reports thin films of plasma-synthesized Ge NCs deposited using three different techniques, and preliminary solar cells based on these films. Germanium tetrachloride is dissociated in the presence of hydrogen in a nonthermal plasma to nucleate Ge NCs. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction indicate that the particles are nearly monodisperse (standard deviations of 10-15% the mean particle diameter) and the mean diameter can be tuned from 4-15 nm by changing the residence time of the Ge NCs in the plasma. In the first deposition scheme, a Ge NC colloid is formed by reacting nanocrystalline powder with 1-dodecene and dispersing the functionalized NCs in a solvent. Films are then formed on substrates by drop-casting the colloid and allowing it to dry. As-deposited films are electrically insulating due to the long hydrocarbon molecules separating neighboring particles; however, mass spectrometry shows that annealing treatments successfully decompose these molecules. After annealing at 250 °C, Ge NC films exhibit conductivities as large as 10-6 S/cm. In the second film deposition scheme, a Ge NC colloid is formed by dispersing Ge NCs in select solvents without further surface modification. While these "bare" NCs quickly agglomerate and flocculate in nearly all non-polar solvents, they remain stable in benzonitrile and 1,2-dichlorobenzene, among others. Thin-film field-effect transistors have been fabricated by spinning Ge NC colloids onto substrates and the films have been subjected to various annealing procedures. The devices show n-type, p -type, or ambipolar behavior depending on the annealing conditions, with Ge NC films annealed at 300°C exhibiting electron saturation mobilities greater than 10-2 cm2/Vs and on-to-off ratios of 104. The final film deposition scheme involves the impaction of Ge NCs onto substrates downstream of the synthesis plasma via acceleration of the NCs through an orifice. This technique produces highly uniform films with densities greater than 50% of the density of bulk Ge. By varying the size of the Ge NCs, we have measured films with band gaps ranging from the bulk value of 0.7 eV to over 1.1 eV for films of 4 nm Ge NCs. Having deposited dense thin films with tunable band gaps and respectable mobilities, we have begun fabricating bilayer solar cells consisting of heterojunctions between Ge NC films and P3HT, Si NCs, or Si wafers. Preliminary devices exhibit opencircuit voltages and short-circuit currents as large as 0.3 V and 4 mA/cm 2, respectively.

  16. Bulb mounting of solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.E.

    1983-04-05

    An energy converting assembly is provided for parasiting of light from a fluorescent light bulb utilizing a solar cell. The solar cell is mounted on a base member elongated in the dimension of elongation of the fluorescent bulb, and electrical interconnections to the cell are provided. A flexible sheet of opaque material having a flat white interior reflective surface surrounds the fluorescent bulb and reflects light emitted from the bulb back toward the bulb and the solar cell. The reflective sheet is tightly held in contact with the bottom of the bulb by adhesive, a tie strap, an external clip, or the like.

  17. Thin monocrystalline silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Muenzer; Konstantin T. Holdermann; Reinhold E. Schlosser; Steffen Sterk

    1999-01-01

    One of the most effective approaches for a cost reduction of crystalline silicon solar cells is the better utilization of the crystals by cutting thinner wafers. However, such thin silicon wafers must have sufficient mechanical strength to maintain a high mechanical yield in cell and module manufacturing. The electrical performance of thin cells drops strongly with decreasing cell thickness if

  18. Transporting Solar-Cell Strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bycer, M.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum "lance" picks up assembled chain of solar cells from string conveyor without disturbing cells or interconnecting tabs. Lance has 2 vacuum pickups per cell, for total of up to 32 pickups. Positions and number of pickups can be varied. Lance can be adjusted for range of cell sizes, shapes, and spacings.

  19. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 664677 Invited article

    E-print Network

    Romeo, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 664­677 Invited article Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells G. Khrypunova , A. Romeob , F. Kurdesauc , D.L. Ba¨ tznerd , H. Zogge , A Abstract Recent developments in the technology of high vacuum evaporated CdTe solar cells are reviewed

  20. Purification of solar cell silicon materials through filtration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arjan CIFTJA; Lifeng ZHANG; Thorvald Abel ENGH; Anne KVITHYLD

    2006-01-01

    Silicon is the material most commonly used in the manufacturing of photovoltaic (PV) cells. In the current study, laboratory experiments of purification of solar cell silicon materials through filtration are carried out. Inclusion removal from silicon was investigated. The purpose is to achieve clean silicon materials for solar cells. Silicon samples and filter samples were analyzed using microscope observation, EPMA,

  1. Laser processing of solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, David E.

    2012-10-01

    Laser processing has a long history in the manufacturing of solar cells since most thin-film photovoltaic modules have been manufactured using laser scribing for more than thirty years. Lasers have also been used by many solar cell manufacturers for a variety of applications such as edge isolation, identification marking, laser grooving for selective emitters and cutting of silicon wafers and ribbons. In addition, several laser-processing techniques are currently being investigated for the production of new types of high performance silicon solar cells. There have also been research efforts on utilizing laser melting, laser annealing and laser texturing in the fabrication of solar cells. Recently, a number of manufacturers have been developing new generations of solar cells where they use laser ablation of dielectric layers to form selective emitters or passivated rear point contacts. Others have been utilizing lasers to drill holes through the silicon wafers for emitter-wrap-through or metal-wrap-through back-contact solar cells. Scientists at Fraunhofer ISE have demonstrated high efficiency silicon solar cells (21.7%) by using laser firing to form passivated rear point contacts in p-type silicon wafers. Investigators art both the University of Stuttgart and the University of New South Wales have produced high efficiency silicon solar cells using laser doping to form selective emitters, and some companies are now developing commercial products based on both laser doping and laser firing of contacts. The use of lasers in solar cell processing appears destined to grow given the advances that are continually being made in laser technology.

  2. Solar exposure of LDEF experiment trays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Bourassa; J. R. Gillis

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation is one of the primary causes of degradation of materials on spacecraft. Accurate knowledge of solar exposure is needed to evaluate the performance of materials carried on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) during its nearly 6 year orbital flight. Presented here are tables and figures of calculated solar exposure for the experiment rows, longerons, and

  3. Pico Satellite Solar Cell Testbed (PSSC Testbed)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Simburger; Simon Liu; John Halpine; David Hinkley; Joseph R. Srour; Daniel Rumsey

    2006-01-01

    The proposed PSSC Testbed flight experiment is designed to obtain space environmental degradation data for advanced solar cells. The purpose of the first flight (International Space Station orbit) is to develop and operationally test the picosatellite and associated ground station. Subsequent flights will be in a GEO transfer orbit, which will provide accelerated radiation degradation data for missions to geosynchronous

  4. 24% efficient silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhua Zhao; Aihua Wang; Pietro P. Altermatt; Stuart R. Wenham; Marltin A. Green

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports significant progress in silicon solar cell performance, taking confirmed efficiency beyond 24% for the first time. This progress has been achieved by a combination of several mechanisms. One is the reduction of recombination at the cell front surface by improved passivation of the silicon\\/silicon dioxide interface. Resistive losses in the cell have been reduced by a double-plating

  5. Solar cell with back side contacts

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  6. Radiation effects in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2013-05-01

    Two types of space solar cells, silicon single-junction and InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction (3J) solar cells, have been primarily adopted for spacecraft. The conversion efficiencies of the solar cells under AM0, 1 sun condition are ~17% for silicon and ~30% for 3J cells. Radiation degradation occurs in space due to high-energy electrons and protons existing in space environment. The degradation is caused by radiation induced crystal defects which act as minority-carrier recombination centers and majority-carrier trap centers. The 3J cells are superior radiation resistant to the silicon cells, and this is mainly because the InGaP top-subcell has property of very high radiation resistance.

  7. Research on multibandgap solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Cape; L. M. Fraas; P. S. McLeod; L. D. Partain

    1987-01-01

    This report describes research in multibandgap solar cells. In early work, two-color solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 20 percent were grown monolithically, comprising a GaAsP top junction over a GaAs or GaAsSb bottom junction. Researchers attempted to understand the effects of lattice mismatch and optimize growth conditions for these structures. Severe unreproducibility was encountered and traced to source material impurities.

  8. Multijunction amorphous silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Carlson

    1991-01-01

    Thin-film multijunction solar cells have the potential to meet the performance and cost reauirements for grid-connected power generation. At present, multijunction amorphous silicon solar cells have exhibited stabilized conversion efficiencies of about 10% in the laboratory, and large-area modules of comparable performance should be available commercially by the mid-1990s. Further improvements in the properties of amorphous silicon alloys should lead

  9. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  10. How Many Solar Neutrino Experiments Are Wrong?

    E-print Network

    John N. Bahcall

    1994-07-15

    Ten recently-published solar models give $\\7be$ neutrino fluxes that lie within a range of $\\pm 10$\\% of the average value, a convergence that is independent of uncertainties in the measured laboratory rate of the $\\7be(p,\\gamma)\\8b$ reaction. If nothing happens to solar neutrinos after they are created ({\\it a la} standard electroweak theory) and the operating solar neutrino experiments are correct, then the $\\7be$ solar neutrino flux must be less than 50\\% of the solar model value. At least three of the four existing solar neutrino experiments must be wrong {\\it if}: (1) standard electroweak theory is correct, and (2) the true $\\7be$ neutrino flux lies within the range predicted by standard solar models.

  11. Modeling of polycrystalline thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahrenbruch, Alan L.

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes modeling polycrystalline thin-film solar cells using the program AMPS-1D1 to visualize the relationships between the many variables involved. These simulations are steps toward two dimensional modeling the effects of grain boundaries in polycrystalline cells. Although this paper describes results for the CdS/CdTe cell, the ideas presented here are applicable to copper-indium-gallium selenide (CIGS) cells as well as other types of cells. Results of these one-dimensional simulations are presented: (a) the duplication of experimentally observed cell parameters, (b) the effects of back-contact potential barrier height and its relation to stressing the cell, (c) the effects of the depletion layer width in the CdTe layer on cell parameters, and (d) the effects of CdS layer thickness on the cell parameters. Experience using the software is also described.

  12. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Roy; Y. S. Deol; Manish Kumar; Narottam Prasad; Yojana Janu

    2011-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy

  13. On solar neutrino fluxes in radiochemical experiments

    E-print Network

    R. N. Ikhsanov; Yu. N. Gnedin; E. V. Miletsky

    2005-12-08

    We analyze fluctuations of the solar neutrino flux using data from the Homestake, GALLEX, GNO, SAGE and Super Kamiokande experiments. Spectral analysis and direct quantitative estimations show that the most stable variation of the solar neutrino flux is a quasi-five-year periodicity. The revised values of the mean solar neutrino flux are presented in Table 4. They were used to estimate the observed pp-flux of the solar electron neutrinos near the Earth. We consider two alternative explanations for the origin of a variable component of the solar neutrino deficit.

  14. Reverse bias degradation in dye solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroianni, Simone; Lanuti, Alessandro; Brown, Thomas M.; Argazzi, Roberto; Caramori, Stefano; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2012-09-01

    A prolonged reverse bias (RB) stress forcing a short-circuit current through a dye solar cell, corresponding to the harshest test a shadowed cell may experience in real conditions, can cause the RB operating voltage VRB to drift with time, initially slowly but accelerating for VRB < (-1.65 ± 0.15)V when gas bubbles, identified as H2 (gas chromatography), are produced inside the cell, leading to breakdown. A close connection between VRB, cell performance, and stability was established. Contributions to RB degradation include triiodide depletion and impurities, in particular water. Acting upon these components and setting up protection strategies is important for delivering long-lasting modules.

  15. Neutrino Dipole Moments and Solar Experiments

    E-print Network

    M. Picariello; B. C. Chauhan; C. R. Das; Fernandez-Melgarejo; D. Montanino; J. Pulido; E. Torrente-Lujan

    2009-07-03

    First we investigate the possibility of detecting solar antineutrinos with the KamLAND experiment. Then we analyze the first Borexino data release to constrain the neutrino magnetic moment. Finally we investigate the resonant spin flavour conversion of solar neutrinos to sterile ones, a mechanism which is added to the well known LMA one. In this last condition, we show that the data from all solar neutrino experiments except Borexino exhibit a clear preference for a sizable magnetic field. We argue that the solar neutrino experiments are capable of tracing the possible modulation of the solar magnetic field. In this way Borexino alone may play an essential role although experimental redundancy from other experiments will be most important.

  16. Solar cells with a twist Comments ( 35)

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Solar cells with a twist Article Comments ( 35) JULIE STEENHUYSEN REUTERS OCTOBER 7, 2008 AT 9:58 AM EDT CHICAGO -- U.S. researchers have found a way to make efficient silicon-based solar cells of buildings as opportunities for solar energy," Prof. Rogers said in a telephone interview. Solar cells, which

  17. Space solar cells—tradeoff analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Raja Reddy

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the study that had the objective to tradeoff space solar cells and solar array designs to determine the best choice of solar cell and array technology that would be more beneficial in terms of mass, area and cost for different types of space missions. Space solar cells, which are commercially now available in the market and to

  18. SEP solar array shuttle flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Elms, R.V. Jr.; Young, L.E.; Hill, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and ground verification testing project is underway at LMSC to support a SEP solar array shuttle flight experiment. A full-scale developmental SEP solar array wing is being refurbished for flight in an Orbiter scheduled for launch in early 1983. The experiment hardware design and the on-orbit test operations that are planned to meet the experiment objective are described. 1 ref.

  19. Gap/silicon Tandem Solar Cell with Extended Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A two-junction solar cell has a bottom solar cell junction of crystalline silicon, and a top solar cell junction of gallium phosphide. A three (or more) junction solar cell has bottom solar cell junctions of silicon, and a top solar cell junction of gallium phosphide. The resulting solar cells exhibit improved extended temperature operation.

  20. Summary of solar cell data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, David C.; Rose, M. Frank

    1994-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was composed of many separate experiments, some of which contained solar cells. These solar cells were distributed at various positions on the LDEF and, therefore, were exposed to the space environment with an orientational dependence. This report will address the space environmental effects on solar cells and solar cell assemblies (SCA's), including electrical interconnects and associated insulation blankets where flown in conjunction with solar cells.

  1. LEO effects on candidate solar cell cover materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Stella

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) test samples discussed within are part of the Solar Array Materials Passive (SAMPLE) LDEF experiment, which included contributions from NASA and Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL). Only the JPL portion is described in this paper. The JPL test plate contains 30 individual thin silicon solar cell\\/cover samples. It was the intent of the experiment to

  2. Wide Band Gap Gallium Phosphide Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuesong Lu; Susan Huang; Martin B. Diaz; Nicole Kotulak; Ruiying Hao; Robert Opila; Allen Barnett

    2012-01-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP), with its wide band gap of 2.26 eV, is a good candidate for the top junction solar cell in a multijunction solar cell system. Here, we design, fabricate, characterize, and analyze GaP solar cells. Liquid phase epitaxy is used to grow the semiconductor layers. Four generations of GaP solar cells are developed and fabricated with each solar

  3. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    extensive research on organic photovoltaic cells since smallcells with 3-dimensional hyperbranched nanocrystals 4.1 Introduction Early research in organic photovoltaicorganic heterojunction cell demonstrated almost 10 years prior (4). Photovoltaic cells

  4. Prediction of solar cell performance in space

    SciTech Connect

    Statler, R.L.; Walker, D.M.

    1982-09-01

    Predicting solar array performance with a high degree of accuracy is of critical importance to the success of space missions. This calculation is influenced by a large number of variables and parameters. Consequently, the accurate prediction becomes very difficult and safety margins must be assigned because of unknown factors relating to incomplete description of the behavior of the materials and components in the solar array. This paper discusses two factors which are important in such predictions. The first is a description of the gradual deterioration of the optical transmissivity of the coverglass and its adhesive layer, using data derived from the solar cell experiment on the Naval Research Laboratory NTS-2 satellite. The magnitude of this effect is shown through the interpretation of satellite data. The second factor is temperature enhanced radiation damage which was observed during radiation experiments at low dose rates on silicon solar cells. These experiments are being carried out at the NRL Cobalt 60 facility. The observed radiation damage is shown to be strongly dependent on the temperature of the silicon cells during irradiation. The magnitude of this effect is shown in its influence on the interpretation of satellite data.

  5. Silicon concentrator solar cell research

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Dai, X.; Milne, A.; Cai, S.; Aberle, A.; Wenham, S.R. [Univ. of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW (AU). Centre for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems

    1993-06-01

    This report describes work conducted between December 1990 and May 1992 continuing research on silicon concentrator solar cells. The objectives of the work were to improve the performance of high-efficiency cells upon p-type substrates, to investigate the ultraviolet stability of such cells, to develop concentrator cells based on n-type substrates, and to transfer technology to appropriate commercial environments. Key results include the identification of contact resistance between boron-defused areas and rear aluminum as the source of anomalously large series resistance in both p- and n-type cells. A major achievement of the present project was the successful transfer of cell technology to both Applied Solar Energy Corporation and Solarex Corporation.

  6. SPDE: Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruner, Marilyn E.

    1995-09-01

    The physics of the Solar corona is studied through the use of high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy and high resolution ultraviolet imagery. The investigation includes the development and application of a flight instrument, first flown in May, 1992 on NASA sounding rocket 36.048. A second flight, NASA founding rocket 36.123, took place on 25 April 1994. Both flights were successful in recording new observations relevant to the investigation. The effort in this contract covers completion of the modifications to the existing rocket payload, its reflight, and the preliminary day reduction and analysis. Experience gained from flight 36.048 led us to plan several payload design modifications. These were made to improve the sensitivity balance between the UV and EUV spectrographs, to improve the scattered light rejection in the spectrographs, to protect the visible light rejection filter for the Normal Incidence X-ray Imager instrument (NIXI), and to prepare one new multilayer mirror coating to the NIXI. We also investigated the addition of a brassboard CCD camera to the payload to test it as a possible replacement for the Eastman type 101-07 film used by the SPDE instruments. This camera was included in the experimeter's data package for the Project Initiation Conference for the flight of NASA Mission 36.123, held in January, 1994, but for programmatic reasons was deleted from the final payload configuration. The payload was shipped to the White Sands Missile Range on schedule in early April. The launch and successful recovery took place on 25 April, in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite and a supporting ground-based observing campaign.

  7. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiments, 'successful and otherwise'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Hahn

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, several different radiochemical systems have been proposed as solar neutrino detectors. Of these, two achieved operating status and obtained important results that helped to define the current field of neutrino physics: the first solar-neutrino experiment, the Chlorine Detector (37Cl) that was developed by chemist Raymond Davis and colleagues at the Homestake Mine, and the subsequent Gallium (71Ga)

  8. Radiochemical solar neutrino experiments, ‘successful and otherwise’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L Hahn

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, several different radiochemical systems have been proposed as solar neutrino detectors. Of these, two achieved operating status and obtained important results that helped to define the current field of neutrino physics: the first solar-neutrino experiment, the Chlorine Detector (37Cl) that was developed by chemist Raymond Davis and colleagues at the Homestake Mine, and the subsequent Gallium (71Ga)

  9. Development of concentrator solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    A limited pilot production run on PESC silicon solar cells for use at high concentrations (200 to 400 suns) is summarized. The front contact design of the cells was modified for operation without prismatic covers. The original objective of the contract was to systematically complete a process consolidation phase, in which all the, process improvements developed during the contract would be combined in a pilot production run. This pilot run was going to provide, a basis for estimating cell costs when produced at high throughput. Because of DOE funding limitations, the Photovoltaic Concentrator Initiative is on hold, and Applied Solar`s contract was operated at a low level of effort for most of 1993. The results obtained from the reduced scope pilot run showed the effects of discontinuous process optimization and characterization. However, the run provided valuable insight into the technical areas that can be optimized to achieve the original goals of the contract.

  10. (Melanin-Sensitized Solar Cell) : 696220016

    E-print Network

    the majority dye-sensitized solar cell research all uses the Ruthenium-complex as a light harvester. Dye-sensitized solar cell, DSSC 1991GrätzelDSSC[1] DSSCGrätzel cellDSSC polypyridyl complexes (Melanin-Sensitized Solar Cell) : : : 696220016 #12; #12;#12; #12;I PLD

  11. Printing efficient solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ritesh Tipnis; Darin Laird

    2008-01-01

    As worldwide demand for fossil fuels depletes reserves, scien- tists are increasingly focused on generating alternative energy— especially if it can be produced cleanly and inexpensively. Hy- droelectric, solar, wind, nuclear, and biomass technologies are replacing coal, oil, and natural gas. Many of these new tech- nologies have similar costs. Yet the availability of materials or existing infrastructure can affect

  12. Chlorophyll-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The photovoltaic properties of the green plant pigment chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) were investigated in photoelectrochemical and solid-state solar cells. Both types of cells utilized a thin film of Chl-a electrodeposited on a SnO/sub 2/ optically transparent electrode. Solid state cells were fabricated by vapor depositing a thin layer of metal on top of the Chl-a to produce a SnO/sub 2//Chl-a/metal sandwich cell. Photoelectrochemical cells were assembled by immersing the SnO/sub 2//Chl-a electrode in an aqueous electrolyte solution along with a counter electrode. Both types of Chl-a cells were generally characterized by a strong dependence of the photoactivity on the other cell components and a surprisingly large photovoltage. Photoelectrochemical cells of SnO/sub 2//Chl-a/aq. AlCl/sub 3/ were seen to produce photovoltages as high as 1.1 V and photocurrents of 1.1 ..mu..A/cm/sub 2/ while a solid state cell of SnO/sub 2//Chl-a/Al could produce 1.4 V and an initial photocurrent of 200 ..mu..A/cm/sup 2/. This photoactivity was strongly time dependent in both configurations. Despite this fact these cells are the most powerful Ch-a sensitized solar cells yet reported.

  13. The Effects of Extreme Cold on Polycrystalline Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiffler, Robert; Cimorelli, Billy; Fasig, Seth; Hirschmugl, Evan; Quinn, Paul

    2014-03-01

    This project will examine how solar cells perform under conditions of extreme cold. Polycrystalline photovoltaic solar cells were tested to get their baseline currents and voltages, producing the standard IV curve. The cells were then submerged in liquid nitrogen for set intervals of time. Once removed from the nitrogen, they were allowed to reach room temperature and sit overnight. Each cell was then retested to get new currents and voltages, producing a new IV curve. The experiments produced results showing that the submersion in liquid nitrogen actually improved their performance. This implies that under certain conditions, exposure to extreme cold could actually enhance the performance of polycrystalline photovoltaic solar cells.

  14. Photon upconversion for thin film solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. de Wild

    2012-01-01

    In this research one of the many possible methods to increase the efficiency of solar cells is described. The method investigated is based on adapting the solar light in such a way that the solar cell can convert more light into electricity. The part of the solar spectrum that is adapted is the part that cannot be absorbed by the

  15. Solar models, neutrino experiments, and helioseismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Ulrich, Roger K.

    1988-01-01

    The event rates and their recognized uncertainties are calculated for 11 solar neutrino experiments using accurate solar models. These models are also used to evaluate the frequency spectrum of the p and g oscillations modes of the sun. It is shown that the discrepancy between the predicted and observed event rates in the Cl-37 and Kamiokande II experiments cannot be explained by a 'likely' fluctuation in input parameters with the best estimates and uncertainties given in the present study. It is suggested that, whatever the correct solution to the solar neutrino problem, it is unlikely to be a 'trival' error.

  16. High voltage solar array experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennerud, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    The interaction between the components of a high voltage solar array and a simulated space plasma is studied to obtain data for the design of a high voltage solar array capable of 15kW at 2 to 16kV. Testing was conducted in a vacuum chamber 1.5-m long by 1.5-m diameter having a plasma source which simulated the plasma conditions existing in earth orbit between 400 nautical miles and synchronous altitude. Test samples included solar array segments pinholes in insulation covering high voltage electrodes, and plain dielectric samples. Quantitative data are presented in the areas of plasma power losses, plasma and high voltage induced damage, and dielectric properties. Limitations of the investigation are described.

  17. Photon management in thin film solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Rockstuhl; S. Fahr; T. Paul; C. Menzel; F. Lederer; K. Bittkau; T. Beckers; R. Carius

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the absorption enhancement in single and tandem solar-cells comprising nanostructures that increase the path of the photons inside the solar cell. For this purpose we exploit different physical phenomena in different material systems.

  18. Key Physical Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Stephan Bremner

    2010-07-21

    The objective of the project was to study both theoretically and experimentally the excitation, recombination and transport properties required for nanostructured solar cells to deliver energy conversion efficiencies well in excess of conventional limits. These objectives were met by concentrating on three key areas, namely, investigation of physical mechanisms present in nanostructured solar cells, characterization of loss mechanisms in nanostructured solar cells and determining the properties required of nanostructured solar cells in order to achieve high efficiency and the design implications.

  19. Process of making solar cell module

    DOEpatents

    Packer, M.; Coyle, P.J.

    1981-03-09

    A process is presented for the manufacture of solar cell modules. A solution comprising a highly plasticized polyvinyl butyral is applied to a solar cell array. The coated array is dried and sandwiched between at last two sheets of polyvinyl butyral and at least two sheets of a rigid transparent member. The sandwich is laminated by the application of heat and pressure to cause fusion and bonding of the solar cell array with the rigid transparent members to produce a solar cell module.

  20. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 05 · P-N Junction 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 5: P-N Junction P-N Junction · Solar Cell is a large area P-N junction electron (hole) positive) 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 5: P-N Junction p-n Junction p n P

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Grätzel

    2003-01-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) provides a technically and economically credible alternative concept to present day p–n junction photovoltaic devices. In contrast to the conventional systems where the semiconductor assume both the task of light absorption and charge carrier transport the two functions are separated here. Light is absorbed by a sensitizer, which is anchored to the surface of a

  2. Solar cell module assembly jig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Ofarrell

    1966-01-01

    The invention relates to the manufacture of solar cell modules and more particularly to a jig for assembling, positioning and maintaining the components under resilient pressure, while the entire assembly and the jig is subjected to heat for simultaneously soldering all of the various circuit connections; as well as structurally bonding the layers into a strong light weight structure which

  3. Experiences in solar cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Oberoi, H. S.

    Six of the nine solar cooling systems discussed in this paper had negative energy savings. In several cases the solar cooling system used substantially more energy than a conventional system could have been expected to use. Two systems, however, had significant energy savings. These systems (1 residential and 1 commercial) obtained system thermal efficiencies of 12.0 to 12.4 percent. Their system overall efficiences averaged 11.2 and 5.2 percent respectively. The residential-sized system achieved an annual energy savings of about 16.8 GJ/year, or approximately .34 GJ/year.m2 of collector. The commercial system had equivalent values of 137 GJ/year or about .22 GJ/year/sq m of collector. It should be noted that these efficiencies re much lower than those of well-designed and properly controlled cooling systems in commercial sizes. However, with realistic system modifications and subsequent improvements in performance these solar cooling systems can be expected to achieve savings in nonrenewable energy sources of approximately 1.2 GJ/year/sq m of collector. These savings can be compared to those associated with solar space and domestic hot water heating systems of 2.2 and 2.5 GJ/year/sq m of collector, respectively.

  4. Monolithic and mechanical multijunction space solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Jain; D. J. Flood

    1993-01-01

    High-efficiency, lightweight, radiation-resistant solar cells are essential to meet the large power requirements of future space missions. Single-junction cells are limited in efficiency. Higher cell efficiencies could be realized by developing multijunction, multibandgap solar cells. Monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem solar cells surpassing single-junction cell efficiencies have been fabricated. This article surveys the current status of monolithic and mechanically stacked

  5. Silicon solar cells: Physical metallurgy principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Mauk

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the physical metallurgy aspects of silicon solar cells. The production of silicon solar cells relies\\u000a on principles of thermochemical extractive metallurgy, phase equilibria, solidification, and kinetics. The issues related\\u000a to these processes and their impact on solar cell performance and cost are discussed.

  6. Detailed balance analysis of nanophotonic solar cells

    E-print Network

    Fan, Shanhui

    -idealities, and is useful for determining the theoretical limit of solar cell efficiency for a given structure. Our approachDetailed balance analysis of nanophotonic solar cells Sunil Sandhu, Zongfu Yu, and Shanhui Fan-voltage characteristic modeling of nanophotonic solar cells. This approach takes into account the intrinsic material non

  7. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 04 · Semiconductor Materials · Chapter 1 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 4: Semiconductor Materials Semiconductor Bond Model · Bohr electrons interact to form bonds 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 4: Semiconductor Materials

  8. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 03 · Nature of Sunlight 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 3: Nature of Sunlight Wave-Particle Duality · Light acts as ­ Waves University: Solar Cells Lecture 3: Nature of Sunlight Properties of Light · Sunlight contains photons of many

  9. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 07 · EE Fundamentals 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 7: EE Fundamentals What is Electrical Engineering · Opposite of lightning · Symbolic information: electronics Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 7: EE Fundamentals 2 Review

  10. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 02 Microfabrication ­ A combination · Photolithograpy · Depostion · Etching 1 Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 2: Microfabrication Flow Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 2: Microfabrication Questions · What is heat? · Heat

  11. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 09 · Photovoltaic Systems 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 9: PV Systems Several types of operating modes · Centralized power plant or wanted Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 9: PV Systems 2 Residential Side Mounted Montana

  12. Texturisation of single crystalline silicon solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Johan; M. Mohamad Shahimin; S. Shaari

    2010-01-01

    The potential of solar cells have not been fully tapped due to lack of energy conversion efficiency. There are three importance mechanisms in producing high efficiency cells to harvest solar energy; reduction of reflectance, light trapping in the cell and higher light absorption. The work presented in this paper shows studies conducted in surface texturisation of single crystalline silicon solar

  13. Qualification of European nonreflective solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Larue

    1978-01-01

    Space environment and endurance tests were performed on 55 2 x 4 cm nonreflective (black) silicon solar cells. The qualification program followed the ESA standard specification for space solar cells. All tests were passed successfully. The average beginning of life maximum power of this type of solar cell reached 130 mW at 25 C while after irradiation with 10 to

  14. Solar cell array design handbook. Volume I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rauschenbach

    1976-01-01

    The Solar Cell Array Design Handbook is written at a practicing engineering level and provides a comprehensive compilation of explanatory notes, design practices, analytical models, solar cell characteristics, and material properties data of interest to personnel engaged in solar cell array performance specification, hardware design, analysis, fabrication and test. Twelve handbook chapters discuss the following: historical developments, the environment and

  15. Solar Cell Crack Inspection by Image Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu Zhuang; Zhao Yanzheng; Liu Yang; Cao Qixin; Chen Mingbo; Zhang Jun; Jay Lee

    2009-01-01

    The aircraft works in space with terrible circumstance far from the Earth, so it is necessary for the solar cell with the property of anti-radiation to perform bonding process. After bonding, an essential process to the solar cell assembly is to inspect the cracks on the edge or inside of the solar cell. To avoid utilizing the unqualified products and

  16. Solar cell crack inspection by image processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu Zhuang; Zhao Yanzheng; Liu Yang; Cao Qixin; Chen Mingbo; Zhang Jun; Jay Lee

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft operate in a hostile environment, far from the Earth, so it is necessary for solar cells with anti-radiation properties to have a bonding process carried out on them. After bonding, an essential process for the solar cell assembly is to inspect for cracks on the edges or inside the solar cell. To avoid utilizing unqualified products and to improve

  17. Report on solar-neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report on solar neutrino experiments will include a summary of the results of the chlorine detector, and an account of our plans to build a gallium solar neutrino experiment. In addition to discussing the experimental side of the solar neutrino problem I would like to relate our experiences during the last 15 years in working in the Homestake Gold Mine. In the course of our work at Homestake a number of independent groups have asked to use our facilities and, because of the cooperative and helpful attitude of the Mine management, these experimentalists could be easily accommodated. A brief account of these experiences may be useful for the main business of this workshop, building large particle detectors for observing nucleon decay, and the related question of the need for a national underground physics facility.

  18. Flexibility in space solar cell production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khemthong, Scott; Iles, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    The wide range of cells that must be available from present-day production lines for space solar cells are described. After over thirty years of space-cell use, there is very little standardization in solar cell design. It is not generally recognized what a wide range of designs must remain available on cell production lines. This range of designs is surveyed.

  19. SPDE: Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn E. Bruner

    1995-01-01

    The physics of the Solar corona is studied through the use of high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy and high resolution ultraviolet imagery. The investigation includes the development and application of a flight instrument, first flown in May, 1992 on NASA sounding rocket 36.048. A second flight, NASA founding rocket 36.123, took place on 25 April 1994. Both flights were successful

  20. The Viking solar corona experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyler, G. L.; Brenkle, J. P.; Komarek, T. A.; Zygielbaum, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    The 1976 Mars solar conjunction resulted in complete occultations of the Viking spacecraft by the sun at solar minimum. During the conjunction period, coherent 3.5- and 13-cm wavelength radio waves from the orbiters passed through the solar corona and were received with the 64-m antennas of the NASA Deep Space Network. Data were obtained within at least 0.3 and 0.8 R sub s of the photosphere at the 3.5- and 13-cm wavelengths, respectively. The data can be used to determine the plasma density integrated along the radio path, the velocity of density irregularities in the coronal plasma, and the spectrum of the density fluctuations in the plasma. Observations of integrated plasma density near the south pole of the sun generally agree with a model of the corona which has an 8:1 decrease in plasma density from the equator to the pole. Power spectra of the 3.5- and 13-cm signals at a heliocentric radial distance of about 2 R sub s have a 1/2 power width of several hundred hertz and vary sharply with proximate geometric miss distance. Spectral broadening indicates a marked progressive increase in plasma irregularities with decreasing ray altitude at scales between about 1 and 100 km.

  1. Nanostructured Materials for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Castro, Stephanie; Fahey, S.; Gennett, T.; Tin, P.

    2003-01-01

    The use of both inorganic and organic nanostructured materials in producing high efficiency photovoltaics is discussed in this paper. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of semiconductor quantum dots in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell. In addition, it has also recently been demonstrated that quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. A similar improvement in these types of cells has also been observed by employing single wall carbon nanotubes. This relatively new carbon allotrope may assist both in the disassociation of excitons as well as carrier transport through the composite material. This paper reviews the efforts that are currently underway to produce and characterize these nanoscale materials and to exploit their unique properties.

  2. NANO REVIEW Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiencies through 1-D Nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Chen, Junhong

    include dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum- dot-sensitized solar cells, and p-n junction solar cells their efficiencies more practical. Now the third-generation solar cells, such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCsNANO REVIEW Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiencies through 1-D Nanostructures Kehan Yu Æ Junhong Chen

  3. New trends for solar cell development and recent progress of dye sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Lin; Wen-li Wang; Yi-zhu Liu; Xin Li; Jian-bao Li

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the new concepts and new trends of solar cell development. To increase the photoelectric conversion efficiency,\\u000a reduce the cost, and for application in a much broader field, thin film solar cell, flexible solar cell, and tandem solar\\u000a cell have become important subjects to be studied. As the representative of the solar cells of the third generation, the

  4. Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.S.; Stewart, J.M.

    1992-08-25

    A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI[sub 2] semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe[sub 2] or CuIn(SSe)[sub 2]. 8 figs.

  5. Interfaces in perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiangjian; Xu, Xin; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo

    2015-06-01

    The interfacial atomic and electronic structures, charge transfer processes, and interface engineering in perovskite solar cells are discussed in this review. An effective heterojunction is found to exist at the window/perovskite absorber interface, contributing to the relatively fast extraction of free electrons. Moreover, the high photovoltage in this cell can be attributed to slow interfacial charge recombination due to the outstanding material and interfacial electronic properties. However, some fundamental questions including the interfacial atomic and electronic structures and the interface stability need to be further clarified. Designing and engineering the interfaces are also important for the next-stage development of this cell. PMID:25688549

  6. MISOLFA: A Seeing Monitor for Solar Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbah, A.

    A solar program devoted to diameter measurement is developed in the framework of the spatial mission Picard. This project was initiated after the results obtained from diameter data recorded since 1975 at Calern Obseravtory (France) showing long time variations correlated with the solar cycle. Since the spatial mission lifetime will only be of few years (3 or 4 years) compared to the expected diameter variations, the recorded space data will also be used to calibrate the one obtained with the ground-based experiments. For this purpose, a seeing monitor MISOLFA (Moniteur d'Images Solaires Franco-Algérien) observing at the same instants with the solar experiments is developed to give access to the atmospheric parameters. The solar monitor MOSOLFA is then presented here giving the basic principles of atmospheric parameter measurements. Some results deduced from simulations and real data are also given.

  7. Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This is a close-up of the NASA-sponsored Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Satellite. The SORCE mission, launched aboard a Pegasus rocket January 25, 2003, will provide state of the art measurements of incoming x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and total solar radiation. Critical to studies of the Sun and its effect on our Earth system and mankind, SORCE will provide measurements that specifically address long-term climate change, natural variability and enhanced climate prediction, and atmospheric ozone and UV-B radiation. Orbiting around the Earth accumulating solar data, SORCE measures the Sun's output with the use of state-of-the-art radiometers, spectrometers, photodiodes, detectors, and bolo meters engineered into instruments mounted on a satellite observatory. SORCE is carrying 4 instruments: The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM); the Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE); the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM); and the XUV Photometer System (XPS).

  8. Biological solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, M.; Janzen, A. F.

    1980-04-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated the possibility of employing photoactive, biological membrane components in photoelectrochemical cells. Present studies have led to the attachment of a much simpler biological complex, the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center isolated from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, directly onto a SnO2 semiconductor electrode. Light induced photovoltages and photocurrents not attributable to Dember effects were observed in photoelectrochemical cells employing reaction center coated, SnO2 working electrodes. Such reaction center electrodes may serve as model systems for future organic photovoltaic devices.

  9. Towards stable silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W. W.; Wu, K. J.; Wang, K.; Shi, T. F.; Wu, L.; Li, S. X.; Teng, D. Y.; Ye, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells benefit from the ease of fabrication and the cost-effectiveness of the hybrid structure, and represent a new research focus towards the utilization of solar energy. However, hybrid solar cells composed of both inorganic and organic components suffer from the notorious stability issue, which has to be tackled before the hybrid solar cells could become a viable alternative for harvesting solar energy. Here we show that Si nanoarray/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with improved stability can be fabricated via eliminating the water inclusion in the initial formation of the heterojunction between Si nanoarray and PEDOT:PSS. The Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells are stable against rapid degradation in the atmosphere environment for several months without encapsulation. This finding paves the way towards the real-world applications of Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells.

  10. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    The handbook discusses the history of GaAs solar cell development, presents equations useful for working with GaAs solar cells, describes commonly used instrumentation techniques for assessing radiation effects in solar cells and fundamental processes occurring in solar cells exposed to ionizing radiation, and explains why radiation decreases the electrical performance of solar cells. Three basic elements required to perform solar array degradation calculations: degradation data for GaAs solar cells after irradiation with 1 MeV electrons at normal incidence; relative damage coefficients for omnidirectional electron and proton exposure; and the definition of the space radiation environment for the orbit of interest, are developed and used to perform a solar array degradation calculation.

  11. Towards stable silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells

    PubMed Central

    He, W. W.; Wu, K. J.; Wang, K.; Shi, T. F.; Wu, L.; Li, S. X.; Teng, D. Y.; Ye, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells benefit from the ease of fabrication and the cost-effectiveness of the hybrid structure, and represent a new research focus towards the utilization of solar energy. However, hybrid solar cells composed of both inorganic and organic components suffer from the notorious stability issue, which has to be tackled before the hybrid solar cells could become a viable alternative for harvesting solar energy. Here we show that Si nanoarray/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with improved stability can be fabricated via eliminating the water inclusion in the initial formation of the heterojunction between Si nanoarray and PEDOT:PSS. The Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells are stable against rapid degradation in the atmosphere environment for several months without encapsulation. This finding paves the way towards the real-world applications of Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells. PMID:24430057

  12. Cell Radiation Experiment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  13. Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE): Technical requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a NASA shuttle space flight experiment scheduled for launch in early 1994. The SAMPIE experiment will investigate plasma interactions of high voltage space power systems in low earth orbit. Solar cell modules, representing several technologies, will be biased to high voltages to characterize both arcing and plasma current collection. Other solar modules, specially modified in accordance with current theories of arcing and breakdown, will demonstrate the possibility of arc suppression. Finally, several test modules will be included to study the basic nature of these interactions. The science and technology goals for the project are defined in the Technical Requirements Document (TRD) which is presented here.

  14. Solar power tower development: Recent experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.; Kolb, G.; Prairie, M. [and others

    1996-12-01

    Recent experiences with the 10 MW{sub e} Solar Two and the 2.5 MW{sub t} TSA (Technology Program Solar Air Receiver) demonstration plants are reported. The heat transfer fluids used in these solar power towers are molten-nitrate salt and atmospheric air, respectively. Lessons learned and suggested technology improvements for next-generation plants are categorized according to subsystem. The next steps to be taken in the commercialization process for each these new power plant technologies is also presented.

  15. Plasmonic enhancement in PbS quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uprety, Prakash

    Third generation quantum dot solar cells are one of the promising sources of clean energy. However, poor efficiency is a major issue; they are in a positive direction of optimization. To optimize their performance, we should select the materials which can absorb more light radiation in visible and infrared regions. To this regard, the gold plasmonic enhancement shows a promise to improve the efficiency of photovoltaics. Here, we report a solution process of depleted heterojunction PbS solar cells in the presence of gold nanoparticles. In our experiment, the solar cells show a better absorption and efficiency in the presence of the Au nanoparticles. The fabricated solar cell in the addition of Au nanoparticles has the average efficiency of 4.15%, where as the solar cell without plasmons has the average efficiency of 4.00%.

  16. Nanostructured upconverters for improved solar cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Rowan W.; Schulze, Tim F.; Khoury, Tony; Cheng, Yuen Yap; Stannowski, Bernd; Lips, Klaus; Crossley, Maxwel J.; Schmidt, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Triplet-triplet annihilation photon upconversion (TTA-UC) is a promising candidate for mitigating sub-band gap absorption losses in solar cells. In TTA-UC, sensitiser dyes absorb sub-band gap photons, cross to a triplet state, and transfer triplet excitons to emitter dyes. Two triplet-excited emitters can undergo TTA, raising one emitter to a higher-energy bright singlet state. The quadratic efficiency of TTA-UC at device-relevant light intensities motivates a push towards the higher chromophore densities achievable in the solid phase. We have begun this process by tethering tetrakisquinoxalino palladium porphyrin to 20nm silica nanoparticles using peptide chemistry techniques, achieving a total-volume concentration of 1.5mM. The phosphorescence kinetics of the tethered porphyrins was measured to quantify quenching by rubrene emitter. Upconverter performance was measured in a solar cell enhancement experiment.

  17. Solar cells Improved Hybrid Solar Cells via in situ UV Polymerization

    E-print Network

    Sibener, Steven

    Solar cells Improved Hybrid Solar Cells via in situ UV Polymerization Sanja Tepavcevic, Seth B-enhanced solar energy conversion. By using this simple in situ UV polymerization method that couples mobility of the photoactive layer can be enhanced. 1. Introduction Hybrid solar cells have been developed

  18. Biological solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, M.; Janzen, A. F.

    Recent reports have demonstrated the possibility of employing photoactive, biological membrane components in photoelectrochemical cells. Such systems have produced small photovoltages and photocurrents. Present studies in the laboratories have led to the attachment of a much simpler biological complex, the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center isolated from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, directly onto an SnO2 electrode. The light-induced primary charge separation processes which occur across the reaction center macromolecule have been coupled to the electrode, and in a two-electrode configuration photovoltages as high as 70 mV and photocurrents as high as 0.5 microamp/sq cm have been observed in an external circuit.

  19. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson from The Lawrence Hall of Science was taught in spring 2012 and teaches students about nano and environmental technologies. Students will create "dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using nano-crystalline titanium dioxide." This page includes links to the Source Articles for the Hands-on Module and Project Staff Write-ups of the Hands-on Module. Additionally, five documents provide lecture and lab materials for instructor use.

  20. in thin film solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Igalson; P. Zabierowski; A. Romeo; L. Stolt

    The interface states in TCO\\/CdS\\/CdTe and ZnO\\/CdS\\/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 photovoltaic devices has been studied by use of reverse-bias transient capacitance spectroscopy. Laplace transform analysis has been used in order to enhance a spectral resolution of the technique. It is shown, that the method yields useful information on the electronic characteristics of the heterointerface in the thin film solar cells. The conclusions include

  1. High Temperature Solar Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Merritt, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The majority of satellites and near-earth probes developed to date have used photovoltaic arrays for power generation. If future mission to probe environments close to the sun will be able to use photovoltaic power, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. In this paper, we derive the optimum bandgap as a function of the operating temperature.

  2. A review of the Homestake solar neutrino experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond Davis

    1994-01-01

    The observations from the Homestake radiochemical solar neutrino experiment over the period 1970 to 1992 are given. The observations will be compared to those from the Kamiokande II experiment, the gallium experiments and solar model calculations. A discussion is given of the question of a possible variation of the solar neutrino flux in anticorrelation with the solar activity cycle. The

  3. The space performance of silicon vertical junction solar cells on the LIPS III satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Statler; Delores H. Walker

    1988-01-01

    The preliminary analysis and results are presented of a space experiment to evaluate the performance of a new generation of silicon vertical junction solar cells and three adhesives for attaching coverglass to the solar cells. Two of the adhesives are used for the first time in coverglass applications in the space environment. The Solarex vertical junction solar cells, which are

  4. The space performance of silicon vertical junction solar cells on the LIPS-III satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Statler; Delores H. Walker

    1989-01-01

    The authors present the preliminary analysis and results of a space experiment to evaluate the performance of a new generation of silicon vertical junction solar cells and three adhesives for attaching coverglass to the solar cells. Two of the adhesives are used for the first time in coverglass applications in the space environment. The SOLAREX vertical junction solar cells, which

  5. Dye-sensitized solar cells using laser processing techniques A. Piqu, a

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Craig B.

    Dye-sensitized solar cells using laser processing techniques H. Kim,a A. Piqué, a G. P. Kushto,a R in dye-sensitized solar cells. LDW enables the fabrication of conformal structures containing metals that is ideally suited for dye-sensitized solar cells. In this experiment, a pulsed UV laser (355nm) is used

  6. Adsorption of organic dyes on TiO2 surfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells: interplay of theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Chiara; Mosconi, Edoardo; Pastore, Mariachiara; Ronca, Enrico; De Angelis, Filippo

    2012-12-14

    First-principles computer simulations can contribute to a deeper understanding of the dye/semiconductor interface lying at the heart of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs). Here, we present the results of simulation of dye adsorption onto TiO(2) surfaces, and of their implications for the functioning of the corresponding solar cells. We propose an integrated strategy which combines FT-IR measurements with DFT calculations to individuate the energetically favorable TiO(2) adsorption mode of acetic acid, as a meaningful model for realistic organic dyes. Although we found a sizable variability in the relative stability of the considered adsorption modes with the model system and the method, a bridged bidentate structure was found to closely match the FT-IR frequency pattern, also being calculated as the most stable adsorption mode by calculations in solution. This adsorption mode was found to be the most stable binding also for realistic organic dyes bearing cyanoacrylic anchoring groups, while for a rhodanine-3-acetic acid anchoring group, an undissociated monodentate adsorption mode was found to be of comparable stability. The structural differences induced by the different anchoring groups were related to the different electron injection/recombination with oxidized dye properties which were experimentally assessed for the two classes of dyes. A stronger coupling and a possibly faster electron injection were also calculated for the bridged bidentate mode. We then investigated the adsorption mode and I(2) binding of prototype organic dyes. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and geometry optimizations were performed for two coumarin dyes differing by the length of the ?-bridge separating the donor and acceptor moieties. We related the decreasing distance of the carbonylic oxygen from the titania to an increased I(2) concentration in proximity of the oxide surface, which might account for the different observed photovoltaic performances. The interplay between theory/simulation and experiments appears to be the key to further DSCs progress, both concerning the design of new dye sensitizers and their interaction with the semiconductor and with the solution environment and/or an electrolyte upon adsorption onto the semiconductor. PMID:23108504

  7. Three-junction solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Ludowise, Michael J. (Cupertino, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A photovoltaic solar cell is formed in a monolithic semiconductor. The cell contains three junctions. In sequence from the light-entering face, the junctions have a high, a medium, and a low energy gap. The lower junctions are connected in series by one or more metallic members connecting the top of the lower junction through apertures to the bottom of the middle junction. The upper junction is connected in voltage opposition to the lower and middle junctions by second metallic electrodes deposited in holes 60 through the upper junction. The second electrodes are connected to an external terminal.

  8. Solar Neutrinos and the Borexino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignaud, D.

    2015-04-01

    Solar neutrinos are produced in the core of the Sun in different nuclear reactions all based on the conversion of hydrogen into helium, releasing energy and making the Sun shine. Until now, the observation of solar neutrinos has demonstrated: a) the nuclear origin of the Sun's energy; b) that the ve produced were undergoing lepton flavor transformation into v? or v?, the neutrino oscillation mechanism. In the recent years, the Borexino experiment, in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory, has made significant contributions to the solar neutrino spectroscopy: first observation and precision measurement of the 7Be neutrinos, first observation of the pep reaction, stringent limit on CNO neutrinos, observation of 8B neutrinos with a 3 MeV threshold. These measurements reinforce the so-called LMA solution of the neutrino oscillation explaining the solar ve survival probability as a function of energy.

  9. Multi-junction solar cell device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Friedman; John F. Geisz

    2007-01-01

    A multi-junction solar cell device (10) is provided. The multi-junction solar cell device (10) comprises either two or three active solar cells connected in series in a monolithic structure. The multi-junction device (10) comprises a bottom active cell (20) having a single-crystal silicon substrate base and an emitter layer (23). The multi-junction device (10) further comprises one or two subsequent

  10. Current-Enhanced Quantum Well Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao-Gang Lou; Qiang Sun; Jun Xu; Xiao-Bing Zhang; Wei Lei; Bao-Ping Wang; Wen-Jun Chen; Zai-Xiang Qiao

    2006-01-01

    We present the experimental results that demonstrate the enhancement of the short-circuit current of quantum well solar cells. The spectral response shows that the introduction of quantum wells extends the absorption spectrum of solar cells. The current densities under different truncated spectrums significantly increase, showing that quantum well solar cells are suitable to be the middle cells of GaInP\\/GaAs\\/Ge triple-junction

  11. heat treatment for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consonni, Vincent; Renet, Sébastien; Garnier, Jérôme; Gergaud, Patrice; Artús, Lluis; Michallon, Jérôme; Rapenne, Laetitia; Appert, Estelle; Kaminski-Cachopo, Anne

    2014-05-01

    CdTe is an important compound semiconductor for solar cells, and its use in nanowire-based heterostructures may become a critical requirement, owing to the potential scarcity of tellurium. The effects of the CdCl2 heat treatment are investigated on the physical properties of vertically aligned ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays grown by combining chemical bath deposition with close space sublimation. It is found that recrystallization phenomena are induced by the CdCl2 heat treatment in the CdTe shell composed of nanograins: its crystallinity is improved while grain growth and texture randomization occur. The presence of a tellurium crystalline phase that may decorate grain boundaries is also revealed. The CdCl2 heat treatment further favors the chlorine doping of the CdTe shell with the formation of chlorine A-centers and can result in the passivation of grain boundaries. The absorption properties of ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays are highly efficient, and more than 80% of the incident light can be absorbed in the spectral range of the solar irradiance. The resulting photovoltaic properties of solar cells made from ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays covered with CuSCN/Au back-side contact are also improved after the CdCl2 heat treatment. However, recombination and trap phenomena are expected to operate, and the collection of the holes that are mainly photo-generated in the CdTe shell from the CuSCN/Au back-side contact is presumably identified as the main critical point in these solar cells.

  12. Solar axion search with the CAST experiment

    E-print Network

    CAST Collaboration; E. Arik; S. Aune; D. Autiero; K. Barth; A. Belov; B. Beltrán; S. Borghi; F. S. Boydag; H. Bräuninger; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; J. I. Collar; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; L. Di Lella; O. B. Dogan; C. Eleftheriadis; N. Elias; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; H. Fischer; J. Franz; J. Galán; E. Gazis; T. Geralis; I. Giomataris; S. Gninenko; H. Gómez; M. Hasinoff; F. H. Heinsius; I. Hikmet; D. H. H. Hoffmann; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; K. Jakov?i?; D. Kang; T. Karageorgopoulou; M. Karuza; K. Königsmann; R. Kotthaus; M. Kr?mar; K. Kousouris; M. Kuster; B. Laki?; C. Lasseur; A. Liolios; A. Ljubi?i?; V. Lozza; G. Lutz; G. Luzón; D. Miller; J. Morales; T. Niinikoski; A. Nordt; A. Ortiz; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; A. Placci; G. Raiteri; G. Raffelt; H. Riege; A. Rodríguez; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; Y. Semertzidis; P. Serpico; S. K. Solanki; R. Soufli; L. Stewart; M. Tsagri; K. van Bibber; J5D. Villar; J. Vogel; L. Walckiers; K. Zioutas

    2008-10-10

    The CAST (CERN Axion Solar Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside the magnet pipe of an LHC dipole. The analysis of the data recorded during the first phase of the experiment with vacuum in the magnet pipes has resulted in the most restrictive experimental limit on the coupling constant of axions to photons. In the second phase, CAST is operating with a buffer gas inside the magnet pipes in order to extent the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axion masses. We will present the first results on the $^{4}{\\rm He}$ data taking as well as the system upgrades that have been operated in the last year in order to adapt the experiment for the $^{3}{\\rm He}$ data taking. Expected sensitivities on the coupling constant of axions to photons will be given for the recent $^{3}{\\rm He}$ run just started in March 2008.

  13. Eutectic Contact Inks for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1985-01-01

    Low-resistance electrical contacts formed on solar cells by melting powders of eutectic composition of semiconductor and dopant. Process improves cell performance without subjecting cell to processing temperatures high enough to degrade other characteristics.

  14. Solar Irradiance and Thermospheric Airglow Rocket Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Stanley C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes work done in support of the Solar Irradiance and Thermospheric Air-glow Rocket Experiments at the University of Colorado for NASA grant NAG5-5021 under the direction of Dr. Stanley C. Solomon. (The overall rocket program is directed by Dr. Thomas N. Woods, formerly at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and now also at the University of Colorado, for NASA grant NAG5-5141.) Grant NAG5-5021 provided assistance to the overall program through analysis of airglow and solar data, support of two graduate students, laboratory technical services, and field support. The general goals of the rocket program were to measure the solar extreme ultraviolet spectral irradiance, measure the terrestrial far-ultraviolet airglow, and analyze their relationship at various levels of solar activity, including near solar minimum. These have been met, as shown below. In addition, we have used the attenuation of solar radiation as the rocket descends through the thermosphere to measure density changes. This work demonstrates the maturity of the observational and modeling methods connecting energetic solar photon fluxes and airglow emissions through the processes of photoionization and photoelectron production and loss. Without a simultaneous photoelectron measurement, some aspects of this relationship remain obscure, and there are still questions pertaining to cascade contributions to molecular and atomic airglow emissions. However, by removing the solar irradiance as an "adjustable parameter" in the analysis, significant progress has been made toward understanding the relationship of far-ultraviolet airglow emissions to the solar and atmospheric conditions that control them.

  15. Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE) is to investigate, by means of a shuttle-based flight experiment and relevant ground-based testing, the arcing and current collection behavior of materials and geometries likely to be exposed to the LEO plasma on high-voltage space power systems, in order to minimize adverse environmental interactions. An overview of the SAMPIE program is presented in outline and graphical form.

  16. Calculating the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells with industry based silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Komal Magsi; Emilia Macdonald; Leon Shterengas

    2010-01-01

    Our senior design project deal with two types of solar cell technologies: industry standard Si-based and the emerging one based on novel dye sensitized materials. Dye sensitized solar cells will be fabricated in a laboratory setting. FTIR and Raman microscopy will be used to study the surface make-up of the novel solar cells. A thin film flexible photovoltaic cell will

  17. TIMED Solar EUV Experiment: Phase E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Tom; Eparvier, Frank; Woodraska, Don; Rottman, Gary; Solomon, Stan; Roble, Ray; deToma, Guliana; White, Dick; Lean, Judith; Tobiska, Kent; Bailey, Scott

    2002-01-01

    The timed Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) Phase E Annual Report for 2002 is presented. The contents include: 1) SEE Science Overview; 2) SEE Instrument Overview and Status; 3) Summary of SEE Data Products; 4) Summary of SEE Results; 5) Summary of SEE Related Talks and Papers; and 6) Future Plans for SEE Team. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  18. Modeling and experiment of dye-sensitized solar cell with vertically aligned ZnO nanorods through chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuono, Ruri Agung; Risanti, Doty D.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model based on electron diffusion differential equation and Schottky barrier model was developed to determine the current-voltage characteristics of DSSC. To verify the model DSSC with ZnO nanorods photoelectrode which was chemically bath deposited onto the TCO was fabricated. According to modeling results, increasing of recombination current density J at these interfaces results in a decrease in Schottky barrier height ?b and therefore improves the photovoltage under the open-circuit condition. It is found that the open-circuit voltage remains constant when the TCO/ZnO Schottky barrier height was varied in the range of 0.45 - 0.6 eV. This theoretical model consistents with the experimental result in which the fabricated DSSCs can produce conversion efficiency in the range of 0.98 - 1.16%. The trend in photovoltage calculated in the theoretical model basically agrees with the experimental result, although the calculated photocurrent is somewhat over estimated compared to the experimental results. The model presents that the ideality factor for ZnO nanorods, which also contributes to the enhancement of photovoltage, increases in the range of 2.75 - 3.0 as the annealing temperature is increased in the experiment.

  19. Ion implanted junctions for silicon space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Sanfacon, M. M.; Wolfson, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of ion implantation to emitter and back surface field formation in silicon space solar cells. Experiments based on 2 ohm-cm boron-doped silicon are presented. It is shown that the implantation process is particularly compatible with formation of a high-quality back surface reflector. Large area solar cells with AM0 efficiency greater than 14 percent are reported.

  20. Analysis on dye-sensitized solar cell's efficiency improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanmin Tian; Jiyuan Zhang; Yangjing; Tao Yu; Zhigang Zou

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Iph, I0, Rs, Rsh, n on the I-V curve, which are the equivalent circuit parameters of a dye-sensitized solar cell, was presented. A series of TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells were prepared, and experiment results consisted with our theoretical deduction that the increase of Rs would change the FF of DSSC while none influence on short-circuit current Isc,

  1. Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

    2009-09-01

    Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

  2. An overview of the first results on the solar array passive LDEF experiment (sample), AO171

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann F. Whitaker; Leighton E. Young

    1991-01-01

    Space environmental effects were visibly obvious on components of experiment AO171 which contained solar cells, composites, polymeric thin films, solar reflectors, protective coatings, metals, paints , and elastomers. Micrometeoroid\\/space debris impacts were observed on all experiment elements. Luminescence of polyimide, silicone, and polyurethane materials occurred under black light examination. Outgassing of RTV511 occurred mainly as a result of insufficient thermal

  3. TROPIX: A solar electric propulsion flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, J. Mark; Hillard, G. Barry; Oleson, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    The Transfer Orbit Plasma Interaction Experiment (TROPIX) is a proposed scientific experiment and flight demonstration of a solar electric propulsion vehicle. Its mission goals are to significantly increase our knowledge of Earth's magnetosphere and its associated plasma environment and to demonstrate an operational solar electric upper stage (SEUS) for small launch vehicles. The scientific investigations and flight demonstration technology experiments are uniquely interrelated because of the spacecraft's interaction with the surrounding environment. The data obtained will complement previous studies of the Earth's magnetosphere and space plasma environment by supplying the knowledge necessary to attain the strategic objectives of the NASA Office of Space Science. This first operational use of a primary ion propulsion vehicle, designed to withstand the harsh environments from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit, may lead to the development of a new class of electric propulsion upper stages or space-based transfer vehicles and may improve future spacecraft design and safety.

  4. A Surface-Controlled Solar Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

    1987-01-01

    Open-circuit voltage and cell efficiency increased. Proposed technique for controlling recombination velocity on solar-cell surfaces provides cells of increased efficiency and open-circuit voltage. In present cells, uncontrolled surface recombination velocity degrades opencircuit voltage and efficiency. In cell using proposed technique, transparent conducting layer, insulated from cell contacts, biased to enable variable control of surface recombination velocity.

  5. Bypass diode for a solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Rim, Seung Bum (Palo Alto, CA); Kim, Taeseok (San Jose, CA); Smith, David D. (Campbell, CA); Cousins, Peter J. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2012-03-13

    Bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a bypass diode for a solar cell includes a substrate of the solar cell. A first conductive region is disposed above the substrate, the first conductive region of a first conductivity type. A second conductive region is disposed on the first conductive region, the second conductive region of a second conductivity type opposite the first conductivity type.

  6. Ultrasonic Bonding of Solar-Cell Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasch, W.

    1984-01-01

    Rolling ultrasonic spot-bonding method successfully joins aluminum interconnect fingers to silicon solar cells with copper metalization. Technique combines best features of ultrasonic rotary seam welding and ultrasonic spot bonding: allows fast bond cycles and high indexing speeds without use of solder or flux. Achieves reliable bonds at production rates without damage to solar cells. Bonding system of interest for all solar-cell assemblies and other assemblies using flat leads (rather than round wires).

  7. Solar Cell Modules With Improved Backskin

    DOEpatents

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

    2003-12-09

    A laminated solar cell module comprises a front light transmitting support, a plurality of interconnected solar cells encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant material, and an improved backskin formed of an ionomer/nylon alloy. The improved backskin has a toughness and melting point temperature sufficiently great to avoid any likelihood of it being pierced by any of the components that interconnect the solar cells.

  8. Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin D. Yuhas; Peidong; Peidong Yang

    2008-01-01

    We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale

  9. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, A.; Gupta, S.; Mcmullin, P. G.; Palaschak, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Laser-assisted processing techniques for producing high-quality solar cell metallization patterns are being investigated, developed, and characterized. The tasks comprising these investigations are outlined.

  10. Improved monolithic tandem solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1991-04-23

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surf ace of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched.

  11. Current and lattice matched tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1987-01-01

    A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x P (0.505.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low-resistance heterojunction, preferably a p+/n+ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice matched and current matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

  12. Compound semiconductor thin films: a solar cell research opportunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Gay; V. K. Kapur

    1983-01-01

    Achievement of 10% conversion efficiency with three compound thin-film solar cell material systems does not exhuast this field of research and development. Many other candidate materials have been reported, even the best-known are only partially understood, and some remain unexplored. Recent experience suggests that barriers to making experimental cells, such as purity and lattice matching, can be less constraining than

  13. Detailed balance theory of excitonic and bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kirchartz; Julian Mattheis; Uwe Rau

    2008-01-01

    A generalized solar cell model for excitonic and classical bipolar solar cells describes the combined transport and interaction of electrons, holes, and excitons in accordance with the principle of detailed balance. Conventional inorganic solar cells, single-phase organic solar cells and bulk heterojunction solar cells, i.e., nanoscale mixtures of two organic materials, are special cases of this model. For high mobilities,

  14. Leveraging the Experimental Method to Inform Solar Cell Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Annette; Ribblett, Jason W.; Hershberger, Heather Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the underlying logic of experimentation is exemplified within the context of a photoelectrical experiment for students taking a high school engineering, technology, or chemistry class. Students assume the role of photochemists as they plan, fabricate, and experiment with a solar cell made of copper and an aqueous solution of…

  15. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOEpatents

    Cousins, Peter John (Menlo Park, CA)

    2012-07-17

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  16. Silicon solar cells as a high-solar-intensity radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spisz, E. W.; Robson, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The characteristics of a conventional, 1- by 2-cm, N/P, gridded silicon solar cell when used as a radiometer have been determined for solar intensity levels to 2800 mW/sq cm (20 solar constants). The short-circuit current was proportional to the radiant intensity for levels only to 700 mW/sq cm (5 solar constants). For intensity levels greater than 700 mW/sq cm, it was necessary to operate the cell in a photoconductive mode in order to obtain a linear relation between the measured current and the radiant intensity. When the solar cell was biased with a reverse voltage of -1 V, the measured current and radiant intensity were linearly related over the complete intensity range from 100 to 2800 mW/sq cm.

  17. Multiple quantum well top cells for multijunction concentrator solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan-Hua Lee; Keith W. J. Barnham; Benjamin C. Browne; James P. Connolly; Jessica G. J. Adams; Rob J. Airey; Nicholas J. Ekins-Daukes; Markus Fuhrer; Victoria Rees; Mathew Lumb; Alison L. Dobbin; Massimo Mazzer; John S. Roberts; Thomas N. D. Tibbits

    2011-01-01

    High efficiency quantum well GaAs solar cells have been successfully applied in commercial multijunction concentrator cells to increase the absorption in the infrared and provide variability of the absorption edge to optimise energy harvesting. Multiple quantum well (MQW) top cells can further improve the performance of multijunction solar cells since the absorption edge of top and middle subcells can be

  18. Ultrathin silicon solar cell for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutani, T.; Saga, T.; Ueyama, H.; Hagihara, Y.; Hirano, T.; Suzuki, A.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrathin silicon (Si) solar cells for space application were fabricated on an experimental basis and the electrical characteristics were investigated for three kinds of cells (Black, BSFR and Conventional cells). Under 135.3 mW sq cm (AM0) illumination, ultrathin Black cells showed 67.7 mW output, which is equal to 89 percent output of 280 micron Black cells. The power to mass ratio of bare ultrathin Black cells was 3.6 times high compared with 280 micron thick Black cells. 1 MeV electron irradiation test was carried out to evaluate the radiation resistance. Ultrathin cells showed superior radiation resistance compared with that of 280 micron thick cells, and it was comparable to that of a GaAs solar cell which had been recognized as a radiation resistive cell. The results suggest that ultrathin solar cells have high potential for space application.

  19. Solar cell calibration facility validation of balloon flight data: A comparison of shuttle and balloon flight results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Anspaugh; R. G. Downing; L. B. Sidwell

    1985-01-01

    The Solar Cell Calibration Facility (SCCF) experiment was designed and built to evaluate the effect of the Earth's upper atmosphere on the calibration of solar cell standards. During execution of the experiment, a collection of carefully selected solar cells was flown on the shuttle, and reflown on a high-altitude balloon, then their outputs were compared. After correction to standard temperature

  20. Development of a large area space solar cell assembly. Final Report, Jul. 1981 - Mar. 1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spitzer

    1982-01-01

    The development of a large area high efficiency solar cell assembly is described. The assembly consists of an ion implanted silicon solar cell and glass cover. The important attributes of fabrication are the use of a back surface field which is compatible with a back surface reflector, and integration of coverglass application and cell fabrications. Cell development experiments concerned optimization

  1. Molecular weight dependent bimolecular recombination in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippa, Bronson; Stolterfoht, Martin; White, Ronald D.; Velusamy, Marrapan; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul; Pivrikas, Almantas

    2014-08-01

    Charge carrier recombination is studied in operational organic solar cells made from the polymer:fullerene system PCDTBT:PC71BM (poly[N-9''-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)]: [6,6]-phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester). A newly developed technique High Intensity Resistance dependent PhotoVoltage is presented for reliably quantifying the bimolecular recombination coefficient independently of variations in experimental conditions, thereby resolving key limitations of previous experimental approaches. Experiments are performed on solar cells of varying thicknesses and varying polymeric molecular weights. It is shown that solar cells made from low molecular weight PCDTBT exhibit Langevin recombination, whereas suppressed (non-Langevin) recombination is found in solar cells made with high molecular weight PCDTBT.

  2. Molecular weight dependent bimolecular recombination in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Philippa, Bronson; Stolterfoht, Martin; White, Ronald D; Velusamy, Marrapan; Burn, Paul L; Meredith, Paul; Pivrikas, Almantas

    2014-08-01

    Charge carrier recombination is studied in operational organic solar cells made from the polymer:fullerene system PCDTBT:PC71BM (poly[N-9''-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)]: [6,6]-phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester). A newly developed technique High Intensity Resistance dependent PhotoVoltage is presented for reliably quantifying the bimolecular recombination coefficient independently of variations in experimental conditions, thereby resolving key limitations of previous experimental approaches. Experiments are performed on solar cells of varying thicknesses and varying polymeric molecular weights. It is shown that solar cells made from low molecular weight PCDTBT exhibit Langevin recombination, whereas suppressed (non-Langevin) recombination is found in solar cells made with high molecular weight PCDTBT. PMID:25106609

  3. The effects of space environment on silicon vertical junction solar cells on the LIPS III satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Statler

    1989-01-01

    The preliminary analysis and results of a space experiment to evaluate the performance of a new generation of silicon vertical junction solar cells and three adhesives for attaching coverglass to the solar cells are presented. Two of the adhesives are used for the first time in coverglass applications where they are subjected to the space environment. SOLAREX vertical junction solar

  4. Space calibration of solar cells. Results of 2 shuttle flight missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suppa

    1984-01-01

    The Solar Cell Calibration Experiment (SCCE) is a facility designed to be flown on free flying platforms, launched and retrieved by the Space Transportation System (STS). Its first missions were flown by the STS 7 and 11. The immediate objectives of the SCCE were to generate primary solar cells standards for solar simulation measurements on ground and to compare accuracy

  5. New Solar Cell Power Supply System Using a Boost Type Bidirectinal DC-DC Converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Matsuo; Fujio Kurokawa

    1984-01-01

    A new solar cell power supply system is presented, in which the boost type bidirectional dc-dc converter and the simple control circuit with a small monitor solar cell are employed to track the maximum power point of the solar array. It is confirmed by the experiment that the new system has sufficiently precise tracking operation performance and satisfactorily high power

  6. Flexible solid-state dye solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby B. Meyer; Andreas F. Meyer; Daniel Ginestoux

    2002-01-01

    The cell structure concepts and materials to build solid-state dye solar cells based on nanocristalline titanium oxide and an organic hole conductor were investigated. The substrate cell is based on a metal foil and a semi-transparent gold window on top of the cell structure and the superstrate cell is deposited on ITO coated polymer foil replacing the traditional conductive glass

  7. Bonder for Solar-Cell Strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garwood, G.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    String bonder for solar-cell arrays eliminates tedious manual assembly procedure that could damage cell face. Vacuum arm picks up face-down cell from cell-inverting work station and transfers it to string conveyor without changing cell orientation. Arm is activated by signal from microprocessor.

  8. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    In the past decade, research on organic solar cells has gone through an important development stage leading to major enhancements in power conversion efficiency, from 4% to 9% in single-junction devices. During this period, there are many novel processing techniques and device designs that have been proposed and adapted in organic solar-cell devices. One well-known device architecture that helps maximize the solar cell efficiency is the multi-junction tandem solar-cell design. Given this design, multiple photoactive absorbers as subcells are stacked in a monolithic fashion and assembled via series connection into one complete device, known as the tandem solar cell. Since multiple absorbers with different optical energy bandgaps are being applied in one tandem solar-cell device, the corresponding solar cell efficiency is maximized through expanded absorption spectrum and reduced carrier thermalization loss. In Chapter 3, the architecture of solution-processible, visibly transparent solar cells is introduced. Unlike conventional organic solar-cell devices with opaque electrodes (such as silver, aluminum, gold and etc.), the semi-transparent solar cells rely on highly transparent electrodes and visibly transparent photoactive absorbers. Given these two criteria, we first demonstrated the visibly transparent single-junction solar cells via the polymer absorber with near-infrared absorption and the top electrode based on solution-processible silver nanowire conductor. The highest visible transparency (400 ˜ 700 nm) of 65% was achieved for the complete device structure. More importantly, power conversion efficiency of 4% was also demonstrated. In Chapter 4, we stacked two semi-transparent photoactive absorbers in the tandem architecture in order to realize the semi-transparent tandem solar cells. A noticeable performance improvement from 4% to 7% was observed. More importantly, we modified the interconnecting layers with the incorporation of a thin conjugated polyelectrolyte layer functioning as the surface dipole formation layer to provide better electrical contact with the photoactive layer. Due to the effectiveness of the conjugated polyelectrolyte layer, performance improvement was also observed. Furthermore, other issues regarding the semi-transparent tandem solar cells (e.g., photocurrent matching, exterior color tuning, and transparency tuning) are all explored to optimize best performance. In Chapter 5 and 6, the architectures of double- and triple-junction tandem solar cells are explored. Theoretically, triple-junction tandem solar cells with three photoactive absorbers with cascaded energy bandgaps have the potential to achieve higher performance, in comparison with double-junction tandem solar cells. Such expectations can be ascribed to the minimized carrier thermalization loss and further improved light absorption. However, the design of triple-junction solar cells often involves sophisticated multiple layer deposition as well as substantial optimization. Therefore, there is a lack of successful demonstrations of triple-junction solar cells outperforming the double-junction counterparts. To solve the incompatible issues related to the layer deposition in the fabrication, we proposed a novel architecture of inverted-structure tandem solar cells with newly designed interconnecting layers. Our design of interconnecting layers does not only focus on maintaining the orthogonal solution processing advantages, but also provides an excellent compatibility in the energy level alignment to allow different absorber materials to be used. Furthermore, we also explored the light management inside the double- and triple-junction tandem solar cells. The study of light management was carried out through optical simulation method based transfer matrix formalism. The intention is to obtain a balanced photocurrent output from each subcells inside the tandem solar cell, thus the minimal recombination loss at the contact of interconnecting layers and the optimal efficiency can be expected. With help from simulations, we were able to ca

  9. Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Breeze; J Alison; Yudhisthira Sahoo; Damoder Reddy; Veronica Sholin; Sue Carter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these

  10. Monolithic cells for solar fuels.

    PubMed

    Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed. PMID:24526085

  11. Effects of contamination on solar cell coverglass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Liu; S. H. Liu; C. J. Panetta; K. R. Olson; S. M. Hong; D. R. Alaan; C. J. Mann; K. T. Luey

    2010-01-01

    As the power generation capability of solar cells depends strongly on the spectra of the incident light through the coverglass, there is a critical need to understand the impact of adsorbed molecular (organic) contaminants, which absorb light in the short wavelength range. The goal of this work is to calculate solar cell current loss based on experimentally determined coverglass transmission

  12. Stability\\/degradation of polymer solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikkel Jørgensen; Kion Norrman; Frederik C. Krebs

    2008-01-01

    Polymer and organic solar cells degrade during illumination and in the dark. This is in contrast to photovoltaics based on inorganic semiconductors such as silicon. Long operational lifetimes of solar cell devices are required in real-life application and the understanding and alleviation of the degradation phenomena are a prerequisite for successful application of this new and promising technology. In this

  13. Report on high intensity solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.J.; Gray, J.L.; Lundstrom, M.S.

    1985-02-01

    Much effort has been directed recently toward the development of high efficiency solar cells for terrestrial use. Significant progress has been made for their use as an alternative to more conventional energy sources. Silicon solar cells in particular are rapidly approaching theoretical limitations in efficiency. To aid the development of more efficient solar cells, a mathematical model would be invaluable. Solar cell geometries could be compared and optimized before actual fabrication, eliminating problems caused by the uncertainties associated with device processing. Because analytic models require too many simplifying assumptions, numerical models must be used. Further, a two-dimensional model is needed because most solar cell geometries cannot be handled adequately in one dimension. A computer program, SCAP2D (Solar Cell Analysis Program in 2 Dimensions), capable of modeling a variety of solar cell structures under various operating conditions has been developed. The potential of this program for use as a design and analysis tool has been demonstrated by modeling the conventional, IBC, and EMVJ solar cells.

  14. Method of manufacture of solar cell panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Walker; W. C. Kittler

    1978-01-01

    There is described a solar cell panel consisting of an outer rigid transparent faceply of glass or plastic material to which are applied at least two layers of plastic such as polyvinyl butyral between which are positioned a plurality of solar cell wafers. A thin flexible film of polyethylene terephthalate forms the other outer surface of the panel. The panel

  15. Porous silicon in solar cells technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Semikina; A. N. Shmyryeva

    1998-01-01

    A construction and technology preparing of solar cells elements with distributed potential barriers and fitting nonuniforming distribution of diffusing impurities along thickness by porous silicon layer using are represented. The porous silicon process formation has been got. Optimizal regimes of short-circuit current increasing (on 58 %) and open voltage — (on 7 %) were determined for solar cells with porous

  16. A Simplified Solar Cell Array Modelling Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Hughes

    1982-01-01

    As part of the energy conversion\\/self sufficiency efforts of DSN engineering, it was necessary to have a simplified computer model of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system. This article describes the analysis and simplifications employed in the development of a PV cell array computer model. The analysis of the incident solar radiation, steady state cell temperature and the current-voltage characteristics of

  17. Modeling and simulation of organic solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liming Liu; Guangyong Li

    2010-01-01

    We present our investigation of organic solar cells by modeling and simulation after numerically solving Poisson and continuity equations that describe the electric property of semiconductors. Specifically, simulations reveal that Langevin type recombination, which describes the loss mechanism in pristine materials with low mobility, is not proper to predict the performance of BHJ organic solar cells and will lead counterintuitive

  18. Thin solar cell and lightweight array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr. (inventor); Weinberg, Irving (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A thin, lightweight solar cell that utilizes front contact metallization is presented. Both the front light receiving surface of the solar cell and the facing surface of the cover glass are recessed to accommodate this metallization. This enables the two surfaces to meet flush for an optimum seal.

  19. Black and thin silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Michel

    1976-01-01

    Methods for reducing the cost of solar electricity obtained from P\\/N junction single crystal silicon photocells are discussed. In particular, the use of a cheap etching bath (KOH) for texturizing black solar cells, and the possibility of producing efficient cells with silicon layers in the 70 to 300 micron range are considered. A computer program capable of analyzing energy conversion

  20. Improved radiation hardness of silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidetoshi Washio; Yoshifumi Tonomura; Minoru Kaneiwa; Tatsuo Saga; O. Anzawa; S. Matsuda

    2000-01-01

    SHARP and NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan) have been engaged in the development of silicon space solar cells since 1970s. We started the project to improve the radiation hardness of silicon solar cells in 1998. This project gave fruitful results in BJ (both-side junction) and AHES (advanced high efficiency silicon) structure. The design and manufacturing process for the

  1. Introduction to basic solar cell measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The basic approaches to solar cell performance and diagnostic measurements are described. The light sources, equipment for I-V curve measurement, and the test conditions and procedures for performance measurement are detailed. Solar cell diagnostic tools discussed include analysis of I-V curves, series resistance and reverse saturation current determination, spectral response/quantum yield measurement, and diffusion length/lifetime determination.

  2. Upconverter materials and upconversion solar-cell devices: simulation and characterization with broad solar spectrum illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, S.; Fröhlich, B.; Ivaturi, A.; Herter, B.; Wolf, S.; Krämer, K. W.; Richards, B. S.; Goldschmidt, J. C.

    2014-03-01

    Upconverter materials and upconverter solar devices were recently investigated with broad-band excitation revealing the great potential of upconversion to enhance the efficiency of solar cell at comparatively low solar concentration factors. In this work first attempts are made to simulate the behavior of the upconverter ?-NaYF4 doped with Er3+ under broad-band excitation. An existing model was adapted to account for the lower absorption of broader excitation spectra. While the same trends as observed for the experiments were found in the simulation, the absolute values are fairly different. This makes an upconversion model that specifically considers the line shape function of the ground state absorption indispensable to achieve accurate simulations of upconverter materials and upconverter solar cell devices with broadband excitations, such as the solar radiation.

  3. Terrestrial solar spectra, solar simulation and solar cell short-circuit current calibration - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, R. J.; Emery, K. A.; Bird, R. E.

    1984-03-01

    In this paper, the main issues in modeling and measuring terrestrial solar spectra and their relation to the short-circuit current of solar cells are addressed. These issues are (1) the measured and modeled terrestrial solar spectra, (2) the optimal light sources and their filtering for simulating the standard terrestrial solar irradiance spectrum and (3) the consequences of a mismatch between the chosen standard terrestrial solar spectrum and the actual irradiance conditions for the rated efficiency of a solar cell. In addition, this review provides the photovoltaics community with a tutorial document and a summary of the current activities and results in this field.

  4. Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang*, Benjamin D. Yuhas and Peidong; Yang, Peidong

    2008-12-07

    We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale photovoltaic devices. We found that the solar cell performance is enhanced with the addition of an intermediate oxide insulating layer between the nanowires and the nanoparticles. This observation of the important dependence of the shunt resistance on the photovoltaic performance is widely applicable to any nanowire solar cell constructed with the nanowire array in direct contact with one electrode.

  5. High-Temperature Solar Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Merritt, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The vast majority of satellites and near-earth probes developed to date have relied upon photovoltaic power generation. If future missions to probe environments close to the sun will be able to use photovoltaic power, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. For example, the equilibrium temperature of a Mercury surface station will be about 450 C, and the temperature of solar arrays on the proposed "Solar Probe" mission will extend to temperatures as high as 2000 C (although it is likely that the craft will operate on stored power rather than solar energy during the closest approach to the sun). Advanced thermal design principles, such as replacing some of the solar array area with reflectors, off-pointing, and designing the cells to reflect rather than absorb light out of the band of peak response, can reduce these operating temperature somewhat. Nevertheless, it is desirable to develop approaches to high-temperature solar cell design that can operate under temperature extremes far greater than today's cells. Solar cells made from wide bandgap (WBG) compound semiconductors are an obvious choice for such an application. In order to aid in the experimental development of such solar cells, we have initiated a program studying the theoretical and experimental photovoltaic performance of wide bandgap materials. In particular, we have been investigating the use of GaP, SiC, and GaN materials for space solar cells. We will present theoretical results on the limitations on current cell technologies and the photovoltaic performance of these wide-bandgap solar cells in a variety of space conditions. We will also give an overview of some of NASA's cell developmental efforts in this area and discuss possible future mission applications.

  6. A solar power radiacmeter. Research and development technical report. [5 mW silicon solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirschl

    1977-01-01

    A solar power radiacmeter (breadboard) design is described, based on a miniature (18 cc) ionization chamber and low power, solid-state (Field Effect Transistor, FET) electrometer. Power demand for this instrument, including DC converter, is approximately 5 mW. Preliminary experiments with a 20 sq cm silicon solar cell panel and pen light (AA size) rechargeable (NiCd) battery suggest feasibility of this

  7. Silicon film solar cell process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. B.; Mcneely, J. B.; Barnett, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    The most promising way to reduce the cost of silicon in solar cells while still maintaining performance is to utilize thin films (10 to 20 microns thick) of crystalline silicon. The method of solution growth is being employed to grow thin polycrystalline films of silicon on dissimilar substrates. The initial results indicate that, using tin as the solvent, this growth process only requires operating temperatures in the range of 800 C to 1000 C. Growth rates in the range of 0.4 to 2.0 microns per minute and grain sizes in the range of 20 to 100 microns were achieved on both quartz and coated steel substrates. Typically, an aspect ratio of two to three between the width and the Si grain thickness is seen. Uniform coverage of Si growth on quartz over a 2.5 x 2.5 cm area was observed.

  8. Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Lin; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Nature has chosen chlorophylls in plants as antennae to harvest light for the conversion of solar energy in complicated photosynthetic processes. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, scientists utilized artificial chlorophylls - the porphyrins - as efficient centres to harvest light for solar cells sensitized with a porphyrin (PSSC). After the first example appeared in 1993 of a porphyrin of type copper chlorophyll as a photosensitizer for PSSC that achieved a power conversion efficiency of 2.6%, no significant advance of PSSC was reported until 2005; beta-linked zinc porphyrins were then reported to show promising device performances with a benchmark efficiency of 7.1% reported in 2007. Meso-linked zinc porphyrin sensitizers in the first series with a push-pull framework appeared in 2009; the best cell performed comparably to that of a N3-based device, and a benchmark 11% was reported for a porphyrin sensitizer of this type in 2010. With a structural design involving long alkoxyl chains to envelop the porphyrin core to suppress the dye aggregation for a push-pull zinc porphyrin, the PSSC achieved a record 12.3% in 2011 with co-sensitization of an organic dye and a cobalt-based electrolyte. The best PSSC system exhibited a panchromatic feature for light harvesting covering the visible spectral region to 700 nm, giving opportunities to many other porphyrins, such as fused and dimeric porphyrins, with near-infrared absorption spectral features, together with the approach of molecular co-sensitization, to enhance the device performance of PSSC. According to this historical trend for the development of prospective porphyrin sensitizers used in PSSC, we review systematically the progress of porphyrins of varied kinds, and their derivatives, applied in PSSC with a focus on reports during 2007-2012 from the point of view of molecular design correlated with photovoltaic performance. PMID:23023240

  9. Development and fabrication of a solar cell junction processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, S.

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell junction processing system was developed and fabricated. A pulsed electron beam for the four inch wafers is being assembled and tested, wafers were successfully pulsed, and solar cells fabricated. Assembly of the transport locks is completed. The transport was operated successfully but not with sufficient reproducibility. An experiment test facility to examine potential scaleup problems associated with the proposed ion implanter design was constructed and operated. Cells were implanted and found to have efficiency identical to the normal Spire implant process.

  10. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future. PMID:24191178

  11. Improving Solar Cells With Polycrystalline Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Campbell, Robert B.; Rai-Choudhury, Prosenjit

    1987-01-01

    In proposed solar-cell design, layers of polycrystalline silicon grown near front metal grid and back metal surface. Net electrical effect increases open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current, resulting in greater cell power output and energy conversion efficiency. Solar-cell configuration differs from existing one in that layers of doped polycrystalline silicon added to reduce recombination in emitter and back surface field regions.

  12. High performance porous silicon solar cell development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Vernon; N. M. Kalkhoran; H. P. Maruska; W. D. Halverson

    1994-01-01

    We have fabricated Si solar cells from porous Si\\/bulk Si structures. Two cell types, having the junction within the porous Si or within the bulk Si, were studied. We have seen clear evidence of the photovoltaic effect in porous Si, although currents and voltages are low, due to spreading resistance problems. On a non-AR-coated bulk Si p-n junction solar cell,

  13. Single-nanowire Si solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Kelzenberg; D. B. Turner-Evans; B. M. Kayes; M. A. Filler; M. C. Putnam; N. S. Lewis; H. A. Atwater

    2008-01-01

    Solar cells based on arrays of CVD-grown Si nano- or micro-wires are being considered as a potentially low-cost route to implementing a vertical multijunction cell design via radial p-n junctions. This geometry has been predicted to enable efficiencies competitive with planar multicrystalline Si designs, while reducing the materials and processing costs of solar cell fabrication [1]. To further assess the

  14. Direct glassing of silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, P. A.; Crabb, R. L.; Dollery, A. A.

    An alternate method of attaching coverglasses to silicon solar cells-currently achieved using silicone adhesives-is presented. The method is based on the electrostatic bonding of a specially developed glass that has an ideal expansion match to the silicon solar cell. Basically, the coverglass and cell are joined by a permanent chemical anodic bond formed by subjecting the cell and coverglass to voltage, temperature, and pressure while in intimate contact with each other. Because the front surface of the solar cell forms one of the bonding interfaces, it is important to understand the significance of changes in the cell design or type. Work performed in characterizing required cell parameters, e.g. coating type, texture, etc., and the effects of the bonding process on cell output are discussed.

  15. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M. S.; Deol, Y. S.; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Narottam; Janu, Yojana

    2011-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy to electrical power in remote and desert area where the supply of conventional power is not possible. The overall peak power-production efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been reported around 11 percent, so they are best suited to low-density applications and the price-to-performance ratio obtained through these solar cells is superior to others. DSSCs have ability to absorb even diffused sunlight and therefore work in cloudy whether as well without much impact over the efficiency. The present communication deals with a review of our work on DSSCs wherein we have used cost effective natural dyes/pigments as a sensitizer of nc-TiO2 and discussed about various key factors affecting the conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  16. Design and development of high voltage (DC) sources for the solar array module plasma interaction experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene K. Bibyk; Lawrence W. Wald

    1995-01-01

    Two programmable, high voltage DC power supplies were developed as part of the flight electronics for the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE). SAMPIE's primary objectives were to study and characterize the high voltage arcing and parasitic current losses of various solar cells and metal samples within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO). High voltage arcing can

  17. Thermodynamic efficiency limit of excitonic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Giebink, Noel C. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Wiederrecht, Gary P. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Wasielewski, Michael R. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Forrest, Stephen R. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Excitonic solar cells, comprised of materials such as organic semiconductors, inorganic colloidal quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes, are fundamentally different than crystalline, inorganic solar cells in that photogeneration of free charge occurs through intermediate, bound exciton states. Here, we show that the Second Law of Thermodynamics limits the maximum efficiency of excitonic solar cells below the maximum of 31% established by Shockley and Queisser [J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510 (1961)] for inorganic solar cells (whose exciton-binding energy is small). In the case of ideal heterojunction excitonic cells, the free energy for charge transfer at the interface, ?G, places an additional constraint on the limiting efficiency due to a fundamental increase in the recombination rate, with typical ??G in the range 0.3 to 0.5 eV decreasing the maximum efficiency to 27% and 22%, respectively.

  18. Solar elastosis in conjunctival squamous cell neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Deka, A C; Dutta, A M; Sarma, P C; Baruah, K C

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the role of solar elastosis in the patient's with Conjunctival Squamous Cell Neoplasia (CSCN). Materials and Methods: Paraffin embedded 30 Conjunctival Squamous Cell Neoplasia tissues were studied for the presence of solar elastosis by Verhoeff's stain. Nineteen Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), 6 Carcinoma In Situ (CIS) and 5 Conjunctival Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) specimens were included in the study. Disease free conjunctiva and pterygium tissues were used as negative and positive control respectively. Results: Solar elastosis was found to be present in 19 of 30 (63.3%) Conjunctival Squamous Cell neoplasia specimens. Conclusion: Our study showed the presence of solar elastosis in conjunctival squamous cell neoplasia. Poor socioeconomic condition is an important factor as most of the elastosis positive patients were farmers. PMID:25494114

  19. Bypass diode for a solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Rim, Seung Bum; Kim, Taeseok; Smith, David D; Cousins, Peter J

    2013-11-12

    Methods of fabricating bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In once embodiment, a method includes forming a first conductive region of a first conductivity type above a substrate of a solar cell. A second conductive region of a second conductivity type is formed on the first conductive region. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a first conductive region of a first conductivity type above a substrate of a solar cell. A second conductive region of a second conductivity type is formed within, and surrounded by, an uppermost portion of the first conductive region but is not formed in a lowermost portion of the first conductive region.

  20. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Kurtz, Sarah R. (Golden, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.

  1. Orbiting solar observatory 8 high resolution ultraviolet spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Oscillations, physical properties of the solar atmosphere, motions in the quiet solar atmosphere, coronal holes, motions in solar active regions, solar flares, the structure of plage regions, an atlas, and aeronomy are summarized. Photometric sensitivity, scattered light, ghosts, focus and spectral resolution, wavelength drive, photometric sensitivity, and scattered light, are also summarized. Experiments are described according to spacecraft made and experiment type. Some of the most useful data reduction programs are described.

  2. Solar cell anomaly detection method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Emmett L. (Inventor); Shumka, Alex (Inventor); Gauthier, Michael K. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting cracks and other imperfections in a solar cell, which includes scanning a narrow light beam back and forth across the cell in a raster pattern, while monitoring the electrical output of the cell to find locations where the electrical output varies significantly. The electrical output can be monitored on a television type screen containing a raster pattern with each point on the screen corresponding to a point on the solar cell surface, and with the brightness of each point on the screen corresponding to the electrical output from the cell which was produced when the light beam was at the corresponding point on the cell. The technique can be utilized to scan a large array of interconnected solar cells, to determine which ones are defective.

  3. Radiochemical Solar Neutrino Experiments - Successful and Otherwise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn,R.L.

    2008-05-25

    Over the years, several different radiochemical systems have been proposed as solar neutrino detectors. Of these, two achieved operating status and obtained important results that helped to define the current field of neutrino physics: the first solar-neutrino experiment, the Chlorine Detector ({sup 37}Cl) that was developed by chemist Raymond Davis and colleagues at the Homestake Mine, and the subsequent Gallium ({sup 71}Ga) Detectors that were operated by (a) the SAGE collaboration at the Baksan Laboratory and (b) the GALLEX/GNO collaborations at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. These experiments have been extensively discussed in the literature and in many previous International Neutrino Conferences. In this paper, I present important updates to the results from SAGE and GALLEX/GNO. I also review the principles of the radiochemical detectors and briefly describe several different detectors that have been proposed. In light of the well-known successes that have been subsequently obtained by real-time neutrino detectors such as Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO, and KamLAND, I do not anticipate that any new radiochemical neutrino detectors will be built. At present, only SAGE is still operating; the Chlorine and GNO radiochemical detectors have been decommissioned and dismantled.

  4. Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) space experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radick, Richard R.

    2001-12-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) is a proof-of-concept space experiment designed to observe solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and forecast their arrival at Earth. SMEI will image CMEs by sensing sunlight scattered from the free electrons in these ejecta (i.e., Thomson scattering). SMEI will be launched by a Titan II rocket into a circular, 830-km, sun-synchronous orbit in mid-2002 as part of the Space Test Program's CORIOLIS mission. SMEI will image nearly the entire sky once per spacecraft orbit over a mission lifetime of three years. Successful operation of SMEI will represent a major step in improving space weather forecasts by providing one- to three-day predictions of geomagnetic storms at the Earth. The SMEI experiment is being designed and constructed by a team of scientists and engineers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, the University of Birmingham (UB) in the United Kingdom, the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), and Boston University. The Air Force, NASA, and UB are providing financial support.

  5. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  6. Status of GaAs solar cell production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Milton; Ho, Frank; Iles, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent experience in producing GaAs solar cells, to meet the full requirements of space-array manufacturers is reviewed. The main problems have been in extending MOCVD technology to provide high throughput of high quality epitaxial layers, and to integrate the other important factors needed to meet the full range of user requirements. Some discussion of evolutionary changes is also given.

  7. LEO effects on candidate solar cell cover materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Stella

    1993-01-01

    In 1984, the LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facility) was placed in LEO (Low Earth Orbit) for a mission planned to last approximately one year. Due to a number of factors, retrieval was delayed until 1990. An experiment, prepared under the direction of JPL, consisted of a test plate with thirty (30) individual thin silicon solar cell\\/cover samples. The covers consisted

  8. The interdigitated back contact solar cell: A silicon solar cell for use in concentrated sunlight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Lammert; R. J. Schwartz

    1977-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental performance of an interdigitated back contact solar cell is described. This type of cell is shown to have significant advantages over a conventional solar cell design when used at high concentration levels, namely, reduced internal series resistance, nonsaturating open-circuit voltage, and an absence of shadowing by front surface contacting fingers. The results of a computer study

  9. Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version 33)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin A. Green; Keith Emery; Yoshihiro Hishikawa; Wilhelm Warta

    2009-01-01

    Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since July 2008 are reviewed. Efficiencies are updated to the new reference solar spectrum tabulated in IEC 60904-3 Ed. 2 revised in April 2008 and an updated list

  10. Multi-junction solar cell designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahieddine Emziane; Adam Sleiman

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the designs of multi- junction solar cells for very high energy conversion efficiencies are reviewed. We highlight the importance of the concept of multi-junction solar devices and its superiority compared to other photovoltaic technologies. We present different types of multi-junction structures, and address the different electrical configurations used in various multi- junction designs.

  11. Germanium-on-glass solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Colace; Vito Sorianello; Carlo Maragliano; Gaetano Assanto; D. Fulgoni; L. Nash; M. Palmer

    2011-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of Ge solar cells on glass realized by layer transfer and epitaxial regrowth. These devices exhibit typical conversion efficiency exceeding 2.4% under AM1.5 irradiation and maximum efficiency of 3.7% under concentrated excitation. This approach enables flexible and affordable multi-junction engineering for solar energy conversion.

  12. Space solar cell research: Problems and potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Flood

    1986-01-01

    The value of a passive, maintenance-free, renewable energy source was apparent in the early days of the space program, and the silicon solar cell was pressed into service. Efficiencies of those early space solar arrays were low, and lifetimes shorter than hoped for, but within a decade significant advances had been made in both areas. Better performance was achieved through

  13. Space solar cell research - Problems and potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis J. Flood

    1986-01-01

    The value of a passive, maintenance-free, renewable energy source was immediately recognized in the early days of the space program, and the silicon solar cell, despite its infancy, was quickly pressed into service. Efficiencies of those early space solar arrays were low, and lifetimes shorter than hoped for, but within a decade significant advances had been made in both areas.

  14. Radiation degradation of solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    A method of incorporating a detailed solar cell radiation degradation model into a convenient computational scheme suitable for the solar electric propulsion system is outlined. The study shows that several existing codes may be applied in sequence to solve the problem.

  15. GaAs/silicon mechanically stacked, multijunction solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, J. M.; Loo, R. Y.; Kamath, G. S.; Knechtli, R. C.

    A GaAs/silicon mechanically stacked, multijunction solar cell has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. Theoretical calculations predict efficiencies over 30% for this cell and indicate that the penalty for using a non-optimal combination of bandgaps is small when the cells are operated independently. Preliminary experiments achieved 24.7% at 70X. A detailed analysis of the experimental results allowed estimation of the various loss mechanisms in the stack and projection of the performance of an optimized stacked cell. An optimized GaAs/silicon MSMJ cell should be able to achieve efficiencies near 30% under concentration.

  16. Transparent superstrate terrestrial solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, and testing of the transparent solar cell module were examined. Cell performance and material process characteristics were determined by extensive tests and design modifications were made prior to preproduction fabrication. These tests included three cell submodules and two full size engineering modules. Along with hardware and test activity, engineering documentation was prepared and submitted.

  17. Large area, low cost space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukulka, J.; Iles, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes cost effective production-ready space solar cells which can meet the requirements for use on the Space Shuttle and other large space missions. Actual yield and performance data for these cells, as well as cost comparisons between these and standard space cells are included.

  18. High-efficiency thin silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Michel; E. Fabre; M. Mautref

    1976-01-01

    Computer analysis of 'black' silicon solar cells with a n(plus)\\/p\\/p(plus) structure have been made. Detailed results are shown as a function of doping level, minority carrier diffusion length in bulk material and cell thickness. Experimental results show that good conversion efficiencies can be achieved with thin cells (100 microns) without any antireflective coating.

  19. Large area, low cost space solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kukulka, J.; Iles, P.A.

    1982-09-01

    This paper describes cost effective production-ready space solar cells which can meet the requirements for use on the space shuttle and other large space missions. Actual yield and performance data for these cells, as well as cost comparisons between these and standard space cells are included.

  20. Mars optimized solar cell technology (MOST)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Stella; Nick Mardesich; Kenneth Edmondson; Chris Fetzer; Andreea Boca

    2008-01-01

    Solar cells used for all Mars surface applications have been commercially available space qualified AM0 devices optimized for Earth orbiting geosynchronous applications. Due to fine dust circulating in the Martian atmosphere, which reduces the short wavelength light component, these cells are not optimized for Mars surface operation. As a result, these cells operate at less than optimal efficiency. As part

  1. Solar Cells With Multiple Small Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Koliwad, K. M.

    1985-01-01

    Concept for improving efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells based on decreasing p/n junction area in relation to total surface area of cell. Because of reduced junction area, surface leakage drops and saturation current density decreases. Surface passivation helps to ensure short-circuit current remains at high value and response of cells to blue light increases.

  2. Solar cell anomaly detection method and apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Gauthier; E. L. Miller; A. Shumka

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting cracks and other imperfections in a solar cell, which includes scanning a narrow light beam back and forth across the cell in a raster pattern, while monitoring the electrical output of the cell to find locations where the electrical output varies significantly. The electrical output can be monitored on a television type screen containing

  3. COLLOIDAL SEMICONDUCTOR NANOCRYSTALS BASED SOLAR CELLS

    E-print Network

    Tessler, Nir

    .; Tessler, N., Hybrid Organic-nanocrystal Photovoltaic Cells with Enhanced near IR response. In European nanoimprinting - Application to organic solar cells optimization. Organic Electronics 2011, 12 (7), 1241-1246. 5, O.; Banin, U.; Tessler, N., Novel all-Nanocrystals bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells through

  4. Ultrathin silicon solar cell for space application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Matsutani; T. Saga; H. Ueyama; Y. Hagihara; T. Hirano; A. Suzuki

    1982-01-01

    Ultrathin silicon (Si) solar cells for space application were fabricated on an experimental basis and the electrical characteristics were investigated for three kinds of cells (Black, BSFR and Conventional cells). Under 135.3 mW sq cm (AM0) illumination, ultrathin Black cells showed 67.7 mW output, which is equal to 89 percent output of 280 micron Black cells. The power to mass

  5. Wide band gap Gallium Phosphide solar cells for multi-junction solar cell system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuesong Lu; S. R. Huang; M. Diaz; R. L. Opila; A. Barnett

    2010-01-01

    Gallium Phosphide (GaP) solar cells have been designed, fabricated, characterized and analyzed as candidates for the top junction solar cell in a multi-junction solar cell system. Liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) has been used as the growth method for the epitaxial layers. Open circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.535V has been achieved under one sun illumination from the outdoor test. Quantum efficiency

  6. Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Weidong

    .g., silicon nitride SiNx thin film for silicon Si solar cells, is often used as a cost effective approachMicrostructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells Weidong to current crystalline silicon solar cells, as well as future thin film, quantum dot, and organic solar cells

  7. Calculating the generation function of III-V solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Letay; M. Breselge; A. W. Bett

    2003-01-01

    Modelling the electrical response of a III-V solar cell requires an exact knowledge of the distribution of photogenerated electron hole pairs G(z) within the solar cell structure. Also, this generation function, connects the optical with the electrical part of a solar cell model. In contrast to silicon solar cells, 99 % of the light is absorbed in the first few

  8. Space solar cells: High efficiency and radiation damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H., Jr.; Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    The progress and status of efforts to increase the end-of-life efficiency of solar cells for space use is assessed. High efficiency silicon solar cells, silicon solar cell radiation damage, GaAs solar cell performance and radiation damage and 30 percent devices are discussed.

  9. III-V material solar cells for space application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Torchynska; G. P. Polupan

    2002-01-01

    The present paper is a review of current situation in space solar cell engineering. The comparison of the Si and III-V solar cell performances, as well as their parameter variation with temperature rise, radiation treatments and improving design were analyzed. The modern directions of the space solar cell development and international space projects, applied new types of solar cells, were

  10. Colloidal cluster phases and solar cells 

    E-print Network

    Mailer, Alastair George

    2012-11-28

    The arrangement of soft materials through solution processing techniques is a topic of profound importance for next generation solar cells; the resulting morphology has a major influence on construction, performance and ...

  11. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    as incorrect Monocrystalline silicon energy payback is 7 3­ Monocrystalline silicon energy payback is 7.3 years Photovoltaic Myth #7 · PV involves toxic materials ­ Minimal toxic materials in silicon solar cells, but used

  12. Heavily doped polysilicon-contact solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, F. A.; Neugroschel, A.; Arienzo, M.; Iles, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    The first use of a (silicon)/heavily doped polysilicon)/(metal) structure to replace the conventional high-low junction or back-surface-field (BSF) structure of silicon solar cells is reported. Compared with BSF and back-ohmic-contact (BOC) control samples, the polysilicon-back solar cells show improvements in red spectral response (RSR) and open-circuit voltage. Measurement reveals that a decrease in effective surface recombination velocity S is responsible for this improvement. Decreased S results for n-type (Si:As) polysilicon, consistent with past findings for bipolar transistors, and for p-type (Si:B) polysilicon, reported here for the first time. Though the present polysilicon-back solar cells are far from optimal, the results suggest a new class of designs for high efficiency silicon solar cells. Detailed technical reasons are advanced to support this view.

  13. Inexpensive silicon sheets for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszek, T. F.; Schwuttke, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Technique of producing silicon sheets by drawing gridlike or porous graphite gauze through silicon melt is readily adaptable to mass production, making process applicable to inexpensive manufacture of solar cell arrays.

  14. Selective laser patterning in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu Fernandes, S.; Maragkaki, S.; Ostendorf, A.

    2014-10-01

    Selective laser patterning for integrative serious connection has been industrially established in inorganic thin film solar cells based on glass substrates since a few years. In organic solar cells (OSC) the used materials significantly differ in terms of their patterning behavior. Due to their processability by wet chemical methods inverted architectures are often preferred in organic solar cells which allow the patterning by ultrashort laser pulses in substrate and superstrate configuration. Starting with an introduction of the ablation mechanisms taking place in OSC thin films, an overview of the current state-of-the-art in laser patterning of organic solar cells is presented. Besides progress in research also current achievements in industrial applications are illustrated.

  15. Texturization of multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    E-print Network

    Li, Dai-Yin

    2010-01-01

    A significant efficiency gain for crystalline silicon solar cells can be achieved by surface texturization. This research was directed at developing a low-cost, high-throughput and reliable texturing method that can create ...

  16. Solar cell array design handbook. Volume II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rauschenbach

    1976-01-01

    This volume contains detailed design data in an appendix-like fashion and includes solar cell performance data, applicable unit conversion factors and physical constants, and mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical, magnetic, and outgassing material properties. Extensive references are provided.

  17. Solar cell array design handbook, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1976-01-01

    Twelve chapters discuss the following: historical developments, the environment and its effects, solar cells, solar cell filters and covers, solar cell and other electrical interconnections, blocking and shunt diodes, substrates and deployment mechanisms, material properties, design synthesis and optimization, design analysis, procurement, production and cost aspects, evaluation and test, orbital performance, and illustrative design examples. A comprehensive index permits rapid locating of desired topics. The handbook consists of two volumes: Volume 1 is of an expository nature while Volume 2 contains detailed design data in an appendix-like fashion. Volume 2 includes solar cell performance data, applicable unit conversion factors and physical constants, and mechanical, electrical, thermal optical, magnetic, and outgassing material properties. Extensive references are provided.

  18. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  19. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  20. The physics and (radio)chemistry of solar neutrino experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Hahn

    1995-01-01

    The situation in solar neutrino science has changed drastically in the past several years, with results now available from four neutrino experiments that use different methods to look at different regions of the solar-neutrino energy-spectrum. While the goal of all of these experiments is physics, they all rely heavily on chemistry and radiochemistry. Three of these experiments are radiochemical; the

  1. A space solar cell bonding robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhuang Fu; Yan-zheng Zhao; Ren-qiang Liu; Zhi Dong

    2006-01-01

    A space solar cell bonding robot system which consists of a three-axis Cartesian coordinate’s robot, coating device, bonding\\u000a device, orientation plate, and control subsystem was studied. A method, which can control the thickness of adhesive layer\\u000a on the solar cell, was put forward and the mechanism was designed. Another method which can achieve the auto-bonding between\\u000a thin cover-glass and the

  2. Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TOM TIEDJE; ELI YABLONOVITCH; GEORGE D. CODY; BONNIE G. BROOKS

    1984-01-01

    The detailed balance method for calculating the radiative recombination limit to the performance of solar cells has been extended to include free carrier absorption and Auger recombination in addition to radiative losses. This method has been applied to crystalline silicon solar cells where the limiting efficiency is found to be 29.8 percent under AM1.5, based on the measured optical absorption

  3. Characterization of cadmium zinc telluride solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gowri Sivaraman

    2003-01-01

    Currently thin film solar cells have efficiencies in the range of 16-18%. Higher efficiencies of 20% or more can be achieved by two junction solar cells in which two p-n junctions are connected in series one on top of the other in a tandem structure. The ideal bandgaps for optimum efficiency in a tandem structure are about 1eV for the

  4. Silicon solar cells, a manufacturing cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed cost analysis of solar cell module manufacturing, utilizing process sequences incorporating near-term technology, has been performed. The entire structuring of a factory to manufacture solar cell modules, starting from supplied polycrystalline silicon and other raw materials, was specified. This analysis then formed the basis for a sensitivity analysis of the major cost factors. The results of the cost and sensitivity analyses are presented here.

  5. Dye sensitized solar cells on paper substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Wang; Lei L. Kerr

    2011-01-01

    This article reports for the first time in the literature, a dye sensitized solar cells with 1.21% efficiency (Voc=0.56V, Jsc=6.70mA\\/cm2 and F.F.=0.33) on paper substrates. The current dye sensitized solar cell technology is based on fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) coated glass substrates. The problem with the glass substrate is its rigidity and heavy weight. Making DSSCs on paper opens the

  6. Amorphous thin-film solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Krühler

    1991-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the present status of thin-film solar cells made from hydrogenated amorphous semiconductors (a-Si:H, a-Ge:H) together with new results emphasizing the physics of amorphous materials and devices. Preparation techniques, quality and performances of a-Si:H and a-Ge:H films as well as solar cells with pin structures are reviewed. Dark and light current-voltage I(V) characteristics and spectral

  7. Schottky solar cells on thin epitaxial silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Anderson; S. M. Vernon; P. Mathe; B. Lalevic

    1976-01-01

    Schottky solar cells fabricated on 10, 20 and 30 micron epitaxial silicon produce a current density ranging from about 10-22 mA\\/sq cm, depending on Si thickness and orientation, in close agreement with theoretically predicted data. These results are also in close agreement with recent data on p-n solar cells, using thin epitaxial silicon. Data reported herein predict that 10% efficient

  8. Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matt Law; Lori E. Greene; Justin C. Johnson; Richard Saykally; Peidong Yang

    2005-01-01

    Excitonic solar cells-including organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSCs)-are promising devices for inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion. The DSC is currently the most efficient and stable excitonic photocell. Central to this device is a thick nanoparticle film that provides a large surface area for the adsorption of light-harvesting molecules. However, nanoparticle DSCs rely on trap-limited diffusion for electron transport,

  9. Magnetoresistance in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Oesterbacka; Sayani Majumdar; Himadri Majumdar; Harri Aarnio; Reino Laiho

    2008-01-01

    The magnetoresistance (MR) response of the poly(3-hexyl thiophene) and poly(3-hexyl thiophene):1-(3-methoxycarbonyl) propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]-methanofullerene (PHT:PCBM) based bulk heterojunction solar cells have been studied. Positive MR was always observed at room temperature in both the devices. In both cases the magnitude of the MR signal decreases at lower temperature and shows positive to negative sign inversion at 100K for the solar cells and

  10. High-temperature Solar Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Merritt, Danielle; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Scheiman, David

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority of space probes to date have relied upon photovoltaic power generation. If future missions designed to probe environments close to the sun (Figure 1) will be able to use such power generation, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. The significant problem is that solar cells lose performance at high temperatures.

  11. Microstructural analysis of solar cell welds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Moore; G. K. Watson; C. R. Baraona

    1982-01-01

    Parallel-gap resistance welding of silicon solar cells with copper interconnects results in complex microstructural variations that depend on the welding variables. At relatively low heat input solid-state welds are produced. At medium heat the Ag-Cu eutectic forms resulting in a braze joint. High heat produces a fusion weld with complete melting of the silver layer on the silicon solar cell.

  12. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.; Brasted, Donald K.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a space flight experiment designed to provide reference cell standards for photovoltaic measurements as well as to investigate the solar spectrum and the effect of long-term exposure of solar cells to the space environment are presented. This experiment, the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (APEX), was launched into low Earth orbit as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility in 1984 and retrieved 69 months later. APEX contained over 150 solar cells of a wide variety of materials, designs and coverglasses. Data on cell performance was recorded for the first year-on-orbit.

  13. Effect of electron flux on radiation damage in GaAs solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Y. Loo; G. S. Kamath; R. C. Knechtli

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of electron flux and temperature on radiation damage in GaAs solar cells. The defect levels and the power ratio of the GaAs solar cells under various irradiation conditions are compared. In a 200 C continuous annealing experiment, the GaAs solar cells which were irradiated at a flux of 2 x

  14. Degradation of solar cell optical performance due to plume particle pitting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Schmidl; Kendall Smith; Carlos Soares; Courtney Steagall; Christopher G. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) solar arrays provide power that is needed for on-orbit experiments and operations. The ISS solar arrays are exposed to space environment effects that include contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The contamination effects include exposure to thruster plume contamination and erosion. This study was performed to better understand potential solar cell optical performance

  15. Interdigitated back contact solar cells. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Schwartz, R.J.

    1980-08-01

    The interdigitated back-contact solar cell (IBC cell) has been shown to possess a number of advantages for silicon solar cells, which operate at high concentration. The purpose of the present program is to support the Sandia Laboratory effort to optimize the IBC cell. A detailed discussion of the factors which need to be considered in the analysis of semiconducting devices which utilize heavily doped regions such as those which are found in solar cells in both the emitter and in the back surface field regions is given. This discussion covers the questions of: how to handle degeneracy, how to compute carrier concentrations in the absence of knowledge of the details of the band structure under heavily doped conditions, how to reconcile the usual interpretation of heavy doping as a rigid shift of the bands with the band tailing and impurity level conduction models. It also discusses the reasons for the observed discrepancy between various experimental measurements of bandgap narrowing. A discussion of the appropriateness of using experimentally determined parameters in conjunction with degenerate statistics in calculating cell performance is also presented. A detailed discussion of the one dimensional formulation of the solar cell analysis as well as a description of the one dimensional programs which have been writtten to perform this analysis are included. The results of calculations using the one dimensional program to analyze typical situations which occur in high intensity conventionally designed silicon solar cells are presented.

  16. High conversion efficiency photoelectrochemical solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, R. N.; Babu, K. S. Chandra; Srivastava, O. N.

    1996-07-01

    The present review focusses on the prospectives and perspectives of high conversion efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells. The PEC solar cells score over their solid state counterparts on several points. Some of these axe ease of fabrication and inbuilt storage capability. In order to make PEC solar cells viable, their conversion efficiencies need to be enhanced so as to reach optimum values. Several feasible efficiency enhancement processes for PEC cells such as electrode surface modification, photoetching, electrolyte modification etc. have been described and discussed in this article. The case of efficiency enhancement of n-GaAs based PEC solar cell through the modification of GaAs by Os 3+ or Ru 3+ ions leading to efficiency enhancement from 9 to 15% has been described and discussed. In regard to efficiency enhancement through electrolyte modification, the example of n-CdSe based PEC cell where the electrolyte ( {K3Fe(CN)6}/{K4Fe(CN)6}) is modified through KCN has been dealt with. The efficiency obtained in this cell is upto 16%. For the PEC solar cells embodying the d-d phototransition, MX 2 type layered materials, the most dramatic conversion efficiency enhancements come through photoetching of electrode surfaces. We have described and discussed in detail the efficiency enhancements in {n-WSe 2}/{I 3-}, {I -}/{Pt} solar cells through photoetching of n-WSe 2 photoelectrodes in 0.1 M aquaregia. High efficiencies upto 17% have been obtained for those solar cells. Yet another route of fabricating viable PEC solar cells giving high power output corresponds to the development of newer PEC cell designs. One example of the newer cell designs which has been described and discussed in this article corresponds to semiconductor-septum (SC-SEP) PEC solar cell. The SC-SEP, PEC solar cells have been found to yield higher power outputs (V oc and I sc) than the conventional single compartment PEC cells. For example, {n-CdSe}/{Ti} septum based PEC solar cell with configuration - Pt, 1 M-3S// n-CdSe/ Ti//0.1M AgN0 3, Pt has been found to give higher power output (1.42 V and 20 mA/cm 2), as compared to n-CdSe based conventional PEC cell (0.64 V and 6 mA/cm 2). Similarly, {n-TiO 2}/{Ti} septum electrode based SC-SEP, cell - Pt, l M NaOH/ n-TiO 2/Ti/0.1M AgNO 3, Pt also gives higher power output (1.2 V and 15 mA/cm 2). The case of another new PEC cell design incorporating nanostructured TiO 2 photoelectrode overlaid with special dye (Ruthenium trinuclear cyanide complex) and exhibiting efficiencies of 7% (under usual solar illumination) and 12% (in diffuse solar light) has also been outlined.

  17. The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE): A shuttle-based plasma interaction experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry

    1991-01-01

    The SAMPIE flight experiment, tentatively scheduled to fly on a shuttle mission in mid 1992, will investigate plasma interactions of high voltage space power systems. Solar cells representing a number of technologies will be biased to high voltage to study both negative potential arching and positive potential current collection characteristics. Additionally, several idealized metal/insulator mockups will be flown to study the basic nature of these interactions. Described here is the basic rationale for a space experiment as well as the measurements to be made and the significance of the expected results. The current design status of the flight hardware is presented.

  18. Optimization and performance of Space Station Freedom solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khemthong, S.; Hansen, N.; Bower, M.

    1991-01-01

    High efficiency, large area and low cost solar cells are the drivers for Space Station solar array designs. The manufacturing throughput, process complexity, yield of the cells, and array manufacturing technique determine the economics of the solar array design. The cell efficiency optimization of large area (8 x 8 m), dielectric wrapthrough contact solar cells are described. The results of the optimization are reported and the solar cell performance of limited production runs is reported.

  19. Back-contact vertical-junction solar cell. Master's thesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells by designing and fabricating a solar cell which synergistically combines the advantages of the interdigitated back-contact solar cell with the advantages of the wedged-channel vertical-junction solar cell. Solar cell designs which combine the two concepts were proposed and evaluated. A final design was chosen which consisted

  20. A photometric approach of fluorescent solar concentrators. Role of diffuse reflectors and spectral sensitivity of solar cells

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    plates, and the spectral matching of the radiant flux to the photovoltaic cell sensitivity. Experiments suited to the spectral sensitivity of the cells ; - the photochemical stability of organic fluorophores and spectral sensitivity of solar cells J. Mugnier, Y. Dordet, J. Pouget and B. Valeur Laboratoire de Chimie

  1. Development and fabrication of a solar cell junction processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A processing system capable of producing solar cell junctions by ion implantation followed by pulsed electron beam annealing was developed and constructed. The machine was to be capable of processing 4-inch diameter single-crystal wafers at a rate of 10(7) wafers per year. A microcomputer-controlled pulsed electron beam annealer with a vacuum interlocked wafer transport system was designed, built and demonstrated to produce solar cell junctions on 4-inch wafers with an AMI efficiency of 12%. Experiments showed that a non-mass-analyzed (NMA) ion beam could implant 10 keV phosphorous dopant to form solar cell junctions which were equivalent to mass-analyzed implants. A NMA ion implanter, compatible with the pulsed electron beam annealer and wafer transport system was designed in detail but was not built because of program termination.

  2. Experience Curves and Solar PV Fred Heutte, Senior Policy Associate

    E-print Network

    ) Differing levels of future solar PV market expansion should be captured in the different RTEP 20-year for solar PV under differing policy and market conditions. 1. Comparative Analysis of Future TechnologyExperience Curves and Solar PV Fred Heutte, Senior Policy Associate NW Energy Coalition September 3

  3. Advanced solar cells for satellite power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1994-11-01

    The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

  4. Manufacture of Solar Cells on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freundich, Alex; Ignatiev, Alex; Horton, Charles; Duke, Mike; Curren, Peter; Sibille, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    In support of the space exploration initiative a new architecture for the production of solar cells on the lunar surface is devised. The paper discusses experimental data on the fabrication and properties of lunar glass substrates, evaporated lunar regolith thin film (antireflect coatings and insulators), and preliminary attempts in the fabrication of thin film (silicon/II-VI) photovoltaic materials on lunar regolith substrates. A conceptual design for a solar powered robotic rover capable of fabricating solar cells directly on the lunar surface is provided. Technical challenges in the development of such a facility and strategies to alleviate perceived difficulties are discussed. Finally, preliminary cost benefit ratio analysis for different in situ solar cell production scenarios (using exclusively in-situ planetary resources or hybrid) are discussed.

  5. Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

    1981-12-30

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

  6. Modeling of polycrystalline thin film solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L. Fahrenbruch

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes modeling polycrystalline thin-film solar cells using the program AMPS-1D1 to visualize the relationships between the many variables involved. These simulations are steps toward two dimensional modeling the effects of grain boundaries in polycrystalline cells. Although this paper describes results for the CdS\\/CdTe cell, the ideas presented here are applicable to copper-indium-gallium selenide (CIGS) cells as well as

  7. Emitter Wrap-Through solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.M.; Schubert, W.K.; Basore, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present a new cell concept (Emitter Wrap-Through or EWT) for a back-contact cell. The cell has laser-drilled vias to wrap the emitter on the front surface to contacts on the back surface and uses a potentially low-cost process sequence. Modeling calculations show that efficiencies of 18 and 21% are possible with large-area solar-grade multi- and monocrystalline silicon EWT cells, respectively.

  8. Progress in quantum well solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mazzer; K. W. J. Barnham; I. M. Ballard; A. Bessiere; A. Ioannides; D. C. Johnson; M. C. Lynch; T. N. D. Tibbits; J. S. Roberts; G. Hill; C. Calder

    2006-01-01

    A quantum well solar cell is a special multiple-band gap device with intermediate properties between heterojunction cells (sum of the currents generated in the different materials but voltage controlled by the lowest of the two band gaps) and tandem cells (sum of the voltages but current determined by the worst of the two sub-cells).Strain-balanced GaAsP\\/InGaAs multi-quantum wells move the absorption

  9. 18 percent efficient polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Narayanan; J. Zolper; F. Yun; S. R. Wenham; A. B. Sproul

    1990-01-01

    Over the past 7 yr, there has been marked improvements in crystalline silicon solar cell performance, with the highest independently confirmed cell efficiency increasing from 17.1 percent to 24.2 percent. Work directed at transferring some of these improvements to polycrystalline silicon cells is described. Applying a high-efficiency crystalline cell sequence has given efficiencies as high as 17.8 percent with the

  10. Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Venkat Bommisetty, South Dakota State University

    2011-06-23

    Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

  11. Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Breeze, Alison, J; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Reddy, Damoder; Sholin, Veronica; Carter, Sue

    2008-06-17

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these devices function. Inorganic solar cells with IR performance have previously been fabricated using traditional methods such as physical vapor deposition and sputtering, and solution-processed devices utilizing IR-absorbing organic polymers have been investigated. The solution-based deposition of nanoparticles offers the potential of a low-cost manufacturing process combined with the ability to tune the chemical synthesis and material properties to control the device properties. This work, in collaboration with the Sue Carter research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has greatly expanded the knowledge base in this field, exploring multiple material systems and several key areas of device physics including temperature, bandgap and electrode device behavior dependence, material morphological behavior, and the role of buffer layers. One publication has been accepted to Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells pending minor revision and another two papers are being written now. While device performance in the near-IR did not reach the level anticipated at the beginning of this grant, we did observe one of the highest near-IR efficiencies for a nanoparticle-based solar cell device to date. We also identified several key parameters of importance for improving both near-IR performance and nanoparticle solar cells in general, and demonstrated multiple pathways which showed promise for future commercialization with further research.

  12. Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells.

    PubMed

    van der Ende, Bryan M; Aarts, Linda; Meijerink, Andries

    2009-12-21

    The use of lanthanide ions to convert photons to different, more useful, wavelengths is well-known from a wide range of applications (e.g. fluorescent tubes, lasers, white light LEDs). Recently, a new potential application has emerged: the use of lanthanide ions for spectral conversion in solar cells. The main energy loss in the conversion of solar energy to electricity is related to the so-called spectral mismatch: low energy photons are not absorbed by a solar cell while high energy photons are not used efficiently. To reduce the spectral mismatch losses both upconversion and downconversion are viable options. In the case of upconversion two low energy infrared photons that cannot be absorbed by the solar cell, are added up to give one high energy photon that can be absorbed. In the case of downconversion one high energy photon is split into two lower energy photons that can both be absorbed by the solar cell. The rich and unique energy level structure arising from the 4f(n) inner shell configuration of the trivalent lanthanide ions gives a variety of options for efficient up- and downconversion. In this perspective an overview will be given of recent work on photon management for solar cells. Three topics can be distinguished: (1) modelling of the potential impact of spectral conversion on the efficiency of solar cells; (2) research on up- and downconversion materials based on lanthanides; and (3) proof-of-principle experiments. Finally, an outlook will be given, including issues that need to be resolved before wide scale application of up- and downconversion materials can be anticipated. PMID:20024374

  13. Telescience operations with the solar array module plasma interaction experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Lawrence W.; Bibyk, Irene K.

    1995-09-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. The overall objective of SAMPIE was to determine the adverse environmental interactions within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO) on modern solar cells and space power system materials which are artificially biased to high positive and negative direct current (DC) voltages. The two environmental interactions of interest included high voltage arcing from the samples to the space plasma and parasitic current losses. High voltage arcing can cause physical damage to power system materials and shorten expected hardware life. parasitic current losses can reduce power system efficiency because electric currents generated in a power system drain into the surrounding plasma via parasitic resistance. The flight electronics included two programmable high voltage DC power supplies to bias the experiment samples, instruments to measure the surrounding plasma environment in the STS cargo bay, and the on-board data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS provided in-flight experiment control, data storage, and communications through the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Hitchhiker flight avionics to the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The DAS and the SAMPIE POCC computer systems were designed for telescience operations; this paper will focus on the experiences of the SAMPIE team regarding telescience development and operations from the GSFC POCC during STS-62. The SAMPIE conceptual development, hardware design, and system verification testing were accomplished at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). SAMPIE was developed under the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP), which sponsors NASA, industry, and university flight experiments designed to enable and enhance space flight technology. The IN-STEP Program is sponsored by the Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT).

  14. Telescience operations with the solar array module plasma interaction experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, L.W.; Bibyk, I.K.

    1995-09-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. The overall objective of SAMPIE was to determine the adverse environmental interactions within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO) on modern solar cells and space power system materials which are artificially biased to high positive and negative direct current (DC) voltages. The two environmental interactions of interest included high voltage arcing from the samples to the space plasma and parasitic current losses. High voltage arcing can cause physical damage to power system materials and shorten expected hardware life. Parasitic current losses can reduce power system efficiency because electric currents generated in a power system drain into the surrounding plasma via parasitic resistance. The flight electronics included two programmable high voltage DC power supplies to bias the experiment samples, instruments to measure the surrounding plasma environment in the STS cargo bay, and the on-board data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS provided in-flight experiment control, data storage, and communications through the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Hitchhiker flight avionics to the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The DAS and the SAMPIE POCC computer systems were designed for telescience operations; this paper will focus on the experiences of the SAMPIE team regarding telescience development and operations from the GSFC POCC during STS-62. The SAMPIE conceptual development, hardware design, and system verification testing were accomplished at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). SAMPIE was developed under the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP), which sponsors NASA, industry, and university flight experiments designed to enable and enhance space flight technology.

  15. Telescience operations with the solar array module plasma interaction experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Lawrence W.; Bibyk, Irene K.

    1995-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. The overall objective of SAMPIE was to determine the adverse environmental interactions within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO) on modern solar cells and space power system materials which are artificially biased to high positive and negative direct current (DC) voltages. The two environmental interactions of interest included high voltage arcing from the samples to the space plasma and parasitic current losses. High voltage arcing can cause physical damage to power system materials and shorten expected hardware life. parasitic current losses can reduce power system efficiency because electric currents generated in a power system drain into the surrounding plasma via parasitic resistance. The flight electronics included two programmable high voltage DC power supplies to bias the experiment samples, instruments to measure the surrounding plasma environment in the STS cargo bay, and the on-board data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS provided in-flight experiment control, data storage, and communications through the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Hitchhiker flight avionics to the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The DAS and the SAMPIE POCC computer systems were designed for telescience operations; this paper will focus on the experiences of the SAMPIE team regarding telescience development and operations from the GSFC POCC during STS-62. The SAMPIE conceptual development, hardware design, and system verification testing were accomplished at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). SAMPIE was developed under the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP), which sponsors NASA, industry, and university flight experiments designed to enable and enhance space flight technology. The IN-STEP Program is sponsored by the Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT).

  16. Excess currents in MINP-type solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Rao; S. Banerjee; W. A. Anderson; M. K. Han

    1985-01-01

    Green et al. (1982) have reported the introduction of the MINP solar cell. This cell has a high open-circuit voltage and utilizes an insulator layer over the shallow n(+) region. The present investigation is concerned with the conduction mechanisms and the role of excess dark current in high-efficiency solar cells. Three cells were fabricated, including a MINP solar cell, a

  17. Radiation hardened high efficiency silicon space solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Garboushian; S. Yoon; J. Turner

    1993-01-01

    A silicon solar cell with AMO 19% Beginning of Life (BOL) efficiency is reported. The cell has demonstrated equal or better radiation resistance when compared to conventional silicon space solar cells. Conventional silicon space solar cell performance is generally ≈14% at BOL. The Radiation Hardened High Efficiency Silicon (RHHES) cell is thinned for high specific power (watts\\/kilogram). The RHHES space

  18. Method of manufacturing an array of solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    An arrangement or array of solar cells comprises a plurality of cells each having contacting connectors which establish an electrically conducting connection between the individual solar cells. Each solar cell has a connector which projects slightly from the edge thereof and is of a selected profile or shape such that the contacting connectors of adjacent cells may be overlapped and

  19. Advancements in solar simulators for terrestrial solar cells at high concentration (500 to 5000 Suns) levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doug Jungwirth; Lynne C. Eigler; Steve Espiritu

    2008-01-01

    Testing requirements for high concentration solar cell systems have changed dramatically in the recent past, therefore a new generation of solar cell testers need to be developed to fulfill these testing requirements. This paper reports on one of those new solar cell illuminators. Spectrolab has completed initial evaluation of a Terrestrial-High Intensity Pulsed Solar Simulator (T-HIPSS) [3]. This pulsed illuminator

  20. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 261271 Photoelectric behavior of nanocrystalline TiO2

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yanyi

    2002-01-01

    photovoltaic converter has been a powerful alternative candidate for conventional silicon solar cells unmatched performance in dye staff studied as solar cell sensitizer before 1997. Only recently, a black dyeSolar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 261­271 Photoelectric behavior of nanocrystalline Ti

  1. Performance measurement of dye-sensitized solar cells and organic polymer solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Hishikawa

    2008-01-01

    Performance characterization of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and organic polymer solar cells (OSC) has been investigated, in order to clarify how to accurately determine their performance. Accurate characterization of DSC requires consideration on the very slow temporal response, and variation of the quantum efficiency spectrum for the bias light. The I-V curves of the DSC are clearly dependent on

  2. Solar cell radiation handbook. [Degradation of solar cells in space radiation environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Y. Tada; J. R. Jr. Carter

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to detail a method of predicting the degradation of a solar array in a space radiation environment. The text contains a discussion of solar cell technology which emphasizes the cell parameters which degrade in a radiation environment. The experimental techniques used in the evaluation of radiation effects are discussed. The theoretical aspects of radiation

  3. Progress in high-efficiency terrestrial concentrator solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Jones; P. Hebert; P. Pien; R. R. King; D. Bhusari; R. Brandt; O. Al-Taher; C. Fetzer; J. Ermer

    2009-01-01

    Multijunction solar cells based on III-V semiconductors are the most efficient solar cells in the world, with record efficiencies of over 40%. These devices offer the promise of very competitive solar power systems exploiting the high efficiency devices under high optical concentration. To make this promise a reality, Spectrolab is conducting a multi-year program to develop solar cells with still

  4. Transcending QCD in Nanostructured Solar Cells G. Galli S. Kauzlarich

    E-print Network

    (2012), 31% (2013) (Alta Devices) - Thin films: 19% in CdTe (2013) (First Solar) - Organic solar cellsTranscending QCD in Nanostructured Solar Cells 1 G. Galli S. Kauzlarich F. Gygi S. Carter (UCSC) A Optimization of gap: max efficiency: 31% (Shockley Queisser 1961) In real PV cells 80-85% of incident solar

  5. Absolute indoor calibration of large area solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Metzdorf; T. Wittchen; H. Kaase

    1986-01-01

    Equipment for the calibration of reference solar cells which is traceable back to their primary radiometric standards is presented. The apparatus, based on the differential spectral responsivity method is an absolute indoor procedure without reference solar cells, and needs no solar simulator. The method is applicable to all kinds of test devices up to solar cell areas of 10 x

  6. Third Working Meeting on Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, G. H. (compiler)

    1976-01-01

    Research results are reported for GaAs Schottky barrier solar cells, GaAlAs/GaAs heteroface solar cells, and GaAlAs graded band gap solar cells. Related materials studies are presented. A systems study for GaAs and Si solar concentrator systems is given.

  7. Advanced Modelling of Silicon Wafer Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Marius; Fajun, Ma; Siyu, Guo; Hoex, Bram; Blaesi, Benedikt; Glunz, Stefan; Aberle, Armin; Luther, Joachim

    2012-10-01

    Modelling of solar cells today is general practice in research and widely-used in industry. Established modelling software is typically limited to one dimension and/or to small scales. Additionally, novel effects, like, e.g., the use of diffractive structures or luminescent materials, are not established. In this paper we discuss how the combination of different modelling techniques can be used to overcome these limitations. In this context two examples are presented. The first example concerns the combination of the open source simulation software PC1D with circuit modelling to investigate the effect of local shunts on the global characteristics of a silicon wafer solar cell. For the investigated example (4.5 cm2 cell area) we find that a local point shunt reduces the solar cell efficiency by 4% relative. The second example concerns the modelling of diffractive gratings for thin silicon wafer solar cells. For this purpose, we use the rigorous coupled wave analysis to simulate Sentaurus technical computer-aided design (TCAD) is combined with the rigorous coupled wave analysis, a method to solve Maxwell's equations for periodic structures. Here we show that a grating can be used to improve the absorption in a thin silicon wafer solar cell considerably.

  8. Electron Radiation Damage of (alga) As-gaas Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R.; Kamath, G. S.; Knechtli, R.

    1979-01-01

    Solar cells (2 cm by 2 cm (AlGa) As-GaAs cells) were fabricated and then subjected to irradiation at normal incidence by electrons. The influence of junction depth and n-type buffer layer doping level on the cell's resistance to radiation damage was investigated. The study shows that (1) a 0.3 micrometer deep junction results in lower damage to the cells than does a 0.5 micrometer junction, and (2) lowering the n buffer layer doping density does not improve the radiation resistance of the cell. Rather, lowering the doping density decreases the solar cell's open circuit voltage. Some preliminary thermal annealing experiments in vacuum were performed on the (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells damaged by 1-MeV electron irradiation. The results show that cell performance can be expected to partially recover at 200 C with more rapid and complete recovery occurring at higher temperature. For a 0.5hr anneal at 400 C, 90% of the initial power is recovered. The characteristics of the (AlGa)As-GaAs cells both before and after irradiation are described.

  9. Summary of solar cell data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, David C.; Rose, M. Frank

    1994-01-01

    The contractor has obtained and reviewed data relating solar cells assemblies (SCA's) flown as part of the following LDEF experiments: the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (S0014); the Solar Array Materials Passive LDEF Experiment (A0171); the Advanced Solar Cell and Coverglass Analysis Experiment (M0003-4); the LDEF Heat Pipe Experiment (S1001); the Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings Y Solar Cells Experiment (S1002); and the Space Plasma-High Voltage Drainage Experiment (A0054). Where possible, electrical data have been tabulated and correlated with various environmental effects, including meteoroid and debris impacts, radiation exposure, atomic oxygen exposure, contamination, UV radiation exposure, and thermal cycling. The type, configuration, and location of all SCA's are documented here. By gathering all data and results together, a comparison of the survivability of the various types and configurations can be made.

  10. Large area space solar cell assemblies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Spitzer; M. J. Nowlan

    1982-01-01

    Development of a large area space solar cell assembly is presented. The assembly consists of an ion implanted silicon cell and glass cover. The important attributes of fabrication are (1) use of a back surface field which is compatible with a back surface reflector, and (2) integration of coverglass application and call fabrication.

  11. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOEpatents

    Kirpich, A.S.

    1983-12-08

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  12. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  13. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOEpatents

    Kirpich, Aaron S. (Broomall, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  14. Development of a large area space solar cell assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, M. B.

    1982-05-01

    The development of a large area high efficiency solar cell assembly is described. The assembly consists of an ion implanted silicon solar cell and glass cover. The important attributes of fabrication are the use of a back surface field which is compatible with a back surface reflector, and integration of coverglass application and cell fabrications. Cell development experiments concerned optimization of ion implantation processing of 2 ohm-cm boron-doped silicon. Process parameters were selected based on these experiments and cells with area of 34.3 sq cm wre fabricated. The average AMO efficiency of the twenty-five best cells was 13.9% and the best bell had an efficiency of 14.4%. An important innovation in cell encapsulation was also developed. In this technique, the coverglass is applied before the cell is sawed to final size. The coverglass and cell are then sawed as a unit. In this way, the cost of the coverglass is reduced, since the tolerance on glass size is relaxed, and costly coverglass/cell alignment procedures are eliminated. Adhesive investigated were EVA, FEP-Teflon sheet and DC 93-500. Details of processing and results are reported.

  15. Development of a large area space solar cell assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a large area high efficiency solar cell assembly is described. The assembly consists of an ion implanted silicon solar cell and glass cover. The important attributes of fabrication are the use of a back surface field which is compatible with a back surface reflector, and integration of coverglass application and cell fabrications. Cell development experiments concerned optimization of ion implantation processing of 2 ohm-cm boron-doped silicon. Process parameters were selected based on these experiments and cells with area of 34.3 sq cm wre fabricated. The average AMO efficiency of the twenty-five best cells was 13.9% and the best bell had an efficiency of 14.4%. An important innovation in cell encapsulation was also developed. In this technique, the coverglass is applied before the cell is sawed to final size. The coverglass and cell are then sawed as a unit. In this way, the cost of the coverglass is reduced, since the tolerance on glass size is relaxed, and costly coverglass/cell alignment procedures are eliminated. Adhesive investigated were EVA, FEP-Teflon sheet and DC 93-500. Details of processing and results are reported.

  16. Space environmental effect on solar cells: LDEF and other flight tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Gruenbaum; Harry Dursch

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of several experiments flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) to examine the effects of the space environment on materials and technologies to be used in solar arrays. The various LDEF experiments are compared to each other as well as to other solar cell flight data published in the literature. Data on environmental effects such

  17. Method of fabricating a solar cell array

    DOEpatents

    Lazzery, Angelo G. (Oaklyn, NJ); Crouthamel, Marvin S. (Pennsauken, NJ); Coyle, Peter J. (Oaklyn, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A first set of pre-tabbed solar cells are assembled in a predetermined array with at least part of each tab facing upward, each tab being fixed to a bonding pad on one cell and abutting a bonding pad on an adjacent cell. The cells are held in place with a first vacuum support. The array is then inverted onto a second vacuum support which holds the tabs firmly against the cell pads they abut. The cells are exposed to radiation to melt and reflow the solder pads for bonding the tab portions not already fixed to bonding pads to these pads.

  18. Solar Cells in the School Physics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulski, Kazimeirz

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the goals of experiments which show examples of the use of solar energy on a scale suitable for a school laboratory. Highlights the history of discoveries and developments in photoelectricity. Presents investigations and experiments, that can be performed by students. (JRH)

  19. Numerical analysis of silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    A set of equations which accurately describes the physics of modern high-efficiency silicon solar cells is formulated and solved numerically. The transport equations of Marshak and van Vliet are recast into a simple. Boltzmann-like form in which the effects associated with the nonuniform band structure and degenerate carrier concentrations are described by two parameters, the effective gap shrinkage and the effective asymmetry factor. The experimental determination of both of these parameters is also discussed. Adler's contention, that some important features of semiconductor device operation can be modeled accurately by using an electically measured effective bandgap shrinkage with an arbitrarily chosen effective asymmetry factor, is also considered. A semiconductor device is described mathematically by Poisson's equation and two current continuity equations. Using the transport equations, these equations were solved numerically in one dimension. The accuracy of the model was tested by comparing the results of computer calculations to exact, analytical results (for certain simple cases) and to experimental results. The model was shown to accurately describe high-efficiency silicon solar cells under a wide range of operating biases and for solar concentrations that varied from 1 to 250. By using the computer model, we were able to explain a physical mechanism which operates to degrade the performance of BSF solar cells operated under high solar concentration. The model was also used to design cells in which the effects of this degradation were minimized. A two-dimensional numerical solar cell model was also developed. An example of the use of this program in analyzing IBC solar cells is presented.

  20. Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Min; Ouyang, Zi; Jia, Baohua; Stokes, Nicholas; Chen, Xi; Fahim, Narges; Li, Xiangping; Ventura, Michael James; Shi, Zhengrong

    2012-12-01

    Nanoplasmonics recently has emerged as a new frontier of photovoltaic research. Noble metal nanostructures that can concentrate and guide light have demonstrated great capability for dramatically improving the energy conversion efficiency of both laboratory and industrial solar cells, providing an innovative pathway potentially transforming the solar industry. However, to make the nanoplasmonic technology fully appreciated by the solar industry, key challenges need to be addressed; including the detrimental absorption of metals, broadband light trapping mechanisms, cost of plasmonic nanomaterials, simple and inexpensive fabrication and integration methods of the plasmonic nanostructures, which are scalable for full size manufacture. This article reviews the recent progress of plasmonic solar cells including the fundamental mechanisms, material fabrication, theoretical modelling and emerging directions with a distinct emphasis on solutions tackling the above-mentioned challenges for industrial relevant applications.

  1. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pramod Kumar Singh; R K Nagarale; S P Pandey; H W Rhee; Bhaskar Bhattacharya

    2011-01-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative

  2. Black silicon for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Matthias; Otto, Martin; Käsebier, Thomas; Füchsel, Kevin; Wehrspohn, Ralf; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Pertsch, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We present experimental results and rigorous numerical simulations on the optical properties of Black Silicon surfaces and their implications for solar cell applications. The Black Silicon is fabricated by reactive ion etching of crystalline silicon with SF6 and O2. This produces a surface consisting of sharp randomly distributed needle like features with a characteristic lateral spacing of about a few hundreds of nanometers and a wide range of aspect ratios depending on the process parameters. Due to the very low reflectance over a broad spectral range and a pronounced light trapping effect at the silicon absorption edge such Black Silicon surface textures are beneficial for photon management in photovoltaic applications. We demonstrate that those light trapping properties prevail upon functionalization of the Black Silicon with dielectric coatings, necessary to construct a photovoltaic system. The experimental investigations are accompanied by rigorous numerical simulations based on three dimensional models of the Black Silicon structures. Those simulations allow insights into the light trapping mechanism and the influence of the substrate thickness onto the optical performance of the Black Silicon. Finally we use an analytical solar cell model to relate the optical properties of Black Silicon to the maximum photo current and solar cell efficiency in dependence of the solar cell thickness. The results are compared to standard light trapping schemes and implications especially for thin solar cells are discussed.

  3. Certification of solar products - The Florida experience

    SciTech Connect

    POST,HAROLD N.; ROLAND,JAMES D.; VENTRE,GERARD G.; HUGGINS,JAMES C.

    2000-02-02

    Florida legislation enacted in 1976 directed the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to develop standards for solar energy systems manufactured or sold in the state, establish criteria for testing the performance of solar energy systems, and provide a means to display compliance with approved performance tests for these systems. This mandate has been effectively implemented for both solar domestic water heating and solar pool heating systems. With growing interest and markets for photovoltaic systems, plans are presently being developed to expand the scope of the mandate to include photovoltaic technology. This paper discusses four complementary facets of a photovoltaic (PV) system certification program. They include PV module performance characterization and rating; PV system design review and approval; examination and authorization of photovoltaic system installers; and inspection and acceptance testing of PV system installation. The suggested photovoltaic system process builds on lessons learned from over 20 years of testing, certifying and labeling of solar thermal collectors, and the certification of solar thermal systems.

  4. Generating AC With Rotating Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.

    1993-01-01

    Rotating solar photovoltaic cells or batteries connected to suitable mechanical and/or electronic commutators produce nearly sinusoidal alternating current. Eliminates need for inverter circuitry and its attendant power-consumption and heat-dissipation problems, but imposes need for low-power-consumption rotary mechanism. Intended for use aboard spacecraft, also useful in special terrestrial situations where solar electric power must be transmitted over powerlines from one remote location to another.

  5. A light-trapping solar cell coverglass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey A. Landis

    1990-01-01

    A novel method of reducing surface reflectivity which eliminates the need to texturize the surface of the cell is presented. A double light pass is achieved by using a light-trapping coverglass which redirects reflected light back to the cell surface by total internal reflection. This technique allows low-reflectance surfaces to be used on planar solar cells, including GaAs and InP\\/int,

  6. Physics based simulation of dye solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Auf der Maur; A. Gagliardi; A. Di Carlo

    Dye sensitized solar cells are interesting candidates for providing a renewable, cost efficient energy source with low environmental\\u000a impact. The lack of a suitable simulation software to study basic cell properties and to optimize the cell topology is currently\\u000a one of the factors hindering their commercialization. We present in this paper a theoretical model of the entire device based\\u000a on

  7. One-sun silicon solar cell research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Green; J. Zhao; A. Wang; A. W. Blakers; A. M. Milne; X. Dai; C. M. Chong; S. R. Wenham; F. Zhang; F. Yun; J. Zolper; S. Narayanan; A. B. Sproul

    1991-01-01

    This report describes research for the period September 1988 to February 1990 directed at improving the performance of crystalline and polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Key results include the demonstration of 24.2 percent energy conversion efficiency for 4-sq cm crystalline cells fabricated using the development of the Passivated Emitter Cell processing sequence, the demonstration of energy conversion efficiency up to 22.4

  8. Plasma Texturing of Silicon Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohan Narayanan; Madhu Roy; Douglas S. Ruby; Saleem H. Zaidi

    1999-01-01

    Surface texture promotes enhanced light absorption in Si solar cells. The quality of lower cost multicrystalline-silicon (mc-Si) has increased to the point that its cell performance is close to that of single c-Si cells, with the major difference resulting from the inability to texture mc-Si affordably. This has reduced the cost-per-watt advantage of mc-Si. Surface texturing aimed at enhanced absorption

  9. Advances in solar cell welding technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Chidester; D. R. Lott

    1982-01-01

    In addition to developing the rigid substrate welded conventional cell panels for an earlier U.S. flight program, LMSC recently demonstrated a welded lightweight array system using both 2 x 4 and 5.9 x 5.9 cm wraparound solar cells. This weld system uses infrared sensing of weld joint temperature at the cell contact metalization interface to precisely control weld energy on

  10. Reliability studies on MIS solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Anderson; J. K. Kim

    1978-01-01

    Research on Cr\\/oxide\\/p-type Si solar cells has produced a 12.2% efficiency on 2 cm2 area. Reliability studies have been conducted to determine if degradation occurs during use in an extreme environment. Several\\u000a cells with A\\/R coatings and encapsulation have been tested with degradation occurring in some cases after 2 years of use.\\u000a One cell without an A\\/R coating was used

  11. Reliability studies on MIS solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Anderson; J. K. Kim

    1978-01-01

    Research on Cr\\/oxide\\/p-type Si solar cells has produced a 12.2% efficiency on 2 sq cm area. Reliability studies have been conducted to determine if degradation occurs during use in an extreme environment. Several cells with A\\/R coatings and encapsulation have been tested with degradation occurring in some cases after 2 years of use. One cell without an A\\/R coating was

  12. Effect of conductive coatings on current collection by solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hillard, G.B.; Ferguson, D.C. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Morton, T. [NYMA, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) was flown on the shuttle mission STS-62 in March 1994. Among the various solar cell samples carried was a twelve cell coupon of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA). As with all of SAMPIE samples, this coupon was biased to a variety of high voltages to study plasma interactions effects. previous ground tests with this coupon had shown unusually large electron current collection, believed to be caused by the use of a Germanium coating on the array blanket. This coating, added for protection against the effects of atomic oxygen, is weakly conducted and was believed to considerably alter normal sheath effects at high voltage. The authors present the flight data, compare with ground test data, and that it is very important that AO coatings be measured for plasma effects prior to selection.

  13. Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

    2014-09-02

    A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

  14. Solar Cell Modules with Parallel Oriented Interconnections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-four solar modules, half of which were 48 cells in an all-series electrical configuration and half of a six parallel cells by eight series cells were provided. Upon delivery of environmentally tested modules, low power outputs were discovered. These low power modules were determined to have cracked cells which were thought to cause the low output power. The cracks tended to be linear or circular which were caused by different stressing mechanisms. These stressing mechanisms were fully explored. Efforts were undertaken to determine the causes of cell fracture. This resulted in module design and process modifications. The design and process changes were subsequently implemented in production.

  15. Space solar cell research - Problems and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1986-01-01

    The value of a passive, maintenance-free, renewable energy source was immediately recognized in the early days of the space program, and the silicon solar cell, despite its infancy, was quickly pressed into service. Efficiencies of those early space solar arrays were low, and lifetimes shorter than hoped for, but within a decade significant advances had been made in both areas. Better performance was achieved because of a variety of factors, ranging from improvements in silicon single crystal material, to better device designs, to a better understanding of the factors that affect the performance of a solar cell in space. Chief among the latter, particularly for the mid-to-high altitude (HEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) orbits, are the effects of the naturally occurring particulate radiation environment. Although not as broadly important to the photovoltaic community at large as increased efficiency, the topic of radiation damage is critically important to use of solar cells in space, and is a major component of the NASA research program in space photovoltaics. This paper will give a brief overview of some of the opportunities and challenges for space photovoltaic applications, and will discuss some of the current reseach directed at achieving high efficiency and controlling the effects of radiation damage in space solar cells.

  16. Space solar cell research: Problems and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The value of a passive, maintenance-free, renewable energy source was apparent in the early days of the space program, and the silicon solar cell was pressed into service. Efficiencies of those early space solar arrays were low, and lifetimes shorter than hoped for, but within a decade significant advances had been made in both areas. Better performance was achieved through improvements in silicon single crystal material, better device designs, and a better understanding of the factors that affect the performance of a solar cell in space. Chief among the latter, particularly for the mid-to-high altitude (HEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) orbits, are the effects of the naturally occurring particulate radiation environment. Although not as broadly important to the photovoltaic community at large as increased efficiency, the topic of radiation damage is critically important to use of solar cells in space, and is a major component of the NASA research program in space photovoltaics. A brief overview of some of the opportunities and challenges for space photovoltaic applications is given, and some of the current research directed at achieving high efficiency and controlling radiation damage in space solar cells is discussed.

  17. LEO effects on candidate solar cell cover materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) test samples discussed within are part of the Solar Array Materials Passive (SAMPLE) LDEF experiment, which included contributions from NASA and Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL). Only the JPL portion is described in this paper. The JPL test plate contains 30 individual thin silicon solar cell/cover samples. It was the intent of the experiment to evaluate the stability and protective capability of various cover materials such as conventional fused silica and potential alternative materials such as Teflon, silicone RTV's, glass resins, polyimides, and a copolymer encapsulate. Examination of the recovered experiment shows extensive physical changes have occurred. Approximately 150 micrometeoroid/debris impact were noted, some directly on the solar cells. Of particular interest are the results of ultraviolet and atomic oxygen interactions with the various cover materials. Initial results show that the fused silica cover is the most stable and protective, with performance of other materials varying widely. Electrical measurements of the cell/cover samples are presented as part of the evaluation of cover materials to protect cells in low earth orbit environments.

  18. Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, S. (Princeton University); Carlson, D. E. (Solarex); Branz, H. M. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    1999-04-01

    We review the progress made by amorphous silicon solar cells, including the emerging technology of solar cells of microcrystalline silicon. The long-term trend in the efficiency of stabilized laboratory cells based on a-Si:H has been a rise of {approx}0.6 % per year. The recent trend in the a-Si,Ge:H cell efficiency alone, measured in the spectral window assigned to the bottom device in a triple-junction cell, has been an increase of {approx}0.16% per year. These improvements have brought within reach the target of 15% efficiency identified by EPRI and DOE for widespread application. Our review leads to an identification of areas of promising research, with emphasis on the fundamental science required to reach the 15% target, and then to move to the next-level efficiency goal.

  19. Gaalas/Gaas Solar Cell Process Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almgren, D. W.; Csigi, K. I.

    1980-01-01

    Available information on liquid phase, vapor phase (including chemical vapor deposition) and molecular beam epitaxy growth procedures that could be used to fabricate single crystal, heteroface, (AlGa) As/GaAs solar cells, for space applications is summarized. A comparison of the basic cost elements of the epitaxy growth processes shows that the current infinite melt LPE process has the lower cost per cell for an annual production rate of 10,000 cells. The metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) process has the potential for low cost production of solar cells but there is currently a significant uncertainty in process yield, i.e., the fraction of active material in the input gas stream that ends up in the cell. Additional work is needed to optimize and document the process parameters for the MO-CVD process.

  20. Modeling and analysis of cascade solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, F. D.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review is given of the present status of the development of cascade solar cells. It is known that photovoltaic efficiencies can be improved through this development. The designs and calculations of the multijunction cells, however, are quite complicated. The main goal is to find a method which is a compromise between accuracy and simplicity for modeling a cascade solar cell. Three approaches are presently under way, among them (1) equivalent circuit approach, (2) numerical approach, and (3) analytical approach. Here, the first and the second approaches are discussed. The equivalent circuit approach using SPICE (Simulation Program, Integrated Circuit Emphasis) to the cascade cells and the cascade-cell array is highlighted. The methods of extracting parameters for modeling are discussed.

  1. Multi-junction solar cell device

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Daniel J. (Lakewood, CO); Geisz, John F. (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2007-12-18

    A multi-junction solar cell device (10) is provided. The multi-junction solar cell device (10) comprises either two or three active solar cells connected in series in a monolithic structure. The multi-junction device (10) comprises a bottom active cell (20) having a single-crystal silicon substrate base and an emitter layer (23). The multi-junction device (10) further comprises one or two subsequent active cells each having a base layer (32) and an emitter layer (23) with interconnecting tunnel junctions between each active cell. At least one layer that forms each of the top and middle active cells is composed of a single-crystal III-V semiconductor alloy that is substantially lattice-matched to the silicon substrate (22). The polarity of the active p-n junction cells is either p-on-n or n-on-p. The present invention further includes a method for substantially lattice matching single-crystal III-V semiconductor layers with the silicon substrate (22) by including boron and/or nitrogen in the chemical structure of these layers.

  2. Flexible implementation of rigid solar cell technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, Andrew E.

    2010-08-01

    As a source of clean, remote energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems are an important area of research. The majority of solar cells are rigid materials with negligible flexibility. Flexible PV systems possess many advantages, such as being transportable and incorporable on diverse structures. Amorphous silicon and organic PV systems are flexible; however, they lack the efficiency and lifetime of rigid cells. There is also a need for PV systems that are light weight, especially in space and flight applications. We propose a solution to this problem by arranging rigid cells onto a flexible substrate creating efficient, light weight, and flexible devices. To date, we have created a working prototype of our design using the 1.1cm x 1cm Emcore cells. We have achieved a better power to weight ratio than commercially available PowerFilm{reg_sign}, which uses thin film silicon yielding .034W/gram. We have also tested our concept with other types of cells and verified that our methods are able to be adapted to any rigid solar cell technology. This allows us to use the highest efficiency devices despite their physical characteristics. Depending on the cell size we use, we can rival the curvature of most available flexible PV devices. We have shown how the benefits of rigid solar cells can be integrated into flexible applications, allowing performance that surpasses alternative technologies.

  3. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2014-07-22

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline materiat layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  4. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

    2012-12-04

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  5. Solar cell contact resistance - a review

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, D.K.; Meier, D.L.

    1984-05-01

    An overview of ohmic contacts on solar cells is presented. The fundamentals of metal-semiconductor contacts are reviewed, including the Schottky approach, Fermi level pinning by surface states, and the mechanisms of thermionic emission, thermionic/field emission, and tunneling for current transport. The concept of contact resistance is developed and contact resistance data for several different contact materials on both silicon and gallium arsenide over a range of doping densities are summarized. Finally, the requirements imposed by solar cells on contact resistance are detailed.

  6. Impedance spectroscopic characterization of solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautham, S.; Ramanathan, S.

    2014-10-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is used to characterize a commercial solar cell, at various dc bias potentials, under illumination and dark conditions. Interesting features are observed in medium and low frequency range, at large bias potentials. All the models reported in literature utilize combinations of resistances and capacitances, but the results indicate that inductances are necessary to model the actual solar cell, since an inductive loop is observed in the medium frequency range, especially at large bias potential, both under illumination and dark conditions. A new circuit which captures all the trends semi quantitatively is proposed to model the data.

  7. Design and fabrication of solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    A program conducted for design, fabrication and evaluation of twelve silicon solar cell modules is described. The purpose of the program was to develop a module design consistent with the requirements and objectives of JPL specification and to also incorporate elements of new technologies under development to meet LSSA Project goals. Module development emphasized preparation of a technically and economically competitive design based upon utilization of ion implanted solar cells and a glass encapsulation system. The modules fabricated, tested and delivered were of nominal 2 X 2 foot dimensions and 20 watt minimum rating. Basic design, design rationale, performance and results of environmental testing are described.

  8. Requirements for a large area solar simulator regarding the measurement of MJ solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Adelhelm; Detlev Berger

    2003-01-01

    The absolute electrical power measurement of a multi-junction (MJ) solar cell device requires high quality for the solar simulator, especially in terms of the generated uniformity and the spectral match of the irradiance, but also for the knowledge of the technical specifications of the MJ solar cell. As the uncertainty of the measurement of a solar array combines many geometrical,

  9. The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE): Science and technology objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is an approved NASA Space Shuttle space flight experiment to be launched in Jul. 1993. The SAMPIE experiment is designed to investigate the interaction of high voltage space power systems with ionospheric plasma. To study the behavior of solar cells, a number of cell coupons, representing technologies of current interest, will be biased to high voltages to characterize both negative potential arcing and positive potential current collection. Additionally, various theories of arc suppression will be tested by including several specially modified cell coupons. Finally, SAMPIE will include experiments to study the basic nature of these interactions. The rationale for a space flight experiment, the measurements to be made, the significance of the expected results, and the current design status of the flight hardware are described.

  10. Harmful Shunting Mechanisms Found in Silicon Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    Scientists developed near-field optical microscopy for imaging electrical breakdown in solar cells and identified critical electrical breakdown mechanisms operating in industrial silicon and epitaxial silicon solar cells.

  11. Growth and characterization of cascade solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Bedair; M. L. Timmons; M. Simons

    1981-01-01

    Monolithic, two-junction cascade solar cells are fabricated in two different III-V materials systems: Al-Ga-As and Al-Ga-As-Sb. The Al-Ga-As system employs a GaAs low bandgap cell and a 1.9 eV AlGaAs high bandgap cell connected by an AlGaAs tunnel junction, and although the cell does not possess the optimum bandgap values for maximum efficiency, it is attractive from a developmental standpoint

  12. 23.9% monolithic multijunction solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Virshup; B.-C. Chung; J. G. Werthen

    1988-01-01

    A monolithically grown two-junction solar cell has been fabricated which produces 23.9% efficiency under AM1.5 global conditions and 22.3% under AM0 conditions. These are the highest one-sun efficiencies reported to date for both AM0 and AM1.5. The Al.35Ga.65As (1.93 eV) top cell and the GaAs (1.42 eV) bottom cell were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on GaAs substrates. Cell

  13. The 22nd International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, November 05-09, 2012, Hangzhou, China Front side degradation of silicon solar cells by rear side laser

    E-print Network

    µm thick back-contact back-junction monocrystalline silicon solar cells increases from 500 cm s-1 side. 2. EXPERIMENTS We fabricate BC BJ monocrystalline silicon solar cells with different cell, Hangzhou, China Front side degradation of silicon solar cells by rear side laser processing Felix Haase1

  14. Studies of silicon pn junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, F. A.; Neugroschel, A.

    1977-01-01

    Modifications of the basic Shockley equations that result from the random and nonrandom spatial variations of the chemical composition of a semiconductor were developed. These modifications underlie the existence of the extensive emitter recombination current that limits the voltage over the open circuit of solar cells. The measurement of parameters, series resistance and the base diffusion length is discussed. Two methods are presented for establishing the energy bandgap narrowing in the heavily-doped emitter region. Corrections that can be important in the application of one of these methods to small test cells are examined. Oxide-charge-induced high-low-junction emitter (OCI-HLE) test cells which exhibit considerably higher voltage over the open circuit than was previously seen in n-on-p solar cells are described.

  15. Direct-Write Contacts for Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaydanova, T.; van Hest, M.F.A.M.; Miedaner, A.; Curtis, C. J.; Alleman, J. L.; Dabney, M. S.; Garnett, E.; Shaheen, S.; Ginley, D. S.; Smith, L.; Collins, R.; Hanoka, J. I.; Gabor, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on our project to develop inkjet printable contacts for solar cells. Ag, Cu, and Ni metallizations were inkjet printed with near vacuum deposition quality. Thick, highly conducting lines of Ag and Cu demonstrating good adhesion to glass, Si, and PCB have been printed at 100-200 C in air and N2, respectively. Ag grids were inkjet-printed on Si solar cells and fired through silicon nitride AR layer at 850 C resulting in 8% cells. Next-generation multicomponent inks (including etching agents) have also been developed with improved fire-through contacts leading to higher cell efficiencies. The approach developed can be easily extended to other conductors such as Pt, Pd, and Au, etc. In addition, PEDOT-PSS polymer-based conductors were inkjet-printed with the conductivity as good or better than those of polymer-based conductors.

  16. Center punched solar cell module development effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. E.; Mortensen, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The results are given of an advanced module development program with the objective of providing a low cost solar cell mechanical interconnect design. The design approach, which avoids soldering or welding operations, lends itself to automated assembly techniques thus supporting the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project goals. The first group of six modules contained aluminum contact cells and the second group of six modules contained silver-titanium-palladium contact cells. Extensive component and environmental testing at the module level showed that reliable cell mechanical interconnection can be achieved when utilizing the proper electrical contact materials and pressures. A discussion is given of the module design, manufacturing procedure, test program, significant problem areas and solutions, and conclusions and recommendations as formulated and conducted by XEOS.

  17. Improved performance of silicon nanowire/cadmium telluride quantum dots/organic hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Renqi; Xue, Zhaoguo; Wang, Hongyu; Xu, Jun; Yu, Yao; Su, Weining; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji

    2015-04-01

    We fabricated silicon nanowire/cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs)/organic hybrid solar cells and investigated their structure and electrical properties. Transmission electron microscope revealed that CdTe QDs were uniformly distributed on the surface of the silicon nanowires, which made PEDOT:PSS easily filled the space between SiNWs. The current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of hybrid solar cells were investigated both in dark and under illumination. The result shows that the performance of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layer has an obvious improvement. The optimal short-circuit current density (Jsc) of solar cells with CdTe QDs layer can reach 33.5 mA/cm2. Compared with the solar cells without CdTe QDs, Jsc has an increase of 15.1%. Power conversion efficiency of solar cells also increases by 28.8%. The enhanced performance of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layers are ascribed to down-shifting effect of CdTe QDs and the modification of the silicon nanowires surface with CdTe QDs. The result of our experiments suggests that hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs modified are promising candidates for solar cell application.

  18. High-performance silicon nanohole solar cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Wang, Xin; Li, Li; Wu, Xiao-Ling; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2010-05-26

    We demonstrate Si nanohole arrays as a superior sunlight-absorbing nanostructure for photovoltaic solar cell applications. Under 1 sun AM1.5G illumination, a Si nanohole solar cell with p-n junctions via P diffusion exhibited a open-circuit voltage of 566.6 mV, a short-circuit current density of 32.2 mA/cm(2), and a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 9.51%, which is higher than that of its counterparts based on Si nanowires, planar Si, and pyramid-textured Si. The nanohole array geometry presents a novel and viable method fo cost-efficient solar energy conversion. PMID:20426468

  19. Solar module using dye-sensitized solar cells with a polymer electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jilian Nei de Freitas; Claudia Longo; Ana Flávia Nogueira; Marco-Aurelio De Paoli

    2008-01-01

    Dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells assembled with a polymer electrolyte were investigated, aiming at the construction of an 8V solar module. The individual solar cells were assembled with 4.5cm2 active area and were characterized under outdoor conditions, exhibiting an average efficiency of 0.9% per cell (at 12:00 noon). The solar module was built by connecting 13 cells in series. The integrated

  20. High-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Green; A. W. Blakers; Jiqun Shi; E. M. Keller; S. R. Wenham

    1984-01-01

    Silicon solar cells are described which operate at energy conversion efficiencies independently measured at 18.7 percent under standard terrestrial test conditions (AM1.5, 100 mW\\/cm², 28°C). These are apparently the most efficient silicon cells fabricated to date. The high-efficiency results from a combination of high open-circuit voltage due to the careful attention paid to the passivation of the top surface of

  1. Detailed balance limit for solar cell efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans J. Queisser

    2009-01-01

    The principle of detailed balance was used in 1960 to derive a thermodynamic limit for energy conversion efficiency of semiconductor junction photovoltaic cells. Absorption and emission of photons must be balanced, the cell being a black body. Non-radiative recombinations of solar-generated electron–hole pairs are thus particularly deleterious, affecting silicon junctions. Gallium arsenide, however, is inherently more efficient because of its

  2. Thin film solar cells for terrestrial applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Shirland; W. J. Biter; E. W. Greeneich; T. P. Brody

    1975-01-01

    The goals of the project are to develop a terrestrial version of the CdS thin film solar cell that is demonstrably amenable to low cost mass production, and to establish data on the lifetime of such cells under the expected conditions of terrestrial use. There were six major tasks for the first year's work. These were: Re-establish the state-of-the-art of

  3. The analysis and optimization of a spherical silicon solar cell 

    E-print Network

    McKee, William Randall

    1976-01-01

    . Material parameters for n and p-type base and diffused layers 29 EIST OF FIGURES figure 1. Model for vertical multi-junction solar cell page 2. Comparison of the spherical, cubic and cylindrical solar cell geometries 3. Refraction of light... be other means to increase the collection efficiency without improving the solar cell material. The vertical multi- junction solar cell is an example of a geometry change which could reduce collection losses to negligible levels, This geometry has been...

  4. Space solar cells - High efficiency and radiation damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Brandhorst Jr.; D. T. Bernatowicz

    1980-01-01

    The proceedings of the Third Solar Cell High Efficiency and Radiation Damage Meeting are outlined. The topics covered included high efficiency silicon solar cells, silicon solar cell radiation damage, GaAs solar cell performance, and 30 percent conversion devices. The study of radiation damage from a fundamental defect-centered basis is discussed and evaluated as a focus of future work. 18% AM0

  5. Thin crystalline silicon solar cells with metallic back reflector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Paola Murcia; Ruiying Hao; Christopher Leitz; Anthony Lochtefeld; Allen Barnett

    2011-01-01

    Thin-film crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells have the potential for very high efficiency through high open circuit voltage (Voc) [1]. The best performance reported in thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells with absorber thickness below 20 microns is 16.9% efficiency for a solar cell grown epitaxially on a crystalline silicon conductive substrate [2]. The efficiency potential of thin c-Si solar cells

  6. Wide gap chalcopyrites: material properties and solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Siebentritt

    2002-01-01

    Solar cells made from wide gap chalcopyrites have received considerable interest due to the fact that high open circuit voltages are desirable for thin film modules and due to the goal to develop tandem solar cells. Although on theoretical grounds efficiencies of CuInS2 and CuGaSe2 solar cells should be comparable to Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, so far, actual efficiencies are considerably

  7. Improved performance design of gallium arsenide solar cells for space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Parekh; A. M. Barnett

    1984-01-01

    Two gallium arsenide solar cell configurations have evolved over the last decade--the heteroface solar cell which uses a (GaAl) as surface passivating layer over a p-n solar cell; and a n\\/sup +\\/-p-p\\/sup +\\/ shallow homojunction solar cell. Energy conversion efficiencies of 18.8 percent have been reported with the heteroface structure. In this paper, we report an improved design, shallow junction

  8. Efficiency limits for space multi-junction concentrator solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ma Shaodong; Peng Hongling; Chen Wei; Jiang Bin; Zheng Wanhua

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency limits of single-junction and multi-junction concentrator solar cells are established from the thermodynamic principle of detailed balance. The maximum efficiency limit of single-junction solar cells is 35% at 500 suns, while that of 2-junction solar cells which meet the current matching condition is 46%. At the same condition, the maximum efficiency limit of 3-junction solar cells with GaAs as

  9. Concepts of inorganic solid-state nanostructured solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Dittrich; Abdelhak Belaidi; Ahmed Ennaoui

    2011-01-01

    The development of inorganic solid-state nanostructured solar cells over the last years has been reviewed with respect to concepts and materials. Major attention has been paid to solar cells with extremely thin absorber, solar cells with ultra-thin nano-composite absorber and solar cells with quantum dot absorber layers. The focus has been set to structured transparent electron conductors and absorber materials

  10. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale R. Burger; Robert L. Mueller

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs\\/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV

  11. Phthalocyanine blends improve bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Varotto, Alessandro; Nam, Chang-Yong; Radivojevic, Ivana; Tomé, Joao P C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Black, Charles T; Drain, Charles Michael

    2010-03-01

    A core phthalocyanine platform allows engineering of the solubility properties the band gap, shifting the maximum absorption toward the red. A simple method for increasing the efficiency of heterojunction solar cells uses a self-organized blend of phthalocyanine chromophores fabricated by solution processing. PMID:20136126

  12. Organic solar cells using inverted layer sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Glatthaar; M. Niggemann; B. Zimmermann; P. Lewer; M. Riede; A. Hinsch; J. Luther

    2005-01-01

    We report on a concept for organic solar cells where the layer sequence is inverted compared to the conventional setup. In such a configuration a conducting polymer layer is used as the transparent anode which is able to transport the photocurrent laterally to a metal grid. For the anode a low sheet resistance and a work function matching approximately the

  13. Physics based simulation of dye solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Auf der Maur; A. Gagliardi; A. Di Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are interesting candidates for providing a renewable, cost efficient energy source with low environmental impact. Although DSCs are very close to be commercialized, many issues still need to be addressed. Part of the problem is related to the lack of a reliable and consistent simulator able to catch the physics underlying the functioning of the

  14. First large-area dye solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby B. Meyer; Assef Azam; Andreas F. Meyer

    2004-01-01

    For the first time, large area nanocrystalline titanium oxide based Dye Solar Cell modules with a size up to 45 x 45 cm have been manufactured with industrial methods and materials, opening a way to real products for selected markets. The electrical performances are measured, efficiency and stability are addressed, as well as the economic data showing an excellent cost

  15. Plasmonics in Thin Film Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Fahr; Carsten Rockstuhl; Falk Lederer

    2009-01-01

    Thin film solar cells made of amorphous or microcrystalline silicon provide renewable energy at the benefits of low material consumption. As a drawback, these materials don't offer the high carrier mobilities of their crystalline counterpart. Due to low carrier mobilities, increased process times and material consumption, thick absorbing layers have to be avoided. For maintaining the absorption of the impinging

  16. Gallium arsenide solar cell radiation damage study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Maurer; G. A. Herbert; J. D. Kinnison; A. Meulenberg

    1989-01-01

    An analysis has been made of electrons and proton damaged GaAs solar cells suitable for use in space. The authors find that although some electrical parametric data and spectral response data are quite similar, the type of damage due to the two types of radiation is different. An I - V analysis model shows that electrons damage the bulk of

  17. Gallium arsenide solar cell radiation damage study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Maurer; G. A. Herbert; J. D. Kinnison; A. Meulenberg

    1989-01-01

    A thorough analysis has been made of electron- and proton- damaged GaAs solar cells suitable for use in space. It is found that, although some electrical parametric data and spectral response data are quite similar, the type of damage due to the two types of radiation is different. An I-V analysis model shows that electrons damage the bulk of the

  18. Solar cell contact resistance - a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Schroder; D. L. Meier

    1984-01-01

    An overview of ohmic contacts on solar cells is presented. The fundamentals of metal-semiconductor contacts are reviewed, including the Schottky approach, Fermi level pinning by surface states, and the mechanisms of thermionic emission, thermionic\\/field emission, and tunneling for current transport. The concept of contact resistance is developed and contact resistance data for several different contact materials on both silicon and

  19. Porous silicon application in solar cell technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Grigoras; Arunas Krotkus; V. Pacebutas; I. Simkiene

    1998-01-01

    Possible and already realized applications of porous silicon (PS) layers in silicon solar cell technology are overviewed. Four main directions are marked for PS incorporation: (1) heterojunction formation, (2) light trapping, (3) antireflection coating, and (4) surface passivation. Standard PS preparation technique is discussed and a new one is proposed, applicable for large area devices. Optical and electric parameters of

  20. Modeling large-area solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kippelen; S. Choi; W. J. Potscavage

    2010-01-01

    In this talk we will discuss the modeling of large-area organic solar cells. Degradation of the performance with increased area is observed and analyzed in terms of the power loss density concept. The equivalent circuit model is used to verify that a change in power loss density (or RSA) can have a strong influence on device performance. The limited sheet

  1. Modelling real photovoltaic solar cell using Maple

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Aazou; E. M. Assaid

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Maple software is used to study a solar cell modelled by an electronic circuit containing five physical parameters. The physical parameters are: the series resistance, the shunt resistance, the diode reverse saturation current, the diode ideality factor and the photocurrent (see figure 1). First, the characteristic equation is solved in order to find the output current as

  2. Fluorescent window for liquid junction solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Kazacos; E. J. McHenry; A. Heller; B. Miller

    1980-01-01

    To recover part of the often substantial fraction of the sunlight lost in practical semiconductor-liquid junction solar cells by solution absorption, two designs incorporating fluorescent windows are analyzed and tested. In these schemes the luminescers absorb incident light in regions of electrolyte absorption and re-emit at wavelengths both within the semiconductor band gap and the transparent range of the solution.

  3. Design and fabrication of solar cell modules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Shaughnessy

    1978-01-01

    A program conducted for design, fabrication and evaluation of twelve silicon solar cell modules is described. The purpose of the program was to develop a module design consistent with the requirements and objectives of JPL specification and to also incorporate elements of new technologies under development to meet LSSA Project goals. Module development emphasized preparation of a technically and economically

  4. Accurate performance measurement of silicon solar cells

    E-print Network

    Accurate performance measurement of silicon solar cells William Murray Keogh July 2001 A thesis published or written by another person has been included in this thesis, except where due reference is made but the most careful simulator measurements. Periodic outdoor calibrations under natural sunlight can therefore

  5. Solar cell design for avoiding LILT degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Stella; G. T. Ctorry

    1987-01-01

    Growing concerns about radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) performance potential, cost, safety, and availability have renewed interest in utilizing photovoltaic energy conversion for future JPL interplanetary missions such as the Mariner Mark II set. Although lightweight solar array technology has advanced to the point where it would appear to provide an alternative power source, anomalous silicon cell curve shape degradation at

  6. Analysis of Multijunction solar cells: Electroluminescence study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Makham; M. Zazoui; J. C. Bourgoin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the principle of the study which is based on electroluminescence to extract the parameters characterizing the recombination centers induced by irradiation in a solar cell. This technique is able to provide direct information on each individual junction constituting the multijonctions. The results are compared with those obtained by electrical methods.

  7. Surface modelling of organic solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chakaroun; B. Ratier; A. Moliton; W. Hojeij; M. Aubourg

    2009-01-01

    Modelling of physical phenomena in optoelectronic devices enables to define new strategies to optimize organic components (organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), etc ....). The organic photovoltaic technology allows producing more attractive and lighter weight photovoltaic devices than silicon solar technology. Both organic small molecule based and polymer based devices are studied. These devices needs the use

  8. Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Waldrop, James R. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Cohen, Marshall J. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1984-01-24

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

  9. High efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sah, C. Tang

    1986-01-01

    A review of the entire research program since its inception ten years ago is given. The initial effort focused on the effects of impurities on the efficiency of silicon solar cells to provide figures of maximum allowable impurity density for efficiencies up to about 16 to 17%. Highly accurate experimental techniques were extended to characterize the recombination properties of the residual imputities in the silicon solar cell. A numerical simulator of the solar cell was also developed, using the Circuit Technique for Semiconductor Analysis. Recent effort focused on the delineation of the material and device parameters which limited the silicon efficiency to below 20% and on an investigation of cell designs to break the 20% barrier. Designs of the cell device structure and geometry can further reduce recombination losses as well as the sensitivity and criticalness of the fabrication technology required to exceed 20%. Further research is needed on the fundamental characterization of the carrier recombination properties at the chemical impurity and physical defect centers. It is shown that only single crystalline silicon cell technology can be successful in attaining efficiencies greater than 20%.

  10. New Materials for Chalcogenide Based Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosun, Banu Selin

    Thin film solar cells based on copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) have achieved efficiencies exceeding 20 %. The p-n junction in these solar cells is formed between a p-type CIGS absorber layer and a composite n-type film that consists of a 50-100 nm thin n-type CdS followed by a 50-200 nm thin n-type ZnO. This dissertation focuses on developing materials for replacing CdS and ZnO films to improve the damp-heat stability of the solar cells and for minimizing the use of Cd. Specifically, I demonstrate a new CIGS solar cell with better damp heat stability wherein the ZnO layer is replaced with SnO2. The efficiency of solar cells made with SnO2 decreased less than 5 % after 120 hours at 85 °C and 85 % relative humidity while the efficiency of solar cells made with ZnO declined by more than 70 %. Moreover, I showed that a SnO2 film deposited on top of completed CIGS solar cells significantly increased the device lifetime by forming a barrier against water diffusion. Semicrystalline SnO2 films deposited at room temperature had nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix, which resulted in films without grain boundaries. These films exhibited better damp-heat stability than ZnO and crystalline SnO2 films deposited at higher temperature and this difference is attributed to the lack of grain boundary water diffusion. In addition, I studied CBD of Zn1-xCdxS from aqueous solutions of thiourea, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and zinc and cadmium sulfate. I demonstrated that films with varying composition (x) can be deposited through CBD and studied the structure and composition variation along the films' thickness. However, this traditional chemical bath deposition (CBD) approach heats the entire solution and wastes most of the chemicals by homogenous particle formation. To overcome this problem, I designed and developed a continuous-flow CBD approach to utilize the chemicals efficiently and to eliminate homogenous particle formation. Only the substrate is heated to the deposition temperature while the CBD solution is rapidly circulated between the bath and a chilled reservoir. We have demonstrated Zn1-x CdxS films for a variety of (x) values, with and without varying (x) across film thickness.

  11. Multijunction Solar Cells on Epitaxial Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Melissa Jane

    Future ultrahigh efficiency multijunction solar cells will employ designs that feature three or four or more subcells utilizing lattice-mismatched structures to achieve an optimal band gap sequence for solar energy conversion. While lattice-mismatched multijunction cells have been fabricated recently using metamorphic growth approaches, use of direct wafer bonding techniques to enable lattice mismatch accommodation at the subcell interfaces allows considerably more design freedom and inherently higher-quality, defect-free active regions. This thesis presents new results on wafer bonding and layer transfer for integration of materials with large lattice mismatch, as well as modeling work to better understand the key material parameters in the design of new multijunction solar cells. GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si templates were fabricated using wafer bonding and ion implantation induced layer transfer techniques. Following layer transfer, the surface of the ˜1.4 mum thick transferred Ge(100) has an as-transferred RMS roughness of ˜20 nm and a near surface layer containing a high density of ion implantation-induced defects. The RMS roughness has been reduced to <1 nm. In addition, the effects of changing the strain state of the template substrate on the performance of the devices has been explored by comparing devices grown on Ge/Si and Ge/sapphire. The CTE mismatch between Si and GaAs/GaInP materials induces a tensile strain, whereas the sapphire substrate induces a compressive strain. An analytical p-n junction device physics model for GaInP/GaAs/InGaAsP/InGaAs four junction solar cells was developed. Real behavior of solar cells is accounted for by including: free carrier absorption, temperature and doping effects on carrier mobility, as well as two recombination pathways: Shockley-Read-Hall recombination from a single mid gap trap level and surface recombination. Upper bounds set by detailed balance calculations can be approached by letting the parameters approach ideal conditions. Detailed balance calculations always benefit from added subcells, current matching requirements in series connected p-n multijunctions indicate a minimum performance required from added subcells for net contribution to the overall device. This model allows novel solar cell structures to be evaluated by providing realistic predictions of the performance limitations of these multijunction devices.

  12. Space solar cell technology development - A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J.

    1982-01-01

    The developmental history of photovoltaics is examined as a basis for predicting further advances to the year 2000. Transistor technology was the precursor of solar cell development. Terrestrial cells were modified for space through changes in geometry and size, as well as the use of Ag-Ti contacts and manufacture of a p-type base. The violet cell was produced for Comsat, and involved shallow junctions, new contacts, and an enhanced antireflection coating for better radiation tolerance. The driving force was the desire by private companies to reduce cost and weight for commercial satellite power supplies. Liquid phase epitaxial (LPE) GaAs cells are the latest advancement, having a 4 sq cm area and increased efficiency. GaAs cells are expected to be flight ready in the 1980s. Testing is still necessary to verify production techniques and the resistance to electron and photon damage. Research will continue in CVD cell technology, new panel technology, and ultrathin Si cells.

  13. Deployment Experiment for Ultralarge Solar Sail System (UltraSail)

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Deployment Experiment for Ultralarge Solar Sail System (UltraSail) Byoungsam Woo, Kevin M. Ertmer.2514/1.51519 UltraSail is a next-generation high-payoff system with very large (kilometers-squared class) solar sails of the UltraSail system. A potential problem associated with trapped air between film layers was identified

  14. Development of a shingle-type solar cell module

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Shepard Jr.; L. E. Sanchez

    1978-01-01

    The development of a solar cell module, which is suitable for use in place of shingles on the sloping roofs of residental or commercial buildings, is reported. The design consists of nineteen series-connected 53 mm diameter solar cells arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration. The shingle solar cell module consists of two basic functional parts: an exposed rigid portion

  15. A nature compatible intelligent control system for solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Jing; Sun Fengchi; Wu Tao

    2008-01-01

    This paper propose and implement a control system for pose control and state monitoring of the solar cell panel. A control model is established for the solar cell panel to adapt to the change of Sunlight in natural environment based on the relative movement between the sun and the earth. It enables the solar cell panel follow the movement of

  16. Dielectric Waveguides and their Use in Solar Cells Zachariah Peterson

    E-print Network

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Dielectric Waveguides and their Use in Solar Cells Zachariah Peterson ABSTRACT In this paper, I trapping in solar cells will be discussed. Experimental results will be presented showing decreased light reflection from Si solar cells covered with ZnO nanowire arrays. #12;1. Introduction Waveguides

  17. FMEA for Solar Cell Array DATE 23 Jan, 1969

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    . Figur·e 1 shows the general configuration. The solar cells used in this array are blueTK:ld Dist. EASEP Std. FMEA for Solar Cell Array NO. EATM-45 i REV. NO. PAGE - OF DATE 23 Jan, 1969 #12;NO. REV. NO. FMEA for Solar Cell Array EATM-45 PAGE 1 OF 15 DATE 23 Jan. 1969 *1. 0 SUMMARY

  18. Plasmonic Nanostructure Design for Efficient Light Coupling into Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Atwater, Harry

    Plasmonic Nanostructure Design for Efficient Light Coupling into Solar Cells Vivian E. Ferry, Luke sunlight into guided modes in thin film Si and GaAs plasmonic solar cells whose back interface is coated. These findings show promise for the design of ultrathin solar cells that exhibit enhanced absorption

  19. Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells

    E-print Network

    Fan, Shanhui

    Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells Aaswath Raman, Zongfu@stanford.edu Abstract: Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are a promising candidate for low-cost next lying on top of the organic solar cell stack produce a 8-15% increase in photocurrent for a model

  20. Multi-Exciton Generation in Nanostructured Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Multi-Exciton Generation in Nanostructured Solar Cells 1 G.T. Zimanyi UC Davis The energy is challenging, philosophically satisfying and fun #12;Multi-Exciton Generation in Nanostructured Solar Cells 2. Science: - GaAs: Alta Devices: 28% lab, 23.5% NREL verified - Organic solar cells: Sumitomo 10

  1. Small Molecule Solution-Processed Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Candea, George

    in solution processed BHJ solar cells, which are made from a PCBM Squaraine DyeCyanine Dye Absorber MoleculesSmall Molecule Solution-Processed Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Arthur Aebersold Supervisors: J solar cell performance show a trend for better devices with an intemediate active layer thickness

  2. ZnO Nanotube Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    ZnO Nanotube Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Alex B. F. Martinson,, Jeffrey W. Elam, Joseph T templated by anodic aluminum oxide for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Atomic layer deposition of the best dye- sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is the product of a dye with moderate extinction

  3. Hierarchically structured photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    Hierarchically structured photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells Qifeng Zhang and Guozhong or one-dimensional assemblies. Introduction Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are a category-sensitized solar cells using hierarchically structured photoelectrodes that consist of spherical or one

  4. Space Radiation Effects in Advanced Solar Cell Materials and Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Walters; G. P. Summers

    An investigation of the physical mechanisms governing the response of III-V based solar cells to particle irradiation is presented. The effect of particle irradiation on single and multijunction solar cells is studied through current vs. voltage, spectral response, and deep level transient spectroscopy measurements. The basic radiation response mechanisms are identified, and their effects on the solar cell electrical performance

  5. Indium phosphide solar cells for laser power beaming applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raj K. Jain; Geoffrey A. Landis

    1992-01-01

    Lasers can be used to transmit power to photovoltaic cells. Solar cell efficiencies are enhanced significantly under monochromatic light, and therefore a laser beam of proper wavelength could be a very effective source of illumination for a solar array operating at very high efficiencies. This work reviews the modeling studies made on indium phosphide solar cells for such an application.

  6. Solar Cells in 2009 and Beyond Mike McGehee

    E-print Network

    McGehee, Michael

    ;Inorganic Thin Film Solar Cells CdTe CIGS (CuInGaSe2) amorphous Si · A thin film of semiconductor.1 um 0.05 um ~1000 um #12;CdTe Solar Cell with CdS window layer 14 Glass Superstrate TransparentSolar Cells in 2009 and Beyond Mike McGehee Materials Science and Engineering These slides

  7. MILESTONES TOWARD 50% EFFICIENT SOLAR CELL MODULES Allen Barnett1

    E-print Network

    Honsberg, Christiana

    unoccupied design space. Our approach is driven by proven quantitative models for the solar cell design-design of the optics, interconnects and solar cells. This architecture significantly increases the design spaceMILESTONES TOWARD 50% EFFICIENT SOLAR CELL MODULES Allen Barnett1 , Douglas Kirkpatrick2

  8. 50% EFFICIENT SOLAR CELL ARCHITECTURES AND DESIGNS Allen Barnett1

    E-print Network

    Honsberg, Christiana

    are integrating the optical design with the solar cell design, and have entered previously unoccupied design space50% EFFICIENT SOLAR CELL ARCHITECTURES AND DESIGNS Allen Barnett1 , Christiana Honsberg1 , Douglas ABSTRACT Very High Efficiency Solar Cells (VHESC) for portable applications [1] that operate at greater

  9. Fabrication of buried contact silicon solar cells using porous silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Vitanov; E. Goranova; V. Stavrov; P. Ivanov; P. K. Singh

    2009-01-01

    We report the fabrication of buried contact solar cells using porous silicon as sacrificial layer to create well-defined channels (for buried contacts) in silicon. In this paper, the salient features of the technology have been presented. No detrimental effect was found in the performance of buried contact solar cell with partially filled contact area compared to the solar cells having

  10. Improved performance of solar cell based on porous silicon surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asmiet Ramizy; Wisam J. Aziz; Z. Hassan; Khalid Omar; K. Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Porous silicon (PS) surfaces were fabricated by electrochemical etching for both sides of the Si wafer. The objective of the present study is to investigate the PS effect on performance of silicon solar cells. Moreover, enhancement of solar cell efficiency can be obtained by manipulating of the reflected mirrors, and the process is very promising for solar cells manufacturing due

  11. Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Hebert, Peter H. (Glendale, CA); Brandt, Randolph J. (Palmdale, CA)

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

  12. Analytical determination of critical crack size in solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Chen

    1988-01-01

    Although solar cells usually have chips and cracks, no material specifications concerning the allowable crack size on solar cells are available for quality assurance and engineering design usage. Any material specifications that the cell manufacturers use were developed for cosmetic reasons that have no technical basis. Therefore, the Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) has sponsored a continuing program for the

  13. Business, market and intellectual property analysis of polymer solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torben D. Nielsen; Craig Cruickshank; Søren Foged; Jesper Thorsen; Frederik C. Krebs

    2010-01-01

    The business potential of polymer solar cells is reviewed and the market opportunities analyzed on the basis of the currently reported and projected performance and manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells. Possible new market areas are identified and described. An overview of the present patent and intellectual property situation is also given and a patent map of polymer solar cells

  14. 50 micron - Silicon solar cell assembly and testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidekazu Hashimoto; Yasuhiro Aoki; Masakazu Iwakami; Hiroshi Nishiyama

    1986-01-01

    An ultrathin silicon solar cell developed recently is advantageous for the high power spacecraft. A solar panel assembly technique suitable for the ultrathin silicon cell has been developed and established. Two types of welding methods, the parallel gap welding method (PGW) and improved solar welding method (ISW), have been introduced to interconnect these cells into the form of arrays, and

  15. Solar cell panel crack detection using Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Hossein Aghamohammadi; Anton Satria Prabuwono; Shahnorbanun Sahran; Marzieh Mogharrebi

    2011-01-01

    A solar cell panel as an efficient power source for the production of electrical energy has long been considered. Any defect on the solar cell panel's surface will be lead to reduced production of power and loss in the yield. In this case, inspection of the solar cell panel is essential to be performed to obtain a product of high

  16. Screen printed processing of solar cells incorporating integral bypass diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Wenham; M. C. Pitt; R. B. Godfrey; M. A. Green; E. Gauja

    1982-01-01

    The output of solar modules utilizing conventional solar cells suffers considerably when a single cell in a string is shaded, cracked, broken or even poorly graded resulting in mismatch losses in the module. Under such conditions, integral bypass diode (I.B.D.) solar cells alleviate the worst electrical mismatch conditions. This allows the module to maintain a relatively high power output while

  17. Silvaco ATLAS as a solar cell modeling tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Michael; A. D. Bates; M. S. Green

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents research efforts conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School in the development of an accurate, physically-based solar cell model using the general-purpose ATLAS device simulator by Silvaco International. Unlike solar cell models based on a combination of discrete electrical components, this novel model extracts the electrical characteristics of a solar cell based on virtual fabrication of its physical

  18. Nanocluster production for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect

    Al Dosari, Haila M.; Ayesh, Ahmad I. [Department of Physics, United Arab Emirates University, P. O. Box 15551, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)] [Department of Physics, United Arab Emirates University, P. O. Box 15551, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-08-07

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) nanoclusters that might be used for solar cell applications. Silver and silicon nanoclusters have been synthesized by means of dc magnetron sputtering and inert gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. We have found that nanocluster size distributions can be tuned by various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, flow rate of argon inert gas, and aggregation length. Quadrupole mass filter and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the size distribution of Ag and Si nanoclusters. Ag nanoclusters with average size in the range of 3.6–8.3 nm were synthesized (herein size refers to the nanocluster diameter), whereas Si nanoclusters' average size was controlled to range between 2.9 and 7.4 nm by controlling the source parameters. This work illustrates the ability of controlling the Si and Ag nanoclusters' sizes by proper optimization of the operation conditions. By controlling nanoclusters' sizes, one can alter their surface properties to suit the need to enhance solar cell efficiency. Herein, Ag nanoclusters were deposited on commercial polycrystalline solar cells. Short circuit current (I{sub SC}), open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), fill factor, and efficiency (?) were obtained under light source with an intensity of 30 mW/cm{sup 2}. A 22.7% enhancement in solar cell efficiency could be measured after deposition of Ag nanoclusters, which demonstrates that Ag nanoclusters generated in this work are useful to enhance solar cell efficiency.

  19. Piezoresistance and solar cell efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusion-induced stresses in silicon are shown to result in large localized changes in the minority-carrier mobility which in turn can have a significant effect on cell output. Evidence is given that both compressive and tensile stresses can be generated in either the emitter or the base region. Tensile stresses in the base appear to be much more effective in altering cell performance than do compressive stresses. While most stress-related effects appear to degrade cell efficiency, this is not always the case. Evidence is presented showing that arsenic-induced stresses can result in emitter characteristics comparable to those found in the MINP cell without requiring a high degree of surface passivation.

  20. Experimental and simulation analysis of the dye sensitized solar cell\\/Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 solar cell tandem structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Wang; H. Lin; J. Zhang; X. Li; A. Yamada; M. Konagai; J. B. Li

    2010-01-01

    A novel tandem structure composed of dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) and CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cell shows the potential to increase conversion efficiency by fully utilizing the sunlight. In our research, a tandem solar cell with a high open-circuit voltage of 1.15V and a conversion efficiency of 10.46%, which is both larger than that of DSC and CIGS solar cell