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Sample records for solar neutrino physics

  1. Solar neutrinos and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltoni, Michele; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2016-04-01

    Solar neutrino studies triggered and largely motivated the major developments in neutrino physics in the last 50 years. The theory of neutrino propagation in different media with matter and fields has been elaborated. It includes oscillations in vacuum and matter, resonance flavor conversion and resonance oscillations, spin and spin-flavor precession, etc. LMA MSW has been established as the true solution of the solar neutrino problem. Parameters θ_{12} and Δ m 2 21 have been measured; θ_{13} extracted from the solar data is in agreement with results from reactor experiments. Solar neutrino studies provide a sensitive way to test theory of neutrino oscillations and conversion. Characterized by long baseline, huge fluxes and low energies they are a powerful set-up to search for new physics beyond the standard 3 ν paradigm: new neutrino states, sterile neutrinos, non-standard neutrino interactions, effects of violation of fundamental symmetries, new dynamics of neutrino propagation, probes of space and time. These searches allow us to get stringent, and in some cases unique bounds on new physics. We summarize the results on physics of propagation, neutrino properties and physics beyond the standard model obtained from studies of solar neutrinos.

  2. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos

    PubMed Central

    NAKAHATA, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the “solar neutrino problem”. Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consistent with the prediction from the standard solar model. In this article, results of solar neutrino experiments are reviewed with detailed descriptions of what Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande have contributed to the history of astroparticle physics with solar neutrino measurements. PMID:21558758

  3. Particle physics confronts the solar neutrino problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, P.B.

    1991-06-01

    This review has four parts. In Part I, we describe the reactions that produce neutrinos in the sun and the expected flux of those neutrinos on the earth. We then discuss the detection of these neutrinos, and how the results obtained differ from the theoretical expectations, leading to what is known as the solar neutrino problem. In Part II, we show how neutrino oscillations can provide a solution to the solar neutrino problem. This includes vacuum oscillations, as well as matter enhanced oscillations. In Part III, we discuss the possibility of time variation of the neutrino flux and how a magnetic moment of the neutrino can solve the problem. WE also discuss particle physics models which can give rise to the required values of magnetic moments. In Part IV, we present some concluding remarks and outlook for the recent future.

  4. Solar neutrino physics in the nineties

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, J.F.

    1990-12-31

    The decade of the 1990`s should prove to be landmark period for the study of solar neutrino physics. Current observations show 2--3 times fewer neutrinos coming from the sun than are theoretically expected. As we enter the decade, new experiments are poised to attempt and discover whether this deficit is a problem with our understanding of how the sun works, is a hint of new neutrino properties beyond those predicted by the standard model of particle physics, or perhaps a combination of both. This paper will briefly review the current status of the field and point out how future measurements should help solve this interesting puzzle. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Solar neutrino physics with low-threshold dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billard, J.; Strigari, L. E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.

    2015-05-01

    Dark matter detectors will soon be sensitive to Solar neutrinos via two distinct channels: coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron elastic scatterings. We establish an analysis method for extracting Solar model properties and neutrino properties from these measurements, including the possible effects of sterile neutrinos which have been hinted at by some reactor experiments and cosmological measurements. Even including sterile neutrinos, through the coherent scattering channel, a 1 ton-year exposure with a low-threshold background free Germanium detector could improve on the current measurement of the normalization of the B 8 Solar neutrino flux down to 3% or less. Combining with the neutrino-electron elastic scattering data will provide constraints on both the high- and low-energy survival probability and will improve on the uncertainty on the active-to-sterile mixing angle by a factor of 2. This sensitivity to active-to-sterile transitions is competitive and complementary to forthcoming dedicated short baseline sterile neutrino searches with nuclear decays. Finally, we show that such solar neutrino physics potentials can be reached as long as the signal-to-noise ratio is better than 0.1.

  6. Physics from solar neutrinos in dark matter direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, David G.; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Jubb, Thomas; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Vincent, Aaron C.; Bœhm, Céline

    2016-05-01

    The next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments will be sensitive to both coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron scattering. This will enable them to explore aspects of solar physics, perform the lowest energy measurement of the weak angle sin2 θ W to date, and probe contributions from new theories with light mediators. In this article, we compute the projected nuclear and electron recoil rates expected in several dark matter direct detection experiments due to solar neutrinos, and use these estimates to quantify errors on future measurements of the neutrino fluxes, weak mixing angle and solar observables, as well as to constrain new physics in the neutrino sector. Our analysis shows that the combined rates of solar neutrino events in second generation experiments (SuperCDMS and LZ) can yield a measurement of the pp flux to 2.5% accuracy via electron recoil, and slightly improve the 8B flux determination. Assuming a low-mass argon phase, projected tonne-scale experiments like DARWIN can reduce the uncertainty on both the pp and boron-8 neutrino fluxes to below 1%. Finally, we use current results from LUX, SuperCDMS and CDMSlite to set bounds on new interactions between neutrinos and electrons or nuclei, and show that future direct detection experiments can be used to set complementary constraints on the parameter space associated with light mediators.

  7. The Need for new neutrino physics or a cooler sun in the solar neutrino problem

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.; Schramm, D. N.

    1992-11-22

    t is shown that the current solar neutrino situation, now that we have the SAGE and GALLEX result along with the results from the Kamioksnde and the Homestake experiments, is unfortunately still quite ambiguous. The differences between observations and the standard solar theory may still be due to either astrophysical inputs or new neutrino physics. In particular, the astrophysical solution, which requires a cooler Sun than the standard solar model of Bahcsll et al., may still be viable. The need for new neutrino physics, MSW or vacuum neutrino mixing, is sensitive to the results of the Homestake experiment and SAGE. The use of future experiments, SNO, Borexino, the Super Kamiokande, and the Iodine experiment to resolve this ambiguity are explicitly discussed.

  8. NEUTRINO FACTORIES - PHYSICS POTENTIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-02-16

    The recent results from Super-Kamiokande atmospheric and solar neutrino observations opens a new era in neutrino physics and has sparked a considerable interest in the physics possibilities with a Neutrino Factory based on the muon storage ring. We present physics opportunities at a Neutrino Factory, and prospects of Neutrino oscillation experiments. Using the precisely known flavor composition of the beam, one could envision an extensive program to measure the neutrino oscillation mixing matrix, including possible CP violating effects. These and Neutrino Interaction Rates for examples of a Neutrino Factory at BNL (and FNAL) with detectors at Gran Sasso, SLAC and Sudan are also presented.

  9. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    The field of neutrino physics has expanded greatly in recent years with the discovery that neutrinos change flavor and therefore have mass. Although there are many neutrino physics results since the last DIS workshop, these proceedings concentrate on recent neutrino physics results that either add to or depend on the understanding of Deep Inelastic Scattering. They also describe the short and longer term future of neutrino DIS experiments.

  10. The impact of Borexino on the solar and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Gianpaolo

    2016-07-01

    The Borexino detector is characterized by a very low background level due to an unprecedented radio-purity, which allows to study the entire spectrum of solar neutrinos from very low energies (∼150 keV). The solar neutrino rates from pp, 7Be, pep, 8B (with a threshold down to 3 MeV) and a stringent limit of the CNO cycle rate have been already measured. In addition evidences of a null day/night asymmetry and of the solar neutrino flux seasonal variation have been reached. The contribution provided until now by Borexino in understanding the neutrino oscillation phenomenon concerns the first evidence of the oscillation in vacuum and the determination of the νe survival probability in vacuum: these results validate the paradigmatic MSW model in the vacuum regime. The Borexino results are also in good agreement with the Standard Solar Model predictions, but the metallicity puzzle is still unsolved. In addition the pp flux measured by Borexino shows a good agreement with the Solar luminosity. Evidence of geo-neutrinos has been also obtained at the level of 5.9σ C.L. Borexino is still taking data in order to: upgrade the precision of the solar neutrino rates already measured, increase the sensitivity to the neutrino flux from the CNO cycle and hopefully measure it (very challenging), and test the existence of very short base-line neutrino oscillations.

  11. Solar Neutrinos

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  12. SOLAR NEUTRINO PHYSICS: SENSITIVITY TO LIGHT DARK MATTER PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilidio; Silk, Joseph E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt

    2012-06-20

    Neutrinos are produced in several neutrino nuclear reactions of the proton-proton chain and carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle that take place at different radii of the Sun's core. Hence, measurements of solar neutrino fluxes provide a precise determination of the local temperature. The accumulation of non-annihilating light dark matter particles (with masses between 5 GeV and 16 GeV) in the Sun produces a change in the local solar structure, namely, a decrease in the central temperature of a few percent. This variation depends on the properties of the dark matter particles, such as the mass of the particle and its spin-independent scattering cross-section on baryon-nuclei, specifically, the scattering with helium, oxygen, and nitrogen among other heavy elements. This temperature effect can be measured in almost all solar neutrino fluxes. In particular, by comparing the neutrino fluxes generated by stellar models with current observations, namely {sup 8}B neutrino fluxes, we find that non-annihilating dark matter particles with a mass smaller than 10 GeV and a spin-independent scattering cross-section with heavy baryon-nuclei larger than 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -37} cm{sup -2} produce a variation in the {sup 8}B neutrino fluxes that would be in conflict with current measurements.

  13. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Thanks to compelling evidence that neutrinos can change flavor, we now know that they have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. In these lectures, we explain the physics of neutrino flavor change, both in vacuum and in matter. Then, we describe what the flavor-change data have taught us about neutrinos. Finally, we consider some of the questions raised by the discovery of neutrino mass, explaining why these questions are so interesting, and how they might be answered experimentally.

  14. Solar neutrinos: Theoretical status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.

    I review the standard solar model, the disparities between its predictions and the solar neutrino flux measurements of the Homestake and Kamioka 2 collaborations, and possible particle physics resolutions of this puzzle. The effects of matter, including density fluctuations and turbulence, on solar neutrino oscillations are explained by building analogies with more familiar atomic physics phenomena. These and other mechanisms are considered as possible explanations for time variations in the solar neutrino flux. Finally, I consider possible outcomes and implications of the SAGE/GALLEX gallium experiments.

  15. Achievements in solar neutrino physics with the Borexino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramonti, L.; Borexino Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Borexino is an organic liquid scintillator detector located in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in central Italy. It has been designed for real-time spectroscopy of low energy solar neutrinos. In Phase I of the experiment lasting for three years, between May 2007 and May 2010, the Collaboration performed the first independent measurements of 7Be, 8B, and pep solar neutrino fluxes. After a dedicated purification campaign of the liquid scintillator in 2011, Borexino entered into Phase II which allowed to investigate the seasonal modulation in the 7Be signal. In 2014, Borexino provided the first direct real time measurement of pp neutrinos accomplishing the whole pp-cycle that powers the Sun.

  16. Contribution of gallium experiments to the understanding of solar physics and neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrin, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The results of gallium measurements of solar neutrino and measurements with artificial sources of neutrinos are presented. Conclusions are drawn from these results, and the potential of the SAGE experiment for studying transitions of active neutrinos to sterile states for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 0.5 eV{sup 2} and a sensitivity of a few percent to the disappearance of electron neutrinos is examined.

  17. Neutrino physics with JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Fengpeng; An, Guangpeng; An, Qi; Antonelli, Vito; Baussan, Eric; Beacom, John; Bezrukov, Leonid; Blyth, Simon; Brugnera, Riccardo; Buizza Avanzini, Margherita; Busto, Jose; Cabrera, Anatael; Cai, Hao; Cai, Xiao; Cammi, Antonio; Cao, Guofu; Cao, Jun; Chang, Yun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Yixue; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Clerbaux, Barbara; Conrad, Janet; D'Angelo, Davide; De Kerret, Hervé; Deng, Zhi; Deng, Ziyan; Ding, Yayun; Djurcic, Zelimir; Dornic, Damien; Dracos, Marcos; Drapier, Olivier; Dusini, Stefano; Dye, Stephen; Enqvist, Timo; Fan, Donghua; Fang, Jian; Favart, Laurent; Ford, Richard; Göger-Neff, Marianne; Gan, Haonan; Garfagnini, Alberto; Giammarchi, Marco; Gonchar, Maxim; Gong, Guanghua; Gong, Hui; Gonin, Michel; Grassi, Marco; Grewing, Christian; Guan, Mengyun; Guarino, Vic; Guo, Gang; Guo, Wanlei; Guo, Xin-Heng; Hagner, Caren; Han, Ran; He, Miao; Heng, Yuekun; Hsiung, Yee; Hu, Jun; Hu, Shouyang; Hu, Tao; Huang, Hanxiong; Huang, Xingtao; Huo, Lei; Ioannisian, Ara; Jeitler, Manfred; Ji, Xiangdong; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Jollet, Cécile; Kang, Li; Karagounis, Michael; Kazarian, Narine; Krumshteyn, Zinovy; Kruth, Andre; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Leitner, Rupert; Li, Chao; Li, Jiaxing; Li, Weidong; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Yi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Zhi-Bing; Liang, Hao; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Tao; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Ling, Jiajie; Lippi, Ivano; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Hongbang; Liu, Hu; Liu, Jianglai; Liu, Jianli; Liu, Jinchang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Shulin; Lombardi, Paolo; Long, Yongbing; Lu, Haoqi; Lu, Jiashu; Lu, Jingbin; Lu, Junguang; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Ludhova, Livia; Luo, Shu; Lyashuk, Vladimir; Möllenberg, Randolph; Ma, Xubo; Mantovani, Fabio; Mao, Yajun; Mari, Stefano M.; McDonough, William F.; Meng, Guang; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Meroni, Emanuela; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miramonti, Lino; Mueller, Thomas; Naumov, Dmitry; Oberauer, Lothar; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Olshevskiy, Alexander; Ortica, Fausto; Paoloni, Alessandro; Peng, Haiping; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Previtali, Ezio; Qi, Ming; Qian, Sen; Qian, Xin; Qian, Yongzhong; Qin, Zhonghua; Raffelt, Georg; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Ricci, Barbara; Robens, Markus; Romani, Aldo; Ruan, Xiangdong; Ruan, Xichao; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Shaevitz, Mike; Sinev, Valery; Sirignano, Chiara; Sisti, Monica; Smirnov, Oleg; Soiron, Michael; Stahl, Achim; Stanco, Luca; Steinmann, Jochen; Sun, Xilei; Sun, Yongjie; Taichenachev, Dmitriy; Tang, Jian; Tkachev, Igor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw; van Waasen, Stefan; Volpe, Cristina; Vorobel, Vit; Votano, Lucia; Wang, Chung-Hsiang; Wang, Guoli; Wang, Hao; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ruiguang; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Zhimin; Wei, Wei; Wen, Liangjian; Wiebusch, Christopher; Wonsak, Björn; Wu, Qun; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Wurm, Michael; Xi, Yufei; Xia, Dongmei; Xie, Yuguang; Xing, Zhi-zhong; Xu, Jilei; Yan, Baojun; Yang, Changgen; Yang, Chaowen; Yang, Guang; Yang, Lei; Yang, Yifan; Yao, Yu; Yegin, Ugur; Yermia, Frédéric; You, Zhengyun; Yu, Boxiang; Yu, Chunxu; Yu, Zeyuan; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zhan, Liang; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhang, Qingmin; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhenghua; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhong, Weili; Zhou, Guorong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Rong; Zhou, Shun; Zhou, Wenxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Zhou, Yeling; Zhou, Yufeng; Zou, Jiaheng

    2016-03-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 kton multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator detector, was proposed with the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) as a primary physics goal. The excellent energy resolution and the large fiducial volume anticipated for the JUNO detector offer exciting opportunities for addressing many important topics in neutrino and astro-particle physics. In this document, we present the physics motivations and the anticipated performance of the JUNO detector for various proposed measurements. Following an introduction summarizing the current status and open issues in neutrino physics, we discuss how the detection of antineutrinos generated by a cluster of nuclear power plants allows the determination of the neutrino MH at a 3-4σ significance with six years of running of JUNO. The measurement of antineutrino spectrum with excellent energy resolution will also lead to the precise determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters {{sin}}2{θ }12, {{Δ }}{m}212, and | {{Δ }}{m}{ee}2| to an accuracy of better than 1%, which will play a crucial role in the future unitarity test of the MNSP matrix. The JUNO detector is capable of observing not only antineutrinos from the power plants, but also neutrinos/antineutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources, including supernova burst neutrinos, diffuse supernova neutrino background, geoneutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and solar neutrinos. As a result of JUNO's large size, excellent energy resolution, and vertex reconstruction capability, interesting new data on these topics can be collected. For example, a neutrino burst from a typical core-collapse supernova at a distance of 10 kpc would lead to ˜5000 inverse-beta-decay events and ˜2000 all-flavor neutrino-proton ES events in JUNO, which are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanism of supernova explosion and for exploring novel phenomena such as collective neutrino oscillations

  18. Experimental data on solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludhova, Livia

    2016-04-01

    Neutrino physics continues to be a very active research field, full of opened fundamental questions reaching even beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles and towards a possible new physics. Solar neutrinos have played a fundamental historical role in the discovery of the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations and thus non-zero neutrino mass. Even today, the study of solar neutrinos provides an important insight both into the neutrino as well as into the stellar and solar physics. In this section we give an overview of the most important solar-neutrino measurements from the historical ones up to the most recent ones. We cover the results from the experiments using radio-chemic (Homestake, SAGE, GNO, GALLEX), water Cherenkov (Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO), and the liquid-scintillator (Borexino, KamLAND) detection techniques.

  19. Solar Neutrino Problem

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Evans, J. C.; Cleveland, B. T.

    1978-04-28

    A summary of the results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment is given and discussed in relation to solar model calculations. A review is given of the merits of various new solar neutrino detectors that were proposed.

  20. Neutrino Physics

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lederman, L. M.

    1963-01-09

    The prediction and verification of the neutrino are reviewed, together with the V A theory for its interactions (particularly the difficulties with the apparent existence of two neutrinos and the high energy cross section). The Brookhaven experiment confirming the existence of two neutrinos and the cross section increase with momentum is then described, and future neutrino experiments are considered. (D.C.W.)

  1. Impact on Astrophysics and Elementary Particle Physics of recent and future Solar Neutrino data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, V.; Miramonti, L.

    2014-06-01

    The study of neutrinos is fundamental to connect astrophysics and elementary particle physics. In this last decade solar neutrino experiments and Kam-LAND confirmed the LMA solution and further clarified the oscillation pattern. Borexino attacked also the study of the low energy neutrino spectrum. However, important points still need clarification, like the apparent anomaly in the vacuum to matter transition region. Besides, a more detailed study of the low energy components of the pp cycle, combined with a measurement of CNO fluxes, is compulsory, also to discriminate between the low and the high Z versions of the Solar Standard Models and solve the metallicity problem. We discuss the main recent advancements and the possibilities of studying these open problems with Borexino, SNO+ and the future experiments, like the next generation of scintillators.

  2. Solar Neutrinos: Status and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.; Hamish Robertson, R. G.; Serenelli, Aldo M.

    2013-08-01

    We describe the current status of solar neutrino measurements and of the theory—both neutrino physics and solar astrophysics—employed in interpreting measurements. Important recent developments include Super-Kamiokande's determination of the ν-e elastic scattering rate for 8B neutrinos to 3%; the latest Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) global analysis in which the inclusion of low-energy data from SNO I and II significantly narrowed the range of allowed values for the neutrino mixing angle θ12; Borexino results for both the 7Be and proton-electron-proton (pep) neutrino fluxes, the first direct measurements constraining the rate of proton-proton (pp) I and pp II burning in the Sun; global reanalyses of solar neutrino data that take into account new reactor results on θ13; a new decadal evaluation of the nuclear physics of the pp chain and CNO cycle defining best values and uncertainties in the nuclear microphysics input to solar models; recognition of an emerging discrepancy between two tests of solar metallicity, helioseismological mappings of the sound speed in the solar interior, and analyses of the metal photoabsorption lines based on our best current description of the Sun's photosphere; a new round of standard solar model calculations optimized to agree either with helioseismology or with the new photospheric analysis; and, motivated by the solar abundance problem, the development of nonstandard, accreting solar models, in order to investigate possible consequences of the metal segregation that occurred in the proto-solar disk. We review this progress and describe how new experiments such as SNO+ could help us further exploit neutrinos as a unique probe of stellar interiors.

  3. Report on solar neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R. Jr.; Cleveland, B.T.; Rowley, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is given of the status of solar neutrino research that includes results of the Brookhaven chlorine detector, a discussion of the development of the gallium, bromine, and lithium radiochemical detectors, and some proposals for direct counting detectors. The gallium and bromine radiochemical detectors are developed and are capable of giving critical information of interest about neutrino physics and the fusion reactions in the interior of the sun. A plan for building these detectors is outlined and a rough cost estimate is given. A review is given of the plans in the Soviet Union in solar neutrino research.

  4. Solar neutrinos: Probing the sun or neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The decade of the 1990's should prove to be a landmark period for the study of solar neutrino physics. Current observations show 2-3 times fewer neutrinos coming from the sun than are theoretically expected. As we enter the decade, new experiments are poised to attempt and discover whether this deficit is a problem with our understanding of how the sun works, is a hint of new neutrino properties beyond those predicted by the standard model of particle physics, or perhaps a combination of both. This paper will review the current status of the field and point out how future measurements should help solve this interesting puzzle. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Solar neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Miramonti, Lino

    2009-04-30

    More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

  6. SOLAR NEUTRINO PHYSICS OSCILLATIONS: SENSITIVITY TO THE ELECTRONIC DENSITY IN THE SUN'S CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilidio; Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt

    2013-03-01

    Solar neutrinos coming from different nuclear reactions are now detected with high statistics. Consequently, an accurate spectroscopic analysis of the neutrino fluxes arriving on Earth's detectors becomes available, in the context of neutrino oscillations. In this work, we explore the possibility of using this information to infer the radial profile of the electronic density in the solar core. So, we discuss the constraints on the Sun's density and chemical composition that can be determined from solar neutrino observations. This approach constitutes an independent and alternative diagnostic to the helioseismic investigations already done. The direct inversion method, which we propose to obtain the radial solar electronic density profile, is almost independent of the solar model.

  7. Neutrino Physics with Opera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolin, Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    Neutrino physics with the OPERA experiment will be discussed in this paper. First the OPERA physic goal will be presented. A description of the neutrino beam and of the detector will follow. The analysis of the beam induced neutrino interactions will then be presented.

  8. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris

    2012-06-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures. Neutrinos and photons are by far the most abundant elementary particles in the universe. Thus, if we would like to comprehend the universe, we must understand the neutrinos. Of course, studying the neutrinos is challenging, since the only known forces through which these electrically-neutral leptons interact are the weak force and gravity. Consequently, interactions of neutrinos in a detector are very rare events, so that very large detectors and intense neutrino sources are needed to make experiments feasible. Nevertheless, we have confirmed that the weak interactions of neutrinos are correctly described by the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics. Moreover, in the last 14 years, we have discovered that neutrinos have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. These discoveries have been based on the observation that neutrinos can change from one 'flavor' to another - the phenomenon known as neutrino oscillation. We shall explain the physics of neutrino oscillation, deriving the probability of oscillation in a new way. We shall also provide a very brief guide to references that can be used to study some major neutrino-physics topics other than neutrino oscillation.

  9. Neutrino Physics at Fermilab

    ScienceCinema

    Saoulidou, Niki

    2010-01-08

    Neutrino oscillations provide the first evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. I will briefly overview the neutrino "hi-story", describing key discoveries over the past decades that shaped our understanding of neutrinos and their behavior. Fermilab was, is and hopefully will be at the forefront of the accelerator neutrino experiments.  NuMI, the most powerful accelerator neutrino beam in the world has ushered us into the era of precise measurements. Its further upgrades may give a chance to tackle the remaining mysteries of the neutrino mass hierarchy and possible CP violation.

  10. Recent Results in Solar Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldanha, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Solar neutrinos are an invaluable tool for studying neutrino oscillations in matter as well as probing the nuclear reactions that fuel the Sun. In this talk I will give an overview of solar neutrinos and discuss the latest results in the field. I will highlight the recent precision measurement of the ^7Be solar neutrino interaction rate with the Borexino solar neutrino detector and present the status of the analysis of pep and CNO neutrinos. I will also briefly describe future experiments and their potential to detect low energy solar neutrinos.

  11. John Bahcall and the Solar Neutrino Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, Neta

    2016-03-01

    ``I feel like dancing'', cheered John Bahcall upon hearing the exciting news from the SNO experiment in 2001. The results confirmed, with remarkable accuracy, John's 40-year effort to predict the rate of neutrinos from the Sun based on sophisticated Solar models. What began in 1962 by John Bahcall and Ray Davis as a pioneering project to test and confirm how the Sun shines, quickly turned into a four-decade-long mystery of the `Solar Neutrino Problem': John's models predicted a higher rate of neutrinos than detected by Davis and follow-up experiments. Was the theory of the Sun wrong? Were John's calculations in error? Were the neutrino experiments wrong? John worked tirelessly to understand the physics behind the Solar Neutrino Problem; he led the efforts to greatly increase the accurately of the solar model, to understand its seismology and neutrino fluxes, to use the neutrino fluxes as a test for new physics, and to advocate for important new experiments. It slowly became clear that none of the then discussed possibilities --- error in the Solar model or neutrino experiments --- was the culprit. The SNO results revealed that John's calculations, and hence the theory of the Solar model, have been correct all along. Comparison of the data with John's theory demanded new physics --- neutrino oscillations. The Solar Neutrino saga is one of the most amazing scientific stories of the century: exploring a simple question of `How the Sun Shines?' led to the discovery of new physics. John's theoretical calculations are an integral part of this journey; they provide the foundation for the Solar Neutrino Problem, for confirming how the Sun shines, and for the need of neutrino oscillations. His tenacious persistence, dedication, enthusiasm and love for the project, and his leadership and advocacy of neutrino physics over many decades are a remarkable story of scientific triumph. I know John is smiling today.

  12. Solar photons, phonons and neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitre, S. M.

    1998-06-01

    The inside of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to construct a reasonable picture of its interior with the help of the theory of stellar structure along with the input physics describing a multitude of processes occurring inside the Sun. In order to check the validity of these theoretical models there have been valiant attempts to measure the flux of neutrinos generated in the Sun's energy-generating core. The solar neutrino event rates reported by all the experiments to date have been consistently lower than those predicted by standard solar models. There is now a complementary probe, furnished by the accurately measured helioseismic data which provides stringent constraints on the physical conditions prevailing inside the Sun. It turns out that the helioseismically inferred density and sound speed profiles throughout the Sun's internal layers are close to those obtained with a standard solar model. A cooler solar core is, therefore, not a viable solution to account for the deficit in the measured neutrino fluxes. This leads one to the unavoidable conclusion that the solution to the solar neutrino puzzle should be sought in the realm of particle physics.

  13. Solar neutrinos, helioseismology and the solar internal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine; Couvidat, Sébastien

    2011-08-01

    Neutrinos are fundamental particles ubiquitous in the Universe and whose properties remain elusive despite more than 50 years of intense research activity. This review illustrates the importance of solar neutrinos in astrophysics, nuclear physics and particle physics. After a description of the historical context, we remind the reader of the noticeable properties of these particles and of the stakes of the solar neutrino puzzle. The standard solar model triggered persistent efforts in fundamental physics to predict the solar neutrino fluxes, and its constantly evolving predictions have been regularly compared with the detected neutrino signals. Anticipating that this standard model could not reproduce the internal solar dynamics, a seismic solar model was developed which enriched theoretical neutrino flux predictions with in situ observation of acoustic and gravity waves propagating in the Sun. This seismic model contributed to the stabilization of the neutrino flux predictions. This review recalls the main historical steps, from the pioneering Homestake mine experiment and the GALLEX-SAGE experiments capturing the first proton-proton neutrinos. It emphasizes the importance of the SuperKamiokande and SNO detectors. Both experiments demonstrated that the solar-emitted electron neutrinos are partially transformed into other neutrino flavors before reaching the Earth. This sustained experimental effort opens the door to neutrino astronomy, with long-base lines and underground detectors. The success of BOREXINO in detecting the 7Be neutrino signal alone instills confidence in physicists' ability to detect each neutrino source separately. It justifies the building of a new generation of detectors to measure the entire solar neutrino spectrum in greater detail, as well as supernova neutrinos. A coherent picture has emerged from neutrino physics and helioseismology. Today, new paradigms take shape in these two fields: neutrinos are massive particles, but their masses are

  14. Experimental Anomalies in Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamara, Ornella

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, experimental anomalies ranging in significance (2.8-3.8 σ) have been reported from a variety of experiments studying neutrinos over baselines less than 1 km. Results from the LSND and MiniBooNE short-baseline νe /νe appearance experiments show anomalies which cannot be described by oscillations between the three standard model neutrinos (the ``LSND anomaly''). In addition, a re-analysis of the anti-neutrino flux produced by nuclear power reactors has led to an apparent deficit in νe event rates in a number of reactor experiments (the ``reactor anomaly''). Similarly, calibration runs using 51Cr and 37Ar radioactive sources in the Gallium solar neutrino experiments GALLEX and SAGE have shown an unexplained deficit in the electron neutrino event rate over very short distances (the ``Gallium anomaly''). The puzzling results from these experiments, which together may suggest the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model and hint at exciting new physics, including the possibility of additional low-mass sterile neutrino states, have raised the interest in the community for new experimental efforts that could eventually solve this puzzle. Definitive evidence for sterile neutrinos would be a revolutionary discovery, with implications for particle physics as well as cosmology. Proposals to address these signals by employing accelerator, reactor and radioactive source experiments are in the planning stages or underway worldwide. In this talk some of these will be reviewed, with emphasis on the accelerator programs.

  15. Everything under the sun: A review of solar neutrinos

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gann, Gabriel D. Orebi

    2015-07-15

    Solar neutrinos offer a unique opportunity to study the interaction of neutrinos with matter, a sensitive search for potential new physics effects, and a probe of solar structure and solar system formation. This paper describes the broad physics program addressed by solar neutrino studies, presents the current suite of experiments programs, and describes several potential future detectors that could address the open questions in this field. This paper is a summary of a talk presented at the Neutrino 2014 conference in Boston.

  16. Everything under the Sun: A review of solar neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Gann, Gabriel D. Orebi

    2015-07-15

    Solar neutrinos offer a unique opportunity to study the interaction of neutrinos with matter, a sensitive search for potential new physics effects, and a probe of solar structure and solar system formation. This paper describes the broad physics program addressed by solar neutrino studies, presents the current suite of experiments programs, and describes several potential future detectors that could address the open questions in this field. This paper is a summary of a talk presented at the Neutrino 2014 conference in Boston.

  17. Everything under the Sun: A review of solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gann, Gabriel D. Orebi

    2015-07-01

    Solar neutrinos offer a unique opportunity to study the interaction of neutrinos with matter, a sensitive search for potential new physics effects, and a probe of solar structure and solar system formation. This paper describes the broad physics program addressed by solar neutrino studies, presents the current suite of experiments programs, and describes several potential future detectors that could address the open questions in this field. This paper is a summary of a talk presented at the Neutrino 2014 conference in Boston.

  18. Solar Neutrinos. II. Experimental

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1964-01-01

    A method is described for observing solar neutrinos from the reaction Cl{sup 37}(nu,e{sup -})Ar{sup 37} in C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}. Two 5 00-gal tanks of C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} were placed in a limestone mine (1800 m.w.e.) and the resulting Ar{sup 37} activity induced by cosmic mesons( mu ) was measured to determine the necessary conditions for solar neutrino observations. (R.E.U.)

  19. Neutrino mass and New physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. Yu

    2006-11-01

    Reconstruction of the neutrino mass and flavor spectrum is described. Essentially two processes are relevant for interpretation of the neutrino results which were used in determination of neutrino parameters: oscillations (averaged and non-averaged) in vacuum and matter and the adiabatic flavor conversion in matter (the MSW-effect). Detailed physics picture of these processes is elaborated and their realizations in solar and atmospheric neutrinos as well as in K2K, KamLAND and MINOS experiments are described. Important bounds have been obtained from neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmology. Implications of the obtained results to fundamental physics are discussed. Among various mechanisms for small neutrino masses we consider the seesaw (which has the highest priority) and overlap suppression in extra dimensions. The observed pattern on neutrino mixing may testify for existence of new symmetries of nature. One of the key issues on the way to underlying physics is comparison of the quarks and lepton masses and mixing. In this connections concepts of quark-lepton symmetry and unification, quark-lepton universality and quark-lepton complementarity are described.

  20. Summary: Neutrinos and nonaccelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper contains brief synopsis of the following major topics discussed in the neutrino and nonaccelerator parallel sessions: dark matter; neutrino oscillations at accelerators and reactors; gamma-ray astronomy; double beta decay; solar neutrinos; and the possible existence of a 17-KeV neutrino. (LSP)

  1. The status of the solar neutrino problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.

    1993-12-01

    Perhaps the most outstanding discrepancy between prediction and measurements in current particle physics comes from the solar neutrino problem, in which a large deficit of high-energy solar neutrinos is observed. Many Nonstandard Solar Models have been invoked to try to reduce the predicted flux, but all have run into problems in trying to reproduce other measured parameters (e.g., the luminosity) of the Sun. Other explanations involving new physics such as neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations, etc. have also been proffered. Again, most of these explanations have been ruled out by either laboratory or astrophysical measurements. It appears that perhaps the most likely particle physics solution is that of matter enhanced neutrino oscillation, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations. Two new radiochemical gallium experiments, which have a low enough threshold to be sensitive to the dominant flux of low-energy p-p neutrinos, now also report a deficit and also favor a particle physics solution. The next generation of solar experiments promise to finally resolve the source of the ``solar neutrino problem`` by the end of this decade.

  2. Recent developments in neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    I shall attempt to summarize recent developments in the experimental situation in neutrino physics. The paper will deal with recent results, drawing on either published work or research that has been presented in preprint form, as there is an adequate supply of interesting and controversial data restricting oneself to these generally more reliable sources. The discussion of the theoretical implication of these experimental results will be presented in the following paper by Boris Kayser. The topics to be covered in this presentation are: direct measurements of {bar {nu}}{sub e} mass via beta endpoint studies; status of solar neutrino observations; status of 17-keV neutrino'' reports; and the use of {nu}p elastic scattering to determine the strange quark'' content of the proton. 2 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Dark matter and the solar neutrino problem: Can particle physics provide a single solution

    SciTech Connect

    West, G.B. )

    1989-01-01

    We show how a relatively simple extension of the standard model can give a natural'' explanation for both the solar neutrino and dark matter problems. What is required is a new stable neutral lepton with a mass in the 4--8 GeV range. One possibility is a fourth generation neutrino interacting with matter either electromagnetically or via higgs-exchange (in addition, of course, to Z{degree}-exchange). In the former case, a new charged lepton with mass {approximately}10GeV would be required in order to generate a sufficiently large magnetic moment. The present experimental situation makes this possibility rather doubtful. In the latter case, a light higgs with mass {approximately}1GeV is required; this is still not ruled out experimentally. In any case, direct (or indirect) detection of dark matter will, during the next year, seal the fate of this model. 29 refs.

  4. A Possible Role of Neutrinos in Stimulating Beta Decays and its Significance for Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.; Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2014-06-01

    We find evidence from measurements of Ag108, Ba133, Eu152, Eu154, Ra226 and Sr90 (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany), Rn222 (Geological Survey of Israel), Co60, Pu239, and Sr90 (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia), Cl36 and Si32 (Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA) and Mn54 (Purdue University, USA) that beta-decay rates tend to be variable, and that the Sun is responsible for some - perhaps all - of the variability. One variation is an annual oscillation with amplitude about 0.1% and maximum in January or February, presumably related to the annually varying Sun-Earth distance. We also find evidence for two rotational modulations, one with a measured (synodic) frequency of about 12.5 year-1 (an absolute, sidereal frequency of 13.5 year-1), due perhaps to processes in the radiative zone, and another with a synodic frequency of about 11 year-1 (12 year-1 sidereal), due perhaps to processes in an inner tachocline between the core and the radiative zone. A steep gradient in angular velocity (as in a tachocline) is known to be unstable and generate r-mode oscillations. These may be detectable as Rieger-type oscillations in the outer tachocline, and to similar oscillations (with correspondingly lower frequencies, in proportion to the sidereal rotation frequencies) in the inner tachocline. We find evidence for such r-mode oscillations not only in beta-decay data, but also in solar diameter data. A possible explanation of the apparent beta-decay variability is that decays may be stimulated by neutrinos. Since the flavor composition of the neutrino flux can be modified by the Sun’s internal magnetic field (via Resonant Spin Flavor Precession), magnetohydrodynamic processes in the deep solar interior may be detectable on Earth as neutrino-stimulated beta-decay fluctuations. Experiments suggest that a nuclide such as 32Si has a beta-decay-equivalent-cross-section of order 10-25 cm2, larger than the neutrino-equivalent-cross-section of an electron or

  5. PREFACE: Neutrino physics at spallation neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avignone, F. T.; Chatterjee, L.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Strayer, M.

    2003-11-01

    Unique because of their super-light masses and tiny interaction cross sections, neutrinos combine fundamental physics on the scale of the miniscule with macroscopic physics on the scale of the cosmos. Starting from the ignition of the primal p-p chain of stellar and solar fusion reactions that signal star-birth, these elementary leptons (neutrinos) are also critical players in the life-cycles and explosive deaths of massive stars and the production and disbursement of heavy elements. Stepping beyond their importance in solar, stellar and supernova astrophysics, neutrino interactions and properties influence the evolution, dynamics and symmetries of the cosmos as a whole. Further, they serve as valuable probes of its material content at various levels of structure from atoms and nuclei to valence and sea quarks. In the light of the multitude of physics phenomena that neutrinos influence, it is imperative to enhance our understanding of neutrino interactions and properties to the maximum. This is accentuated by the recent evidence of finite neutrino mass and flavour mixing between generations that reverberates on the plethora of physics that neutrinos influence. Laboratory experiments using intense neutrino fluxes would allow precision measurements and determination of important neutrino reaction rates. These can then complement atmospheric, solar and reactor experiments that have enriched so valuably our understanding of the neutrino and its repertoire of physics applications. In particular, intermediate energy neutrino experiments can provide critical information on stellar and solar astrophysical processes, along with advancing our knowledge of nuclear structure, sub-nuclear physics and fundamental symmetries. So where should we look for such intense neutrino sources? Spallation neutron facilities by their design are sources of intense neutrino pulses that are produced as a by-product of neutron spallation. These neutrino sources could serve as unique laboratories

  6. Planck scale effects in neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, E. K.; Senjanovic, G.; Tao, Zhi-Jan; Berezhiani, Z. G.

    1992-08-01

    We study the phenomenology and cosmology of the Majoron (flavon) models of one inert neutrino and three active ones. We pay special attention to the possible (almost) conserved generalization of the Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud lepton charge. Using Planck scale physics effects, which provide the breaking of the lepton charge, we show how, in this picture, one can incorporate the solutions to some of the central issues in neutrino physics, such as the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles, dark matter, and a 17 keV neutrino. These gravitation effects induce tiny Majorana mass terms for neutrinos and considerable masses for flavons. The cosmological demand for the sufficiently fast decay of flavons implies a lower limit on the electron neutrino mass in the range of 0.1-1 eV.

  7. Planck scale effects in neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Eugeni Kh.; Berezhiani, Zurab G.; Senjanović, Goran; Tao, Zhijian

    1993-04-01

    We study the phenomenology and cosmology of the Majoron (flavon) models of three active and one inert neutrino paying special attention to the possible (almost) conserved generalization of the Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud lepton charge. Using Planck scale physics effects which provide the breaking of the lepton charge, we show how in this picture one can incorporate the solutions to some of the central issues in neutrino physics such as the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles and the dark matter problem with the possible existence of a heavy (1-10 keV) neutrino. These gravitational effects induce tiny Majorana mass terms for neutrinos and considerable masses for flavons. The cosmological demand for the sufficiently fast decay of flavons implies a lower limit on the electron-neutrino mass in the range of 0.1-1 eV.

  8. Cosmology and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigman, Gary

    1982-05-01

    Constraints on cosmology and on neutrino physics are provided by the abundances of the light elements produced during the early evolution of the universe. The predictions of primordial nucleosynthesis depend on the nucleon to photon ratio ɛ and on the number of types of two component neutrinos Nν. A comparison between the big bang predictions and the observed abundances of D, 3He, 4He and 7Li shows that ɛ is constrained to a narrow range around 4×10-10 and Nν<~4. An important consequence of the derived value of ɛ is that the universal density of nucleon is small, raising the possibility that our Universe may be dominated by massive relic neutrinos. The constraint on Nn suggests that (almost) all lepton species are now known.

  9. An Experimentalist's Overview of Solar Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oser, Scott M.

    2012-02-01

    Four decades of solar neutrino research have demonstrated that solar models do a remarkable job of predicting the neutrino fluxes from the Sun, to the extent that solar neutrinos can now serve as a calibrated neutrino source for experiments to understand neutrino oscillations and mixing. In this review article I will highlight the most significant experimental results, with emphasis on the latest model-independent measurements from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The solar neutrino fluxes are seen to be generally well-determined experimentally, with no indications of time variability, while future experiments will elucidate the lower energy part of the neutrino spectrum, especially pep and CNO neutrinos.

  10. Neutrino physics at muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.J.

    1998-03-01

    An overview is given of the neutrino physics potential of future muon storage rings that use muon collider technology to produce, accelerate and store large currents of muons. After a general characterization of the neutrino beam and its interactions, some crude quantitative estimates are given for the physics performance of a muon ring neutrino experiment (MURINE) consisting of a high rate, high performance neutrino detector at a 250 GeV muon collider storage ring.

  11. Oscillations of solar atmosphere neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Mirizzi, A.; Montanino, D.; Serpico, P. D.

    2006-11-01

    The Sun is a source of high-energy neutrinos (E(greater-or-similar sign)10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations (in vacuum and in matter) on solar atmosphere neutrinos, and calculate their observable fluxes at Earth, as well as their event rates in a kilometer-scale detector in water or ice. We find that peculiar three-flavor oscillation effects in matter, which can occur in the energy range probed by solar atmosphere neutrinos, are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, we find that the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged vacuum oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle {theta}{sub 23})

  12. Solar Neutrinos, SNO and SNOLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, A. B.

    2007-06-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has completed operation in its third phase with an array of neutron detectors in 1000 tonnes of heavy water and Cherenkov light detection 2 km underground in INCO's Creighton mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Data from the third phase is now being analyzed. In the first two phases of the project reported previously, the neutral current reaction on deuterium was used to determine the total flux of active neutrinos and the charged current reaction on deuterium provided a measure of the flux and energy spectrum of solar electron neutrinos. The flux of electron neutrinos was found to be only about one third of the total flux, providing clear evidence of neutrino flavour change. The total flux of active neutrinos was found to be in agreement with solar model calculations. The underground laboratory is being expanded to create an international facility known as SNOLAB that will be completed at the end of 2007. Proposed future experiments for the detection of lower energy solar neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, dark matter and double beta decay are described.

  13. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  14. Report of the Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H.; Bahcall, J.N.; Bernabeu, J.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowles, T.; Calaprice, F.; Champagne, A.; Freedman, S.; Gai, M.; Galbiati, C.; Gallagher, H.; Gonzalez-Garcia, C.; Hahn, R.L.; Heeger, K.M.; Hime, A.; Jung, C.K.; Klein, J.R.; Koike, M.; Lanou, R.; Learned, J.G.; Lesko, K.T.; Losecco, J.; Maltoni, M.; Mann, A.; McKinsey, D.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Pena-Garay, C.; Petcov, S.T.; Piepke, A.; Pitt, M.; Raghavan, R.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Scholberg, K.; Sobel, H.W.; Takeuchi, T.; Vogelaar, R.; Wolfenstein, L.

    2004-10-22

    large scale water Cerenkov detector, or a magnetized detector with flavor and antiflavor sensitivity. Additional priorities are nuclear physics measurements which will reduce the uncertainties in the predictions of the Standard Solar Model, and similar supporting measurements for atmospheric neutrinos (cosmic ray fluxes, magnetic fields, etc.). We note as well that the detectors for both solar and atmospheric neutrino measurements can serve as multipurpose detectors, with capabilities of discovering dark matter, relic supernova neutrinos, proton decay, or as targets for long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments.

  15. Panel Discussion v: Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obraztsov, Vladimir; Konaka, Akira; Ikeda, Motoyasu; Jediny, Filip; Shirokov, Evgeny; Kalekin, Oleg; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Questions to discuss: * Can sidereal time analysis of the long time neutrino observations give information about the galaxy distribution in the Local Universe? * How well do we need to know the PMNS matrix elements? * Is the existence of MSW effect proved experimentally? * Are there new species of neutrino (e.g. the sterile one)? * What are other most important problems in neutrino physics (CP-violation)? * Can sidereal time analysis of the long time neutrino observations give information about the galaxy distribution in the Local Universe? * Perspectives of existing and future neutrino experiments (LNBF, LAGUNA, ICARUS, SHIP ...)

  16. CNO and pep solar neutrino measurements and perspectives in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davini, S.; Agostini, M.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    The detection of neutrinos emitted in the CNO reactions in the Sun is one of the ambitious goals of Borexino Phase-II. A measurement of CNO neutrinos would be a milestone in astrophysics, and would allow to solve serious issues in current solar models. A precise measurement of the rate of neutrinos from the pep reaction would allow to investigate neutrino oscillations in the MSW transition region. The pep and CNO solar neutrino physics, the measurement in Borexino Phase-I and the perspectives for the new phase are reviewed in this proceeding.

  17. Radiochemical Solar Neutrino Experiments - Successful and Otherwise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn,R.L.

    2008-05-25

    Over the years, several different radiochemical systems have been proposed as solar neutrino detectors. Of these, two achieved operating status and obtained important results that helped to define the current field of neutrino physics: the first solar-neutrino experiment, the Chlorine Detector ({sup 37}Cl) that was developed by chemist Raymond Davis and colleagues at the Homestake Mine, and the subsequent Gallium ({sup 71}Ga) Detectors that were operated by (a) the SAGE collaboration at the Baksan Laboratory and (b) the GALLEX/GNO collaborations at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. These experiments have been extensively discussed in the literature and in many previous International Neutrino Conferences. In this paper, I present important updates to the results from SAGE and GALLEX/GNO. I also review the principles of the radiochemical detectors and briefly describe several different detectors that have been proposed. In light of the well-known successes that have been subsequently obtained by real-time neutrino detectors such as Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO, and KamLAND, I do not anticipate that any new radiochemical neutrino detectors will be built. At present, only SAGE is still operating; the Chlorine and GNO radiochemical detectors have been decommissioned and dismantled.

  18. Towards the resolution of the solar neutrino problem

    SciTech Connect

    Friedland, Alexander

    2000-08-29

    A number of experiments have accumulated over the years a large amount of solar neutrino data. The data indicate that the observed solar neutrino flux is significantly smaller than expected and, furthermore, that the electron neutrino survival probability is energy dependent. This ''solar neutrino problem'' is best solved by assuming that the electron neutrino oscillates into another neutrino species. Even though one can classify the solar neutrino deficit as strong evidence for neutrino oscillations, it is not yet considered a definitive proof. Traditional objections are that the evidence for solar neutrino oscillations relies on a combination of hard, different experiments, and that the Standard Solar Model (SSM) might not be accurate enough to precisely predict the fluxes of different solar neutrino components. Even though it seems unlikely that modifications to the SSM alone can explain the current solar neutrino data, one still cannot completely discount the possibility that a combination of unknown systematic errors in some of the experiments and certain modifications to the SSM could conspire to yield the observed data. To conclusively demonstrate that there is indeed new physics in solar neutrinos, new experiments are aiming at detecting ''smoking gun'' signatures of neutrino oscillations, such as an anomalous seasonal variation in the observed neutrino flux or a day-night variation due to the regeneration of electron neutrinos in the Earth. In this dissertation we study the sensitivity reach of two upcoming neutrino experiments, Borexino and KamLAND, to both of these effects. Results of neutrino oscillation experiments for the case of two-flavor oscillations have always been presented on the (sin{sup 2} 2{theta}, {Delta}m{sup 2}) parameter space. We point out, however, that this parameterization misses the half of the parameter space {pi}/4 < {theta} {le} {pi}/2, which is physically inequivalent to the region 0 {le} {theta} {le} {pi}/4 in the presence of

  19. Solar neutrinos: Real-time experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totsuka, Yoji

    1993-04-01

    This report outlines the principle of real-time solar neutrino detection experiments by detecting electrons with suitable target material, via Charged-Current (CC) reaction using conventional counting techniques developed in high-energy physics. Only B-8 neutrinos can be detected by minimum detectable energy of several MeV. The MSW (Mikheyev, Smirnov, Wolfenstein) effect not only distorts the energy spectrum but also induces new type of neutrinos, i.e. mu-neutrinos or tau-neutrinos. These neutrinos do not participate in the CC reaction. Therefore real-time experiment is to be sensitive to Neutral Current (NC) reactions. It is a challenge to eliminate environment background as much as possible and to lower the minimum detectable energy to several 100 keV, which will enable observation of Be-7 neutrinos. Target particles of real-time experiments currently running and under construction or planning are electron, deuteron, or argon. The relevant reactions corresponding to CC reaction and some relevant comments on the following targets are described: (1) electron target; (2) deuteron target; and (3) argon target. On-going experiment and future experiments for real-time neutron detection are also outlined.

  20. Research in Neutrino Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Busenitz, Jerome

    2014-09-30

    Research in Neutrino Physics We describe here the recent activities of our two groups over the first year of this award (effectively November 2010 through January 2012) and our proposed activities and associated budgets for the coming grant year. Both of our groups are collaborating on the Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment and are playing major roles in calibration and analysis. A major milestone was reached recently: the collaboration obtained the first result on the search for 13 based on 100 days of data from the far detector. Our data indicates that 13 is not zero; specifically the best fit of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis to our data gives sin2 (2 13) = 0.086 ± 0.041 (stat) ± 0.030 (syst) The null oscillation hypothesis is excluded at the 94.6% C.L. This result1 has been submitted to Physical Review Letters. As we continue to take data with the far detector in the coming year, in parallel with completing the construction of the near lab and installing the near detector, we expect the precision of our measurement to improve as we gather significantly more statistics, gain better control of backgrounds through use of partial power data and improved event selection, and better understand the detector energy scale and detection efficiency from calibration data. With both detectors taking data starting in the second half of 2013, we expect to further drive down the uncertainty on our measurement of sin2 (2 13) to less than 0.02. Stancu’s group is also collaborating on the MiniBooNE experiment. Data taking is scheduled to continue through April, by which time 1.18 × 1021 POT is projected. The UA group is playing a leading role in the measurement of antineutrino cross sections, which should be the subject of a publication later this year as well as of Ranjan Dharmapalan’s Ph.D. thesis, which he is expected to defend by the end of this year. It is time to begin working on projects which will eventually succeed Double Chooz and MiniBooNE as the main

  1. Unparticle physics and neutrino phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Barranco, J.; Bolanos, A.; Miranda, O. G.; Moura, C. A.; Rashba, T. I.

    2009-04-01

    We have constrained unparticle interactions with neutrinos and electrons using available data on neutrino-electron elastic scattering and the four CERN LEP experiments data on mono photon production. We have found that, for neutrino-electron elastic scattering, the MUNU experiment gives better constraints than previous reported limits in the region d>1.5. The results are compared with the current astrophysical limits, pointing out the cases where these limits may or may not apply. We also discuss the sensitivity of future experiments to unparticle physics. In particular, we show that the measurement of coherent reactor neutrino scattering off nuclei could provide a good sensitivity to the couplings of unparticle interaction with neutrinos and quarks. We also discuss the case of future neutrino-electron experiments as well as the International Linear Collider.

  2. Neutrino Physics in Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, Tamara Simeonova

    1997-11-01

    The models of exploding stars-supernovae-do not explode. This dissertation investigates the transfer of energy from the interior to the outer layers in such stars to try to understand what is missing in these models that would solve the supernova problem. Hydrodynamic instabilities and aspects in the microphysics of the neutrino transport in postcollapsed stellar matter are considered. In Chapter II we derive criteria for the presence of doubly diffusive instabilities believed to be essential for producing a supernova explosion. Contrary to the widely accepted view, we find that the core, if unstable, is unstable to semiconvection, rather than to neutron fingers. A critical value for the lepton fraction, Yl, is found for a given density and entropy, below which the stellar core is completely stable to instabilities. A considerable fraction of the stellar core is found to lie below the critical Yl. As the core evolves this fraction quickly encompasses the entire core. Thus doubly diffusive instabilities of any kind are unlikely to play a role in the supernova explosion mechanism. A strong magnetic field may modify the neutrino-nucleon absorption rates which are critical for shock reheating. In Chapter III we derive the cross section of neutrino absorption on neutrons in the presence of a strong magnetic field. We calculate values for the neutrino inverse mean free path and numerically compare them to the values in the non magnetic case. We find that they exhibit an oscillatory behavior, with huge peaks present due to discontinuities in the density of state. We conclude that the presence of a strong magnetic field does not yield a dramatic reduction in the inverse mean free paths which would be necessary to substantially increase the neutrino luminosity and revive the shock. Neutrino-neutrino scattering in the vicinity of the neutrino sphere may modify the neutrino luminosities and therefore affect shock reheating. In the last Chapter we calculate the neutrino-neutrino

  3. Detecting Solar Neutrino Flare in Megaton and km3 detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele; di Giacomo, Paola

    2009-03-01

    To foresee a solar flare neutrino signal we infer its upper and lower bound. The upper bound was derived since a few years by general energy equipartition arguments on observed solar particle flare. The lower bound, the most compelling one for any guarantee neutrino signal, is derived by most recent records of hard Gamma bump due to solar flare on January 2005 (by neutral pion decay). Because neutral and charged pions (made by hadron scattering in the flare) are born on the same foot, their link is compelling: the observed gamma flux [Grechnev V.V. et al., arXiv:0806.4424, Solar Physics, Vol. 1, October, (2008), 252] reflects into a corresponding one for the neutrinos, almost one to one. Moreover while gamma photons might be absorbed (in deep corona) or at least reduced inside the flaring plasma, the secondaries neutrino are not. So pion neutrinos should be even more abundant than gamma ones. Tens-hundred MeV neutrinos may cross undisturbed the whole Sun, doubling at least their rate respect a unique solar-side for gamma flare. Therefore we obtain minimal bounds opening a windows for neutrino astronomy, already at the edge of present but quite within near future Megaton neutrino detectors. Such detectors are considered mostly to reveal cosmic supernova background or rare Local Group (few Mpc) Supernovas events [Matthew D. Kistler et al. 0810.1959v1]. However rarest (once a decade), brief (a few minutes) powerful solar neutrino “flare” may shine and they may overcome by two to three order of magnitude the corresponding steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, leading in largest Neutrino detector at least to one or to meaning-full few events clustered signals. The voice of such a solar anti-neutrino flare component at a few tens MeVs may induce an inverse beta decay over a vanishing anti-neutrino solar background. Megaton or even inner ten Megaton Ice Cube detector at ten GeV threshold may also reveal traces in hardest energy of solar flares. Icecube

  4. Variations in the Solar Neutrino Flux

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Cleveland, B. T.; Rowley, J. K.

    1987-08-02

    Observations are reported from the chlorine solar neutrino detector in the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota, USA. They extend from 1970 to 1985 and yield an average neutrino capture rate of 2.1 +- 0.3 SNU. The results from 1977 to 1985 show an anti-correlation with the solar activity cycle, and an apparent increased rate during large solar flares.

  5. Precision Solar Neutrino Measurements with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Oblath, Noah

    2007-10-26

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is the first experiment to measure the total flux of active, high-energy neutrinos from the sun. Results from SNO have solved the long-standing 'Solar Neutrino Problem' by demonstrating that neutrinos change flavor. SNO measured the total neutrino flux with the neutral-current interaction of solar neutrinos with 1000 tonnes of D{sub 2}O. In the first two phases of the experiment we detected the neutron from that interaction by capture on deuterium and capture on chlorine, respectively. In the third phase an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters was deployed in the detector. This allows a measurement of the neutral-current neutrons that is independent of the Cherenkov light detected by the PMT array. We are currently developing a unique, detailed simulation of the current pulses from the proportional-counter array that will be used to help distinguish signal and background pulses.

  6. Probing Exotic Physics With Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, Chris; Hooper, Dan

    2010-09-01

    Future galactic supernovae will provide an extremely long baseline for studying the properties and interactions of neutrinos. In this paper, we discuss the possibility of using such an event to constrain (or discover) the effects of exotic physics in scenarios that are not currently constrained and are not accessible with reactor or solar neutrino experiments. In particular, we focus on the cases of neutrino decay and quantum decoherence. We calculate the expected signal from a core-collapse supernova in both current and future water Cerenkov, scintillating, and liquid argon detectors, and find that such observations will be capable of distinguishing between many of these scenarios. Additionally, future detectors will be capable of making strong, model-independent conclusions by examining events associated with a galactic supernova's neutronization burst.

  7. Solar and Terrestrial Neutrino Results from Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaprice, Frank; Borexino Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    Borexino is a low background liquid scintillation detector currently acquiring solar and terrestrial neutrino data at the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy. In the three years since the start of operations in 2007, Borexino has produced measurements of 7Be and 8B solar neutrinos, as well as measurements of terrestrial and long-baseline reactor anti-neutrinos. The measurements of sub-MeV neutrinos were possible owing to a breakthrough in low background methods. Current results and prospects for future measurements with lower background and higher accuracy are discussed in the context of exploring the transition from vacuum to matter enhanced neutrino oscillations.

  8. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Walter, Chris [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

    2010-01-08

    In this talk, I will review how a set of experiments in the last decade has given us our current understanding of neutrino properties.  I will show how experiments in the last year or two have clarified this picture, and will discuss how new experiments about to start will address remaining questions.  I will particularly emphasize the relationship between various experimental techniques.

  9. Results of ultra-low level 71ge counting for application in the Gallex-solar neutrino experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Physics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampel, W.; Kiko, J.; Heusser, G.; Huebner, M.; Kirsten, T.; Schneider, K.; Schlotz, R.

    1985-01-01

    It has been experimentally verified that the Ultra-Low-Level Counting System for the Gallex solar neutrino experiment is capable of measuring the expected solar up silon-flux to plus or minus 12% during two years of operation.

  10. Planck-scale physics and neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Evgenii Kh.; Berezhiani, Zurab G.; Senjanovic, Goran

    1992-11-01

    We discuss gravitationally induced masses and mass splittings of Majorana, Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud, and Dirac neutrinos. Among other implications, these effects can provide a solution of the solar neutrino puzzle. In particular, we show how this may work in the 17 keV neutrino picture.

  11. Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The areas of emphasis are: (1) develop theoretical models of the transient release of magnetic energy in the solar atmosphere, e.g., in solar flares, eruptive prominences, coronal mass ejections, etc.; (2) investigate the role of the Sun's magnetic field in the structuring of solar corona by the development of three-dimensional numerical models that describe the field configuration at various heights in the solar atmosphere by extrapolating the field at the photospheric level; (3) develop numerical models to investigate the physical parameters obtained by the ULYSSES mission; (4) develop numerical and theoretical models to investigate solar activity effects on the solar wind characteristics for the establishment of the solar-interplanetary transmission line; and (5) develop new instruments to measure solar magnetic fields and other features in the photosphere, chromosphere transition region and corona. We focused our investigation on the fundamental physical processes in solar atmosphere which directly effect our Planet Earth. The overall goal is to establish the physical process for the Sun-Earth connections.

  12. Electron-neutrino survival probability from solar-neutrino data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezinsky, V.; Lissia, M.

    2001-11-01

    With SNO data [SNO Collaboration, nucl-ex/0106015] on electron-neutrino flux from the sun, it is possible to derive the νe survival probability Pee(E) from existing experimental data of Super-Kamiokande, gallium experiments and Homestake. The combined data of SNO and Super-Kamiokande provide boron νe flux and the total flux of all active boron neutrinos, giving thus Pee(E) for boron neutrinos. The Homestake detector, after subtraction of the signal from boron neutrinos, gives the flux of Be/+CNO neutrinos, and Pee for the corresponding energy interval, if the produced flux is taken from the Standard Solar Model (SSM). Gallium detectors, GALLEX, SAGE and GNO, detect additionally /pp-neutrinos. The /pp flux can be calculated subtracting from the gallium signal the rate due to boron, beryllium and CNO neutrinos. The ratio of the measured /pp-neutrino flux to that predicted by the SSM gives the survival probability for /pp-neutrinos. Comparison with theoretical survival probabilities shows that the best (among known models) fit is given by LMA and LOW solutions.

  13. The Renaissance of Neutrino Interaction Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Hugh R.

    2009-12-17

    The advent of high intensity neutrino beams for neutrino oscillation experiments has produced a resurgence of interest in neutrino interaction physics. Recent experiments have been revisiting topics not studied since the bubble chamber era, and are exploring many interesting questions at the boundaries of particle and nuclear physics.

  14. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  15. Planck 2015 constraints on neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattanzi, Massimiliano

    2016-05-01

    Anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation represent a powerful probe of neutrino physics, complementary to laboratory experiments. Here I review constraints on neutrino properties from the recent 2015 data from the Planck satellite.

  16. Variations in the solar neutrino flux

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R. Jr.; Cleveland, B.T.; Rowley, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Observations are reported from the chlorine solar neutrino detector in the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota, USA. They extend from 1970 to 1985 and yield an average neutrino capture rate of 2.1 +- 0.3 SNU. The results from 1977 to 1985 show an anti-correlation with the solar activity cycle, and an apparent increased rate during large solar flares. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  17. The Borexino solar neutrino experiment and its scintillator containment vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadonati, Laura

    2001-05-01

    Thirty years ago, the first solar neutrino detector proved fusion reactions power the Sun. However, the total rate detected in this and all subsequent solar neutrino experiments is consistently two to three times lower than predicted by the Standard Solar Model. Current experiments seek to explain this ``solar neutrino puzzle'' through non-standard particle properties, like neutrino mass and flavor mixing, within the context of the MSW theory. The detection of the monoenergetic 7Be solar neutrino is the missing clue for the solution of the solar neutrino problem; this constitutes the main physics goal of Borexino, a real- time, high-statistics solar neutrino detector located under the Gran Sasso mountain, in Italy. In the first part of this thesis, I present a Monte Carlo study of the expected performance of Borexino, with simulations of the neutrino rate, the external y background and the α/β/γ activity in the scintillator. The Standard Solar Model predicts a solar neutrino rate of about 60 events/day in Borexino in the 0.25-0.8 MeV window, mostly due to 7Be neutrinos. Given the design scintillator radiopurity levels (10-16 g/g 238U and 232Th and 10-14 g/g K), Borexino will detect such a rate with a ~2.4% statistical error, after one year. In the MSW Small (Large) Angle scenario, the predicted rate of ~13 (33) events/day will be detected with 8% (4%) error. The sensitivity of Borexino to 8B and pp neutrinos and to a Galactic supernova event is also discussed. The second part of this dissertation is devoted to the liquid scintillator containment vessel, an 8.5 m diameter sphere built of bonded panels of 0.125 mm polymer film. Through an extensive materials testing program we have identified an amorphous nylon-6 film which meets all the critical requirements for the success of Borexino. I describe tests of tensile strength, measurements of 222Rn diffusion through thin nylon films and of optical clarity. I discuss how the materials' radiopurity and mechanical

  18. PREFACE: Prospects in Neutrino Physics 2013 - NuPhys2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    The first "Prospects in Neutrino Physics 2013 - NuPhys2013" conference was held at the Institute of Physics, IoP, London, 19-20 December 2013 and was attended by about 130 delegates from institutions worldwide. Lunch and coffee breaks allowed discussions among delegates and speakers to take place in an informal setting. This conference is unique in discussing the worldwide strategy to address unresolved issues in neutrino physics, and shape the future directions of particle physics. We discussed the current status and focussed especially on the prospects of future experiments, their performance and physics reach. It is particularly timely due to the recent measurements in neutrino physics and planned worldwide experiments. The following topics were addressed: • Theory and Phenomenology Perspectives • Future Long and Short Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments • Reactor neutrino and flux • Neutrinoless double beta decays • Solar, atmospheric, supernova neutrinosNeutrino cosmology in which both the phenomenological and experimental aspects were equally addressed. World-leading experts in the different neutrino areas were invited to give review talks. To encourage and facilitate the participation of early-career researchers and PhD students, a poster session formed a key aspect of this meeting. The conference was organized by Francesca Di Lodovico and Silvia Pascoli. It was sponsored by the IoP through their Topic Research Meeting Grant, and also supported by Durham IPPP, ERC-207282, FP7 invisibles project, Queen Mary University of London.

  19. Overview of the present status and challenges of neutrino oscillation physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mocioiu, Irina

    2012-11-20

    This is an overview of the current status of neutrino oscillation physics, including atmospheric, solar, reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments. After summarizing our present understanding of all data, I discuss the open questions and how they might be addressed in the future. I also discuss how neutrinos can be used to learn about new physics and astrophysics.

  20. Constraining Neutrino Magnetic Moments with Solar and Reactor Neutrino Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tórtola, M. A.

    We use the latest solar neutrino data, combined with the results of the reactor experiment KamLAND, to derive stringent bounds on Majorana neutrino transition moments (TMs). Furthermore, we show how the inclusion of data from the reactor experiments Rovno, MUNU and TEXONO in our analysis improves significantly the current constraints on TMs. Finally, we perform a simulation of the future Borexino experiment and show that it will improve the bounds from today's data by one order of magnitude.

  1. Calibration of the solar neutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccianiga, Barbara; Re, Alessandra Carlotta

    2016-04-01

    Calibrations have been crucial for the success of solar neutrino experiments. In this contribution we review the calibration strategies adopted by different solar neutrino experiments. In particular, we will emphasize their common critical aspects and their main differences. In order to do so, we will schematically divide the solar neutrino experiments in two groups: those based on radiochemical techniques, i.e. Homestake, Gallex/GNO, SAGE and those based on real-time techniques i.e. Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO, Borexino and KamLAND.

  2. Results from the Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaprice, Frank; Galbiati, Cristiano; Wright, Alex; Ianni, Aldo

    2012-11-01

    Borexino is a low-background liquid scintillation detector currently acquiring solar and terrestrial neutrino data at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy. Since the start of operations in 2007, Borexino has produced measurements of 7Be, 8B, and pep solar neutrinos, as well as measurements of terrestrial and long-baseline reactor antineutrinos. The measurements were made possible by the development of low-background scintillator spectroscopy that enabled direct detection of sub-MeV solar neutrinos. The general design features of the detector are described together with current results and prospects for future measurements.

  3. Neutrino factories: realization and physics potential

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-12-01

    Neutrino Factories offer an exciting option for the long-term neutrino physics program. This new type of neutrino facility will provide beams with unique properties. Low systematic uncertainties at a Neutrino Factory, together with a unique and precisely known neutrino flavor content, will enable neutrino oscillation measurements to be made with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Over recent years, the resulting neutrino factory physics potential has been discussed extensively in the literature. In addition, over the last six years the R&D necessary to realize a Neutrino Factory has been progressing, and has developed into a significant international activity. It is expected that, within about five more years, the initial phase of this R&D program will be complete and, if the community chooses to build this new type of neutrino source within the following decade, neutrino factory technology will be ready for the final R&D phase prior to construction. In this paper (1) an overview is given of the technical ingredients needed for a Neutrino Factory, (2) beam properties are described, (3) the resulting neutrino oscillation physics potential is summarized, (4) a more detailed description is given for one representative Neutrino Factory design, and (5) the ongoing R&D program is summarized, and future plans briefly described.

  4. A broken E6 solution to the solar neutrino problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, G. G.; Segrè, G. C.

    1987-10-01

    Broken E6 models, as suggested by superstrings, may have stable massive neutrinos in matter multiplets. These can be candidates for the dark matter of the universe. If we choose an additional Z' in the E6 gauge multiplet to couple to these neutrinos, but not ordinary leptons, we may also solve the solar neutrino problem, without violating known experimental bounds. The Z' must have a mass comparable to the ordinary Z mass. On sabbatical leave from Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

  5. PREFACE: Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, Lars; Botner, Olga; Carlson, Per; Hulth, Per Olof; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics was held at Haga Slott in Enköping, Sweden during August 19 24, 2004. Invited to the symposium were around 40 globally leading researchers in the field of neutrino physics, both experimental and theoretical. In addition to these participants, some 30 local researchers and graduate students participated in the symposium. The dominant theme of the lectures was neutrino oscillations, which after several years were recently verified by results from the Super-Kamiokande detector in Kamioka, Japan and the SNO detector in Sudbury, Canada. Discussion focused especially on effects of neutrino oscillations derived from the presence of matter and the fact that three different neutrinos exist. Since neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have mass, this is the first experimental observation that fundamentally deviates from the standard model of particle physics. This is a challenge to both theoretical and experimental physics. The various oscillation parameters will be determined with increased precision in new, specially designed experiments. Theoretical physics is working intensively to insert the knowledge that neutrinos have mass into the theoretical models that describe particle physics. It will probably turn out that the discovery of neutrino oscillations signifies a breakthrough in the description of the very smallest constituents of matter. The lectures provided a very good description of the intensive situation in the field right now. The topics discussed also included mass models for neutrinos, neutrinos in extra dimensions as well as the `seesaw mechanism', which provides a good description of why neutrino masses are so small. Also discussed, besides neutrino oscillations, was the new field of neutrino astronomy. Among the questions that neutrino astronomy hopes to answer are what the dark matter in the Universe consists of and where cosmic radiation at extremely high energies comes from. For this purpose, large neutrino

  6. Update of GALLEX solar neutrino results and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsten, T.

    1995-01-01

    The galliumchloride detector operated by the GALLEX-collaboration in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory responds primarily to pp-neutrinos. They are produced in the primary fusion reaction of hydrogen into deuterium and directly coupled to the solar luminosity. Standard Solar Models predict ca. 58% of the total signal expected in GALLEX (123-132 SNU) to be due to pp-neutrinos. The relative pp-neutrino dominance becomes even larger if the deficit of higher energy neutrinos (as observed in the Homestake- and Kamiokande experiments) is considered. During the first data taking period, 15 solar runs had been performed within the exposure period 14.5.1991 - 29.4.1992. The result, 81 {+-} 17 {+-} 9 SNU provided the first experimental evidence for pp-neutrinos from the Sun. At the same time, it confirmed the depression of higher energy neutrino fluxes relative to the model predictions. Here the authors report the results of 15 more solar neutrino runs, covering the period 19.8.92 - 13.10.93. They obtain 78 {+-} 13 {+-} 5 SNU. Evaluated together, the result for all 30 runs is 79 {+-} 10 {+-} 6 SNU. While the SNU rate of GALLEX I is well reproduced the statistical error has been reduced so substantially that a value of signal +2{sigma} is required to accommodate not only pp-and pep- but also the {sup 7}Be-neutrino induced {sup 71}Ge-production. Contrary, the fate of {sup 8}B-neutrinos has only little discernible effect on the GALLEX data. In conclusion, with the present errors GALLEX constitutes a 2.5 {sigma} problem for {sup 7}Be neutrinos within the frame of {open_quotes}astrophysical{close_quotes} solutions. Alternatively, the particle physics solution (MSW-effect) can consistently explain all available solar neutrino results, leading to a most probable mass scale with the muon-neutrino at approximately 3 meV (milli-eV). However, since the GALLEX result allows the presence of pp and pep neutrinos at full strength. the latter explanation of the data is not forced.

  7. SAGE: Solar Neutrino Data from SAGE, the Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment

    DOE Data Explorer

    SAGE Collaboration

    SAGE is a solar neutrino experiment based on the reaction 71Ga + n goes to 71Ge + e-. The 71Ge atoms are chemically extracted from a 50-metric ton target of Ga metal and concentrated in a sample of germane gas mixed with xenon. The atoms are then individually counted by observing their decay back to 71Ga in a small proportional counter. The distinguishing feature of the experiment is its ability to detect the low-energy neutrinos from proton-proton fusion. These neutrinos, which are made in the primary reaction that provides the Sun's energy, are the major component of the solar neutrino flux and have not been observed in any other way. To shield the experiment from cosmic rays, it is located deep underground in a specially built facility at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the northern Caucasus mountains of Russia. Nearly 100 measurements of the solar neutrino flux have been made during 1990-2000, and their combined result is a neutrino capture rate that is well below the prediction of the Standard Solar Model. The significant suppression of the solar neutrino flux that SAGE and other solar neutrino experiments have observed gives a strong indication for the existence of neutrino oscillations. [copied from the SAGE homepage at http://ewi.npl.washington.edu/SAGE/SAGE.html

  8. Solar oscillation frequency and solar neutrino predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.

    1990-07-05

    The light and velocity variations of the Sun and solar-like stars are unique among intrinsic variable stars. Unlike all other standard classes, such as Cepheids, B stars, and white dwarfs, the pulsation driving is caused by coupling with the acoustic noise in the upper convection zone. Each global pulsation mode is just another degree of freedom for the turbulent convection, and energy is shared equally between these g{sup {minus}}-modes and the solar oscillation modes. This driving and damping, together with the normal stellar pulsation mechanisms produce extremely low amplitude solar oscillations. Actually, the surface layer radiative damping is strong, and the varying oscillation mode amplitudes manifest the stochastic convection driving and the steady damping. Thus stability calculations for solar-like pulsations are difficult and mostly inconclusive, but calculations of pulsation periods are as straightforward as for all the other classes of intrinsic variable stars. The issue that is important for the Sun is its internal structure, because the mass, radius, and luminosity are extremely well known. Conventionally, we need the pulsation constants for each of millions of modes. Unknown parameters for constructing solar models are the composition and its material pressure, energy, and opacity, as well as the convection mixing length. We treat the nuclear energy and neutrino production formulas as sufficiently well known. The presence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) orbiting the solar center affects the predicted oscillation frequencies so that they do not agree with observations as well as those for models without WIMPs. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  9. First measurement of the flux of solar neutrinos from the sun at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittich, Peter

    2000-12-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation solar neutrino detector. SNO is the first experiment that is able to measure both the electron neutrino flux and a flavor-blind flux of all active neutrino types, allowing a model-independent determination if the deficit of solar neutrinos known as the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillation. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory started taking production data in November, 1999. A measurement of the charged current rate will be the first indication if SNO too sees a suppression of the solar neutrino signal relative to the theoretical predictions. Such a confirmation is the first step in SNO's ambitious science program. In this thesis, we present evidence that SNO is seeing solar neutrinos and a preliminary ratio of the measured vs predicted rate of electrons as induced by 8B neutrinos in the νe, + d --> p + p + e charged-current (CC) reaction.

  10. Solar core homology, solar neutrinos and helioseismology

    SciTech Connect

    Bludman, S.A.; Kennedy, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Precise numerical standard solar models (SSMs) now agree with one another and with helioseismological observations in the convective and outer radiative zones. Nevertheless these models obscure how luminosity, neutrino production and g-mode core helioseismology depend on such inputs as opacity and nuclear cross sections. Although the Sun is not homologous, its inner core by itself is chemically evolved and almost homologous, because of its compactness, radiative energy transport, and ppI-dominated luminosity production. We apply luminosity-fixed homology transformations to the core to estimate theoretical uncertainties in the SSM and to obtain a broad class of non-SSMs, parameterized by central temperature and density and purely radiative energy transport in the core. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Solar neutrino experiments: recent results and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. C.

    2011-09-01

    Recent results from the SNO and Borexino solar neutrino experiments have pushed the observation of solar neutrinos to lower energies. Borexino's measurement of the rate of 7Be solar neutrinos demonstrates that the survival probability for solar neutrinos below 1 MeV is larger than for the 8B solar neutrinos, consistent with our expectation for neutrino propagation affected by matter. On the other hand, by looking at lower energy 8B solar neutrinos, SNO (and also Borexino) do not see the predicted rise in the survival probability and there is even a hint that the survival probability drops to a lower value. Future solar neutrino experiments, in particular the SNO+ experiment, will look at this question by making precision measurements of the survival probability of the pep solar neutrinos (1.44 MeV energy).

  12. The status of the solar neutrino problem and the Russian-American gallium experiment (SAGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.

    1994-04-01

    Perhaps the most outstanding discrepancy between prediction and measurements in current particle physics comes from the solar neutrino problem, in which a large deficit of high-energy solar neutrinos is observed. Many Nonstandard Solar Models have been invoked to try to reduce the predicted flux, but all have run into problems in trying to reproduce other measured parameters (e.g., the luminosity) of the Sun. Other explanations involving new physics such as neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations, etc. have also been proffered. Again, most of these explanations have been ruled out by either laboratory or astrophysical measurements. It appears that perhaps the most likely particle physics solution is that of matter enhanced neutrino oscillation, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations. Two new radiochemical gallium experiments, which have a low enough threshold to be sensitive to the dominant flux of low-energy p-p neutrinos, now also report a deficit and also favor a particle physics solution.

  13. Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2010-08-04

    Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation experiments aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.

  14. Solar neutrinos, solar flares, solar activity cycle and the proton decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raychaudhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that there may be a correlation between the galactic cosmic rays and the solar neutrino data, but it appears that the neutrino flux which may be generated during the large solar cosmic ray events cannot in any way effect the solar neutrino data in Davis experiment. Only initial stage of mixing between the solar core and solar outer layers after the sunspot maximum in the solar activity cycle can explain the higher (run number 27 and 71) of solar neutrino data in Davis experiment. But solar flare induced atmospheric neutrino flux may have effect in the nucleon decay detector on the underground. The neutrino flux from solar cosmic rays may be a useful guide to understand the background of nucleon decay, magnetic monopole search, and the detection of neutrino flux in sea water experiment.

  15. Experimental Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics with the IMB-3 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, David William

    1990-01-01

    Description of the universe on the smallest (elementary particle physics) and largest (cosmology) scales has become dependent on the properties of the most weakly interacting fundamental particle known, the neutrino. The IMB experiment, designed to study nucleon decay, is also the world's largest detector of neutrinos. The experiment uses 6800 tons (3300 tons fiducial) of water as both target and detecting medium. Relativistic charges particles traversing the water radiate Cerenkov light. The distinctive ring patterns are imaged by 2048 light collectors (each a photo-multiplier tube coupled with a wavelength-shifting plate) distributed over the surfaces of the tank. This dissertation describes the IMB-3 detector, a four-fold increase in sensitivity over the original apparatus. Neutrino interactions of both atmospheric and extragalactic origin were collected during a 3.4 kiloton-year exposure. A consequence of non-zero neutrino mass could be oscillation of neutrino flavor. The energies and long flight distances of atmospheric neutrinos offer a unique opportunity to explore this possibility. To study the composition of the atmospheric neutrinos, single-ring events are classified as showering or non-showering using the geometry of the Cerenkov pattern. A simulation of neutrino interactions and a model of atmospheric neutrino production are used to predict the composition of the sample. The showering/non-showering character of an event is strongly correlated with the flavor of its neutrino parent. In the lepton momentum range p < 1500 MeV/c, non-showering events comprise 41 +/- 3(stat.) +/- 2(syst.)% of the total. The fraction expected is 51 +/- 5(syst.)%. Although this is evidence for an anomaly in the composition of atmospheric neutrinos, the 2sigma deviation is not sufficient to require neutrino oscillations. Eight interactions recorded over a six second interval on February 23, 1987 are coincident with the discovery of Supernova 1987a. These data, together with

  16. Relic neutrinos: Physically consistent treatment of effective number of neutrinos and neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrell, Jeremiah; Rafelski, Johann

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that the effective number of cosmic neutrinos, Nν, is larger than the standard model number of neutrino flavors Nνf = 3 due a small flow of entropy into neutrinos from e +/- annihilation. Observational bounds from both BBN and the CMB suggest a value of Nν that is larger than the current theoretical prediction of Nν = 3 . 046 . We show in a model independent way how Nν relates to the neutrino kinetic freeze-out temperature, Tk, which we treat as parameter. We derive the relations that must hold between Nν, the photon to neutrino temperature ratio, the neutrino fugacity, and Tk. Our results imply that measurement of neutrino reheating, as characterized by Nν, amounts to the determination of Tk. We follow the free streaming neutrinos down to a temperature on the order of the neutrino mass and determine how the cosmic neutrino properties i.e. energy density, pressure, particle density, depend in a physically consistent way on both neutrino mass and Nν. We continue down to the present day temperature and characterize the neutrino distribution in this regime as well. See arXiv:1212.6943, PRD in press. This work has been supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy, No. DE-FG02-04ER41318 and by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  17. Probing exotic physics with cosmic neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    Traditionally, collider experiments have been the primary tool used in searching for particle physics beyond the Standard Model. In this talk, I will discuss alternative approaches for exploring exotic physics scenarios using high energy and ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos. Such neutrinos can be used to study interactions at energies higher, and over baselines longer, than those accessible to colliders. In this way, neutrino astronomy can provide a window into fundamental physics which is highly complementary to collider techniques. I will discuss the role of neutrino astronomy in fundamental physics, considering the use of such techniques in studying several specific scenarios including low scale gravity models, Standard Model electroweak instanton induced interactions, decaying neutrinos and quantum decoherence.

  18. Neutrino Physics at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Megan

    The physics motivation, status, and prospects of currently running and proposed neutrino experiments at J-PARC are shown. This includes the currently running T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment and a proposed Sterile Neutrino Search. The currently running T2K experiment detects oscillated ν μ to ν e appearance and unoscillated ν μ to ν μ disappearance neutrino events from an off-axis beam of primarily muon neutrinos produced at J-PARC. Propagated neutrinos are detected in a Near Detector complex, which sits 280 m from the neutrino source and is used to constrain the neutrino flux and measure neutrino cross sections, and in the Super-Kamiokande (SK) far detector, a 22.5 kT fiducial volume water Cherenkov detector with excellent performance in sub-GeV ν e/ν μ particle ID that sits 295 km from the neutrino source and is used to monitor neutrino oscillations. T2K has recently released a series of very interesting and important results, including the world's first definitive observation of neutrino appearance (ν e appearance from a ν μ beam), an observation which was made with only 8% of the proposed total data. T2K has continued to accumulate data since releasing these results, and has many exciting prospects, including potentially having sensitivity to show a first hint of CP violation in the lepton sector. These T2K recent results and future prospects will be shown. A brief overview of the prospects of a proposed future Sterile Neutrino Search, which plans to utilize the J-PARC Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility to initially search for sterile neutrinos with a large mass splitting, will also be shown.

  19. Low Temperature Detectors for Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucciotti, A.

    2014-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed many exciting breakthroughs in neutrino physics. The detection of neutrino oscillations has proved that neutrinos are massive particles but the assessment of their absolute mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in today particle physics and cosmology. Due to their abundance as big-bang relics, massive neutrinos strongly affect the large-scale structure and dynamics of the universe. In addition, the knowledge of the scale of neutrino masses, together with their hierarchy pattern, is invaluable to clarify the origin of fermion masses beyond the Higgs mechanism. The mass hierarchy is not the only missing piece in the puzzle. Theories of neutrino mass generation call into play Majorana neutrinos and there are experimental observations pointing to the existence of sterile neutrinos in addition to the three ones weakly interacting. Since low temperature detectors were first proposed for neutrino physics experiments in 1984, there have been impressive technical progresses: today this technique offers the high energy resolution and scalability required for leading edges and competitive experiments addressing the still open questions.

  20. The solar neutrino deficit -- Principle and interest (a modern problem)

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1995-12-31

    Sufficient data now exist that tests, independent of any solar model, can be made of whether solar neutrino experiment are consistent with the minimal Standard Model (stable, massless neutrinos). If the experimental uncertainties are correctly estimated and the sun is generating energy by light-element fusion in quasi-static equilibrium, the probability of a standard-physics solution is less than 1.2%. Even when the luminosity constraint is abandoned, the probability is not more than 5%. The sensitivity of the conclusions to input parameters is explored. New experiments nearing completion (SNO and SuperKamiokande) are expected to provide decisive evidence of neutrino oscillations, if they are indeed the explanation.

  1. Linking solar and long baseline terrestrial neutrino experiments.

    PubMed

    Akhmedov, E K; Branco, G C; Rebelo, M N

    2000-04-17

    We show that, in the framework of three light neutrino species with hierarchical masses and assuming no fine tuning between the entries of the neutrino mass matrix, one can use the solar neutrino data to obtain information on the element U(e3) of the lepton mixing matrix. Conversely, a measurement of U(e3) in atmospheric or long baseline accelerator or reactor neutrino experiments would help discriminate between possible oscillation solutions of the solar neutrino problem. PMID:11019139

  2. Topics in neutrino astroparticle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Woopyo

    1993-01-01

    In the first part of the dissertation, two neutrino properties such as neutrino mass measurement and neutrino dipole moment, in the terrestrial experiments, are examined with particular attention to exotic phenomena that may be observed for theories beyond the Standard Model. In the second part, we study a method for measuring the neutrino mass from a galactic supernova neutrino burst using an innovated detector concept. The neutral current based SNBO (Supernova Neutrino Burst Observatory) detector concept is discussed. We show that it is possible to measure a cosmologically significant neutrino mass, i.e., 5-50 eV directly from the flight time difference between the massive and massless neutrino using the SNBO detector concept. In the third part, very heavy unstable particles from the Big Bang decaying into neutrinos at cosmological epochs is discussed. In particular, we focus on a detection of such relic neutrinos from the decays in the neutrino window on earth, in the energy ranges 10-100 MeV, where the neutrino background is expected to be lowest. In the fourth part, neutrino emission from the explosion of Primordial Black Holes in the context of the Hawking radiation is presented. We suggest a new explosion mechanism inspired by new data from gamma ray bursts that might occur when the Primordial Black Hole reaches a certain surface temperature. We propose some observational tests that use a satellite detector and the proposed SNBO detector. In the last chapter, we examine a possible connection between the baryogenesis in the early universe and the lepton number violation processes.

  3. Solar neutrinos, Martian rivers, and Praesepe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Young, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Some recent papers on solar neutrinos, Martian rivers, and Praesepe stars are reviewed. Possible causes of solar neutrino detection rates being below theoretical expectations are quoted. The widespread presence of sinuous dendritic channels on Mars is noted. The occurrence of earth-like epochs on Mars is indicated as a plausible explanation for many such channels in terms of surface liquid water flows. The roughly uniform distribution of the Praesepe stars through the main sequence width is viewed as the indication that the excursion time off the main sequence is comparable to the time between mixings.

  4. The neutrino portal to new physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ernest

    2014-06-24

    Neutrinos may have interactions beyond those of the standard model. They may be responsible for neutrino mass and provide a link to other fundamental issues of particle physics such as dark matter. A brief incomplete survey of some of the theoretical ideas along this direction is offered.

  5. Neutrino physics at a muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.J.

    1998-02-01

    This paper gives an overview of the neutrino physics possibilities at a future muon storage ring, which can be either a muon collider ring or a ring dedicated to neutrino physics that uses muon collider technology to store large muon currents. After a general characterization of the neutrino beam and its interactions, some crude quantitative estimates are given for the physics performance of a muon ring neutrino experiment (MURINE) consisting of a high rate, high performance neutrino detector at a 250 GeV muon collider storage ring. The paper is organized as follows. The next section describes neutrino production from a muon storage rings and gives expressions for event rates in general purpose and long baseline detectors. This is followed by a section outlining a serious design constraint for muon storage rings: the need to limit the radiation levels produced by the neutrino beam. The following two sections describe a general purpose detector and the experimental reconstruction of interactions in the neutrino target then, finally, the physics capabilities of a MURINE are surveyed.

  6. Neutrino conversions in solar random magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semikoz, V. B.; Torrente-Lujan, E.

    1999-09-01

    We consider the effect of a random magnetic field in the convective zone of the Sun superimposed to a regular magnetic field on resonant neutrino spin-flavor oscillations. We argue for the existence of a field of strongly chaotic nature at the bottom of the convective zone. In contrast to previous attempts we employ a model motivated regular magnetic field profile: it is a static field solution to the solar equilibrium hydro-magnetic equations. These solutions have been known for a long time in the literature. We show for the first time that in addition they are twisting solutions. In this scenario electron antineutrinos are produced through cascades like νeL-->νμL-- >ν~eR, The detection of ν~eR at Earth would be a long-awaited signature of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. The expected signals in the different experiments (SK, GALLEX-SAGE, Homestake) are obtained as a function of the level of noise, regular magnetic field and neutrino mixing parameters. Previous results obtained for small mixing and ad-hoc regular magnetic profiles are reobtained. We confirm the strong suppression for a large part of the parameter space of the ν~eR-flux for high energy boron neutrinos in agreement with present data of the SK experiment. We find that MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) regions (Δm2~=10-5 eV2, both small and large mixing solutions) are stable up to very large levels of noise (P=0.7-0.8) but they are acceptable from the point of view of antineutrino production only for moderate levels of noise (P~=0.95). For strong noise and a reasonable regular magnetic field, any parameter region (Δm2, sin 2 2θ) is excluded. As a consequence, we are allowed to reverse the problem and to put limits on the r.m.s. field strength and transition magnetic moments by demanding a particle physics solution to the SNP in this scenario.

  7. Effect of radiative corrections on the solar neutrino spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Batkin, I.S.; Sundaresan, M.K.

    1995-11-01

    In this paper we calculate the changes to the solar neutrino spectrum arising from the radiative corrections in the {beta} decay processes responsible for the production of the neutrinos. Explicit results are given for the neutrinos arising from the {ital pp} reaction and for the {sup 8}B neutrinos.

  8. Overview and Status of Experimental Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancu, Ion

    2002-10-01

    Seventy years after the existence of the neutrino has been postulated by Wolfgang Pauli, these elusive particles remain surrounded by mystery. One of the most fundamental questions about neutrinos is whether they have an identically vanishing mass, as assumed by the Standard Model, or not. Direct measurements have proven to be extremely difficult to perform, and have yielded so far only upper limits. However, if neutrino flavour oscillations do happen, this would automatically imply that at least one of the three neutrinos (the electron, muon or tau neutrino) must have a non-zero mass. The present experimental data indicate that both the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits can be explained by the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, while the positive signal reported by the accelerator-based LSND experiment remains to be verified by an independent measurement (MiniBooNE). This talk reviews the current status of the neutrino oscillations experiments, experiments which are quite likely to produce results with significant consequences for both the Standard Model and Cosmology.

  9. Novel results on low energy neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Gianpaolo

    2012-07-01

    Many progresses have been achieved in the study of low energy neutrinos from Sun and Earth. In the solar neutrinos the flux from 7Be has been measured with a total error <5% (introducing strong constraints also on the pp flux), while the day/night effect in that energy region has been determined at 1%. The 8B neutrinos have been detected with a threshold down to 3 MeV, while the solar neutrinos flux from pep reaction has been measured together with a stringent limit on CNO. These results give the experimental proof of the neutrino oscillation in vacuum and the validation of the MSW-LMA model in that region, while the day/night allows the isolation of the LMA solution by means of the solar neutrinos only, without the assumption of CPT symmetry. The evidence of the antineutrinos produced within the Earth by radioactive decays is now very robust, but more statistics is needed to clearly estimate the radiogenic contribution to the terrestrial caloric energy.

  10. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize in Experimental Particle Physics Talk: 40 Years of Neutrino Physics--A Personal History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, Eugene

    2010-02-01

    In the past forty years neutrino physics has made great advances. Some of the steps and missteps that were taken on the path from the 1960's to the present will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to the development of solar neutrino physics. )

  11. Deep Secrets of the Neutrino: Physics Underground

    SciTech Connect

    Rowson, P.C.

    2010-03-23

    Among the many beautiful, unexpected and sometimes revolutionary discoveries to emerge from subatomic physics, probably none is more bizarre than an elementary particle known as the 'neutrino'. More than a trillion of these microscopic phantoms pass unnoticed through our bodies every second, and indeed, through the entire Earth - but their properties remain poorly understood. In recent years, exquisitely sensitive experiments, often conducted deep below ground, have brought neutrino physics to the forefront. In this talk, we will explore the neutrino - what we know, what we want to know, and how one experiment in a New Mexico mine is trying to get there.

  12. Probing Unparticle Physics in Reactor Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Bolanos, A.

    2008-11-13

    Unparticle physics is studied by using reactor neutrino data. We obtain limits to the scalar unparticle couplings depending on different values for the parameter d. We found that, as has been already noticed, reactor neutrino data is a good tool to put constraints on unparticle physics. Thanks to a detailed analysis of the experimental characteristics of reactor data we find better constraints than the previously reported.

  13. Solar Models Based on Helioseismology and the Solar Neutrino Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Masao; Shibahashi, Hiromoto

    1998-09-01

    We have determined the sound-speed profile in the Sun by carrying out an asymptotic inversion of the helioseismic data from the Low-Degree (l) Oscillation Experiment (LOWL), the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG), VIRGO on SOHO, the High-l Helioseismometer (HLH), and observations made at the South Pole. We then deduce the density, pressure, temperature, and elemental composition profiles in the solar radiative interior by solving the basic equations governing the stellar structure, with the imposition of the determined sound-speed profile and with a constraint on the depth of the convection zone obtained from helioseismic analysis and the ratio of the metal abundance to the hydrogen abundance at the photosphere. With the exception of the treatment of elements relevant to nuclear reactions, we assume that Z is homogeneous. The chemical composition profiles of hydrogen and helium are then obtained as a part of the solutions. Using the resulting seismic model, we estimate the neutrino fluxes and the neutrino capture rates for the chlorine, gallium, and water Čerenkov experiments. Even if we take into account uncertainties in various input physics, the estimated capture rates are still significantly larger than the observation.

  14. 40 years of neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Frederick

    Wolfgang Pauli and Enrico Fermi pioneered the hypothesis and characteristics of the weak interaction and the elementary particle called the neutrino. Since its discovery some forty years ago the neutrino has been shown to be a fundamental constituent of matter with a surprisingly rich, and in very many ways unexpected, set of characteristics ranging from basic roles in the generation of energy in the sun to supernovæ.

  15. The Convolution Method in Neutrino Physics Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.; Chasioti, V. C.; Divari, P. C.; Sinatkas, J.

    2007-12-26

    We concentrate on the convolution method used in nuclear and astro-nuclear physics studies and, in particular, in the investigation of the nuclear response of various neutrino detection targets to the energy-spectra of specific neutrino sources. Since the reaction cross sections of the neutrinos with nuclear detectors employed in experiments are extremely small, very fine and fast convolution techniques are required. Furthermore, sophisticated de-convolution methods are also needed whenever a comparison between calculated unfolded cross sections and existing convoluted results is necessary.

  16. Solar neutrinos results and oscillation analysis from Super-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshio, Yusuke

    The results of the solar neutrino spectrum measurement in Super-Kamiokande is presented. The precise measurement of the solar neutrino enegy spectrum is one of the most important key issue to understand neutrino oscillations. In order to measure the spectrum, it is very important to precisely determin the energy scale of the detector. For this purpose, we have used an electron LINAC. This calibration can be done at several positions, directions and energy points, and it can reduce the systematic errors of energy scale less than 1. Neutrino oscillations are essentially energy dependent phenomena. Actually different solar neutrino oscillation solutions require the different energy dependece. In addition, such a measurement is independent the absolute flux results of solar models. Therefore an observation of the deviation from the expected energy spectrum not only show the definite evidence of the solar neutrino oscillation, but also differenciate the possible oscillation solutions. The results of the extensive analysis on neutrino oscillation is presented.

  17. Solar Neutrino flare detection in Hyperkamiokande and SK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The possible buid and near activity of a Megaton neutrino detection in HyperKamiokande and the older SK implementation by Gadolinium liqid might open to future detection of largest solar flare (pion trace at tens MeV) electron neutrino and antineutrino. The multiwave detection of X-gamma and neutrino event might offer a deep view of such solar acelleration and of neutrino flavor mix along its flight. The possoble near future discover of such events will open a third neutrino astronomy windows after rarest SN 1987A and persistent Solar nuclear signals.

  18. Correlation between solar neutrino flux and other solar phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, S.; Subramanian, A.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the solar neutrino data with a tank of CC14 located 4800 mwe underground for the period 1970 to 83. These observations are on the production rates of Ar37 atoms via the reaction upsilon sub e + Cl37 yields Ar37 plus e(-) in the tank caused presumably by a flux of neutrinos from the Sun. The idea of possible time variations in the data shown is discussed and an attempt is made to correlate the variations to two other phenomena of solar origin-the sunspot number and the geomagnetic Ap index.

  19. Report on the Brookhaven Solar Neutrino Experiment

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Evans, J. C. Jr.

    1976-09-22

    This report is intended as a brief statement of the recent developments and results of the Brookhaven Solar Neutrino Experiment communicated through Professor G. Kocharov to the Leningrad conference on active processes on the sun and the solar neutrino problem. The report summarizes the results of experiments performed over a period of 6 years, from April 1970 to January 1976. Neutrino detection depends upon the neutrino capture reaction /sup 37/Cl(..nu..,e/sup -/)/sup 37/Ar producing the isotope /sup 37/Ar (half life of 35 days). The detector contains 3.8 x 10/sup 5/ liters of C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/ (2.2 x 10/sup 30/ atoms of /sup 37/Cl) and is located at a depth of 4400 meters of water equivalent (m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine at Lead, South Dakota, U.S.A. The procedures for extracting /sup 37/Ar and the counting techniques used were described in previous reports. The entire recovered argon sample was counted in a small gas proportional counter. Argon-37 decay events were characterized by the energy of the Auger electrons emitted following the electron capture decay and by the rise-time of the pulse. Counting measurements were continued for a period sufficiently long to observe the decay of /sup 37/Ar.

  20. Data analysis for solar neutrinos observed by water Cherenkov detectors⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshio, Yusuke

    2016-04-01

    A method of analyzing solar neutrino measurements using water-based Cherenkov detectors is presented. The basic detection principle is that the Cherenkov photons produced by charged particles via neutrino interaction are observed by photomultiplier tubes. A large amount of light or heavy water is used as a medium. The first detector to successfully measure solar neutrinos was Kamiokande in the 1980's. The next-generation detectors, i.e., Super-Kamiokande and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), commenced operation from the mid-1990's. These detectors have been playing the critical role of solving the solar neutrino problem and determining the neutrino oscillation parameters over the last decades. The future prospects of solar neutrino analysis using this technique are also described.

  1. A 17 keV neutrino and large magnetic moment solution of the solar neutrino puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.; Senjanovic, G.; Tao, Zhijian; Berezhiani, Z. G.

    1992-08-01

    Zee-type models with Majorons naturally incorporate the 17 keV neutrino but in their minimal version fail to simultaneously solve the solar neutrino puzzle. If there is a sterile neutrino state, a particularly simple solution is found to the solar neutrino problem, which besides nu(sub 17) predicts a light Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud neutrino nu(sub light) = nu(sub e) + nu(sub mu)(sup c) with a magnetic moment being easily as large as 10(exp -11)(mu)(sub B) through the Barr-Freire-Zee mechanism.

  2. 17 keV neutrino and large magnetic moment solution of the solar neutrino puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Eugeni Kh.; Berezhiani, Zurab G.; Senjanović, Goran; Tao, Zhijian

    1993-01-01

    Zee-type models with majorons naturally incorporate the 17 keV neutrino but in their minimal version fail to simultaneously solve the solar neutrino puzzle. If there is a sterile neutrino state, we find a particularly simple solution to the solar neutrino problem, which besides ν17 predicts a light Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud neutrino νlight = νe + νcμ with a magnetic moment being easily as large as 10 -11μB through the Barr-Freire-Zee mechanism.

  3. The future of solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1985-01-01

    Outstanding problems for the future of solar physics and stellar physics are examined. The physics of stellar interiors has been called into serious question by the very low measured neutrino flux from the sun. The Ga-71 neutrino detection experiment is the next step in unravelling this mystery. The new methods of helioseismology, for probing the interior of the sun, have already found the primordial rapid rotation of the central core. The forthcoming worldwide helioseismology observing network will permit fuller exploitation of the method, promising to provide the first direct sounding of the interior of a star, hitherto known to us only through theoretical inference and the discrepant neutrino emission. An essential step in developing the physics of stellar activity will be the Solar Optical Telescope (presently planned by NASA to be launched early in the next decade) to permit a 'microscopic' examination of the surface of the sun to study the source of the action. The activity and X-ray emission of other stars depend on much the same effects, so that the study of the sun is essential to determining the significance of the X-ray emission from other stars.

  4. Neutrinoless double-beta decay and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodejohann, Werner

    2012-12-01

    The connection of neutrino physics with the neutrinoless double-beta decay is reviewed. After presenting the current status of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix and the theoretical background of neutrino mass and lepton mixing, we will summarize the various implications of neutrino physics for the double-beta decay. The influence of light sterile neutrinos and other exotic modifications of the three neutrino picture is also discussed.

  5. The analysis of solar models: Neutrinos and oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, R. K.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Tomczyk, S.; Dumont, P. J.; Brunish, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    Tests of solar neutrino flux and solar oscillation frequencies were used to assess standard stellar structure theory. Standard and non-standard solar models are enumerated and discussed. The field of solar seismology, wherein the solar interior is studied from the measurement of solar oscillations, is introduced.

  6. Solar neutrino experiments and a test for neutrino oscillations with radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Rowley, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment are given and compared to the most recent standard solar model calculations. The observations are about a factor of 4 below theoretical expectations. In view of the uncertainties involved in the theoretical models of the sun, the discrepancy is not considered to be evidence for neutrino oscillations. The status of the development of a gallium solar neutrino detector is described. Radiochemical neutrino detectors can be used to search for ..nu../sub e/ oscillations by using megacurie sources of monoenergetic neutrinos like /sup 65/Zn. A quantitative evaluation of possible experiments using the Brookhaven chlorine solar neutrino detector and a gallium detector is given. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Possible explanation of the solar-neutrino puzzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethe, H. A.

    1986-01-01

    A new derivation of the Mikheyev and Smirnov (1985) mechanism for the conversion of electron neutrinos into mu neutrinos when traversing the sun is presented, and various hypotheses set forth. It is assumed that this process is responsible for the detection of fewer solar neutrinos than expected, with neutrinos below a minimum energy, E(m), being undetectable. E(m) is found to be about 6 MeV, and the difference of the squares of the respective neutrino masses is calculated to be 6 X 10 to the - 5th sq eV. A restriction on the neutrino mixing angle is assumed such that the change of density near the crossing point is adiabatic. It is predicted that no resonance conversion of neutrinos will occur in the dense core of supernovae, but conversion of electron neutrinos to mu neutrinos will occur as they escape outward through a density region around 100.

  8. Large-scale liquid scintillation detectors for solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benziger, Jay B.; Calaprice, Frank P.

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale liquid scintillation detectors are capable of providing spectral yields of the low energy solar neutrinos. These detectors require > 100 tons of liquid scintillator with high optical and radiopurity. In this paper requirements for low-energy neutrino detection by liquid scintillation are specified and the procedures to achieve low backgrounds in large-scale liquid scintillation detectors for solar neutrinos are reviewed. The designs, operations and achievements of Borexino, KamLAND and SNO+ in measuring the low-energy solar neutrino fluxes are reviewed.

  9. Limits on C P T violation from solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Jorge S.; Schwetz, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Violations of C P T invariance can induce neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions. We study this effect for solar neutrinos and use the upper bound on the solar neutrino-to-antineutrino transition probability from the KamLAND experiment to constrain C P T -symmetry-violating coefficients of the general Standard-Model Extension. The long propagation distance from the Sun to the Earth allows us to improve existing limits by factors ranging from about a thousand to 1011 .

  10. New results of the Borexino experiment: pp solar neutrino detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davini, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Borexino experiment is an ultra-pure liquid scintillator detector, running at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). Borexino has completed the real time spectroscopy of the solar neutrinos generated in the proton-proton chain in the core of the Sun. This article reviews the Borexino experiment and the first direct measurment of pp solar neutrinos.

  11. Neutrino oscillations and uncertainty in the solar model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearborn, D. S.; Fuller, G. M.

    1989-06-01

    The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonant neutrino oscillation mechanism is investigated for the Sun using a detailed numerical solar model and a modified version of the Parke-Walker technique for following the neutrino phases through the oscillation resonance. We present overall solar-neutrino spectra and the associated expected neutrino count rates for the 37Cl, 71Ga, and Kamiokande detectors for ranges of masses and vacuum mixing angles for two neutrino species. We also investigate the effects of uncertainties in the solar model. In particular, we examine the effect of opacity changes on the expected solar-neutrino spectrum and resulting parameter space for the MSW mechanism. We find that plausible uncertainties in the standard solar model, and in particular the opacity, translate into significant expansion in the constraints on neutrino masses and vacuum mixing angles from neutrino experiments. It is shown, however, that forthcoming results from the Kamiokande solar-neutrino experiment could put stringent constraints on even the expanded MSW parameter space.

  12. Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Minakata, Hisakazu |; Nunokawa, Hiroshi |

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs a quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the non-university of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can improve the existing bound on violation of the equivalence principle by 3-4 orders of magnitude if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem.

  13. E sub 6 leptoquarks and the solar neutrino problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roulet, Esteban

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that non-conventional neutrino oscillations take place in the superstring inspired E sub 6 models is considered. In this context, the influence of leptoquark mediated interactions of the neutrinos with nucleons in the resonant flavor conversion is discussed. It is shown that this effect can be significant for v sub e - v sub tau oscillations if these neutrinos have masses required in the ordinary Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect, and may lead to a solution of the solar neutrino problem even in the absence of vacuum mixings. On the other hand, this model cannot lead to a resonant behavior in the sun if the neutrinos are massless.

  14. Solar neutrinos: Near-far asymmetry and just-so oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Faied, B.; Fogli, G.L.; Montanino, D.

    1997-02-01

    We propose to study possible signals of just-so oscillations in new-generation solar neutrino experiments by separating the events detected when the Earth is nearest to the Sun (perihelion {plus_minus} 3 months) from those detected when the Earth is farthest from the Sun (aphelion {plus_minus} 3 months). We introduce a solar-model-independent near-far asymmetry, which is nonzero if just-so oscillations occur. We apply our calculations to the kinetic energy spectra of electrons induced by {sup 8}B solar neutrino interactions in the SuperKamiokande and Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiments. We show that the sensitivity to the neutrino oscillation parameters can be increased by probing the near-far asymmetry in selected parts of the electron energy spectra. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. A possible mechanism to cause the quasi-biennial variability on the solar neutrino flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.; Hasegawa, M.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that the quasi-biennial change in the observed flux of the solar neutrinos is causally related to some non-linear process at the central core of the Sun, being associated with the charge in the central temperature. This process seems to be responsible for the physical adjustment of the internal structure of the Sun. Numerical simulation on this process is able to reproduce the quasi-biennial change in the flux of these neutrinos.

  16. 7Be Solar Neutrino Measurement with KamLAND

    SciTech Connect

    The KamLAND Collaboration; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hanakago, H.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, R.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Obata, A.; Oki, A.; Oki, Y.; Otani, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamada, S.; Yamauchi, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; McKee, D. W.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Murayama, H.; O'Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Learned, J. G.; Sakai, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Downum, K. E.; Tolich, K.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Heeger, K.; Decowski, M. P.

    2014-05-26

    We report a measurement of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate of 862 keV {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos based on a 165.4 kton-day exposure of KamLAND. The observed rate is 582{+-}90 (kton day){sup -1}, which corresponds to a 862 keV {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux of (3.26{+-}0.50) x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, assuming a pure electron flavor flux. Comparing this flux with the standard solar model prediction and further assuming three flavor mixing, a e survival probability of 0.66{+-}0.14 is determined from the KamLAND data. Utilizing a global three flavor oscillation analysis, we obtain a total {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux of (5.82{+-}0.98) x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, which is consistent with the standard solar model predictions.

  17. 7Be solar neutrino measurement with KamLAND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hanakago, H.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, R.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Obata, A.; Oki, A.; Oki, Y.; Otani, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamada, S.; Yamauchi, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; McKee, D. W.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Murayama, H.; O'Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Learned, J. G.; Sakai, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Downum, K. E.; Tolich, K.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Heeger, K.; Decowski, M. P.; KamLAND Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    We report a measurement of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate of 862 keV 7Be solar neutrinos based on a 165.4 kt d exposure of KamLAND. The observed rate is 582 ±94 (kt d)-1, which corresponds to an 862-keV 7Be solar neutrino flux of (3.26 ±0.52 ) ×109cm-2s-1 , assuming a pure electron-flavor flux. Comparing this flux with the standard solar model prediction and further assuming three-flavor mixing, a νe survival probability of 0.66 ±0.15 is determined from the KamLAND data. Utilizing a global three-flavor oscillation analysis, we obtain a total 7Be solar neutrino flux of (5.82 ±1.02 ) ×109cm-2s-1 , which is consistent with the standard solar model predictions.

  18. The Spallation Neutron Source and the Neutrino Physics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stancu, Ion

    2008-02-21

    In this paper we describe the recently-completed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), along with a proposed long-term neutrino physics program to study neutrino-nucleus cross-sections and neutrino oscillations.

  19. Yet another possible explanation of the solar-neutrino puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W.; Turner, M.S.; Walker, T.P.

    1986-04-01

    Mikheyev and Smirnov have shown that the interactions of neutrinos with matter can result in the conversion of electron neutrinos produced in the center of the sun to muon neutrinos. Bethe has exploited this and has pointed out that the solar-neutrino puzzle can be resolved if the mass difference squared of the two neutrinos is m/sub 2//sup 2/ - m /sub 1//sup 2/ approx. = 6 x 10/sup -5/ eV/sup 2/, and the mixing angle satisfies sin theta/sub v/ > 0.0065. We discuss a qualitatively different solution to the solar-neutrino puzzle which requires 1.0 x 10/sup -8/ < (m/sub 2//sup 2/ - m/sub 1//sup 2/) (sin/sup 2/ 2theta/sub v//cos 2theta/sub v/) < 6.1 x 10/sup -8/ eV/sup 2/. Our solutions result in a much smaller flux of neutrinos from the p - p process than predicted by standard solar models, while Bethe's solution results in a flux of neutrinos from the p - process that is about the same as standard solar models.

  20. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory: Observation of Flavor Change for Solar Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector was developed by an international scientific collaboration (Canada, US, UK) to use 1000 tonnes of heavy water 2 km underground in ultra-clean conditions to observe flavor change for solar neutrinos from 8B decay in the sun. A clear observation of neutrino change was obtained by comparing two neutrino reactions on deuterium, one sensitive only to electron flavor neutrinos and one sensitive equally to all active neutrino types. The design and construction and the operation and data analysis for the three separate phases of the experiment will be described. The initial phase with pure heavy water provided conclusive evidence for flavor change and hence finite mass for neutrinos. Subsequent phases within added NaCl and with an array of neutron detectors provided improved accuracy for the measurements of oscillation parameters. The observed total flux of 8B solar electron neutrinos is in excellent agreement with and more accurate than solar models. Modification of the SNO detector to create SNO + and expansion of the laboratory to create a long-term international underground laboratory, SNOLAB, will be briefly described.

  1. Neutrino physics today, important issues and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    The status and the most important issues in neutrino physics will be summarized as well as how the current, pressing questions will be addressed by future experiments. Since the discovery of neutrino flavor transitions by the SuperKamiokande experiment in 1998, which demonstrates that neutrinos change and hence their clocks tick, i.e. they are not traveling at the speed of light and hence are not massless, the field of neutrino physics has made remarkable progress in untangling the nature of the neutrino. However, there are still many important questions to answer.

  2. Data analysis in solar neutrinos liquid-scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testera, G.

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on the description of some of the methods developed to extract the solar neutrino signal from the background by the two running experiments (Borexino and Kamland) based on the use of a large volume of liquid scintillator.

  3. High precision 7Be solar neutrinos measurement and day night effect obtained with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testera, G.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Korablev, D.; Kobychev, V.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Leung, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Lombardi, F.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pena-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-11-01

    We report the direct measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino signal rate performed with the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and the search for a day-night asymmetry of this interaction rate. The interaction rate of the 0.862 MeV 7Be neutrinos is 46±1.6(stat)-1.6+1.5(syst) counts/(day · 100 ton). The hypothesis of no oscillation for this solar neutrinos is inconsistent with our measurement at the 5.8σ C.L. Our result is the first direct measurement of solar neutrinos with an accuracy better than 5%. We report the survival probability for solar νe in the transition region between matter-enhanced and vacuum-driven oscillations. The measured day night asymmetry is Adn=0.001±0.012 (stat)±0.007 (syst), in agreement with the predicition of MSW-LMA neutrino [13] oscillations. This result discourages MSW oscillations with mixing parameters in the LOW region at more than 8.5σ, meaning that this region is, for the first time, strongly rejected without the assumption of CPT symmetry. The result can also be used to constrain some neutrino oscillation scenarios involving new physics.

  4. Particle Physics Meets Cosmology -- The Search for Decaying Neutrinos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    Detection of neutrino decay may have profound consequences for both particle physics and cosmology, providing a deep connection between physics of the very large and physics of the very small. Describes this link and discusses the nature and status of the search for decaying neutrinos. (Author/JN)

  5. Status of the Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, Kevin B.

    2006-11-17

    The Borexino experiment is designed to measure the flux of 7Be solar neutrinos. The experiment, having a 100-ton fiducial volume of organic liquid scintillator, should detect roughly 35 neutrinos per day in the energy range 250 - 1300 keV, a range lower than that of any previous real-time neutrino detector. Though the 862-keV 7Be neutrinos make up roughly 10% of the total solar neutrino flux, they have not previously been directly observed. Their energy is at a delicate point for confirmation of the vacuum-to-matter oscillation transition. In these proceedings, I will present the status of the Borexino experiment as of August 2006, as we prepare for final filling of the detector.

  6. The Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment: Scintillator purification and surface contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Michael

    The Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment will observe the monoenergetic (862 keV) 7Be neutrinos, produced in the solar reaction 7Be+e- →7 Li+nue. These neutrinos are the second most abundant species of solar neutrinos, with an expected flux at earth of 5 x 109/cm2/s. Using nu - e scattering in an aromatic liquid scintillator, Borexino will make the first real time measurement of the solar neutrino flux at energies less than 1 MeV. In addition to checking Standard Solar Model and neutrino oscillation predictions at low energies, Borexino will test the MSW vacuum-matter transition, luminosity constraint, and non-standard theories such as mass varying neutrinos. The Borexino detector will also be sensitive to supernova neutrinos, geoneutrinos, reactor neutrinos, and pep solar neutrinos. The pep measurement will tightly constrain the primary pp solar neutrino flux whose energy is below the Borexino threshold. With an expected rate of 35 events per day from solar 7Be neutrinos, the maximum tolerable background rate is one count per day. Removal of radioactive isotopes from the liquid scintillator is essential for the experiment's success and will be achieved with purification techniques including filtration, distillation, water extraction, nitrogen stripping, and silica gel adsorption. Results from small-scale purification efficiency tests are presented. Water extraction showed moderate but inadequate removal of 210Po which is a dominant background. Distillation reduced 210Po by a factor of more than 500. Online purification involves cycling over 300 m3 of scintillator from the detector though the purification plants. Flow patterns within the detector that influence the purification efficiency were determined with numerical simulations. Poor flow in the prototype Counting Test Facility showed effectively stagnant volumes within the detector. These are not present in the larger Borexino detector. Surface contamination in Borexino arises primarily from contact with

  7. Hans Bethe Prize Recipient: Solar Neutrinos: from Darwin to Bethe to Superkamiokande and SNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, John

    1998-04-01

    The nineteenth century debate on the origin of stellar energy generation was resolved theoretically by Hans Bethe in the late 1930's and experimentally by Ray Davis in the 1970's. Kamiokande showed conclusively in the 1990s that the observed neutrinos come from the sun. Five beautiful experiments (chlorine, Kamiokande, GALLEX, SAGE, and Superkamiokande) have by now detected solar neutrinos, which have approximately the fluxes and energies predicted by calculations of nuclear fusion rates in standard solar models. Quantitative discrepancies between the standard model predictions (which assume that nothing happens to the neutrinos after they are created) and the measurements provide evidence that physics beyond the standard electroweak model may be manifested in solar neutrino experiments. Recent helioseismological measurements strengthen this inference. I will summarize the current status of solar neutrino research and review the prospects for discovering ``smoking-gun'' evidence for new physics with the Superkamiokande, SNO, and BOREXINO detectors.

  8. Studying the Sun's Nuclear Furnace with a Neutrino Detector Spacecraft in Close Solar Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomey, Nickolas

    2016-05-01

    A neutrino based detector in close solar orbit would have a neutrino flux 10,000x or more larger flux than on Earth and a smaller detector able to handle high rates with exception energy resolution could be used. We have studied the idea of operating such an experiment in close solar orbits that takes it off the ecliptic plane and in a solar orbit where the distance from the Sun will change distance. This neutrino detector on a space craft could do Solar Astrophysics studying the Solar nuclear furnace, basic nuclear physics and elementary particle physics; some of these ideas are new unique science that can only be preformed from a spacecraft. The harsh environment provides many challenges but if such a detector could be made to work it can be the next major step in this science study. How a small segmented detector can operate and preform in this environment to detect solar neutrinos will be elaborated upon using a combination of signal strength, fast signal timing, shielding and segmentation.

  9. Light sterile neutrinos, spin flavor precession, and the solar neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, C. R.; Pulido, João; Picariello, Marco

    2009-04-01

    We generalize to three active flavors a previous two-flavor model for the resonant spin flavor conversion of solar neutrinos to sterile ones, a mechanism which is added to the well-known large mixing angle (LMA) one. The transition magnetic moments from the muon and tau neutrinos to the sterile play the dominant role in fixing the amount of active flavor suppression. We also show, through numerical integration of the evolution equations, that the data from all solar neutrino experiments except Borexino exhibit a clear preference for a sizable magnetic field either in the convection zone or in the core and radiation zone. This is possibly related to the fact that the data from the first set are average ones taken during a period of mostly intense solar activity, whereas in contrast Borexino data were taken during a period of quiet Sun. We argue that the solar neutrino experiments are capable of tracing the possible modulation of the solar magnetic field. Those monitoring the high-energy neutrinos, namely, the B8 flux, appear to be sensitive to a field modulation either in the convection zone or in the core and radiation zone. Those monitoring the low-energy fluxes will be sensitive to the second type of solar field profiles only. In this way Borexino alone may play an essential role, since it examines both energy sectors, although experimental redundancy from other experiments will be most important.

  10. Solar/terrestrial physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. S.; Lotova, N. A.; Obridko, V. N.; Fel'Dshtein, Ia. I.; Fomichev, V. V.

    The history of the development of solar/terrestrial physics research at IZMIRAN (the Soviet Institute for the Study of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere, and the Propagation of Radio Waves) is reviewed, and the activity of the Institute in organizing international solar/terrestrial physics research is examined. Particular attention is given to investigations of solar corpuscular radiation and its effect on the ionosphere; and to studies of auroras and the interplanetary medium.

  11. Feasibility of /sup 81/Br(nu,e/sup -/)/sup 81/Kr solar neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.; Allman, S.L.; Chen, C.H.; Kramer, S.D.; Thomson, J.O.; Cleveland, B.

    1985-05-01

    Several ingenious solutions have been offered for the solar neutrino problem - a defect in the solar model, the appearance of a new type of neutrino physics, the sun is no longer burning, etc. The range of these proffered solutions stresses the need for a new experiment to study the sun. The modern pulsed laser now makes possible a new solar neutrino test which examines an independent neutrino source in the sun. A recently proposed experiment would use the reaction /sup 81/Br(nu,e/sup -/)/sup 81/Kr to measure the flux of /sup 7/Be neutrinos from the sun. When /sup 7/Be decays by electron capture to make /sup 7/Li, a neutrino is emitted at 0.862 MeV and the flux of these on the earth is about 4 x 10/sup 9/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/, according to the standard model. Therefore, an experiment based on /sup 81/Br(nu,e/sup -/)/sup 81/Kr which is sensitive to these lower energy neutrinos would be of fundamental importance. To first order, the chlorine experiment detects the /sup 8/B neutrinos while bromine detects the much more abundant /sup 7/Be neutrino source. In practice, the proposed bromine experiment would be very similar to the chlorine radiochemical experiment, except that /sup 81/Kr with a half-life of 2 x 10/sup 5/ years cannot be counted by decay methods. With an experiment of about the same volume as the chlorine experiment (380 m/sup 3/) filled with CH/sub 2/Br/sub 2/, the model predicts about 2 atoms of /sup 81/Kr per day. The bromine experiment depends entirely on the RIS method, implemented with pulsed lasers, for its success. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  12. DETECTING GRAVITY MODES IN THE SOLAR {sup 8} B NEUTRINO FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilídio; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt

    2014-09-10

    The detection of gravity modes produced in the solar radiative zone has been a challenge in modern astrophysics for more than 30 yr and their amplitude in the core is not yet determined. In this Letter, we develop a new strategy to look for standing gravity modes through solar neutrino fluxes. We note that due to a resonance effect, the gravity modes of low degree and low order have the largest impact on the {sup 8} B neutrino flux. The strongest effect is expected to occur for the dipole mode with radial order 2, corresponding to periods of about 1.5 hr. These standing gravity waves produce temperature fluctuations that are amplified by a factor of 170 in the boron neutrino flux for the corresponding period, in consonance with the gravity modes. From current neutrino observations, we determine that the maximum temperature variation due to the gravity modes in the Sun's core is smaller than 5.8 × 10{sup –4}. This study clearly shows that due to their high sensitivity to the temperature, the {sup 8} B neutrino flux time series is an excellent tool to determine the properties of gravity modes in the solar core. Moreover, if gravity mode footprints are discovered in the {sup 8} B neutrino flux, this opens a new line of research to probe the physics of the solar core as non-standing gravity waves of higher periods cannot be directly detected by helioseismology but could leave their signature on boron neutrino or on other neutrino fluxes.

  13. Report from solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, A. B. C.; Acton, L.; Brueckner, G.; Chupp, E. L.; Hudson, H. S.; Roberts, W.

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the nature of solar physics is followed by a brief review of recent advances in the field. These advances include: the first direct experimental confirmation of the central role played by thermonuclear processes in stars; the discovery that the 5-minute oscillations of the Sun are a global seismic phenomenon that can be used as a probe of the structure and dynamical behavior of the solar interior; the discovery that the solar magnetic field is subdivided into individual flux tubes with field strength exceeding 1000 gauss. Also covered was a science strategy for pure solar physics. Brief discussions are given of solar-terrestrial physics, solar/stellar relationships, and suggested space missions.

  14. {sup 7}Be(p, {gamma}){sup 8}B and the high-energy solar neutrino flux

    SciTech Connect

    Csoto, A.

    1997-08-01

    Despite thirty years of extensive experimental and theoretical work, the predicted solar neutrino flux is still in sharp disagreement with measurements. The solar neutrino measurements strongly suggest that the problem cannot be solved within the standard electroweak and astrophysical theories. Thus, the solar neutrino problem constitutes the strongest evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. Whatever the solution of the solar neutrino problem turns out to be, it is of paramount importance that the input parameters of the underlying electroweak and solar theories rest upon solid ground. The most uncertain nuclear input parameter in standard solar models is the low-energy {sup 7}Be(p, {gamma}){sup 8}B radiative capture cross section. This reaction produces {sup 8}B in the Sun, whose {beta}{sup +} decay is the main source of the high-energy solar neutrinos. Here, the importance of the {sup 7}Be(p, {gamma}){sup 8}B reaction in predicting the high energy solar neutrino flux is discussed. The author presents a microscopic eight-body model and a potential model for the calculation of the {sup 7}Be(p, {gamma}){sup 8}B cross section.

  15. Physics Reach of Electron-Capture Neutrino Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabeu, J.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Espinoza, C.; Lindroos, M.

    2006-05-01

    To complete the picture of neutrino oscillations two fundamental parameters need to be measured, θ and δ. The next generation of long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments -superbeams, betabeams and neutrino factories- indeed take aim at measuring them. Here we explore the physics reach of a new candidate: an electron-capture beam. Emphasis is made on its feasibility thanks to the recent discovery of nuclei that decay fast through electron capture, and on the interplay with a betabeam (its closest relative).

  16. Absence of a day-night asymmetry in the 7Be solar neutrino rate in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Lombardi, F.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Peña-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the result of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the 7Be solar neutrino interaction rate in the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. The measured asymmetry is Adn = 0.001 ± 0.012 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst), in agreement with the prediction of MSW-LMA solution for neutrino oscillations. This result disfavors MSW oscillations with mixing parameters in the LOW region at more than 8.5 σ. This region is, for the first time, strongly disfavored without the use of reactor anti-neutrino data and therefore the assumption of CPT symmetry. The result can also be used to constrain some neutrino oscillation scenarios involving new physics.

  17. Preface (Solar Physics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, Judit M.; Frohlich, Claus; Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-01-01

    The IAU Colloquium No. 143, 'The Sun as a Variable Star: Solar and Stellar Irradiance Variations', was held June 20-25, 1993, at the Clarion House, Boulder, Colorado. The main objective of this colloquium was to review the most recent results on the observations, theoretical interpretations, empirical and physical models of the variations observed in solar and stellar irradiances. A special emphasis of the colloquium was to discuss the results gained on the climatic impact of solar irradiance variability.

  18. Evidence for electron neutrino flavor change through measurement of the (8)B solar neutrino flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Mark Stephen

    2001-11-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water Cerenkov detector designed to study solar neutrinos. Using 1 kiloton of heavy water as the target and detection medium, SNO is able to separately determine the flux of electron neutrinos (νe) and the flux of all active neutrinos from the Sun by measuring the rate of charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) interactions with deuterons. A comparison of these interaction rates allows for direct observation of solar neutrino oscillations. SNO can also search for oscillations by comparing the rate of CC and neutrino- electron elastic scattering (ES) events, since ES has both charged current and neutral current sensitivity. In this thesis, we present measurement of the 8B solar ν e flux of 1.78+0.13-0.14 (stat+syst) × 106cm-2s -1 (35% BP2000 SSM) through measurement of the CC rate over 169.3 days of livetime. We have also measured the 8B flux from the ES reaction to be 2.56+0.48-0.45 (stat+syst), consistent with measurements by previous water Cerenkov experiments. A flavor analysis comparing the CC measured flux with that determined through ES by SuperKamiokande yields a non- νe active neutrino flux from 8B of 3.62+1.06-1.08 × 106cm-2s-1 , providing evidence for νe --> ν μ,τ oscillations as a solution to the solar neutrino problem. This result excludes pure solar νe --> ν s oscillations at greater than the 99.7% C.I. The total active 8B neutrino flux has been measured to be 5.39+1.07-1.09 × 106cm-2s-1 , consistent with BP2000 SSM predictions. First analyses of the CC (NHit) spectrum and hep flux in SNO are presented. The CC spectrum is found to be a good fit to expectations from an undistorted 8B spectrum, and global best fit vacuum oscillation solutions are disfavored over the other solutions by the data. Through observations near the 8B endpoint with consideration of energy systematics, hep flux limits of 4.1 (90% C.I.) and 6.9 (99% C.I.) times SSM expectations are obtained. A statistical fit for the

  19. Measurement of the total boron-8 solar neutrino flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Vadim Liviu

    This work presents experimental measurements obtained by analyzing the first 254 live days of data from the SNO NaCl run. The electron neutrino flux was measured to be 1.66 +/- 0.10 stat.+0.07 -0.07 (syst.) x 106cm-2s-l and the non-electron neutrino flux was measured to be 3.32 +/- 0.38 stat.+0.26 -0.25 (syst.) x 106cm-2s-1. Using the above results we determined the integrated electron neutrino survival probability to be 0.33 +/- 0.04 stat.+0.02 -0.02 (syst.). This rejects maximum mixing in the solar neutrino sector at more than 3sigma using SNO data only under the assumption that the flavor changing mechanism is due to the MSW effect in the solar interior. The capability of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) to distinguish between the Charged-Current (CC) and Neutral-Current(NC) neutrino interactions made possible the first simultaneous measurements of the electron and non-electron solar neutrino flux, providing a direct test of the hypothesis that neutrinos change flavor as they propagate from the Sun to the Earth. Two tonnes of purified NaCl were added to the one kilotonne of heavy water target of SNO to enhance the neutron capture efficiency and detection of capture gamma-rays. Neutron capture on 35Cl often produces multiple gamma-rays, which permits a statistical separation of neutron capture and electron events based on the event isotropy, the increased statistical separation between event categories, using the degree of event isotropy, made possible a significant improvement on the measured fluxes. Moreover, the flux analysis does not require any assumption regarding the energy dependence of the flavor changing mechanism.

  20. Final results of Borexino Phase-I on low-energy solar neutrino spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pena-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    Borexino has been running since May 2007 at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy with the primary goal of detecting solar neutrinos. The detector, a large, unsegmented liquid scintillator calorimeter characterized by unprecedented low levels of intrinsic radioactivity, is optimized for the study of the lower energy part of the spectrum. During Phase-I (2007-2010), Borexino first detected and then precisely measured the flux of the Be7 solar neutrinos, ruled out any significant day-night asymmetry of their interaction rate, made the first direct observation of the pep neutrinos, and set the tightest upper limit on the flux of solar neutrinos produced in the CNO cycle (carbon, nitrogen, oxigen) where carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen serve as catalysts in the fusion process. In this paper we discuss the signal signature and provide a comprehensive description of the backgrounds, quantify their event rates, describe the methods for their identification, selection, or subtraction, and describe data analysis. Key features are an extensive in situ calibration program using radioactive sources, the detailed modeling of the detector response, the ability to define an innermost fiducial volume with extremely low background via software cuts, and the excellent pulse-shape discrimination capability of the scintillator that allows particle identification. We report a measurement of the annual modulation of the Be7 neutrino interaction rate. The period, the amplitude, and the phase of the observed modulation are consistent with the solar origin of these events, and the absence of their annual modulation is rejected with higher than 99% C.L. The physics implications of Phase-I results in the context of the neutrino oscillation physics and solar models are presented.

  1. Novel Ideas for Neutrino Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, Ken

    2007-04-23

    Recent developments in neutrino physics, primarily the demonstration of neutrino oscillations in both atmospheric neutrinos and solar neutrinos, provide the first conclusive evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The simplest phenomenology of neutrino oscillations, for three generations of neutrino, requires six parameters - two squared mass differences, 3 mixing angles and a complex phase that could, if not 0 or {pi}, contribute to the otherwise unexplained baryon asymmetry observed in the universe. Exploring the neutrino sector will require very intense beams of neutrinos, and will need novel solutions.

  2. First indication of terrestrial matter effects on solar neutrino oscillation.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, A; Abe, K; Hayato, Y; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Kishimoto, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakano, Y; Nakayama, S; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takenaga, Y; Tomura, T; Ueno, K; Yokozawa, T; Wendell, R A; Irvine, T; Kajita, T; Kaneyuki, K; Lee, K P; Nishimura, Y; Okumura, K; McLachlan, T; Labarga, L; Berkman, S; Tanaka, H A; Tobayama, S; Kearns, E; Raaf, J L; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Goldhabar, M; Bays, K; Carminati, G; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Ganezer, K S; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Hong, N; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Akiri, T; Himmel, A; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wongjirad, T; Ishizuka, T; Tasaka, S; Jang, J S; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Smith, S N; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Suzuki, A T; Takeuchi, Y; Bronner, C; Hirota, S; Huang, K; Ieki, K; Ikeda, M; Kikawa, T; Minamino, A; Nakaya, T; Suzuki, K; Takahashi, S; Fukuda, Y; Choi, K; Itow, Y; Mitsuka, G; Mijakowski, P; Hignight, J; Imber, J; Jung, C K; Yanagisawa, C; Ishino, H; Kibayashi, A; Koshio, Y; Mori, T; Sakuda, M; Yano, T; Kuno, Y; Tacik, R; Kim, S B; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Totsuka, Y; Yokoyama, M; Martens, K; Marti, Ll; Vagins, M R; Martin, J F; de Perio, P; Konaka, A; Wilking, M J; Chen, S; Zhang, Y; Wilkes, R J

    2014-03-01

    We report an indication that the elastic scattering rate of solar B8 neutrinos with electrons in the Super-Kamiokande detector is larger when the neutrinos pass through Earth during nighttime. We determine the day-night asymmetry, defined as the difference of the average day rate and average night rate divided by the average of those two rates, to be [-3.2 ± 1.1(stat) ± 0.5(syst)]%, which deviates from zero by 2.7 σ. Since the elastic scattering process is mostly sensitive to electron-flavored solar neutrinos, a nonzero day-night asymmetry implies that the flavor oscillations of solar neutrinos are affected by the presence of matter within the neutrinos' flight path. Super-Kamiokande's day-night asymmetry is consistent with neutrino oscillations for 4 × 10(-5)  eV(2) ≤ Δm 2(21) ≤ 7 × 10(-5) eV(2) and large mixing values of θ12, at the 68% C.L. PMID:24655245

  3. Solar neutrinos and 1-3 leptonic mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Srubabati; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2005-09-01

    Effects of the 1-3 leptonic mixing on the solar neutrino observables are studied and the signatures of nonzero {theta}{sub 13} are identified. For this we have rederived the formula for 3{nu}-survival probability including all relevant corrections and constructed the isocontours of observables in the sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 12}-sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13} plane. Analysis of the solar neutrino data gives sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13}=0.007{sub -0.007}{sup +0.080} (90% C.L.) for {delta}m{sup 2}=8x10{sup -5} eV{sup 2}. The combination of the ratio CC/NC at Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) and gallium production rate selects sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13}=0.017{+-}0.026 (1{sigma}). The global fit of all oscillation data leads to zero best value of sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13}. The sensitivity (1{sigma} error) of future solar neutrino studies to sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13} can be improved down to 0.01-0.02 by precise measurements of the pp-neutrino flux and the CC/NC ratio as well as spectrum distortion at high (E>4 MeV) energies. Combination of experimental results sensitive to the low and high energy parts of the solar neutrino spectrum resolves the degeneracy of angles {theta}{sub 13} and {theta}{sub 12}. Comparison of sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 13} as well as sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub 12} measured in the solar neutrinos and in the reactor/accelerator experiments may reveal new effects which can not be seen otherwise.

  4. Solar Physics - Plasma Physics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, P. J.; Beckers, J. M.; Newman, C. E.; Priest, E. R.; Rosenberg, H.; Smith, D. F.; Sturrock, P. A.; Wentzel, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of the proceedings of a conference whose purpose was to explore plasma physics problems which arise in the study of solar physics is provided. Sessions were concerned with specific questions including the following: (1) whether the solar plasma is thermal or non-themal; (2) what spectroscopic data is required; (3) what types of magnetic field structures exist; (4) whether magnetohydrodynamic instabilities occur; (5) whether resistive or non-magnetohydrodynamic instabilities occur; (6) what mechanisms of particle acceleration have been proposed; and (7) what information is available concerning shock waves. Very few questions were answered categorically but, for each question, there was discussion concerning the observational evidence, theoretical analyses, and existing or potential laboratory and numerical experiments.

  5. Solar flares. [plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with explosions in a magnetized solar plasma, known as flares, whose effects are seen throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma-rays through the visible and to the radio band. The diverse phenomena associated with flares are discussed, along with the physical mechanisms that have been advanced to explain them. The impact of solar flare research on the development of plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics is noted. The rapid development of solar flare research during the past 20 years, owing to the availability of high-resolution images, detailed magnetic field measurements, and improved spectral data, is illustrated.

  6. Neutrino physics with multi-ton scale liquid xenon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A.; Kish, A.; Manalaysay, A.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Schumann, M. E-mail: alfredo.ferella@lngs.infn.it E-mail: aaronm@ucdavis.edu E-mail: marc.schumann@lhep.unibe.ch

    2014-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of large-scale xenon detectors to low-energy solar neutrinos, to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and to neutrinoless double beta decay. As a concrete example, we consider the xenon part of the proposed DARWIN (Dark Matter WIMP Search with Noble Liquids) experiment. We perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected backgrounds, considering realistic energy resolutions and thresholds in the detector. In a low-energy window of 2–30 keV, where the sensitivity to solar pp and {sup 7}Be-neutrinos is highest, an integrated pp-neutrino rate of 5900 events can be reached in a fiducial mass of 14 tons of natural xenon, after 5 years of data. The pp-neutrino flux could thus be measured with a statistical uncertainty around 1%, reaching the precision of solar model predictions. These low-energy solar neutrinos will be the limiting background to the dark matter search channel for WIMP-nucleon cross sections below ∼ 2 × 10{sup −48} cm{sup 2} and WIMP masses around 50 GeV⋅c{sup −2}, for an assumed 99.5% rejection of electronic recoils due to elastic neutrino-electron scatters. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below ∼ 6 GeV⋅c{sup −2} to cross sections above ∼ 4 × 10{sup −45}cm{sup 2}. DARWIN could reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 5.6 × 10{sup 26} y to the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe after 5 years of data, using 6 tons of natural xenon in the central detector region.

  7. DAEδALUS: A Phased Neutrino Physics Program Using Cyclotron Decay-at-Rest Neutrino Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toups, M.

    DAEδALUS is a proposed phased neutrino physics program consisting of two flagship experiments: a search for CP violation in the neutrino sector and a definitive search for sterile neutrinos. Ultimately, DAEδALUS will comprise several accelerator-based modules located at three different distances from a single, large underground detector such as LENA, MEMPHYS, or Hyper-K. Each of these modules will employ new low cost, high power cyclotrons to produce pion decay-at-rest neutrino beams, which can be used to search for evidence of CP violation in the oscillation probability of muon antineutrinos to electron antineutrinos over baselines of ∼20 km. However, at an early phase of the program, the high power DAEδALUS injector cyclotron can also be used to produce an intense isotope decay-at-rest neutrino beam. IsoDAR is a proposed experiment, which uses a 8Li decay-at-rest neutrino beam to preform a definitive search for sterile neutrinos by installing the DAEδALUS injector cyclotron in an underground lab close to a large liquid scintillator detector such as KamLAND. IsoDAR can rule out the parameter space allowed by global fits to the Reactor, SAGE, and GALLEX anomalies at 20σ in 5 years. These two flagship searches make a compelling case for the DAEδALUS phased neutrino physics program.

  8. Photomultiplier Tubes: Calibration and Neutrino Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, Edward; Maricic, Jelena

    2010-03-30

    Photomultiplier Tubes are devices designed to amplify very small light signals, on the order of single photons, to levels that are detectable by conventional electronics. Such a high level of amplification, however, comes with a quite a few potential problems, as the relationship between a light signal in and the current out- the response of the system- can be difficult to determine, meaning that photomultiplier tubes' use in scientific research requires a great deal of sensitive calibration. Once calibrated, the photomultiplier tube is a tool that can be used on a number of interesting problems, including the field of neutrino physics. This work deals with the use of photomultiplier tubes' use in the upcoming Double Chooz experiment to determine the mixing angle theta{sub 13}, between different neutrino mass eigenstates. Calibration of the tubes requires measurement of the charge characteristics, most notably, the gain, pedestal, and the dark rate of a tube. Moreover, for all modern tubes, there is an additional feature which can be used to calibrate the system, the single photo electron peak, which describes the response of the tube to a single photon. Some theories predict higher order effects, in addition to the single photoelectron peak, including things like incomplete multiplication of a single photon electron, features which are theoretically able to be determined by a detailed examination of the single photoelectron peak. This paper goes through the methods of calibrating a phototubes both with and without a single photoelectron peak, and is unable to determine conclusively whether or not partial multiplication is able to explain certain features of photomultiplier tubes with a single photoelectron peak.

  9. GALLEX: First results and implications for neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.X.

    1992-01-01

    The GALLEX experiment, located in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory, completed its first measurements of the production rate of Ge-71 from Ga-71 due to solar neutrinos. The GALLEX detector is uniquely sensitive to the low energy neutrinos produced by proton-proton fusion in the center of the Sun. From these first measurements, which cover a period of exposure of 295 days, a rate of 83 [plus minus] 19 (stat.) [plus minus] 8 (syst.) (1 [sigma]) SNU [1 [times] 10[sup ([minus]36)] captures/target atom - second] is reported. This initial result is two standard deviations below the solar model calculations. The implications of a neutrino deficit in terms of neutrino flavor oscillations is summarized.

  10. GALLEX: First results and implications for neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.X.

    1992-12-01

    The GALLEX experiment, located in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory, completed its first measurements of the production rate of Ge-71 from Ga-71 due to solar neutrinos. The GALLEX detector is uniquely sensitive to the low energy neutrinos produced by proton-proton fusion in the center of the Sun. From these first measurements, which cover a period of exposure of 295 days, a rate of 83 {plus_minus} 19 (stat.) {plus_minus} 8 (syst.) (1 {sigma}) SNU [1 {times} 10{sup ({minus}36)} captures/target atom - second] is reported. This initial result is two standard deviations below the solar model calculations. The implications of a neutrino deficit in terms of neutrino flavor oscillations is summarized.

  11. Solar neutrino measurement with radiochemical gallium detector (GALLEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ammon, Reinhard

    1994-04-01

    The GALLEX experiment for the detection of solar neutrinos by means of a radiochemical gallium detector is operated by groups from Italy, France, Germany, Israel and the USA in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) near L'Aquila (Italy). It consists of (1) the technical scale tank made of glass fiber reinforced polyester fabric containing 101 metric tons (54 cu m) of a highly concentrated (8 moles per liter) GaCl3 solution; (2) a gas sparging system for desorption of GeCl4 which has been formed by interaction of the neutrinos with gallium according to Ga-71 + nue yields Ge-71 + e(-) and by addition of ca. 1 mg of a stable Ge isotope; (3) the absorption columns for concentration of GeCl4 into a volume of 1 l of water; (4) the laboratory scale apparatus for conversion of GeCl4 to GeH4 and mixing with the counting gas Xe; (5) the counter filling station, and (6) the low level proportional counters. Contributions of possible side reactions which have to be corrected for, e.g. by cosmic muons, fast neutrons and alpha-emitters are discussed, as well as the purification of the target solution from long-lived ( t1/2 = 271 d) cosmogenic Ge-68. A first preliminary result after one year of solar neutrino measurement is presented. This constitutes the first direct measurement of the basic proton-proton fusion reaction in the core of the sun. This result, appreciably below the predictions of the standard solar model (SSM) (132 Solar Neutrino Units (SNU)) can be interpreted, together with the results of the chlori ne and KAMIOKANDE experiments either by astrophysics or by neutrino oscillations (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect). The solar neutrino measurements are continuing and a calibration experiment with a Cr-51 source is in preparation.

  12. Analytical description of quasivacuum oscillations of solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Montanino, D.; Palazzo, A.; Petcov, S. T.

    2001-05-01

    We propose a simple prescription to calculate the solar neutrino survival probability Pee in the quasivacuum oscillation (QVO) regime. Such a prescription is obtained by matching perturbative and exact analytical results, which effectively take into account the density distribution in the Sun as provided by the standard solar model. The resulting analytical recipe for the calculation of Pee is shown to reach its highest accuracy (\\|ΔPee\\|<=2.6×10-2 in the whole QVO range) when the familiar prescription of choosing the solar density scale parameter r0 at the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance point is replaced by a new one, namely, when r0 is chosen at the point of ``maximal violation of adiabaticity'' (MVA) along the neutrino trajectory in the Sun. The MVA prescription admits a smooth transition from the QVO regime to the MSW transition one. We discuss in detail the phase acquired by neutrinos in the Sun, and show that it might be of relevance for the studies of relatively short time scale variations of the fluxes of the solar ν lines in the future real-time solar neutrino experiments. Finally, we elucidate the role of matter effects in the convective zone of the Sun.

  13. The SOX experiment in the neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Noto, L.; Agostini, M.; Althenmüller, K.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo-Berguño, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; Cribier, M.; DAngelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Durero, M.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, Th.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jonquères, N.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, T.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Meindl, Q.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Musenich, R.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Veyssière, C.; Vivier, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-01-01

    SOX (Short distance neutrino Oscillations with BoreXino) is a new experiment that takes place at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) and it exploits the Borexino detector to study the neutrino oscillations at short distance. In different phases, by using two artificial sources 51Cr and 144Ce-144Pr, neutrino and antineutrino fluxes of measured intensity will be detected by Borexino in order to observe possible neutrino oscillations in the sterile state. In this paper an overview of the experiment is given and one of the two calorimeters that will be used to measure the source activity is described. At the end the expected sensitivity to determine the neutrino sterile mass is shown.

  14. The GENIE Neutrino Monte Carlo Generator: Physics and User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Andreopoulos, Costas; Barry, Christopher; Dytman, Steve; Gallagher, Hugh; Golan, Tomasz; Hatcher, Robert; Perdue, Gabriel; Yarba, Julia

    2015-10-20

    GENIE is a suite of products for the experimental neutrino physics community. This suite includes i) a modern software framework for implementing neutrino event generators, a state-of-the-art comprehensive physics model and tools to support neutrino interaction simulation for realistic experimental setups (the Generator product), ii) extensive archives of neutrino, charged-lepton and hadron scattering data and software to produce a comprehensive set of data/MC comparisons (the Comparisons product), and iii) a generator tuning framework and fitting applications (the Tuning product). This book provides the definite guide for the GENIE Generator: It presents the software architecture and a detailed description of its physics model and official tunes. In addition, it provides a rich set of data/MC comparisons that characterise the physics performance of GENIE. Detailed step-by-step instructions on how to install and configure the Generator, run its applications and analyze its outputs are also included.

  15. First real-time detection of solar pp neutrinos by Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, M.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Kayser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablëv, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    Solar neutrinos have been pivotal to the discovery of neutrino flavour oscillations and are a unique tool to probe the reactions that keep the Sun shine. Although most of solar neutrino components have been directly measured, the neutrinos emitted by the keystone pp reaction, in which two protons fuse to make a deuteron, have so far eluded direct detection. The Borexino experiment, an ultra-pure liquid scintillator detector running at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy, has now filled the gap, providing the first direct real time measurement of pp neutrinos and of the solar neutrino luminosity.

  16. PREFACE: 1st Franco-Algerian Workshop on Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebarki, N.; Mimouni, J.; Vanucci, F.; Aissaoui, H.

    2015-04-01

    The first Franco-Algerian workshop on neutrino physics was held on 22-23 October 2013 at the University of Mentouri, Constantine, Algeria. It was jointly organized by the Laboratory of Mathematical and Subatomic Physics (LPMS) and the Direction of Scientific Research (DGRSTD) for the Algerian side, and for the French part by the IN2P3, CNRS and CEA IRFU. It is one of a series of international scientific meetings organized every two years by the LPMS at Constantine on high energy physics (theoretical, nuclear physics, classical and quantum cosmology, astrophysics, mathematical physics and quantum computing etc...) to maintain a high quality in scientific research and education at Algerian universities. This specific meeting brought together experts in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology from France and Algeria. It touched upon several theoretical, phenomenological as well as experimental aspects of the neutrinos. The workshop participants were mostly young researchers from many universities and research institutes in Algeria. The physics of neutrinos is a very active field in particle physics, hence the importance for the High Energy community in Algeria to gain expertise in this ''strategic'' area at the intersection of various topics in theoretical physics and high energy astrophysics (SM physics, CP violation, in general, SNe explosions, baryogenesis...). The neutrino proposed by Pauli back in 1930 as a ''desperate remedy'' to save the law of energy conservation in beta decay had a bright early history. Discovered in 1956 in the Cowan-Reines experiment despite all odds, this elusive particle which enabled us to understand the chiral nature of the weak interactions which later lead to the electro-weak unification finally appears to hold a key role in understanding subatomic physics as well as the structure and structuration of the Universe. It is also, after the discovery of the Higgs particle at the LHC in 2012, the only grey area left today in the

  17. A scintillator purification system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A.; Salvo, C.; Schimizzi, D.; Shutt, T.; Sonnenschein, A.

    2008-03-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system that combines distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and filtration. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, and construction of that purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  18. Solar neutrinos and the influence of radiative opacities on solar models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, T. R.; Ezer, D.; Stothers, R.

    1973-01-01

    Use of new radiative opacities based on the hot Thomas-Fermi model of the atom yields a predicted solar neutrino flux which is still considerably larger than the flux observed in Davis's Cl-37 experiment.

  19. Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Christian; Yeh, Minfang

    2016-09-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in many neutrino physics experiments of the past and present. In particular for low energy neutrinos when realtime and energy information are required, liquid scintillators have several advantages compared to other technologies. In many cases the organic liquid needs to be loaded with metal to enhance the neutrino signal over background events. Several metal loaded scintillators of the past suffered from chemical and optical instabilities, limiting the performance of these neutrino detectors. Different ways of metal loading are described in the article with a focus on recent techniques providing metal loaded scintillators that can be used under stable conditions for many years even in ton scale experiments. Applications of metal loaded scintillators in neutrino experiments are reviewed and the performance as well as the prospects of different scintillator types are compared.

  20. The Effect of Very Low Energy Solar Neutrinos on the MSW Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.

    We study some implications on standard matter oscillations of solar neutrinos induced by a background of extremely low energy thermal neutrinos trapped inside the Sun by means of coherent refractive interactions. Possible experimental tests are envisaged and current data on solar neutrinos detected at Earth are briefly discussed.

  1. Solar Physics at Evergreen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zita, E. J.; Bogdan, T. J.; Carlsson, M.; Judge, P.; Heller, N.; Johnson, M.; Petty, S.

    2004-05-01

    We have recently established a solar physics research program at The Evergreen State College. Famed for its cloudy skies, the Pacific Northwest is an ideal location for solar physics research activities that do not require local observations. Collaborators from the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research have shared solar data from satellite-borne instruments such as TRACE and SUMER. HAO colleagues also share data from computer simulations of magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) in the chromosphere, generated by the Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics (ITA) at the University of Oslo. Evergreen students and faculty learned to analyze data from satellites and simulations, in Boulder and Oslo, and established an infrastructure for continuing our analyses in Olympia. We are investigating the role of magnetic waves in heating the solar atmosphere. Comparing data from satellites and simulations shows that acoustic oscillations from the photosphere cannot effectively propagate into the chromosphere, but that magnetic waves can carry energy up toward the hot, thin corona. We find that acoustic waves can change into magnetic waves, especially near the magnetic "canopy," a region where the sound speed is comparable to magnetic wave speeds. Understanding MHD wave transformations and their role in energy transport can help answer outstanding questions about the anomalous heating of the solar atmosphere. Ref: Waves in the magnetized solar atmosphere II: Waves from localized sources in magnetic flux concentrations. Bogdan et al., 2003, ApJ 597

  2. Supernova nucleosynthesis and the physics of neutrino oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, Toshitaka

    2012-11-20

    We studied the explosive nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae and found that several isotopes of rare elements like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 138}La, {sup 180}Ta and others are predominantly produced by the neutrino interactions with several abundant nuclei. These isotopes are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect. We here first study how to know the suitable average neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances, and propose a new novel method to determine the neutrino oscillation parameters, {theta}{sub 13} and mass hierarchy, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that some SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced neutrino-process {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on {theta}{sub 13}, we show that although the uncertainties are still large, our method hints at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy for the first time.

  3. A theoretical perspective on neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J. )

    1989-09-01

    A survey of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}, {rho}, CKM matrix, and axial-isoscalar neutral current measurements via neutrino scattering is presented. Loop effects due to heavy top or a fourth generation are described. Neutrino oscillations are discussed in a three generation mixing framework and some motivation for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation searches is given. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Neutrino Detectors Review

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ambrosio, Nicola

    2005-10-12

    The neutrino physics is one of the most important research field and there are several experiments made and under construction focused on it. This paper will present a review on some detectors used for Solar Neutrinos detection, Atmospheric Neutrinos detection and in Long Baseline Experiments.

  5. Chasing the ghost particle: The long and winding road toward the detection of solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2015-10-01

    One of the great achievements of neutrino physics was the discovery of solar neutrinos in 1968 through the Homestake underground experiment. This experiment exploited a radiochemical method based on the chlorine-argon process of inverse beta decay suggested by Bruno Pontecorvo in 1946 during his work in the classified Canadian nuclear project. In this paper, we study the emergence of the method. We focus on the role played by the problematic status of the neutrino and its antiparticle in its field of application and the influence exerted by the contemporary models of energy production in the sun. We also provide evidence that a first germ of this radiochemical method, in the form of a chlorine-sulfur process, was suggested in a paper published by Richard Crane in late 1930s.

  6. Los Alamos Science, Number 25 -- 1997: Celebrating the neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, N.G.

    1997-12-31

    This issue is devoted to the neutrino and its remaining mysteries. It is divided into the following areas: (1) The Reines-Cowan experiment -- detecting the poltergeist; (2) The oscillating neutrino -- an introduction to neutrino masses and mixing; (3) A brief history of neutrino experiments at LAMPF; (4) A thousand eyes -- the story of LSND (Los Alamos neutrino oscillation experiment); (5) The evidence for oscillations; (6) The nature of neutrinos in muon decay and physics beyond the Standard Model; (7) Exorcising ghosts -- in pursuit of the missing solar neutrinos; (8) MSW -- a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem; (8) Neutrinos and supernovae; and (9) Dark matter and massive neutrinos.

  7. Los Alamos Science, Number 25 -- 1997: Celebrating the Neutrino

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cooper, N. G. ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue is devoted to the neutrino and its remaining mysteries. It is divided into the following areas: (1) The Reines-Cowan experiment -- detecting the poltergeist; (2) The oscillating neutrino -- an introduction to neutrino masses and mixing; (3) A brief history of neutrino experiments at LAMPF; (4) A thousand eyes -- the story of LSND (Los Alamos neutrino oscillation experiment); (5) The evidence for oscillations; (6) The nature of neutrinos in muon decay and physics beyond the Standard Model; (7) Exorcising ghosts -- in pursuit of the missing solar neutrinos; (8) MSW -- a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem; (8) Neutrinos and supernovae; and (9) Dark matter and massive neutrinos.

  8. Future Directions in Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss scientific opportunities for space-based solar physics instruments in the coming decade and their synergy with major new ground-based telescopes. l will also discuss ( pow small satellites may complement larger solar physics missions.

  9. Hadron production measurements for neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Panman, Jaap

    2008-02-21

    One of the limiting factors for the precision of neutrino oscillation experiments is the uncertainty in the composition and spectrum of the neutrino flux. Recently, dedicated hadron production experiments have been taking data and are being planned to supply measurements which can significantly reduce these uncertainties. The HARP experiment has presented results on the measurements of the double-differential production cross-section of charged pions in proton interactions with beryllium, carbon, aluminium, copper, tin, tantalum and lead targets. These results are relevant for a detailed understanding of neutrino flux in accelerator neutrino experiments K2K (p-Al data) and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE (p-Be data), for a better prediction of atmospheric neutrino fluxes (p-C, {pi}{sup +}-C and {pi}{sup -}-C data) as well as for a systematic improvement of hadron production models. The E910 experiment at BNL has recently published their p-Be data. NA49 has measured pion production spectra in p-C interactions and a new experiment, NA61, is starting to take data using essentially the same detector. NA61 plans to measure production spectra for the T2K experiment and for the calculation of extended air showers. MIPP has taken data with a copy of the NuMI target and is progressing in the analysis of these data. An upgrade of the readout of this experiment can greatly increase its potential.

  10. Neutrino flavor ratios as diagnostic of solar WIMP annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Ralf; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2008-06-01

    We consider the neutrino (and antineutrino) flavors arriving at the Earth for neutrinos produced in the annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the sun’s core. Solar-matter effects on the flavor propagation of the resulting ≳GeV neutrinos are studied analytically within a density-matrix formalism. Matter effects, including mass-state level crossings, influence the flavor fluxes considerably. The exposition herein is somewhat pedagogical, in that it starts with adiabatic evolution of single flavors from the sun’s center, with θ13 set to zero, and progresses to fully realistic processing of the flavor ratios expected in WIMP decay, from the sun’s core to the Earth. In the fully realistic calculation, nonadiabatic level crossing is included, as are possible nonzero values for θ13 and the CP-violating phase δ. Because of resonance enhancement in matter, nonzero values of θ13 even smaller than a degree can noticeably affect flavor propagation. Both normal and inverted neutrino-mass hierarchies are considered. Our main conclusion is that measuring flavor ratios (in addition to energy spectra) of ≳GeV solar neutrinos can provide discrimination between WIMP models. In particular, we demonstrate the flavor differences at the Earth for neutrinos from the two main classes of WIMP final states, namely W+W- and 95%bb¯+5%τ+τ-. Conversely, if WIMP properties were to be learned from production in future accelerators, then the flavor ratios of ≳GeV solar neutrinos might be useful for inferring θ13 and the mass hierarchy. From the full calculations, we find (and prove) some general features: a flavor-democratic flux produced at the sun’s core arrives at the Earth still flavor democratic; for maximal θ32 but arbitrary θ21 and θ13, the replacement δ→π-δ leaves the νe flavor spectra unaltered but interchanges νμ and ντ spectra at the Earth; and, only for neutrinos in the inverted hierarchy and antineutrinos in the normal

  11. Neutrino physics from the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carvalho, C. S.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Church, S.; Cooray, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Dawson, K. S.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dobbs, M.; Dodelson, S.; Doré, O.; Dunkley, J.; Errard, J.; Fraisse, A.; Gallicchio, J.; Halverson, N. W.; Hanany, S.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hincks, A.; Hlozek, R.; Holder, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; Hu, W.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Jones, W. C.; Kamionkowski, M.; Keating, B.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Komatsu, E.; Kovac, J.; Kuo, C.-L.; Lawrence, C.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E.; Linder, E.; Lubin, P.; McMahon, J.; Miller, A.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, H. T.; Page, L.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Sehgal, N.; Seljak, U.; Sievers, J.; Silverstein, E.; Slosar, A.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D.; Staggs, S. T.; Stark, A.; Stompor, R.; Vieregg, A. G.; Wang, G.; Watson, S.; Wollack, E. J.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yoon, K. W.; Zahn, O.

    2015-03-01

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve σ (σmν) = 16 meV and σ (Neff) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero σmν , whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics - the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046 .

  12. Neutrino physics from the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure

    SciTech Connect

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J. E.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Brock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.

    2015-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve σ (σmν)(σmν) = 16 meV and σ (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero σmνσmν, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics — the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of NeffNeff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that View the MathML sourceNeff=3.046.

  13. Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; et al

    2014-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve σ (σmv) = 16 meV and σ (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020.more » Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero σmνσmν, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics — the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046.« less

  14. Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carvalho, C. S.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Church, S.; Cooray, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Dawson, K. S.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dobbs, M.; Dodelson, S.; Dore, O.; Dunkley, J.; Errard, J.; Fraisse, A.; Gallicchio, J.; Halverson, N. W.; Hanany, S.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hincks, A.; Hlozek, R.; Holder, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; Hu, W.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Jones, W. C.; Kamionkowski, M.; Keating, B.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Komatsu, E.; Kovac, J.; Kuo, C. -L.; Lawrence, C.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E.; Linder, E.; Lubin, P.; McMahon, J.; Miller, A.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, H. T.; Page, L.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Sehgal, N.; Seljak, U.; Sievers, J.; Silverstein, E.; Slosar, A.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D.; Staggs, S. T.; Stark, A.; Stompor, R.; Wang, G.; Watson, S.; Wollack, E. J.; W. Wu; Yoon, K. W.; Zahn, O.

    2014-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve σ (σmv) = 16 meV and σ (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero σmνσmν, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics — the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046.

  15. Cosmology at the frontier of neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Molly E. C.; Percival, Will J.; Lahav, Ofer

    2012-06-20

    Combining measurements of the galaxy power spectrum and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a powerful means of constraining the summed mass of neutrino species {Sigma}m{sub v}, but is subject to systematic uncertainties due to non-linear structure formation, redshift-space distortions and galaxy bias. We empirically test the robustness of neutrino mass results to these effects by separately analyzing power spectra of red and blue galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-II) Data Release 7 (DR7), combined with the CMB five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP5) data. The between upper limits on neutrino mass for red and blue galaxies is approximately 1{sigma} from the value expected from mock catalogs for most models and k ranges tested. This indicates good agreement for current data but hints at possible issues for nextgeneration surveys. More details are available in [1].

  16. Particle physics meets cosmology - The search for decaying neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental physical implications of the possible detection of massive neutrinos are discussed, with an emphasis on the Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) of matter. The Newtonian and general-relativistic pictures of the fundamental forces are compared, and the reduction of electromagnetic and weak forces to one force in the GUTs is explained. The cosmological consequences of the curved-spacetime gravitation concept are considered. Quarks, leptons, and neutrinos are characterized in a general treatment of elementary quantum mechanics. The universe is described in terms of quantized fields, the noninteractive 'particle' fields and the force fields, and cosmology becomes the study of the interaction of gravitation with the other fields, of the 'freezing out' of successive fields with the expansion and cooling of the universe. While the visible universe is the result of the clustering of the quark and electron fields, the distribution of the large number of quanta in neutrino field, like the mass of the neutrino, are unknown. Cosmological models which attribute anomalies in the observed motions of galaxies and stars to clusters or shells of massive neutrinos are shown to be consistent with a small but nonzero neutrino mass and a universe near the open/closed transition point, but direct detection of the presence of massive neutrinos by the UV emission of their decay is required to verify these hypotheses.

  17. Neutrino physics with accelerator driven subcritical reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuffoli, Emilio; Evslin, Jarah; Zhao, Fengyi

    2016-01-01

    Accelerator driven system (ADS) subcritical nuclear reactors are under development around the world. They will be intense sources of free, 30-55 MeV μ + decay at rest {overline{ν}}_{μ } . These ADS reactor neutrinos can provide a robust test of the LSND anomaly and a precise measurement of the leptonic CP-violating phase δ, including sign(cos(δ)). The first phase of many ADS programs includes the construction of a low energy, high intensity proton or deuteron accelerator, which can yield competitive bounds on sterile neutrinos.

  18. Solar Flare Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Edward J.; Kundu, Mukul R.

    1998-01-01

    We have continued our previous efforts in studies of fourier imaging methods applied to hard X-ray flares. We have performed physical and theoretical analysis of rotating collimator grids submitted to GSFC(Goddard Space Flight Center) for the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI). We have produced simulation algorithms which are currently being used to test imaging software and hardware for HESSI. We have developed Maximum-Entropy, Maximum-Likelihood, and "CLEAN" methods for reconstructing HESSI images from count-rate profiles. This work is expected to continue through the launch of HESSI in July, 2000. Section 1 shows a poster presentation "Image Reconstruction from HESSI Photon Lists" at the Solar Physics Division Meeting, June 1998; Section 2 shows the text and viewgraphs prepared for "Imaging Simulations" at HESSI's Preliminary Design Review on July 30, 1998.

  19. Radiative decay of massious neutrinos: Implications for physics and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    The radiative lifetime tau for the decay of massious neutrinos is calculated using various physical models for neutrino decay. The results are related to the astrophysical problem of the detectability of the decay photons from cosmic neutrinos. Conversely, the astrophysical data are used to place lower limits on tau. However, an observed feature at approximately 1700 A in the ultraviolet background radiation at high galactic latitudes may be from the decay of neutrinos with mass approximately 14 eV. This would require a decay rate much larger than the predictions of standard models but could be indicative of a decay rate possible in composite models. It is considered that this may be an important test for substructure in leptons and quarks.

  20. Long-baseline neutrino physics in the U.S

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Sacha E.; /Texas U.

    2006-12-01

    Long baseline neutrino oscillation physics in the U.S. is centered at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), in particular at the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline commissioned in 2004-2005. Already, the MINOS experiment has published its first results confirming the disappearance of {nu}{sub {mu}}'s across a 735 km baseline. The forthcoming NOvA experiment will search for the transition {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} and use this transition to understand the mass heirarchy of neutrinos. These, as well as other conceptual ideas for future experiments using the NuMI beam, will be discussed. The turn-on of the NuMI facility has been positive, with over 310 kW beam power achieved. Plans for increasing the beam intensity once the Main Injector accelerator is fully-dedicated to the neutrino program will be presented.

  1. Variations of the core luminosity and solar neutrino fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandpierre, Attila

    The aim of the present work is to analyze the geological and astrophysical data as well as presenting theoretical considerations indicating the presence of dynamic processes present in the solar core. The dynamic solar model (DSM) is suggested to take into account the presence of cyclic variations in the temperature of the solar core. Comparing the results of calculations of the CO2 content, albedo and solar evolutionary luminosity changes with the empirically determined global earthly temperatures, and taking into account climatic models, I determined the relation between the earthly temperature and solar luminosity. These results indicate to the observed maximum of 10o change on the global terrestrial surface temperature a related solar luminosity change around 4-5 % on a ten million years timescale, which is the timescale of heat diffusion from the solar core to the surface. The related solar core temperature changes are around 1 % only. At the same time, the cyclic luminosity changes of the solar core are shielded effectively by the outer zones since the radiation diffusion takes more than 105 years to reach the solar surface. The measurements of the solar neutrino fluxes with Kamiokande 1987-1995 showed variations higher than 40 % around the average, at the Super-Kamiokande the size of the apparent scatter decreased to 13 %. This latter scatter, if would be related completely to stochastic variations of the central temperature, would indicate a smaller than 1 % change. Fourier and wavelet analysis of the solar neutrino fluxes indicate only a marginally significant period around 200 days (Haubold, 1998). Helioseismic measurements are known to be very constraining. Actually, Castellani et al. (1999) remarked that the different solar models lead to slightly different sound speeds, and the different methods of regularization yield slightly different sound speeds, too. Therefore, they doubled the found parameter variations, and were really conservative assuming

  2. Review of solar neutrinos and the MSW effect

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    I review the MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem in light of the existing data from the {sup 37}Cl and Kamiokande II experiments. Taken together, they disfavor the adiabatic solution and tend to support either the large angle solution or the nonadiabatic one. In both cases the {sup 71}Ga experiment will yield a much smaller signal than that predicted by the standard solar model; the suppression factor in the former case will be about the same as for {sup 37}Cl, and in the latter it could be as large as 10 or more. I await the outcome of this experiment with great anticipation. 10 refs.

  3. First Evidence of pep Solar Neutrinos by Direct Detection in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Quirk, J.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-02-01

    We observed, for the first time, solar neutrinos in the 1.0-1.5 MeV energy range. We determined the rate of pep solar neutrino interactions in Borexino to be 3.1±0.6stat±0.3systcounts/(day·100ton). Assuming the pep neutrino flux predicted by the standard solar model, we obtained a constraint on the CNO solar neutrino interaction rate of <7.9counts/(day·100ton) (95% C.L.). The absence of the solar neutrino signal is disfavored at 99.97% C.L., while the absence of the pep signal is disfavored at 98% C.L. The necessary sensitivity was achieved by adopting data analysis techniques for the rejection of cosmogenic C11, the dominant background in the 1-2 MeV region. Assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle solution to solar neutrino oscillations, these values correspond to solar neutrino fluxes of (1.6±0.3)×108cm-2s-1 and <7.7×108cm-2s-1 (95% C.L.), respectively, in agreement with both the high and low metallicity standard solar models. These results represent the first direct evidence of the pep neutrino signal and the strongest constraint of the CNO solar neutrino flux to date.

  4. First evidence of pep solar neutrinos by direct detection in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbiati, C.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; Dangelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Quirk, J.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    We observed, for the first time, solar neutrinos in the 1.0-1.5 MeV energy range. We determined the rate of pep solar neutrino interactions in Borexino to be 3.l±0.6stat±0.3syst counts/(day-100 ton). Assuming the pep neutrino flux predicted by the Standard Solar Model, we obtained a constraint on the CNO solar neutrino interaction rate of <7.9 counts/(day-100 ton) (95% C.L.). The absence of the solar neutrino signal is disfavored at 99.97% C.L., while the absence of the pep signal is disfavored at 98% C.L. The necessary sensitivity was achieved by adopting data analysis techniques for the rejection of cosmogenic 11C, the dominant background in the 1-2 MeV region. Assuming the MSW-LMA solution to solar neutrino oscillations, these values correspond to solar neutrino fluxes of (1.6±0.3)×l08cm-2s-1 and <7.7×l08 cm-2s-1 (95% C.L.), respectively, in agreement with both the High and Low Metallicity Standard Solar Models. These results represent the first direct evidence of the pep neutrino signal and the strongest constraint of the CNO solar neutrino flux to date.

  5. SEISMIC AND DYNAMICAL SOLAR MODELS. I. THE IMPACT OF THE SOLAR ROTATION HISTORY ON NEUTRINOS AND SEISMIC INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Turck-Chieze, S.; Palacios, A.; Nghiem, P. A. P.

    2010-06-01

    Solar activity and helioseismology show the limitation of the standard solar model and call for the inclusion of dynamical processes in both convective and radiative zones. In this paper, we concentrate on the radiative zone. We first recall the sensitivity of boron neutrinos to the microscopic physics included in solar standard and seismic models. We confront the neutrino predictions of the seismic model with all the detected neutrino fluxes. Then, we compute new models of the Sun including a detailed transport of angular momentum and chemicals due to internal rotation that includes meridional circulation and shear-induced turbulence. We use two stellar evolution codes: CESAM and STAREVOL to estimate the different terms. We follow three temporal evolutions of the internal rotation which differ by their initial conditions: very slow, moderate, and fast rotation, with magnetic braking at the arrival on the main sequence for the last two. We find that the meridional velocities in the present solar radiative zone are extremely small in comparison with those of the convective zone (smaller than 10{sup -6} cm s{sup -1} instead of m s{sup -1}). All models lead to a radial differential rotation profile in the radiative zone but with a significantly different contrast. We compare these profiles to the presumed solar internal rotation and show that if meridional circulation and shear turbulence were the only mechanisms transporting angular momentum within the Sun, a rather slow rotation in the young Sun is favored. We confirm the small influence of the transport by rotation on the sound speed profile but its potential impact on the chemicals in the transition region between radiation and convective zones. These models are physically more representative of the real Sun than the standard or seismic solar models but a high initial rotation, as has been considered previously, increases the disagreement with neutrinos and the sound speed in the radiative zone. This present work

  6. Probing BSM neutrino physics with flavor and spectral distortions: Prospects for future high-energy neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Ian M.; Murase, Kohta

    2016-04-01

    The flavor of cosmic neutrinos may help unveil their sources and could reveal the presence of new physics in the neutrino sector. We consider impacts of next-generation neutrino detectors, including the planned upgrade to neutrino detector, IceCube-Gen2, which is well positioned to make dramatic improvements in both flavor and spectral measurements. We show that various models in neutrino physics beyond the Standard Model, such as neutrino decay, pseudo-Dirac states, and neutrino self-scattering, may be found or strongly constrained at IceCube-Gen2 and Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope. We find that the additional flavor discriminants given by Glashow resonance events and so-called "double-bang" topologies improve the ability to access the flavor of the cosmic high-energy neutrinos and probe the beyond the Standard Model physics. In addition, although details depend on source properties, Glashow resonance events have the additional feature of being able to inform us of the relative strengths of neutrino and antineutrino emission, which may help us discriminate astrophysical scenarios.

  7. MIGHTY MURINES: NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT VERY HIGH ENERGY MUON COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    KING,B.J.

    2000-05-05

    An overview is given of the potential for neutrino physics studies through parasitic use of the intense high energy neutrino beams that would be produced at future many-TeV muon colliders. Neutrino experiments clearly cannot compete with the collider physics. Except at the very highest energy muon colliders, the main thrust of the neutrino physics program would be to improve on the measurements from preceding neutrino experiments at lower energy muon colliders, particularly in the fields of B physics, quark mixing and CP violation. Muon colliders at the 10 TeV energy scale might already produce of order 10{sup 8} B hadrons per year in a favorable and unique enough experimental environment to have some analytical capabilities beyond any of the currently operating or proposed B factories. The most important of the quark mixing measurements at these energies might well be the improved measurements of the important CKM matrix elements {vert_bar}V{sub ub}{vert_bar} and {vert_bar}V{sub cb}{vert_bar} and, possibly, the first measurements of {vert_bar}V{sub td}{vert_bar} in the process of flavor changing neutral current interactions involving a top quark loop. Muon colliders at the highest center-of-mass energies that have been conjectured, 100--1,000 TeV, would produce neutrino beams for neutrino-nucleon interaction experiments with maximum center-of-mass energies from 300--1,000 GeV. Such energies are close to, or beyond, the discovery reach of all colliders before the turn-on of the LHC. In particular, they are comparable to the 314 GeV center-of-mass energy for electron-proton scattering at the currently operating HERA collider and so HERA provides a convenient benchmark for the physics potential. It is shown that these ultimate terrestrial neutrino experiments, should they eventually come to pass, would have several orders of magnitude more luminosity than HERA. This would potentially open up the possibility for high statistics studies of any exotic particles, such as

  8. Effect of New Physics in Astrophysical Neutrino Flavor.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Carlos A; Katori, Teppei; Salvado, Jordi

    2015-10-16

    Astrophysical neutrinos are powerful tools for investigating the fundamental properties of particle physics through their flavor content. In this Letter, we perform the first general new physics study on ultrahigh energy neutrino flavor content by introducing effective operators. We find that, at the current limits on these operators, new physics terms cause maximal effects on the flavor content; however, the flavor content on the Earth is confined to a region related to the assumed initial flavor content. Furthermore, we conclude that a precise measure of the flavor content on the Earth will provide orders of magnitude improvement on new physics bounds. Finally, we discuss the current best fits of flavor content of the IceCube data and their interplay with new physics scenarios. PMID:26550862

  9. Warped flavor symmetry predictions for neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; Rojas, Alma D.; Vaquera-Araujo, C. A.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2016-01-01

    A realistic five-dimensional warped scenario with all standard model fields propagating in the bulk is proposed. Mass hierarchies would in principle be accounted for by judicious choices of the bulk mass parameters, while fermion mixing angles are restricted by a Δ(27) flavor symmetry broken on the branes by flavon fields.The latter gives stringent predictions for the neutrino mixing parameters, and the Dirac CP violation phase, all described in terms of only two independent parameters at leading order. The scheme also gives an adequate CKM fit and should be testable within upcoming oscillation experiments.

  10. A step toward CNO solar neutrino detection in liquid scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villante, F. L.; Ianni, A.; Lombardi, F.; Pagliaroli, G.; Vissani, F.

    2011-07-01

    The detection of CNO solar neutrinos in ultrapure liquid scintillator detectors is limited by the background produced by bismuth-210 nuclei that undergo β-decay to polonium-210 with a lifetime of ˜7 days. Polonium-210 nuclei are unstable and decay with a lifetime equal to ˜200 days emitting α particles that can be also detected. In this Letter, we show that the Bi-210 background can be determined by looking at the time evolution of α-decay rate of Po-210, provided that α particle detection efficiency is stable over the data acquisition period and external sources of Po-210 are negligible. A sufficient accuracy can be obtained in a relatively short time. As an example, if the initial Po-210 event rate is ˜2000 cpd/100 ton or lower, a Borexino-like detector could start discerning CNO neutrino signal from Bi-210 background in Δt˜1 yr.

  11. Precision Measurement of the Beryllium-7 Solar Neutrino Interaction Rate in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldanha, Richard Nigel

    Solar neutrinos, since their first detection nearly forty years ago, have revealed valuable information regarding the source of energy production in the Sun, and have demonstrated that neutrino oscillations are well described by the Large Mixing Angle (LMA) oscillation parameters with matter interactions due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. This thesis presents a precision measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino interaction rate within Borexino, an underground liquid scintillator detector that is designed to measure solar neutrino interactions through neutrino-electron elastic scattering. The thesis includes a detailed description of the analysis techniques developed and used for this measurement as well as an evaluation of the relevant systematic uncertainties that affect the precision of the result. The rate of neutrino-electron elastic scattering from 0.862 MeV 7Be neutrinos is determined to be 45.4 +/- 1.6 (stat) +/- 1.5 (sys) counts/day/100 ton. Due to extensive detector calibrations and improved analysis methods, the systematic uncertainty in the interaction rate has been reduced by more than a factor of two from the previous evaluation. In the no-oscillation hypothesis, the interaction rate corresponds to a 0.862 MeV 7Be electron neutrino flux of (2.75 +/- 0.13) x 10 9 cm-2 sec-1. Including the predicted neutrino flux from the Standard Solar Model yields an electron neutrino survival probability of Pee 0.51 +/- 0.07 and rules out the no-oscillation hypothesis at 5.1sigma The LMA-MSW neutrino oscillation model predicts a transition in the solar Pee value between low (< 1 MeV) and high (> 10 MeV) energies which has not yet been experimentally confirmed. This result, in conjunction with the Standard Solar Model, represents the most precise measurement of the electron neutrino survival probability for solar neutrinos at sub-MeV energies.

  12. Study on pep and CNO solar neutrino interaction rates in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarria, Alvaro Eugenio

    We observed, for the first time, solar neutrinos in the 1.0-1.5 MeV energy range. We determined the rate of pep solar neutrino interactions in Borexino to be 3.28±0.56stat±0.26syst day-1(100ton)-1. Assuming the pep neutrino flux predicted by the Standard Solar Model, we obtained a constraint on the CNO solar neutrino interaction rate of <8.3 day-1(100 ton)-1 (95% C.L.). The absence of the solar neutrino signal is disfavored at 99.99997% C.L., while the absence of the pep neutrino signal is disfavored at 98% C.L. The necessary sensitivity was achieved due to the extremely low levels of radioactive contamination in Borexino and by adopting data analysis techniques for the rejection of cosmogenic 11C, the dominant background in the 1-2 MeV region. Assuming the LMA-MSW solution to solar neutrino oscillations, these values correspond to solar neutrino fluxes of (1.7±0.3)×108 cm-2s-1 and <7.9×108 cm-2s-1 (95% C.L.), respectively, in agreement with both the High and Low Metallicity Standard Solar Models. These results represent the first direct evidence of the pep neutrino signal and the strongest constraint of the CNO solar neutrino flux to date [1]. [1] G. Bellini et al. First evidence of pep solar neutrinos by direct detection in Borexino. Phys.Rev.Lett., 108:051302, 2012.

  13. Solar neutrino interactions with liquid scintillators used for double beta-decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu; Zuber, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Solar neutrinos interact within double-beta-decay (DBD) detectors and hence will contribute to backgrounds (BGs) for DBD experiments. Background contributions due to solar neutrinos are evaluated for their interactions with atomic electrons and nuclei in liquid scintillation detectors used for DBD experiments. They are shown to be serious BGs for high-sensitivity DBD experiments to search for the Majorana neutrino masses in the inverted and normal hierarchy regions.

  14. Special Issue on "Neutrino Oscillations: Celebrating the Nobel Prize in Physics 2015" in Nuclear Physics B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Takaaki Kajita from the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration and Arthur B. McDonald from the SNO Collaboration "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass". Furthermore, the Daya Bay, K2K and T2K, KamLAND, SNO, and Super-Kamiokande Collaborations shared the Fundamental Physics Breakthrough Prize the same year. In order to celebrate this successful and fruitful year for neutrino oscillations, the editors and the publisher of Nuclear Physics B decided to publish a Special Issue on neutrino oscillations. We invited prominent scientists in the area of neutrino physics that relates to neutrino oscillations to write contributions for this Special Issue, which was open to both original research articles as well as review articles. The authors of this Special Issue consist of e.g. the two Nobel Laureates, International Participants of the Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics at Haga Slott in Enköping, Sweden (August 19-24, 2004), selected active researchers, and members from large experimental collaborations with major results in the last ten years. In total, this Special Issue consists of 28 contributions. Please note that the cover of this Special Issue contains a figure from each of the 26 contributions that have figures included.

  15. Neutrino physics with non-standard interactions at INO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Sandhya; Ghosh, Anushree; Ohlsson, Tommy; Tiwari, Deepak

    2015-12-01

    Non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) involved in neutrino propagation inside Earth matter could potentially alter atmospheric neutrino fluxes. In this work, we look at the impact of these NSI on the signal at the ICAL detector to be built at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). We show how the sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy of ICAL changes in the presence of NSI. The mass hierarchy sensitivity is shown to be rather sensitive to the NSI parameters ɛ eμ and ɛ eτ , while the dependence on ɛ μτ and ɛ τ τ is seen to be very mild, once the χ 2 is marginalised over oscillation and NSI parameters. If the NSI are large enough, the event spectrum at ICAL is expected to be altered and this can be used to discover new physics. We calculate the lower limit on NSI parameters above which ICAL could discover NSI at a given C.L. from 10 years of data. If NSI were too small, the null signal at ICAL can constrain the NSI parameters. We give upper limits on the NSI parameters at any given C.L. that one is expected to put from 10 years of running of ICAL. Finally, we give C.L. contours in the NSI parameter space that is expected to be still allowed from 10 years of running of the experiment.

  16. Constraining big bang lithium production with recent solar neutrino data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Marcell P.; Bemmerer, Daniel; Szücs, Tamás; Zuber, Kai

    2015-06-01

    The 3He (α ,γ )7Be reaction affects not only the production of 7Li in big bang nucleosynthesis, but also the fluxes of 7Be and 8B neutrinos from the Sun. This double role is exploited here to constrain the former by the latter. A number of recent experiments on 3He α ,γ )7Be provide precise cross section data at E =0.5 - 1.0 MeV center-of-mass energies. However, there is a scarcity of precise data at big bang energies, 0.1-0.5 MeV, and below. This problem can be alleviated, based on precisely calibrated 7Be and 8B neutrino fluxes from the Sun that are now available, assuming the neutrino flavor oscillation framework to be correct. These fluxes and the standard solar model are used here to determine the 3He α ,γ )7Be astrophysical S -factor at the solar Gamow peak, S34ν(2 3-5+6 keV ) =0.548 ±0.054 keV b . This new data point is then included in a reevaluation of the 3He α ,γ )7Be S -factor at big bang energies, following an approach recently developed for this reaction in the context of solar fusion studies. The reevaluated S -factor curve is then used to redetermine the 3He α ,γ )7Be thermonuclear reaction rate at big bang energies. The predicted primordial lithium abundance is 7Li H =5.0 ×10-10 , far higher than the Spite plateau.

  17. Quasi-biennial modulation of solar neutrino flux: connections with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchio, A.; Laurenza, M.; D'alessi, L.; Carbone, V.; Storini, M.

    2011-12-01

    A quasi-biennial periodicity has been recently found (Vecchio et al., 2010) in the solar neutrino flux, as detected at the Homestake experiment, as well as in the flux of solar energetic protons, by means of the Empirical Modes Decomposition technique. Moreover, both fluxes have been found to be significantly correlated at the quasi-biennial timescale, thus supporting the hypothesis of a connection between solar neutrinos and solar activity. The origin of this connection is investigated, by modeling how the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect (the process for which the well-known neutrino flavor oscillations are modified in passing through the material) could be influenced by matter fluctuations. As proposed by Burgess et al., 2004, by introducing a background magnetic field in the helioseismic model, density fluctuations can be excited in the radiative zone by the resonance between helioseismic g-modes and Alfvén waves. In particular, with reasonable values of the background magnetic field (10-100 kG), the distance between resonant layers could be of the same order of neutrino oscillation length. We study the effect over this distance of a background magnetic field which is variable with a ~2 yr period, in agreement with typical variations of solar activity. Our findings suggest that the quasi-biennial modulation of the neutrino flux is theoretically possible as a consequence of the magnetic field variations in the solar interior. A. Vecchio, M. Laurenza, V. Carbone, M. Storini, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 709, L1-L5 (2010). C. Burgess, N. S. Dzhalilov, T. I. Rashba, V., B.Semikoz, J. W. F. Valle, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 348, 609-624 (2004).

  18. Implications of the Recent Results of Solar Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, M.; Petcov, S. T.

    2002-12-01

    Detailed predictions for the D-N asymmetry for the Super-Kamiokande and SNO experiments, as well as for the ratio of the CC and NC event rates measured by SNO, in the cases of the LMA MSW and of the LOW solutions of the solar neutrino problem, are presented. The possibilities to use the forthcoming SNO data on these two observables to discriminate between the LMA and LOW solutions and/or to further constrain the regions of the two solutions are also discussed.

  19. The sun shines brightest at night: Reflections on the solar neutrino problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, R. G. H. (Hamish)

    2016-03-01

    The flux of neutrinos from the sun's core depends on the rate at which the sun produces energy, a testable prediction as Ray Davis realized in the early 1960s. How that test turned out is one of the best-known and most dramatic stories in physics. With the hindsight of our current understanding, it is interesting to look back at the experimental and theoretical steps that led to the disclosure of new properties of nature. It was a truly international adventure, but the US played a particularly strong role in these achievements. The study of solar neutrinos continues to offer tantalizing scientific rewards, and we conclude with a look at what the future might hold.

  20. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, D.; Giganti, C.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Bottino, B.; Canci, N.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jollet, C.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Pocar, A.; Razeti, M.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Suvorov, Y.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Wang, H.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2016-08-01

    Precision measurements of solar neutrinos emitted by specific nuclear reaction chains in the Sun are of great interest for developing an improved understanding of star formation and evolution. Given the expected neutrino fluxes and known detection reactions, such measurements require detectors capable of collecting neutrino-electron scattering data in exposures on the order of 1 ktonne-yr, with good energy resolution and extremely low background. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are under development for direct Dark Matter WIMP searches, which possess very large sensitive mass, high scintillation light yield, good energy resolution, and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions. While enabling Dark Matter searches with sensitivity extending to the ``neutrino floor'' (given by the rate of nuclear recoil events from solar neutrino coherent scattering), such detectors could also enable precision measurements of solar neutrino fluxes using the neutrino-electron elastic scattering events. Modeling results are presented for the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). The results show that such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with ~15% precision, and significantly improve the precision of the 7Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector.

  1. Low energy solar neutrino experiments: The Soviet American Gallium Experiment (SAGE). Final report, August 12, 1988--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Two {sup 71}Ga experiments are currently in operation. The first is the 60 ton Soviet American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) at Baksan, which has recently reported a signal level of 73+18/{minus}16(stat)+5/{minus}7(syst) SNU; the second is the 30 ton GALLEX experiment at Gran Sasso, which sees 87{+-}14{+-}7 SNU. Both results are consistent, and both suggest a neutrino flux level low compared to the total expected from standard solar model calculations. It is not possible, however, to make a case for flux levels lower than the p-p prediction. Assuming the experiments are correct (Neutrino source calibrations are planned for both SAGE and GALLEX in the near future.), it is not at all clear yet whether the answer lies with the neutrino physics, solar physics, or a combination of both. Nevertheless, though solar model effects cannot be ruled out, if the Homestake and Kamiokande results are taken at face value, then these two experiments alone imply that neutrino oscillations or some similar particle physics result must be present to some degree. This report reviews the SAGE experiment and recent results. Non-radiochemical experiments are also discussed, with an emphasis on the Kamiokande water Cerenkov results.

  2. Short-Baseline Neutrino Physics using the NOvA Near Detector and the Booster Neutrino Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan

    2016-03-01

    The NOvA Near Detector (ND) is a low Z, nearly-fully active tracking detector, capable of 3D reconstruction of neutrino-induced interactions, situated at Fermilab, about 1 km from the NuMI neutrino beam target. Due to its positioning 14.6 mrad off the beam axis, the detector samples a narrow-band neutrino beam peaked at 2 GeV. NOvA's ND L/E greatly overlaps with the L/E range of the recent MiniBooNE experiment on the Booster neutrino beamline at Fermilab, thus making the NOvA ND an ideal tool to test a sterile neutrino hypothesis in this L/E regime and to study the low-energy excess reported by MiniBooNE. Due to the large off-axis angle (160 mrad) with respect to the Booster neutrino beamline, the NOvA ND will also observe high energy (1.4 GeV) kaon decay-in-flight neutrinos from the Booster neutrino beamline, at about 800 meters from the target. In addition, this unique `two beams in one detector' setup enables a cross-check of the energy calibration and of the measurement of neutrino cross sections at different neutrino energies in the same detector. We discuss physics capabilities and present sensitivity studies within such an experimental setup.

  3. Measurement of Solar pp-neutrino flux with Borexino: results and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, O. Yu; Agostini, M.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, O.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-02-01

    Measurement of the Solar pp-neutrino flux completed the measurement of Solar neutrino fluxes from the pp-chain of reactions in Borexino experiment. The result is in agreement with the prediction of the Standard Solar Model and the MSW/LMA oscillation scenario. A comparison of the total neutrino flux from the Sun with Solar luminosity in photons provides a test of the stability of the Sun on the 105 years time scale, and sets a strong limit on the power production by the unknown energy sources in the Sun.

  4. Particle Detection in Superfluid Helium: R&D for Low Energy Solar Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Lanou, Robert E., Jr.

    2006-03-31

    This report presents a summary of the results from R&D conducted as a feasibility study in the Department of Physics of Brown University for detection of low energy solar neutrinos utilizing a superfluid helium target. The report outlines the results in several areas: 1) development of experimental facilities, 2) energy deposition by electrons and alphas in superfluid helium, 3) development of wafer and metallic magnetic calorimeters, 4) background studies, 5) coded apertures and conceptual design, 6) Detection of single electrons and 7) a simulation of expected performance of a full scale device. Recommendations for possible future work are also presented. A bibliography of published papers and unpublished doctoral theses is included.

  5. Measurement of the Total Active 8B Solar Neutrino Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with Enhanced Neutral Current Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S. N.; Anthony, A. E.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Biller, S. D.; Boger, J.; Boulay, M. G.; Bowler, M. G.; Bowles, T. J.; Brice, S. J.; Bullard, T. V.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox, G. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J. A.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Frame, K.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gagnon, N.; Graham, K.; Grant, D. R.; Hahn, R. L.; Hall, J. C.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hamer, A. S.; Handler, W. B.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Hime, A.; Howe, M. A.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M. S.; Krumins, A. V.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C.; Labranche, H.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; McGregor, G.; Mifflin, C.; Miknaitis, K. K.; Miller, G. G.; Moffat, B. A.; Nally, C. W.; Nickel, B. G.; Noble, A. J.; Norman, E. B.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Orrell, J. L.; Oser, S. M.; Ouellet, C.; Peeters, S. J.; Poon, A. W.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G.; Rollin, E.; Rosendahl, S. S.; Rusu, V. L.; Schwendener, M. H.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sims, C. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W.; Starinsky, N.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tafirout, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tešić, G.; Thomson, M.; Thorman, M.; van Berg, R.; van de Water, R. G.; Virtue, C. J.; Wall, B. L.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Tseung, H. Wan; Wark, D. L.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Yeh, M.; Zuber, K.

    2004-05-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has precisely determined the total active (νx) 8B solar neutrino flux without assumptions about the energy dependence of the νe survival probability. The measurements were made with dissolved NaCl in heavy water to enhance the sensitivity and signature for neutral-current interactions. The flux is found to be 5.21±0.27(stat)±0.38(syst)×106 cm-2 s-1, in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of these and other solar and reactor neutrino results yields Δm2=7.1+1.2-0.6×10-5 eV2 and θ=32.5+2.4-2.3 degrees. Maximal mixing is rejected at the equivalent of 5.4 standard deviations.

  6. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerive, A.; Klein, J. R.; McDonald, A. B.; Noble, A. J.; Poon, A. W. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review paper provides a summary of the published results of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment that was carried out by an international scientific collaboration with data collected during the period from 1999 to 2006. By using heavy water as a detection medium, the SNO experiment demonstrated clearly that solar electron neutrinos from 8B decay in the solar core change into other active neutrino flavors in transit to Earth. The reaction on deuterium that has equal sensitivity to all active neutrino flavors also provides a very accurate measure of the initial solar flux for comparison with solar models. This review summarizes the results from three phases of solar neutrino detection as well as other physics results obtained from analyses of the SNO data.

  7. The program in muon and neutrino physics: Superbeams, cold muon beams, neutrino factory and the muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raja et al.

    2001-08-08

    The concept of a Muon Collider was first proposed by Budker [10] and by Skrinsky [11] in the 60s and early 70s. However, there was little substance to the concept until the idea of ionization cooling was developed by Skrinsky and Parkhomchuk [12]. The ionization cooling approach was expanded by Neufer [13] and then by Palmer [14], whose work led to the formation of the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC) [3] in 1995. The concept of a neutrino source based on a pion storage ring was originally considered by Koshkarev [18]. However, the intensity of the muons created within the ring from pion decay was too low to provide a useful neutrino source. The Muon Collider concept provided a way to produce a very intense muon source. The physics potential of neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings was investigated by Geer in 1997 at a Fermilab workshop [19, 20] where it became evident that the neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings needed for the muon collider were exciting on their own merit. The neutrino factory concept quickly captured the imagination of the particle physics community, driven in large part by the exciting atmospheric neutrino deficit results from the SuperKamiokande experiment. As a result, the MC realized that a Neutrino Factory could be an important first step toward a Muon Collider and the physics that could be addressed by a Neutrino Factory was interesting in its own right. With this in mind, the MC has shifted its primary emphasis toward the issues relevant to a Neutrino Factory. There is also considerable international activity on Neutrino Factories, with international conferences held at Lyon in 1999, Monterey in 2000 [21], Tsukuba in 2001 [22], and another planned for London in 2002.

  8. An Experimental Program in Neutrinos, Nucleon Decay and Astroparticle Physics Enabled by the Fermilab Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwan, Milind; Elbnf Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    A Letter of Intent has been submitted by a new International Team to pursue an accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino experiment, as well as neutrino astrophysics and nucleon decay, with an approximately 40-kt (fiducial) modular liquid argon TPC (LAr-TPC) detector located deep underground and a high-resolution near detector. Several independent worldwide efforts, developed through years of detailed studies, are converging around the opportunity provided by the megawatt neutrino beam facility planned at Fermilab and by the new significant expansion with improved access at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, 1,300 km from Fermilab. The principle goals of this experiment are: a comprehensive investigation of neutrino oscillations to test CP violation in the lepton sector, determine the ordering of the neutrino masses, and test the three-neutrino paradigm; to perform a broad set of neutrino scattering measurements with the near detector; and to exploit the large, high-resolution, underground far detector for non-accelerator physics topics including atmospheric neutrino measurements, searches for nucleon decay, and measurement of astrophysical neutrinos especially those from a core-collapse supernova.

  9. Neutrino oscillation physics potential of the T2K experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T2K Collaboration; Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; de Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaker, F.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.

    2015-04-01

    The observation of the recent electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam and the high-precision measurement of the mixing angle θ _{13} have led to a re-evaluation of the physics potential of the T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Sensitivities are explored for CP violation in neutrinos, non-maximal sin ^22θ _{23}, the octant of θ _{23}, and the mass hierarchy, in addition to the measurements of δ _{CP}, sin ^2θ _{23}, and Δ m^2_{32}, for various combinations of ν-mode and bar {ν }-mode data-taking. With an exposure of 7.8× 10^{21} protons-on-target, T2K can achieve 1σ resolution of 0.050 (0.054) on sin ^2θ _{23} and 0.040 (0.045)× 10^{-3} {eV}^2 on Δ m^2_{32} for 100% (50%) neutrino beam mode running assuming sin ^2θ _{23}=0.5 and Δ m^2_{32} = 2.4× 10^{-3} eV^2. T2K will have sensitivity to the CP-violating phase δ _{CP} at 90% C.L. or better over a significant range. For example, if sin ^22θ _{23} is maximal (i.e. θ _{23}=45°) the range is -115° < δ _{CP}< -60° for normal hierarchy and +50° < δ _{CP}< +130° for inverted hierarchy. When T2K data is combined with data from the NOνA experiment, the region of oscillation parameter space where there is sensitivity to observe a non-zero δ _{CP} is substantially increased compared to if each experiment is analyzed alone.

  10. Solar neutrinos as background in dark matter searches involving electron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A. W.; Vergados, J. D.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work we estimate the potential background of solar neutrinos on electron detectors. These detectors are considered relevant for detecting light dark matter particles in the MeV region, currently sought by experiments. We find that the copious low energy pp neutrinos are a dangerous background at the energies involved in these experiments, in fact close to the anticipated event rate, while the more energetic Boron neutrinos are harmless.

  11. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MUON COLLIDERS AND DEDICATED HIGH CURRENT MUON STORAGE RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    BIGI,I.; BOLTON,T.; FORMAGGIO,J.; HARRIS,D.; MORFIN,J.; SPENTZOURIS,P.; YU,J.; KAYSER,B.; KING,B.J.; MCFARLAND,K.; PETROV,A.; SCHELLMAN,H.; VELASCO,M.; SHROCK,R.

    2000-05-11

    Conceptual design studies are underway for both muon colliders and high-current non-colliding muon storage rings that have the potential to become the first true neutrino factories. Muon decays in long straight sections of the storage rings would produce uniquely intense and precisely characterized two-component neutrino beams--muon neutrinos plus electron antineutrinos from negative muon decays and electron neutrinos plus muon antineutrinos from positive muons. This article presents a long-term overview of the prospects for these facilities to greatly extend the capabilities for accelerator-based neutrino physics studies for both high rate and long baseline neutrino experiments. As the first major physics topic, recent experimental results involving neutrino oscillations have motivated a vigorous design effort towards dedicated neutrino factories that would store muon beams of energies 50 GeV or below. These facilities hold the promise of neutrino oscillation experiments with baselines up to intercontinental distances and utilizing well understood beams that contain, for the first time, a substantial component of multi-GeV electron-flavored neutrinos. In deference to the active and fast-moving nature of neutrino oscillation studies, the discussion of long baseline physics at neutrino factories has been limited to a concise general overview of the relevant theory, detector technologies, beam properties, experimental goals and potential physics capabilities. The remainder of the article is devoted to the complementary high rate neutrino experiments that would study neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-electron scattering and would be performed at high performance detectors placed as close as is practical to the neutrino production straight section of muon storage rings in order to exploit beams with transverse dimensions as small as a few tens of centimeters.

  12. Neutrino astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Current knowledge and proposed experiments in the field of neutrino astronomy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on expected sources and existing and proposed detectors for intermediate-energy (10 to 50 MeV) and ultrahigh energy (greater than 10 GeV) neutrinos. Following a brief discussion of the counting rate obtained in the solar neutrino experiment of Davis (1978) and possible statistical sources for the discrepancy between the expected and observed rates, consideration is given to the physics of neutrino ejection in stellar gravitational collapse and sources of high-energy proton collisions giving rise to ultrahigh energy neutrinos. The capabilities of operating Cerenkov detectors at the Homestake Gold Mine, the Mt. Blanc Tunnel and in the Soviet Caucasus are considered in relation to the detection of gravitational collapse in the center of the galaxy, and it is pointed out that neutrino detectors offer a more reliable means of detecting collapses in the Galaxy than do gravitational wave detectors. The possibility of using Cerenkov detectors for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection is also indicated, and applications of large neutrino detectors such as the proposed DUMAND array to measure the lifetime of the proton are discussed.

  13. Preface: Advances in solar physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2015-12-01

    The idea for this special issue of Advances in Space Research (ASR) was formulated during the 14th European Solar Physics Meeting (ESPM-14) that took place in Dublin, Ireland in September 2014. Since ASR does not publish conference proceedings, it was decided to extend a general call to the international solar-physics community for manuscripts pertinent to the following thematic areas: New and upcoming heliospheric observational and data assimilation facilities.

  14. The status of the study of solar CNO neutrinos in the Borexino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lukyanchenko, G. A.; Collaboration: Borexino Collaboration

    2015-12-15

    Although less than 1% of solar energy is generated in the CNO cycle, it plays a critical role in astrophysics, since this cycle is the primary source of energy in certain more massive stars and at later stages of evolution of solar-type stars. Electron neutrinos are produced in the CNO cycle reactions. These neutrinos may be detected by terrestrial neutrino detectors. Various solar models with different abundances of elements heavier than helium predict different CNO neutrino fluxes. A direct measurement of the CNO neutrino flux could help distinguish between these models and solve several other astrophysical problems. No CNO neutrinos have been detected directly thus far, and the best upper limit on their flux was set in the Borexino experiment. The work on reducing the background in the region of energies of CNO neutrinos (up to 1.74 MeV) and developing novel data analysis methods is presently under way. These efforts may help detect the CNO neutrino flux in the Borexino experiment at the level predicted by solar models.

  15. Medium and high-energy neutrino physics from a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy at high energy levels conducted from the moon is treated by considering 'particle astronomy' as a part of physics and the moon as a neutrino detector. The ability to observe the Galactic center is described by means of a 1-1000 TeV 'window' related to the drop in flux of atmospheric neutrinos from the earth. The long-baseline particle physics which are described in terms of a lunar observatory are found to be possible exclusively from a lunar station. The earth's neutrinos can be eliminated for the observations of astrophysical sources, and other potential areas of investigation include neutrino oscillation and the moon's interior. Neutrino exploration of the earth-moon and antineutrino radionuclide imaging are also considered. The moon is concluded to be a significantly more effective orbital platform for the study of neutrino physics than orbiting satellites developed on earth.

  16. Neutrinos

    PubMed Central

    Besson, Dave; Cowen, Doug; Selen, Mats; Wiebusch, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinos represent a new “window” to the Universe, spanning a large range of energy. We discuss the science of neutrino astrophysics and focus on two energy regimes. At “lower” energies (≈1 MeV), studies of neutrinos born inside the sun, or produced in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere, have allowed the first incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos have mass. At energies typically one thousand to one million times higher, sources further than the sun (both within the Milky Way and beyond) are expected to produce a flux of particles that can be detected only through neutrinos. PMID:10588680

  17. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  18. Solar Flare Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Edward J.; Kundu, Mukul R.

    2000-01-01

    During the past year we have been working with the HESSI (High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) team in preparation for launch in early 2001. HESSI has as its primary scientific goal photometric imaging and spectroscopy of solar flares in hard X-rays and gamma-rays with an approx. 2 sec angular resolution, approx. keV energy resolution and approx. 2 s time resolution over the 6 keV to 15 MeV energy range. We have performed tests of the imager using a specially designed experiment which exploits the second-harmonic response of HESSI's sub-collimators to an artificial X-ray source at a distance of 1550 cm from its front grids. Figures show the response to X-rays at energies in the range where HESSI is expected to image solar flares. To prepare the team and the solar user community for imaging flares with HESSI, we have written a description of the major imaging concepts. This paper will be submitted for publication in a referred journal.

  19. Opportunities for Neutrino Physics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    SciTech Connect

    Efremenko, Yuri; Hix, William Raphael

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss opportunities for a neutrino program at the Spallation Neutrons Source (SNS) being commissioning at ORNL. Possible investigations can include study of neutrino-nuclear cross sections in the energy rage important for supernova dynamics and neutrino nucleosynthesis, search for neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering, and various tests of the standard model of electro-weak interactions.

  20. Planetary influence on the young Sun's evolution: the solar neutrino probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Ilídio; Silk, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Recent observations of solar twin stars with planetary systems, like the Sun, have uncovered that these present a peculiar surface chemical composition. This is believed to be related to the formation of earth-like planets. This suggests that twin stars have a radiative interior that is richer in heavy elements than their envelopes. Moreover, the current standard solar model does not fully agree with the helioseismology data and solar neutrino flux measurements. In this work, we find that this agreement can improve if the Sun has mass-loss during the pre-main sequence, as was previously shown by other groups. Despite this better agreement, the internal composition of the Sun is still uncertain, especially for elements heavier than helium. With the goal of inferring the chemical abundance of the solar interior, we tested several chemical compositions. We found that heavy element abundances influence the sound speed and solar neutrinos equally. Nevertheless, the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO; 13N, 15O and 17F) neutrino fluxes are the most affected; this is due to the fact that contrarily to proton-proton (pp, pep, 8B and 7Be) neutrino fluxes, the CNO neutrino fluxes are less dependent on the total luminosity of the star. Furthermore, if the central solar metallicity increases by 30 per cent, as hinted by the solar twin stars observations, this new solar model predicts that 13N, 15O and 17F neutrino fluxes increase by 25-80 per cent relative to the standard solar model. Finally, we highlight that the next generation of solar neutrino experiments will not only put constraints on the abundances of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, but will also give some information about their radial distribution.

  1. The SNO+ Scintillator Purification Plant and Projected Sensitivity to Solar Neutrinos in the Pure Scintillator Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershing, Teal; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The SNO+ detector is a neutrino and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment utilizing the renovated SNO detector. In the second phase of operation, the SNO+ detector will contain 780 tons of organic liquid scintillator composed of 2 g/L 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). In this phase, SNO+ will strive to detect solar neutrinos in the sub-MeV range, including CNO production neutrinos and pp production neutrinos. To achieve the necessary detector sensitivity, a four-part scintillator purification plant has been constructed in SNOLAB for the removal of ionic and radioactive impurities. We present an overview of the SNO+ scintillator purification plant stages, including distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and metal scavenger columns. We also give the projected SNO+ sensitivities to various solar-produced neutrinos based on the scintillator plant's projected purification efficiency.

  2. Report of the solar physics panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, George L.; Fisher, Richard R.; Antiochos, Spiro; Brueckner, Guenter; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Hudson, Hugh; Moore, Ronald; Radick, Richard R.; Rottman, Gary; Scherrer, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Recent accomplishments in solar physics can be grouped by the three regions of the Sun: the solar interior, the surface, and the exterior. The future scientific problems and areas of interest involve: generation of magnetic activity cycle, energy storage and release, solar activity, solar wind and solar interaction. Finally, the report discusses a number of future space mission concepts including: High Energy Solar Physics Mission, Global Solar Mission, Space Exploration Initiative, Solar Probe Mission, Solar Variability Explorer, Janus, as well as solar physics on Space Station Freedom.

  3. Probing the Sun's inner core using solar neutrinos: A new diagnostic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Ilídio

    2013-08-01

    The electronic density in the Sun’s inner core is inferred from the B8, Be7 and pep neutrino flux measurements of the Super-Kamiokande, SNO and Borexino experiments. We have developed a new method in which we use the KamLAND detector determinations of the neutrino fundamental oscillation parameters: the mass difference and the vacuum oscillation angle. Our results suggest that the solar electronic density in the Sun’s inner core (for a radius smaller than 10% of the solar radius) is well above the current prediction of the standard solar model, and by as much as 25%. A potential confirmation of these preliminary findings can be achieved when neutrino detectors are able to reduce the error of the electron-neutrino survival probability by a factor of 15.

  4. The LAGUNA/LBNO potential for Long Baseline neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostino, Luca; Consortium, Laguna-Lbno

    2014-12-01

    The LAGUNA/LBNO collaboration proposes a new generation neutrino experiment to address fundamental questions in particle and astroparticle physics. The experiment consists of a far detector, Liquid Argon (LAr) double phase Time TPC (Time Projection Chamber), the fiducial mass of the detector is set to 20 kt in its first stage. The detector will be situated at 2300 km from CERN: this long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study the neutrino flavour oscillations over the first and second oscillation maxima and to explore the L/E (Length over energy) behaviour. The near detector is based on a high-pressure argon gas TPC situated at CERN. I will detail the physics potential of this experiment for determining without ambiguity the mass hierarchy (MH) in its first stage and discovering CP violation (CPV) using the CERN SPS beam with a power of 750 kw. The impact of the assumptions on the knowledge of the oscillation parameters and the systematic errors are very important and will be shown in detail to prove the force of the experiment assuming realistic and conservative parameter values.

  5. New physics with ultra-high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfatia, D.; McKay, D. W.; Weiler, T. J.

    2015-09-01

    Now that PeV neutrinos have been discovered by IceCube, we optimistically entertain the possibility that neutrinos with energy above 100 PeV exist. We evaluate the dependence of event rates of such neutrinos on the neutrino-nucleon cross section at observatories that detect particles, atmospheric fluorescence, or Cherenkov radiation, initiated by neutrino interactions. We consider how (i) a simple scaling of the total standard model neutrino-nucleon cross section, (ii) a new elastic neutral current interaction, and (iii) a new completely inelastic interaction, individually impact event rates.

  6. Planetary atmospheric physics and solar physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An overview is presented on current and planned research activities in the major areas of solar physics, planetary atmospheres, and space astronomy. The approach to these unsolved problems involves experimental techniques, theoretical analysis, and the use of computers to analyze the data from space experiments. The point is made that the research program is characterized by each activity interacting with the other activities in the laboratory.

  7. Prospects for the measurement of pep and CNO solar neutrino rates with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarria, Alvaro

    2011-04-01

    Borexino is the only detector currently able to perform neutrino spectroscopy below 2 MeV. The Borexino Collaboration has already published the first and only real-time measurement of the ^7Be neutrino flux from the Sun. Of great interest are also the measurements of the CNO and pep neutrino rates. Knowledge of the CNO neutrino rate is key to answer the Solar Metallicity Problem, while the pep neutrinos are an excellent probe for the vacuum-matter transition region of the LMA-MSW solution to the Solar Neutrino Problem. The main challenge for these measurements is the characterization and removal of cosmogenic and radiogenic background in the scintillator. I will present data analysis techniques that can significantly reduce the cosmogenic ^11C background in Borexino's energy spectrum, which should allow for the measurement of the pep neutrino rate. Additionally, I will discuss the status of the detector in terms of radiogenic background and the possibility for the eventual measurement of the CNO neutrino rate with Borexino.

  8. India-based neutrino observatory (INO): Physics reach and status report

    SciTech Connect

    Indumathi, D.

    2015-07-15

    We present a review of the physics reach and current status of the proposed India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). We briefly outline details of the INO location and the present status of detector development. We then present the physics goals and simulation studies of the main detector, the magnetised Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector, to be housed in INO. The ICAL detector would make precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters with atmospheric neutrinos including a measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy. Additional synergies with other experiments due to the complete insensitivity of ICAL to the CP phase are also discussed.

  9. Status and perspectives of neutrino physics at present and future experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio

    2016-03-01

    Neutrino Physics and Dark Matter searches play a crucial role in nowadays Particle and Astroparticle Physics. The present review paper will describe general properties of neutrinos and neutrino mass phenomenology (Dirac and Majorana masses). Space will be dedicated to the experimental attempts to answer the question of the neutrino mass hierarchy. We will give, then, a short review of the results of part of the experiments that have been running so far. We will also shortly summarize future experiments that plan to explore this very wide scientific area.

  10. Evidence for neutrino mass: A decade of discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Heeger, Karsten M.

    2004-12-08

    Neutrino mass and mixing are amongst the major discoveries of recent years. From the observation of flavor change in solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments to the measurements of neutrino mixing with terrestrial neutrinos, recent experiments have provided consistent and compelling evidence for the mixing of massive neutrinos. The discoveries at Super-Kamiokande, SNO, and KamLAND have solved the long-standing solar neutrino problem and demand that we make the first significant revision of the Standard Model in decades. Searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay probe the particle nature of neutrinos and continue to place limits on the effective mass of the neutrino. Possible signs of neutrinoless double-beta decay will stimulate neutrino mass searches in the next decade and beyond. I review the recent discoveries in neutrino physics and the current evidence for massive neutrinos.