Science.gov

Sample records for solar dryers

  1. Solar dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelin, R.W.; Hurst, D.W.; Osos, G.R.

    1984-02-07

    Fabrics are dried by tumbling the fabrics in a drying chamber into which hot air is introduced. The hot air is formed by passing ambient air through a solar heater to heat the air to a first temperature, and then further heating the air with a second heater such as a burner. The burner can be one which burns a fuel in the presence of combustion air. The combustion air can be a portion of the air that is passed through the solar heater. After drying the fabrics by this method, the drying zone can be cooled and the fabrics can be further dried by passing air through the solar heater, and then without further heating the air that has passed through the solar heater, introducing the air to the drying chamber.

  2. Using solar dryers to dry clay bricks

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, J.A.; Wicker, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    Experiments using a small-scale solar dryer have been performed to determine the effect of incorporating solar dryers in the pre-firing stage of clay brick production. A comparison of brick moisture content over time is presented for dry bricks that underwent additional drying either naturally through direct exposure, in convection ovens set at 65.6 C and 104 C, in the solar dryer, or sealed in plastic bags. The ambient temperature and relative humidity were monitored along with the solar dryer temperature. Results indicated the solar dryer removed from one to two percent more moisture than natural drying, but removed less moisture than did the ovens. A similar comparison of wet bricks naturally dried, oven dried, and placed in the solar dryer for periods of five and seven days is also presented. The solar dryer reduced the amount of time required for bricks to be dried to a specified moisture content and increased the amount of moisture removed for a given amount of time.

  3. Modular solar food dryers for farm use

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, C.J. Jr.; Coleman, R.L.; Berry, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Several solar food dryer modules have been constructed. Their design has been based on a low-cost, small-scale solar dryer using a unique parabolic reflector construction to increase radiation on the drying surface. Each module has a drying surface of 1.1 M/sup 2/ and a parabolic reflector area of 3.3 M/sup 2/. Some modules are being used to dry mango slices (a potential new food product) for market testing, while others are used for experiments to improve drying efficiency. A description is given of the operating conditions of the modules drying mango slices and the most effective modifications.

  4. Negative-pressure solar dryer for large round alfalfa bales

    SciTech Connect

    Frisby, J.C.; George, R.M.; Everett, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A single-bale, portable, negative-pressure solar dryer was constructed and tested. It was found that design criteria established on pressurized systems could be used for negative-pressure systems. Hay packaged at 40 percent moisture content dried more uniformly if baled with a fixed-chamber baler.

  5. Drying of vanilla pods using a greenhouse effect solar dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, K.; Mursalim

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the basic design of the GHE solar dryer and evaluates the performance of the dryer when used to dry vanilla pods. From laboratory test results it was indicted that the average drying time for vanilla pods was between 49 to 53.5 hrs. For the case of heating augmentation using coal briquette stoves. The total amount of coal briquettes used to produce drying air temperature between 33 C to 65 C and RH of about 34% during day time was 61 kg equivalent to 6.1 kW heating rate and the average electric energy usage of 36.5 kWh, respectively. Quality test results indicated that the dried products were of grade IA of the export quality standard with vaniline content of 2.36%.

  6. Design and measured performance of a solar chimney for natural circulation solar energy dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, O.V.; Norton, B.

    1996-02-01

    An experimental solar chimney consisted of a cylindrical polyethylene-clad vertical chamber supported by steel framework and draped internally with a selectively absorbing surface. The performance of the chimney which was monitored extensively is reported. Issues related to the design and construction of solar chimneys for natural circulation solar energy dryers are discussed.

  7. Development and Evaluation of Solar Tunnel Dryer for Commercial Fish Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohod, A. G.; Khandetod, Y. P.; Shrirame, H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The local practice of drying fish in open sun drying poses problems such as high moisture content, uncontrolled drying and contamination. These problems can be avoided by proper use of improved methods such as the solar tunnel dryer, which results in faster drying of fish. The semi cylindrical walk-in type natural convection solar tunnel dryer, having drying area of 37.5 m2 was developed and evaluated for the drying of fish products in comparison with the conventional method of open sun drying. The experiments were conducted without fish and with fish to evaluate the performance of solar tunnel dryer. The average rise in temperature inside the solar tunnel dryer was found to be 11.24 °C and 18.29 °C over the ambient temperature during no load test in winter and summer respectively. The average 28 % saving in time was observed for selected fish drying using solar tunnel dryer over open sun drying method with average drying efficiency of 19 %. The economics was calculated for drying of prawns ( Parapaeneopsis stylifera) by solar tunnel dryer and open sun drying system on the basis of business as a whole. The economics of the solar tunnel dryer is presented in term of Net present worth, Benefit-Cost Ratio, Payback period, Profitability index and Internal rate of return. The pay back period for solar tunnel dryer was found to be 2.84 years.

  8. Design of solar thermal dryers for 24-hour food drying processes (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar drying is a ubiquitous method that has been adopted for many years as a food preservation method. Most of the published articles in the literature provide insight on the performance of solar dryers in service but little information on the dryer construction material selection process or mater...

  9. Workshops and incentive loans program for construction of solar greenhouses, grain dryers, window boxes and food dryers. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.H.

    1982-02-01

    A Solar Loan Fund was established to provide low-interest incentive loans to families desiring to construct their own solar devices, the only stipulations being allowance of reasonable public visitation and monitoring and employment of parish-trained construction teams if labor is to be hired. About 30 vocational agriculture students built window box collector units as part of their classroom experience, trying several designs. Later, 12 to 15 families built window box collectors for their use. A week long Energy Responsibility: Today and Tomorrow workshop was held involving construction projects and mini-seminars. Another workshop was held to construct bread box type solar hot water heaters, and yet another to build solar food dryers. (LEW)

  10. Design of solar thermal dryers for 24-hour food drying processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar drying is a method that has been adopted for many years as a food preservation method. To this date, significant advancements have been made in this field with the adoption of a multitude of solar thermal dryer designs for single-layer and multi-layer drying of fruit and vegetables e.g. cabine...

  11. Performance analysis of solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Fadhel, M.I.; Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.W.

    2010-11-15

    A solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer has been designed, fabricated and tested. The performance of the system has been studied under the meteorological conditions of Malaysia. The system consists of four main components: solar collector (evacuated tubes type), storage tank, solid-gas chemical heat pump unit and dryer chamber. A solid-gas chemical heat pump unit consists of reactor, condenser and evaporator. The reaction used in this study (CaCl2-NH{sub 3}). A simulation has been developed, and the predicted results are compared with those obtained from experiments. The maximum efficiency for evacuated tubes solar collector of 80% has been predicted against the maximum experiment of 74%. The maximum values of solar fraction from the simulation and experiment are 0.795 and 0.713, respectively, whereas the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump (COP{sup h}) maximum values 2.2 and 2 are obtained from simulation and experiments, respectively. The results show that any reduction of energy at condenser as a result of the decrease in solar radiation will decrease the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump as well as decrease the efficiency of drying. (author)

  12. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanushkodi, Saravanan; Wilson, Vincent H.; Sudhakar, Kumarasamy

    2015-12-01

    Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  13. Crop drying by indirect active hybrid solar - Electrical dryer in the eastern Algerian Septentrional Sahara

    SciTech Connect

    Boughali, S.; Bouchekima, B.; Mennouche, D.; Bouguettaia, H.; Bechki, D.; Benmoussa, H.

    2009-12-15

    In the present work, a new specific prototype of an indirect active hybrid solar-electrical dryer for agricultural products was constructed and investigated at LENREZA Laboratory, University of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara). In the new configuration of air drying passage; the study was done in a somewhat high range of mass flow rate between 0.04 and 0.08 kg/m{sup 2} s a range not properly investigated by most researchers. Experimental tests with and without load were performed in winter season in order to study the thermal behavior of the dryer and the effect of high air masse flow on the collector and system drying efficiency. The fraction of electrical and solar energy contribution versus air mass flow rate was investigated. Slice tomato was studied with different temperatures and velocities of drying air in order to study the influence of these parameters on the removal moisture content from the product and on the kinetics drying and also to determine their suitable values. Many different thin layer mathematical drying models were compared according to their coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) and reduced chi square ({chi}{sup 2}) to estimate experimental drying curves. The Middli model in this condition proved to be the best for predicting drying behavior of tomato slice with (R{sup 2} = 0.9995, {chi}{sup 2} = 0.0001). Finally an economic evaluation was calculated using the criterion of payback period which is found very small 1.27 years compared to the life of the dryer 15 years. (author)

  14. Numerical modelling of multi-pass solar dryer filled with granite pebbles for thermal storage enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, M. W.; Habib, K.; Ruslan, M. H.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a theoretical modelling of a cheap solar thermal dryer for small and medium scale farmers with multi-pass approach has been investigated. Comsol Multiphysics modelling tool was employed using numerical technique. The rock particles were used to enhance the thermal storage of the drying system. The local weather data were used during the simulation while parameters and coefficients were sourced from literature. An improvement on efficiency of up to 7% was recorded with error of 10-5 when compared with the reported double pass solar collector. A fair distribution of hot air within the cabinets was also achieved. Though the modelling tool used was robust but the characterization of the system materials need to be done to improve the system accuracy and better prediction.

  15. A new type of modular dryer combining solar energy and producer gas

    SciTech Connect

    Hirunlabh, J.; Paraboon, T.; Pairintra, R.; Namprakai, P.; Khedari, J.

    1997-03-01

    The main concept of this research is to develop a flexible modular dryer that combines two different sources of non-conventional energy. In this study, solar energy and producer gas generated by an up-flow charcoal gasifier were considered. The drying system was set out by using a 0.6 m{sup 3} modular cabinet supporting a solar collector of 2.5 m{sup 2} surface area. 16 kg of charcoal was used in each batch to feed the gasifier. The experiment was performed for drying beef that required two different stages of drying temperature: the first, which used producer gas requires approximately 60 C for four hours and the second used solar energy at 40 C for six hours. The energy consumed for drying 16 kg of beef was 7.57 MJ/kg H{sub 2}O evaporated which obtained from solar energy, producer gas and blowers in percentages of 8.72%, 31.44% and 59.84%, respectively.

  16. Drying characteristic of barley under natural convection in a mixed-mode type solar grain dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M.A.; Abe, T.

    1999-07-01

    Thin-layer solar drying characteristics of barley were determined at average natural air flow temperature ranging from 43.4 to 51.7 C and for relative humidities ranging from 16.5% to 37.5%. A mixed-mode type natural convection solar dryer was used for this experiment. The data of sample weight, and dry and wet bulb temperatures of the drying air were recorded continuously throughout the drying period for each test. The drying data were then fitted to the Page model. The model gave a good fit for the moisture content with an average standard error of 0.305% dry basis. The parameter N in Page's equation was assumed as a product-dependent constant which made it easy to compare the effects of independent variables on the natural convection solar drying rate without causing considerable error in predicting the drying rate for barley. A linear relationship was found between the parameter K, temperature T, and relative humidity R{sub H}.

  17. Building and use of a performance model for a solar dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Puiggali, J.R.; Tiguert, A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show how a simple numerical model can improve the understanding of the thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of a dryer working under natural conditions. This model is managed taking into account the real operating conditions of the dryer. The general procedure permits a hydrodynamic curve to be obtained and is validated by a comparison with experimental results.

  18. Solar-assisted electric clothes dryer using a home attic as a heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Stana, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of using a southeastern home attic as a means of reducing the energy consumption of an electric clothes dryer. An inexpensive duct (duplicable for $25) was constructed to collect hot attic air from the peak of a south facing roof and introduce it into the dryer inlet. Instrumentation was added to measure inlet temperatures and operating time/energy consumption of the dryer. Standardized test loads, in addition to normal laundry, were observed over the period of one year. The heat-on time of the dryer tested was shown to be reduced .16 to .35 minutes per /sup 0/C rise in inlet temperature. Inlet temperatures produced by the attic duct peaked at 56/sup 0/C(133/sup 9/F) in May/June and 40/sup 0/C(104/sup 0/F) in February. Based on peak temperatures available between 2 and 4 pm each month, a potential 20% yearly average savings could be realized. Economic viability of the system, dependant primarily on dryer usage, can be computed using a formula derived from the test results and included in the report.

  19. Experimental investigation on the comparison of fenugreek drying in an indirect solar dryer and under open sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Vipin; Kumar, Anil

    2015-11-01

    The convective heat transfer coefficient is an essential parameter for designing of any solar drying system. In this paper heat transfer modeling in term of convective heat transfer coefficient is performed and compared with open sun drying. The data obtained from experimentation under open sun and indirect solar drying conditions have been used to find values of the experimental constant `C' and exponent `n' by regression analysis and, consequently, convective heat transfer coefficient. From this study it is concluded that the convective heat transfer coefficient is decreasing with drying time it is due to decrease in moisture content. Results also showed that convective heat transfer coefficients are more in indirect solar dryer system than under open sun drying.

  20. Design, experimental and economic evaluation of a commercial-type solar dryer for production of high-quality hay

    SciTech Connect

    Arinze, E.A.; Sokhansanj, S.; Schoenau, G.J.; Crerar, B.; Opoku, A.

    1998-03-01

    Design features, development, experimental functional performance and economic evaluation of an energy efficient solar energy dryer for commercial production of high-quality hay and processed forage products are presented. The solar hay dryer consists of an improved solar collector with selective coated aluminum absorber plate and spaced fins, and a drying shed connected to the collector by an insulated duct and having a perforated metal grate floor, swing-away plywood frames and polyethylene curtains for effectively sealing the hay stack, and a crawl space below the floor where a 3-hp in-line centrifugal fan is housed for air circulation by suction. In late August and in early September, 1996, 160 small rectangular bales of alfalfa hay with about 25% bromegrass were successfully dried from 33% initial moisture content to 13%, and from 25% to 11% moisture in 4 and 3 days, respectively, under average weather conditions in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. With about 18 m{sup 3}/min per tonne airflow, 10--15 C temperature rise above ambient was obtained during peak bright sunshine hours. Relatively high daily average collector efficiency of 76%, high drying effectiveness, drying uniformity, uniform air distribution and tight sealing of the stack were achieved which resulted in an attractive green color of hay, no mold growth on hay, and an overall system drying efficiency of about 79%. Compared to a conventional natural gas drying system or field-drying method, the payback period on extra investment costs recovered through drying cost savings of $3/t to $6/t or through over two times higher prices for high-quality hay produced by the solar drying system may be just one or two years, respectively.

  1. Optimization of solar thermal dryer designs for the production of sun-dried apricots (Prunus armeniaca)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar thermal (ST) drying is a ubiquitous method that has had widespread use for fruit and vegetable crop preservation in developing countries. Conversely, in the United States solar thermal drying has found limited commercialization due to concerns about slow drying rates and poor product quality....

  2. Optimization of solar thermal dryer designs for the production of sun-dried apricots (Prunus armeniaca)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar thermal (ST) drying is a ubiquitous method that has had widespread use for fruit and vegetable crop preservation in developing countries. Conversely, in the United States solar thermal drying has found limited commercialization due to concerns about slow drying rates and poor product quality. ...

  3. Numerical and experimental investigation of direct solar crop dryer for farmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, M. W.; Habib, Khairul; Sulaiman, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    This article presents a theoretical and experimental investigation on effects of weather on direct solar crop drying technique. The SIMULINK tool was employed to analyze the energy balance equations of the transient system model. A prototype of the drying system was made and data were collected between the months of June and July in Perak, Malaysia. The contribution of intense sunny days was encouraging despite the wet season, and the wind velocity was dynamic during the period of investigation. However, high percentage of relative humidity was observed. This constitutes a hindrance to efficient drying process. The reported studies were silent on the effect of thick atmospheric moisture content on drying rate of agricultural products in tropic climate. This finding has revealed the mean values of insolation, wind speed, moisturized air, system performance efficiency and chili microscopy image morphology. The predicted and measured results were compared with good agreement.

  4. Clothes Dryer Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... vent flap will open when the dryer is operating. Once a year, or more often if you ... the machine is connected properly. Follow the manufacturer’s operating instructions and don’t overload your dryer. Turn ...

  5. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    SciTech Connect

    M Ali, M. K. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Muthuvalu, M. S. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Sulaiman, J. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  6. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M Ali, M. K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Wong, J.; Sulaiman, J.; Yasir, S. Md.

    2014-06-01

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m2 and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R2), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  7. Clothes Dryer Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Follow the manufacturer’s operating instructions and don’t overload your dryer. KKK Turn the dryer off if you leave home or when you go to bed. Your Source for SAFETY Information NFPA Public Education Division • 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, ...

  8. 44. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF DRYER ROOM. DRYER FOUNDATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF DRYER ROOM. DRYER FOUNDATION AT BOTTOM OF VIEW, WITH 18 INCH REVERSIBLE BELT CONVEYOR (UPPER LEFT), AND 16 INCH BELT CONVEYOR FINES FEED TO CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN (CENTER TO UPPER RIGHT). DRYER EXHAUST IS BELOW FINES FEED BELT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. Thermal dryer dewaters solids

    SciTech Connect

    DiMascio, F.J.; Burrowes, P.A.

    1993-09-01

    Solids incineration is traditionally an energy-intensive solids handling process at wastewater treatment plants. To reduce energy costs, the Buffalo (N.Y.) Sewer Authority has added an indirect thermal dryer to its treatment plant to dewater solids before incineration. In the first 3 months of operation, the authority reduced its solids inventory from 634,400 to 227,300 kg. Solids processed in the plant`s multiple-hearth incinerators varied from 11 to 12.75 wet Mg/hr at feed concentrations averaging 21% total solids. And, the dryer was operated with less than 5% downtime. The cost of this indirect thermal dryer system, including construction and equipment, was $995,000. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Thermal dryers for solids

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, C.H.

    1993-12-01

    This article describes an indirect thermal dryer added to dewater solids before incineration of sewage sludge at a Buffalo, New York waste water treatment plant. In the first three months of operation, the solids inventory was reduced from about 799 tons to 250 tons. The solids processed in the plant's multiple hearth incinerators varied from 12 to 14 tons per hour.

  11. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  12. RETROSPECTIVE VIEW OF COTTON GIN DRYERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews gin dryer designs and compiles most of the significant research conducted on the drying of seed cotton at cotton gins since about 1928. it describes the operation of various types of dryers and gives a critical appraisal of dryer designs that may be useful at current cotton gins....

  13. Particle Breakage in Agitated Dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, Colin L.; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Dennehy, Robert; Collier, Alan

    2009-06-01

    A method for predicting particle breakage in agitated dryers is described. The method utilizes an estimation of stresses and strains occurring in a dryer bed sheared by an impeller using the Distinct Element Method (DEM). An assemblage of particles is then subjected to these stresses in a shear cell to assess the extent of attrition under a range of stresses and strains. Paracetamol particles in the size range 500-600 μm are used for the experimental work. The relationship of attrition with stress and strain is then incorporated into the distribution of stress and strain in the dryer estimated by DEM. The extent of attrition for a range of conditions including the impeller speed has been analysed. The prediction shows impeller speed to have limited effect on attrition within the range of speeds tested.

  14. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  15. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  16. 30 CFR 77.301 - Dryer heating units; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dryer heating units; operation. 77.301 Section... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.301 Dryer heating units; operation. (a) Dryer heating units shall be operated...) Dryer heating units which are fired by pulverized coal, shall be operated and maintained in...

  17. 30 CFR 77.301 - Dryer heating units; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dryer heating units; operation. 77.301 Section... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.301 Dryer heating units; operation. (a) Dryer heating units shall be operated...) Dryer heating units which are fired by pulverized coal, shall be operated and maintained in...

  18. 30 CFR 77.301 - Dryer heating units; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dryer heating units; operation. 77.301 Section... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.301 Dryer heating units; operation. (a) Dryer heating units shall be operated...) Dryer heating units which are fired by pulverized coal, shall be operated and maintained in...

  19. 30 CFR 77.301 - Dryer heating units; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dryer heating units; operation. 77.301 Section... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.301 Dryer heating units; operation. (a) Dryer heating units shall be operated...) Dryer heating units which are fired by pulverized coal, shall be operated and maintained in...

  20. 30 CFR 77.301 - Dryer heating units; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dryer heating units; operation. 77.301 Section... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.301 Dryer heating units; operation. (a) Dryer heating units shall be operated...) Dryer heating units which are fired by pulverized coal, shall be operated and maintained in...

  1. Solar drying in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Headley, O. )

    1992-03-01

    The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) has estimated that a quarter of crops are lost through inadequate handling after harvesting. The use of solar dryers can reduce these losses and improve the quality of food. Oliver Headley of the University of the West Indies overviews a range of dryers developed in the Caribbean region. Solar dryers have been used in various parts of the Caribbean for the past eighteen years. The main types are: closed cycle dryers with separate flat plate collector; open cycle dryers with roof vanes against direct sunlight; open cycle dryers with rockbed heat storage units; open cycle dryers with chimneys for air circulation; wire basket dryers with flow through ventilation; barn roof collectors feeding packed bed dryers. During the dry season (January to April), mean daily insolation in a typical Caribbean island is about 25 MJ/m{sup 2}. With such an abundant resource, solar crop drying emerged as a preferred method for the preservation of perishable commodities. In territories without fossil fuel reserves solar energy is an obvious alternative since it does not involve expenditure of scarce foreign exchange. Research and development work in solar crop drying was conducted both at experimental sites in the University and in rural districts throughout the region. Several types of dryer were designed and tested.

  2. Centrifugal dryers keep pace with the market

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    New plant design and upgrades create a shift in dewatering strategies. The article describes recent developments. Three major manufacturers supply centrifugal dryers - TEMA, Centrifugal & Mechanical Industries (CMI) and Ludowici. CMI introduced a line of vertical centrifugal dryers. TEMA improved the techniques by developing a horizontal vibratory centrifuge (HVC) which simplified maintenance. 3 figs., 1 photo.

  3. Spray dryer capacity stretched 50%

    SciTech Connect

    Paraskevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes plant equipment modifications which has resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. The installation of a new atomizer and screening system in NL Chemicals' Newberry Springs plant which produces natural clays for use as rheological additives in industrial coatings, cosmetics and other products, resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. Energy consumption per pound of product was reduced by 7%, and product quality improved. This was achieved in less than three months at an investment of less than 10% of what an additional spray dryer would have cost.

  4. Credit PSR. This interior view shows the vacuum tumble dryer. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. This interior view shows the vacuum tumble dryer. The tumble dryer is lined with a water jacket to maintain temperature during the drying of ammonium perchlorate ("AP"); water enters and exits the dryer jacket through the pipe fittings along the horizontal center line of the dryer. The wall at the right is constructed to blow out in the event of an explosion - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Oxidizer Dryer Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. Drying characteristics of paddy in an integrated dryer.

    PubMed

    Manikantan, M R; Barnwal, P; Goyal, R K

    2014-04-01

    Drying characteristics of paddy (long grain variety PR-118 procured from PAU, Ludhiana) in an integrated dryer using single as well as combined heating source was studied at different air temperatures. The integrated dryer comprises three different air heating sources such as solar, biomass and electrical. Drying of paddy occurred in falling rate period. It was observed that duration of drying of paddy from 22 to 13 % moisture content (w.b.) was 5-9 h depending upon the source of energy used. In order to select a suitable drying curve, six thin layer-drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic and Wang and Singh) were fitted to the experimental moisture ratio data. Among the mathematical models investigated, Wang and Singh model best described the drying behaviour of paddy using solar, biomass and combined heating sources with highest coefficient of determination (r (2)) values and least chi-square, χ (2), mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) values. However, Page model adequately described the drying behavior of paddy using electrical heating source. PMID:24741181

  6. Testing Report: Littleford-Day Dryer Operation: Dryer Operation Impacts of Proposed MIS Mitigation Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Buchmiller, William C.; Elmore, Monte R.

    2007-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed a series of tests using the Littleford Day 22-liter dryer during investigations that evaluated changes in the melter-feed composition for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System. During testing, a new melter-feed formulation was developed that improved dryer performance while improving the retention of waste salts in the melter feed during vitrification.

  7. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, OF MCNALLY DRYER, WITH FARQUHAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, OF MCNALLY DRYER, WITH FARQUHAR DRIVE UNIT, JEFFREY FAN UNIT, AND ROOF PARTS IN BACKGROUND - Eska Coal Mine, McNally Dryer Unit, Wishbone Hill, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  8. 61. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COKE DRYER BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COKE DRYER BUILDING, LOOKING AT FIRE BOXES AND SILOS FOR COKE DRYERS. APRIL 22, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  9. 37. REDUCTION PLANT DRYER Stainless steel screen cylinder, encased ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. REDUCTION PLANT - DRYER Stainless steel screen cylinder, encased within an outer steel shell (top half missing). As fish were tumbled by the rotating screen, they were cooked and dried by live steam piped into the dryer through overhead pipes. The dryer is mounted on a slight angle, aiding the process by moving the drying fish towards the exhaust end of the dryer. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  10. Oblique view of stacks and towers alongside the Dryer House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of stacks and towers alongside the Dryer House, note the pivot windows in the saw tooth monitor atop the Dryer House, view facing southeast - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Cannery Building and Dryer House/Feed Storage Building, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  11. 30 CFR 77.315 - Thermal dryers; examination and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thermal dryers; examination and inspection. 77.315 Section 77.315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.315 Thermal dryers; examination and inspection. Thermal...

  12. 30 CFR 77.315 - Thermal dryers; examination and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thermal dryers; examination and inspection. 77.315 Section 77.315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.315 Thermal dryers; examination and inspection. Thermal...

  13. 30 CFR 77.315 - Thermal dryers; examination and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thermal dryers; examination and inspection. 77.315 Section 77.315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.315 Thermal dryers; examination and inspection. Thermal...

  14. 30 CFR 77.315 - Thermal dryers; examination and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thermal dryers; examination and inspection. 77.315 Section 77.315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.315 Thermal dryers; examination and inspection. Thermal...

  15. 30 CFR 77.315 - Thermal dryers; examination and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thermal dryers; examination and inspection. 77.315 Section 77.315 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.315 Thermal dryers; examination and inspection. Thermal...

  16. Drying radioactive wastewater salts using a thin film dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, D.E.

    1998-03-19

    This paper describes the operational experience in drying brines generated at a radioactive wastewater treatment facility. The brines are composed of aqueous ammonium sulfate/sodium sulfate and aqueous sodium nitrate/sodium sulfate, The brine feeds receive pretreatment to preclude dryer bridging and fouling. The dryer products are a distillate and a powder. The dryer is a vertical thin film type consisting of a steam heated cylinder with rotor. Maintenance on the dryer has been minimal. Although many operability problems have had to be overcome, dryer performance can now be said to be highly reliable.

  17. Mathematical model development and simulation of heat pump fruit dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Achariyaviriya, S.; Soponronnarit, S.; Terdyothin, A.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model of a heat pump fruit dryer was developed to study the performance of heat pump dryers. Using the moisture content of papaya glace drying, the refrigerant temperature at the evaporator and condenser and the performance, was verified. It was found that the simulated results using closed loop heat pump dryer were close to the experimental results. The criteria for evaluating the performance were specific moisture extraction rate and drying rate. The results showed that ambient conditions affected significantly on the performance of the open loop dryer and the partially closed loop dryer. Also, the fraction of evaporator bypass air affected markedly the performance of all heat pump dryers. In addition, it was found that specific air flow rate and drying air temperature affected significantly the performance of all heat pump dryers.

  18. Moisture distribution in a laboratory microwave dryer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory dryer was equipped with a single set of electrical components needed to generate microwave radiation at a frequency of 2.45 GHZ. The purpose was to determine if microwave radiation could successfully be used to dry seed cotton that was greater than 12 % moisture content, wet basis, and ...

  19. Vaporized hydrogen peroxide sterilization of freeze dryers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J W; Arnold, J F; Nail, S L; Renzi, E

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of using vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to steam sterilization has been examined using a pilot plant freeze dryer equipped with a prototype vapor generator. Specific objectives of the study discussed in this presentation were to: 1. Identify critical process variables affecting the lethality of VHP to Bacillus stearothermophilus spores, particularly within dead legs in the system. 2. Measure the efficacy of system degassing after sterilization. 3. Determine the effect of repeated sterilization cycles on the integrity of elastomeric components of the freeze dryer. Penetration of adequate concentrations of hydrogen peroxide vapor into small diameter piping, such as tubing connected to pressure gauges, is the most challenging aspect of VHP sterilization of freeze dryers. Prior to equipment modifications, spore strips placed within such dead legs remained positive irrespective of the number of gas/degas pulses and system pressure. Equipment modifications necessary to effect complete kill of biological indicators placed in system dead legs is discussed. Results of this study support the conclusion that vaporized hydrogen peroxide shows promise as an alternative sterilization method for freeze dryers. PMID:1474433

  20. Wind and radiant solar energy for drying fruits and vegetables

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, C.J. Jr.; Coleman, R.L.; Berry, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The combination of wind with radiant solar energy for drying fruits and vegetables can help promote conservation of food and nonrenewable energy resources. Low-cost, small-scale solar dryers have been developed with the potential for developing larger dryers. These dryers depend on natural air convection to remove moisture. Designing the dryers to incorporate natural wind currents, providing forced air circulation, could increase drying rates. Preliminary studies to provide information for such designs included: (1) comparing drying tests with and without forced air circulation, (2) monitoring wind speeds on-site, and (3) testing wind collecting devices. Average wind speeds during solar periods were higher than air velocities from unassisted air convection in these small food dryers. Drying rates were increased by 6 to 11% when the natural convection dryer was provided with a small electric fan. Either of two wind collecting devices also could increase drying rates.

  1. Thermal spray coatings on Yankee dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, D.F. )

    1994-08-01

    Several failure investigations and recent research on thermal spray coatings on Yankee dryer surfaces show at least three modes of environmentally induced degradation. Corrosion may occur with the ingress of certain chemicals into coating pores. Erosion or corrosion is manifested by streaks at local sites of high doctor blade loading. Erosion and cracking occur due to coating parameters, thermal stress, and differential expansion. While most of the results described in this paper are from investigations of molybdenum, stainless steel coatings also are discussed.

  2. Product quality multi-objective dryer design

    SciTech Connect

    Kiranoudis, C.T.; Maroulis, Z.B.; Marinos-Kouris, D.

    1999-11-01

    Design of conveyor-belt dryers constitutes a mathematical programming problem involving the evaluation of appropriate structural and operational process variables so that total annual plant cost involved is optimized. The increasing need for dehydrated products of the highest quality, imposes the development of criteria that, together with cost, determine the design rules for drying processes. Quality of dehydrated products is a complex resultant of properties characterizing the final products, where the most important one is color. Color is determined as a three-parameter resultant, whose values for products, which have undergone drying should deviate from the corresponding ones of natural products, as little as possible. In this case, product quality dryer design is a complex multi-objective optimization problem, involving the color deviation vector as an objective function and as constraints the ones deriving from the process mathematical model. The mathematical model of the dryer was developed and the fundamental color deterioration laws were determined for the drying process. Non-preference multi-criteria optimization methods were used and the Pareto-optimal set of efficient solutions was evaluated. An example was included to demonstrate the performance of the design procedure, as well as the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. Testing of a heat pump clothes dryer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, D.; Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D.

    1995-05-01

    The integration of a heat pump heat source into a clothes dryer has been investigated by several U.S. and foreign appliance developers and manufacturers but no commercial or residential heat pump clothes dryers are currently available in North America. The objectives of this effort were to: (1) Evaluate a heat pump dryer prototype relative to residential dryer performance tests. (2) Quantify the product limitations. (3) Suggest design changes that would reduce the impact of the limitations or that have a positive impact on the benefits. (4) Position the product relative to utility DSM/IRP opportunities (e.g., reduced connected load, or energy conservation). (5) Develop preliminary cost data The program evaluated the performance of a prototype closed-cycle heat pump clothes dryer designed and built by the Nyle Corporation. The prototype design goals were: (1) Drying times equivalent to a conventional electric clothes dryer. (2) 60% reduction in energy consumption. (3) Effective lint removal (to prevent coil fouling). (4) Cool-down mode performance similar to conventional dryer. (5) 20 lb load capacity. (6) Low temperature dry for reduced clothes wrinkle. Test results indicated that the closed-cycle heat pump met some of the above mentioned goals but it fell short with respect to energy savings and dry time. Performance improvement recommendations were developed for the closed-cycle dryer approach. In addition, the closed-cycle design potential was compared to an open-cycle heat pump dryer configuration.

  4. 10 CFR 429.21 - Residential clothes dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential clothes dryers. 429.21 Section 429.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.21 Residential clothes dryers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for...

  5. INTERIOR OF SHT (ROTARY DRYER FOR SODA) BUILDING OR DRYSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SHT (ROTARY DRYER FOR SODA) BUILDING OR DRYSIDE DRYERS WHICH REMOVED TRACES OF LIQUID FROM STD FILTRATE. HEAT CONVERTED SODIUM BICARBONATE TO SODIUM CARBONATE OR SODA ASH, THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCT OF THE WORKS. - Solvay Process Company, SHT Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  6. Steam generator with integral downdraft dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Hochmuth, F.W.

    1992-02-01

    On June 30, 1989, a financial assistance award was granted by the United State Department of Energy, the purpose of which was to study and evaluate the technical aspect, the economic viability, and commercial possibilities of a new furnace design for burning high moisture cellulose type fuels. The new design is an invention by F.W. Hochmuth, P.Eng. and has received United States Patents Nos. 4,480, 557 and 4,502,397. It was conceived as a method to improve the general operation and efficiency of waste wood burning boilers, to avoid the use of stabilizing fuels such as oil or gas, and to reduce objectionable stack emissions. A further objective was to obtain such benefits at relatively low cost by integrating all new material requirements within the furnace itself thereby avoiding the need for costly external equipment. The proposed integral down-draft dryer avoids the use of external dryer systems that are very expensive, have high power consumption, and require a large amount of maintenance. This document provides the details of this invention.

  7. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    A heat pump clothes dryer (HPCD) is an innovative appliance that uses a vapor compression system to dry clothes. Air circulates in a closed loop through the drum, so no vent is required. The condenser heats air to evaporate moisture out of the clothes, and the evaporator condenses water out of the air stream. As a result, the HPCD can achieve 50% energy savings compared to a conventional electric resistance dryer. We developed a physics-based, quasi-steady-state HPCD system model with detailed heat exchanger and compressor models. In a novel approach, we applied a heat and mass transfer effectiveness model to simulate the drying process of the clothes load in the drum. The system model is able to simulate the inherently transient HPCD drying process, to size components, and to reveal trends in key variables (e.g. compressor discharge temperature, power consumption, required drying time, etc.) The system model was calibrated using experimental data on a prototype HPCD. In the paper, the modeling method is introduced, and the model predictions are compared with experimental data measured on a prototype HPCD.

  8. On the drying of food products in a tunnel dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, S.K.; Hawlader, M.N.A.; Chua, K.J.

    1997-03-01

    The authors present a dryer model for simulating the drying of hygroscopic-porous food products in a tunnel dryer. The model employs an improved receding-front formulation by taking into consideration the material volumetric shrinkage and the variation of the heat and mass transfer coefficient during drying. Predicted results show close agreement when compared with experimental data. The authors report a parametric analysis using the dryer model to study the drying transient and the need to cascade the drying process so as to maximize the drying potential of the air stream.

  9. Advanced control strategies for fluidized bed dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Siettos, C.I.; Kiranoudis, C.T.; Bafas, G.V.

    1999-11-01

    Generating the best possible control strategy comprises a necessity for industrial processes, by virtue of product quality, cost reduction and design simplicity. Three different control approaches, namely an Input-Output linearizing, a fuzzy logic and a PID controller, are evaluated for the control of a fluidized bed dryer, a typical non-linear drying process of wide applicability. Based on several closed loop characteristics such as settling times, maximum overshoots and dynamic performance criteria such as IAE, ISE and ITAE, it is shown that the Input-Output linearizing and the fuzzy logic controller exhibit a better performance compared to the PID controller tuned optimally with respect to IAE, for a wide range of disturbances; yet, the relevant advantage of the fuzzy logic over the conventional nonlinear controller issues upon its design simplicity. Typical load rejection and set-point tracking examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  11. 45. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola base station (vhf) at right, looking southwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  12. Looking Northwest at Uranium Dryers Along North Side of Green ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northwest at Uranium Dryers Along North Side of Green Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  13. Looking Southeast at Precipitation System, Steam Dryer and Centrifuge in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southeast at Precipitation System, Steam Dryer and Centrifuge in Red Room within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  14. View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  15. Photovoltaic dryer with dual packed beds for drying medical herb

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Rehim, Z.S.; Fahmy, F.H.

    1998-03-01

    This work presents design and optimization of a cylindrical photovoltaic dryer with dual packed beds thermal energy storage for drying medical herb. The dryer is provided with electrical heater where the electrical energy is generated by using photovoltaic system. The electrical heater is designed and sized to realize continuous drying (day and night) to minimize the drying time. Two packed beds are used to fix the drying temperature in dryer during day and night. The main packed bed thermal energy storage is charged during the sunlight hours directly, to realize continued drying after sunset. An efficient PV dryer is devised to work under forced air created by air blower and heated by the electrical coils.

  16. Dynamic models of the lignite transport in dryer of power plant boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Hrdlicka, F.; Slavik, P.

    1999-07-01

    An important part of a power plant is a coal dryer. There are many problems concerning the optimal coal transport in the dryer. Due to large complexity of these problems it would be rather difficult to perform extensive experiments with a real dryer. At CTU Prague two new simulation models have been developed that improve the design of flue gas gravitation coal dryer. These models allowed the authors to minimize the number of coal particle collisions with the inner surface of the dryer. In such a way the exploitation period of the dryer can be increased substantially.

  17. Removal of carbon dioxide by a spray dryer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyh-Cherng; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tang, Jun-Tian; Liu, Li-Ping

    2005-03-01

    With the global warming due to greenhouse effects becoming serious, many efforts are carried out to decrease the emissions of CO2 from the combustion of carbonaceous materials. In Taiwan, there are 19 large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators running and their total emission of CO2 is about 16,950 kton y-1. Spray dryer is the most prevailing air pollution control devise for removing acid gas in waste incineration; however, the performance of spray dryer on the removal of CO2 is seldom studied. This study employs a laboratory-scale spray dryer to investigate the removal efficiency of CO2 under different operating conditions. The evaluated parameters include different absorbents mixed with CaOH2, operating temperature, the concentration of absorbent, and the inlet concentration of CO2. Experimental results show that the best removal efficiency of CO2 by a spray dryer is 48% as the absorbent is 10%NaOH+5%CaOH2 and the operating temperature is 150 degrees C. Comparing this result with previous study shows that the performance of spray dryer is better than traditional NaOH wet scrubber. For NaOH+CaOH2 spray dryer, the removal efficiency of CO2 is decreased with the inlet concentration of CO2 increased and the optimum operating temperature is 150 degrees C. Except NaOH+CaOH2, absorbents DEA+CaOH2, TEA+CaOH2, and single CaOH2 are not effective in removing CO2 by a spray dryer. PMID:15698650

  18. Noise impacts from professional dog grooming forced-air dryers

    PubMed Central

    Scheifele, Peter M.; Johnson, Michael T.; Byrne, David C.; Clark, John G.; Vandlik, Ashley; Kretschmer, Laura W.; Sonstrom, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the sound output of four commonly used brands of forced-air dryers used by dog groomers in the United States. Many dog groomers have questions about the effect of this exposure on their hearing, as well as on the hearing of the dogs that are being groomed. Readings taken from each dryer at 1 meter (the likely distance of the dryer from the groomer and the dog) showed average levels ranging from 105.5 to 108.3 dB SPL or 94.8 to 108.0 dBA. Using the 90 dBA criterion required by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, dog groomers/bathers are at risk if exposure to the lowest intensity dryer (94.8 dBA) exceeds 4 hours per day. If the more stringent 85 dBA criterion and 3 dB tradeoff is applied, less than one hour of exposure is permissible in an 8 hour day. Cautions are recommended for any persons exposed to noise from forced-air dryers. PMID:23117536

  19. Efficiency and temperature dependence of water removal by membrane dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Leckrone, K.J.; Hayes, J.M.

    1997-03-01

    The vapor pressure of water in equilibrium with sorption sites within a Nafion membrane is given by log P{sub WN} = -3580/T + 10.01, where P{sub WN} is expressed in Torr and T is the membrane temperature, in kelvin. The efficiency of dryers based on selective permeation of water through Nafion can thus be enhanced by cooling the membrane. Residual water in effluents exceeds equilibrium levels if insufficient time is allowed for water to diffuse to the membrane surface as gas passes through the dryer. For tubular configurations, this limitation can be avoided if L > F{sub c}(10{sup 3.8}/120{pi}D), where L is the length of the tubular membrane, in centimeters, F{sub c} is the gas flow rate, in mL/min, and D is the diffusion coefficient for water in the carrier gas at the operating temperature of the dryer, in cm{sup 2}/s. An efficient dryer that at room temperature dries gas to a dew point of -61 {degree}C is described; the same dryer maintained at 0 {degree}C yields a dew point of -80 {degree}C and removes water as effectively as Mg(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} or a dry ice/acetone slush. The use of Nafion membranes to construct devices capable of delivering gas streams with low but precisely controlled humidities is discussed. 41 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Efficiency and temperature dependence of water removal by membrane dryers.

    PubMed

    Leckrone, K J; Hayes, J M

    1997-03-01

    The vapor pressure of water in equilibrium with sorption sites within a Nafion membrane is given by log P(WN) = -3580/T + 10.01, where P(WN) is expressed in Torr and T is the membrane temperature, in kelvin. The efficiency of dryers based on selective permeation of water through Nafion can thus be enhanced by cooling the membrane. Residual water in effluents exceeds equilibrium levels if insufficient time is allowed for water to diffuse to the membrane surface as gas passes through the dryer. For tubular configurations, this limitation can be avoided if L > or = Fc(10(3.8)/120 pi D), where L is the length of the tubular membrane, in centimeters, Fc is the gas flow rate, in mL/ min, and D is the diffusion coefficient for water in the carrier gas at the operating temperature of the dryer, in cm2/s. An efficient dryer that at room temperature dries gas to a dew point of -61 degrees C is described; the same dryer maintained at 0 degrees C yields a dew point of -80 degrees C and removes water as effectively as Mg(ClO4)2 or a dry ice/acetone slush. The use of Nafion membranes to construct devices capable of delivering gas streams with low but precisely controlled humidities is discussed. PMID:11536807

  1. Efficiency and temperature dependence of water removal by membrane dryers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckrone, K. J.; Hayes, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The vapor pressure of water in equilibrium with sorption sites within a Nafion membrane is given by log P(WN) = -3580/T + 10.01, where P(WN) is expressed in Torr and T is the membrane temperature, in kelvin. The efficiency of dryers based on selective permeation of water through Nafion can thus be enhanced by cooling the membrane. Residual water in effluents exceeds equilibrium levels if insufficient time is allowed for water to diffuse to the membrane surface as gas passes through the dryer. For tubular configurations, this limitation can be avoided if L > or = Fc(10(3.8)/120 pi D), where L is the length of the tubular membrane, in centimeters, Fc is the gas flow rate, in mL/ min, and D is the diffusion coefficient for water in the carrier gas at the operating temperature of the dryer, in cm2/s. An efficient dryer that at room temperature dries gas to a dew point of -61 degrees C is described; the same dryer maintained at 0 degrees C yields a dew point of -80 degrees C and removes water as effectively as Mg(ClO4)2 or a dry ice/acetone slush. The use of Nafion membranes to construct devices capable of delivering gas streams with low but precisely controlled humidities is discussed.

  2. HIGHER PERFORMANCE SOLAR CROP DRYER KIT FOR DEVELOPING ECONOMIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial design was drawn up as a preliminary draft using Pro-Engineer software. A 4X optical CPC concentration ratio was chosen, then truncated to 3X. With a receiver (crop) width of 0.5 m, the CPC aperture width is 1.5 m. This design was used as a basis for purchasing mat...

  3. Automatic Dryers--Components and Operations; Appliance Repair--Intermediate: 9025.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Designed to familiarize the student with the components and operations of automatic gas and electric dryers, this course outlines the principles of drying and how they relate to the automatic dryer. Instruction centers upon the functions and operations of dryer components and the recognition and identification of various component malfunctions,…

  4. 40 CFR 63.1346 - Standards for new or reconstructed raw material dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... demonstrate a 98 percent reduction in THC emissions from the exit of the raw materials dryer to discharge to... demonstrate a 98 percent reduction in THC emissions from the exit of the raw materials dryer to discharge to... materials dryers located at a facility that is an area source cannot discharge to the atmosphere any...

  5. Integration of thickener underflow into thermal dryer circuit. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McClaine, A.W.; Breault, R.W.

    1998-12-31

    A large number of coal preparation plants in the United States are troubled with coal fines and associated plant operation problems. As part of their process, these plants use thermal dryers for producing product coal, cyclones for first-stage recovery of coal fines, and wet scrubbers for the second-stage removal of coal fines carry-over from the dryer exhaust gas. The first challenge for these plants is to recover the clean ultra-fine coal captured in the scrubbers rather than to dispose of it in settling ponds. The second challenge is to mitigate the over-dry fine coal dusting problems in the dryer product. Prior to the completion of this program, the difficulties of the first challenge involving the recovery and use of fine clean coal from the thermal dryer scrubber effluent had not been solved. The second challenge, controlling fine coal dusting, was previously met by applying a solution of surfactants and process water to the over-dry coal fraction. As a result of the demonstration provided by the performance of this program, the implementation of a simple process improvement, involving the use of a thickener in combination with a belt press, simultaneously solved both challenges: the de-dusting and the dryer scrubber effluent recovery issues. The objective of this project was to: (1) Use a clean coal thickener with a squeeze belt press to recover the ultra-fine coal in dryer scrubber effluent; (2) Demonstrate that the coal-water mixture (CWM) produced from scrubber sludge of a thermal dryer can be used as a dust suppressant. The thickener/belt press system has increased the production of JWRI Mine Number 4 by approximately 0.7%. This production increase was accomplished by recovering and re-using 3 metric tons/hr (3.3 tons/hr) of coal fines that were previously sent to holding ponds, returning this as a 50% CWM to de-dust the 430 metric tons/hr (470 tons/hr) of existing dryer production.

  6. Steroid nanocrystals prepared using the nano spray dryer B-90.

    PubMed

    Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2013-01-01

    The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple, and alternative approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. In this study, the preparation of steroid nanocrystals using the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was demonstrated. The particle size was controlled by selecting the mesh aperture size. Submicrometer steroid particles in powder form were successfully obtained. These nanoparticles were confirmed to have a crystal structure using powder X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. Since drug nanocrystals have recently been considered as a novel type of drug formulation for drug delivery systems, this study will be useful for nano-medical applications. PMID:24300400

  7. Calpain inhibitor nanocrystals prepared using Nano Spray Dryer B-90

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple, and alternative approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. Among attractive drugs, calpain inhibitor that inhibits programmed cell death ‘apoptosis’ is a candidate for curing apoptosis-mediated intractable diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. In this study, the preparation of calpain inhibitor nanocrystals using Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was demonstrated. The particle sizes were controlled by means of selecting mesh aperture sizes. The obtained average particle sizes were in the range of around 300 nm to submicron meter. PMID:22863139

  8. Steroid Nanocrystals Prepared Using the Nano Spray Dryer B-90

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2013-01-01

    The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple, and alternative approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. In this study, the preparation of steroid nanocrystals using the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was demonstrated. The particle size was controlled by selecting the mesh aperture size. Submicrometer steroid particles in powder form were successfully obtained. These nanoparticles were confirmed to have a crystal structure using powder X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. Since drug nanocrystals have recently been considered as a novel type of drug formulation for drug delivery systems, this study will be useful for nano-medical applications. PMID:24300400

  9. Calpain inhibitor nanocrystals prepared using Nano Spray Dryer B-90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-08-01

    The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple, and alternative approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. Among attractive drugs, calpain inhibitor that inhibits programmed cell death `apoptosis' is a candidate for curing apoptosis-mediated intractable diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In this study, the preparation of calpain inhibitor nanocrystals using Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was demonstrated. The particle sizes were controlled by means of selecting mesh aperture sizes. The obtained average particle sizes were in the range of around 300 nm to submicron meter.

  10. Calpain inhibitor nanocrystals prepared using Nano Spray Dryer B-90.

    PubMed

    Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple, and alternative approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. Among attractive drugs, calpain inhibitor that inhibits programmed cell death 'apoptosis' is a candidate for curing apoptosis-mediated intractable diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In this study, the preparation of calpain inhibitor nanocrystals using Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was demonstrated. The particle sizes were controlled by means of selecting mesh aperture sizes. The obtained average particle sizes were in the range of around 300 nm to submicron meter. PMID:22863139

  11. Development of a microwave clothes dryer. Interim report II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Gerling, J.E.

    1994-07-01

    The objective of the project is to investigate the microwave drying of clothes and to produce a database for use by interested parties, including appliance manufacturers, in designing and developing microwave clothes dryers. This is an interim report covering 1992 activities. Performance of a research model of a microwave dryer was compared to that of a conventional (top-of-the-line) electric dryer. Drying time was reduced by 58%; superior fabric care was demonstrated on fine fabrics because of the low drying temperatures; and efficiency was increased 18%. Microwaves penetrate the clothes and heat the water molecules directly while conventional heat energy must be conducted through the clothes to heat the water. A flow of heated air conducts the water vapor away from the clothes. Conventional metal buttons and zippers do not heat greatly in the 2,450 MHz microwave field but bobby pins, bread ties and nails heat enough to damage clothes. That heating has been eliminated by switching to the 915-MHz microwave frequency. Metallized threads may still constitute a heating problem. Based upon results from tests of the research model, a prototype has been designed and three units have been constructed. One unit is retained for laboratory testing while the other two will be shipped to two major appliance manufacturers for evaluations in their laboratories. Consumer panels generally liked the high speed, fabric care and improved efficiency of the microwave dryer but were concerned about the higher first cost.

  12. Smoke emissions in an ecologically sound dryer for coconut

    SciTech Connect

    Lozada, E.P.; Timmins, W.H.; Metcalfe, E.

    1997-12-31

    There are about a million smoke kilns in the world that are being used to dry coconuts produced from over 7,000,000 hectares. Smoke emissions from these kilns are known to contain large quantities of greenhouse and acid rain gases. To minimize the generation of these gases, kilns with better combustion characteristics and heat utilization efficiencies must be used. A possible alternative is a direct-fired, free convection dryer known as the Los Banos (Lozada) Multicrop Dryer. Developed at the University of the Philippines Los Banos, the multicrop dryer consists of a simple burner, a heat distributor and a drying bin. The burner burns coconut shell, corn cob and wood pieces with extremely high efficiency, thus, minimizing fuel consumption and dramatically reducing the release of airborne pollutants. The resulting copra (dried coconut kernel) is practically smoke-free with low levels of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s). Tests have also shown that the gas emissions from the dryer, when compared to that of the traditional smoke kiln, have lower concentrations of CO{sub 2} (1% vs 6%), of CO (50 ppm vs 2000-3000 ppm), of NO{sub x} (5 ppm vs 400 ppm) and SO{sub x} (5 ppm vs 400 ppm).

  13. 40 CFR 60.252 - Standards for thermal dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... covered under another 40 CFR Part 60 subpart must meet the applicable requirements in that subpart but are... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for thermal dryers. 60.252 Section 60.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  14. 40 CFR 60.252 - Standards for thermal dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... covered under another 40 CFR Part 60 subpart must meet the applicable requirements in that subpart but are... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for thermal dryers. 60.252 Section 60.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  15. 40 CFR 60.252 - Standards for thermal dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... covered under another 40 CFR Part 60 subpart must meet the applicable requirements in that subpart but are... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for thermal dryers. 60.252 Section 60.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  16. 40 CFR 60.252 - Standards for thermal dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... covered under another 40 CFR Part 60 subpart must meet the applicable requirements in that subpart but are... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for thermal dryers. 60.252 Section 60.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  17. 40 CFR 60.252 - Standards for thermal dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... covered under another 40 CFR Part 60 subpart must meet the applicable requirements in that subpart but are... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for thermal dryers. 60.252 Section 60.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  18. 10 CFR 429.21 - Residential clothes dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Residential clothes dryers. 429.21 Section 429.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... tested to ensure that— (i) Any represented value of estimated annual operating cost, energy...

  19. 10 CFR 429.21 - Residential clothes dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential clothes dryers. 429.21 Section 429.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... tested to ensure that— (i) Any represented value of estimated annual operating cost, energy...

  20. 44. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Communication equipment room, cable air dryer on left, motorola base station (vhf) in center, telephone repeater group at right, looking west - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  1. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Dryer Lint: An Advanced Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    2008-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment is described that involves environmental analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Students analyze lint from clothes dryers for traces of flame retardant chemicals, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), compounds receiving much attention recently. In a typical experiment, ng/g…

  2. LIME SPRAY DRYER FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION COMPUTER MODEL USERS MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a lime spray dryer/baghouse (FORTRAN) computer model that simulates SO2 removal and permits study of related impacts on design and economics as functions of design parameters and operating conditions for coal-fired electric generating units. The model allows ...

  3. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  4. Preliminary energy sector assessments of Jamaica. Volume III: renewable energy. Part II: solar energy - agricultural

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The study is concerned with the use of solar heat for drying agricultural products (crops, timber, and fish). The study finds that Jamaica has an ideal climate for solar agricultural product drying with the following methods offering the greatest promise; sun drying using open barbeques; drying in transparent buildings (with or without attached collectors) for small operations; new drying systems using solar air heaters with forced air drying; preheating air for existing commercial fossil-fueled dryers; and fish drying via chemical dehydration with solar regeneration of the chemical. The primary needs are to develop and construct environmentally suitable solar dryers and to train engineers in solar system design and installation.

  5. [DELTA T dryer/moisture control system]. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Drying Technology, Inc. was awarded a grant for the purpose of extending DELTA T dryer/moisture control technology into additional industries. Ultimate purpose of the grant was to save energy and improve efficiency in the process industries. Results indicate that these objectives have been met and will continue as this new technology is duplicated in the present industries and also is extended into other industries as well.

  6. The effect of dryer load on freeze drying process design.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal M; Jameel, Feroz; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Freeze-drying using a partial load is a common occurrence during the early manufacturing stages when insufficient amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are available. In such cases, the immediate production needs are met by performing lyophilization with less than a full freeze dryer load. However, it is not obvious at what fractional load significant deviations from full load behavior begin. The objective of this research was to systematically study the effects of variation in product load on freeze drying behavior in laboratory, pilot and clinical scale freeze-dryers. Experiments were conducted with 5% mannitol (high heat and mass flux) and 5% sucrose (low heat and mass flux) at different product loads (100%, 50%, 10%, and 2%). Product temperature was measured in edge as well as center vials with thermocouples. Specific surface area (SSA) was measured by BET gas adsorption analysis and residual moisture was measured by Karl Fischer. In the lab scale freeze-dryer, the molar flux of inert gas was determined by direct flow measurement using a flowmeter and the molar flux of water vapor was determined by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) techniques. Comparative pressure measurement (capacitance manometer vs. Pirani) was used to determine primary drying time. For both 5% mannitol and 5% sucrose, primary drying time decreases and product temperature increases as the load on the shelves decreases. No systematic variation was observed in residual moisture and vapor composition as load decreased. Further, SSA data suggests that there are no significant freezing differences under different load conditions. Independent of dryer scale, among all the effects, variation in radiation heat transfer from the chamber walls to the product seems to be the dominant effect resulting in shorter primary drying time as the load on the shelf decreases (i.e., the fraction of edge vials increases). PMID:20737639

  7. Analysis of recent patent literature on drying and dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Mujumdar, A.S.; Wu, J.

    2000-05-01

    A preliminary semi-quantitative analysis is made of the recent patent literature related to drying and dryers. US patents granted in the period January 1998 to June 1999 were examined. For this preliminary study, only the abstracts were used to classify the patents by subject area and arrive at some general conclusions. An in-depth overview covering a larger database and full texts of the patents is required to confirm the results presented.

  8. Experimental testing of spray dryer for control of incineration emissions.

    PubMed

    Wey, M Y; Wu, H Y; Tseng, H H; Chen, J C

    2003-05-01

    The research investigated the absorption/adsorption efficiency of sulfur dioxide (SO2), heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different Ca-based sorbents in a spray dryer during incineration process. For further improving the adsorption capacity of Ca-based sorbents, different spraying pressure and additives were carried out in this study. Experimental results showed that CaO could be used as an alternative sorbent in the spray dryer at an optimal initial particle size distribution of spraying droplet. In the spray dryer, Ca-based sorbents provided a lot of sites for heavy metals and PAHs condensing and calcium and alkalinity to react with metals to form merged species. As a result, heavy metals and PAHs could be removed from the flue gas simultaneously by condensation and adsorption. The additions of additives NaHCO3, SiO2, and KMnO4 were also found to be effective in improving the removal efficiency of these air pollutants. PMID:12744446

  9. Development of a microwave clothes dryer: Interim report III

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Gerling, J.E.

    1995-03-01

    Drying clothes with microwave energy combined with conventional hot air can potentially speed the drying process, improve fabric care, and increase dryer efficiency. This report describes important steps taken toward commercialization, particularly conceptualization of a highly sensitive safety sensor system. Such a system would help surmount problems arising from the heating of tramp materials, including metal items and pocket butane lighters. Hazards testing of a laboratory prototype dryer with a 915-MHz power supply initially showed that plastic butane lighters and common small metal objects such as bobby pins, nails, and bread wrapper ties do not heat sufficiently to cause an ignition hazard. However, more in-depth testing of plastic lighters in the 3-kW, 915-MHz fields showed that, just as in 2450-MHz fields, the lighter posed significant hazards because it could release pressurized, combustible gas when the plastic was softened by heating. Wooden-sheathed graphite pencils could also heat to ignition in either 2450-MHz or 915-MHz fields. A detection and control system was then designed to circumvent this hazard by accurately detecting trace amounts of combustion products in the dryer exhaust. Tests in a laboratory apparatus showed that termination of microwave power was possible well before any ignition occurred.

  10. Product quality multi-objective optimization of fluidized bed dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Krokida, M.K.; Kiranoudis, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Design of fluidized bed dryers constitutes a mathematical programming problem involving the evaluation of appropriate structural and operational process variables so that total annual plant cost involved is optimized. The increasing need for dehydrated products of the highest quality, imposes the development of new criteria that, together with cost, determine the design rules for drying processes. Quality of dehydrated products is a complex resultant of properties characterizing the final products, where the most important one is color. Color is determined as a three-parameter resultant, whose values for products undergone drying should deviate from the corresponding ones of natural products, as little as possible. In this case, product quality dryer design is a complex multi-objective optimization problem, involving the color deviation vector as an objective function and as constraints the ones deriving from the process mathematical model. The mathematical model of the dryer was developed and the fundamental color deterioration laws were determined for the drying process. Non-preference multi-criteria optimization methods were used and the Pareto-optimal set of efficient solutions was evaluated. An example covering the drying of sliced potato was included to demonstrate the performance of the design procedure, as well as the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Hand dryer noise in public restrooms exceeds 80 dBA at 10 ft (3 m)

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Shari Salzhauer

    2015-01-01

    High airflow hand dryers are found in many public restrooms today. These dryers offer quick and clean hand drying, and are seen as being an environment-friendly alternative to paper towels. However, many new hand dryers are loud, exposing individuals using the facilities as well as those employees who clean the facilities to potentially dangerous noise. Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea, resulting in varying degrees of noise-induced hearing loss. This study examined the intensity (in dBA) of the noise produced by the air dryers in campus restrooms. Hand dryer peak and average noise was measured with a sound level meter at 2.5 ft, 5 ft, and 10 ft from the dryer. Noise measurements did not decrease as predicted by the inverse-square law, probably because of the reverberative surfaces found in the restrooms. The small sample of hand dryers tested was mostly found to be producing more noise than the manufacturer claimed they would; indeed, none of the dryers would be safe for an 8-h workday exposure. While hand dryers do reduce paper trash, they pose as a different sort of hazard to our environment and population. PMID:25774611

  12. Solar and energy-conserving food technologies: a training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, J.; Goldman, L.

    1985-01-01

    The report is designed to help plan and implement in-service trainings in solar and other energy-conserving food technologies. It focuses on design, construction, and use of solar dryers for fruits, vegetables, meat, fish and herbs, along with fireless cookery. It emphasizes integrating technical and nontechnical information.

  13. 40 CFR 63.2265 - Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer. 63.2265 Section 63.2265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... you operate a softwood veneer dryer, you must develop a plan for review and approval for...

  14. 40 CFR 63.2265 - Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer. 63.2265 Section 63.2265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... you operate a softwood veneer dryer, you must develop a plan for review and approval for...

  15. 78 FR 20842 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... dryers and room air conditioners on April 21, 2011. 76 FR 22454. EPCA (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.), as... standards for clothes dryers and room air conditioners through the direct final rule. 76 FR 22454 (April 21... effective date of the direct final rule. 76 FR 52856 (Aug. 24, 2011). In today's rule, DOE proposes...

  16. 75 FR 37593 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners to provide for measurement of standby mode and off mode... Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 62301, ``Household electrical appliances--Measurement of standby power.... Adding Specifications for the Test Methods and Measurements for Clothes Dryer and Room Air...

  17. 76 FR 26656 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... L. Witkowski, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... energy conservation standards for clothes dryers and room air conditioners on April 21, 2011 (76 FR...

  18. 7 CFR 58.246 - Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins. 58.246 Section 58.246 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.246 Cleaning of dryers,...

  19. 7 CFR 58.246 - Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins. 58.246 Section 58.246 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.246 Cleaning of dryers,...

  20. 7 CFR 58.246 - Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins. 58.246 Section 58.246 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.246 Cleaning of dryers,...

  1. 7 CFR 58.246 - Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins. 58.246 Section 58.246 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.246 Cleaning of dryers,...

  2. 76 FR 37636 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Supported Hair Dryers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... proposed rule (75 FR 27504) that would deem any hand-supported hair dryer without integral immersion...-supported hair dryers due to lack of an immersion protection device (75 FR at 27506). Since April 1, 2010... Federal Register of May 17, 2010 (75 FR 27504), we published a proposed rule that would specify that...

  3. Improving Dryer and Press Efficiencies Through Combustion of Hydrocarbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sujit Banerjee

    2005-10-31

    Emission control devices on dryers and presses have been legislated into the industry, and are now an integral part of the drying system. These devices consume large quantities of natural gas and electricity and down-sizing or eliminating them will provide major energy savings. The principal strategy taken here focuses on developing process changes that should minimize (and in some cases eliminate) the need for controls. A second approach is to develop lower-cost control options. It has been shown in laboratory and full-scale work that Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emerge mainly at the end of the press cycle for particleboard, and, by extension, to other prod-ucts. Hence, only the air associated with this point of the cycle need be captured and treated. A model for estimating terpene emissions in the various zones of veneer dryers has been developed. This should allow the emissions to be concentrated in some zones and minimized in others, so that some of the air could be directly released without controls. Low-cost catalysts have been developed for controlling HAPs from dryers and presses. Catalysts conventionally used for regenerative catalytic oxidizers can be used at much lower temperatures for treating press emissions. Fluidized wood ash is an especially inexpensive mate-rial for efficiently reducing formaldehyde in dryer emissions. A heat transfer model for estimating pinene emissions from hot-pressing strand for the manufacture of flakeboard has been constructed from first principles and validated. The model shows that most of the emissions originate from the 1-mm layer of wood adjoining the platen surface. Hence, a simple control option is to surface a softwood mat with a layer of hardwood prior to pressing. Fines release a disproportionate large quantity of HAPs, and it has been shown both theo-retically and in full-scale work that particles smaller than 400 µm are principally responsible. Georgia-Pacific is considering green

  4. Steam generator with integral downdraft dryer. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Hochmuth, F.W.

    1992-02-01

    On June 30, 1989, a financial assistance award was granted by the United State Department of Energy, the purpose of which was to study and evaluate the technical aspect, the economic viability, and commercial possibilities of a new furnace design for burning high moisture cellulose type fuels. The new design is an invention by F.W. Hochmuth, P.Eng. and has received United States Patents Nos. 4,480, 557 and 4,502,397. It was conceived as a method to improve the general operation and efficiency of waste wood burning boilers, to avoid the use of stabilizing fuels such as oil or gas, and to reduce objectionable stack emissions. A further objective was to obtain such benefits at relatively low cost by integrating all new material requirements within the furnace itself thereby avoiding the need for costly external equipment. The proposed integral down-draft dryer avoids the use of external dryer systems that are very expensive, have high power consumption, and require a large amount of maintenance. This document provides the details of this invention.

  5. Steam atmosphere dryer project: System development and field test. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the use of a superheated steam atmosphere dryer as a highly improved alternative to conventional hot air-drying systems, the present industrial standard method for drying various wet feedstocks. The development program plan consisted of three major activities. The first was engineering analysis and testing of a small-scale laboratory superheated steam dryer. This dryer provided the basic engineering heat transfer data necessary to design a large-scale system. The second major activity consisted of the design, fabrication, and laboratory checkout testing of the field-site prototype superheated steam dryer system. The third major activity consisted of the installation and testing of the complete 250-lb/hr evaporation rate dryer and a 30-kW cogeneration system in conjunction with an anaerobic digester facility at the Village of Bergen, NY. Feedstock for the digester facility at the Village of Bergen, NY. Feedstock for the digester was waste residue from a nearby commercial food processing plant. The superheated steam dryer system was placed into operation in August 1996 and operated successfully through March 1997. During this period, the dryer processed all the material from the digester to a powdered consistency usable as a high-nitrogen-based fertilizer.

  6. Development of a microwave clothes dryer: Interim report 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Lenz, R.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of the project is to investigate the microwave drying of clothes and to produce data that potential manufacturers can use in developing marketable microwave dryers. This is an interim report covering activities in 1994, the fifth year of the project. During 1994, three field test dryers were completed, two residential models and one commercial subscale model. All of these dryers operated at a microwave frequency of 2,450 MHz, which is the frequency of home microwave ovens and ovens used in fastfood outlets. Consequently, magnetron tubes for these high-production items are inexpensive. The residential dryers were tested according to the Department of Energy protocols and were 15% more efficient than a top-of-the-line conventional electric dryer. They were also 14% faster. Extensive testing was done to assure that the hazard-detection (sniffer) system would sense degradation of the lighter and shut down the dryer before a fire could occur. Numerous butane lighters were heated to destruction in a microwave oven to examine their failure modes. Lighters were placed in microwave dryers equipped with hazard-detection systems; these systems always detected incipient problems before any fire hazard could occur.

  7. Assessment of the bacterial contamination of hand air dryer in washrooms.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Salmen, Saleh Hussein; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Zayed, M E; Al-Johny, Bassam O; Wainwright, Milton

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out, using standard techniques, to identify and count the bacterial contamination of hand air dryers, used in washrooms. Bacteria were isolated from the air flow, outlet nozzle of warm air dryers in fifteen air dryers used in these washrooms. Bacteria were found to be relatively numerous in the air flows. Bacterially contaminated air was found to be emitted whenever a warm air dryer was running, even when not being used for hand drying. Our investigation shows that Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Bacillus cereus and Brevundimonad diminuta/vesicularis were emitted from all of the dryers sampled, with 95% showing evidence of the presence of the potential pathogen S. haemolyticus. It is concluded that hot air dryers can deposit pathogenic bacteria onto the hands and body of users. Bacteria are distributed into the general environment whenever dryers are running and could be inhaled by users and none-users alike. The results provide an evidence base for the development and enhancement of hygienic hand drying practices. PMID:26981009

  8. Design and performance of an automatic regenerating adsorption aerosol dryer for continuous operation at monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuch, T. M.; Haudek, A.; Müller, T.; Nowak, A.; Wex, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sizes of aerosol particles depend on the relative humidity of their carrier gas. Most monitoring networks require therefore that the aerosol is dried to a relative humidity below 50% RH to ensure comparability of measurements at different sites. Commercially available aerosol dryers are often not suitable for this purpose at remote monitoring sites. Adsorption dryers need to be regenerated frequently and maintenance-free single column Nafion dryers are not designed for high aerosol flow rates. We therefore developed an automatic regenerating adsorption aerosol dryer with a design flow rate of 1 m3/h. Particle transmission efficiency of this dryer has been determined during a 3 weeks experiment. The lower 50% cut-off was found to be below 3 nm at the design flow rate of the instrument. Measured transmission efficiencies are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. One drier has been successfully deployed in the Amazonas river basin. From this monitoring site, we present data from the first 6 months of measurements (February 2008-August 2008). Apart from one unscheduled service, this dryer did not require any maintenance during this time period. The average relative humidity of the dried aerosol was 27.1+/-7.5% RH compared to an average ambient relative humidity of nearly 80% and temperatures around 30°C. This initial deployment demonstrated that these dryers are well suitable for continuous operation at remote monitoring sites under adverse ambient conditions.

  9. Modelling of a fluidized bed dryer using artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, A.; Ramachandra Rao, V.S.; Panda, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    Proper modelling of a fluidized bed dryer (FBD) is important to design model based control strategies. A FBD is a nonlinear multivariable system with nonminimum phase characteristics. Due to the complexities in FBD conventional Modelling techniques are cumbersome. Artificial neural network (ANN) with its inherent ability to learn and absorb nonlinearities, presents itself as a convenient tool for modelling such systems. In this work, an ANN model for a continuous drying FBD is presented. A three layer fully connected feedforward network with three inputs and two outputs is used. A back propagation learning algorithm is employed to train the network. The training data is obtained from computer simulation of a FBD model from published literature. The trained network is evaluated using randomly generated data as input and observed to predict the behavior of FBD adequately.

  10. Pollution control by spray dryer and electron beam treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, J.R.

    1983-02-08

    A combination spray drying and electron beam treatment for effluent gases provides air pollution control for even high sulfur coals. Liquid and a reagent are injected into the effluent gas in the spray dryer, thereby cleansing the effluent gas, decreasing its temperature, and increasing its moisture content. The spray drying decreases the temperature at least to below 100/sup 0/ C and, most preferably, to between 60 and 70/sup 0/ C. The decreased temperature, increased moisture content effluent gas including both reacted compounds and unreacted reagent is conveyed into an irradiation chamber, whereat radiation causes the gaseous sulfur oxides and/or nitrogen oxides to convert into mist and/or solid particles. The unreacted reagent may then react with the acid mist. The effluent gases are then subjected to dry particular collection.

  11. Condensable chemical vapors for sterilization of freeze dryers.

    PubMed

    Bardat, A; Schmitthaeusler, R; Renzi, E

    1996-01-01

    Sterilization of freeze dryers is usually performed by subjecting them to saturated steam under pressure by steam (121 degrees C, 2 bar a., 30 minutes). In order to avoid such stressful conditions, another process was designed on the basis of a strong oxidizing mixture of condensable chemical vapors, consisting of ozone and hydrogen peroxide in acidic conditions. This process works at sub-zero temperatures up to 30 degrees C and under negative pressure. 10(6), inoculum of standard biological indicators as well as wild types of bioburden were easely sterilized from 2 minutes up to 10 minutes. Other parameters were studied, in order to optimize the main process conditions: temperature, pressure, concentration of chemicals, type of micro-organisms and their environmental surroundings. PMID:8935775

  12. Press and Dryer Roll Surgaces and Web Transfer Systems for Ultra High Paper Maching Speeds

    SciTech Connect

    T. F. Patterson

    2004-03-15

    The objective of the project was to provide fundamental knowledge and diagnostic tools needed to design new technologies that will allow ultra high speed web transfer from press rolls and dryer cylinders.

  13. INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTER/DRYERS USED TO FILTER OUT AND SEPARATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF FILTER/DRYERS USED TO FILTER OUT AND SEPARATE BICARBONATE FROM AMMONIONATED BRINE. DISCHARGE FROM STRIPPER COLUMNS (SOLVAY COLUMNS). - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  14. 8. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, MECHANIC SHED, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, MECHANIC SHED, AND SKINNER SALT ROASTERS. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  15. 7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO EAST, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND MECHANIC SHED. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  16. 3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, MECHANIC SHED, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, MECHANIC SHED, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND SKINNER SALT ROASTERS. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  17. Diabetes, damp casts, and hair dryers are not a good combination.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Bernardine C; Lawson, Derek; Conley, G Reid

    2013-01-01

    Second- and third-degree burns of the toes resulted when a 69-year-old man with Charcot foot and a recent fractured ankle followed the advice of his local podiatrist. The man got his fiberglass cast wet while showering and was told to dry his cast using the low setting on a blow dryer. The following presents a literature review of cast drying, hair dryers, and this unfortunate man's case. PMID:23697733

  18. Nutritional significance and acceptance of solar-dried foods of rural Leyte Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Training in solar dryer construction and food preservation was provided to villagers in three barangays in rural Leyte, Philippines. A 24 hour dietary recall assessed dietary status of the women prior to the solar dried food intervention. Nutrients of greatest dietary concern were thiamine, vitamin A, riboflavin, iron and energy.

  19. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch-type centrifugal dryer for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the project was to assemble, analyze and make use of those data that could help to clearly identify, optimize and confirm the technical and economic advantages that the new high gravity centrifugal dryer technology can provide to the coal industry and to end users. Other objectives were: to confirm the feasibility of the dryer for drying coals from a number of different seams; to use the data base for optimizing the dryer's systems, and: to produce projected technical and economic comparisons with thermal dryers as applied to an existing coal processing plant flow sheet. (JL)

  20. Batch uniformity and energy efficiency improvements on a cabinet dryer suitable for smallholder farmers.

    PubMed

    Precoppe, Marcelo; Janjai, Serm; Mahayothee, Busarakorn; Müller, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Drying can add value, facilitate transport and extend the storage life of agro-products; therefore, in developing countries with poorly established cool-chains, drying is particularly effective. Furthermore, drying within small-scale village-based enterprises contributes to rural development. However, most equipment suitable to such operations yields a product of non-uniform quality and shows low levels of energy efficiency. The aim of this research was to improve the batch uniformity and the energy efficiency of a cabinet dryer suitable for smallholder farmers. Experiments were carried out with the cooperation of a dryer manufacturer and a group of users. On each trial 144.5 kg of peeled and deseeded litchis were placed at the dryer's 17 trays, that were stacked atop each other. Moisture content (wet basis) was reduced from 87 to 23 % in about 15.5 h. It was found that a low-cost modification to the dryer chamber's air inlet was able to improve heat distribution and increase the uniformity of the fruit's moisture content. In the original design, at the end of the drying process, moisture content of the fruits on the top tray was 38 % while at the bottom tray was 12 %. The modification to the dryer reduced this disparity and the final moisture content of the fruits placed at the top tray was 25 % while at the bottom tray was 21 %. In addition, the modification reduced the dryer's air mass flow from 0.3 to 0.1 kg s(-1) without jeopardizing drying forces, consequently the dryer energy efficiency increased from 33 to 42 %. PMID:26243902

  1. Development of solar drying model for selected Cambodian fish species.

    PubMed

    Hubackova, Anna; Kucerova, Iva; Chrun, Rithy; Chaloupkova, Petra; Banout, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A solar drying was investigated as one of perspective techniques for fish processing in Cambodia. The solar drying was compared to conventional drying in electric oven. Five typical Cambodian fish species were selected for this study. Mean solar drying temperature and drying air relative humidity were 55.6 °C and 19.9%, respectively. The overall solar dryer efficiency was 12.37%, which is typical for natural convection solar dryers. An average evaporative capacity of solar dryer was 0.049 kg · h(-1). Based on coefficient of determination (R(2)), chi-square (χ(2)) test, and root-mean-square error (RMSE), the most suitable models describing natural convection solar drying kinetics were Logarithmic model, Diffusion approximate model, and Two-term model for climbing perch and Nile tilapia, swamp eel and walking catfish and Channa fish, respectively. In case of electric oven drying, the Modified Page 1 model shows the best results for all investigated fish species except Channa fish where the two-term model is the best one. Sensory evaluation shows that most preferable fish is climbing perch, followed by Nile tilapia and walking catfish. This study brings new knowledge about drying kinetics of fresh water fish species in Cambodia and confirms the solar drying as acceptable technology for fish processing. PMID:25250381

  2. Development of Solar Drying Model for Selected Cambodian Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Hubackova, Anna; Kucerova, Iva; Chrun, Rithy; Chaloupkova, Petra; Banout, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A solar drying was investigated as one of perspective techniques for fish processing in Cambodia. The solar drying was compared to conventional drying in electric oven. Five typical Cambodian fish species were selected for this study. Mean solar drying temperature and drying air relative humidity were 55.6°C and 19.9%, respectively. The overall solar dryer efficiency was 12.37%, which is typical for natural convection solar dryers. An average evaporative capacity of solar dryer was 0.049 kg·h−1. Based on coefficient of determination (R2), chi-square (χ2) test, and root-mean-square error (RMSE), the most suitable models describing natural convection solar drying kinetics were Logarithmic model, Diffusion approximate model, and Two-term model for climbing perch and Nile tilapia, swamp eel and walking catfish and Channa fish, respectively. In case of electric oven drying, the Modified Page 1 model shows the best results for all investigated fish species except Channa fish where the two-term model is the best one. Sensory evaluation shows that most preferable fish is climbing perch, followed by Nile tilapia and walking catfish. This study brings new knowledge about drying kinetics of fresh water fish species in Cambodia and confirms the solar drying as acceptable technology for fish processing. PMID:25250381

  3. Feasibility study on pliant media drying using fluidized bed dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, J. H.; Zaid, M. H. H. M.; Batcha, M. F. M.; Asmuin, N.

    2015-09-01

    The usage of pliant media for blasting in surface preparation has gained substantial interest in various industries, particularly oil and gas. Being a clean technology, this relatively new method of surface preparation has become an alternative to conventional abrasive blasting technique which lowers fugitive emissions from blasting process and hence lowering risk to workers in the industry. Despite proven to be effective and cost efficient, the usage of pliant media in tropical climate poses a new challenge due to the torrential rain in the monsoon season. During rainy and wet conditions, the pliant media was literally soaked and the recovery rate of the pliant media for a continuous blasting becomes retarded. A viable technique for drying of this pliant media has then become imperative. The present study proposes to dry water laden pliant media in a Swirling Fluidized Bed Dryer (SFBD). In this preliminary study, three bed loadings of 1.7, 2.0 and 2.3 kg of pliant media was dried in the SfBd at 80°C, 90°C and 100°C. The experimental works revealed that the SFBD has shown excellent potential to dry the pliant media with a relatively short drying time. The behaviour of moisture ratio and drying rate against time are discussed. The findings conclude that the SFBD is a feasible technique for wet pliant media drying and can be extended for continuous processing system.

  4. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Size distribution of heavy metal aerosols in cooling and spray dryer system

    SciTech Connect

    Wey, M.Y.; Yang, J.T.; Peng, C.Y.; Chiang, B.C.

    1999-11-01

    The cooling process prior to treating flue gas and the spray dryer process that removes acid components in flue gas are believed to influence the mass and elemental size distributions of heavy metal in fly ash. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the mass and elemental size distributions of heavy metals in fly ash produced from a fluidized bed incineration and a water cooling or spray dryer flue gas treatment system. The operating parameters investigated included (1) the controlling temperature in the gas cooling system; (2) the controlling temperature in the spray dryer system; (3) the addition of organic chlorides; and (4) the addition of inorganic chloride. The experimental results indicated that the water cooling process and spray dryer process increase the amount of coarse fly ash and increase the total concentration of metal in fly ash. The amounts of fine fly ash and the total concentration of metal in fine fly ash increase with decreasing temperature during the water cooling process. However, the amounts of fine fly ash and the total concentration of metal in fine fly ash decrease with decreasing temperature during the spray dryer process.

  6. Do Heat Pump Clothes Dryers Make Sense for the U.S. Market

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Steve; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; Sturges, Andy

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump clothes dryers (HPCDs) can be as much as 50percent more energy-efficient than conventional electric resistance clothes dryers, and therefore have the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. While not currently available in the U.S., there are manufacturers in Europe and Japan that produce units for those markets. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) current rulemaking on amended standards for clothes dryers, this paper evaluates the cost-effectiveness of HPCDs in American homes, as well as the national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. In order to get an accurate measurement of real energy savings potential, the paper offers a new energy use calculation methodology that takes into account the most current data on clothes washer cycles, clothes dryer usage frequency, remaining moisture content, and load weight per cycle, which is very different from current test procedure values. Using the above methodology along with product cost estimates developed by DOE, the paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPCDs in a representative sample of American homes. The results show that HPCDs have positive economic benefits only for households with high clothes dryer usage or for households with high electricity prices and moderately high utilization.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conservation standards for clothes dryers at 10 CFR 430.32(h) are amended to require mandatory compliance using... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conservation standards for clothes dryers at 10 CFR 430.32(h) are amended to require mandatory compliance using... of Clothes Dryers D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  9. 10 CFR Appendix D1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... standards for clothes dryers at 10 CFR 430.32(h) is required, at which time manufacturers must use appendix... utilizes a moisture sensing element within the dryer drum that monitors the amount of moisture in the... = weight of water in pounds. d = density of water at the measured temperature in pounds per cubic feet....

  10. Droplet size measurements for spray dryer scale-up.

    PubMed

    Thybo, Pia; Hovgaard, Lars; Andersen, Sune Klint; Lindeløv, Jesper Saederup

    2008-01-01

    This study was dedicated to facilitate scale-up in spray drying from an atomization standpoint. The purpose was to investigate differences in operating conditions between a pilot and a production scale nozzle. The intension was to identify the operating ranges in which the two nozzles produced similar droplet size distributions. Furthermore, method optimization and validation were also covered. Externally mixing two-fluid nozzles of similar designs were used in this study. Both nozzles are typically used in commercially available spray dryers, and they have been characterized with respect to droplet size distributions as a function of liquid type, liquid flow rate, atomization gas flow rate, liquid orifice diameter, and atomization gas orifice diameter. All droplet size measurements were carried out by using the Malvern Spraytec with nozzle operating conditions corresponding to typical settings for spray drying. This gave droplets with Sauter Mean Diameters less than 40 microm and typically 5-20 microm. A model previously proposed by Mansour and Chigier was used to correlate the droplet size to the operating parameters. It was possible to make a correlation for water incorporating the droplet sizes for both the pilot scale and the production scale nozzle. However, a single correlation was not able to account properly for the physical properties of the liquid to be atomized. Therefore, the droplet size distributions of ethanol could not be adequately predicted on the basis of the water data. This study has shown that it was possible to scale up from a pilot to production scale nozzle in a systematic fashion. However, a prerequisite was that the nozzles were geometrically similar. When externally mixing two-fluid nozzles are used as atomizers, the results obtained from this study could be a useful guideline for selecting appropriate operating conditions when scaling up the spray-drying process. PMID:18379901

  11. Distribution of arsenic and mercury in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect

    Panuwat Taerakul; Ping Sun; Danold W. Golightly; Harold W. Walker; Linda K. Weavers

    2006-08-15

    The partitioning of As and Hg in various components of lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples from a coal-fired boiler was characterized to better understand the form and fate of these elements in flue gas desulfurization byproducts. LSD ash samples, collected from the McCracken Power Plant on the Ohio State University campus, were separated by a 140-mesh (106 {mu}m) sieve into two fractions: a fly-ash-/unburned-carbon-enriched fraction (> 106 {mu}m) and a calcium-enriched fraction (< 106 {mu}m). Unburned carbon and fly ash in the material > 106 {mu}m were subsequently separated by density using a lithium heteropolytungstate solution. The concentrations of As and Hg were significant in all fractions. The level of As was consistently greater in the calcium-enriched fraction, while Hg was evenly distributed in all components of LSD ash. Specific surface area was an important factor controlling the distribution of Hg in the different components of LSD ash, but not for As. Comparing the LSD ash data to samples collected from the economizer suggests that As was effectively captured by fly ash at 600{sup o}C, while Hg was not. Leaching tests demonstrated that As and Hg were more stable in the calcium-enriched fraction than in the fly-ash- or carbon-enriched fractions, potentially because of the greater pH of the leachate and subsequently greater stability of small amounts of calcium solids containing trace elements in these fractions. 37 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Experimental Analysis of Spray Dryer Used in Hydroxyapatite Thermal Spray Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, Q.; Stokes, J.; Ardhaoui, M.

    2012-09-01

    The spray drying process of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder used as a plasma spray powder on human hip implants was examined. The Niro-Minor mixed spray dryer was studied because it incorporates both co-current and counter-current air mixing systems. The process parameters of the spray drying were investigated: temperature, flow rate of the inlet hot air in the spray dryer, viscosity of feed/HA slurry, and responses (chamber and cyclone powder size, deposition of powder on the wall of spray dryer, and overall thermal efficiency). The statistical analysis (ANOVA test) showed that for the chamber particle size, viscosity was the most significant parameter, while for the cyclone particle size, the main effects were temperature, viscosity, and flow rate, but also their interaction effects were significant. The spray dried HA powder showed the two main shapes were a doughnut and solid sphere shape as a result of the different input.

  13. Demonstration of energy conservation for multi-deck board dryers: Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    A study to determine the feasibility of recovering and reusing heat from a large multi-deck dryer used in the manufacture of roof insulation board is described. Pilot scale tests and analyses show that heat recovery designs utilizing several types of heat exchange equipment are feasible. These include: indirect contact air-to-air heat exchangers for preheating combustion air for the dryer furnaces; direct contact air-to-water heat exchangers using water sprays to heat process water; and indirect contact air-to-liquid heat exchangers to heat recirculating liquid in a plant building heating system. (MCW)

  14. Design of Solar Heat Sheet for Air Heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, S. Shanmuga; Premalatha, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, I.

    2011-12-01

    The technique of harnessing solar energy for drying offers significant potential to dry agricultural products such as food grains, fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants, thereby eliminating many of the problems experienced with open-sun drying and industrial drying, besides saving huge quantities of fossil fuels. A great deal of experimental work over the last few decades has already demonstrated that agricultural products can be satisfactorily dehydrated using solar energy. Various designs of small scale solar dryers have been developed in the recent past, mainly for drying agricultural products. Major problems experienced with solar dryers are their non-reliability as their operation largely depends on local weather conditions. While back-up heaters and hybrid dryers partly solved this issue, difficulties in controlling the drying air temperature and flow rate remains a problem, and affects the quality of the dried product. This study is aimed at eliminating the fluctuations in the quality of hot air supplied by simple solar air heaters used for drying fruits, vegetables and other applications. It is an attempt to analyse the applicability of the combination of an glazed transpired solar collector (tank), thermal storage and a intake fan(suction fan) to achieve a steady supply of air at a different atmospheric temperature and flow rate for drying fruits and vegetables. Development of an efficient, low-cost and reliable air heating system for drying applications is done.

  15. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch-type centrifugal dryer for dewatering fine coal. Final report, September 20, 1989--September 21, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.

    1991-12-31

    The primary objective of the project was to assemble, analyze and make use of those data that could help to clearly identify, optimize and confirm the technical and economic advantages that the new high gravity centrifugal dryer technology can provide to the coal industry and to end users. Other objectives were: to confirm the feasibility of the dryer for drying coals from a number of different seams; to use the data base for optimizing the dryer`s systems, and: to produce projected technical and economic comparisons with thermal dryers as applied to an existing coal processing plant flow sheet. (JL)

  16. Demonstration of energy conservation for multi-deck board dryers. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-08

    A study was made to determine the feasibility of recover and reuse of low level heat from the exhausts of multi-deck dryers used to dry boards in the building materials industry. There are approximately 1000 dryers of this type in the USA, with no heat recovery equipment. These dryers are used in the manufacture of: roof insulation board, ceiling tile and panel stock, wood fiber sheathing, gypsum board, and veneer plywood. Pilot scale tests and analyses show that heat recovery designs utilizing several types of heat exchange equipment are feasible. These include the following: indirect contact air-to-air heat exchangers for preheating combustion air for the dryer furnaces; direct contact air-to-water heat exchangers using water sprays to heat process water; and indirect contact air-to-liquid heat exchangers to heat recirculating liquid in a plant building heating system. The systems recommended for design and installation at the Rockdale plant include all three of the types of heat exchangers. The preliminary estimate for the installed cost for these systems at the Rockdale plant is $565,000 (1979 dllars). Annual heat recovery of 186,000 million Btu is projected with a value of $545,000 using gas costs of $3.00 per million Btu. Payback based on a discounted cash flow analysis using ten year depreciation is about two years.

  17. 78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ...This final rule corrects the energy conservation standards for room air conditioners. In the direct final rule establishing amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners, published in the Federal Register on April 21, 2011, and the subsequent notices of effective date and compliance dates for the direct final rule and amendment of compliance......

  18. SUMMARY REPORT: SULFUR OXIDES CONTROL TECHNOLOGY SERIES: FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION - SPRAY DRYER PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Described spray dryer flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from flue gas by an atomized lime slurry [Ca(OH)2]. he hot flue gas dries the droplets to form a dry waste product, while the absorbent reacts with sulfur d...

  19. Effects of different additives on the performance of spray dryer system during incineration process.

    PubMed

    Wey, M Y; Peng, C Y; Wu, H Y; Chiang, B C; Liu, Z S

    2002-06-01

    The spray dryer system was conventionally employed to remove the SOx, NOx, and HCl in the flue gas. However, the removal efficiency of acid gas in the practical incineration flue gas, which contains dust, heavy metals, and acid gas itself, was seldom mentioned in the literature. The alkaline sorbents possess large specific surface that was a main factor on the adsorption of heavy metals and acid gas. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was focused on the effect of different additives on the removal efficiency of acid gas and heavy metals (Cr, Cd and Pb). The mass and element size distribution of heavy metals in fly ash under different additives were also investigated. The results indicated that the removal efficiency of HCl in the spray dryer system was higher than 97.8%. The effects of additives on the removal efficiency of HCl, however, were undistinguished. In the desulfurization process, the highest removal efficiency was 71.3% when the additive of amorphous SiO2 was added in the spray dryer system. The removal efficiency was 66.0% with the additive of CaCl2 and 63.1% without any additives, respectively. It was also found that the spray dryer system could decrease the concentration of metal in fly ash but increase the amount of fly ash. In addition, amorphous SiO2 in the alkaline sorbent tended to increase the adsorption of heavy metal on reactant, because it could enhance the dispersion of alkaline sorbent. PMID:12118621

  20. MODELING OF SO2 REMOVAL IN SPRAY-DRYER FLUE-GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the SO2 removal process in a spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization system. Simultaneous evaporation of a sorbent droplet and absorption/reaction of SO2 in the droplet are described by the corresponding heat- and mass-transf...

  1. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN INDUSTRIAL SPRAY DRYER FOR SO2 CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a test to evaluate the SO2 removal performance of the lime-spray-dryer/fabric-filter system treating flue gas from the stoker-coal-fired boiler at Celanese's Amcelle plant in Cumberland, MD, in August/September 1980. Continuous monitors were used to co...

  2. 78 FR 151 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    .... 46 FR 27324. The test procedure includes provisions for determining the energy factor (EF) for... D1. 76 FR 972, 978 (Jan. 6, 2011). \\3\\ RMC is the ratio of the weight of water contained by the test... controls would be considered less efficient than timer dryers. 76 FR 972, 977 (Jan. 6, 2011). \\4\\ The...

  3. 76 FR 50145 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... dryer and room air conditioner test procedures concerning the active mode for these products. 76 FR 972... as currently specified. 76 FR 977. In support of its test procedure rulemaking, DOE conducts in-depth... (76 FR 972) (January TP final rule), in which it (1) adopted the provisions for the measurement...

  4. EXPOSURE AND RELEASE ESTIMATIONS FOR FILTER PRESS AND TRAY DRYER OPERATIONS BASED ON PILOT PLANT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Worker exposures and chemical releases associated with a plate-and-frame filter press and a stationary tray dryer were studied in a pilot plant. he equipment was representative of those in a chemical manufacturing plant; the filter press was previously used at a chemical plant, a...

  5. 76 FR 52852 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue... Management Program, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. For the reasons set forth in the preamble,...

  6. 76 FR 22324 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment, including residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if amended standards for these products are technologically feasible and economically justified, and would......

  7. 75 FR 7987 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners: Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... final rule in the Federal Register (FR) establishing the first set of performance standards for residential clothes dryers; the new standards became effective on May 14, 1994. 56 FR 22250. DOE initiated a... rulemaking (ANOPR) in the Federal Register on November 14, 1994. 59 FR 56423. Pursuant to the...

  8. 76 FR 971 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) amends its test procedures for residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). The amendments provide for measurement of standby mode and off mode power use by these products and also amend the active mode test procedures for these products. For standby and off mode energy use, these amendments......

  9. Continuous standalone controllable aerosol/cloud droplet dryer for atmospheric sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjogren, S.; Frank, G. P.; Berghof, M. I. A.; Martinsson, B. G.

    2012-08-01

    We describe a general-purpose dryer designed for continuous sampling of atmospheric aerosol, where a specified relative humidity (RH) of the sample flow (lower than the atmospheric humidity) is required. It is often prescribed to measure the properties of dried aerosol, for instance for monitoring networks. The specific purpose of our dryer is to dry highly charged cloud droplets (maximum diameter approximately 25 μm) with minimum losses from the droplet size distribution entering the dryer as well as on the residual dry particle size distribution exiting the dryer. This is achieved by using a straight vertical downwards path from the aerosol inlet mounted above the dryer, and removing humidity to a dry closed loop airflow on the other side of a semi-permeable GORE-TEX membrane (total area 0.134 m2). The water vapour transfer coefficient, k, was measured to 4.6 × 10-7 kg m-2 s-1% RH-1 in the laboratory and is used for design purposes. A net water vapour transfer rate of up to 1.2 × 10-6 kg s-1 was achieved in the field. This corresponds to drying a 5.7 L min-1 (0.35 m3 h-1) aerosol sample flow from 100% RH to 27% RH at 293 K (with a drying air total flow of 8.7 L min-1). The system was used outdoors from 9 May until 20 October 2010, on the mountain Brocken (51.80° N, 10.67° E, 1142 m a.s.l.) in the Harz region in central Germany. Sample air relative humidity of less than 30% was obtained 72% of the time period. The total availability of the measurement system was > 94% during these five months.

  10. Continuous stand-alone controllable aerosol/cloud droplet dryer for atmospheric sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjogren, S.; Frank, G. P.; Berghof, M. I. A.; Martinsson, B. G.

    2013-02-01

    We describe a general-purpose dryer designed for continuous sampling of atmospheric aerosol, where a specified relative humidity (RH) of the sample flow (lower than the atmospheric humidity) is required. It is often prescribed to measure the properties of dried aerosol, for instance for monitoring networks. The specific purpose of our dryer is to dry cloud droplets (maximum diameter approximately 25 μm, highly charged, up to 5 × 102 charges). One criterion is to minimise losses from the droplet size distribution entering the dryer as well as on the residual dry particle size distribution exiting the dryer. This is achieved by using a straight vertical downwards path from the aerosol inlet mounted above the dryer, and removing humidity to a dry, closed loop airflow on the other side of a semi-permeable GORE-TEX membrane (total area 0.134 m2). The water vapour transfer coefficient, k, was measured to be 4.6 × 10-7 kg m-2 s-1% RH-1 in the laboratory (temperature 294 K) and is used for design purposes. A net water vapour transfer rate of up to 1.2 × 10-6 kg s-1 was achieved in the field. This corresponds to drying a 5.7 L min-1 (0.35 m3 h-1) aerosol sample flow from 100% RH to 27% RH at 293 K (with a drying air total flow of 8.7 L min-1). The system was used outdoors from 9 May until 20 October 2010, on the mountain Brocken (51.80° N, 10.67° E, 1142 m a.s.l.) in the Harz region in central Germany. Sample air relative humidity of less than 30% was obtained 72% of the time period. The total availability of the measurement system was >94% during these five months.

  11. Steam Dryer Segmentation and Packaging at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station - 13577

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitman, Paul J.; Sirianni, Steve R.; Pillard, Mark M.

    2013-07-01

    Entergy recently performed an Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) on their Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, near Port Gibson, Mississippi. To support the EPU, a new Steam Dryer Assembly was installed during the last refueling outage. Due to limited access into the containment, the large Replacement Steam Dryer (RSD) had to be brought into the containment in pieces and then final assembly was completed on the refueling floor before installation into the reactor. Likewise, the highly contaminated Original Steam Dryer (OSD) had to be segmented into manageable sections, loaded into specially designed shielded containers, and rigged out of containment where they will be safely stored until final disposal is accomplished at an acceptable waste repository. Westinghouse Nuclear Services was contracted by Entergy to segment, package and remove the OSD from containment. This work was performed on critical path during the most recent refueling outage. The segmentation was performed underwater to minimize radiation exposure to the workers. Special hydraulic saws were developed for the cutting operations based on Westinghouse designs previously used in Sweden to segment ABB Reactor Internals. The mechanical cutting method was selected because of its proven reliability and the minimal cutting debris that is generated by the process. Maintaining stability of the large OSD sections during cutting was accomplished using a custom built support stand that was installed into the Moisture Separator Pool after the Moisture Separator was installed back in the reactor vessel. The OSD was then moved from the Steam Dryer Pool to the Moisture Separator Pool for segmentation. This scenario resolved the logistical challenge of having two steam dryers and a moisture separator in containment simultaneously. A water filtration/vacuum unit was supplied to maintain water clarity during the cutting and handling operations and to collect the cutting chips. (authors)

  12. Optimal operation of a concurrent-flow corn dryer with a drying heat pump using superheated steam

    SciTech Connect

    Moraitis, C.S.; Akritidis, C.B.

    1998-07-01

    A numerical model of a concurrent-flow dryer of corn using superheated steam as drying medium is solved applying a shooting technique, so as to satisfy boundary conditions imposed by the optimal design of a drying heat pump. The drying heat pump is based on the theory of minimum energy cycles. The solution of the model proves the applicability of the heat pump to a concurrent-flow dryer, achieving a Specific Energy Consumption as low as 1080 kJ/kg.

  13. Efficiency and design analysis of a solar thermal powered flat plate dryer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specialty crop fruit and vegetable pomaces are a common byproduct of the food processing and juicing industries. These pomaces can have high nutritional value, but are currently underutilized or treated as waste. Drum drying is one method that could be adopted to dry and stabilize fruit and vegetabl...

  14. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    DOEpatents

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  15. Thin layer drying of cassava starch using continuous vibrated fluidized bed dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suherman, Trisnaningtyas, Rona

    2015-12-01

    This paper present the experimental work and thin layer modelling of cassava starch drying in continuous vibrated fluidized bed dryer. The experimental data was used to validate nine thin layer models of drying curve. Cassava starch with 0.21 initial moisture content was dried in different air drying temperature (50°C, 55°C, 60°C, 65°C, 70°C), different weir height in bed (0 and 1 cm), and different solid feed flow (10 and 30 gr.minute-1). The result showed air dryer temperature has a significant effect on drying curve, while the weir height and solid flow rate are slightly. Based on value of R2, χ2, and RMSE, Page Model is the most accurate simulation for thin layer drying model of cassava starch.

  16. Mathematical modelling of thin layer hot air drying of apricot with combined heat and power dryer.

    PubMed

    Faal, Saeed; Tavakoli, Teymor; Ghobadian, Barat

    2015-05-01

    In this study thermal energy of an engine was used to dry apricot. For this purpose, experiments were conducted on thin layer drying apricot with combined heat and power dryer, in a laboratory dryer. The drying experiments were carried out for four levels of engine output power (25 %, 50 %, 75 % and full load), producing temperatures of 50, 60, 70, and 80 ° C in drying chamber respectively. The air velocity in drying chamber was about 0.5 ± 0.05 m/s. Different mathematical models were evaluated to predict the behavior of apricot drying in a combined heat and power dryer. Conventional statistical equations namely modeling efficiency (EF), Root mean square error (RMSE) and chi-square (χ2) were also used to determine the most suitable model. Assessments indicated that the Logarithmic model considering the values of EF = 0.998746, χ 2 = 0.000120 and RMSE = 0.004772, shows the best treatment of drying apricot with combined heat and power dryer among eleven models were used in this study. The average values of effective diffusivity ranged 1.6260 × 10(-9) to 4.3612 × 10(-9) m2/s for drying apricot at air temperatures between 50 and 80 °C and at the air flow rate of 0.5 ± 0.05 m/s; the values of Deff increased with the increase of drying temperature the effective diffusivities in the second falling rate period were about eight times greater than that in the first falling rate period. PMID:25892795

  17. Performance of a convective, infrared and combined infrared- convective heated conveyor-belt dryer.

    PubMed

    El-Mesery, Hany S; Mwithiga, Gikuru

    2015-05-01

    A conveyor-belt dryer was developed using a combined infrared and hot air heating system that can be used in the drying of fruits and vegetables. The drying system having two chambers was fitted with infrared radiation heaters and through-flow hot air was provided from a convective heating system. The system was designed to operate under either infrared radiation and cold air (IR-CA) settings of 2000 W/m(2) with forced ambient air at 30 °C and air flow of 0.6 m/s or combined infrared and hot air convection (IR-HA) dryer setting with infrared intensity set at 2000 W/m(2) and hot at 60 °C being blown through the dryer at a velocity of 0.6 m/s or hot air convection (HA) at an air temperature of 60 °C and air flow velocity 0.6 m/s but without infrared heating. Apple slices dried under the different dryer settings were evaluated for quality and energy requirements. It was found that drying of apple (Golden Delicious) slices took place in the falling rate drying period and no constant rate period of drying was observed under any of the test conditions. The IR-HA setting was 57.5 and 39.1 % faster than IR-CA and HA setting, respectively. Specific energy consumption was lower and thermal efficiency was higher for the IR-HA setting when compared to both IR-CA and HA settings. The rehydration ratio, shrinkage and colour properties of apples dried under IR-HA conditions were better than for either IR-CA or HA. PMID:25892769

  18. Spray-drying performance of a bench-top spray dryer for protein aerosol powder preparation.

    PubMed

    Maa, Y F; Nguyen, P A; Sit, K; Hsu, C C

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this work was to improve a bench-top spray dryer's efficiency in both production recovery and throughput for preparing protein aerosol powders. A Büchi mini-spray dryer was used to prepare the powders of recombinant humanized anti-IgE antibody. The resulting powder's physical properties such as particle size, residual moisture, and morphology, along with its recovery and production rate was the basis of this development work. Mass balance suggests that approximately 10-20% of powder was lost in the exhaust air, consisting primarily of particles less than 2 micrometer. Also, significant loss (20-30%) occurred in the cyclone. Attempts were made to improve product recovery in the receiving vessel using dual-cyclone configurations, different cyclone designs, cyclones with anti-static treatment, and different receiver designs. System modifications such as replacing the original bag-filter unit with a vacuum system effectively reduced drying air flow resistance, allowing the protein to be dried at a lower inlet air temperature and the production scale to be increased. We concluded that the modified spray-drying system is advantageous over the original bench-top spray dryer. This improvement will be beneficial to early-stage research and development involving high-valued protein powders. PMID:10099432

  19. Design and development of desiccant seed dryer with airflow inversion and recirculation.

    PubMed

    Gill, R S; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2014-11-01

    A desiccant seed dryer has been developed to dry seed in deep bed at safe temperatures for good shelf life and germination. The dryer consists of two chambers viz., air conditioning control unit and seed drying chamber. It operates in seed drying mode and desiccant regeneration mode. It has provision for recirculation of the drying air to minimise the moisture removal from drying air. Also, it has provision of airflow inversion through deep seed bed for uniform drying. Moisture removal from drying air has been done using silica gel desiccant. Chilly 'Punjab Surakh', Chilly 'Punjab Guchhedaar', Paddy, Coriander, Fenugreek and Radish seeds was dried with hot air at 38 °C from initial moisture content of 26.9 to 5 % (wb) in 2 h, 46.52 to 4.19 % (wb) in 4.25 h, 13.3 to 2.61 % (wb) in 4 h, 13.4 to 10.08 % (wb) in 3 h, 12.4 to 8.22 % (wb) in 4¼ h and 10.6 to 6.08 % (wb) in 4 h respectively. The statistical analysis based on paired t-test showed that seed drying in this dryer has no adverse effect on seed germination. PMID:26396340

  20. Simulations of Vapor/Ice Dynamics in a Freeze-Dryer Condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Arnab; Venkattraman, A.; Alexeenko, Alina A.

    2011-05-01

    Freeze-drying is a low-pressure, low-temperature condensation pumping process widely used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals for removal of solvents by sublimation. Key performance characteristics of a freeze-dryer condenser are largely dependent on the vapor and ice dynamics in the low-pressure environment. The main objective of this work is to develop a modeling and computational framework for analysis of vapor and ice dynamics in such freeze-dryer condensers. The direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique is applied to model the relevant physical processes that accompany the vapor flow in the condenser chamber. Low-temperature water vapor molecular model is applied in the DSMC solver SMILE to simulate the flowfield structure. The developing ice front is tracked based on the mass flux computed at the nodes of the DSMC surface mesh. Verification of ice accretion simulations has been done by comparison with analytical free-molecular solutions. Simulations of ice buildup on the coils of a laboratory-scale dryer have been compared with experiments. The comparison shows that unsteady simulations are necessary to reproduce experimentally observed icing structures. The DSMC simulations demonstrate that by tailoring the condenser topology to the flow-field structure of the water vapor jet expanding into a low-pressure reservoir, it is possible to significantly increase water vapor removal rates and improve the overall efficiency of freeze-drying process.

  1. Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

  2. A dedicated on-line detecting system for auto air dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chao-yu; Luo, Zai

    2013-10-01

    According to the correlative automobile industry standard and the requirements of manufacturer, this dedicated on-line detecting system is designed against the shortage of low degree automatic efficiency and detection precision of auto air dryer in the domestic. Fast automatic detection is achieved by combining the technology of computer control, mechatronics and pneumatics. This system can detect the speciality performance of pressure regulating valve and sealability of auto air dryer, in which online analytical processing of test data is available, at the same time, saving and inquiring data is achieved. Through some experimental analysis, it is indicated that efficient and accurate detection of the performance of auto air dryer is realized, and the test errors are less than 3%. Moreover, we carry out the type A evaluation of uncertainty in test data based on Bayesian theory, and the results show that the test uncertainties of all performance parameters are less than 0.5kPa, which can meet the requirements of operating industrial site absolutely.

  3. Performance improvement studies in a solar greenhouse drier using sensible heat storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayyappan, S.; Mayilsamy, K.; Sreenarayanan, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Experiments were conducted in a natural convection solar greenhouse dryer using different sensible heat storage materials (concrete, sand and rock-bed) in order to study their thermal performance. For both sand and rock-bed, 4″ thickness was found to be optimum as it provides better drying environment both during day and night. The dryer reduced the moisture content of coconuts from 52 (w.b.) to 7 % (w.b.) using concrete as heat storage material in 78 h saving 55 % of drying time compared to open sun drying which takes 174 h for reducing the moisture content to the same level. The sand took 66 h saving 62 % of drying time whereas rock-bed took only 53 h thereby saving 69 % of drying time compared to open sun drying. The efficiency of the dryer was found to be 9.5, 11 and 11.65 % using concrete, sand and rock-bed respectively.

  4. Evaluation of solar sludge drying alternatives by costs and area requirements.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Mayıs; Aksoy, Ayşegül; Sanin, F Dilek

    2015-10-01

    Thermal drying is a common method to reach above 90% dry solids content (DS) in sludge. However, thermal drying requires high amount of energy and can be expensive. A greenhouse solar dryer (GSD) can be a cost-effective substitute if the drying performance, which is typically 70% DS, can be increased by additional heat. In this study feasibility of GSD supported with solar panels is evaluated as an alternative to thermal dryers to reach 90% DS. Evaluations are based on capital and O&M costs as well as area requirements for 37 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with various sludge production rates. Costs for the supported GSD system are compared to that of conventional and co-generation thermal dryers. To calculate the optimal costs associated with the drying system, an optimization model was developed in which area limitation was a constraint. Results showed that total cost was minimum when the DS in the GSD (DS(m,i)) was equal to the maximum attainable value (70% DS). On average, 58% of the total cost and 38% of total required area were associated with the GSD. Variations in costs for 37 WWTPs were due to differences in initial DS (DS(i,i)) and sludge production rates, indicating the importance of dewatering to lower drying costs. For large plants, GSD supported with solar panels provided savings in total costs especially in long term when compared to conventional and co-generation thermal dryers. PMID:26025600

  5. A comparative life cycle assessment of conventional hand dryer and roll paper towel as hand drying methods.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tijo; Baah, Kelly; Jahanfar, Ali; Dubey, Brajesh

    2015-05-15

    A comparative life cycle assessment, under a cradle to gate scope, was carried out between two hand drying methods namely conventional hand dryer use and dispenser issued roll paper towel use. The inventory analysis for this study was aided by the deconstruction of a hand dryer and dispenser unit besides additional data provided by the Physical Resources department, from the product system manufacturers and information from literature. The LCA software SimaPro, supported by the ecoinvent and US-EI databases, was used towards establishing the environmental impacts associated with the lifecycle stages of both the compared product systems. The Impact 2002+ method was used for classification and characterization of these environmental impacts. An uncertainty analysis addressing key input data and assumptions made, a sensitivity analysis covering the use intensity of the product systems and a scenario analysis looking at a US based use phase for the hand dryer were also conducted. Per functional unit, which is to achieve a pair of dried hands, the dispenser product system has a greater life cycle impact than the dryer product system across three of four endpoint impact categories. The use group of lifecycle stages for the dispenser product system, which represents the cradle to gate lifecycle stages associated with the paper towels, constitutes the major portion of this impact. For the dryer product system, the use group of lifecycle stages, which essentially covers the electricity consumption during dryer operation, constitutes the major stake in the impact categories. It is evident from the results of this study that per dry, for a use phase supplied by Ontario's grid (2010 grid mix scenario) and a United States based manufacturing scenario, the use of a conventional hand dryer (rated at 1800 W and under a 30s use intensity) has a lesser environmental impact than with using two paper towels (100% recycled content, unbleached and weighing 4 g) issued from a roll

  6. Solar thermal drying of apricots: Effect of spectrally-selective cabinet materials on drying rate and quality metrics (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar thermal (ST) drying is currently not in widespread commercial use due to concerns about slow drying rates and poor product quality. ST dryer cabinets could be constructed from spectrally-selective materials (materials which transmit only certain sunlight wavelength bands), but these types of ...

  7. Final Report: Laboratory Development of a High Capacity Gas-Fired Paper Dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov; Lester Sherrow

    2005-09-30

    Paper drying is the most energy-intensive and temperature-critical aspect of papermaking. It is estimated that about 67% of the total energy required in papermaking is used to dry paper. The conventional drying method uses a series of steam-heated metal cylinders that are required to meet ASME codes for pressure vessels, which limits the steam pressure to about 160 psig. Consequently, the shell temperature and the drying capacity are also limited. Gas Technology Institute together with Boise Paper Solutions, Groupe Laperrier and Verreault (GL&V) USA Inc., Flynn Burner Corporation and with funding support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. natural gas industry, and Gas Research Institute is developing a high efficiency gas-fired paper dryer based on a combination of a ribbon burner and advanced heat transfer enhancement technique. The Gas-Fired Paper Dryer (GFPD) is a high-efficiency alternative to conventional steam-heated drying drums that typically operate at surface temperatures in the 300 deg F range. The new approach was evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale testing at the Western Michigan University Paper Pilot Plant. Drum surface temperatures of more than 400 deg F were reached with linerboard (basis weight 126 lb/3000 ft2) production and resulted in a 4-5 times increase in drying rate over a conventional steam-heated drying drum. Successful GFPD development and commercialization will provide large energy savings to the paper industry and increase paper production rates from dryer-limited (space- or steam-limited) paper machines by an estimated 10 to 20%, resulting in significant capital costs savings for both retrofits and new capacity.

  8. Laboratory Development of A High Capacity Gas-Fired paper Dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr; Sherrow, Lester

    2005-09-30

    Paper drying is the most energy-intensive and temperature-critical aspect of papermaking. It is estimated that about 67% of the total energy required in papermaking is used to dry paper. The conventional drying method uses a series of steam-heated metal cylinders that are required to meet ASME codes for pressure vessels, which limits the steam pressure to about 160 psig. Consequently, the shell temperature and the drying capacity are also limited. Gas Technology Institute together with Boise Paper Solutions, Groupe Laparrier and Verreault (GL&V) USA Inc., Flynn Burner Corporation and with funding support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. natural gas industry, and Gas Research Institute is developing a high efficiency gas-fired paper dryer based on a combination of a ribbon burner and advanced heat transfer enhancement technique. The Gas-Fired Paper Dryer (GFPD) is a high-efficiency alternative to conventional steam-heated drying drums that typically operate at surface temperatures in the 300ºF range. The new approach was evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale testing at the Western Michigan University Paper Pilot Plant. Drum surface temperatures of more than 400ºF were reached with linerboard (basis weight 126 lb/3000 ft2) production and resulted in a 4-5 times increase in drying rate over a conventional steam-heated drying drum. Successful GFPD development and commercialization will provide large energy savings to the paper industry and increase paper production rates from dryer-limited (space- or steam-limited) paper machines by an estimated 10 to 20%, resulting in significant capital costs savings for both retrofits and new capacity.

  9. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-04-01

    Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create eight (8) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.

  10. Consumer product safety: Risk assessment of exposure to asbestos emissions from hand-held hair dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallenbeck, William H.

    1981-01-01

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is concerned that consumer exposure to asbestos from consumer products may present an unreasonable risk of injury. Recently, CPSC has obtained agreement by industry to cease production and distribution of hair dryers containing asbestos heat insulation. CPSC intends to broaden its investigation by selecting consumer products containing asbestos for “priority attention.” The Commission does not intend to make quantitative estimates of cancer risks posed by exposure to asbestos fibers in making regulatory decisions. This position may lead to a serious waste of resources for the Commission, industry, and society. The Commission should focus its initial attention on those products for which the release of asbestos is significant enough to cause an unreasonable health risk. To make a risk assessment for a particular use of asbestos, CPSC must acquire or request data on asbestos emissions and define “unreasonable risk to health.” In an attempt to give some meaning to the phrase “risk assessment,” the primary goal of this paper is to present a detailed risk assessment of exposure to asbestos from hand-held hair dryers. Several scenarios of use are presented using various assumptions regarding time of operation, mixing of fibers in a small room, rate of fiber emission, and time of exposure. The worst case analysis of the health risk of exposure to hair dryer emissions is based on several conservative assumptions and shows that the increased number of deaths per year due to respiratory cancer is 4 for the entire United States population. A more representative case analysis shows the increased number of deaths to be on the order of 0.15 per year.

  11. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-10-01

    Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create nine (9) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry FGD technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.

  12. Use of inorganic dryer-salts in the determination of organic contaminants in air

    SciTech Connect

    Simonov, V.A.

    1985-09-01

    This paper presents results of a study of the adsorptive activity of a number of inorganic salts relative to water vapor and to organic vapors in air under the dynamic conditions which are uses in the indicator tube method. Data are also given on the properties of dryer salts having a surface modified with glycerin. It is shown that lithium chloride on porcelain and potassium carbonate having a surface modified with glycerin can be used to dry air in determining contaminants of nonpolar and polar organic substances in it. Anhydrone on porcelain, calcium chloride, and potassium carbonate absorb some substances which are being determined and therefore are less suitable.

  13. Drying characteristics of garlic ( Allium sativum L) slices in a convective hot air dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya

    2014-06-01

    The effects of drying temperatures on the drying kinetics of garlic slices were investigated using a cabinet-type dryer. The experimental drying data were fitted best to the Page and Modified Page models apart from other theoretical models to predict the drying kinetics. The effective moisture diffusivities varied from 4.214 × 10-10 to 2.221 × 10-10 m2 s-1 over the temperature range studied, and activation energy was 30.582 kJ mol-1.

  14. Evaluation of the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Katja; Arpagaus, Cordin; Friess, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    The vibrating mesh spray technology implemented in the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by spray drying common pharmaceutical excipients (e.g. trehalose, mannitol) and model drugs (e.g. griseofulvin). Aerosol droplet size measurements investigated the influence of spray solution factors (e.g. viscosity, surface tension) and of vibrating mesh aperture sizes on particle characteristics. Particle deposition on the spray nozzle was addressed by analyzing the influence of spray solute concentration and solvent on the process outcome. Submicron particles with 0.5 ?m and 0.8 ?m mean particle size were obtained at high yields for 50?mg powder amounts. PMID:20491538

  15. The effect of temperature and slice thickness on drying kinetics tomato in the infrared dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadin, Rasool; Chegini, Gholam-Reza; Sadin, Hassan

    2014-04-01

    In this study thin layer drying of tomato slices were investigated in the infrared dryer. Drying rate increased with increasing temperature and reduction thickness and thus reduced the drying time. The effective diffusivity increased with increasing temperature and with increasing thickness of the samples. The effective diffusivity values changed from 1.094 × 10-9 to 4.468 × 10-9 m2/s and for activation energy varied from 110 to 120 kJ/mol. The best model for drying process of tomato slices was Midilli model.

  16. Formulation and evaluation of albumin microspheres and its enteric coating using a spray-dryer.

    PubMed

    Bejugam, Naveen K; Uddin, Akm N; Gayakwad, Sanjay G; D'Souza, Martin J

    2008-12-01

    This study optimized and evaluated the conditions for surface coating of microspheres using a spray-dryer. Four formulations of Bromophenol blue (BPB)-loaded albumin microspheres were prepared using a spray-dryer, cross-linked at different concentrations and time periods. One of the optimized formulations with the desired characteristics was selected for enteric coating with Eudragit L100-55. The procedure involved suspending BPB microspheres in polymer solution and spray-drying it. Four enteric coated formulations were prepared with different concentrations of microspheres in suspension (0.25 and 0.5%w/v) and polymer concentrations (0.25 and 0.5%w/v). Change in the mean particle size after coating was determined using a Laser Particle Counter. The surface coating technique employed did not significantly increase the particle size. Enteric coating efficiency was determined in simulated gastric fluid. Compared to the uncoated microspheres the cumulative amount of drug released from coated microspheres was significantly lower for 3 h, implying efficient surface coating. PMID:19003560

  17. Cyclone selection influences protein damage during drying in a mini spray-dryer.

    PubMed

    Bögelein, Jürgen; Lee, Geoffrey

    2010-11-30

    The use of a small-dimensioned cyclone separator to spray-dry an aqueous solution of lysozyme on a mini spray-dryer produces consistently higher protein inactivation at all drying-air outlet temperatures examined between 50°C and 105°C. Differences in drying air flow rate through the machines will influence droplet/particle residence times within the drying chamber, but these are considered too small to explain the result. It appears more likely that a higher separation and retention of fines within the small cyclone causes higher measured protein inactivation. By virtue of their small size the fines have a greater specific surface area and suffer therefore a greater degree of protein damage when passing through the spray dryer from nozzle to collecting vessel. Although the dry powder yield is higher with the small-dimensioned cyclone than that obtained with the standard cyclone, the profile of residual moisture versus T(outlet) is irregular in shape. A possible lack of equilibrium between the attributes of the protein particles and the exhaust air needs therefore to be considered. PMID:20887779

  18. 10 CFR Appendix D1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... standards for clothes dryers at 10 CFR 430.32(h) is required, at which time manufacturers must use appendix... test cloth. The energy test cloth shall be clean and consist of the following: (a) Pure finished... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  20. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... before each test run. 2.6 Test cloths. 2.6.1 Energy test cloth. The energy test cloth shall be clean and... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix D1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1 Energy test cloth. The energy test cloth shall be clean and consist of the following: (a) Pure... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers D1 Appendix D1 to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  2. A new methodology for measurement of sludge residence time distribution in a paddle dryer using X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Charlou, Christophe; Milhé, Mathieu; Sauceau, Martial; Arlabosse, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    Drying is a necessary step before sewage sludge energetic valorization. Paddle dryers allow working with such a complex material. However, little is known about sludge flow in this kind of processes. This study intends to set up an original methodology for sludge residence time distribution (RTD) measurement in a continuous paddle dryer, based on the detection of mineral tracers by X-ray fluorescence. This accurate analytical technique offers a linear response to tracer concentration in dry sludge; the protocol leads to a good repeatability of RTD measurements. Its equivalence to RTD measurement by NaCl conductivity in sludge leachates is assessed. Moreover, it is shown that tracer solubility has no influence on RTD: liquid and solid phases have the same flow pattern. The application of this technique on sludge with different storage duration at 4 °C emphasizes the influence of this parameter on sludge RTD, and thus on paddle dryer performances: the mean residence time in a paddle dryer is almost doubled between 24 and 48 h of storage for identical operating conditions. PMID:25463926

  3. PILOT-SCALE PARAMETRIC TESTING OF SPRAY DRYER SO2 SCRUBBER FOR LOW-TO-MODERATE SULFUR COAL UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comprehensive, pilot, dry, SO2 scrubbing test program to determine the effects of process variables on SO2 removal. In the spray dryer, stoichiometric ratio, flue gas temperature approach to adiabatic saturation, and temperature drop across the spray...

  4. Simultaneous control of acid gases and PAHs using a spray dryer combined with a fabric filter using different additives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen Shu; Wey, Ming Yen; Lin, Chiou Liang

    2002-04-26

    The purpose of this research was to simultaneously evaluate the removal efficiency of acid gases and PAHs from the flue gas emitted by a laboratory incinerator. This flue gas contained dust, acid gases, organics and heavy metals. A spray dryer combined with a fabric filter was used as the air pollution control device (APCD) in this study. The operating conditions investigated included different feedstock additives (polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and NaCl) and spray dryer additives (SiO2, CaCl2 and NaHCO3). The removal efficiency for SO2 could be enhanced by adding inorganic additives, such as SiO2, CaCl2 and NaHCO3. The presence of PVC in the incinerator feedstock also increased the removal efficiency of SO2in the spray dryer. The improved removal of PAHs could be attributed to the addition of feedstock additives (PVC and NaCl) and spray dryer additives (SiO2, CaCl2 and NaHCO3). PMID:11900910

  5. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What standards apply to my kilns... What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles? (a) General. The provisions in this section apply to each kiln and any alkali bypass associated with that...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What standards apply to my kilns... Limits § 63.1343 What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage piles? (a) General. The provisions in this section apply to each kiln and any alkali...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What standards apply to my kilns... Limits § 63.1343 What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker storage piles? (a) General. The provisions in this section apply to each kiln and any alkali...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1343 - What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What standards apply to my kilns... What standards apply to my kilns, clinker coolers, raw material dryers, and open clinker piles? (a) General. The provisions in this section apply to each kiln and any alkali bypass associated with that...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.708 - Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exhaust duct system and provisions for the future installation of a clothes dryer. 3280.708 Section 3280.708 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix D2 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... spray bottle. 2.7.2 Standard size dryer load. Prepare a bone-dry test load of energy cloths that weighs... spray bottle. 2.7.3 Method of loading. Load the energy test cloths by grasping them in the center... energy consumption per cycle, Ege, expressed in Btus per cycle and defined as: Egg = Etg × GEF...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Clothes Dryers D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of...

  12. Drug-polymer miscibility across a spray dryer: a case study of naproxen and miconazole solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Aarts, Jolie; Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2014-04-01

    The structural and physical stability of solid dispersions have not been adequately explored during spray drying manufacturing processes. In this study a wide range of compositions of naproxen/PVP-VA 64 (poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate)) and miconazole/PVP-VA 64 solid dispersions prepared by different laboratory spray dryers were collected from various selected locations and used to investigate the drug-polymer mixing across spray dryers. Spray-dried dispersions with 30% (w/w) naproxen collected from the transport tube of the Pro-C-epT Microspray dryer showed the narrowest glass transition width, which apparently indicates the highest degree of drug-polymer mixing compared to the other locations. The intensity of the naproxen-PVP-VA 64 interaction peak at 1654 cm(-1) of IR spectra differs for solid dispersions (SDs) from the collector and transport tube of Pro-C-epT Microspray dryer with a higher intensity for the latter. Samples with 50% (w/w) naproxen loading collected from the cyclone and the cyclone steel part of the Buchi mini spray dryer showed a melting endotherm (Tm at 112.2 ± 0.8 °C and ΔHf between 0.7 and 1.8 J/g), whereas samples from the cyclone tube to the drying chamber were devoid of crystalline material. The variations in drug-polymer mixing extend to miconazole/PVP-VA solid dispersions where 20% drug loading showed location-dependent drug-polymer mixing. This study clearly showed that the variation in drug-polymer miscibility and solid form of the drug in solid dispersions can occur across spray dryer in small-scale manufacturing processes. The optimization of formulation parameters and spray drying process parameters is imperative to diminish these variations to enhance homogeneity of solid dispersions in laboratory scale spray dryers. The same problem can occur in geometrically large spray drying manufacturing equipment, and the robustness of the processes should be carefully assessed. PMID:24533891

  13. Molten film high-intensity paper dryer. Final report for reporting period August 16, 1996 through February 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-02-24

    This work, covering the period from August 16, 1996 through February 15, 1998, focuses on the development of an innovative high-intensity paper dryer that utilized molten metals as a direct contact heat transfer fluid. The overall commercialization plan for this technology involves a progression of technical steps leading to the construction of a commercial prototype. These steps are feasibility testing at the working model scale (20 to 30 lb/h evaporation), testing of an engineering development unit (1000 lb/h), and field demonstration testing (10,000 to 20,000 lb/h). Extensive testing was completed at the working model and engineering development unit (EDU) scales. The main conclusions from the testing effort are as follows: (1)The molten fluid dryer (MFD) technology achieves extremely high drying rates during the early stages of drying; the MFD can reduce the dryer section size by about 50% for light-grade paper. (2)A simple two-parameter model adequately describes the dryer performance over a wide range of conditions and paper grades. (3)The MFD can achieve speeds of 1000 fpm without the use of a restraining felt when the initial moisture content of the wet web is less than about 50 wt. %. (4)Due to wet strength limitations of the raw web, the MFD will require use of a restraining felt at speeds above 500 fpm when processing high moisture (60 wt.%) raw webs. (5)When the MFD is exposed to ambient air, some discoloration of the dried paper occurs due to oxidation of the molten metal; oxidation problems could be avoided by enclosing the dryer in a hood and stripping entrained air from the surface of the paper as it enters the bath by use of a steam knife. Future technical work will focus on development of a restrained drying configuration for the MFD/EDU.

  14. Early development drug formulation on a chip: fabrication of nanoparticles using a microfluidic spray dryer.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Julian; Windbergs, Maike; Abate, Adam R; Trebbin, Martin; Shum, Ho Cheung; Förster, Stephan; Weitz, David A

    2011-07-21

    Early development drug formulation is exacerbated by increasingly poor bioavailability of potential candidates. Prevention of attrition due to formulation problems necessitates physicochemical analysis and formulation studies at a very early stage during development, where the availability of a new substance is limited to small quantities, thus impeding extensive experiments. Miniaturization of common formulation processes is a strategy to overcome those limitations. We present a versatile technique for fabricating drug nanoformulations using a microfluidic spray dryer. Nanoparticles are formed by evaporative precipitation of the drug-loaded spray in air at room temperature. Using danazol as a model drug, amorphous nanoparticles of 20-60 nm in diameter are prepared with a narrow size distribution. We design the device with a geometry that allows the injection of two separate solvent streams, thus enabling co-spray drying of two substances for the production of drug co-precipitates with tailor-made composition for optimization of therapeutic efficiency. PMID:21617823

  15. The Development of a Spray Dryer based on a Food Industrial Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The spray dryer, which will satisfy the future demands, is developed through the engineering approach in accordance to 3A- Sanitary Standards in the food industry. The main points are as follows. 1) A High Discharge-Single Swirl Atomizer is adapted for practical use; which can mix effectively with single hot air jet. 2) An optimum jet distributer eliminates swirling components in the jet. 3) Secondary air from the periphery of the jet controls the diffusion and Coanda effect of the jet. 4) The drying chamber's wall is controlled at a temperature below the "Sticky Point" of products. 5) An optimum cooler is included in the bottom of the drying chamber. The above devices prevent undried particles from adhering to the drying chamber's wall, improve the fluidity of products as powder particles, and bring about high efficiency, stable and high quality long lasting productivity.

  16. Heat and mass transfer scale-up issues during freeze-drying, III: control and characterization of dryer differences via operational qualification tests.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, S; Tchessalov, S; Pikal, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate differences in heat and mass transfer between freeze dryers due to inherent design characteristics using data obtained from sublimation tests. This study also aimed to provide guidelines for convenient scale-up of the freeze-drying process. Data obtained from sublimation tests performed on laboratory-scale, pilot, and production freeze dryers were used to evaluate various heat and mass transfer parameters: nonuniformity in shelf surface temperatures, resistance of pipe, refrigeration system, and condenser. Emissivity measurements of relevant surfaces such as the chamber wall and the freeze dryer door were taken to evaluate the impact of atypical radiation heat transfer during scale-up. "Hot" and "cold" spots were identified on the shelf surface of different freeze dryers, and the impact of variation in shelf surface temperatures on the primary drying time and the product temperature during primary drying was studied. Calculations performed using emissivity measurements on different freeze dryers suggest that a front vial in the laboratory lyophilizer received 1.8 times more heat than a front vial in a manufacturing freeze dryer operating at a shelf temperature of -25 degrees C and a chamber pressure of 150 mTorr during primary drying. Therefore, front vials in the laboratory are much more atypical than front vials in manufacturing. Steady-state heat and mass transfer equations were used to study a combination of different scale-up issues pertinent during lyophilization cycles commonly used for the freeze-drying of pharmaceuticals. PMID:16796357

  17. Start-up and operation of a biosolids dryer/pelletizer using indirect thermal technology in Baltimore, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.M.; Lindenberg, K. von

    1996-12-31

    On December 18, 1991, the City of Baltimore contracted with Wheelabrator Clean Water Systems Inc. (WCWS) (formerly Bio Gro Systems Inc.) for the construction and operation of a 54.8 dry tons per day (dtpd) biosolids dryer/pelletizer facility. The plant has been constructed at the Back River Wastewater Treatment Plant (BRWWTP) in Essex, Maryland and is in the first year of a 20-year operating contract. The facility is the largest indirect biosolids dryer facility in the world and the first of its type in North America. This paper discusses the development of the project and several of the key start-up issues that resulted in successful commercial operation by the end of 1994. Also, some process equipment difficulties that were experienced during start-up and resulting system modifications are reviewed.

  18. The capture of heavy metals from incineration using a spray dryer integrated with a fabric filter using various additives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z S; Wey, M Y; Lin, C L

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of feedstock additives [polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and NaCl] and spray dryer additives (SiO2, CaCl2, NaHCO3) on heavy metal and fly ash removal efficiencies, and on particle size distribution of heavy metals. A spray dryer with an integrated fabric filter was used as an air pollution control device (APCD). Removal efficiencies for fly ash and heavy metals were greater than 95 and 90%, respectively. When additives of PVC or NaCl were used, the concentration of heavy metals distributed in fly ash apparently varied when the particle diameter was <1 microm. Although the effects of the additives SiO2, CaCl2, and NaHCO3 on the elemental size distribution of Cr were insignificant, these additives did slightly increase concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb partitioning in coarser particles (>1 microm). PMID:15658217

  19. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2016-03-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  20. Study of dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer using CFD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriaa, Wassim; Bejaoui, Salma; Mhiri, Hatem; Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we developed a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to simulate dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer (EVA 702). The carrier's motion imposed the choice of a dynamic mesh based on two methods: "spring based smoothing" and "local remeshing". The dryer airflow is considered as turbulent ( Re = 1.09 × 105 at the dryer inlet), therefore the Re-Normalization Group model with Enhanced Wall Treatment was used as a turbulence model. The resolution of the governing equation was performed with Fluent 6.3 whose capacities do not allow the direct resolution of drying problems. Thus, a user defined scalar equation was inserted in the CFD code to model moisture content diffusion into tiles. User-defined functions were implemented to define carriers' motion, thermo-physical properties… etc. We adopted also a "two-step" simulation method: in the first step, we follow the heat transfer coefficient evolution (Hc). In the second step, we determine the mass transfer coefficient (Hm) and the features fields of drying air and ceramic tiles. The found results in mixed convection mode (Fr = 5.39 at the dryer inlet) were used to describe dynamic and thermal fields of airflow and heat and mass transfer close to the ceramic tiles. The response of ceramic tiles to heat and mass transfer was studied based on Biot numbers. The evolutions of averages temperature and moisture content of ceramic tiles were analyzed. Lastly, comparison between experimental and numerical results showed a good agreement.

  1. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer. Final report, 1 September 1992--31 August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J.; Sanders, J.F.

    1993-09-30

    The main body of the report consists of four parts: 1. additives to change process chemistry for SO{sub 2} absorption by Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry; 2. recycle tests and hydration of fly ash with Ca(OH){sub 2} to increase reactivity; 3. limestone as an alternative sorbent and additive effects; 4. physical and chemical model developments for some of the additive effects and spray dryer mathematical model application. As the concentration of SO{sub 2} in the flue gases increases, the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency will go down. Additives such as delinquent salts (NaOH, NaCl, and NaHCO{sub 3}) have been shown to improve SO{sub 2} uptake, and these additive tests have indicated that SO{sub 2} uptake may be increased by as much as 60% over baseline conditions. Other additives such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, sugar, and some organic acids which can change the chemical reaction processes are suggested and tested, and some promising results have been obtained. Recycle has been shown to increase sorbent utilization by allowing partially reacted sorbent to react further with the SO{sub 2} in the flue gases. Two types of Ohio coal fly ashes have been extensively studied, and improvement of utilization in spray dryer flue gas desulfurization has been demonstrated. Limestone represents an area where significant cost savings can be realized. The spray dryer tests were designed to provide some results for understanding the magnitude of the limestone performance in the spray dryer system and the additive effects. The additive effects on increasing SO{sub 2} absorption by Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry were investigated, and the chemical and physical properties of these tested additives were studied. Some models have been formed to explain the additive phenomena.

  2. The major species of heavy metal aerosol resulting from water cooling systems and spray dryer systems during incineration processes

    PubMed

    Wey; Yang; Wei

    1998-11-01

    Trace toxic metals in municipal solid waste may escape from the incineration process in flue gas, in dry collected ash, in wet scrubbed ash, or as a suspended aerosol. Therefore, understanding the behavior of heavy metals in the flue gas and the best controls in the air pollution control equipment are important and necessary. The control conditions of water cooling and spray dryer systems during incineration processes significantly influence the formation of heavy metal compounds. The formation of chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) species under various control conditions (water cooling tower and spray dryer reactor) was investigated in this study. The object of the experiment is to understand the effects of water cooling and spray dryer systems individually on the formation of heavy metal species. The operating parameters that are evaluated include different control systems, control temperatures, and chlorine content. A thermodynamic equilibrium model was also used to evaluate experimental data. In order to match real incineration conditions, a two-stage simulation was performed in this experiment. The results showed that the relationship of speciation between the simulation prediction and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis is consistent for Cr compounds; both indicated that Cr2O3 is the major species. The relationship is almost the same for Cd compounds, but not for Pb compounds. PMID:9846130

  3. The heat is on: Killing blacklegged ticks in residential washers and dryers to prevent tickborne diseases.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christina A; Hayes, Catherine M; Markowitz, Molly A; Flynn, Jacqueline J; Graham, Alan C; Delorey, Mark J; Mead, Paul S; Dolan, Marc C

    2016-07-01

    Reducing exposure to ticks can help prevent Lyme disease and other tickborne diseases. Although it is currently recommended to dry clothes on high heat for one hour to kill ticks on clothing after spending time outdoors, this recommendation is based on a single published study of tick survival under various washing conditions and a predetermined one-hour drying time. We conducted a series of tests to investigate the effects of temperature, humidity, and drying time on killing nymphal and adult blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). Muslin bags containing 5 ticks each were washed then dried or dried only with six cotton towels during each drying cycle. All nymphal and adult ticks were killed when exposed to wash cycles when the water temperature reached ≥54°C (≥130°F); however, 50% of ticks survived hot water washes when the water temperature was <54°C. The majority (94%) of ticks survived warm washes [temperature range, 27-46°C (80-115°F)] and all ticks survived cold washes [15-27°C (59-80°F)]. When subsequently dried on high heat setting [54-85°C (129-185°F)], it took 50min to kill all ticks (95% confidence limit, 55min). Most significantly, we found that all adult and nymphal ticks died when placed directly in the dryer with dry towels and dried for 4min on high heat (95% confidence limit, 6min). We have identified effective, easily implemented methods to rid clothing of ticks after spending time outdoors. Placing clothing directly in a dryer and drying for a minimum of 6min on high heat will effectively kill ticks on clothing. If clothing is soiled and requires washing first, our results indicate clothing should be washed with water temperature ≥54°C (≥130°F) to kill ticks. When practiced with other tick-bite prevention methods, these techniques could further reduce the risk of acquiring tickborne diseases. PMID:27156138

  4. Solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

  5. Drying of chilli in a combined infrared and hot air rotary dryer.

    PubMed

    Mihindukulasuriya, Suramya D F; Jayasuriya, Hemantha P W

    2015-08-01

    The investigation of an economical and efficient drying method for chilli is beneficial because it could provide a means of overcoming the drawbacks of traditional drying methods: high operating power and long drying time, which result in a decrease in the quality of the chilli. This study involved the design and development of a combined infrared and hot air laboratory-scale rotary dryer, which consists of three operating modes: hot air, infrared, and combined infrared and hot air. Drying experiments were conducted at five different temperatures (50, 55, 60, 65, and 70 °C). The drying behavior produced with the three operating modes was evaluated. The best mode was determined based on the parameters for evaluating the quality of chilli, the power consumption, and the retention time. The results indicate that the optimal overall drying performance for chilli was achieved at 70, 65, 50 °C drying temperatures in hot air, combined, and IR mode, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between retention time and power consumption with the hot air and the combined modes, while a negative correlation was identified in the IR mode. PMID:26243909

  6. Encapsulation of flaxseed oil using a benchtop spray dryer for legume protein-maltodextrin microcapsule preparation.

    PubMed

    Can Karaca, Asli; Low, Nicholas; Nickerson, Michael

    2013-05-29

    Flaxseed oil was microencapsulated employing a wall material matrix of either chickpea (CPI) or lentil protein isolate (LPI) and maltodextrin using a benchtop spray dryer. Effects of emulsion formulation (oil, protein and maltodextrin levels) and protein source (CPI vs LPI) on the physicochemical characteristics, oxidative stability, and release properties of the resulting capsules were investigated. Microcapsule formulations containing higher oil levels (20% oil, 20% protein, 60% maltodextrin) were found to have higher surface oil and lower encapsulation efficiencies. Overall, LPI-maltodextrin capsules gave higher flaxseed oil encapsulation efficiencies (∼88.0%) relative to CPI-maltodextrin matrices (∼86.3%). However, both designs were found to provide encapsulated flaxseed oil protection against oxidation over a 25 d room temperature storage study relative to free oil. Overall, ∼37.6% of encapsulated flaxseed oil was released after 2 h under simulated gastric fluid, followed by the release of an additional ∼46.6% over a 3 h period under simulated intestinal fluid conditions. PMID:23663097

  7. New insights into respirable protein powder preparation using a nano spray dryer.

    PubMed

    Bürki, K; Jeon, I; Arpagaus, C; Betz, G

    2011-04-15

    In this study the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 (BÜCHI Labortechnik AG, Flawil, Switzerland) was evaluated with regard to the drying of proteins and the preparation of respirable powders in the size range of 1-5 μm. β-galactosidase was chosen as a model protein and trehalose was added as a stabilizer. The influence of inlet temperature, hole size of the spray cap membrane and ethanol concentration in the spray solution was studied using a 3³ full factorial design. The investigated responses were enzyme activity, particle size, span, yield and shelf life. Furthermore, the particle morphology was examined. The inlet temperature as well as the interaction of inlet temperature and spray cap size significantly influenced the enzyme activity. Full activity was retained with the optimized process. The particle size was affected by the hole size of the spray cap membrane and the ethanol content. The smallest cap led to a monodisperse particle size distribution and the greatest yield of particles of respirable size. Higher product recovery was achieved with lower inlet temperatures, higher ethanol contents and smaller cap sizes. Particle morphology differed depending on the cap size. The protein exhibited higher storage stability when spray dried without ethanol and when a larger spray cap size was used. PMID:21335078

  8. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on lime spray dryer (LSD) ash using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Weavers, Linda K; Taerakul, Panuwat; Walker, Harold W

    2006-01-01

    In this study, traditional Soxhlet, automatic Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction techniques were employed to determine the speciation and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples collected from the baghouse of a spreader stoker boiler. To test the efficiencies of different extraction methods, LSD ash samples were doped with a mixture of 16 US EPA specified PAHs to measure the matrix spike recoveries. The results showed that the spike recoveries of PAHs were different using these three extraction methods with dichloromethane (DCM) as the solvent. Traditional Soxhlet extraction achieved slightly higher recoveries than automatic Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. Different solvents including toluene, DCM:acetone (1:1 V/V) and hexane:acetone (1:1 V/V) were further examined to optimize the recovery using ultrasonic extraction. Toluene achieved the highest spike recoveries of PAHs at a spike level of 10 microg kg(-1). When the spike level was increased to 50 microg kg(-1), the spike recoveries of PAHs also correspondingly increased. Although the type and concentration of PAHs detected on LSD ash samples by different extraction methods varied, the concentration of each detected PAH was consistently low, at microg kg(-1) levels. PMID:15990154

  9. Matrix structure selection in the microparticles of essential oil oregano produced by spray dryer.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Joyce Maria Gomes; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Hijo, Ariel Antonio Campos Toledo; Silva, Eric Keven; Marques, Gerson Reginaldo; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; de Azevedo, Viviane Machado

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to select the best combination of encapsulants for the microencapsulation of oregano essential oil by spray dryer with the addition of Arabic gum (AG), modified starch (MS) and maltodextrin (MA). The simplex-centroid method was used to obtain an optimal objective function with three variables. Analytical methods for carvacrol quantification, water activity, moisture content, wettability, solubility, encapsulation efficiency (ME) and oil retention (RT) were used to evaluate the best combination of encapsulants. The use of AG as a single wall material increased ME up to 93%. Carvacrol is the major phenolic compound existent in the oregano essential oil. Carvacrol exhibits a maximum concentration of 57.8% in the microparticle with the use of 62.5% AG and 37.5% MA. A greater RT (77.39%) was obtained when 74.5% AG; MS 12.7% and 12.7% MA were applied, and ME (93%) was improved with 100% of gum. PMID:23534491

  10. Method for Evaluating Energy Use of Dishwashers, Clothes Washers, and Clothes Dryers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Eastment, M.; Hendron, R.

    2006-08-01

    Building America teams are researching opportunities to improve energy efficiency for some of the more challenging end-uses, such as lighting (both fixed and occupant-provided), appliances (clothes washer, dishwasher, clothes dryer, refrigerator, and range), and miscellaneous electric loads, which are all heavily dependent on occupant behavior and product choices. These end-uses have grown to be a much more significant fraction of total household energy use (as much as 50% for very efficient homes) as energy efficient homes have become more commonplace through programs such as ENERGY STAR and Building America. As modern appliances become more sophisticated the residential energy analyst is faced with a daunting task in trying to calculate the energy savings of high efficiency appliances. Unfortunately, most whole-building simulation tools do not allow the input of detailed appliance specifications. Using DOE test procedures the method outlined in this paper presents a reasonable way to generate inputs for whole-building energy-simulation tools. The information necessary to generate these inputs is available on Energy-Guide labels, the ENERGY-STAR website, California Energy Commission's Appliance website and manufacturer's literature. Building America has developed a standard method for analyzing the effect of high efficiency appliances on whole-building energy consumption when compared to the Building America's Research Benchmark building.

  11. Numerical simulation of an industrial microwave assisted filter dryer: criticality assessment and optimization.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Cristina; Veronesi, Paolo; Grisoni, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    Industrial-scale filter dryers, equipped with one or more microwave input ports, have been modelled with the aim of detecting existing criticalities, proposing possible solutions and optimizing the overall system efficiency and treatment homogeneity. Three different loading conditions have been simulated, namely the empty applicator, the applicator partially loaded by both a high-loss and low loss load whose dielectric properties correspond to the one measured on real products. Modeling results allowed for the implementation of improvements to the original design such as the insertion of a wave guide transition and a properly designed pressure window, modification of the microwave inlet's position and orientation, alteration of the nozzles' geometry and distribution, and changing of the cleaning metallic torus dimensions and position. Experimental testing on representative loads, as well as in production sites, allowed for the confirmation of the validity of the implemented improvements, thus showing how numerical simulation can assist the designer in removing critical features and improving equipment performances when moving from conventional heating to hybrid microwave-assisted processing. PMID:18350999

  12. Inter-vial Variance of the Sublimation Rate in Shelf Freeze-dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu; Harashima, Konomi; Ariyama, Hiroichi; Yao, Ai-Ru

    Significant inter-vial variance in the sublimation rate has been pointed out by several authors in relation to the placement of the vials on a well controlled shelf. All the previous reports have described the phenomena observed in the experiments or the production processes, and have made some suggestive remarks, but have not clearly proposed a solution to the problem. In the shelf freeze-drying of pharmaceuticals, one of the major ploblems is how to achieve inter-vial uniformity and batch to batch uniformity or consistency. In this study, We have developed a new model of laboratory-scale freeze-dryer which has temperature-controllable chamber walls, and using this new model we have analyzed causes of inter-vial variance in the sublimation rate. The higher sublimation rate for the vials placed on the shelf edge is due to additional heat input from the wall and also due to further additional heat from the shelf surface on which no kissing vial is placed. It is possible to cancel out the additional heat input from the shelf by maintaining an optimum wall temperature, which must be lower than the material temperature. This paper discusses a method for eliminating the inter-vail variance in drying conditions and shortening the drying time by means of chamber wall temperature control.

  13. Mathematical modeling of drying of potato slices in a forced convective dryer based on important parameters.

    PubMed

    Naderinezhad, Samira; Etesami, Nasrin; Poormalek Najafabady, Arefe; Ghasemi Falavarjani, Majid

    2016-01-01

    The effect of air temperature, air velocity, and sample shapes (circle and square with the same cross-sectional area) on kinetic drying of potato slices in a tunnel dryer was investigated experimentally and a suitable drying model was developed. The experiments of drying of potato slices were conducted at an air temperature of 45-70°C with an air velocity 1.60 and 1.81 m sec(-1). Results showed that drying temperature was the most effective parameter in the drying rate. The influence of air velocity was more profound in low temperature. The time for drying square slices was lower compared to the circle ones. Furthermore, drying data were fitted to different empirical models. Among the models, Midilli-Kucuk was the best to explain the single layer drying of potato slices. The parameters of this model were determined as functions of air velocity and temperature by multiple regression analysis for circle and square slices. Various statistical parameters were examined for evaluating the model. PMID:26788317

  14. Experimental studies on oil palm frond drying using swirling fluidized bed dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Muhammad; Sabudin, Sulastri; Faizal, Mohd; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-06-01

    Fluidized bed drying has become one of the preferred techniques in drying of agricultural products due to its thorough mixing ability and almost uniform moisture transfer from the product. This paper reports experimental studies on drying characteristics of chopped oil palm frond (OPF) when dried in a swirling fluidized bed dryer (SFBD). Unlike conventional fluidized beds, the SFBD is capable of fluidizing agricultural products which are fibrous and irregular in size and geometry, such as chopped OPF. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of hot air temperature ranging from 50°C to 80°C at a flowrate of 450 m3/hour, for two bed loadings. The OPF which consists of leaves and petiole (petiole) has different initial moisture contents of 57% and 70% respectively and dried to a final moisture content of 15%. Although higher temperatures of hot air result in rapid initial migration of moisture from the chopped OPF, the surface hardening due to shrinkage also becomes faster and hence limits further moisture removal prom the product. The OPF leaves and petiole exhibited different drying curves, suggesting the need for drying them separately unlike the current industrial practice for optimizing the drying process.

  15. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Gas Dryer/Humidifier Analytical Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian

    2004-01-01

    A lightweight Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC) Energy Storage System concept is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System (URFCS) is unique in that it uses Regenerative Gas Dryers/Humidifiers (RGD/H) that are mounted on the surface of the gas storage tanks that act as the radiators for thermal control of the Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System (URFCS). As the gas storage tanks cool down during URFCS charging the RGD/H dry the hydrogen and oxygen gases produced by electrolysis. As the gas storage tanks heat up during URFCS discharging, the RGD/H humidify the hydrogen and oxygen gases used by the fuel cell. An analytical model was developed to simulate the URFCS RGD/H. The model is in the form of a Microsoft (registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation) Excel worksheet that allows the investigation of the RGD/H performance. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modeling of the RGD/H and the gas storage tank wall was also done to analyze spatial temperature distribution within the RGD/H and the localized tank wall. Test results obtained from the testing of the RGD/H in a thermal vacuum environment were used to corroborate the analyses.

  16. Design and performance of a Nafion dryer for continuous operation at CO2 and CH4 air monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welp, L. R.; Keeling, R. F.; Weiss, R. F.; Paplawsky, W.; Heckman, S.

    2012-08-01

    In preparation for the routine deployment of the Earth Networks greenhouse gas monitoring network, we have designed and tested a simple method for drying ambient air to below 0.2% mole fraction H2O using a Nafion dryer. The inlet was designed for use with a Picarro model G2301 cavity ring down spectrometer (CRDS) CO2/CH4/H2O analyzer. The analyzer measures water vapor mixing ratio at the same frequency as CO2 and CH4 and then corrects for the dilution and peak broadening effects of H2O on the CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios. This analyzer is remarkably stable and performs well on water vapor correction tests, but there is potentially an added benefit of reducing the dependence on the H2O correction for long term field measurement programs. Substantially lowering the amount of H2O in the sample can reduce uncertainties in the applied H2O corrections by an order of magnitude or more, and eliminate the need to determine an instrument-specific H2O correction factor and to verify its stability over time. Our Nafion drying inlet system takes advantage of the extra capacity of the analyzer pump to redirect 30% of the dry gas exiting the Nafion to the outer shell side of the dryer and has no consumables. We tested the Nafion dryer against a cryotrap (-95 °C) method for removing H2O and found that it does not significantly alter the CO2 and CH4 dry mixing ratios of the sample gas. Systematic differences between the drying methods were at the level of 0.05 ppm in CO2 and 0.1 ppb in CH4 for the wet-air tests, well within the WMO compatibility guidelines.

  17. Design and performance of a Nafion dryer for continuous operation at CO2 and CH4 air monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welp, L. R.; Keeling, R. F.; Weiss, R. F.; Paplawsky, W.; Heckman, S.

    2013-05-01

    In preparation for routine deployment in a network of greenhouse gas monitoring stations, we have designed and tested a simple method for drying ambient air to near or below 0.2% (2000 ppm) mole fraction H2O using a Nafion dryer. The inlet system was designed for use with cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) analyzers such as the Picarro model G2301 that measure H2O in addition to their principal analytes, in this case CO2 and CH4. These analyzers report dry-gas mixing ratios without drying the sample by measuring H2O mixing ratio at the same frequency as the main analytes, and then correcting for the dilution and peak broadening effects of H2O on the mixing ratios of the other analytes measured in moist air. However, it is difficult to accurately validate the water vapor correction in the field. By substantially lowering the amount of H2O in the sample, uncertainties in the applied water vapor corrections can be reduced by an order of magnitude or more, thus eliminating the need to determine instrument-specific water vapor correction coefficients and to verify the stability over time. Our Nafion drying inlet system takes advantage of the extra capacity of the analyzer pump to redirect 30% of the dry gas exiting the Nafion to the outer shell side of the dryer and has no consumables. We tested the Nafion dryer against a cryotrap (-97 °C) method for removing H2O and found that in wet-air tests, the Nafion reduces the CO2 dry-gas mixing ratios of the sample gas by as much as 0.1 ± 0.01 ppm due to leakage across the membrane. The effect on CH4 was smaller and varied within ± 0.2 ppb, with an approximate uncertainty of 0.1 ppb. The Nafion-induced CO2 bias is partially offset by sending the dry reference gases through the Nafion dryer as well. The residual bias due to the impact of moisture differences between sample and reference gas on the permeation through the Nafion was approximately -0.05 ppm for CO2 and varied within ± 0.2 ppb for CH4. The uncertainty of this

  18. Simulations of Solar Wind Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Usmanov, A. V.; Roberts, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Recently we have restructured our approach to simulating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the solar wind. Previously, we had defined a 'virtual' heliosphere that contained, for example, a tilted rotating current sheet, microstreams, quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations as well as Alfven waves. In this new version of the code, we use the global, time-stationary, WKB Alfven wave-driven solar wind model developed by Usmanov and described in Usmanov and Goldstein [2003] to define the initial state of the system. Consequently, current sheets, and fast and slow streams are computed self-consistently from an inner, photospheric, boundary. To this steady-state configuration, we add fluctuations close to, but above, the surface where the flow become super-Alfvenic. The time-dependent MHD equations are then solved using a semi-discrete third-order Central Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (CWENO) numerical scheme. The computational domain now includes the entire sphere; the geometrical singularity at the poles is removed using the multiple grid approach described in Usmanov [1996]. Wave packets are introduced at the inner boundary such as to satisfy Faraday's Law [Yeh and Dryer, 1985] and their nonlinear evolution are followed in time.

  19. Influence Of Relative Humidity On Light Scattering Measurements Of Aerosols Using A Humidifier-Dryer Nephelometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, D.; Delgado, R.; Hoff, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence the Earth's radiation budget both directly and indirectly. In the direct effect, aerosols scatter and absorb sunlight changing the radiative balance of the Earth-atmosphere system. Aerosols indirectly influence the Earth's radiation budget by modifying the microphysical and radiative properties, as well as the water content and lifetime of clouds. In atmosphere conditions, aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth due to the relative humidity (RH) influence. Wet aerosols particles are larger than their dry equivalents, therefore they scatter more light. Quantitative knowledge of the RH effect and its influence on the light scattering coefficient on aerosol particles is of substantial importance when comparing ground based observation with other optical aerosol measurements techniques such satellite retrieval and photometry as well as for climate forcing calculations. A humidifier-dryer system for a TSI 3563 Nephelometer was designed and built in order to measure the scattering coefficient σsp(λ) at three different wavelengths (λ=440, 550 and 700nm) in a RH range from 30 to 95%. The system was assembled by combining Nafion tubes to humidify and dry the aerosols and stepping motor valves to control the flow and the amount of humidity entering to the Nephelometer. Regular measurements at UMBC (University Of Maryland, Baltimore County) with ambient and lab-generated aerosols have been taking place to study the hygroscopic properties of the aerosols in the region. The aerosols have been humidified as high as 95.4% and the measured σsp(λ) were on average more than two times greater than those at low RH. Another important parameter used to evaluate the hygroscopic properties of aerosols is the enhancement factor f(λ,RH) which is defined as the σsp(λ,RH) at any specified RH divided by the dry σsp(λ,DRY). Initial results indicates that the enhancement factor for ambient aerosols in the region is f(550,94%) =1.35. Enhancement

  20. Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

    2006-12-31

    Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant

  1. Solar Cookers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of solar cookers in the science classroom. Includes instructions for construction of a solar cooker, an explanation of how solar cookers work, and a number of suggested activities. (DS)

  2. Effect excess air as an oxidizer in the flame assisted spray dryer using computational fluid dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, Eka Lutfi; Widiyastuti, W.; Nurtono, Tantular; Winardi, Sugeng

    2016-02-01

    The size distribution of silica particles as a model material from colloidal silica solution precursor in the flame assisted spray dryer method were studied numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD has ability to solve the momentum, energy and mass transfer equation well. k-ɛ model was used to describe the turbulence model and non-premixed combustion model was used to combustion model. Collision and break-up model were also considered to predict the final particles size distribution. For validation, LPG with flow rate of 0.5 L/minute LPG and 200% excess air were used as energy sources. At this condition, numerical solution agreed well to the experimental work resulting in polydisperse size distribution. Therefore, others excess air, 100% and 150% were also observed using CFD and evaluated their contribution to their particles size distribution. Monodisperse particles size distribution were obtained when the combustion used 150% excess air.

  3. Automating the Solar DRYER—AIRFLOW Control Utilizing Pressure Diffrence Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk, T. B.; Vakhguelt, A.

    2009-08-01

    The presence of a chimney in natural convective solar dryer has proven its benefit in accelerated transport of moist air from the drying compartment and thus shortening the drying time for intended crops. The experiment and simulation studies done by various parties have guaranteed increases in the airflow in relation to the physical height of chimney. A simple automated control system is proposed to assist the controls of airflow rate so that a near optimum mass flow rate could be achieved for the best possible dried product quality in the shortest possible drying period.

  4. Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  5. Solar explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccei, B. C.

    1981-04-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Passive Solar Manufactured Buildings and Solar Home Builders Programs are developing much needed cost and performance data on solar buildings produced by large-volume home builders. These programs also serve as a model on how government can work effectively with industry.

  6. Solar Geometry

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Solar Noon (GMT time) The time when the sun is due south in the ... and sunset.   Daylight average of hourly cosine solar zenith angles (dimensionless) The average cosine of the angle ... overhead during daylight hours.   Cosine solar zenith angle at mid-time between sunrise and solar noon ...

  7. Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  8. Use of biogas for cogeneration of heat and electricity for local application: performance evaluation of an engine power generator and a sludge thermal dryer.

    PubMed

    Lobato, L C S; Chernicharo, C A L; Pujatti, F J P; Martins, O M; Melo, G C B; Recio, A A R

    2013-01-01

    A small unit of cogeneration of energy and heat was tested at the Centre for Research and Training on Sanitation UFMG/COPASA - CePTS, located at the Arrudas Sewage Treatment Plant, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The unit consisted of an engine power generator adapted to run on biogas, a thermal dryer prototype and other peripherals (compressor, biogas storage tank, air blower, etc.). The heat from engine power generator exhaust gases was directed towards the thermal dryer prototype to dry the sludge and disinfect it. The results showed that the experimental apparatus is self-sufficient in electricity, even producing a surplus, available for other uses. The tests of drying and disinfection of sludge lasted 7 h, leading to an increase in solids content from 4 to 8% (50% reduction in sludge volume). Although the drying of sludge was not possible (only thickening was achieved), the disinfection process proved very effective, enabling the complete inactivation of helminth eggs. PMID:23128634

  9. Exposure and release estimations for filter-press and tray-dryer operations based on pilot-plant data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, M.C.; Howard, H.K.

    1992-03-20

    Worker exposures and chemical releases associated with a plate-and-frame filter press and a stationary tray dryer were studied in a pilot plant. The equipment was representative of those in a chemical manufacturing plant; the filter press was previously used at a chemical plant, and the dryer trays were the same size used by dye manufacturers. A randomized series of eight experiments identified the most influential variables for inhalation exposure during the tray drying unit operation which used approximately 100 kg of CaCO3. The range of conditions studied in the eight experiments provide inhalation exposure data for evaluating the impact of physical properties, the activities performed, and the influence of worker technique.

  10. Effect of turbulence modelling to predict combustion and nanoparticle production in the flame assisted spray dryer based on computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, Eka Lutfi; Widiyastuti, W.; Winardi, Sugeng; Machmudah, Siti; Nurtono, Tantular; Kusdianto

    2016-02-01

    Flame assisted spray dryer are widely uses for large-scale production of nanoparticles because of it ability. Numerical approach is needed to predict combustion and particles production in scale up and optimization process due to difficulty in experimental observation and relatively high cost. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can provide the momentum, energy and mass transfer, so that CFD more efficient than experiment due to time and cost. Here, two turbulence models, k-ɛ and Large Eddy Simulation were compared and applied in flame assisted spray dryer system. The energy sources for particle drying was obtained from combustion between LPG as fuel and air as oxidizer and carrier gas that modelled by non-premixed combustion in simulation. Silica particles was used to particle modelling from sol silica solution precursor. From the several comparison result, i.e. flame contour, temperature distribution and particle size distribution, Large Eddy Simulation turbulence model can provide the closest data to the experimental result.