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1

Our Solar System. Our Solar System Topic Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the planets and other objects in space that make up the solar system. It also shows how technology helps students learn about our neighbors in space. The suggested age range for this book is 3-8 with a guided reading level of Q-R. The Fry level is 3.2.

Phelan, Glen

2006-01-01

2

Chaotic diffusion in the outer solar system, and other topics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out extensive numerical orbit integrations to probe the long-term chaotic dynamics of the 2:3 (Plutinos) and 1:2 (Twotinos) mean motion resonances with Neptune. We derive maps of resonance stability measured both by time-averaged particle density and by mean dynamical diffusion rate, and investigate the effects of a massive perturber embedded in the resonance. We also investigate the population of Resonant Kuiper Belt Objects at 4 Gyr ago compared to the present, and discuss the implications for theories of Kuiper Belt origins. We have numerically investigated the long term dynamical behavior of known Centaurs. We find that their orbital evolution is characterized by frequent close encounters with the giant planets, with no significant long-term resonant behavior. Most of these Centaurs will escape from the inner solar system, while a fraction will enter the Jupiter-family comet (JFC) population and a few percent will impact a giant planet. We discuss the implications of our study for the spatial distribution of the actual Centaur population. Using numerical and analytical models, we investigate the ejection of water molecules from Europa's surface by sputtering, the subsequent evolution of their ballistic trajectories, and their re-deposition onto the surface as a water frost. We conclude that net deposition does occur under certain conditions, making sputtering erosion and re-deposition a plausible explanation for the observed color dichotomy between Europa's leading and trailing hemispheres. During Cassini's approach to Jupiter, a series of images was taken to search for any undiscovered satellites of Jupiter. Our analysis of these images indicates that no undiscovered satellites exist between 2.6 and 20 R J with inclination i < 1.6°, eccentricity e < 0.0002, diameter D > 15 km and albedo A > 0.1.

Tiscareno, Matthew Steven

3

Using Solar System Topics to Teach the Scientific Method in an Age of Science Denial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of excellent opportunities to remind students of the scientific method and how the process of science works come about during coverage of common topics in a Solar System “unit” in an introductory college astronomy course. With the tremendous amount of misinformation about science that students are exposed to through the Internet and other forms of media, this is now more important than ever. If non-science majors can leave introductory astronomy, often the only science course they will take, with a decent appreciation of, or at least an exposure to, how science works, they will then be better able to judge the validity of what they hear about science in the media throughout their lives.

Lo Presto, M. C.

2013-04-01

4

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of the space page of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), and provides information about the Sun, the planets and their moons, and other bodies in the solar system. It contains a travel guide to the Solar System including such topics as what to see, reason to visit, how to get there, and local history. A similar travel guide is then available for the Sun, each of the planets, asteroids, and comets. In addition, multiple links for more detailed information as well as space games and puzzles are provided.

2007-12-12

5

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the end of this project, you will be able to explain the components of the Solar System and know the order of the planets starting from the Sun. Objective Question: What is the Solar System? First, listen and read about the Solar System 1. How many planets make up our Solar System? 2. What is at the center of the Solar System? Next,listen and read about the Planets. 1. Can you name all of the planets? Finally, listen and watch The Solar System Movie. 1. Can you list the ...

Ms.West

2009-07-07

6

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Take a tour of our Solar System Browse the various tours of the solar system, then choose the one, or combination of tours, that will help you make comparisons between the planets. Items to take note of: Number of known satellites Orbital period around the sun Rotational period on its axis Atmospheric gases Presence of water, and in what ...

Sill - Earth Systems Science

2010-10-07

7

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Martin Hackworth of Idaho State University, this site contains a lab for students. This lab has an objective of: "investigating the size and shape of the solar system, to study the orbital properties of bodies within the solar system, to gain insight into Kepler's first two laws." The resource contains objectives, equipment, discussion, procedure and exercises. The author uses charts, diagrams and mathematical formula to help illustrate the topics in this resource. This is a nice exercise in the study of astronomy and more specifically the solar system.

Hackworth, Martin

8

Meteorites and the early solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work discusses topics in the source regions for meteorites, their secondary processing, irradiation effects on meteorites, solar system chronology, the early solar system, the chemistry of chondrites and the early solar system, magnetic fields in the early solar system, the nature of chondrules, micrometeorites, inhomogeneity of the nebula, the survival of presolar material in meteorites, nucleosynthesis, and the

J. F. Kerridge; M. S. Matthews

1988-01-01

9

The Galaxy and the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar-Galactic neighborhood, massive interstellar clouds and other Galactic features, the Oort cloud, perturbations of the solar system, and the existence and stability of a solar companion star are examined in chapters based on contributions to a conference held in Tucson, AZ during January 1985. The individual topics addressed include: the Galactic environment of the solar system; stars within 25

Roman Smoluchowski; John M. Bahcall; Mildred S. Matthews

1986-01-01

10

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts of our solar system? Let's learn about the parts of our Solar System! First, use the Solar System Chart Now read the Introduction to the Solar System and begin filling out the Solar System Chart by listing one fact for each planet. Now watch the Video 1 on the Solar System and fill out one characteristic about each planet in our Solar System. Now read the Facts about the Solar System and find ...

kathrynbyers

2012-04-05

11

Solar System!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to our solar system—the planets, our Sun and Moon. To begin, students learn about the history and engineering of space travel. They make simple rockets to acquire a basic understanding Newton's third law of motion. They explore energy transfer concepts and use renewable solar energy for cooking. They see how engineers design tools, equipment and spacecraft to go where it is too far and too dangerous for humans. They explore the Earth's water cycle, and gravity as applied to orbiting bodies. They learn the steps of the design process as they create their own models of planetary rovers made of edible parts. Students conduct experiments to examine soil for signs of life, and explore orbit transfers. While studying about the International Space Station, they investigate the realities of living in space. Activities explore low gravity on human muscles, eating in microgravity, and satellite tracking. Finally, students learn about the context of our solar system—the universe—as they learn about the Hubble Space Telescope, celestial navigation and spectroscopy.

2014-09-18

12

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA is charting a bold new course into the cosmos, a journey that will take humans back to the Moon, and eventually to Mars and beyond. Exploration of the solar system and beyond will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance. NASA exploration programs will seek profound answers to questions about the origins of our solar system, whether life exists beyond Earth, and how we could live on other worlds. The NASA Vision for space exploration calls for a combination of human and robotic missions to achieve new exploration goals. Robotic missions to the Moon will be followed by an extended human expedition as early as 2015. Lunar exploration will lay the groundwork for future exploration of Mars and other destinations. A new spacecraft to support these journeys--the Crew Exploration Vehicle--will be tested before the end of this decade. Space exploration holds a special place in the human imagination. Youth are especially drawn to Mars rovers, astronauts, and telescopes. If used effectively and creatively, space can inspire children to seek careers in math, science, and engineering. Exploration and discovery are key agents of growth in society--technologically, economically, socially, internationally, and intellectually. This module is a first step in engaging today's youth in space exploration and serves as an invitation to participate in the excitement of discovery.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

13

Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

Knapp, Henry H., III

14

Solar-parabolic dish-Stirling-engine-system module. Task 1: Topical report, market assessment/conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The major activities reported are: a market study to identify an early market for a dish-Stirling module and assess its commercial potential; preparation of a conceptual system and subsystem design to address this market; and preparation of an early sales implementation plan. A study of the reliability of protection from the effects of walk-off, wherein the sun's image leaves the receiver if the dish is not tracking, is appended, along with an optical analysis and structural analysis. Also appended are the relationship between PURPA and solar thermal energy development and electric utility pricing rationale. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-11-30

15

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify basic components of our solar system, including the sun, planets, and Earth's moon. We have just learned about the Solar System. Click here to watch an informational overview of the Solar System: Overview of the Solar System.. The planets in our Solar System are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. Every planet in our Solar System revolves around the sun. The sun provides the energy ...

Ms. Smithson

2009-07-07

16

External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA webpage, Solar System Exploration, allows students to search missions by name, decade, nation, target, mission, and status. Topics: arial, atmospheric, flybys, impact, lander, orbiter, rover, Deep Space Network

1900-01-01

17

External Resource: Planets and the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains links to numerous options from which to learn about planets and the Solar System through exploration and activities. Topics: lunar habitat, extreme weather, comets, aerogel, Pluto, asteroids, and planetary science.

1900-01-01

18

External Resource: Starchild: The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource allows learners/students to explore the Sun and everything that travels around it. Topics: asteroids, comets, meteoroids, satellites, galaxies, mass, astronomers, gravitational pull, solar system, the Moon, planets, dwarf planets

1900-01-01

19

Water: Life's Elixir in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the possible occurrence of water in our solar system. Topics include the necessity of liquid water for life, distribution of water throughout the solar system, and the possibility that there may be liquid water on Mars or on some of Jupiter's moons.

20

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

1984-01-01

21

Galaxy and the solar system  

SciTech Connect

The solar-Galactic neighborhood, massive interstellar clouds and other Galactic features, the Oort cloud, perturbations of the solar system, and the existence and stability of a solar companion star are examined in chapters based on contributions to a conference held in Tucson, AZ during January 1985. The individual topics addressed include: the Galactic environment of the solar system; stars within 25 pc of the sun; the path of the sun in 100 million years; the local velocity field in the last billion years; interstellar clouds near the sun; and evidence for a local recent supernova. Also considered are: dynamic influence of Galactic tides and molecular clouds on the Oort cloud; cometary evidence for a solar companion; dynamical interactions between the Oort cloud and the Galaxy; geological periodicities and the Galaxy; giant comets and the Galaxy; dynamical evidence for Planet X; evolution of the solar system in the presence of a solar companion star; mass extinctions, crater ages, and comet showers; evidence for Nemesis, a solar companion star.

Smoluchowski, R.; Bahcall, J.M.; Matthews, M.S.

1986-01-01

22

Astronomy 161: The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This well-illustrated introductory college course in astronomy--the first semester of a two-semester sequence taught at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville--provides an overview of the solar system and the historical development of ideas on its nature and properties. Topics include the planets and their classification, aspects, and phases; the history of planetary astronomy and development of theories of planetary motion; and timekeeping and the celestial sphere. There are also discussions about Earth and its Moon, features of the other eight planets (Pluto is included), and discussions of other objects in the solar system (comets, asteroids, and meteors).

Dr. Steve Daunt

23

Solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for generating solar energy utilizes a plurality of solar radiation absorption bodies formed as spherical balls which interact with solar radiation focalization devices which constitute paraboloid mirrors in order to effect heating of the spherical balls by the solar radiation which is concentrated at an irradiation position defined by the paraboloid mirrors. The heated balls are transported to

Merges

1981-01-01

24

Solar energy collection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collection system for a building is described. A solar energy collector is disposed at the exterior surface of the building and includes a solar energy absorbent body having a surface which is exposed to sunlight and from which solar energy can be transmitted as sensible heat. A panel which is transparent to sunlight is spaced from the

Hummell

1978-01-01

25

Solar energy collection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collection system for a building is described. A solar energy collector is disposed at the exterior surface of the building and includes a solar energy absorbent body having a surface which is exposed to sunlight and from which solar energy can be transmitted as sensible heat. A panel which is transparent to sunlight is spaced from the

1982-01-01

26

Solar system positioning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

2006-01-01

27

Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

None

2011-01-01

28

Solar System Viewers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains three separate programs that produce animations of different aspects of our solar system. The Solar System Viewer indicates the location of terrestrial planets, gas giants, the asteroid belt, Kuiper Belt and comets in relation to the Sun. This program helps to give a sense of size and location within our solar system. The Other Solar Systems Viewer animates the recent discoveries of planets orbiting other stars. This application gives an animation of how these other solar systems operate. The Satellite Viewer animates the moons of the planets in our solar system to show their names and where they are located around their respective planets. The gas giants Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have more than one animation to show the different groups of moons that orbit them. The moons and planets in this animation are to scale to indicate size comparisons.

Mike Ashbury

29

Build a Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a scale model of the Solar System and learn the real definition of "space." Learners use the online calculator to create an appropriate scale to use as a basis for their model. Once learners have their scaled measurements (diameters and distances), then they can walk and "pace out" the solar system by marking sticks or flags in the ground. Learners can also build a solar system on a roll of toilet paper or receipt paper.

Ron Hipschman

1997-01-01

30

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Solar System SciPack explores the solar system and the various bodies within it. The focus in on the Standards and Benchmarks related to how we have learned about the solar system and what we know about the planets, moons, and other bodies in the solar system. Special focus is also given to how the solar system and its bodies formed. In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:? Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. ? Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".? Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Solar System: The Earth in Space? Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.? Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.? Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.Solar System: A Look at the Planets? Describe, compare, and contrast the following basic features of the planets in our solar system: size, composition, atmosphere, periods of rotation and revolution, surface features, and ring systems.? Describe the similarities and differences between the terrestrial and Jovian planets.? Describe, compare, and contrast the characteristics of planetary moons in our solar system.Solar System: Asteroids, Comets, and Meteorites? Describe the similarities and differences in comets, asteroids, and meteors.? Describe the size, composition, and motion of meteors, asteroids, and comets.? Differentiate between meteors, meteorites, and meteoroids, and explain what happens to meteors as they fall through Earth's atmosphere.? Explain how we learn about asteroids, comets, and meteorites.Solar System: Formation of Our Solar System? Provide the basic story line of how the solar system may have formed from the debris of exploding stars. ? Relate the different characteristics and features of the planets to their different distances from the sun.? Explain some of the methods scientists have used to learn about the formation and evolution of the solar system.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-21

31

[The Story of the Solar System] The Solar System -II  

E-print Network

[The Story of the Solar System] The Solar System - II Alexei Gilchrist #12;Some resources o Section of the Solar System, M Garlick, (Cambridge Uni. Press, 2002) #12;Timeline Today Big Bang Earliest Fossils Birth of Solar System Death of Solar System Dinasaurs Extinct Cloud perturbed T-Tauri Phase Ice Giants Com ets

Wardle, Mark

32

Solar System Collisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This program simulates the collision of an asteroid or a comet with any planet in Solar System. Users can pick one of the nine planets in the Solar System or the Earth's Moon, choose the composition and diameter (size) of the projectile, and choose the speed of the projectile. Approximate results are returned.

33

Homemade Solar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the use of NASA Tech Briefs, Peter Kask, was able to build a solarized domestic hot water system. Also by applying NASA's solar energy design information, he was able to build a swimming pool heating system with minimal outlay for materials.

1981-01-01

34

Solar System Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website Solar System Live includes applets showing the positions of the planets. One can see all of the planets in the solar system or just the inner planets. Visitors are encouraged to compare the view of the inner planets with what can be seen in the night sky.

Walker, John

35

Solar thermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar thermal systems considered include systems employing low-temperature collectors of solar energy and systems with high-temperature collectors. Systems with low-temperature collectors, which are generally designed as flat plate collectors, can be employed in Germany for the supply of one- or two-family houses with heat and warm water. The installation of high-temperature collector systems in Germany for the generation of

W. Kleinkauf

1977-01-01

36

Life in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life in the Solar System is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides a look at the environments of some places in the solar system, including Mercury, Venus, Mars present and past, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Saturn, Titan, other moons, Uranus, Neptune, Triton, Pluto, comets, and interstellar space. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Roberta Johnson

2000-07-01

37

Solar System: Formation of Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It explores the hypothesis that the solar system coalesced out of a giant cloud of gas and debris left in the wake of exploding stars about five billion years ago. Everything in and on the earth, including living organisms, is made of the material from this cloud. As Earth and the other planets formed, the heavier elements fell to their centers. On planets closer to the Sun (the inner planets), the lightest elements and their compounds were mostly blown or boiled away by radiation from the newly formed sun. However, on the outer planets, the lighter substances still surround them as deep atmospheres of gas or as frozen solid layers. Learning Outcomes:? Provide the basic story line of how the solar system may have formed from the debris of exploding stars. ? Relate the different characteristics and features of the planets to their different distances from the sun.? Explain some of the methods scientists have used to learn about the formation and evolution of the solar system.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

38

Planetary Aeronomy of the Outer Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will give a historical tour of the highlights of my research on atmospheres in the outer solar system and their interaction with the magnetospheric plasma. Topics include atmospheric photochemistry, the Io plasma torus, the Galilean satellites, and the nitrogen atmospheres on Titan, Triton, and Pluto. The important role of observations combined with theory will be emphasized. The talk will finish with current research on the role that atmospheric escape plays on atmospheric structure in the outer solar system.

Strobel, Darrell

2012-10-01

39

Solar powered desalination system  

E-print Network

of fresh water? Table 1.19: Solar Desalination Systemssolar desalination systems with a variety of power sources, desalination processes, and fresh watersolar-powered reverse osmosis system can be taken to a fresh water

Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

2011-01-01

40

Cosmology of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early solar system accreted from ice crystals, which encapsulated the refractory elements. Ice was needed to bind the smallest particles, so accretion only occurred in the outer solar system. Solar wind gusts expelled dust in the inner solar system to where it became accreted into the giant planets. Thus, the original solar system comprised four giant planets, accreted from

J. Ackerman

2004-01-01

41

Parabolic solar systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The further development of parabolic solar collectors to increase their efficiency and simplify their operation was the prime objective of this research project. Three primary objectives were pursued. The first of these was to investigate the simplest and most efficient techniques to build and mass-produce parabolic solar collectors. The second objective was to further develop and simplify absorber tubes used to collect and transfer the solar energy. Absorber tubes represented a significant area of this research project. The third objective was to develop accurate, low cost, and durable tracking systems for solar collectors. Solar tracking systems are covered including several schematic representations of various systems and designs. The testing systems and associated mechanisms for the designs discussed in this report are described.

Parsons, W. L., IV; Goetchius, W.

42

Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the Goldstone Solar System Radar is the investigation of solar system bodies by means of Earth-based radar. Targets of primary interest include the Galilean moons, Saturn's rings and moons, and Earth-approaching asteroids and comets. Planets are also of interest, particularly Mercury and the planets to which NASA has not yet planned spacecraft visits. Based on a history of solid achievement, including the definition of the Astronomical Unit, imaging and topography of Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and contributions to the general theory of relativity, the program will continue to support flight project requirements and its primary objectives. The individual target objectives are presented, and information on the following topics are presented in tabular form: Deep Space Network support, compatibility tests, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

Renzetti, N. A.

1991-01-01

43

Solar powered desalination system  

E-print Network

solar power more efficient and cost effective. Figure 1.13: Californiasolar power is not yet cost competitive to fossil fuel. In California,California 2008 Total System Generation…………………………………..32 Table 1.18: Largest PV Power Plants……………………………………………………32 Table 1.19: Solar

Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

2011-01-01

44

Residential Solar Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

Fulkerson, Dan

45

Solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a solar energy system, which includes a lower solar energy collector. It comprises: an outer cabinet including a top, bottom, a front, a back and opposite sides; the outer cabinet including an opening; the outer cabinet forming an enclosed interior; an inner cabinet including a top, a bottom, a front, a back and opposite sides; the inner

1990-01-01

46

Solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1977-01-01

47

Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through out this project you will learn about the Solar System. You will read and learn specific information about each planet. After completing this project, you should be able to answer the question: how does a planet's distance from the sun affect its weather? Watch this video. It is an introduction to the lesson. Learn about our Solar System. Planet Video Print out the graphic organizer from this site. Fill out the information on the chart as you complete the next activities. Solar System Information Chart Visit this link. Read the summary about the planets and dwarf planets. While you ...

Ms. Norton

2011-10-28

48

Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

Knapp, Henry H., III

49

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

1984-05-14

50

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, Robert B. (Wheatridge, CO); Pruett, Jr., James C. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

51

Solar System: Lethal billiards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A huge collision in the asteroid belt 160 million years ago sent fragments bagatelling around the inner Solar System. One piece might have caused the mass extinction that wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

Claeys, Philippe; Goderis, Steven

2007-09-01

52

Outer Solar System Exploration  

E-print Network

are similar to Uranus and Neptune #12;Oh the Places we'll Go · The outer solar system is target-rich. We'd like to learn more about volcanoes on Io, storms on Titan, the rings around Uranus and whether Ariel ocean and how to access it in the future ­ Uranus orbiter, to study an ice giant in our own solar system

Rathbun, Julie A.

53

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fourth grade students will explore the solar system and write a one page paper about their journey through space. Hold on tight! 3... 2... 1... Blast off! We're on our way to outer space. We are going to explore our solar system. We will go to this website Kids Astronomy to begin our exploration. While on our trip, we will follow these steps: 1. Go to website Kids Astronomy 2. Click on Outer ...

Miss Gardner

2009-09-15

54

Solar heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is disclosed for using solar energy to heat the interior of a structure. The system utilizes a low cost solar collector to heat a recirculating air mass which then flows through a series of interconnected ducts and passageways without the use of exterior fans or blowers. Heat is transferred from the air mass to the structure's interior and the air mass is then reheated.

Jensen, R. N. (inventor)

1977-01-01

55

Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate: What's up? The topic of possible relations between solar and cosmic  

E-print Network

Preface Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate: What's up? The topic of possible relations between solar and cosmic ray variability on one hand, and Earth's climate on the other hand, is quite in Space Research topical issue on Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate presents a collection

Usoskin, Ilya G.

56

Pumps in solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of where pumps should be included in the solar system is discussed. Only the thermosiphon solar system does not use pumps. Other types of solar systems employ centrifugal water circulation pumps. Pumps operate in the solar systems when the differential controller indicates that water or fluid in the outlet of the collector is hotter than the water or

Cook

1977-01-01

57

Discovering the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovering the Solar System Barrie W. Jones The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK Discovering the Solar System is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the Solar System and of the ways in which the various bodies have been investigated and modelled. The approach is thematic, with sequences of chapters on the interiors of planetary bodies, on their surfaces, and on their atmospheres. Within each sequence there is a chapter on general principles and processes followed by one or two chapters on specific bodies. There is also an introductory chapter, a chapter on the origin of the Solar System, and a chapter on asteroids, comets and meteorites. Liberally illustrated with diagrams, black and white photographs and colour plates, Discovering the Solar System also features: * tables of essential data * question and answers within the text * end of section review questions with answers and comments Discovering the Solar System is essential reading for all undergraduate students for whom astronomy or planetary science are components of their degrees, and for those at a more advanced level approaching the subject for the first time. It will also be of great interest to non-specialists with a keen interest in astronomy. A small amount of scientific knowledge is assumed plus familiarity with basic algebra and graphs. There is no calculus. Praise for this book includes: ".certainly qualifies as an authoritative text. The author clearly has an encyclopedic knowledge of the subject." Meteorics and Planetary Science ".liberally doused with relevant graphs, tables, and black and white figures of good quality." EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union ".one of the best books on the Solar System I have seen. The general accuracy and quality of the content is excellent." Journal of the British Astronomical Association

Jones, Barrie W.

1999-04-01

58

Solar energy system and solar collector therefor  

SciTech Connect

A solar collector for a solar energy system comprises a solar absorber for converting solar radiation into heat, a heat transfer fluid for transferring heat from the solar absorber, at least one passage for flow of the fluid in contact with the solar absorber surface, and apparatus for creating a relative vacuum in the at least one passage so as to minimize the creation of a stagnant boundary layer of the fluid when it is pumped through the at least one passage. The at least one passage is preferably formed by a convoluted surface on the solar absorber which defines at least one groove, and a flexible sheet which overlies the convoluted surface and sealingly engages the surface through the action of a vacuum. The heat transfer fluid preferably is selected from the group of mineral oil, aliphatic hydrocarbon oils, and silicone oils.

Allen, R.W.

1982-03-23

59

Solar System Fluff  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Nick Strobel, "Astronomy Notes" is an educational resource for introductory astronomy classes for undergraduates. This section discusses smaller planetary objects, such as asteroids, meteorites, and comets, as well as the formation of the solar system, extrasolar planets, and how scientists detect other planetary systems. This is a great collection of resources for instructors looking to enhance their astronomy curriculum.

Strobel, Nick

60

Solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (inventors)

1979-01-01

61

Baby Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

2012-01-01

62

Solar cell activation system  

SciTech Connect

A system for activating solar cells involves the use of phosphorescent paint, the light from which is amplified by a thin magnifying lens and used to activate solar cells. In a typical system, a member painted with phosphorescent paint is mounted adjacent a thin magnifying lens which focuses the light on a predetermined array of sensitive cells such as selenium, cadmium or silicon, mounted on a plastic board. A one-sided mirror is mounted adjacent the cells to reflect the light back onto said cells for purposes of further intensification. The cells may be coupled to rechargeable batteries or used to directly power a small radio or watch.

Apelian, L.

1983-07-05

63

Solar System Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In these 18 years, the research has touched every major dynamical problem in the solar system, including: the effect of chaotic zones on the distribution of asteroids, the delivery of meteorites along chaotic pathways, the chaotic motion of Pluto, the chaotic motion of the outer planets and that of the whole solar system, the delivery of short period comets from the Kuiper belt, the tidal evolution of the Uranian arid Galilean satellites, the chaotic tumbling of Hyperion and other irregular satellites, the large chaotic variations of the obliquity of Mars, the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, and the resonant core- mantle dynamics of Earth and Venus. It has introduced new analytical and numerical tools that are in widespread use. Today, nearly every long-term integration of our solar system, its subsystems, and other solar systems uses algorithms that was invented. This research has all been primarily Supported by this sequence of PGG NASA grants. During this period published major investigations of tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system and of the passage of the Earth and Venus through non-linear core-mantle resonances were completed. It has published a major innovation in symplectic algorithms: the symplectic corrector. A paper was completed on non-perturbative hydrostatic equilibrium.

Wisdom, Jack

2002-01-01

64

Topics in complex nonlinear systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the dissertation, I include two topics of my research in nonlinear dynamic systems. In the first topic, we use numerical optimization techniques to investigate the behavior of the success rates for two- and three-qubit entangling gates, first for perfect fidelity, and then extended to imperfect gates. We find that as the perfect fidelity condition is relaxed, the maximum attainable success rates increase in a predictable fashion depending on the size of the system, and we compare that rate of increase for several gates. Finally, we propose an experiment to test our imperfect LOQC gates using number-resolving photon detectors. We suggest a relatively simple physical apparatus capable of producing CZ gates with controllable fidelity less than 1 and success rates higher than the current theoretical maximum (S=2/27) for perfect fidelity. These experimental setups are within the reach of many experimental groups and would provide an interesting experiment in photonic quantum computing. In the second topic, we quantitatively study nonlinear effects on the evolution of surface gravity waves on the ocean, to explore systematically the effects of various input parameters on the probability of rogue wave formation. The fourth-order current-modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation (CNLS4) is employed to describe the wave evolution. First, we show that when the average wave steepness is small and nonlinear wave effects are subleading, the wave height distribution is well explained by a single "freak index" parameter, which describes the strength of (linear) wave scattering by random currents relative to the angular spread of the incoming random sea. When the average steepness is large, the wave height distribution takes a very similar functional form, but the key variables determining the probability distribution are the steepness, and the angular and frequency spread of the incoming waves. Then, we obtain quantitative predictions for the wave height distribution as a function of those key environmental conditions. Additionally, we explore the spatial dependence of the wave height distribution, associated with the buildup of nonlinear development. Finally, even greater probability of extreme wave formation is predicted when linear and nonlinear effects are acting together.

Ying, Linghang

65

Solar collector system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar collector system uses a hexagonal field module of heliostatic mirrors with each heat receptor tower being located outside of its associated module. Each mirror includes a reflecting film held down electrostatically (for easy replacement) and protected by wind guards.

O. J. M

1978-01-01

66

Around the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Amazing Space lesson is an interactive card game which helps students learn the properties of comets, asteroids, and the Sun and planets. As students answer questions correctly about the solar system, they collect cards. Background information is provided for teachers.

Betty McCue

67

Solar System Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

2002-01-01

68

Probing the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

Wilkinson, John

2013-01-01

69

The New Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2006, the details of bodies making up our solar system have been revised. This was largely as a result of new discoveries of a number of planet-like objects beyond the orbit of Pluto. The International Astronomical Union redefined what constituted a planet and established two new classifications--dwarf planets and plutoids. As a result, the…

Wilkinson, John

2009-01-01

70

Browse the Solar System!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive chart of the solar system allows users to click on an image of one the planets or moons and see a full-size image of the object plus some data on physical constants (radius, mass, orbit period, etc.) and links to other resources such as nomenclature, additional imagery, and information on obtaining maps of the object.

71

Origin of solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the main problems in the theory of the origin and evolution of the solar system are discussed. Consideration is given to the formation and evolution of interstellar clouds; the collapse of certain types of such clouds into protostars; the formation of planets around some of these stars; the formation of satellites around some of the planets; and the

H. Alfvén

1981-01-01

72

Solar System Dark Matter  

E-print Network

I review constraints on solar system-bound dark matter, and discuss the possibility that dark matter could be gravitationally bound to the earth and other planets. I briefly survey various empirical constraints on such planet-bound dark matter, and discuss effects it could produce if present, including anomalous planetary heating and flyby velocity changes.

Stephen L. Adler

2009-03-27

73

Solar Electric System Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this sheet on the basics of solar electric systems. The document describes how photovoltaic cells work, basic energy terminology, photovoltaic materials and other related information. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Gordes, Joel N.

74

Solar energy transport system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector comprises a heat conducting sheet having a front surface exposed to the sun and a system of liquid-receiving open-top troughs projecting from the back surface into an air space, with liquid supply means delivering liquid to the troughs and drain means receiving any liquid overflowing the troughs. Inlet and outlet air conduits communicate with the air

1977-01-01

75

Formation of the Solar System What properties of our solar  

E-print Network

planetesimals bombarded other objects in the late stages of solar system formation Origin of Earth s Water1 Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System What properties of our solar system must a formation explains the features of our solar system? · The nebular theory states that our solar system formed from

Crenshaw, Michael

76

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the temperature on differnt planets in our solar system. Learners will explore the planetary temperature system. They explore how each aspect (e.g., mass, temperature and gravity) influences the system and the consequences of disrupting that system. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 8 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

2012-12-06

77

Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 4, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of an overall evaluation of the solar power satellite concept are reported. Specific topics covered include: solid state sandwich configuration; parametric development of reliability design; power distribution system for solid state solar power satellites; multibeam transmission; GEO base system configuration; suppression of the heavy lift launch vehicle trajectory; conceptual design of an offshore space center facility; solar power satellite development and operations scenario; and microwave power transmission technology, advancement, development, and facility requirements.

1979-01-01

78

Topics in topological band systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of integer quantum Hall effect and its subsequent theoretical formulation heralded a new paradigm of thinking in condensed matter physics, which has by now blossomed into the rapidly growing field of topological phases. In this work we investigate several mutually related topics in the framework of topological band theory. In Chapter 2, we study solutions to boundary states on a lattice and see how they are related to the bulk topology. To elicit a real space manifestation of the non-trivial topology, the presence of a physical edge is not strictly necessary. We study two other possibilities, namely the entanglement spectrum associated with an imaginary spatial boundary, and the localization centers of Wannier functions, in Chapters 3,4, and 5. Topological classification through discrete indices is so far possible only for systems described by pure quantum states---in the existing scheme, quantization is lost for systems in mixed states. In Chapter 6, we present a program through which discrete topological indices can be defined for topological band systems at finite temperature, based on Uhlmann's parallel transport of density matrices. The potential of topologocal insulators in realistic applications lies in the existence of Dirac nodes on its surface spectrum. Dirac physics, however, is not exclusive to TI surfaces. In a recently discovered class of materials known as Weyl semimetals, energy nodes which emit linear dispersions also occur in the bulk material. In Chapter 7, we study the possibility of resonance states induced by localized impurities near the nodal energy in Weyl semimetals, which will help us in understanding the stability of density-of-state suppression at the energy nodes. Finally, in Chapter 8, we apply the topological characterization developed for noninteracting particles to a class of interacting spin models in 3D, which are generalizations of Kitaev's honeycomb model, and identify several exotic quantum phases such as spin metals and spin semimetals.

Huang, Zhoushen

79

Solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy system employing high-pressure high velocity air as the primary heat transfer medium comprises a plurality of collector panels connected in parallel with each other in a closed loop that also includes an air compressor and a heat exchanger that is connected to external energy utilization means. A self-actuating temperature-responsive air flow control valve associated with each collector

1981-01-01

80

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between a Terrestrial Planet and a Gas Giant? 1. Let's find out What is the solar system? 2. We live on planet Earth. Scroll to the bottom of this page: Earth. Tell me how many moons Earth has? What is Earth's moons name? 3. This video will tell you which planets are Terrestrial and which planets are Gas Giants. It will also tell you the ...

Miss Brennan

2012-04-10

81

New mineralogy of the outer solar system and the high-pressure behaviour of methane   

E-print Network

This thesis will introduce the study of methane as a mineral. Along with ammonia and water, methane is one of the main planetary-forming materials in the outer solar system. The topic of `new mineralogy of the outer solar ...

Maynard-Casely, Helen E.

2009-01-01

82

Solar System Trading Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will collect solar system trading cards by playing an interactive card game. They will identify the sun, planets, comets, and asteroids by answering questions about them. By playing the game, students will gain knowledge about the solar system and they will view pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and other NASA missions. Students will view an image accompanied by a question with three responses. By using the computer mouse, they will chose an answer. When the response is correct, additional information about the image is provided. If an incorrect answer is chosen, students are provided with additional information before they chose a new response. A glossary of terms can be found. At the end of the game, students are assessed with a list of correctly identified solar system objects. This site includes an overview, teacher lesson plans, links to the National Science Education Standards, science background for the teacher, downloadable cards, and links to other sites. The lesson plan includes the goal/purpose, desired outcomes, prerequisites, new vocabulary, general misconceptions, preparation time, execution time, needed materials, engagement activities, step-by-step instructions, evaluation/assessment, and follow-up activities. Suggestions are given for one computer classrooms, those without computers, and home schoolers.

Alex Storr

2007-12-12

83

The Scale of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can read about how distances are measured in the solar system. Attempts by early astronomers to estimate distances and ongoing work to establish and refine the astronomical unit (the mean distance from the Earth to the Sun) are described. This is part of NASA's online book entitled "From Stargazers to Starships" and links to other parts of the site and to related topics are provided.

84

Solar Angles and Tracking Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the daily and annual cycles of solar angles used in power calculations to maximize photovoltaic power generation. They gain an overview of solar tracking systems that improve PV panel efficiency by following the sun through the sky.

2014-09-18

85

The space-age solar system  

SciTech Connect

This book is a description of the sun, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets in the solar system. Discussion is based heavily on results obtained from recent space probes to Mercury, Venus, Mars Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Offers detailed descriptions of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and the results of the recent probes of Halley's comet. A discussion of meteorites leads to a description of the current models of the solar system. Introductory chapters present theories of the solar system from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Other topics covered include the sun, its structure, and how it generates energy; the surfaces, internal structures, and histories of the planets, from innermost Mercury to farthest Pluto, and their moons.

Baugher, J.F.

1988-01-01

86

Solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (editor)

1989-01-01

87

Solar system plasma waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

Gurnett, Donald A.

1995-01-01

88

Virtual Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic website provides data and images of objects within the solar system. The Sun, the nine planets, comets, asteroids and meteors are all covered. Sun data includes details about solar winds, sunspots and the corona. Mercury data discusses the Caloris Basin, craters, ridges and faults. Venus data discusses volcanoes, mountains and clouds. Earth data covers water, the Moon, surface features and plate tectonics. Mars data covers polar ice caps, Olympus Mons volcano and the Mars Pathfinder project. Jupiter data discusses moons and rings, surface spots and the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact. Saturn details include rings, storms and moons. Uranus data covers its orbit, rings and moons. Neptune data includes surface storms and clouds. Pluto data discusses its odd orbit and satellite. There are links provided for more information.

William Newcott

89

Terrestrial solar thermionic energy conversion systems concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results obtained from studies of a (1) solar concentrator, (2) solar energy receiver - thermionic converter system, and (3) solar thermionic topping system are described. Peripheral subsystems, which are required for any solar energy conversion system, are also discussed.

Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

1975-01-01

90

Solar heating system  

DOEpatents

An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

1982-01-01

91

Improved solar heating systems  

DOEpatents

An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

1980-05-16

92

Solar thermal power system  

DOEpatents

A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

Bennett, Charles L.

2010-06-15

93

Solar heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector unit includes an air heating chamber including an insulating cover which transmits solar energy and an array of solar energy collectors spaced from the insulating cover. Each solar energy collector is formed by a tubular member having good heat transfer characteristics between its inner and outer surfaces. An opening in each collector faces the insulating cover

Lowe

1980-01-01

94

Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides very helpful information about our solar system in a fun and interesting way. There is a whole section about the sun, with facts about the surface, atmosphere, age, and varying temperatures of the sun. All the planets have their own webpage, with link to more in depth information as well as educational activities and games. There are interesting facts as well as myths about comets, asteroids, and meteoroids. The image archive has dozens of images of all the planets as well as the sun and moon.

95

Outer Solar System Nomenclature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Principal Investigator's responsibilities on this grant fell into two categories according to his participation. In the nomenclature work of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Owen is chair of the Task Group for the Outer Solar System. He is also a member of the IAU's Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) which is composed of the chairs of the several Task Groups plus the presidents of two IAU Commissions and several outside consultants. The WGPSN is presided over by its President, Professor Kaare Aksnes from the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway.

Owen, Tobias C.

1998-01-01

96

Roof-Integrated Solar Thermal System (Dawn Solar Systems)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dawn Solar Systems team worked on improving the efficiency of a roof-integrated solar thermal system used for residential hot water heating. Through the use of a comprehensive system model and a simulated roof test stand, the team predicted the type of design improvements that would increase efficiency while keeping the cost to within 15% of the baseline. A strategic

Jonathan Chambers; Que Anh Nguyen; Bret Richmond; Sara Schwalbenberg; Polina Segalova; Greg Neufeld; Holly Mead

2006-01-01

97

Systemic Side-Effects of Topical Corticosteroids  

PubMed Central

With the introduction of topical corticosteroids, a milestone has been achieved in dermatologic therapy; owing to its potent anti-inflammatory and ant proliferative effects, it became possible to treat some hitherto resistant dermatoses. But this magic drug can cause enough mischief if used inappropriately. Children are more susceptible to the systemic adverse effects because of enhanced percutaneous absorption through their tender skin. So, systemic side effects should be kept in mind while prescribing this therapeutically valuable topical medicament. PMID:25284850

Dhar, Sandipan; Seth, Joly; Parikh, Deepak

2014-01-01

98

Solar thermal energy systems in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia has developed world leading solar thermal technologies, with only very low national market penetration. Domestic solar water heating is the most common solar thermal instrument, with around 5% of homes using it and most of these systems are conventional flat plate thermosyphon systems. Other low temperature solar thermal research includes solar crop drying, solar ponds and solar air heating

Keith Lovegrove; Mike Dennis

2006-01-01

99

Our Solar System's Cousin?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept illustrates two planetary systems -- 55 Cancri (top) and our own. Blue lines show the orbits of planets, including the dwarf planet Pluto in our solar system. The 55 Cancri system is currently the closest known analogue to our solar system, yet there are some fundamental differences.

The similarities begin with the stars themselves, which are about the same mass and age. Both stars also host big families of planets. Our solar system has eight planets, while 55 Cancri has five, making it the record-holder for having the most known exoplanets. In fact, 55 Cancri could have additional planets, possibly even rocky ones that are too small to be seen with current technologies. All of the planets in the two systems have nearly circular orbits.

In addition, both planetary systems have giant planets in their outer regions. The giant located far away from 55 Cancri is four times the mass of our Jupiter, and completes one orbit every 14 years at a distance of five times that between Earth and the sun (about 868 million kilometers or 539 million miles). Our Jupiter completes one orbit around the sun every 11.9 years, also at about five times the Earth-sun distance (778 million kilometers or 483 million miles). Fifty-five Cancri is still the only known star besides ours with a planet in a distant Jupiter-like orbit. Both systems also contain inner planets that are less massive than their outer planets.

The differences begin with the planets' masses. The planets orbiting 55 Cancri are all larger than Earth, and represent a 'souped-up' version of our own solar system. In fact, this is the first star that boasts more giant planets than our sun!

The arrangement of the planetary systems is also different. The inner four planets of 55 Cancri are all closer to the star than Earth is to the sun. The closest, about the mass of Uranus, whips around the star in just under three days at a distance of approximately 5.6 million kilometers (3.5 million miles). The second planet out from the star is a little smaller than Jupiter and completes one orbit every 14.7 days at a distance of approximately 17.9 million kilometers (11.2 million miles). The third planet out from the star is similar in mass to Saturn and completes one orbit every 44 days at a distance of approximately 35.9 million kilometers (22.3 million miles). The fourth planet is about half the mass of Saturn, orbits every 260 days and is approximately 116.7 million kilometers (72.5 million miles) away from the star.

2007-01-01

100

Solar System Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site renders images of celestial bodies within our solar system. The simulator software looks up the positions of the Sun, planets and satellites from ephemeris files developed at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), as well as star positions and colors from a variety of stellar databases, and uses special-purpose renderers to draw a color scene. Texture maps for each of the planets and physical models for planetary rings have been derived (in most cases) from scientific data collected by various JPL spacecraft. Users can then request a rendered image of any celestial body from any other celestial body on the date of your choice (1600 to 2300). Users specify date and time, field of view, and whether orbits and constellation lines are to be depicted. Archived images (both rendered and actual) are available, as are simulated views from Cassini and Galilleo, and locations of current comets. The following named bodies can be rendered: Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Phobos, Deimos, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganeymede, Callisto, Saturn, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Titan, Lapetus, Uranus, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Miranda, Neptune, Triton, Pluto, Charon, Solar system, Cassini trajectory, Galileo trajectory, Comet Wild-2 trajectory, and the Voyager trajector.

David Seal

2000-07-30

101

Solar System Visualizations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar System Visualization products enable scientists to compare models and measurements in new ways that enhance the scientific discovery process, enhance the information content and understanding of the science results for both science colleagues and the public, and create.visually appealing and intellectually stimulating visualization products. Missions supported include MER, MRO, and Cassini. Image products produced include pan and zoom animations of large mosaics to reveal the details of surface features and topography, animations into registered multi-resolution mosaics to provide context for microscopic images, 3D anaglyphs from left and right stereo pairs, and screen captures from video footage. Specific products include a three-part context animation of the Cassini Enceladus encounter highlighting images from 350 to 4 meter per pixel resolution; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter screen captures illustrating various instruments during assembly and testing at the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at Kennedy Space Center; and an animation of Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' panorama where the rover was stuck in the deep fine sand for more than a month. This task creates new visualization products that enable new science results and enhance the public's understanding of the Solar System and NASA's missions of exploration.

Brown, Alison M.

2005-01-01

102

Our Solar System 2013: Solar System Lithograph Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lithograph set about the solar system. It contains images of the planets, the sun, asteroids, comets, meteors and meteorites, the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud, and moons of the solar system. General information, significant dates, interesting facts and brief descriptions of the images are included.

2012-12-06

103

Economic Evaluation of Observatory Solar-Energy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Topics covered are system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization.

1982-01-01

104

New solar systems?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A team of astronomers from UCLA, Cornell University, and the University of Hawaii have discovered what may be two new planetary systems aborning around young stars in the constellations Taurus and Monoceros. The team's ground-based infrared observations of HL Tau and R Mon reveal features similar to those seen around Vega and Fomalhaut last year by NASA's Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)—disks of very fine dust particles extending outward from a central star. If current theories about solar system formation are correct, then those disks most likely represent an early evolutionary step in the formation of planets.Using the technique of speckle interferometry to counter the effects of atmospheric distortion, Steven Beckwith of Cornell, Benjamin Zuckerman of UCLA, Melvin Dyck of the University of Hawaii, and Cornell graduate student Michael Skrutskie were able to make the observations using telescopes on Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Kitt Peak in Arizona. What they saw in both cases was short-wavelength infrared starlight being scattered by dust particles surrounding the star. In the case of HL Tau, the dusty “cloud” appears to extend out about 160 Astronomical Units from the star (4 times as wide as our solar system) in the east-west direction, but only half that far in the north-south direction. The explanation, according to Beckwith, is that “we're looking at a tilted disk rather than an oblate spheroid.” The cloud, in other words, is neither exactly edge-on nor face-on as seen from earth.

Reichhardt, Tony

105

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating system is disclosed. A roof mounted panel collects heat from the sun; the panel having an upper sunlight-absorbing surface. A translucent cover is mounted above the panel to protect it from the weather. The panel has a lower surface for heat transfer to a stream of water. The panel is mounted in cooperative relation with a roof to form a passage for the stream of water. Means are connected to the panel for maintaining the stream of water in substantially uniform contact with said lower surface of the panel. Insulated tank means connected for receiving and storing the stream of water. Means are provided for controlling the stream of water under the panel in response to the temperature of the panel and the water in the tank, whereby the water collects heat from the panel only at useful temperatures. Air stream means are provided for preventing the roof from overheating.

Harrison, H.

1983-07-26

106

Solar System Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory's A Space Library, this site allows users to input a number of variables to create color views of the solar system and any of its bodies. Users can view any body from any other, display planet and satellite orbits, and choose from a variety of fields of view. Sample scenes created with the simulator are also available, several of which are compared with (and almost indistinguishable from) actual images made by the Voyager I and Galileo spacecraft. Additional features include sample Quicktime and MPEG movies, information on the current status of the Cassini and Galileo spacecraft, and a description of the technical details of the simulator.

107

Wind in the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short "TPT" articles on frost and precipitation. The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might motivate…

McIntosh, Gordon

2010-01-01

108

Green Systems Solar Hot Water  

E-print Network

Thermal Panels (Trex enclosure) Hot Water Storage Tank (TS-5; basement) Hot Water Heaters (HW-1Green Systems Solar Hot Water Heating the Building Co-generation: Heat Recovery System: Solar,2; basement) Pre-heats water so water heaters don't need to use as much energy Gas-powered, high efficiency

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

109

Space: Modeling the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students compare and contrast the diameters of the other planets in the solar system to that of the Earth, create a scale factor based on a reasonable size for the Earth's model and build a scale model of the solar system.

2010-01-01

110

Exploration of the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sourcebook of information on the solar system and the technology used for its exploration is presented. An outline of the potential achievements of solar system exploration is given along with a course of action which maximizes the rewards to mankind.

Henderson, A., Jr.; Grey, J.

1974-01-01

111

Chemistry of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar system's diverse assemblage of objects preserves and reflects the various stages in the formation of the solar system and its subsequent evolution. Jupiter's elemental and isotopic composition present an interesting history of addition of planetesimals from low temperature sources as well as a glimpse of the hydrogen-helium component preserved against the 4.5 billion years of fusion that have

J. I. Lunine

2011-01-01

112

Water in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is ubiquitous in the Universe, and also in the Solar System. By setting the snow line at its condensation level in the protosolar disk, water was responsible for separating the planets into the terrestrial and the giant ones. Water ice is a major constituent of the comets and the small bodies of the outer Solar System, and water vapor

Thérèse Encrenaz

2008-01-01

113

Geologic exploration of solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes that must have operated on the early Earth have been deduced from evidence from ancient surfaces of the Moon and planets. In particular, such comparative studies have demonstrated that only two geologic processes have been widespread throughout the history of the solar system: impact cratering and volcanism. Impact craters have formed throughout solar system history, indeed the planets

Wood

1987-01-01

114

Solar Heating Systems: Student Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Student Manual for a Solar Heating System curriculum contains 22 units of instructional materials for students to use in a course or courses on solar heating systems (see note). For each unit (task), objectives, assignment sheets, laboratory assignments, information sheets, checkpoints (tests), and job sheets are provided. Materials are set…

Green, Joanne; And Others

115

Solar Heating Systems: Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Instructor's Guide for a Solar Heating System Curriculum is designed to accompany the Student Manual and the Progress Checks and Test Manual for the course (see note), in order to facilitate the instruction of classes on solar heating systems. The Instructor's Guide contains a variety of materials used in teaching the courses, including…

Green, Joanne; And Others

116

Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

1983-01-01

117

Overview of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource covers the size and scale of Solar System objects, such as the masses, densities, and relative radii of the sun and planets; revolution and rotation of the planets; conservation of angular momentum; theories on the origin of the solar system, such as the nebular hypothesis, which includes collapsing clouds of gas and dust, a spinning nebula that flattens, and condensation of the protosun and protoplanets; star formation, planets of other stars, and the creation of new solar systems; and comparison of binary star systems and planetary systems. An astrophysical calculator is provided in the size and scale subsection.

118

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A climate control system is disclosed for heating and cooling a building. The system uses solar energy for its heat source and concrete blocks for its collecting and storing material. The blocks are open faced and positioned to receive the radiation directly. An insulating enclosure is restrictably positioned to expose the blocks to the sun's radiation during the day and to enclose the blocks in the evening to trap the heat for later use. The system uses both natural and forced convection currents to transfer the heat to and from the building. In a preferred embodiment, an upper compartment with a transparent roof is built above the blocks. This compartment is comparatively small and heats quickly to high temperatures. Water pipes of the building heating system can be placed in this compartment and the heated air can be routed into the building or transmitted through a duct to the bottom of the concrete blocks to heat them. The upper compartment is particularly useful in the morning because the sun strikes it first and the heat produced can be used in the house or transmitted to the blocks to begin heating them before the sun is high enough to strike them. In addition to the insulation, the invention includes secondary walls on the exposure side of the collector, comprising transparent panels in the winter and screen louvered openings in the summer. Radiation passing through the transparent panels strikes the blocks and a hot house effect is created. When the night air is relatively cool and the days are hot, the insulating enclosure can be opened at night to pass cool air into the system to lower the temperature of the blocks so they can absorb heat from the building during the day.

Mummert, H.B.

1980-01-01

119

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating system for a structure in which a matrix of beverage containers of the convenient opening variety is mounted on a generally flat support member. The beverage containers extend through holes in the support member formed from alternating polygons of a generally checkerboard surface design. A resilient plug seals the opening at one end of each container and a pair of collector tubes extend through the plug into the interior of each container. The collector tubes of adjacent containers are connected together such that all containers are connected in a series relationship. Those surface areas of the support member not occupied by the containers are contoured and have an outer surface appropriate to reflect heat and light toward the containers which themselves have a coating of a heat and light conductive substance. Fluid is pumped from a reservoir and through the containers under sunny conditions or may be diverted from the matrix during cloudy conditions or at night. In the latter events, an insulated canopy may be extended to cover the matrix. The amount of heat taken from the system to heat the structure may also be appropriately controlled.

Root, E.J.

1980-03-11

120

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

1981-01-01

121

Solar Power System Design for the Solar Probe+ Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar Probe+ is an ambitious mission proposed to the solar corona, designed to make a perihelion approach of 9 solar radii from the surface of the sun. The high temperature, high solar flux environment makes this mission a significant challenge for power system design. This paper summarizes the power system conceptual design for the solar probe mission. Power supplies considered included nuclear, solar thermoelectric generation, solar dynamic generation using Stirling engines, and solar photovoltaic generation. The solar probe mission ranges from a starting distance from the sun of 1 AU, to a minimum distance of about 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU, from the center of the sun. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 510 times AM0. This requires power systems that can operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Kinnison, James; Fraeman, Martin; Roufberg, Lew; Vernon, Steve; Wirzburger, Melissa

2008-01-01

122

Formation of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prentice (1978a, b), in his modern Laplacian theory of the origin of the solar system, has established a scenario in which he finds the ratio of the orbital radii of successively disposed gaseous rings to be a constant ?1.69. In an attempt to understand this law in an alternative way, Rawal (1984a) assumes that during the collapse of the solar

J. J. Rawal; Nehru Planetarium

1986-01-01

123

Formation of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall evolution of the solar system is discussed in terms of what is called the Kyoto model. Starting from the formation of the solar nebula, a multistep process is followed in detail, including growth and sedimentation of dust grains in the nebula, formation of planetesimals due to fragmentation of a dust layer, radial migration and accumulation of planetesimals to

C. Hayashi; K. Nakazawa; Y. Nakagawa

1985-01-01

124

Solar System Binaries  

E-print Network

The discovery of binaries in each of the major populations of minor bodies in the solar system is propelling a rapid growth of heretofore unattainable physical information. The availability of mass and density constraints for minor bodies opens the door to studies of internal structure, comparisons with meteorite samples, and correlations between bulk- physical and surface-spectral properties. The number of known binaries is now more than 70 and is growing rapidly. The relative sizes and separations of binaries in the different minor body populations point to more than one mechanism for forming bound pairs. Collisions appear to play a major role in the Main Belt. Rotational and/or tidal fission may be important in the Near Earth population. For the Kuiper Belt, capture in multi-body interactions may be the preferred formation mechanism. High angular resolution observations from space and from the ground are critical for detection of the relatively distant binaries in the Main Belt and the Kuiper Belt. Radar has been the most productive method for detection of Near Earth binaries. Lightcurve analysis is an independent technique that is capable of exploring phase space inaccessible to direct observations. Finally, spacecraft flybys have played a crucial paradigm-changing role with discoveries that unlocked this now-burgeoning field.

Keith S. Noll

2006-03-06

125

Astrometric solar system anomalies  

SciTech Connect

There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

2009-01-01

126

Planets in our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today, we're going to learn all about the planets in our solar system. First, watch these two short clips that introduce you to our solar system. Animaniacs Sing The Solar System Song Video on the Planets from IdahoPTV s D4K Once you are done watching the clip we are going to separate into groups. Your group will be everyone sitting at your table. Your group will then be drawing out the name of which planet you will become an ...

Miss Barney

2011-09-26

127

Topic in Depth - Embedded Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Embedded systems are dedicated computers designed to perform a specific task. They are usually fairly simple devices that are used in areas where powerful, customizable computers are unnecessary; however, they can also be quite complex on occasion. Embedded systems can be found almost anywhere, including automobiles and cellular phones, and their importance is reflected in their near omnipresence.

128

Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300?C ñ 800?C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at Earth¥s surface. The higher the concentration, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy

Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

2012-08-01

129

Views of the solar system  

SciTech Connect

Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

Hamilton, C.

1995-02-01

130

Exobiology in Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A symposium, 'Exobiology in Solar System Exploration,' was held on 24-26 Aug. 1988. The symposium provided an in-depth investigation of the role of Exobiology in solar system exploration. It is expected that the symposium will provide direction for future participation of the Exobiology community in solar system exploration and alert the Planetary community to the continued importance of an Exobiology Flight Program. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily on Exobiology in solar system exploration missions, several ground based and Earth-orbital projects such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Gas Grain Facility, and Cosmic Dust Collection Facility represent upcoming research opportunities planned to accommodate the goals and objectives of the Exobiology community as well. This report contains papers for all but one of the presentations given at the symposium.

Carle, Glenn C. (editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (editor); Huntington, Judith L. (editor)

1992-01-01

131

Solar System Observations with JWST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid- infrared, with sensitivity and spatial-spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010). It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV in 2012.

Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

2014-01-01

132

Evolution of the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin and evolution of the solar system are analyzed. Physical processes are first discussed, followed by experimental studies of plasma-solid reactions and chemical and mineralogical analyses of meteorites and lunar and terrestrial samples.

Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.

1976-01-01

133

Formation of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter from an online astronomy course briefly describes the formation of the solar system from an accretionary disk. Links to additional resources, a homework assignment, and a quiz are included.

Joshua Barnes

134

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 18 questions on the topic of planetary geology, which covers planetary position, composition, and characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

Timothy Heaton

135

ASTM001/MAS423 Solar System Solar Nebula & Planet Formation  

E-print Network

: Inner system Terrestrial Planets Mercury 0.39 AU Venus 0.72 AU Earth 1.00 AU Mars 1.52 AU Asteroid beltASTM001/MAS423 Solar System Solar Nebula & Planet Formation Craig B. Agnor Queen Mary, University of a solid planet. `Orderly' accretion. 'Runaway' accretion Discuss implications #12;Solar system structure

Agnor, Craig B.

136

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Early Solar System Chronology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics were presented in this report: Iron Isotopic Fractionation During Vacuum Evaporation of Molten W?stite and Solar Compositions; Mg Isotope Ratio Zonation in CAIs - New Constraints on CAI Evolution; Sm-Nd Systematics of Chondrites; AMS Measurement of Mg-24(He-3,p)Al-26 Cross Section, Implications for the Al-26 Production in the Early Solar System; On Early Solar System Chronology: Implications of an Initially Heterogeneous Distribution of Short-lived Radionuclides; Revisiting Extraterrestrial U Isotope Ratios; Helium-Shell Nucleosynthesis and Extinct Radioactivities; High Spatial Resolution Ion Microprobe Measurements Refine Chronology of Orgueil Carbonate Formation; and Calibration of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Flux.

2004-01-01

137

Single-pipe hot water solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hot water solar system receives water from a source and heats it in solar panels. From the solar panels it is circulated through a supplemental heater and through a domestic heating system and thus made available for domestic use in washers and baths and is then recirculated through the solar panels. In the event the solar panels will not

Geaslin

1980-01-01

138

Control of solar energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two approaches to the control of large solar energy systems, i.e., programmed control and control systems relying on the use of orientation transducers and feedback, are briefly reviewed, with particular attention given to problems associated with these control systems. A new control system for large solar power plants is then proposed which is based on a combination of these approaches. The general design of the control system is shown and its principle of operation described. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of the approach proposed here are demonstrated.

Sizov, Iu. M.; Zakhidov, R. A.; Baranov, V. G.

139

Exploring the Solar System? Let the Math Teachers Help!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scale measurement and ratio and proportion are topics that fall clearly in the middle-grades mathematics curriculum in Texas. So does the solar system. In their experience, the authors have found that students have trouble manipulating, much less comprehending, very large numbers and very small numbers. These concepts can be brought into students'…

Charles, Karen; Canales, J. D.; Smith, Angela; Zimmerman, Natalie

2012-01-01

140

Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

141

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the March through August 1978 operation of the Reedy Creek Utility District solar energy system is presented. This system was designed to provide space heating and cooling as well as hot water for a two story modern office building located in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. Results of an evaluation of measured system performance and a comparison of

C. T. Wallace; A. R. Brooks; L. J. Murphy

1978-01-01

142

Solar energy power generation system  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy power generation system is described which consists of: (a) means for collecting and concentrating solar energy; (b) heat storage means; (c) Stirling engine means for producing power; (d) first heat transfer means for receiving the concentrated solar energy and for transferring heat to the heat storage means; and (e) second heat transfer means for controllably transferring heat from the storage means to the Stirling engine means and including a discharge heat pipe means for transferring heat to the Stirling engine means and further including means for inserting and withdrawing the discharge heat pipe means into and out of the heat storage means.

Nilsson, J.E.; Cochran, C.D.

1986-05-06

143

Universal solar energy desalination system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover water at a ratio of 90%. The power system comprises a parabolic trough solar thermal system with an organic Rankine cycle generator, rock-oil thermal storage, and 200 kW wind turbines. Analysis of the complementarity of the solar and wind subsystems indicates that at any site one system will supplement the other. Energy storage, e.g., battery banks, would increase system costs to unacceptable levels. Climatic conditions will significantly influence the sizing of each segment of the total power system.

Fusco, V. S.

144

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System SOLAR SYSTEM BODIES  

E-print Network

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System SOLAR SYSTEM BODIES Planetary The Solar System has 8 planets : Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System "Small Solar System Bodies" (SSSB) (IAU 2006

Petrovay, Kristóf

145

Decentralized solar photovoltaic energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emphasis was placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ utilizing a unique solar cell array roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5 percent efficiency at 28 C and 100 mW\\/sq cm insolation are used to

M. C. Krupka

1980-01-01

146

Chaos in the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical basis of chaos in the solar system is now better understood: In all cases investigated so far, chaotic orbits result from overlapping resonances. Perhaps the clearest examples are found in the asteroid belt. Overlapping resonances account for its kirkwood gaps and were used to predict and find evidence for very narrow gaps in the outer belt. Further afield, about one new "short-peroid" comet is discovered each year. They are believed to come from the "Kuiper Belt" (at 40 AU or more) via chaotic orbits produced by mean-motion and secular resonances with Neptune. Finally, the planetary system itself is not immune from chaos. In the inner solar system, overlapping secular resonances have been identified as the possible source of chaos. For example, Mercury in 1012 years, may suffer a close encounter with Venus or plunge into the Sun. In the outer solar system, three-body resonances have been identified as a source of chaos, but on an even longer time scale of 109 times the age of the solar system. On the human time scale, the planets do follow their orbits in a stately procession, and we can predict their trajectories for hundreds of thousands of years. That is because the mavericks, with shorter instability times, have long since been ejected. The solar system is not stable; it is just old!

Lecar, Myron; Franklin, Fred A.; Holman, Matthew J.; Murray, Norman J.

2001-01-01

147

Solar system plasma physics. Volume 2 - Magnetospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present volume covers such topics as global problems in magnetospheric plasma physics; magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere interactions; Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts, the magnetosphere of Mercury; interactions of the solar wind with the planets Mars, Venus, and Mercury; and interactions between the solar wind and comets. The theory of planetary dynamics is outlined, and the contemporary basis for the

C. F. Kennel; L. J. Lanzerotti; E. N. Parker

1979-01-01

148

Installation Guidelines for Solar DHW Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are some of the better techniques for installing solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems. By using these guidelines, along with the manufacturer's manual, professional installation contractors and skilled homeowners should be able to install and fill a solar DHW system. Among the topics considered are system layouts, siting, mounting…

Hollander, Peter; And Others

149

Building Integration Of Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way solar systems are used in buildings is different from what it used to be. Buildings are no longer designed to use just passive solar energy systems, such as windows and sunspaces, or active solar systems, such as solar water collectors. In fact, the words passive and active no longer make sense, as the newer buildings combine several of

Anne Grete Hestnes

1999-01-01

150

Development of solar thermal systems in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has an abundant solar energy resource. Solar thermal conversion systems have been studied for 25yr, and solar thermal industry has developed rapidly for 10yr. There are various solar thermal systems, with an area of around 10millionm2 in 2002. These systems mainly provide domestic hot water, but some other applications are under extensive study and development as well. The purpose

Yin Zhiqiang

2005-01-01

151

Residential solar-heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

1978-01-01

152

Solar-powered cooling system  

DOEpatents

A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-12-24

153

Solar hot-water system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design data brochure describes domestic solar water system that uses direct-feed system designed to produce 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day to meet needs of single family dwelling. Brochure also reviews annual movements of sun relative to earth and explains geographic considerations in collector orientation and sizing.

1979-01-01

154

Integrated solar energy system optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

Young, S. K.

1982-11-01

155

Odyssey: a Solar System Mission  

E-print Network

The Solar System Odyssey mission uses modern-day high-precision experimental techniques to test the laws of fundamental physics which determine dynamics in the solar system. It could lead to major discoveries by using demonstrated technologies. The mission proposes to perform a set of precision gravitation experiments from the vicinity of Earth to the outer Solar System. Its scientific objectives can be summarized as follows: i) test of the gravity force law in the Solar System up to and beyond the orbit of Saturn; ii) precise investigation of navigation anomalies at the fly-bys; iii) measurement of Eddington's parameter at occultations; iv) mapping of gravity field in the outer solar system and study of the Kuiper belt. To this aim, the Odyssey mission is built up on a main spacecraft, designed to fly up to 13 AU, with the following components: a) a high-precision accelerometer, with bias-rejection system, measuring the deviation of the trajectory from the geodesics; b) Ka-band transponders, as for Cassini, for a precise range and Doppler measurement up to 13 AU, with additional VLBI equipment; c) optional laser equipment, which would allow one to improve the range and Doppler measurement. In this baseline concept, the main spacecraft is designed to operate beyond the Saturn orbit, up to 13 AU. It experiences multiple planetary fly-bys at Earth, Mars or Venus, and Jupiter. The cruise and fly-by phases allow the mission to achieve its baseline scientific objectives (i) to iii) in the above list). In addition to this baseline concept, the Odyssey mission proposes the release of the Enigma radio-beacon at Saturn, allowing one to extend the deep space gravity test up to at least 50 AU, while achieving the scientific objective of a mapping of gravity field in the outer Solar System.

B. Christophe; P. H. Andersen; J. D. Anderson; S. Asmar; Ph. Bério; O. Bertolami; R. Bingham; F. Bondu; Ph. Bouyer; S. Bremer; J. -M. Courty; H. Dittus; B. Foulon; P. Gil; U. Johann; J. F. Jordan; B. Kent; C. Lämmerzahl; A. Lévy; G. Métris; O. Olsen; J. Pàramos; J. D. Prestage; S. V. Progrebenko; E. Rasel; A. Rathke; S. Reynaud; B. Rievers; E. Samain; T. J. Sumner; S. Theil; P. Touboul; S. Turyshev; P. Vrancken; P. Wolf; N. Yu

2008-01-18

156

Solar System Science with JWST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JWST will enable breakthroughs in our understanding of the physical characteristics of cold bodies in the outer reaches of the Solar System. These objects include Pluto and other Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), the icy moons of the giant planets, and distant cometary nuclei. Recent discoveries of large objects in the Kuiper belt, along with many smaller members, make it clear that this region represents a major constituent of our Solar System, one that was hidden until recently because it is so remote and challenging to observe. The near-IR and mid-IR performance of JWST will be unique in its power to probe this region. This poster describes the science drivers for JWST observations of Solar System objects and plans for implementing this capability.

Sonneborn, G.; Lunine, J.; Hammel, H.; Long, K.; Hutchings, J.; Rieke, G.

2007-01-01

157

Origin of Outer Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

158

Universal solar energy desalination system  

SciTech Connect

The design which has been developed for a solar-powered water desalination plant is a highly flexible one; and thus, suitable for worldwide application. The system is modular in nature, utilizing a combination of solar thermal and wind energy to operate the reverse osmosis desalination unit. The system's flexibility lies in the fact that the configuration of the plant can be altered so that it is suitable for any given site. Plant capacity and the size of the solar thermal and wind energy systems are dependent upon a variety of site-specific characteristics. Furthermore, the design of each of the subsystems is also highly interdependent. Examination of the site characteristics and their interactions will allow a design which is optimal for the site.

Fusco, V.S.

1982-08-01

159

Bring NASA's Year of the Solar System into Your Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Year of the Solar System ( http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss) is a celebration of our exploration of the solar system, which began in October 2010 and continues for one Martian year (687 Earth days) ending in late summer 2012. The diverse planetary missions in this period create a rare opportunity to engage students and the public, using NASA missions to reveal new worlds and new discoveries. Each month focuses on a particular topic, such as the scale of the solar system, its formation, water in the solar system, volcanism, atmospheres, and more! All educators are invited to join the celebration; indeed, the EPO community is needed in order for this event to be successful! Participants at the 2011 ASP Conference surveyed a variety of thematic activities, received resources and implementation ideas, and were invited to share their own experiences and upcoming events!

Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; LaConte, K.; Dalton, H.; Buxner, S.; Boonstra, D.; Ristvey, J.; Wessen, A.; Zimmerman-Brachman, R.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.

2012-08-01

160

Solar System on a Stick  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners build a model of the planets in the solar system. In their model, the planets are spaced in their relative distance from the Sun. Separately, learners make model planets which are in relative size to one another. This solar system model includes Pluto as a planet. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

2012-01-27

161

Is the Solar System Stable ?  

E-print Network

Since the formulation of the problem by Newton, and during three centuries, astronomers and mathematicians have sought to demonstrate the stability of the Solar System. Thanks to the numerical experiments of the last two decades, we know now that the motion of the planets in the Solar System is chaotic, which prohibits any accurate prediction of their trajectories beyond a few tens of millions of years. The recent simulations even show that planetary collisions or ejections are possible on a period of less than 5 billion years, before the end of the life of the Sun.

Jacques Laskar

2012-09-26

162

Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

Ward, Dan S.

1976-01-01

163

Flow Analysis of Solar Thermal Propulsion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial CFD scheme FLUENT was used to simulate the working fluid (H2) flow process in solar thermal propulsion system. According to the ground test operating conditions and parameters of the solar thermal propulsion system, the system properties such as hydrogen flow, heat transfer in the solar thermal propulsion system were studied. The flow field structure of the system and

Dai Jian-feng; Li Xing; Zhao Pei; Sun Yi-bin; Mu Xiao-wen; Wang Jun-hong

2010-01-01

164

Volcanoes in the Solar System Pictorial Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volcanoes in the Solar System is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about shield volcanoes, cinder cones, ash, lava, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Io, and the Moon. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Roberta Johnson

2000-07-01

165

FUSE Solar System Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H_2 emissions from both Jovian auroral regions measured with the high-throughput aperture (MDRS) will determine temperatures and self-absorption. Atomic H emissions from the bulge region measured by the high resolution aperture (HIRS) will determine the dynamics of the bulge and anti-bulge regions. The high-throughput aperture will be used to search for HD fluorescently pumped by solar Lyman-beta as well as to determine if there is a correlation of the H_2 Lyman and Werner bands with Lyman-alpha in the bulge region. The excitation of H_2 in the atmosphere of Saturn will be similarly studied. Io Torus emissions will be measured using the high-throughput aperture (MDRS) to determine ion velocity profiles and with the large science aperture to search for minor constituents. Observations of Venus will address the question of the atmospheric D/H ratio.

Feldman, Paul D.

166

Solar desalination system  

SciTech Connect

In the solar desalination of salt water, a method is given comprising the steps of: (A) introducing salt water into a tank having a bottom wall and a transparent top cover, said salt water in said tank forming a body of said water having a top surface, the space in the tank above the top surface being occupied by a first mixture of air and water vapor; (B) withdrawing water from said body of water in the tank to maintain the top surface of the body of water substantially constant; (C) heating the body of water and the first mixture of air and water vapor in the space above the top surface of the body of water by solar rays passing through the transport top cover of the tank; (D) withdrawing the first mixture of air and water vapor from said tank, the amount of water vapor in the mixture being such as to substantially saturate the air of the mixture; (E) condensing water vapor from the first mixture in a condenser; (F) withdrawing a second mixture of air with a residual amount of water vapor from the condenser and increasing the pressure thereof; and (G) forcing at a desired pressure said second mixture into a sparger located slightly above the bottom wall of the tank and in the body of water in the tank, said sparger having orifices through which the pressurized second mixture passes, and which second mixture is converted to small bubbles which pass upwardly through the water body to the top surface thereof and during such passage the air in the second mixture becomes heated and substantially saturated with water vapor transforming said second mixture to said first mixture.

Rhodes, W.

1980-07-01

167

Solar desalination system and method  

SciTech Connect

A solar desalination system in which fresh water is derived from sea water by focussing solar ray energy from a collecting reflector onto an evaporator tube located at substantially the focal apex of the reflector. The reflector/evaporator tube assembly is mounted on a horizontal open grid platform which may support a plurality of parallel reflector/evaporator tube assemblies. The reflectors may serve as pontoons to support the desalination system unit on a body of sea water. The solar heat generated vapor is condensed in condenser tubes immersed in the sea water. Intermittently sea water concentrate is withdrawn from the evaporator tubes. Velocity of the vapor passing from the evaporator tubes to the condensers may be utilized for generating power.

Kruse, C.L.

1985-03-12

168

2006 LWS TR&T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: Overview of Current Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a summary of the research conducted by the members of the 2006 LWS TR&T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic (FST) Team on the physical processes that heat and accelerate the solar wind. The Team applied a combination of theoretical studies, numerical simulations, and observations for their investigation of the role of energy sources and kinetic mechanisms responsible for the heating and acceleration of the solar wind. In particular, the FST Team examined magnetic reconnection, waves, and turbulence as possible heating mechanisms. Plasma properties and their evolution over the solar cycle, determined from the analysis of remote and in situ measurements of solar wind source regions and streams, are being used to constrain the models. The consistency of candidate theoretical models with existing observational data for the solar wind will be discussed.

Miralles, M. P.; LWS Tr&T Solar Wind Fst Team

2008-12-01

169

Current topical and systemic therapies for itch.  

PubMed

Itch is a common distressing symptom which may be caused by multifactorial aetiologies including inflammatory skin diseases, systemic diseases, neuropathic conditions and psychogenic disorders. Itch is a term used synonymously with pruritus and is defined as acute if it lasts less than 6 weeks or chronic if it persists for more than 6 weeks. It can have the same impact on the quality of life as chronic pain and shares many of the same pathophysiological pathways. Depending on the aetiology of the itch, different pathogenic mechanisms have been postulated with a number of mediators identified. These include histamine, leukotrienes, proteases, neuropeptides, cytokines and opioids, which may activate peripheral itch-mediating C-fibres via receptors on the nerve terminals and central neuronal pathways. Therefore, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment available. First-line treatments for itch include topical therapies, such as emollients, mild cleansers (low pH), topical anaesthetics, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors and coolants (menthol). Treatment with systemic therapies can vary according to the aetiology of the chronic itch. Non-sedating antihistamines are helpful in conditions such as urticaria where the itch is primarily histamine mediated. Although the itch of eczema is not mediated by histamine, sedating antihistamines at night are helpful to break the itch-scratch cycle. Chronic itch may also be treated with other systemic therapies, such as anticonvulsants, antidepressants as well as mu-opioid antagonists, kappa-opioid agonists and phototherapy, depending on the cause of the itch. This article summarises the topical and systemic therapies available with our current understanding of the pathophysiology of itch. PMID:25861788

Leslie, Tabi Anika; Greaves, Malcolm W; Yosipovitch, Gil

2015-01-01

170

The distribution of mass and angular momentum in the solar system  

SciTech Connect

This book describes the contribution of the comets in the Oort cloud to the angular momentum of the solar system. Topics covered include: Nuclear mass of the new comets observed, Mass of the Oort cloud, Mass distribution in the solar system, Zone of comet formation, Angular momentum of the Oort cloud, and Angular momentum of the Hills cloud.

Marochnik, L.S.; Mukhin, L.M.; Sagdeev, R.Z. (Institute for Space Research, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow (SU))

1989-01-01

171

Solar simulator for solar dynamic space power system testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planned vacuum tank testing of a solar dynamic space power system requires a solar simulator. Several solar simulators were previously built and used for vacuum tank testing of various space systems. However, the apparent solar subtense angle, i.e., the angular size of the apparent sun as viewed from the experiment, of these solar simulators is too large to enable testing of solar dynamic systems. A new design was developed to satisfy the requirements of the solar dynamic testing. This design provides 1.8 kW/m(sup 2) onto a 4.5M diameter test area from a source that subtends only 1 deg, full cone angle. Key features that enable this improved performance are (1) elimination of the collimating mirror commonly used in solar simulators to transform the diverging beam into a parallel beam; (2) a redesigned lamp module that has increased efficiency; and (3) the use of a segmented reflective surface to combine beams from several individual lamp modules at the pseudosun. Each segment of this reflective surface has complex curvature to control the distribution of light. By developing a new solar simulator design for testing of the solar dynamic system instead of modifying current designs, the initial cost was cut in half, the efficiency was increased by 50 percent reducing the operating costs by one-third, and the volume occupied by the solar simulator was reduced by a factor of 10.

Jefferies, Kent S.

1993-01-01

172

Solar Tracking System: More Efficient Use of Solar Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the potential system benefits of simple tracking solar system using a stepper motor and light sensor. This method is increasing power collection efficiency by developing a device that tracks the sun to keep the panel at a right angle to its rays. A solar tracking system is designed, implemented and experimentally tested. The design details and the

J. Rizk; Y. Chaiko

2008-01-01

173

Surveying of the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some populations of objects in the solar system are poorly known, and the long range goal of this program is to improve that situation. For instance, the statistics of Trojan asteroids is being studied. A new technique is being developed for sky surveillance by scanning with CCD, particularly for the discovery of near Earth asteroids.

Gehrels, Tom

1991-01-01

174

Sizing up the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS 1993) states that by the end of fifth grade, students should understand that a model, such as those depicting the solar system, is a smaller version of the real product, making it easier to physically work with and therefore learn from. However, for students and even adults,…

Wiebke, Heidi; Rogers, Meredith Park; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri

2011-01-01

175

Precipitation in the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an astronomy instructor, I am always looking for commonly observed Earthly experiences to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote a short TPT article on frost. This paper is on the related phenomena of precipitation. Precipitation, so common on most of the Earth's…

McIntosh, Gordon

2007-01-01

176

Q in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secular changes brought about by tidal friction in the solar system are reviewed. The presence or absence of specific changes is used to bound the values of Q (the specific dissipation function) appropriate for the planets and satellites. It is shown that the values of Q separate sharply into two groups. Values in the range from 10 to 500 are

PETER GOLDREICH; STEVEN SOTER

1966-01-01

177

Solar System Scale and Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about planetary distances. Learners will create a model of the solar system using beads and string, and compare planetary sizes using common types of fruit and seeds. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

178

Atmosphere and the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on the Earth's atmosphere and our solar system includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

179

Solafern solar system design brochure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complete residential solar space heating and hot water system is described. Low maintenance, durable, and efficient air heating collectors are used. The collectors have a selective absorber and a tempered glass cover nearly one-quarter of an inch thick with an aluminum frame. The solar energy can be delivered directly to the living area when there is a demand; otherwise, it is stored in the form of hot water. Hot water storage is accomplished through the use of an air-to-water exchanger. The hot water storage is used simultaneously to preheat the domestic hot water, as well as to store energy for space heating.

1977-01-01

180

Jupiter: The Solar System's Giant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At more than 10 times the size of the Earth, Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. Although not quite large enough to be a sun, it still has its own system of moons and rings. It's huge magnetic field and fast rotation make Jupiter both the most interesting planet and the most dangerous. From the sulfur volcanoes of Io to the frozen water ice ocean of Europa, Jupiter "rocks". Come experience what NASA has learned about the giant planet

Gallagher, Dennis L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

181

Chemical aspects of the formation of the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of Alfven's theory for the formation of the solar system and the constraints imposed by the chemical composition of space materials are discussed with reference to chemical processes involved in the formation of the solar system. Evidence for the chemical properties of the space medium and the chemical consequences of the postulated physical differentiation processes are outlined, and interpretations based on structure and composition of meteorite material are indicated. A large range of topics, including processes involving chemical differentiation, temperature effects, and isotope fractionation, are examined.

Arrhenius, G.

1978-01-01

182

How big is our solar system?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will get a better understanding of the size of our solar system by putting it into a scale model using New York State. How Big is our Solar System? Govenour Cuomo wants to place the planets of the solar system along the New York State Thruway at the correct distances from the Sun but to scale. He has commissioned your company to set up this representation of our Solar System. Use the ...

Miss Smith

2007-11-24

183

2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The Beginnings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Wind Focused Science Topic (FST) team was created to apply a combination of theoretical studies, numerical simulations, and observations to the understanding of how the fast and slow solar wind are heated and accelerated. Four proposals were selected for this FST team. They will investigate the role of energy sources and kinetic mechanisms responsible for the heating and acceleration of the solar wind. In particular, the FST team will examine magnetic reconnection and turbulence as possible heating mechanisms. Plasma properties and their evolution over the solar cycle, determined from the analysis of remote and in situ measurements, will be used to put firm constraints on the models. The work of the Solar Wind FST team is in its initial stages. The organization, planning, and findings resulting from the first FST team meeting will be reported.

Miralles, M. P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Landi, E.; Markovskii, S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Doschek, G. A.; Forbes, T. G.; Isenberg, P. A.; Kohl, J. L.; Ng, C.; Raymond, J. C.; Vasquez, B. J.

2006-12-01

184

High performance solar Stirling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A full-scale Dish-Stirling system experiment, at a power level of 25 kWe, has been tested during 1981 on the Test Bed Concentrator No. 2 at the Parabolic Dish Test Site, Edwards, CA. Test components, designed and developed primarily by industrial contractors for the Department of Energy, include an advanced Stirling engine driving an induction alternator, a directly-coupled solar receiver with a natural gas combustor for hybrid operation and a breadboard control system based on a programmable controller and standard utility substation components. The experiment demonstrated practicality of the solar Stirling application and high system performance into a utility grid. This paper describes the design and its functions, and the test results obtained.

Stearns, J. W.; Haglund, R.

1981-01-01

185

My Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, learners build their own system of heavenly bodies and watch the gravitational ballet. With this orbit simulator, learners can set initial positions, velocities, and masses of 2, 3, or 4 bodies, and then see them orbit each other. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, teaching ideas, and translations in over 30 languages.

Michael Dubson

2011-01-01

186

My Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can build their own system of heavenly bodies and watch the gravitational ballet. With this orbit simulator, users can set initial positions, velocities, and masses of 2, 3, or 4 bodies, and then see them orbit each other. The site includes ideas for using this animation in the classroom.

Michael Dubson

187

Steamy Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

This diagram illustrates the earliest journeys of water in a young, forming star system. Stars are born out of icy cocoons of gas and dust. As the cocoon collapses under its own weight in an inside-out fashion, a stellar embryo forms at the center surrounded by a dense, dusty disk. The stellar embryo 'feeds' from the disk for a few million years, while material in the disk begins to clump together to form planets.

NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was able to probe a crucial phase of this stellar evolution - a time when the cocoon is vigorously falling onto the pre-planetary disk. The infrared telescope detected water vapor as it smacks down on a disk circling a forming star called NGC 1333-IRAS 4B. This vapor started out as ice in the outer envelope, but vaporized upon its arrival at the disk.

By analyzing the water in the system, astronomers were also able learn about other characteristics of the disk, such as its size, density and temperature.

How did Spitzer see the water vapor deep in the NGC 1333-IRAS 4B system? This is most likely because the system is oriented in just the right way, such that its thicker disk is seen face-on from our Earthly perspective. In this 'face-on' orientation, Spitzer can peer through a window carved by an outflow of material from the embryonic star. This system in this drawing is shown in the opposite 'edge-on' configuration.

2007-01-01

188

Solar System Analog; WMO Statement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists searching for extra-solar planets have discovered the closest known analog to our own Solar System. A planet with a mass about twice that of Jupiter is in a near-circular orbit of the star HD70642, a team of astronomers from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States announced on 3 July at a conference in Paris on extra-solar planets.The planet measures about three-fifths the size of Jupiter, circles its star about every six years, and is in an orbit equivalent to being about halfway between Mars and Jupiter if it were located in our Solar System, according to the astronomers. The star is about 90 light years away from Earth in the constellation Puppis.Public concern about a spate of well-publicized, extreme weather events around the world this year has prompted the World Meteorological Organization to issue a statement that, as global temperatures continues to rise due to climate change, the number and intensity of extreme events might increase. The July 2 statement is based on scientific assessments by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and others, rather than on any new studies, according to Ken Davidson, director orf WMO's World Climate Program Department. The statement cites record high termperatures so far this summer in southern France and in Switzerland, an abnormally high number of tornadoes in the U.S. in May, and particularly heavy rains from tropical cyclones in Sri Lanka.

Showstack, Randy

189

Solar System Exploration @ 50 Opportunity: Eagle Crater  

E-print Network

MRO CREDIT: U. Arizona / JPL / NASA #12;Solar System Exploration @ 50 Gale Crater and Mount Sharp Landslides Credits: HST / MRO STSci / U. Arizona / JPL / NASA #12;Solar System Exploration @ 50 Why Mars "Blueberries" MER 1October 25, 2012 MER CREDIT: NASA / JPL #12;Solar System Exploration @ 50 Opportunity

190

Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system  

DOEpatents

An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

2003-08-05

191

The cluster origin of the solar system  

E-print Network

The cluster origin of the solar system S.Pfalzner Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie #12;Today the solar system is located in a relatively sparse area of the Milky Way local stellar density: 0.122 stars/pc3 Did the solar system form in such an environment? Perseus arm Sagitarius arm #12;· http

?umer, Slobodan

192

Solar Resource and PV Systems Performance  

E-print Network

Solar Resource and PV Systems Performance at Selected Test Sites Prepared for the U.S. Department Subtask 11.1 Deliverables 2 and 4: Report on Solar Resource and PV Systems Performance at Selected Test agency thereof. #12;1 Solar Resource and PV Systems Performance at Selected Test Sites Contents 1

193

C.3 SOLAR SYSTEM WORKINGS The Solar System Workings program element supports research into atmospheric, climatological,  

E-print Network

C.3-1 C.3 SOLAR SYSTEM WORKINGS The Solar System Workings program element supports research on planetary bodies, satellites, and other minor bodies (including rings) in the Solar System. This call seeks. Scope of Program 1.1 Programmatic Overview The Solar System Workings (SSW) program solicits

Rathbun, Julie A.

194

Inhabiting the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new field of space architecture is introduced. Defined as the "theory and practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space," the field synthesizes human space flight systems engineering subjects with the long tradition of making environments that support human living, work, and aspiration. The scope of the field is outlined, and its three principal domains differentiated. The current state of the art is described in terms of executed projects. Foreseeable options for 21st century developments in human space flight provide a framework to tease out potential space architecture opportunities for the next century.

Sherwood, Brent

2011-03-01

195

Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide  

SciTech Connect

As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

Licciardello, Michael R.; Wood, Brian; Dozier, Warner; Braly, Mark; Yates, Alan

1980-11-01

196

Solar Physics (2004) 224: 34 C Springer 2005 The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of  

E-print Network

Solar Physics (2004) 224: 3­4 C Springer 2005 PREFACE The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of Long-Term Solar Activity" is based on contributions presented at the First of solar activity, and their effects in the near-Earth environment and technoculture. As an analogy

Usoskin, Ilya G.

197

The solar system beyond Neptune  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a deep optical survey for distant solar system objects. An area of 1.2 sq deg of the ecliptic has been imaged to apparent red magnitude 25, resulting in the detection of seven trans-Neptunian objects. These are the first detected members of a trans-Neptunian disk that compries about 35 000 objects larger than 100 km in

David C. Jewitt; Jane X. Luu

1995-01-01

198

Formation of the solar system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed as a lab, but can also be used as a classroom demonstration. It requires the use of the VPython programs which require Python and VPython to be installed on your computers (this software is free and has been made available on the default image for all computers on our campus). The models show the gravitational collapse of a set of particles to create a central "Sun" with other orbiting particles, a simple model to demonstrate elliptical orbits, a simple model of the solar system showing the planetary orbits (speeded up). The task is to assess one hypothesis about the formation of the solar system (from a dust and gas nebula) by comparing the computer simulation (model 1) to the shape and form of the actual solar system (model 3). Students can interact with the 3d models by, for example, selecting planetary objects to track, and changing perspectives in 3d space. In doing this students learn about the shapes of the planetary orbits (ellipticity etc) and reasons that they change.

Lensyl Urbano

199

CSCE 6933/5933 Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems  

E-print Network

Systems #12;Background · Basic Organization of DRAM 6 Focus of this thesis Advanced Topics in VLSI SystemsCSCE 6933/5933 Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems Instructor: Saraju P. Mohanty, Ph. D. 1 Lecture 8 are borrowed from various books, websites, authors pages, and other sources for academic purpose only

Mohanty, Saraju P.

200

Hybrid solar lighting systems and components  

DOEpatents

A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN)

2007-06-12

201

Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

202

Solar-powered hot-water system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hot-water system requires no external power except solar energy. System is completely self-controlling. It includes solar-powered pump, solar-thermally and hydrothermally operated valves, and storage tank filled with open-celled foam, to maintain thermal stratification in stored water.

Collins, E. R.

1979-01-01

203

Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components  

DOEpatents

A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN)

2011-07-05

204

Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

Hassani

2000-01-01

205

CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING  

E-print Network

Experimental Solar-heated Domestic Hot Water System. ~,>-lsystem is operating in the cooling mode, hot water (solarsystem, and can be used either by itself or as a booster for the solar-heated hot water.

Dols, C.

2010-01-01

206

Solar-Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure. and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

2001-01-01

207

Storage systems for solar thermal power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major constraint to the evolution of solar thermal power systems is the need to provide continuous operation during periods of solar outage. A number of high temperature thermal energy storage technologies which have the potential to meet this need are currently under development. The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

1978-01-01

208

Jupiter: Giant of the solar system. [its solar orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jupiter, its relationship to the other planets in the solar system, its twelve natural satellites, solar orbit and the appearance of Jupiter in the sky, and the sightings and motions of Jupiter in 1973 are discussed. Educational study projects for students are also included.

1975-01-01

209

Solar Max: Storm Warning - Effects on the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a promotional folder for Sun-Earth Days 2013, containing images and illustrations of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System. Also included is information about the period known as solar maximum, as well as links to Sun-Earth Day resources and the Space Weather Action Center.

2013-02-11

210

SOLAR IRRADIANCE FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

of renewable energy sources into existing energy supply structures. This not only demands substantial efforts. A key issue hereby is the prediction of renewable energy fluxes, typically for time scales from the subSOLAR IRRADIANCE FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS Detlev Heinemann Oldenburg

Heinemann, Detlev

211

Solar System Science with LSST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inventorying the Solar System is one of the four key science drivers for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). LSST will survey over 20,000 square degrees with a rapid observational cadence, to typical limiting magnitudes of 24.5. Near the ecliptic, LSST will detect approximately 4000 moving objects per visit with its 9.6 square degree field of view. Automated software will link these individual detections into orbits; these orbits, as well as precisely calibrated astrometry 50mas) and photometry 0.01-0.02 mag) in multiple bandpasses will be available as LSST data products. The result will be multi-color catalogs of hundreds of thousands of NEOs and Jupiter Trojans, millions of asteroids, tens of thousands of TNOs, as well as thousands of other objects such as comets and irregular satellites of the major planets. The LSST catalogs will provide an order of magnitude larger sample sizes than currently exist for small body populations throughout the Solar System, generating new insights into Solar System evolution. Precision multi-color photometry will allow determination of lightcurves and colors for a significant fraction of the objects detected, providing constraints on the physical parameters of small bodies. Some examples of science enabled with this rich data set: A large sample of TNOs with highly accurate orbits (and well-understood sample characteristics) will allow much tighter constraints on planetary migration models. Large samples of comets (especially comets with perihelia beyond a few AU) will provide new constraints on the structure and mass of the Oort Cloud. Derivation of proper elements for Main Belt asteroids would greatly enlarge existing asteroid families, particularly at smaller sizes, and color information will facilitate further division. Using sparse lightcurve inversion, spin state and shape models could be derived for thousands of main belt asteroids.

Jones, R. L.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Malhotra, Renu; Becker, Andy C.; Fernandez, Yan; Myers, Jon; Solontoi, Mike; Parker, Alex H.

2014-11-01

212

Best of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to planetary research. Using some of the most famous and interesting images of the Solar System, students learn to focus on details by studying uncaptioned images. They increase their knowledge of the planets and their features by comparing their observations to those of real researchers. Students organize their findings to infer a key difference between inner and outer planets. They will be able: to understand that planetary images contain valuable information, but require interpretation, which is somewhat uncertain; to recognize each planet or moon by its unique and identifiable features; and understand that scientists summarize findings in order to look for patterns in groups like planets and moons.

213

Solar System in My Neighborhood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will shrink the scale of the solar system to the size of their neighborhood and compare the relative sizes of scale models of the planets, two dwarf planets, and a comet as represented by fruits and other foods. This activity requires access to a large indoor or outdoor space (measuring at least 190 feet wide) where the children can model the orbit of Mercury around the Sun. It is part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

2012-12-19

214

Tracking system for solar collectors  

DOEpatents

A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

Butler, Barry L. (Golden, CO)

1984-01-01

215

Tracking system for solar collectors  

DOEpatents

A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

Butler, B.

1980-10-01

216

The solar system beyond Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of a deep optical survey for distant solar system objects. An area of 1.2 sq deg of the ecliptic has been imaged to apparent red magnitude 25, resulting in the detection of seven trans-Neptunian objects. These are the first detected members of a trans-Neptunian disk that compries about 35 000 objects larger than 100 km in the 30-50 AU heliocentric distance range. We interpret the new measurements using a set of Monte Carlo models in which the effects of observational bias in the data are taken into account.

Jewitt, David C.; Luu, Jane X.

1995-01-01

217

Calculating the solar contribution to solar assisted systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After summarizing the methods for calculating the solar contribution for systems without thermal storage, this paper extends a previously proposed method which is based on using a frequency distribution of insolation data. This extension allows rapid hand calculation of solar contribution for most collector types and for any specified collector inlet and outlet temperatures. Typical results are shown to be accurate to within 1 per cent relative to dynamic computer simulation methods. The effect on the method of collector orientation and tilt is discussed, and a simple method of determining the maximum possible (i.e., infinite collector area) solar contribution for a given collector system is described.

Gerofi, J. P.; Mannik, E.; Fenton, G. G.

1982-01-01

218

Non-tracking solar energy collector system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy collector system is described characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flatplate receiver. Individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration supported for independent orientation are asymmetric included with vee-trough concentrators for deflecting incident solar energy toward the receiver.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor to nasa)

1978-01-01

219

Performance analysis of solar thermal power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of analyzing and predicting the performance of solar thermal power plants for electric applications are discussed, and insight provided into the major energy loss mechanisms for solar thermal systems. The efficiency of each component in a solar thermal plant is discussed as are the plant parasitic losses and plant availability. This is followed by a discussion of the computer

T. A. Williams; J. A. Dirks

1987-01-01

220

Small Solar Power Systems /SSPS/  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed description is given of the project organization, hardware, and projected performance of the distributed collector and central receiver solar thermal research facilities comprising the Small Power Systems (SSPS) plants in Almeria, Spain. The Distributed Collector System (DCS) is rated at 500 kWe and employs two fields of line-focusing parabolic trough collectors. The Central Receiver System (CRS) has the same rating and uses liquid sodium as a heat-transfer medium to circulate the 530 C heat yielded by a concentration factor of 450 from 4000 sq m of reflective surface. The purpose of the plant's dual configuration is the comparison of the two concentration methods under identical environmental conditions and the responsibility of a single operator/evaluator.

Grasse, W.

1981-05-01

221

Solar thermal power systems. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

Not Available

1980-06-01

222

Solar-energy storage-systems analysis  

SciTech Connect

Systems analysis activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) related to energy storage in solar applications are described, and the purpose, methods and, where available, the results of each study are summarized. Areas of investigation include storage of electrical and thermal energy in solar total energy systems, a theoretical investigation of the value of storage, and the national fuel displacement potential of semi-passive solar storage walls. Investigations of the cost effectiveness of a spectrum of passive solar storage devices and the value of several possible improvements in these devices constitutes BNL's contribution to the Solar Applications Analysis for Energy Storage (SAAES) project.

Leigh, R W

1981-04-01

223

Intelligence in the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Could extraterrestrial intelligence have already reached our solar system--in the form of an interstellar probe, for instance? If any other civilizations exist in our galaxy, they are likely thousands of years older than us. With such advanced science and technology, interstellar exploration is likely easy and attractive for them. If they launched interstellar probes thousands of years ago, at least one may have already reached our solar system. What scientific strategies might detect evidence of such probes? Two strategies are especially promising. (1) Astronomy and space missions could, with very little additional expense, look for evidence of ETI in addition to the observations already scheduled. They could search for derelict probes, exhaust or heat from active probes, ancient mining, monuments, or other artifacts. (2) If a super-smart probe has reached our planet, it is likely monitoring our radio broadcasts, television broadcasts, and World Wide Web. Consequently we could use these media to invite contact. A group of eighty scientists already uses the Web to issue an invitation to ETI.

Tough, A.

224

An Introduction to the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction; 1. A tour of the solar system; 2. The internal structure of the terrestrial planets; 3. Planetary volcanism - Ultima Thule?; 4. Planetary surface processes; 5. Atmospheres of terrestrial planets; 6. The giant planets; 7. Minor bodies of the solar system; 8. The origin of the solar system; 9. Meteorites: a record of formation; Answers and comments; Appendices; Glossary; Further reading; Acknowledgements; Figure references; Index.

Rothery, David A.; McBride, Neil; Gilmour, Iain

2011-05-01

225

Water on Small Solar System Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When examining the outer parts of the solar system water becomes more and more abundant. The water reservoir on the Erath\\u000a and other terrestrial planets might have been supplied by the impact of these objects in the heavy bombardment phase of the\\u000a early solar system evolution. Water on small solar system bodies such as asteroids, comets, objects in the Kuiper

Arnold Hanslmeier

226

Storage systems for solar thermal power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

1978-01-01

227

Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

1980-07-01

228

Biospheres and solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

Paine, Thomas O.

1990-01-01

229

Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

1982-01-01

230

Evaluating Performances of Solar-Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CONC11 computer program calculates performances of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. Solar thermal power system consists of one or more collectors, power-conversion subsystems, and powerprocessing subsystems. CONC11 intended to aid system designer in comparing performance of various design alternatives. Written in Athena FORTRAN and Assembler.

Jaffe, L. D.

1987-01-01

231

Grid-connected distributed solar power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses some important, though often ignored, technical and economic issues of distributed solar power systems: protection of the utility system and nonsolar customers requires suitable interfaced equipment. Purchase criteria must mirror reality; most analyses use life-cycle costing with low discount rates - most buyers use short payback periods. Distributing, installing, and marketing small, distributed solar systems is more

R. Moyle; H. Chernoff; T. Schweizer

1982-01-01

232

Compact integrated solar energy generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy generation systems, or any renewable systems, usually include energy storages, local dc loads and grid-tied dc-ac inversion stages. Almost always, these entities have their own power converters for processing the intermediate solar energy transferred through the systems. Having individual converters does have some advantages like more flexible individual control and easier design, but it does not provide opportunities

Poh Chiang Loh; Lei Zhang; Shun He; Feng Gao

2010-01-01

233

Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore : assessment of solar photovoltaic systems  

E-print Network

To evaluate the feasibility of solar energy based Electric Vehicle Transportation System in Singapore, the state of the art Photovoltaic Systems have been reviewed in this report with a focus on solar cell technologies. ...

Sun, Li

2009-01-01

234

Liposomes and Niosomes as Topical Drug Delivery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin acts as a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical\\/transdermal (TT) drug delivery. The stratum corneum plays a crucial role in barrier function for TT drug delivery. Despite major research and development efforts in TT systems and the advantages of these routes, low stratum corneum permeability limits the usefulness of topical drug delivery. To overcome

M. J. Choi; H. I. Maibach

2005-01-01

235

Installation package for a solar heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Installation information is given for a solar heating system installed in Concho Indian School at El Reno, Oklahoma. This package includes a system Operation and Maintenance Manual, hardware brochures, schematics, system operating modes and drawings.

1978-01-01

236

Solar thermal system engineering guidebook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents a graphical methodology for the preliminary evaluation of solar thermal energy plants by Air Force base civil engineers. The report is organized as a Guidebook with worksheets and nomograms provided for rapid estimation of solar collector area, land area, energy output, and thermal power output of a solar thermal plant. Flat plate, evacuated tube, parabolic trough, and parabolic dish solar thermal technologies are considered.

Selcuk, M. K.; Bluhm, S. A.

1983-05-01

237

Solar thermal system engineering guidebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a graphical methodology for the preliminary evaluation of solar thermal energy plants by Air Force base civil engineers. The report is organized as a Guidebook with worksheets and nomograms provided for rapid estimation of solar collector area, land area, energy output, and thermal power output of a solar thermal plant. Flat plate, evacuated tube, parabolic trough, and

M. K. Selcuk; S. A. Bluhm

1983-01-01

238

MOTESS Solar System Observations: Implications for the GNAT System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Network of Astronomical Telescopes is developing a geographically distributed network of relatively small-aperture imaging telescopes. Equipped with CCD cameras and operating in scan mode, these instruments will be able to address a wide variety of solar system, stellar and extragalactic research topics. Although the design of the individual telescope emphasizes simplicity and low cost, the network will be able to deliver in aggregate data that would otherwise require more expensive facilities. The array of instruments may be tailored to the particular observing program by the selection of filters the individual instruments are provided and how the telescopes are pointed at the sky. A prototype array of three instruments has been in use since April of 2001, principally obtaining asteroid astrometry and searching for near-earth objects. The experience relating to solar system observations acquired during this period will be presented along with proposed strategies for future work using the full GNAT array of instruments. This work and continuing operation of the MOTESS prototype is supported in part by a Eugene Shoemaker Grant from The Planetary Society.

Tucker, R. A.

2002-12-01

239

Solar System Advisory Panel (SSAP) Developing the Roadmap for Solar System Science  

E-print Network

Solar System Advisory Panel (SSAP) Developing the Roadmap for Solar System Science Note of scientists providing an opportunity to highlight key issues in solar system science or to promote future missions or project opportunities. The afternoon was devoted to area-specific sessions, drafting a list

Crowther, Paul

240

Direct solar steam-generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technology that generates steam by the use of solar energy is described. Steam is generated directly in the solar collectors. The advantages of direct solar steam generation are compared with the methods of indirect solar steam generation. Schematics and modes of operation of a demonstration system are presented. Feasibility of the concept, and how to obtain necessary design parameters, was established. The feasibility of direct solar steam generation is shown. This concept is suitable for generating low pressure steam. The major applications are expected to be in process steam, absorption cooling, and steam heating.

Vresk, J.

241

Solar System Science with SKA  

E-print Network

Radio wavelength observations of solar system bodies reveal unique information about them, as they probe to regions inaccessible by nearly all other remote sensing techniques and wavelengths. As such, the SKA will be an important telescope for planetary science studies. With its sensitivity, spatial resolution, and spectral flexibility and resolution, it will be used extensively in planetary studies. It will make significant advances possible in studies of the deep atmospheres, magnetospheres and rings of the giant planets, atmospheres, surfaces, and subsurfaces of the terrestrial planets, and properties of small bodies, including comets, asteroids, and KBOs. Further, it will allow unique studies of the Sun. Finally, it will allow for both indirect and direct observations of extrasolar giant planets.

B. J. Butler; D. B. Campbell; I. de Pater; D. E. Gary

2004-09-09

242

Age of the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Allende CV chondrite's Ca-Al-rich inclusions exhibit a Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 4.559 + or - 0.004 billion years, which constitutes the best currently obtainable estimate of the first condensation of solar system matter; the Angra dos Reis and Juvinas achondrites are dated to 4.551 + or - 0.002 and 4.539 + or - 0.004 billion years, respectively. Attention is presently given to Rb/Sr isotopic ratio data fitting a model in which the achondrite parent bodies condensed about 4.56 billion years ago, at the same time as the Allende Ca-Al, then were remelted in a major impact event or events similar to that which has been postulated for the formation of the earth's moon.

Tilton, G. R.

243

Solar System Visualization (SSV) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar System Visualization (SSV) project aims at enhancing scientific and public understanding through visual representations and modeling procedures. The SSV project's objectives are to (1) create new visualization technologies, (2) organize science observations and models, and (3) visualize science results and mission Plans. The SSV project currently supports the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and Cassini. In support of the these missions, the SSV team has produced pan and zoom animations of large mosaics to reveal details of surface features and topography, created 3D animations of science instruments and procedures, formed 3-D anaglyphs from left and right stereo pairs, and animated registered multi-resolution mosaics to provide context for microscopic images.

Todd, Jessida L.

2005-01-01

244

The Solar System Beyond Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This proposal supported deep and wide-field optical imaging of the trans-Neptunian Solar System capitalizing on our broad access to state-of-the-art facilities on Mauna Kea. Key quantities determined include the size distribution of Kuiper Belt objects (a differential power law with an index -4), and the inclination and radial distance distributions. We identified an outer edge to the classical Kuiper Belt that has since been confirmed by independent workers. We also obtained an assessment of the population densities in the mean-motion resonances with Neptune and discovered the Scattered Kuiper Belt Object dynamical class. Scientific issues on which these measurements have direct bearing include the collisional environment of the Kuiper Belt, the origin of the short-period comets, and the origin by capture into resonance of Pluto and other Kuiper Belt objects.

Jewitt, David; Nava, David (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

245

An overview: Component development for solar thermal systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, I review the significant issues and the development of solar concentrators and thermal receivers for central-receiver power plants and dish/engine systems. Due to the breadth of the topic area, I have arbitrarily narrowed the content of this paper by choosing not to discuss line-focus (trough) systems and energy storage. I will focus my discussion on the development of heliostats, dishes, and receivers since the 1970s with an emphasis on describing the technologies and their evolution, identifying some key observations and lessons learned, and suggesting what the future in component development may be.

Mancini, T.R.

1994-10-01

246

An overview: Component development for solar thermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, I review the significant issues and the development of solar concentrators and thermal receivers for central-receiver power plants and dish/engine systems. Due to the breadth of the topic area, I have arbitrarily narrowed the content of this paper by choosing not to discuss line-focus (trough) systems and energy storage. I will focus my discussion on the development of heliostats, dishes, and receivers since the 1970s with an emphasis on describing the technologies and their evolution, identifying some key observations and lessons learned, and suggesting what the future in component development may be.

Mancini, T. R.

247

Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

1982-01-01

248

Planet Formation Is the Solar System Misleading?  

E-print Network

Planet Formation Is the Solar System Misleading? Günther Wuchterl Max://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/wuchterl/ Abstract The discovery of more than hundred extrasolar planet candidates chal- lenges our understanding of planet formation. Do we have to modify the theories that were mostly developed for the solar system

Wuchterl, Günther

249

Solar system as space-probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the movement of the solar system through space are examined and the possibility is considered that in their circulation around the Galaxy center the stars and clouds move through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. In such an event, the solar system would pass through interstellar clouds and the sun's luminosity would temporarily increase due to an

W. H. McCrea

1975-01-01

250

The Solar System: An Introductory Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys resources of astronomical information. Includes bibliographies of books and articles on the solar system in general as well as all of the bodies that occur in the solar system. Lists slide sets available from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. (CW)

Fraknoi, Andrew

1987-01-01

251

Conversion efficiency in a solar splitting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report on concentrator photovoltaic system made by splitting the solar system based on separate Si, GaAs, and InGaN solar cells. The SSCPV module was fabricated and conversion efficiency up to 24.8% was achieved for the concentration factor of 12.8 that is in correlation with theoretical predictions.

Kurin, S. Yu; Doronin, V. D.; Ivanov, S. A.; Helava, H. I.; Papchenko, B. P.; Antipov, A. A.; Usikov, A. S.; Makarov, Yu N.

2014-12-01

252

Design procedure for solar heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the design of solar space and water heating systems for residences. A simulation model capable of estimating the long-term thermal performance of solar heating systems is described. The amount of meteorological data required by the simulation in order to estimate long-term performance is investigated. The information gained from many simulations is used to develop a

S. A. Klein; W. A. Beckman; J. A. Duffie

1976-01-01

253

Symplectic integrators for solar system dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain symplectic integrators relevant to solar system dynamics are defined here. It is shown that the dominant long-term error arises from a constant error in the mean motion, and special starting procedure which can eliminate this error are described. The resulting improvement make these integrators easily the best available for a wide range of solar system problems.

Prasenjit Saha; Scott Tremaine

1992-01-01

254

Hybrid photovoltaic\\/thermal solar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present test results on hybrid solar systems, consisting of photovoltaic modules and thermal collectors (hybrid PV\\/T systems). The solar radiation increases the temperature of PV modules, resulting in a drop of their electrical efficiency. By proper circulation of a fluid with low inlet temperature, heat is extracted from the PV modules keeping the electrical efficiency at satisfactory values. The

Y. Tripanagnostopoulos; Th. Nousia; M. Souliotis; P. Yianoulis

2002-01-01

255

Solar energy air-heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy air-heating system readily installable on the exterior wall of a residence or other building, the system including a module constituted by a slab of rigid foam plastic thermal insulation material whose upper face is covered by a fibrous mat having a blackened surface to absorb solar energy. Each edge of the slab is secured to a molding

F. G. Reick; M. Ebert

1984-01-01

256

Collisional processes in the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The explosive growth of knowledge in the field of space exploration and, in particular the interdisciplinary character of the subject of collisions in the solar system, put the scientific interest of planetary and galactic astronomers, as well as specialists in geophysics, dynamics, and cosmochemistry in a common focus. Obvious highlights include the explosion in the rate of discoveries of Kuiper belt objects; better understanding of dynamics of main belt asteroids and the processes affecting their injection into the inner planets crossing orbits; growing understanding of the importance of comets and asteroids in the delivery of volatiles to the inner planets and even possibly in life origin on the Earth; great acceleration of Near-Earth Objects discovery and more reliable prediction of their future threat to the Earth. All these topics are thoroughly addressed and discussed by the top-level specialists in the field on the most comprehensive and unprecedented basis. Owing to its interdisciplinary character the book will undoubtedly meet the interest of specialists in the different fields of astronomy, planetary and Earth sciences.

Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Rickman, Hans

257

An analysis of distributed solar fuel systems  

E-print Network

While solar fuel systems offer tremendous potential to address global clean energy needs, most existing analyses have focused on the feasibility of large centralized systems and applications. Not much research exists on ...

Thomas, Alex, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

258

Solar residential heating and cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System has been placed in operation to verify technical feasibility of using solar energy to provide residential heating and cooling. Complete system analysis was performed to provide design information.

Melton, D. E.; Humphries, W. R.

1975-01-01

259

The Solar System and Its Origin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a brief explanation of the solar system, including planets, asteroids, satellites, comets, planetary orbits, as well as, old and recent cosmogonic theories. Indicates that man is nearer a solution to the origin of the planetary system than ever before.

Dormand, J. R.

1973-01-01

260

Focus Groups for Solar System Investigations with the JWST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will make it NASA’s premier space-based facility for infrared astronomy. This 6.5-meter telescope, which is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared, will be equipped with four state-of-the-art instruments that include imaging, spectroscopy, and coronagraphy. These instruments, along with the telescope’s moving target capabilities, will enable the infrared study of solar system objects with unprecedented detail. A new white paper (Norwood et al., 2014) provides a general overview of JWST observatory and instrument capabilities for Solar System science, and updates and expands upon an earlier study by Lunine et al. (2010). In order to fully realize the potential of JWST for Solar System observations, we have recently organized 10 focus groups to explore various science use cases in more detail on topics including: Asteroids, Comets, Giant Planets, Mars, Near Earth Objects, Occultations, Rings, Satellites, Titan, and Trans-Neptunian Objects. The findings from these groups will help guide the project as it develops and implements planning tools, observing templates, the data pipeline and archives so that they enable a broad range of Solar System Science investigations. The purpose of this presentation is to raise awareness of the JWST Solar System planning, and to invite participation of DPS members with our Focus Groups and other pre-launch activities.References:Lunine, J., Hammel, H., Schaller, E., Sonneborn, G., Orton, G., Rieke, G., and Rieke, M. 2010, JWST Planetary Observations within the Solar System, http://www.stsci.edu/jwst/doc-archive/white-papers.Norwood, J., Hammel, H., Milam, S.,Stansberry, J., Lunine, J., Chanover, N., Hines, D., Sonneborn, G., Tiscareno, M., Brown, M. and Ferruit, P., 2014, ArXiv e-prints, 1403.6845.

Hines, Dean C.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John; Hammel, Heidi B.; Sonneborn, George; Lunine, Jonathan; Rivkin, Andrew; Woodward, Charles; Norwood, Jim; Villanueva, Geronimo; Thomas, Cristina; Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Tiscareno, Matthew; Kestay, Laszlo; Nixon, Conor; Parker, Alex

2014-11-01

261

Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

Qader, S. A. (inventor)

1981-01-01

262

Solar heating system installed at Stamford, Connecticut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The system components are described. Appended data includes: the system design acceptance test, the operation and maintenance manual, and as-built drawings and photographs.

1979-01-01

263

Contribution of solar passive systems in edification  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of ''Marmaris Experimental Solar House'' and demonstrate the advantages of passive systems. According to the ''Solar Houses Project of M.T.A. (Mining Research and Investigation Center of Turkey)'', Trombe Thermal Storage Wall has been chosen as the prefered system among several kinds of passive solar heating systems for its simplicity and suitability given the Mediterranean climatic conditions. The system has been put into operation in May 1977 and related data has been gathered for determining the energy balance and monthly heating efficiencies. A computer simulation model has been employed to aid in the calculation of emitted heat fractions by natural means (conduction-convection, radiation, thermocirculation). The evaluated experimental data has shown that total annual solar fraction, obtained through the ''Thermal Storage Wall'', is sufficient to supply thermal heating load of Marmaris Solar House on the Egyptian Sea Coast, without any isolation.

Tasdemiroglu, E.

1980-12-01

264

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Task 3 -- System selection; Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Solar Turbines Incorporated has elected to pursue an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine system to exceed the goals of the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program, which are to develop and commercialize an industrial gas turbine system that operates at thermal efficiencies at least 15% higher than 1991 products, and with emissions not exceeding eight ppmv NOx and 20 ppmv CO and UHC. Solar`s goal is to develop a commercially viable industrial system (3--20 MW) driven by a gas turbine engine with a thermal efficiency of 50% (ATS50), with the flexibility to meet the differing operational requirements of various markets. Dispersed power generation is currently considered to be the primary future target market for the ICR in the 5--15 MW size class. The ICR integrated system approach provides an ideal candidate for the assumed dispersed power market, with its small footprint, easy transportability, and environmental friendliness. In comparison with other systems that use water or toxic chemicals such as ammonia for NOx control, the ICR has no consumables other than fuel and air. The low pressure ratio of the gas turbine engine also is favorable in that less parasitic power is needed to pump the natural gas into the combustor than for simple-cycle machines. Solar has narrowed the ICR configuration to two basic approaches, a 1-spool, and a 2-spool version of the ATS50. The 1-spool engine will have a lower first-cost but lower part-power efficiencies. The 2-spool ATS may not only have better part-power efficiency, its efficiency will also be less sensitive to reduced turbine rotor inlet temperature levels. Thus hot-end parts life can be increased with only small sacrifices in efficiency. The flexibility of the 2-spool arrangement in meeting customer needs is its major advantage over the 1-spool. This Task 3 Topical Report is intended to present Solar`s preliminary system selection based upon the initial trade-off studies performed to date.

White, D.J.

1994-07-01

265

Nitrogen isotopes in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotopic composition of nitrogen in the solar system is measured, and it is shown that the 30% change during the last 3-4 billion years of N-15\\/N-14 in solar-wind-bearing lunar soils and breccias probably does not reflect changes in the ratio at the solar surface. It is argued that accretion of interstellar matter does not work as a cause for

J. Geiss; P. Bochsler

1982-01-01

266

Solar System: The Earth in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It provides an understanding of where Earth is located in space and explores evidence used by astronomers to place Earth at this location. Earth is a relatively small planet and the third from the Sun in our solar system. The Sun is the central and largest body in the solar system. Our still-growing knowledge of the solar system comes to us in part by direct observation from Earth, including the use of optical, radio, and x-ray telescopes that are sensitive to a broad spectrum of information coming to us from space; computers that can undertake increasingly complicated calculations, find patterns in data, and support or reject theories about the origins of the solar system; and space probes that send back detailed pictures and other data from distant planets. Learning Outcomes:? Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.? Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.? Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

267

Design of highly concentrating solar collectors and solar collector systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the design of symmetric and asymmetric concentrating solar collector systems and of their optical quality on the maximum achievable thermal efficiency is investigated in a parameter study by means of the computer codes CIRCE and CAV2. Optimization considerations were carried out with respect to the aperture diameter and the shape of cavity receivers. Apart from the individual

Rainer Koehne

1991-01-01

268

Solar energy collection by the tower system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy collecting tests were carried out under Japan's Sunshine Project, as part of the solar thermal electric power system. The total mirror area of the heliostats was increased by a factor of three to 300 sq m, making the dimensional ratio between the tower height and field diameter equivalent to that of the pilot plant, as well as achieving

T. Taguchi; M. Takemoto

1981-01-01

269

Honeywell General Offices solar HVAC system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeywell is presently in the construction phase for an advanced solar heating and cooling system for its new General Offices building (eight stories; 100,000 sq ft floor area) located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Over 20,000 square feet of trough type concentrating collectors will track the sun's elevation and supply solar energy at fluid temperatures in excess of 350 deg F. The

R. F. Block; D. E. Waters

1978-01-01

270

Lunar solar-power system: Commerical power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed Lunar Solar-Power (LSP) System collects solar power on the moon. The power is converted to beams of microwaves and transmitted to fields of microwave receivers (rectennas) on Earth that provide electric power to local and regional power grids. LSP can provide abundant and low cost energy to Earth to sustain several centuries of economic development on Earth and

David R. Criswell

1995-01-01

271

Solar power satellite system definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synopsis of the study plan for the solar power satellite system is presented. Descriptions of early task progress is reported for the following areas: (1) laser annealing, (2) solid state power amplifiers, (3) rectenna option, (4) construction of an independent electric orbit transfer vehicle, and (5) construction of a 2.5 GW solar power satellite.

1978-01-01

272

Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using

Adam Faiers; Charles Neame

2006-01-01

273

Prototype solar heating and hot water system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

1977-01-01

274

Modular test system for solar collectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable, recirculating-water-flow, and temperature-control device is used with solar simulator and actual sunlight to test and evaluate several solar-collector panel coatings, panel designs, and scaled-down collector subsystems. System can be pressurized to prevent boiling and allows operation above 100 degrees Centigrade.

Dolan, F. J.

1977-01-01

275

Non-tracking solar energy collector system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy collector system characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel vacuum-jacketed receivers or absorbers is described. Numerous individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration are supported for independent reorientation. Asymmetric vee-trough concentrators are defined.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1978-01-01

276

Early chemical history of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extreme antiquity and lack of evidence for sigrificant chemical ; processing of the chondritic meteorites since they were formed suggest the ; possibility that their chemistry and mineralogy may have been established during ; the condensation of the solar system. By using equilibrium thermodynamics, the ; sequence of condensation of mineral phases from a cooling nebula of solar ;

Lawrence Grossman; J. W. Larimer

1974-01-01

277

Collector means for solar energy collecting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes absorber means for a solar energy collector system, which includes an absorber plate means having at least one side thereof exposed to solar rays. The absorber means consist of: (a) transparent glazing panel means, generally parallel to and in spaced relation to the exposed side of the absorber plate means; and (b) absorber plate cap means coupled

R. D. Nikkel; P. M. LEsperance

1986-01-01

278

Shallow solar pond energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a shallow solar pond energy conversion system is presented as an effective way to produce large-scale electric power from solar energy. Water is used both for heat collection and heat storage. Inexpensive layers of weatherable transparent plastic over the water suppress heat loss to the environment. The hot water is stored in an insulated reservoir at night.

W. C. Dickinson; A. F. Clark; J. A. Day; L. F. Wouters

1976-01-01

279

Solar-System Ephemeris Toolbox  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) generates planetary and lunar ephemeris data and FORTRAN routines that allow users to obtain state data for the Sun, the moon, and the planets. The JPL Solar System Ephemeris Toolbox, developed at Kennedy Space Center, is a set of functions that provides the same functionality in the MATLAB computing environment along with some additional capabilities. The toolbox can be used interactively via a graphical user interface (GUI), or individual functions can be called from the MATLAB command prompt or other MATLAB scripts and functions. The toolbox also includes utility functions to define and perform coordinate transformation (e.g., mean-of-date, true-of-date, J2000) that are common in the use of these ephemerides. An attached README file guides the user through the process of constructing binary ephemeris files, verifying correct installation, and using functions to extract state data. This process also can be performed using the GUI. Help from each toolbox function is available through MATLAB s "help" function. Many of the functions in the toolbox are MATLAB equivalents of the JPL-written FORTRAN programs and subroutines used for the same purposes. A novice can use the GUI to extract state data, while a more experienced user can use the functions directly, as needed, in his/her applications. The toolbox has been tested using MATLAB Releases 13 an

Walker, Charles F.

2005-01-01

280

Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

2001-01-01

281

Pocket Solar System: Make a Scale Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun and simple hands-on astronomy activity lets learners build a scale model of the universe with little more than adding machine tape. Learners are often surprised to find how empty the outer solar system is (there is a reason they call it space!) and how close, relatively speaking, the orbits of the planets of the inner solar system are. The pdf contains step-by-step instructions, photos, presentation tips, common misconceptions about our solar system, and links to background information.

2012-10-15

282

Prototype solar domestic hot water systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

1978-01-01

283

CSCE 6933/5933 Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems  

E-print Network

­ Crystal oscillators ­ Ring oscillators · VCO is an electronic oscillator specifically designed Locked Loop · Components of a PLL · High Level System Design · Component - wise Design and Power the error detector block 5Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems #12;High Level System Design · Behavioral

Mohanty, Saraju P.

284

Development of Solar Powered Irrigation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of a solar powered irrigation system has been discussed in this paper. This system would be SCADA-based and quite useful in areas where there is plenty of sunshine but insufficient water to carry out farming activities, such as rubber plantation, strawberry plantation, or any plantation, that requires frequent watering. The system is powered by solar system as a renewable energy which uses solar panel module to convert Sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of an automated SCADA controlled system that uses PLC as a controller is significant to agricultural, oil and gas monitoring and control purpose purposes. In addition, the system is powered by an intelligent solar system in which solar panel targets the radiation from the Sun. Other than that, the solar system has reduced energy cost as well as pollution. The system is equipped with four input sensors; two soil moisture sensors, two level detection sensors. Soil moisture sensor measures the humidity of the soil, whereas the level detection sensors detect the level of water in the tank. The output sides consist of two solenoid valves, which are controlled respectively by two moistures sensors.

Abdelkerim, A. I.; Sami Eusuf, M. M. R.; Salami, M. J. E.; Aibinu, A.; Eusuf, M. A.

2013-12-01

285

Small hybrid solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel concept of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio-)Diesel engine. The Organic Rankine Cycles include hermetic scroll expander-generators11The word expander is often used to characterize units recovering the expansion energy of a gas, in particular when based on a volumetric machine. The word

M. Kane; D. Larrain; D. Favrat; Y. Allani

2003-01-01

286

Solar Energy Usage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with solar energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the broad aspects of solar energy use and to explain the general operation of solar systems. Some topics covered are availability and economics of solar

Crank, Ron

287

Climate Fundamentals for Solar Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design of any solar heating system is influenced heavily by climate; in this bulletin, information on climate as related to solar heating is as related to solar heating is provided. Topics discussed include: (1) solar radiation; (2) degree days; (3) climate and calculations which make use of solar radiation and degree days; and (4)…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

288

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2014-04-01

289

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2012-04-01

290

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2011-04-01

291

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2013-04-01

292

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2010-04-01

293

The solar system mimics a hydrogen atom  

E-print Network

The solar system and the hydrogen atom are two well known systems on different scales and look unrelated: The former is a classical system on the scale of about billions of kilometers and the latter a quantum system of about tens of picometers. Here we show a connection between them. Specifically, we find that the orbital radii of the planets mimic the mean radii of the energy levels of a quantum system under the Coulomb-like potential. This connection might be explained by very light dark matter which manifests quantum behavior in the solar system, thereby hinting at a dark matter mass around $8 \\times 10^{-14}$ electron-volts.

Je-An Gu

2014-03-28

294

Solar System Visualization: Global Science Maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Solar System Visualization (SSV) project is to re-explore the planets using the data from previous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planetary missions on and public information.

DeJong, E. M.

1994-01-01

295

External Resource: Our Solar System Lithograph Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph set features images of the planets, the sun, asteroids, comets, meteors and meteorites, the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud, and moons of the solar system. General information, significant dates, interesting facts and brief descriptions of the

1900-01-01

296

Solar System Lithograph Set for Space Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph set contains images with information about: Our Solar System, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Jupiter, Moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Charon, and Comets.

297

Solar System Lithograph Set for Space Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set contains images with information about: Our Solar System, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Jupiter, Moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Charon, and Comets.

298

Gallery Walk Questions about the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the solar system. The questions are organized according to the ...

299

The NASA atlas of the solar system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Describes every planet, moon, and body that has been the subject of a NASA mission, including images of 30 solar system objects and maps of 26 objects. The presentation includes geologic history, geologic and reference maps, and shaded relief maps.

Greeley, Ronald; Batson, Raymond M.

1997-01-01

300

Igneous processes of the early solar system  

E-print Network

Experimental, petrographic and numerical methods are used to explore the igneous evolution of the early solar system. Chapters 1 and 2 detail the results of petrographic and experimental studies of a suite of primitive ...

Singletary, Steven J. (Steven James), 1973-

2004-01-01

301

Prototype solar heating and hot water systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in the development of a solar hot water and space heating system is described in four quarterly reports. The program schedules, technical status and other program activities from 6 October 1976 through 30 September 1977 are provided.

1978-01-01

302

How the Inner Solar System Formed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from NOVA, explore the theory that small bits of gas and dust combined to form protoplanets billions of years ago, which in turn collided to create the four rocky planets of the inner solar system.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2012-03-30

303

Solar System: Sifting through the debris  

E-print Network

A quadrillion previously unnoticed small bodies beyond Neptune have been spotted as they dimmed X-rays from a distant source. Models of the dynamics of debris in the Solar System's suburbs must now be reworked.

Asantha Cooray

2006-08-11

304

Design data brochure: Solar hot water system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

1978-01-01

305

Origin of Outer Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We feel that at the present moment the available theoretical models of the Kuiper belt are still in advance of the data, and thus our main task has been to conduct observational work guided by theoretical motivations. Our efforts over the past year can be divided into four categories: A) Wide-field Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects; B) Pencil-beam Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects; C) Wide-field Searches for Moons of the Outer Planets; D) Pencil-beam Searches for Faint Uranian and Neptunian Moons; E) Recovery Observations. As of April 2002, we have conducted several searches for Kuiper belt objects using large-format mosaic CCD camera on 4-meter class telescopes. In May 1999, we used the Kitt Peak 4-meter with the NOAO Mosaic camera we attempted a search for KBOs at a range of ecliptic latitudes. In addition to our wide-field searches, we have conducted three 'pencil-beam' searches in the past year. In a pencil-beam search we take repeated integrations of the same field throughout a night. After preprocessing the resulting images we shift and recombine them along a range of rates and directions consistent with the motion of KBOs. Stationary objects then smear out, while objects moving at near the shift rate appear as point sources. In addition to our searches for Kuiper belt objects, we are completing the inventory of the outer solar system by search for faint satellites of the outer planets. In August 2001 we conducted pencil beam searches for faint Uranian and Neptunian satellites at CFHT and CTIO. These searches resulted in the discover of two Neptunian and four Uranian satellite candidates. The discovery of Kuiper belt objects and outer planet satellites is of little use if the discoveries are not followed by systematic, repeated astrometric observations that permit reliable estimates of their orbits.

Holman, Matthew J.; Boyce, J. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

306

Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

Luckett, Rickey D.

307

Solar hydrogen energy system. Annual report, 1995--1996  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports progress on three tasks. Task A, System comparison of hydrogen with other alternative fuels in terms of EPACT requirements, investigates the feasibility of several alternative fuels, namely, natural gas, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen and electricity, to replace 10% of gasoline by the year 2000. The analysis was divided into two parts: analysis of vehicle technologies and analysis of fuel production, storage and distribution. Task B, Photovoltaic hydrogen production, involves this fuel production method for the future. The process uses hybrid solar collectors to generate dc electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The third task, Hydrogen safety studies, covers two topics: a review of codes, standards, regulations, recommendations, certifications, and pamphlets which address safety of gaseous fuels; and an experimental investigation of hydrogen flame impingement.

Veziroglu, T.N.

1996-12-31

308

Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report  

SciTech Connect

The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

Rosenthal, A. [Southwest Technology Development Inst., Las Cruces, NM (US)

1993-05-01

309

Chaos and stability of the solar system  

PubMed Central

Over the last two decades, there has come about a recognition that chaotic dynamics is pervasive in the solar system. We now understand that the orbits of small members of the solar system—asteroids, comets, and interplanetary dust—are chaotic and undergo large changes on geological time scales. Are the major planets' orbits also chaotic? The answer is not straightforward, and the subtleties have prompted new questions. PMID:11606772

Malhotra, Renu; Holman, Matthew; Ito, Takashi

2001-01-01

310

Chaos and stability of the solar system.  

PubMed

Over the last two decades, there has come about a recognition that chaotic dynamics is pervasive in the solar system. We now understand that the orbits of small members of the solar system-asteroids, comets, and interplanetary dust-are chaotic and undergo large changes on geological time scales. Are the major planets' orbits also chaotic? The answer is not straightforward, and the subtleties have prompted new questions. PMID:11606772

Malhotra, R; Holman, M; Ito, T

2001-10-23

311

Chemical evolution: A solar system perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last three decades major advances were made in the understanding of the formation of carbon compounds in the universe and of the occurrence of processes of chemical evolution in the solar system and beyond. This was made possible by the development of new astronomical techniques and by the exploration of the solar system by means of properly instrumented spacecraft. Some of the major findings made as a result of these observations are summarized.

Oro, J.

1989-01-01

312

The Dimensions of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A few new wrinkles have been added to the popular activity of building a scale model of the solar system. Students can learn about maps and scaling using easily accessible online resources that include satellite images. This is accomplished by taking advantage of some of the special features of Google Earth. This activity gives students a much more powerful sense of the enormity and emptiness of the solar system and, at the same time, provides an opportunity to make connections with the community.

Kathleen S. Davis

2007-07-01

313

Meteoroids: The Smallest Solar System Bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume is a compilation of articles reflecting the current state of knowledge on the physics, chemistry, astronomy, and aeronomy of small bodies in the solar system. The articles included here represent the most recent results in meteor, meteoroid, and related research fields and were presented May 24-28, 2010, in Breckenridge, Colorado, USA at Meteoroids 2010: An International Conference on Minor Bodies in the Solar System.

Moser, Danille E. (Compiler); Hardin, B. F. (Compiler); Janches, Diego (Compiler)

2011-01-01

314

INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, AND PUBLICATIONS  

E-print Network

INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, and Buildings Systems Integration Center National Renewable Energy Laboratory 8 July 2009 SOLAR SYSTEM POTENTIAL/calculators/PVWATTS/version1/ http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/PVWATTS/version2/ Estimates the electrical energy

315

Exploring Solar Systems Across the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the value of exploring our solar system and others in the Universe. Learners will investigate, compare, and describe patterns in Solar System data. They will then hypothesize about the formation of the Solar System based on data and explain how extrasolar planets can be discovered. In the first activity, the students investigate Solar System data to find clues to how our planetary system was formed. By the end of the activity, the students come to understand that other stars form just like the Sun, and, therefore, many stars could have planets around them. The second activity examines how scientists can find these extrasolar planets. By observing the behavior of a model star-planet system, the students come to understand that it is possible to see the effect a planet has on its parent star even if the planet cannot be seen directly. By comparing the properties of our Solar System with other planetary systems, we can gain a deeper understanding of planetary systems across the Universe.

316

Solar energy systems for industrialization  

SciTech Connect

This is a presentation given to illustrate a need for solar energy, and to suggest a solution as well as its implementation. Current sources of global energy mainly consist of fossil fuels, which are finite in their supply as well as harmful to the environment. A viable solution is solar energy, which is relatively inexhaustible in supply and available with emerging technology. In addition, a process for energy transmission via wireless power transmission is presented. The benefits of this technology include assisting rural areas of developing countries and aiding those countries` national economies. Implementation methods for this technology on a global scale are also given.

Glaser, P.E.; Leonard, R.S. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)]|[Institute for Sustainable Futures, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

317

Concentrators Enhance Solar Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Right now, solar electric propulsion is being looked at very seriously," says Michael Piszczor, chief of the photovoltaic and power technologies branch at Glen Research Center. The reason, he explains, originates with a unique NASA mission from the late 1990s. In 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft launched from Kennedy Space Center to test a dozen different space technologies, including SCARLET, or the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology. As a solar array that focused sunlight on a smaller solar cell to generate electric power, SCARLET not only powered Deep Space 1 s instruments but also powered its ion engine, which propelled the spacecraft throughout its journey. Deep Space 1 was the first spacecraft powered by a refractive concentrator design like SCARLET, and also utilized multi-junction solar cells, or cells made of multiple layers of different materials. For the duration of its 38-month mission, SCARLET performed flawlessly, even as Deep Space 1 flew by Comet Borrelly and Asteroid Braille. "Everyone remembers the ion engine on Deep Space 1, but they tend to forget that the SCARLET array powered it," says Piszczor. "Not only did both technologies work as designed, but the synergy between the two, solar power and propulsion together, is really the important aspect of this technology demonstration mission. It was the first successful use of solar electric propulsion for primary propulsion." More than a decade later, NASA is keenly interested in using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for future space missions. A key issue is cost, and SEP has the potential to substantially reduce cost compared to conventional chemical propulsion technology. "SEP allows you to use spacecraft that are smaller, lighter, and less costly," says Piszczor. "Even though it might take longer to get somewhere using SEP, if you are willing to trade time for cost and smaller vehicles, it s a good trade." Potentially, SEP could be used on future science missions in orbit around the Earth or Moon, to planets or asteroids, on deep space science missions, and even on exploration missions. In fact, electric propulsion is already being used on Earth-orbiting satellites for positioning.

2013-01-01

318

Star Witness News: Icy Visitor Makes First Appearance to Inner Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news story highlights Comet ISON's travels through our region of the solar system. This science content reading identifies and defines vocabulary that may be new to students. Discussion questions help to focus student attention on important information and to challenge students to more deeply explore the topic of comets.

2014-01-17

319

On the occurrence and nature of planets outside the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of the occurence of planets outside the solar system is discussed in detail from the point of view of its potential in future astronomical research. It is found that in spite of the speculative nature of most considerations to date, many independent approaches are possible. They stem from present astrometric observations, future observations from space, physical theories on

Brian T. O'Leary

1966-01-01

320

HARETU AND THE STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM1  

E-print Network

HARETU AND THE STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM1 Florin Diacu2 Pacific Institute for the Mathematical the contributions of Spiru Haretu to the problem of the solar system's stability and show their importance relative and the consequences of Haretu's results. Keywords: stability, solar system, n-body problem. #12;Is the solar system

Diacu, Florin

321

Photovoltaics: solar electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

The operation and uses of solar cells and the National Photovoltaic Program are briefly described. Eleven DOE photovoltaic application projects are described including forest lookout towers; Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Hawaii; WBNO daytime AM radio station; Schuchuli Indian Village; Meade, Nebraska, agricultural experiment; Mt. Laguna Air Force Station; public schools and colleges; residential applications; and Sea World of Florida. (WHK)

None

1980-02-01

322

Solar-thermal energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of insolation which have to be considered in an assessment of the potential for solar energy devices at a geographical location are examined. A thermal analysis of flat-plate collectors is conducted, taking into account a qualitative description, the collector energy gain and fluid temperature rise, and the mathematical relations concerning the heat losses. Attention is also given to

E. M. Sparrow; R. B. Sparrow

1976-01-01

323

Modular solar energy collector systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A readily fabricated, high efficient modular solar energy collector that may be arranged in a wide variety of arrays comprises a relatively small, typically but not necessarily rectangular, panel structure that is centrally coupled to an insulative support that may define an outlet conduit. In a specific example, a pair of coextensive, thermally conductive panels, the outer one of which

Knoos

1980-01-01

324

A photovoltaic solar water heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel solar water heating system was patented in 1994. This system uses photovoltaic cells to generate electrical energy that is subsequently dissipated in multiple electric resistive heating elements. A microprocessor controller continually selects the appropriate heating elements such that the resistive load causes the photovoltaic array to operate at or near maximum power. Unlike other residential photovoltaic systems, the

A. H. Fanney; B. P. Dougherty

1997-01-01

325

Solar heating systems for recirculation aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature over the past 25 years indicates that there has been a continued interest in using passive and active solar technologies to reduce the conventional energy required to maintain water temperatures in small recirculation aquaculture systems. Although all of the experimental systems reviewed report favourable results, there is little information available to guide system designers. This paper describes the

R. J. Fuller

2007-01-01

326

Solar thermal desalination system with heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the energy and mass balance equations, the numerical simulation results for the production rate, and the experimental laboratory water tests for a thermal desalination unit with a heat recovery system. The system components are a solar collector and a desalination tower, although the system can be operated with other energy sources. The desalination tower is made of

Klemens Schwarzer; Maria Eugênia Vieira; Christian Faber; Christoph Müller

2001-01-01

327

Solar Thermal Power Systems parabolic dish project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Project for FY 1980 is summarized. Included is: a discussion of the project's goals, program structure, and progress in parabolic dish technology. Analyses and test results of concentrators, receivers, and power converters are discussed. Progress toward the objectives of technology feasibility, technology readiness, system feasibility, and system readiness are covered.

Truscello, V. C.

1981-01-01

328

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

1994-01-01

329

An orientable solar panel system for nanospacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An orientable deployed solar array system for 1-5 kg weight nanospacecraft is described, enhancing the achievable performance of these typically power-limited systems. The system is based on a deployable solar panel system, previously developed with cooperation between Laboratorio di Sistemi Aerospaziali of University of Roma “la Sapienza” and the company IMT (Ingegneria Marketing Tecnologia). The system proposed is a modular one, and suitable in principle for the 1U, 2U and 3U standard Cubesat bus, even if the need for three axis attitude stabilization makes it typically preferred for 3U Cubesats. The size of each solar panel is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. A single degree of freedom maneuvering capability is given to the deployed solar array, in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun as close as possible, given the mission requirements on the spacecraft attitude. Considerable effort has been devoted to design the system compatible with the Cubesat standard, being mounted outside on the external spacecraft structure, without requiring modifications on the standard prescriptions. The small available volume is the major constraint, which forces to use miniaturized electric motor technology. The system design trade-off is discussed, leading to the selection of an architecture based on two independently steerable solar array wings.

Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Candini, Gian Paolo; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

2014-08-01

330

Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development  

SciTech Connect

Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

Mancini, T.R.

1997-12-31

331

Take a Spin Through the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will make comparisons of the rotation rates of the Sun and three planets (Jupiter, Uranus, and Saturn). Students will gather current information and the latest images of the Solar System from the Internet; they will then review such concepts as ratios, circles, angles, arcs, angular velocity, and period of rotation to complete a worksheet for finding the rotation rates of the Sun and planets. A brief video of Saturn's rotation is included, as is a glossary of solar terms.

332

Basic Solar Photovoltaic System Design Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this classroom activity for teaching students to design a small scale solar photovoltaic system. The class will use three small scale solar PV panels and perform tests and demonstrations with the equipment. A teacher's guide and student worksheets are provided. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

333

Planetary magnetism in the outer solar system.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review of the salient considerations which apply to the existence of magnetic fields in connection with planetary and subplanetary objects in the outer solar system is given. Consideration is given to internal dynamo fields, fields which might originate from interaction with the solar wind or magnetospheres (externally driven dynamos) and lastly fossil magnetic fields such as have been discovered on the moon. Where possible, connection is made between magnetism, means of detection, and internal body properties.

Sonett, C. P.

1973-01-01

334

Development and Testing of the Solar System Concept Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trying to assess if our students really understand the ideas we present in class can be difficult. Concept inventories are research-validated assessment tools that can provide us with data to better understand whether we are successful in the classroom. The idea for the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) was born after realizing that no concept inventory currently available covered details regarding the formation and evolution of our solar system. Topics were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system and interviewing students in order to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. Beginning in fall of 2008, a national multi-institutional field test began which would eventually involve nearly 2500 students and 17 instructors from 10 different institutions. After each round of testing, a group of instructors from multiple institutions around the country worked together to analyze the data and revise or eliminate underperforming questions. Each question was examined using a combination of point biserial, percent correct on the pre-test, and item difficulty to determine if the question was properly differentiating student understanding while also ensuring the question was not too easy or too hard. In this talk, I will present an overall outline of the development of the SSCI as well as the final testing results. The final version of the SSCI can be found at http://casa.colorado.edu/ hornstei/ssci/. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any findings expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.

Hornstein, Seth D.; Prather, E. E.; English, T. R.; Desch, S. M.; Keller, J. M.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

2011-01-01

335

Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any  

E-print Network

Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any Type Of System www Power 4 Homes Save Thousands on Bills. Build your own Solar Panel for under $50! boxsolarpannle.com Green fuel from solar power, bacteria and carbon dioxide By Frontier India | May 25th, 2010 | Category

Lovley, Derek

336

Monitoring solar-thermal systems: An outline of methods and procedures  

SciTech Connect

This manual discusses the technical issues associated with monitoring solar-thermal systems. It discusses some successful monitoring programs that have been implemented in the past. It gives the rationale for selecting a program of monitoring and gives guidelines for the design of new programs. In this report, solar thermal monitoring systems are classified into three levels. For each level, the report discusses the kinds of information obtained by monitoring, the effort needed to support the monitoring program, the hardware required, and the costs involved. Ultimately, all monitoring programs share one common requirement: the collection of accurate data that characterize some aspect or aspects of the system under study. This report addresses most of the issues involved with monitoring solar thermal systems. It does not address such topics as design fundamentals of thermal systems or the relative merits of the many different technologies employed for collection of solar energy.

Rosenthal, A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Southwest Technology Development Inst.

1994-04-01

337

Solar thermal engineering: Space heating and hot water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer fundamentals are considered along with solar radiation, flat plate collectors, optically concentrating collectors and reflectors, the transfer of the collected heat, the storage of the collected heat, long-term system performance, parametric studies, economic evaluation, solar systems design, passive heating systems, solar radiation tables, and solar radiation data on inclined surfaces for selected U.S. locations for use with the

P. J. Lunde

1980-01-01

338

STATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS (SDHW)  

E-print Network

STATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS (SDHW) CEC- CF-6R-MECH-02 (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-02 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (SDHW 2009 SOLAR HOT WATER HEATING SYSTEMS: SRCC Certified Mfr Name & Model Number Net Solar Fraction (from

339

Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

Ringel, Robert F.

340

Discovering the 50 Years of Solar System Exploration: Sharing Your Science with the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Year of the Solar System (YSS) offers ways for scientists to bring NASA’s science discoveries to their audiences! YSS and the continuing salute to the 50-year history of solar system exploration provide an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system for educators and the general public. During the last five decades, NASA has launched a variety of robotic spacecraft to study our solar system. Over that time, our understanding of planets has been revolutionized, as has the technology that has made these discoveries possible.Looking forward, the numerous ongoing and future robotic missions are returning new discoveries of our solar system at an unprecedented rate. YSS combines the discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of the ongoing missions and connects them to related topics based on the big questions of planetary science, including solar system formation, volcanism, ice, and possible life elsewhere. Planetary scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS in a variety of ways: - Give a talk at a local museum, planetarium, library, or school to share YSS and your research - Partner with a local educational institution to organize a night sky viewing or mission milestone community event - Work with a classroom teacher to explore one of the topics with students - Connect with a planetary science E/PO professional to identify ways to participate, like creating podcasts,vodcasts, or contributing to monthly topics - Share your ideas for events and activities with the planetaryE/PO community to identify partners and pathways for distribution - And more! Promotional and educational materials, updates, a calendar of activities, and a space to share experiences are available at NASA’s Solar System website: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. This is an exciting time in planetary sciences as we learn about New Worlds and make New Discoveries!

Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; Shupla, C.; Halligan, E.; Boonstra, D.; Wessen, A.; Baerg, G.; Davis, P.; Burdick, A.; Zimmerman Brachman, R.

2012-10-01

341

Topics in gradient maintenance and slat recycling in an operational solar pond  

SciTech Connect

Since 1986, the 3355 m{sup 2} salt gradient solar pond facility in El Paso, Texas, has operated with a temperature difference between the upper and lower zones of 55 to 75{degrees}C while delivering industrial process heat, grid-connected electrical power, and thermal energy for the experimental production of desalted water. Because the El Paso solar pond is an inland facility, it is necessary to recycle the salt in a sustainable salt management system. A method that uses the main pond surface for initial brine concentration and short-term storage was developed after it became evident that the original evaporation pond system was undersized. This paper examines the method for brine concentration and storage, the effects of a brine storage zone on pond operation, and the installation of an enhanced evaporation net system and an automatic scanning injection system. A short description of the performance history and current status of the project is also included.

Swift, A.H.P.; Golding, P. (Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering)

1992-02-01

342

TOPICAL REVIEW: Inverse problems in systems biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems biology is a new discipline built upon the premise that an understanding of how cells and organisms carry out their functions cannot be gained by looking at cellular components in isolation. Instead, consideration of the interplay between the parts of systems is indispensable for analyzing, modeling, and predicting systems' behavior. Studying biological processes under this premise, systems biology combines experimental techniques and computational methods in order to construct predictive models. Both in building and utilizing models of biological systems, inverse problems arise at several occasions, for example, (i) when experimental time series and steady state data are used to construct biochemical reaction networks, (ii) when model parameters are identified that capture underlying mechanisms or (iii) when desired qualitative behavior such as bistability or limit cycle oscillations is engineered by proper choices of parameter combinations. In this paper we review principles of the modeling process in systems biology and illustrate the ill-posedness and regularization of parameter identification problems in that context. Furthermore, we discuss the methodology of qualitative inverse problems and demonstrate how sparsity enforcing regularization allows the determination of key reaction mechanisms underlying the qualitative behavior.

Engl, Heinz W.; Flamm, Christoph; Kügler, Philipp; Lu, James; Müller, Stefan; Schuster, Peter

2009-12-01

343

Pump efficiency in solar-energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study investigates characteristics of typical off-the-shelf pumping systems that might be used in solar systems. Report includes discussion of difficulties in predicting pump efficiency from manufacturers' data. Sample calculations are given. Peak efficiencies, flow-rate control, and noise levels are investigated. Review or theory of pumps types and operating characteristics is presented.

1978-01-01

344

Chaotic evolution of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the entire planetary system for nearly 100 million years was studied using a computer with an integration technique. This calculation confirms that the evolution of the solar system as a whole is chaotic, with a remarkably short timescale of exponential divergence of about 4 million years. Additional numerical experiments indicate that the dynamical evolution of the Jovian

Gerald J. Sussman; Jack Wisdom

1992-01-01

345

Solar Assisted Adsorptive Desiccant Cooling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desiccant cooling processes can supply dry air by using lower temperature heat energy such as waste heat or solar heat. Especially, solar heat is useful heat source for the desiccant cooling since solar heat in summer tends to be surplus. This paper discusses the hourly cooling performance of the solar assisted desiccant cooling system, which consists of a desiccant wheel, a thermal wheel, two evaporative coolers, a cooling coil and flat plate solar water heater, assuming that the cooling system is applied to an office room of 250m3 in volume. The estimation indicated that the surface area needed to satisfy the dehumidifying performance in a sunny day was at least 30m2. Furthermore, surface area of 40m2 or larger provided a surplus dehumidifying performance causing a sensible cooling effect in evaporative cooler. Surface area of 30 m2 did not satisfy the dehumidifying performance required for high humidity condition, over 18.0g/kg(DA). The cooling demand of the cooling coil increased in such humidity condition due to the decrease in the sensible cooling effect of evaporative cooler. Auxiliary heater was required in a cloudy day since the temperature of water supplied from solar water heater of 40m2 did not reach sufficient level.

Ohkura, Masashi; Kodama, Akio

346

Fluorouracil Topical  

MedlinePLUS

... topical solution are used to treat actinic or solar keratoses (scaly or crusted lesions [skin areas] caused ... you are using fluorouracil to treat actinic or solar keratoses, you should continue using it until the ...

347

2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The ... http://www.agu.org/cgi-bin/SFgate/SFgate?language=English&verb... 1 of 2 11/14/06 11:27 AM  

E-print Network

2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The ... http://www=ng HR: 0800h AN: SH11A-0371 TI: 2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The Beginnings AU;2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The ... http://www

Ng, Chung-Sang

348

Royal Society, Discussion on the Solar System: Chemistry as a Key to its Origin, London, England, July 15, 16, 1987, Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics discussed include the origins of solar system chemistry, chemical evidence from meteorites, and the chemistry of small bodies and terrestrial planets. Attention is also given to planetary volatiles and the origin of life.

Runcorn, S. K.; Turner, G.; Woolfson, M. M.

1988-07-01

349

Solar Concentrated Photovoltaic Systems Using Spectral Splitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sun is an abundant source of natural, renewable energy that can be used to help meet the energy needs throughout the world. Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells are used to convert sunlight directly into electricity. Optics are used in concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems in order to collect large amounts of sunlight and concentrate it onto smaller PV devices, thus decreasing the amount of expensive solar cells used in the system. In spectral splitting CPV systems the incident solar energy is split into multiple optical paths and multiple types of solar cells are used in order to more efficiently convert the sunlight into electricity. This thesis discusses spectral splitting CPV systems that use dichroic thin film filters to split the spectrum. Two compact systems are discussed that are meant to be used for portable power applications to charge personal electronic devices. Proof-of-concept prototypes were made of each system. The system efficiency and acceptance angle is measured for each device. Differences between the measurements and the system are investigated. An efficiency of 38.2% ±1.9% is measured for one of the systems. A system of the same design, made by a collaborator, has a measured efficiency of 38.5% ±1.9%, which is the current world record for a sub-module. A third, larger system is also discussed. The dichroic filter is deposited on a parabolic surface, resulting in a variation in the thickness of the coating across the part that improves the overall performance of the dichroic relative to a uniform thickness coating. The variable performance of the dichroic is measured and applied to the system model. The modeled thickness variation is optimized to find the peak system efficiency. The optimization leads to a narrower dichroic cut-off region and an increase in the system efficiency of the main system analyzed of 0.5% (absolute efficiency) compared to the efficiency of the system with a uniform thickness dichroic coating.

Christensen, Eric L.

350

Interstellar Dust in the Solar System  

E-print Network

The Ulysses spacecraft has been orbiting the Sun on a highly inclined ellipse almost perpendicular to the ecliptic plane (inclination 79 deg, perihelion distance 1.3 AU, aphelion distance 5.4 AU) since it encountered Jupiter in 1992. The in-situ dust detector on board continuously measured interstellar dust grains with masses up to 10^-13 kg, penetrating deep into the solar system. The flow direction is close to the mean apex of the Sun's motion through the solar system and the grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar cloud (LIC). While Ulysses monitored the interstellar dust stream at high ecliptic latitudes between 3 and 5 AU, interstellar impactors were also measured with the in-situ dust detectors on board Cassini, Galileo and Helios, covering a heliocentric distance range between 0.3 and 3 AU in the ecliptic plane. The interstellar dust stream in the inner solar system is altered by the solar radiation pressure force, gravitational focussing and interaction of charged grains with the time varying interplanetary magnetic field. We review the results from in-situ interstellar dust measurements in the solar system and present Ulysses' latest interstellar dust data. These data indicate a 30 deg shift in the impact direction of interstellar grains w.r.t. the interstellar helium flow direction, the reason of which is presently unknown.

Harald Krueger; Markus Landgraf; Nicolas Altobelli; Eberhard Gruen

2007-06-21

351

The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Changing Views and Fundamental Concepts: 1. Evolving perspectives: a historical prologue; 2. The new, close-up view from space; 3. The invisible buffer zone with space: atmospheres, magnetospheres and the solar wind; Part II. The Inner System - Rocky Worlds: 4. Third rock from the Sun: restless Earth; 5. The Moon: stepping stone to the planets; 6. Mercury: a dense battered world; 7. Venus: the veiled planet; 8. Mars: the red planet; Part III. The Giant Planets, Their Satellites and Their Rings - Worlds of Liquid, Ice and Gas: 9. Jupiter: a giant primitive planet; 10. Saturn: lord of the rings; 11. Uranus and Neptune; Part IV. Remnants of Creation - Small Worlds in the Solar System: 12. Asteroids and meteorites; 13. Colliding worlds; 14. Comets; 15. Beyond Neptune; Part V. Origin of the Solar System and Extrasolar Planets: 16. Brave new worlds; Index.

Lang, Kenneth R.

2011-03-01

352

Dark Matter in the Solar System  

E-print Network

We determine the density and mass distribution of dark matter within our Solar System. We explore the three-body interactions between dark matter particles, the Sun, and the planets to compute the amount of dark matter gravitationally captured over the lifetime of the Solar System. We provide an analytical framework for performing these calculations and detail our numerical simulations accordingly. We find that the local density of dark matter is enhanced by between three and five orders of magnitude over the background halo density, dependent on the radial distance from the Sun. This has profound implications for terrestrial direct dark matter detection searches. We also discuss our results in the context of gravitational signatures, including existing constraints, and find that dark matter captured in this fashion is not responsible for the Pioneer anomaly. We conclude that dark matter appears to, overall, play a much more important role in our Solar System than previously thought.

X. Xu; E. R. Siegel

2008-06-23

353

Star Formation and the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have seen that studies of nearby star-forming regions are beginning to reveal the first signs of protoplanetary disks. Studies of interstellar and interplanetary grains are starting to provide clues about the processing and incorporation of matter into the Solar System. Studies of meteorites have yielded isotopic anomalies which indicate that some of the grains and inclusions in these bodies are very primitive. Although we have not yet detected a true interstellar grain, some of these materials have not been extensively modified since their removal from the ISM. We are indeed close to seeing our interstellar heritage. The overlap between astronomical and Solar System studies is in its infancy. What future experiments, observations, and missions can be performed in the near future that will greatly enhance our understanding of star formation and the formation of the Solar System?

Bally, John; Boss, Alan; Papanastassiou, Dimitri; Sandford, Scott; Sargent, Anneila

1988-01-01

354

Volcanic processes in the Solar System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article stresses that terrestrial volcanism represents only part of the range of volcanism in the solar system. Earth processes of volcanicity are dominated by plate tectonics, which does not seem to operate on other planets, except possibly on Venus. Lunar volcanicity is dominated by lava effusion at enormous rates. Mars is similar, with the addition to huge shield volcanoes developed over fixed hotspots. Io, the moon closest to Jupiter, is the most active body in the Solar System and, for example, much sulphur and silicates are emitted. The eruptions of Io are generated by heating caused by tides induced by Jupiter. Europa nearby seems to emit water from fractures and Ganymede is similar. The satellites of Saturn and Uranus are also marked by volcanic craters, but they are of very low temperature melts, possibly of ammonia and water. The volcanism of the solar system is generally more exotic, the greater the distance from Earth. -A.Scarth

Carr, M.H.

1987-01-01

355

TOPICAL REVIEW: Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment.

Ke, Pu Chun; Qiao, Rui

2007-09-01

356

Solar System Exploration: Paper Models for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA offers this website focusing on Solar System Exploration and projects for kids to build paper versions of the "super tough robots are out there exploring our solar system." Using colored, cut and folded pieces of paper, kids can construct models of Cassini, Galileo and many other spacecrafts. Along with the instructions (which need to be downloaded and printed), they provide a rating for level of difficulty as well as information on the spacecraft and its mission. A link to a website devoted to paper modeling provides some basic tips on paper model construction.

357

High throughput solar cell ablation system  

DOEpatents

A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

2012-09-11

358

High throughput solar cell ablation system  

DOEpatents

A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

2014-10-14

359

Solar System dynamics with the Gaia mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gaia mission is to be launched on December 19th, 2013 by the European Space Agency (ESA). Solar System science is well covered by the mission and has been included since the early stages of its concept and development. We present here some aspects on the astrometry and dynamics of Solar System Objects (SSO) - in particular asteroids, comets and satellites - as well as ground-based support. We also touch upon the future of SSO astrometry that will be achieved indirectly, after mission completion, from the Gaia astrometric catalogue.

Hestroffer, D.; Berthier, J.; Carry, B.; David, P.; Lainey, V.; Rambaux, N.; Thuillot, W.; Arlot, J.-E.; Bancelin, D.; Colas, F.; Desmars, J.; Devillepoix, H.; Fouchard, M.; Ivantsov, A.; Kovalenko, I.; Robert, V.

2014-12-01

360

Dark matter in the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many small bodies in the solar system, including planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids, have a surface component consisting at least in part of a very low albedo (0.06 or less) solid substance of neutral or red color in the wavelength region 0.3-2.5 microns. Laboratory spectra of organic residues from meteorites and mixtures with hydrous silicates suggest that complex mixtures of complex organic molecules (kerogens) together with aqueous alteration products of igneous minerals may be the source of the dark matter that is distributed so widely throughout the solar system.

Cruikshank, Dale P.

1987-01-01

361

Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research is aimed at testing gravitational theory, primarily on an interplanetary scale and using mainly observations of objects in the solar system. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to support this model by placing tighter bounds on any departure from it. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, as well as pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

2005-01-01

362

Testing relativity with solar system dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major breakthrough is described in the accuracy of Solar System dynamical tests of relativistic gravity. The breakthrough was achieved by factoring in ranging data from Viking Landers 1 and 2 from the surface of Mars. Other key data sources included optical transit circle observations, lunar laser ranging, planetary radar, and spacecraft (Mariner 9 to Mars and Mariner 10 to Mercury). The Solar System model which is used to fit the data and the process by which such fits are performed are explained and results are discussed. The results are fully consistent with the predictions of General Relativity.

Hellings, R. W.

1984-01-01

363

Solar dynamic power system definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

1988-01-01

364

Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are engaged in testing gravitational theory, mainly using observations of objects in the solar system and mainly on the interplanetary scale. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to support this model by placing tighter bounds on any departure from it. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, as well as pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements. In the past year, we have added to our data, primarily lunar laser ranging measurements, but also supplementary data concerning the physical properties of solar-system objects, such as the solar quadrupole moment, planetary masses, and asteroid radii. Because the solar quadrupole moment contributes to the classical precession of planetary perihelia, but with a dependence on distance from the Sun that differs from that of the relativistic precession, it is possible to estimate effects simultaneously. However, our interest is mainly in the relativistic effect, and we find that imposing a constraint on the quadrupole moment from helioseismology studies, gives us a dramatic (about ten-fold) decrease in the standard error of our estimate of the relativistic component of the perihelion advance.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

2005-01-01

365

Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12  

SciTech Connect

The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

Bauman, L.E.

1995-04-01

366

Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The completed system was composed of three basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3,264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which included a 5,000 gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which included piping, pumping and heat transfer components as well as the solemoid activated valves and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and was, therefore, a retrofit system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

367

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating  

E-print Network

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren �stergaard Jensen

368

On the Solar System-Debris Disk Connecction  

E-print Network

This paper emphasizes the connection between solar and extra-solar debris disks: how models and observations of the Solar System are helping us understand the debris disk phenomenon, and vice versa, how debris disks are helping us place our Solar System into context.

Amaya Moro-Martin

2007-12-14

369

System for storage and use of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for economically storing solar energy in the form of heated water. The system includes an above ground swimming pool in conjunction with a solar collector whereby the water of the pool is heated and stored therein until needed for use. In one form of the invention, the solar collector comprises a solar cover overlying or floating

1978-01-01

370

Solar heating system final design package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

1979-01-01

371

Exploring the Trans-Neptunian Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A profound question for scientists, philosophers and, indeed, all humans concerns how the solar system originated and subsequently evolved. To understand the solar system's formation, it is necessary to document fully the chemical and physical makeup of its components today, particularly those parts thought to retain clues about primordial conditions and processes.] In the past decade, our knowledge of the outermost, or trans-neptunian, region of the solar system has been transformed as a result of Earth-based observations of the Pluto-Charon system, Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune and its satellite Triton, and recent discoveries of dozens of bodies near to or beyond the orbit of Neptune. As a class, these newly detected objects, along with Pluto, Charon, and Triton, occupy the inner region of a hitherto unexplored component of the solar system, the Kuiper Belt. The Kuiper Belt is believed to be a reservoir of primordial objects of the type that formed in the solar nebula and eventually accreted to form the major planets. The Kuiper Belt is also thought to be the source of short-period comets and a population of icy bodies, the Centaurs, with orbits among the giant planets. Additional components of the distant outer solar system, such as dust and the Oort comet cloud, as well as the planet Neptune itself, are not discussed in this report. Our increasing knowledge of the trans-neptunian solar system has been matched by a corresponding increase in our capabilities for remote and in situ observation of these distant regions. Over the next 10 to 15 years, a new generation of ground- and space-based instruments, including the Keck and Gemini telescopes and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, will greatly expand our ability to search for and conduct physical and chemical studies on these distant bodies. Over the same time span, a new generation of lightweight spacecraft should become available and enable the first missions designed specifically to explore the icy bodies that orbit 30 astronomical units (AU) or more from the Sun. The combination of new knowledge, plus the technological capability to greatly expand this knowledge over the next decade or so, makes this a particularly opportune time to review current understanding of the trans-neptunian solar system and to begin planning for the future exploration of this distant realm. Based on current knowledge, studies of trans-neptunian objects are important for a variety of reasons that can be summarized under five themes: (1) Exploration of new territory; (2) reservoirs of primitive materials; (3) Processes that reveal the solar system's origin and evolution; (4) Links to extrasolar planets; and (5) prebiotic chemistry. These five themes are not on an equal footing. The first three are well-established areas of scientific investigation and are backed up by a substantial body of observational and theoretical understanding. The last two, however are more speculative. They are included here because they raise a number of interesting possibilities that seem particularly suited to an interdisciplinary approach uniting planetary scientists with their colleagues in the astrophysical and life science communities. Although not considered in any detail in this report, the distant outer solar system also has direct relevance to Earth and the other terrestrial planets because it is the source of comets that bring volatiles into the inner solar system. The resulting inevitable impacts between comets and other planetary bodies can play major roles in the evolution of life as suggested by, for example, the Cretaceous-tertiary boundary bolide and the extinction of the dinosaurs.

1998-01-01

372

Meteorites: messengers from the early solar system.  

PubMed

Meteorites are fragments from solar system bodies, dominantly asteroids. A small fraction is derived from the Moon and from Mars. These rocks tell a rich history of the early solar system and range from solids little changed since the earliest phases of solid matter condensation in the solar nebula (chondrites) to material representing asteroidal metamorphism and melting, impact processes on the Moon and even aqueous alteration near the surface of Mars. Meteorites are very rare. Currently many meteorites result from searches in Antarctica and the hot deserts of North Africa and Arabia. The present high find rate likely represents a unique short-term event, asking for a careful management of this scarce scientific resource. PMID:21138163

Hofmann, Beda A

2010-01-01

373

Passive vapor transport solar heating systems  

SciTech Connect

In the systems under consideration, refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector and condensed in thermal storage for space or water heating located within the building at a level below that of the collector. Condensed liquid is lifted to an accumulator above the collector by the vapor pressure generated in the collector. Tests of two systems are described, and it is concluded that one of these systems offers distinct advantages.

Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

1985-01-01

374

Solar dynamic power systems for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

1986-01-01

375

Solar System: A Look at the Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It explores the similarities and differences in the planets that make up our solar system. Each planet moves around the Sun in the same direction in a nearly circular orbit, though each planet has its own unique orbital period and speed. The planets vary in size, surface and atmospheric composition, and surface features. In orbit around the planets, we find a great variety of moons, flat rings of rock and ice debris, and/or artificial satellites. Features of many of the planets and their moons show evidence of formation and evolutionary processes similar to those that occur on Earth. These processes include earthquakes, lava flows, erosion, and changes in the atmosphere.Learning Outcomes:? Describe, compare, and contrast the following basic features of the planets in our solar system: size, composition, atmosphere, periods of rotation and revolution, surface features, and ring systems.? Describe the similarities and differences between the terrestrial and Jovian planets.? Describe, compare, and contrast the characteristics of planetary moons in our solar system.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

376

Northwest solar home book  

SciTech Connect

Wind power is one of the subjects briefly discussed. The main topic of the book is solar energy, or more specifically passive solar energy systems. Several house plans and designs are presented to show the various configurations of passive solar homes. Greenhouses, Trombe walls, and direct gain are just a few of the passive heating systems mentioned. Solar water heating systems are also included. Energy conservation methods are discussed. (BCS)

Fugate, S.; Raabe, J.

1985-01-01

377

The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

Long, R.C.

1996-12-31

378

Solar potential for the solar photovoltaic roof integration system in China explored by the geographic information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the potential solar power for the solar photovoltaic Roof Integration System (RIS) using the Geographic Information System (GIS) method, taking into account the geographic distribution of solar irradiation and the estimate of costs for the RIS and identifies the distribution of potential solar energy radiating on the RIS and power. The total urban roof area is estimated

Xinping Zhou; Jiakuan Yang; Xudong Yuan; Bo Xiao; Guoxiang Hou

2009-01-01

379

Solar-powered hot-air system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

1979-01-01

380

The Inner Solar System Characteristics of Earth  

E-print Network

The Inner Solar System #12;The Earth #12;Characteristics of Earth A terrestrial, rocky planet floats on mantle · Crust is created and destroyed #12;Characteristics of Earth Today Surface: · 70% water · 30% land Atmosphere: ·77% N2 ·21% O2 ·0.1% H2O ·+Ar, CO2, Ne #12;The Dynamic Earth Molten Core

Walter, Frederick M.

381

Solar Energy Forecast System Development and Implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecast systems for predicting real-time solar energy generation are being developed along similar lines to those of more established wind forecast systems, but the challenges and constraints are different. Clouds and aerosols play a large role, and for tilted photovoltaic panels and solar concentrating plants, the direct beam irradiance, which typically has much larger forecast errors than global horizontal irradiance, must be utilized. At MDA Information Systems, we are developing a forecast system based on first principles, with the well-validated REST2 clear sky model (Gueymard, 2008) at its backbone. In tuning the model and addressing aerosol scattering and surface albedo, etc., we relied upon the wealth of public data sources including AERONET (aerosol optical depth at different wavelengths), Suominet (GPS integrated water vapor), NREL MIDC solar monitoring stations, SURFRAD (includes upwelling shortwave), and MODIS (albedo in different wavelength bands), among others. The forecast itself utilizes a blend of NWP model output, which must be brought down to finer time resolution based on the diurnal cycle rather than simple interpolation. Many models currently do not output the direct beam irradiance, and one that does appears to have a bias relative to its global horizontal irradiance, with equally good performance attained by utilizing REST2 and the model global radiation to estimate the direct component. We will present a detailed assessment of various NWP solar energy products, evaluating forecast skill at a range of photovoltaic installations.

Jascourt, S. D.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Cassidy, C.

2012-12-01

382

Solar-system abundances of the elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental analyses of the Ogueil Cl meteorite and all previous Cl chondrite analyses were employed to develop a new solar system abundance table, including the standard deviation and number of analyses for each element. The table also comprises the abundances of radioactive and radiogenic nuclides at the present and 4.55 AE ago, as well as abundances by weight in a

E. Anders; M. Ebihara

1982-01-01

383

The Dimensions of the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A few new wrinkles have been added to the popular activity of building a scale model of the solar system. Students can learn about maps and scaling using easily accessible online resources that include satellite images. This is accomplished by taking advantage of some of the special features of Google Earth. This activity gives students a much…

Schneider, Stephen E.; Davis, Kathleen S.

2007-01-01

384

Ultraviolet Radiation in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV radiation is an important part in the electromagnetic spectrum since the energy of the photons is great enough to produce important chemical reactions in the atmospheres of planets and satellites of our Solar System, thereby affecting the transmission of this radiation to the ground and its physical properties. Scientists have used different techniques (balloons and rockets) to access to

2005-01-01

385

Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar tracking control system, Sun Chaser, a method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions is described. The Sun Chaser follows the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and resets itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise.

Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

1978-01-01

386

Solar Heating Systems: Progress Checks & Tests Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains Progress Checks and Tests for use in a Solar Heating Systems curriculum (see note). It contains master copies of all Progress Checks and Unit Tests accompanying the curriculum, organized by unit. (The master copies are to be duplicated by each school so that adequate copies are available for student use in a self-paced student…

Green, Joanne; And Others

387

Assessment of a Solar System Walk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of sending students and the general public on a walk through a scale model of the solar system in an attempt to instill an appreciation of the relative scales of the sizes of the objects compared to the immense distances between them is certainly not new. A good number of such models exist, including one on the National Mall in…

LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.; Kirchner, Brian

2010-01-01

388

External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our galaxy - the Milky Way - is a spiral galaxy with arms extending from the center like a pinwheel. Our solar system is in the Orion arm of the Milky Way. Our Sun is one of about 100 billion stars in the Milky Way. And our galaxy is just one of roughly 1

1900-01-01

389

Collector means for solar energy collecting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with the present invention, an improved collector means for a solar energy collector system having an absorber plate and a glazing panel spaced from at least one side of the absorber plate in which a cap means is coupled to an extends along one edge of the absorber plate and a depending leg extends over the complimentary edge

R. D. Nikkel; P. M. LEsperance

1985-01-01

390

Collector means for solar energy collecting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with the present invention, an improved collector means for a solar energy collector system having an absorber plate and a glazing panel spaced from at least one side of the absorber plate in which a cap means is coupled to and extends along one edge of the absorber plate and a depending leg extends over the complimentary edge

R. D. Nikkel; P. M. LEsperance

1984-01-01

391

IUE observations of solar system objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the scientific commissioning phase of IUE several spectra were acquired from objects residing in the Solar System. The activities focused on testing numerous parameters which would indicate the usefulness of IUE for planetary science. It seems that IUE can successfully tackle many important questions and the data analysis and interpretation of the initial set of observations has begun.

Lane, A. L.; Hamrick, E.; Boggess, A.; Evans, D. C.; Gull, T. R.; Schiffer, F. H., III; Turnrose, B.; Perry, P.; Holm, A.; Macchetto, F.

1978-01-01

392

Solar pond with honeycomb surface insulation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar pond consisting of transparent compound honeycomb encapsulated with Teflon film and glass plates at the bottom and top surface respectively, floating on the body of a hot water reservoir is considered and analysed for the heat transfer processes in the system. A mathematical model is developed where the energy balance equation of the convective water is formulated by

M. Arulanantham; P. Avanti; N. D. Kaushika

1997-01-01

393

Virtual Observatory tools for Solar System bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in dynamics and astrometry of objects of the Solar system leads us to provide ephemerides and data useful for the preparation of astrophysical observations from the Earth or from space, and for the analysis of these observations. The advent of the Virtual Observatory project offers new interesting possibilities. We can now easily cross these data with data from other

W. Thuillot; J. Berthier; F. Vachier; V. Lainey; J.-E. Arlot

2005-01-01

394

A proposal of efficiency improvement with solar power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with energy conversion efficiency improvement of solar power application systems. In order to extensively use solar power generation system in all aspects of lifestyle, including moving vehicles, efficiency tracking control systems are necessary for solar power condition change. In this paper, the authors have proposed two kinds of efficiency tracking system: one is the feedforward type which

Tetsumi Harakawa; T. Tujimoto

2001-01-01

395

Recent experience with large solar thermal systems in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1995, two large solar thermal systems (1200 and 2400 m2) have been realized in The Netherlands for industrial purposes. It is expected that large solar systems will be used more often in the coming years. For that reason and for the benefit of successful solar projects, important practical experience with these large systems is reported. In 1995\\/1996, a system

T. P Bokhoven; J Van Dam; P Kratz

2001-01-01

396

IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat  

E-print Network

IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? A REMARK Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat Computer Science Department System is stable or not. Common belief is that the Solar System is stable if and only that the Solar system does not have such resonances, and therefore (if the above­mentioned belief is correct), we

Kreinovich, Vladik

397

IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat  

E-print Network

IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? A REMARK Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat Computer Science Department System is stable or not. Common belief is that the Solar System is stable if and only, a similar inequality is true for randomly chosen frequencies. In this paper, we show that the Solar system

Kreinovich, Vladik

398

Long simulations of the Solar System: Brouwer's Law and Chaos  

E-print Network

Long simulations of the Solar System: Brouwer's Law and Chaos K. R. Grazier W. I. Newman James M of motion for self- gravitating systems, particularly in the context of our Solar System's evolution growth can be attained in 3-D Solar System integrations. Our integrations are such that the positions

Sharp, Philip

399

ON "ARNOLD'S THEOREM" ON THE STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM  

E-print Network

ON "ARNOLD'S THEOREM" ON THE STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM JACQUES F´EJOZ Abstract: Arnold 0 as the Sun and the other bodies as n planets revolving around the Sun. In our Solar System is a breakthrough in respect of the oldest question in Dy- namical Systems --the stability of the Solar System. Yet

Féjoz, Jacques

400

SIMS prototype system 1: Design data brochure. [solar heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The system, subsystem, and installation requirements are described. System operation and performance are discussed, and procedures for sizing the system to a specific site are presented.

1978-01-01

401

Solar recharging system for hearing aid cells.  

PubMed

We present a solar recharging system for nickel-cadmium cells of interest in areas where batteries for hearing aids are difficult to obtain. The charger has sun cells at the top. Luminous energy is converted into electrical energy, during the day and also at night if there is moonlight. The cost of the charger and hearing aid is very low at 35 US$. The use of solar recharging for hearing aids would be useful in alleviating the problems of deafness in parts of developing countries where there is no electricity. PMID:7964140

Gòmez Estancona, N; Tena, A G; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, L; Muñiz, L; Aristimuño, D; Unanue, J M; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, A

1994-09-01

402

Review of solar-energy drying systems II: an overview of solar drying technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically-realised designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy

O. V Ekechukwu; B Norton

1999-01-01

403

Receiver System: Lessons Learned from Solar Two  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boeing Company fabricated the Solar Two receiver as a subcontractor for the Solar Two project. The receiver absorbed sunlight reflected from the heliostat field. A molten-nitrate-salt heat transfer fluid was pumped from a storage tank at grade level, heated from 290 to 565DGC by the receiver mounted on top of a tower, then flowed back down into another storage tank. To make electricity, the hot salt was pumped through a steam generator to produce steam that powered a conventional Rankine steam turbine/generator. This evaluation identifies the most significant Solar Two receiver system lessons learned from the Mechanical Design, Instrumentation and Control, Panel Fabrication, Site Construction, Receiver System Operation, and Management from the perspective of the receiver designer/manufacturer. The lessons learned on the receiver system described here consist of two parts: the Problem and one or more identified Solutions. The appendix summarizes an inspection of the advanced receiver panel developed by Boeing that was installed and operated in the Solar Two receiver.

Litwin, R. Z.

2002-03-01

404

The Pan-STARRS solar system survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) at the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy is a funded project to repeatedly survey the entire visible sky to faint limiting magnitudes (m_R ˜ 24). It will be composed of four 1.8m diameter telescopes each outfitted with fast readout orthogonal transfer Giga-pixel CCD cameras. One of the four telescopes is scheduled for first-light within two years with the other telescopes becoming available a couple years later. Roughly 30% of the surveying will be devoted to a solar system mode in a wide-open filter emphasizing the ecliptic, opposition and low solar-elongation regions. In a single lunation Pan-STARRS will detect about five times more solar system objects than the entire currently known sample. Within the first year it will have detected ˜20,000 Kuiper Belt Objects, by the end of its anticipated ten year operational lifetime we expect to find 10^7 Main Belt objects, and we expect that it will eventually achieve ˜90% observational completeness for all NEOs larger than ˜300m diameter. With these data in hand Pan-STARRS will revolutionize our knowledge of the contents and dynamical structure of the solar sytem.

Jedicke, R.; Pan-Starrs Collaboration

405

Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

406

Similarity Rules for Scaling Solar Sail Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future science missions will require solar sails on the order of 200 square meters (or larger). However, ground demonstrations and flight demonstrations must be conducted at significantly smaller sizes, due to limitations of ground-based facilities and cost and availability of flight opportunities. For this reason, the ability to understand the process of scalability, as it applies to solar sail system models and test data, is crucial to the advancement of this technology. This paper will approach the problem of scaling in solar sail models by developing a set of scaling laws or similarity criteria that will provide constraints in the sail design process. These scaling laws establish functional relationships between design parameters of a prototype and model sail that are created at different geometric sizes. This work is applied to a specific solar sail configuration and results in three (four) similarity criteria for static (dynamic) sail models. Further, it is demonstrated that even in the context of unique sail material requirements and gravitational load of earth-bound experiments, it is possible to develop appropriate scaled sail experiments. In the longer term, these scaling laws can be used in the design of scaled experimental tests for solar sails and in analyzing the results from such tests.

Canfield, Stephen L.; Peddieson, John; Garbe, Gregory

2010-01-01

407

Solar hybrid heating systems for greenhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical prediction of the total heat requirements of a greenhouse using several solar hybrid systems under various representative Jordanian ambient conditions have been carried out. Either an air-source heat pump, a water-source heat pump, a boiler, and electric-resistance element system or a combination of these was considered as the heat source. The operation-cost analysis which was carried out indicated that

M. A. Hamdan; A. I. Al-Sayeh; B. A. Jubran

1992-01-01

408

Solar-powered environmental data collection system  

SciTech Connect

A solar-powered system consisting of a multipurpose remote data collector, a radio data link, and a data receiving station has been designed to acquire data from various remote areas at the Savannah River Plant. A prototype system has been built to monitor gamma radiation at the plant perimeter. It is operating satisfactorily and will be installed to monitor gamma radiation or other environmental parameters at many remote locations on the plant.

Randolph, H.W.

1980-02-01

409

Comparison of solar absorption air conditioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer simulation of solar powered absorption air conditioning systems is discussed. The results of simulations of various systems composed of conventional flat plate or evacuated tube collectors, wet or dry cooling towers, lithium bromide-water or aqua-ammonia working fluids and hot water, chilled water or refrigerant storage alternatives are obtained over a common operating cycle. Performance of the lithium bromide-water

P. J. Wilbur; T. R. Mancini

1976-01-01

410

Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

Terrado, E.

1997-12-01

411

Solar System Bead Distance Activity Introduction  

E-print Network

system facts in mind. The first is that the planets never ever align in a straight line. Occasionally. The second fact is that your string solar system is a radius of the orbits of the planets. To see how large Scale Value (cm) Color Sun 0.0AU ____0__cm yellow Mercury 0.4AU _______cm solid red Venus 0.7AU

Williams, Gary A.

412

Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic\\/thermal (PV\\/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV\\/Ts)

Y. Tripanagnostopoulos; M. Souliotis; Th. Makris

2010-01-01

413

Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are engaged in testing gravitational theory by means of observations of objects in the solar system. This work tests the equivalence principle (EP), the Shapiro time delay, the advances of planetary perihelion, the possibility of a secular variation G(dot) in the 'gravitational constant' G, and the rate of the de Sitter (geodetic) precession of the Earth-Moon system. We describe here the results under this contract.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

2002-01-01

414

Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 7  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Guidelines and assumptions used in the design of a system of geosynchronous satellites for transmitting solar power to earth were discussed as well as the design evolutions of the principle types of solar power satellites and space support systems.

1977-01-01

415

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar heating and heating/cooling systems were designed for single family, multifamily, and commercial applications. Subsystems considered included solar collectors, heat storage systems, auxiliary energy sources, working fluids, and supplementary controls, piping, and pumps.

1976-01-01

416

New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

2007-10-01

417

Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

2010-01-01

418

Interstellar dust measurements in the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early 1990s, after its Jupiter yby, the Ulysses spacecraft identified interstellar dust in the solar system. Since 1992 until the end of 2007 the in-situ dust detector on board Ulysses continuously monitored interstellar grains with masses up to 10-13 kg, penetrating deep into the solar system. While Ulysses measured the interstellar dust stream at high ecliptic latitudes between 3 and 5 AU, interstellar impactors were also measured with the dust detectors on board Cassini, Galileo and Helios, covering a heliocentric distance range between 0.3 and 3 AU in the ecliptic plane. The interstellar dust stream in the inner solar system is altered by the solar radiation pressure force, gravitational focussing and interaction of charged grains with the time varying interplanetary magnetic field. The grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar cloud (LIC). Our in-situ measurements imply the existence of a population of 'big' interstellar grains (up to 10-13 kg) and a gas-to-dust-mass ratio in the LIC which is a factor of > 2 larger than the one derived from astronomical observations, indicating a concentration of interstellar dust in the very local interstellar medium. Until 2004, the interstellar dust ow direction measured by Ulysses was close to the mean apex of the Sun's motion through the LIC, while in 2005, the data showed a 30 degree shift, the reason of which is presently unknown. We review the in-situ interstellar dust measurements obtained from a fleet of four spacecraft in the solar system and present the latest results from the Ulysses mission.

Krüger, H.; Altobelli, Nicolas; Landgraf, Markus; Grün, Eberhard

2008-09-01

419

Streaming of interstellar grains in the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a theoretical study of the interactions between interstellar grains streaming through the solar system and the solar wind are presented. It is shown that although elongated core-mantle interstellar particles of a characteristic radius of about 0.12 microns are subject to a greater force due to radiation pressure than to gravitational attraction, they are still able to penetrate deep inside the solar system. Calculations of particle trajectories within the solar system indicate substantial effects of the solar activity cycle as reflected in the interplanetary magnetic field on the distribution of 0.12- and 0.0005-micron interstellar grains streaming through the solar system, leading to a 50-fold increase in interstellar grain densities 3 to 4 AU ahead of the sun during years 8 to 17 of the solar cycle. It is noted that during the Solar Polar Mission, concentrations are expected which will offer the opportunity of detecting interstellar grains in the solar system.

Gustafson, B. A. S.; Misconi, N. Y.

1979-01-01

420

Performance contracting for parabolic trough solar thermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several applications of solar energy have proven viable in the energy marketplace, due to competitive technology and economic performance. One example is the parabolic trough solar collectors, which use focused solar energy to maximize efficiency and reduce material use in construction. Technical improvements are complemented by new business practices to make parabolic trough solar thermal systems technically and economically viable

H. Brown; R. Hewett; A. Walker; R. Gee; K. May

1997-01-01

421

Development of Experienced Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Models of the Solar System and the Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the developing pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced science teachers in their first few years of teaching a new science syllabus in the Dutch secondary education system. We aimed to identify the content and structure of the PCK for a specific topic in the new syllabus, "Models of the Solar System and the…

Henze, Ineke; van Driel, Jan H.; Verloop, Nico

2008-01-01

422

MOND habitats within the solar system  

E-print Network

MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is an interesting alternative to dark matter in extragalactic systems. We here examine the possibility that mild or even strong MOND behavior may become evident well inside the solar system, in particular near saddle points of the total gravitational potential. Whereas in Newtonian theory tidal stresses are finite at saddle points, they are expected to diverge in MOND, and to remain distinctly large inside a sizeable oblate ellipsoid around the saddle point. We work out the MOND effects using the nonrelativistic limit of the T$e$V$e$S theory, both in the perturbative nearly Newtonian regime and in the deep MOND regime. While strong MOND behavior would be a spectacular ``backyard'' vindication of the theory, pinpointing the MOND-bubbles in the setting of the realistic solar system may be difficult. Space missions, such as the LISA Pathfinder, equipped with sensitive accelerometers, may be able to explore the larger perturbative region.

Jacob Bekenstein; Joao Magueijo

2006-02-12

423

Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 2, Togus, Maine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic analysis of the solar energy system, is developed for Torgus and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-chart design procedure with inputs taken on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

1980-01-01

424

External Resource: My Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A University of Colorado at Boulder simulation where students can build their own system of heavenly bodies and watch the gravitational ballet. With this orbit simulator, students can set initial positions, velocities, and masses of 2, 3, or 4 bodies, and

1900-01-01

425

Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

2010-01-01

426

Itsy Bitsy Solar System (Artist's Concept)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's conception compares a hypothetical solar system centered around a tiny 'sun' (top) to a known solar system centered around a star, called 55 Cancri, which is about the same size as our sun. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, in combination with other ground-based and orbiting telescopes, discovered the beginnings of such a miniature solar system 500 light-years away in the Chamaeleon constellation.

The tiny system consists of an unusually small 'failed' star, or brown dwarf called Cha 110913-773444, and a surrounding disk of gas and dust that might one day form planets. At a mass of only eight times that of Jupiter, the brown dwarf is actually smaller than several known extrasolar planets. The largest planet in the 55 Cancri system is about four Jupiter masses.

Astronomers speculate that the disk around Cha 110913-773444 might have enough mass to make a small gas giant and a few Earth-sized rocky planets, as depicted here around the little brown dwarf.

2005-01-01

427

Topical nitrogen mustard exposure causes systemic toxic effects in mice.  

PubMed

Vesicating agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) are reported to be easily absorbed by skin upon exposure causing severe cutaneous injury and blistering. Our studies show that topical exposure of NM (3.2mg) onto SKH-1 hairless mouse skin, not only caused skin injury, but also led to significant body weight loss and 40-80% mortality (120h post-exposure), suggesting its systemic effects. Accordingly, further studies herein show that NM exposure initiated an increase in circulating white blood cells by 24h (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) and thereafter a decrease (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes). NM exposure also reduced both white and red pulp areas of the spleen. In the small intestine, NM exposure caused loss of membrane integrity of the surface epithelium, abnormal structure of glands and degeneration of villi. NM exposure also resulted in the dilation of glomerular capillaries of kidneys, and an increase in blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio. Our results here with NM are consistent with earlier reports that exposure to higher SM levels can cause damage to the hematopoietic system, and kidney, spleen and gastrointestinal tract toxicity. These outcomes will add to our understanding of the toxic effects of topical vesicant exposure, which might be helpful towards developing effective countermeasures against injuries from acute topical exposures. PMID:25481215

Goswami, Dinesh G; Kumar, Dileep; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Orlicky, David J; Jain, Anil K; Kant, Rama; Rancourt, Raymond C; Dhar, Deepanshi; Inturi, Swetha; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

2015-02-01

428

Mass flow considerations for solar air heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results from a computer simulation study of the mass flow rate effect in solar air collector\\/rock bin storage systems. The results show that there can be a fairly wide range of mass flow rates in a solar air heating system over which the system's performance does not vary significantly. Two aspects of a solar air heating

T. A. Newell; S. R. Swanson; R. F. Boehm

1979-01-01

429

Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings  

E-print Network

combined with heat pump improve the thermal performance of the heat pump and the global system. The performances of the heating system combining heat pump and solar collectors are higher than that of solar heating system with solar collectors and storage...

Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

2010-01-01

430

Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

1980-01-01

431

Studying silicate-ice bodies in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution of Small Silicate-Ice Bodies in the Solar System; Winthrop, Washington, 6-8 August 2010; Interest is growing in a class of small bodies in the solar system, some of which are believed to be the building blocks of the terrestrial planets. These include Ceres, Vesta, Pallas, the icy satellites, and some solid objects farther out in the solar system. Many

Thomas B. McCord; Julie C. Castillo-Rogez

2011-01-01

432

RMP Colloquia Sputtering of ices in the outer solar system  

E-print Network

, typically solar-system bodies is water ice. That is, excluding the four giantRMP Colloquia Sputtering of ices in the outer solar system R. E. Johnson Engineering Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903 Exploration of the outer solar system has led

Johnson, Robert E.

433

Elementary Students' Mental Models of the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project aimed to identify and analyze Mexican primary school students' ideas about the components of the solar system. In particular, this study focused on conceptions of the solar system and representations of the dynamics of the solar system based on the functional and structural models that students make in school. Using a…

Calderon-Canales, Elena; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia

2013-01-01

434

External Resource: Go to the Head of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a NASA generated interactive game site that tests learner/student knowledge of the solar system. The more questions that are answered correctly, the farther the learner/student will travel in the solar system. Keywords: solar system, planets, game

1900-01-01

435

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System  

E-print Network

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System Explore Diverse Worlds How did the outer planets mold the solar system and create habitable worlds? OPAG Report DRAFT 4 November 2014 #12;2 Outline of this document is to frame the science objectives for exploration of the outer solar system. It is consistent

Rathbun, Julie A.

436

Is the outer Solar System chaotic? WAYNE B. HAYES  

E-print Network

LETTERS Is the outer Solar System chaotic? WAYNE B. HAYES Computer Science Department, University. There exists both apparently unassailable evidence that the outer Solar System is chaotic1 development. The Solar System is known to be `practically stable', in the sense that none of the known planets

Loss, Daniel

437

Modeling and simulation of solar pond floor heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of modeling, simulation and analysis of a solar pond floor heating system. The developed computer simulation has been used to study the potential of using such a system under climatic conditions in Jordan. It was found that the solar pond heating system could meet most of the winter season in Jordan with Solar fraction in

M. T. Alkhalaileh; K. a. Atieh; N. G. Nasser; B. a. Jubran

1999-01-01

438

Proceedings of the ninth biennial congress of the International Solar Energy Society  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on solar energy. Topics considered at the conference included solar thermal power plants, central receivers, heliostat flux measurement, ocean thermal power plants, solar ponds, photovoltaic power supplies, silicon solar cells, solar concentrators, heat storage, wind turbines, hybrid systems, economics, energy policy, hydroelectric power plants, meteorology, the measurement of solar insolation, financing, solar architecture, and photosynthesis.

Bilgen, E.; Hollands, K.G.T.

1985-01-01

439

Solar-energy-system performance evaluation: Honeywell OTS 44, Ocmulgee, Georgia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation and technical performance of the solar operational test site (OTS 44) are described, based on data collected between April, 1981 and August, 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 44 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 5040 square feet of liquid cooled flat plate collectors; a 4000 gallon thermal storage tank; one 25 ton capacity organic Rankine cycle engine assisted water chillers; a forced draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes for providing space conditioning and hot water to the building. Data monitored during the 4 months of the operational test period found that the solar system collected 285 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 1040 MMBtu and provided 210 MMBtu for cooling and 10 MMBtu for heating and hot water. The net electrical energy saving due to the solar system was approximately 2600 kWh(e), and fossil energy saving was about 20 million Btu (MMBtu).

Mathur, A. K.; Pederson, S.

1982-01-01

440

The database management system: A topic and a tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data structures and data base management systems are common tools employed to deal with the administrative information of a university. An understanding of these topics is needed by a much wider audience, ranging from those interested in computer aided design and manufacturing to those using microcomputers. These tools are becoming increasingly valuable to academic programs as they develop comprehensive computer support systems. The wide use of these tools relies upon the relational data model as a foundation. Experience with the use of the IPAD RIM5.0 program is described.

Plummer, O. R.

1984-01-01

441

Beyond the Solar System: Expanding the Universe in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This DVD combines the latest scientific and educational research to help teachers in grades 8-12 deepen their own and their students’ understanding of our universe and of the nature of science. Produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in association with NASA, Beyond the Solar System is filled with video, print, and online resources. It is designed for Earth and space science educators, physical science educators, professional development providers, and classroom use. The National Science Education Standards includes the topic of origin and evolution of the universe as part of the essential content of Earth and space science understanding. Yet providing concrete, inquiry-based experiences for students to learn these concepts can be a challenge for teachers. Beyond the Solar System contains more than two hours of video, organized into two modular strands of material -- science content, and teaching and learning resources. These are intended to promote greater understanding of the scientific concepts through discussion and reflection, activities, and application of the ideas to teaching. Also included are lesson plans, student guides, assessments, content background, summaries of relevant standards, and links to further resources. These instructional materials are provided in PDF format and can be printed from a computer.

Mary Dussault

442

MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM: DESIGN/OPERATION OF SYSTEM AND RESULTS OF NON-SOLAR TESTING AT MRI  

EPA Science Inventory

A Minipilot Solar Reactor System (MSRS) with liquid organic feed was designed, constructed and tested without solar input (the Solar Tests were to be done later at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory). he non-solar tests were done to determine whether use of EPA's sampling...

443

Vesta and Ceres: crossing the history of the Solar System  

E-print Network

The evolution of the Solar System can be schematically divided into three different phases: the Solar Nebula, the Primordial Solar System and the Modern Solar System. These three periods were characterized by very different conditions, both from the point of view of the physical conditions and from that of the processes there were acting through them. Across the Solar Nebula phase, planetesimals and planetary embryos were forming and differentiating due to the decay of short-lived radionuclides. At the same time, giant planets formed their cores and accreted the nebular gas to reach their present masses. After the gas dispersal, the Primordial Solar System began its evolution. In the inner Solar System, planetary embryos formed the terrestrial planets and, in combination with the gravitational perturbations of the giant planets, depleted the residual population of planetesimals. In the outer Solar System, giant planets underwent a violent, chaotic phase of orbital rearrangement which caused the Late Heavy Bom...

Coradini, Angioletta; Federico, Costanzo; Magni, Gianfranco

2011-01-01

444

Designment of automatic tracking system of solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we put forward a new method of designment of the automatic tracking system of solar energy based on one-chip computer and self-sufficient power. The method uses silicon photo-cell and store electricity equipments as power; Machinery rotary actuator adjusts the direction of solar panel automatically according to the direction of the sunlight, follows the sun automatically and improves

Zhang Bao-jian; Gao Guo-hong; Zhu Yan-li

2010-01-01

445

Vesta and Ceres: Crossing the History of the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the Solar System can be schematically divided into three different phases: the Solar Nebula, the Primordial Solar System and the Modern Solar System. These three periods were characterized by very different conditions, both from the point of view of the physical conditions and from that of the processes there were acting through them. Across the Solar Nebula phase, planetesimals and planetary embryos were forming and differentiating due to the decay of short-lived radionuclides. At the same time, giant planets formed their cores and accreted the nebular gas to reach their present masses. After the gas dispersal, the Primordial Solar System began its evolution. In the inner Solar System, planetary embryos formed the terrestrial planets and, in combination with the gravitational perturbations of the giant planets, depleted the residual population of planetesimals. In the outer Solar System, giant planets underwent a violent, chaotic phase of orbital rearrangement which caused the Late Heavy Bombardment. Then the rapid and fierce evolution of the young Solar System left place to the more regular secular evolution of the Modern Solar System. Vesta, through its connection with HED meteorites, and plausibly Ceres too were between the first bodies to form in the history of the Solar System. Here we discuss the timescale of their formation and evolution and how they would have been affected by their passage through the different phases of the history of the Solar System, in order to draw a reference framework to interpret the data that Dawn mission will supply on them.

Coradini, A.; Turrini, D.; Federico, C.; Magni, G.

2011-12-01

446

Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1". The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have successfully used adaptive optics on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1" resolution images of solar system objects in the far red and near infrared (0.7-2.5 microns), at wavelengths which best discriminate their spectral signatures. Our efforts have been put into areas of research for which high angular reso!ution is essential.

Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

1999-01-01

447

Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1". The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have successfully used adaptive optics on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1" resolution images of solar system objects in the far red and near infrared (0.7-2.5 microns), aE wavelengths which best discl"lmlnate their spectral signatures. Our efforts have been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential.

Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

1999-01-01

448

Constraining MOND with Solar System Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter we investigate the deep Newtonian regime of the MOND paradigm from a purely phenomenological point of view by exploiting the least-square estimated corrections to the secular rates of the perihelia of the inner and of some of the outer planets of the Solar System by E.V. Pitjeva with the EPM2004 ephemerides. By using ?(x) ? 1 - k0(1/x)n for the interpolating MONDian function, and by assuming that k0, considered body-independent so to avoid violations of the equivalence principle, experiences no spatial variations throughout the Solar System we tightly constrain n with the ratios of the perihelion precessions for different pairs of planets. We find that the range 1 ? n ? 2 is neatly excluded at much more than 3 - ? level. Such a test would greatly benefit from the use of extra-precessions of perihelia independently estimated by other groups as well.

Iorio, Lorenzo

2008-02-01

449

Dark matter chaos in the Solar System  

E-print Network

We study the capture of galactic dark matter particles in the Solar System produced by rotation of Jupiter. It is shown that the capture cross section is much larger than the area of Jupiter orbit being inversely diverging at small particle energy. We show that the dynamics of captured particles is chaotic and is well described by a simple symplectic dark map. This dark map description allows to simulate the scattering and dynamics of $10^{14}$ dark matter particles during the life time of the Solar System and to determine dark matter density profile as a function of distance from the Sun. The mass of captured dark matter in the radius of Neptune orbit is estimated to be $2 \\cdot 10^{15} g$. The radial density of captured dark matter is found to be approximately constant behind Jupiter orbit being similar to the density profile found in galaxies.

J. Lages; D. L. Shepelyansky

2012-12-02

450

Exploring the Planets: Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers information that will allow students to see just how big each planet and its major satellites are relative to each other in the scale model of the Solar System. Students will see where the planets are in relation to the Sun and to each other and learn just how big the Sun is compared to all the planets in our Solar System. Sections at this site include Planetary Physical Data, Planetary Satellites Physical Data, Relative Sizes of the Planets, Relative Planetary Distances from the Sun, and the Size of the Sun. In addition, each planet has an individual online section that gives an overview of what has been learned through imagery and data obtained from Earth-based and spacecraft exploration.

451

Constraining MOND with Solar System dynamics  

E-print Network

In this letter we investigate the deep Newtonian regime of the MOND paradigm from a purely phenomenological point of view by exploiting the least-square estimated corrections to the secular rates of the perihelia of the inner and of some of the outer planets of the Solar System by E.V. Pitjeva with the EPM2004 ephemerides. By using $\\mu(x)\\approx 1-k_0(1/x)^n$ for the interpolating MONDian function, and by assuming that $k_0$, considered body-independent so to avoid violations of the equivalence principle, experiences no spatial variations throughout the Solar System we tightly constrain $n$ with the ratios of the perihelion precessions for different pairs of planets. We find that the range $1\\leq n\\leq 2$ is neatly excluded at much more than $3-\\sigma$ level. Such a test would greatly benefit from the use of extra-precessions of perihelia independently estimated by other groups as well.

Lorenzo Iorio

2008-02-15

452

Solar System constraints to nonminimally coupled gravity  

E-print Network

We extend the analysis of Chiba, Smith and Erickcek \\cite{CSE} of Solar System constraints on $f(R)$ gravity to a class of nonminimally coupled (NMC) theories of gravity. These generalize $f(R)$ theories by replacing the action functional of General Relativity (GR) with a more general form involving two functions $f^1(R)$ and $f^2(R)$ of the Ricci scalar curvature $R$. While the function $f^1(R)$ is a nonlinear term in the action, analogous to $f(R)$ gravity, the function $f^2(R)$ yields a NMC between the matter Lagrangian density $\\LL_m$ and the scalar curvature. The developed method allows for obtaining constraints on the admissible classes of functions $f^1(R)$ and $f^2(R)$, by requiring that predictions of NMC gravity are compatible with Solar System tests of gravity. We apply this method to a NMC model which accounts for the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe.

Orfeu Bertolami; Riccardo March; Jorge Páramos

2013-06-05

453

Our Solar System Features Eight Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our solar system features eight planets, seen in this artist's diagram. Although there is some debate within the science community as to whether Pluto should be classified as a Planet or a dwarf planet, the International Astronomical Union has decided on the term plutoid as a name for dwarf planets like Pluto.

This representation is intentionally fanciful, as the planets are depicted far closer together than they really are. Similarly, the bodies' relative sizes are inaccurate. This is done for the purpose of being able to depict the solar system and still represent the bodies with some detail. (Otherwise the Sun would be a mere speck, and the planets even the majestic Jupiter would be far too small to be seen.)

2009-01-01

454

Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1 sec. The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have been using adaptive optics (AO) on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1 sec resolution images solar system objects at far red and near infrared wavelengths (0.7-2.5 micron) which best discriminate their spectral signatures. Our efforts has been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential, such as the mapping of Titan and of large asteroids, the dynamics and composition of Neptune stratospheric clouds, the infrared photometry of Pluto, Charon, and close satellites previously undetected from the ground.

Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

1997-01-01

455

Solar energy collector/storage system  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

1983-05-24

456

Radar Studies in the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We aid in a study of the solar system by means of ground-based radar. We have concentrated on (1) developing the ephemerides needed to acquire radar data at Arecibo Observatory and (2) analyzing the resultant data to: test fundamental laws of gravitation; determine the size, shape, topography, and spin vectors of the targets; and study the surface properties of these objects, through their scattering law and polarization characteristics.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

1996-01-01

457

Induced Magnetic Fields in Solar System Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic induction is a powerful technique to study the electrical conductivity of the interior of the Earth and other\\u000a solar system bodies. Information about the electrical conductivity structure can provide strong constraints on the associated\\u000a internal composition of planetary bodies. Here we give a review of the basic principles of the electromagnetic induction technique\\u000a and discuss its application to various

Joachim Saur; Fritz M. Neubauer; Karl-Heinz Glassmeier

2010-01-01

458

Water in primitive solar system bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a dissertation on the physical properties, particularly, the water distribution in three small body populations of the solar system: (1) the Jovian Trojans, (2) the main-belt B-type asteroids and (3) the comets. Using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, I have sought diagnostic (especially water) features in the Trojans. My sample is focused on objects identified in previous measurements as being

Bin Yang

2009-01-01

459

Advanced instrumentation for Solar System gravitational physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar System is a complex laboratory for testing gravitational physics. Indeed, its scale and hierarchical structure make possible a wide range of tests for gravitational theories, studying the motion of both natural and artificial objects. The usual methodology makes use of tracking information related to the bodies, fitted by a suitable dynamical model. Different equations of motion are provided by different theories, which can be therefore tested and compared. Future exploration scenarios show the possibility of placing deep-space probes near the Sun or in outer Solar System, thereby extending the available experimental data sets. In particular, the Earth-Moon is the most accurately known gravitational three-body laboratory, which is undergoing a new, strong wave of research and exploration (both robotic and manned). In addition, the benefits of a synergetic study of planetary science and gravitational physics are of the greatest importance (as shown by the success of the Apollo program), especially in the Earth-Moon, Mars-Phobos, Jovian and Saturnian sub-suystems. This scenarios open critical issues regarding the quality of the available dynamical models, i.e. their capability of fitting data without an excessive number of empirical hypotheses. A typical case is represented by the non-gravitational phenomena, which in general are difficult to model. More generally, gravitation tests with Lunar Laser Ranging, inner or outer Solar System probes and the appearance of the so-called 'anomalies'(like the one indicated by the Pioneers), whatever their real origin (either instrumental effects or due to new physics), show the necessity of a coordinated improvement of tracking and modelization techniques. A common research path will be discussed, employing the development and use of advanced instrumentation to cope with current limitations of Solar System gravitational tests. In particular, the use of high-sensitivity accelerometers, combined with microwave and laser tracking, will be discussed.

Peron, Roberto; Bellettini, G.; Berardi, S.; Boni, A.; Cantone, C.; Coradini, A.; Currie, D. G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Fiorenza, E.; Garattini, M.; Iafolla, V.; Intaglietta, N.; Lefevre, C.; Lops, C.; March, R.; Martini, M.; Nozzoli, S.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Reale, A.; Santoli, F.; Tauraso, R.; Vittori, R.

2010-05-01

460

Solar system constraints on Rindler acceleration  

E-print Network

We discuss the classical tests of general relativity in the presence of Rindler acceleration. Among these tests the perihelion shifts give the tightest constraints and indicate that the Pioneer anomaly cannot be caused by a universal solar system Rindler acceleration. We address potential caveats for massive test-objects. Our tightest bound on Rindler acceleration that comes with no caveats is derived from radar echo delay and yields |a|<3nm/s^2.

Sante Carloni; Daniel Grumiller; Florian Preis

2011-05-09

461

Solar System Odyssey - Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show. Learners go on a futuristic journey through our Solar System. They explore the inner and outer planets, then the moons: Titan, Europa, and Callisto as possible places to establish a human colony. A full-length preview of the show is available on the website, you need to scroll down about 3/4 of the page - under section on children's shows, direct link not available.

462

Solar energy collector\\/storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collector\\/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably

J. R. Bettis; F. R. Clearman

1983-01-01

463

A Distant Solar System (Artist's Concept Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This animation portrays an artist's concept of a distant hypothetical solar system, about the same age as our own. It begins close to the star, and then moves out past a number of planets. Though 'extrasolar' planets are too small to be seen with telescopes, astronomers have detected more than 100 gas giants like Jupiter via their gravitational tug on their parent stars.

The view pulls back to reveal the outer fringes of the system and a ring of dusty debris that circles the star. This debris is all that remains of the planet-forming disk from which the planets evolved.

Planets are formed when dusty material in a large disk surrounding a young star clumps together. Leftover material is eventually blown out by solar wind or pushed out by gravitational interactions with planets. Billions of years later, only an outer disk of debris remains.

These outer debris disks are too faint to be imaged directly by visible-light telescopes. They are washed out by the glare of the Sun. However, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope can detect their heat, or excess thermal emission, in infrared light. This allows astronomers to study the aftermath of planet building in distant solar systems like our own.

2004-01-01

464

Spacewatch Survey of the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Spacewatch project is to explore the various populations of small objects throughout the solar system. Statistics on all classes of small bodies are needed to infer their physical and dynamical evolution. More Earth Approachers need to be found to assess the impact hazard. (We have adopted the term "Earth Approacher", EA, to include all those asteroids, nuclei of extinct short period comets, and short period comets that can approach close to Earth. The adjective "near" carries potential confusion, as we have found in communicating with the media, that the objects are always near Earth, following it like a cloud.) Persistent and voluminous accumulation of astrometry of incidentally observed main belt asteroids MBAs will eventually permit the Minor Planet Center (MPQ to determine the orbits of large numbers (tens of thousands) of asteroids. Such a large body of information will ultimately allow better resolution of orbit classes and the determinations of luminosity functions of the various classes, Comet and asteroid recoveries are essential services to planetary astronomy. Statistics of objects in the outer solar system (Centaurs, scattered-disk objects, and Trans-Neptunian Objects; TNOs) ultimately will tell part of the story of solar system evolution. Spacewatch led the development of sky surveying by electronic means and has acted as a responsible interface to the media and general public on this discipline and on the issue of the hazard from impacts by asteroids and comets.

McMillan, Robert S.

2000-01-01

465

Gravitational anomalies in the solar system?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known matter-energy distributions have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in either cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century, and technology itself. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: (a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia. (b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab). (c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon. (d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox. (e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun. (f) The Flyby Anomaly. (g) The Pioneer Anomaly. (h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit.

Iorio, Lorenzo

2015-03-01

466

Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?  

E-print Network

Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia; b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab); c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon; d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox; e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun; f) The Flyby Anomaly; g) The Pioneer Anomaly; and h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit

Lorenzo Iorio

2015-03-16

467

Solar System Test of Gravitational Theories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are engaged in testing gravitational theory, mainly using observations of objects in the solar system and mainly on the interplanetary scale. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to place tighter bounds on such departures. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including primarily planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, but also including both pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements. In the past year, we have included new data in the analysis, primarily tracking data from the Mars Pathfinder mission. Although these data are relatively few in number, they extend the time span of high-precision tracking on the surface of Mars from six years to over 20. As a result, the statistical standard deviation of our estimate of Mars precession rate has nearly halved, and the rest of the parameters in our solar-system model have experienced a corresponding, albeit smaller, improvement (about 20% for t,he relevant asteroid masses, 10% for the semimajor axis of Mars orbit, and smaller amounts for most other parameters). In the coming year, we plan to continue adding data to our set, as available. Ne 2 expect to use these data and improved models to obtain estimates of the gravitational- theory parameters and to publish these results.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

2003-01-01

468

Testing gravity law in the solar system  

E-print Network

The predictions of General relativity (GR) are in good agreement with observations in the solar system. Nevertheless, unexpected anomalies appeared during the last decades, along with the increasing precision of measurements. Those anomalies are present in spacecraft tracking data (Pioneer and flyby anomalies) as well as ephemerides. In addition, the whole theory is challenged at galactic and cosmic scales with the dark matter and dark energy issues. Finally, the unification in the framework of quantum field theories remains an open question, whose solution will certainly lead to modifications of the theory, even at large distances. As long as those "dark sides" of the universe have no universally accepted interpretation nor are they observed through other means than the gravitational anomalies they have been designed to cure, these anomalies may as well be interpreted as deviations from GR. In this context, there is a strong motivation for improved and more systematic tests of GR inside the solar system, with the aim to bridge the gap between gravity experiments in the solar system and observations at much larger scales. We review a family of metric extensions of GR which preserve the equivalence principle but modify the coupling between energy and curvature and provide a phenomenological framework which generalizes the PPN framework and "fifth force" extensions of GR. We briefly discuss some possible observational consequences in connection with highly accurate ephemerides.

B. Lamine; J. -M. Courty; S. Reynaud; M. -T. Jaekel

2011-05-31

469

Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?  

E-print Network

Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia; b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab); c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon; d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox; e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun; f) The Flyby Anomaly; g) The Pioneer Anomaly; and h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit

Lorenzo Iorio

2015-01-21

470

Laser and solar-photovoltaic space power systems comparison. II.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of total system cost is made between solar photovoltaic and laser/receiver systems. The laser systems assume either a solar-pumped CO2 blackbody transfer laser with MHD receiver or a solar pumped liquid neodymium laser with a photovoltaic receiver. Total system costs are less for the laser systems below 300 km where drag is significant. System costs are highly dependent on altitude.

De Young, R. J.; Stripling, J.; Enderson, T. M.; Humes, D. H.; Davis, W. T.

1984-01-01

471

Whipple: Exploring the Solar System Beyond Neptune  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whipple is a Discovery-class mission that will explore the outer Solar System by searching for the occultations of bright (R<14) stars by small bodies. Whipple will test current theoretical models of the origin of our Solar System by studying directly the populations of small objects that lie beyond the orbit of Neptune, including the Kuiper Belt and scattered disk, the region surrounding Sedna, and the Oort Cloud. Whipple will measure size distributions as a function of (three dimensional) position for these populations. These data will help elucidate the process of formation of macroscopic bodies in the primitive solar system, the history of giant planet migration, and the interactions of planet scattering with the local stellar environment that led to the population of the Oort Cloud, and possibly during the first few million years, of the Sedna region. Whipple will employ a photometer comprising a Schmidt-Cassegrain optical design with a 77 cm aperture, imaging onto a focal plane subtending 37 square degrees. The focal plane will comprise nine CMOS devices that can be read out at high cadence. The spacecraft will be launched into an Earth-leading solar orbit, and will be able to stare at fields distributed over a wide range of ecliptic latitudes and longitudes. Whipple will image star fields and produce high signal-to-noise photometric light curves for stars at a variety of cadences: 10,000 stars at 40 Hz, 20,000 stars at 20 Hz, or 40,000 stars at 10 Hz. These light curves will be examined on the spacecraft for possible events of interest, which will then be transmitted to ground for further analysis.

Alcock, Charles; Whipple Science Team

2010-10-01

472

Value and cost analyses for solar thermal storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Value and cost data for thermal energy storage are presented for solar thermal central receiver systems for which thermal energy storage appears to be attractive. Both solar thermal electric power and industrial process heat applications are evaluated. The value of storage is based on the cost for fossil fuel and solar thermal collector systems in 1990. The costing uses a

W. Luft; R. J. Copeland

1983-01-01

473

Value and cost analyses for solar thermal-storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Value and cost data for thermal energy storage are presented for solar thermal central receiver systems for which thermal energy storage appears to be attractive. Both solar thermal electric power and industrial process heat applications are evaluated. The value of storage is based on the cost for fossil fuel and solar thermal collector systems in 1990. The costing uses a

W. Luft; R. J. Copeland

1983-01-01

474

Roles for solar thermal conversion systems in our energy economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NSF solar thermal conversion program, which is at a conceptual analysis and exploratory research level, is outlined with respect to mission, system, subsystem, and components and materials. Major conclusions are that solar thermal conversion electrical powerplants are most competitive with fossil fuels powerplants for intermediate or peaking power applications, and that central receiver solar thermal systems appear to offer

D. F. Spencer; A. B. Greenberg

1975-01-01

475

Maximizing Efficiency of Solar-Powered Systems by Load Matching  

E-print Network

Maximizing Efficiency of Solar-Powered Systems by Load Matching Pai H. Chou, Dexin Li and Sungjun,dexinl,ksungjun}@uci.edu ABSTRACT Solar power is an important source of renewable energy for many low-power systems. Matching's total en- ergy output under a given solar profile by load matching. The power efficiency was validated

Shinozuka, Masanobu

476

NREL, industry, and utilities work together to deploy solar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is becoming more and more popular as an efficient, cost-effective way to heat buildings; solar systems are also impressing more utilities as good options for heating the water in your home. Using solar heating and hot water systems tends to shrink energy bills, so utility groups are looking to these technologies to help reduce the demand on over-worked

P. Pitchford; R. Clyne

1994-01-01

477

Intelligent fuzzy logic controller for a solar charging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an intelligent solar charging system with fuzzy logic control method. With the scarce energy source and the worsening environmental pollution, how to create and use a clean and never exhausted energy is becoming very important day by day. This solar charging system is composed of a solar cell, a charger, batteries, a buck converter and a digital

Cong-Hui Huang; Chung-Chi Huang; Ting-Chia Ou; Kai-Hung Lu; Chih-Ming Hong

2009-01-01

478

GLAST Solar System Science Gerald H. Share1,2  

E-print Network

GLAST Solar System Science Gerald H. Share1,2 and Ronald J. Murphy2 1 Department of Astronomy from various energetic phenomena in our solar system. These emissions include: bremsstrahlung, nuclear-line and pion-decay gamma-radiation, and neutrons from solar flares; bremsstrahlung and pion-decay gamma

Share, Gerald

479

Solar nebula chemistry - Implications for volatiles in the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current theoretical models of solar nebula chemistry which take into account the interplay between chemistry and dynamics are presented for the abundant reactive volatile elements including hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Results of these models indicate that, in the solar nebula, the dominant carbon and nitrogen gases were CO and NO, whereas, in giant planet subnebulae, the dominant carbon and nitrogen gases were CH4 and NH3; in the solar nebula, the Fe metal grains catalyzed the formation of organic compounds from CO and H2 via the Fischer-Tropsch-type reaction. It was also found that, in solar nebula, bulk FeS formation was kinetically favorable, while FeO incorporation into silicates and bulk Fe3O4 formation were kinetically inhibited. Furthermore, clathrate formation was kinetically inhibited in the solar nebula, while it was kinetically favorable in giant planet subnebulae.

Fegley, Bruce, Jr.; Prinn, Ronald G.

1989-01-01

480

Beyond Earth's boundaries: Human exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an annual report describing work accomplished in developing the knowledge base that will permit informed recommendations and decisions concerning national space policy and the goal of human expansion into the solar system. The following topics are presented: (1) pathways to human exploration; (2) human exploration case studies; (3) case study results and assessment; (4) exploration program implementation strategy; (5) approach to international cooperation; (6) recommendations; and (7) future horizons.

1991-01-01

481

Publications of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Project, 1976 to 1983  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bibliographical listings in this publication are documentation products associated with the solar thermal power system project carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1976 to 1983. Documents listed are categorized as conference and journal papers, JPL external reports, JPL internal reports, or contractor reports. Alphabetical listings by title were used in the bibliography itself to facilitate location of the document by subject. Two indexes are included for ease of reference: one, an author index; the other, a topical index.

Gray, V. (compiler); Marsh, C. (compiler); Panda, P. (compiler)

1984-01-01

482

Condensation and Evaporation of Solar System Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that the materials making up the solar system were derived from a nebular gas and dust cloud that went through an early high-temperature stage during which virtually all of the material was in the gas phase. At one time, it was thought that the entire inner solar nebula was hot, but it is now believed that most material was processed through regions where high temperatures were achieved. Certainly some material, such as presolar grains (cf., Mendybaev et al., 2002a), has never been exposed to high temperatures. As the system cooled, solids and perhaps liquids began to condense, but at some point the partially condensed materials became isolated from the remaining gas. Various lines of evidence support this view. At the largest scale, there is the observation that the Earth, Moon, Mars, and all chondritic meteorites except for the CI chondrites are depleted to varying degrees in the abundances of moderately volatile elements relative to bulk solar system composition. The CI chondrites reflect the bulk composition of the solar system for all but hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and the rare gases, the most volatile elements (see Chapter 1.03; Palme et al., 1988; McDonough and Sun, 1995; Humayun and Cassen, 2000). The depletions in moderately volatile elements are, to a significant degree, correlated with condensation temperature, suggesting progressive removal of gas as condensation proceeded ( Cassen, 1996). Additional observations that can be explained by partial condensation are that various particularly primitive components of meteorites (e.g., calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions, and certain metal grains) have mineralogy and/or details of their chemical composition that are remarkably similar to what is calculated for equilibrium condensates from a solar composition gas. For example, the calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites have compositions very similar to that calculated for the first 5% of total condensable matter (see Chapter 1.08; Grossman, 1973; Wänke et al., 1974; Grossman and Ganapathy, 1976; Grossman et al., 1977), where CI chondrites are taken to represent total condensable matter.Elemental abundance patterns ordered by volatility certainly could have been produced by partial condensation, but they could also have been caused by partial evaporation. The relative importance of these opposite processes is still subject to debate and uncertainty. It should be remembered that condensation calculations typically assume chemical equilibrium in a closed system, in which case the system has no memory of the path by which it arrived at a given state, and thus the chemical and isotopic composition of the condensed phase cannot be used to distinguish between partial condensation and partial evaporation. Humayun and Clayton (1995) have taken a somewhat different view by arguing that condensation and evaporation are distinguishable, in that evaporation, but not condensation, will produce isotopically fractionated residues. With this idea in mind, they carefully measured the potassium isotopic compositions of a broad range of solar system materials with different degrees of potassium depletion and found them to be indistinguishable. This they took as evidence that evaporation could not have been a significant process in determining the diverse elemental abundance patterns of the various solar system materials they measured, because had evaporation been important in fractionating potassium it would have also fractionated the potassium isotopes. We will qualify this line of reasoning by arguing that evaporation and condensation can under certain conditions produce isotopically fractionated condensed phases (i.e., that partial evaporation can produce isotopically heavy residues and that partial condensation can produce isotopically light condensates) but that under other conditions both can produce elemental fractionations without significant isotopic fractionation. The absence of isotopic fractionation in a volatile element-depleted condensed phase is more a

Davis, A. M.; Richter, F. M.

2003-12-01

483

Suprathermal Chemistry in the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many celestial bodies in the Solar System are surrounded by gaseous envelopes. Chemical evolution of the gaseous envelopes of icy astrophysical objects of different masses and sizes (dust particles with icy mantles, icy planetesimals, comets and KBOs, icy satellites in the Jovian and Saturnian systems, and etc.) is determined by the complex influence of a large number of interrelated processes including: - photolysis by the solar XUV (soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet) radiation, - radiolysis by the solar wind/magnetospheric plasma, - catalysis on the icy surface, - chemical exchange between the surface and atmosphere, - chemical changes in the gas composition of the envelope. These physical and chemical processes are initiated by the solar forcing, and are characterized by strongly differing time scales and the degrees of non-equilibrium. Theoretical predictions of the composition and chemical evolution of near-surface atmospheres of the icy astrophysical objects are of great importance for assessing the biological potential of these objects (Herbst and van Dishoeck, 2009). The water vapour is usually the dominant parent species in such gaseous envelope because of the ejection from the object’s icy surface due to the thermal outgassing, non-thermal photolysis and radiolysis and other active processes at work on the surface (Shematovich 2008). The photochemistry of water vapour in the near-surface atmospheric layer (Shematovich, 2008, 2012) and the radiolysis of icy regolith result in the supply of the atmosphere by an admixture of H _{2}O, H _{2}, O _{2}, OH and O with thermal and suprathermal kinetic energies. Returning molecules have a species-dependent behaviour in the impact with icy surface and non-thermal energy distributions for the chemical radicals. The suprathermal radicals OH, H, and O entering the regolith can drive the radiolytic chemistry. Chemical complexity of the near-surface atmosphere of the icy astrophysical object arises due to both primary processes of dissociation and ionization by solar XUV radiation and magnetospheric electrons and induced ion-molecular chemistry, and by chemical exchange between near-surface atmospheric layer and the satellite icy surface due to the thermal and non-thermal desorption processes (Shematovich, 2008, 2012). The standard astrochemical UDFA05 network is usually used to follow the main chemical pathways of photochemistry in the near-surface atmosphere and of diffusive chemistry in the icy regolith. Achievements and problems of the studies of suprathermal chemistry in the atmosphere-icy surface interface for the icy objects in the Solar System will be discussed. This work is supported by the RFBR project No. 14-02-00838a and by the Basic Research Program of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Program 22). begin{itemize} Herbst E., and van Dishoeck E.F., ARA&A, 2009, v. 47, 427. Shematovich, V.I. Solar System Res., 2008, v. 42, 473. Shematovich, V.I. Solar System Res., 2012, v. 46, 391.

Shematovich, Valery

484

Thermal performance of space-cooling solar-energy systems in the National Solar Data Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results derived from analysis of data obtained from monitoring the operation of four solar energy cooling installations in the National Solar Data Network are presented. It is shown that chiller coefficients of performance (COP) on the order of 0.65 can be easily obtained with existing technology, provided the designer adequately matches the solar energy system to the absorption chiller. It

Bartlett

1979-01-01

485

Beyond the Solar System: Expanding the Universe in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This DVD combines the latest scientific and educational research to help teachers in grades 8-12 deepen their own and their students’ understanding of our universe and of the nature of science. Produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in association with NASA, Beyond the Solar Systemthe DVD is filled with video, print, and online resources. It is designed for Earth and space science educators, physical science educators, professional development providers, and classroom use. The National Science Education Standards includes the topic of origin and evolution of the universe as part of the essential content of Earth and space science understanding. Yet providing concrete, inquiry-based experiences for students to learn these concepts can be a challenge for teachers. Beyond the Solar SystemThis DVD contains more than two hours of video, organized into two modular strands of material -- science content, and teaching and learning resources. These are intended to promote greater understanding of the scientific concepts through discussion and reflection, activities, and application of the ideas to teaching. Also included are lesson plans, student guides, assessments, content background, summaries of relevant standards, and links to further resources. These instructional materials are provided in PDF format and can be printed from a computer.

486

Animation of the Origin of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation depicts the solar system forming from an immense rotating cloud of gas and dust called the solar nebula and the planets forming by accumulating material within the swirling currents of the cloud.

TERC, Center for Earth and Space Science Education

487

Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

1997-01-01

488

Experimental Research of an Active Solar Heating System  

E-print Network

: Solar is an abundant renewable energy, which is used more and more frequently with the emphasis on environment protection, especially in building heating. The different devised methods between an active solar heating system and normal heating...

Gao, X.; Li, D.

2006-01-01

489

Tuning energy transport in solar thermal systems using nanostructured materials  

E-print Network

Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured ...

Lenert, Andrej

2014-01-01

490

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

NONE

1995-05-01

491

Walk Through Solar System Times: An Exhibit with an Astrobiology Emphasis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this astrobiology outreach project, we attempt to present the research of the Goddard Center for Astrobiology (GCA) in the context of the history of the Solar System. GCA research emphasizes the origin and formation of complex pre-biotic organic materials in extraterrestrial environments and explores whether the delivery of these primordial materials and water to the early Earth enabled the emergence and evolution of life. The content expounds on areas that are usually not touched upon in a timeline of the Earth's formation. The exhibit addresses the questions: How did our solar system form? How is the formation of our solar systems similar or different from others? How did the organic molecules we observe in space get to the Earth? What conditions are most suitable for life? We will address the issues and challenges of designing the exhibit and of explaining advanced astrobiology research topics to the public.

Cheung, C. Y.

2012-01-01

492

A comprehensive solar energy system analysis data base in Huntsville, Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of a comprehensive solar energy system analysis data base developed by NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama is presented, along with its current status. The Marshall Information Retrieval and Data Storage (MIRADS) system was chosen for the data base, and feedback systems were arranged to cope with changes in the needs of the program management for the type of data gathered. The final structure of the data base consists of 22 files divided into 6 topical sections: summaries, climatological, utility rates, architectural, equipment, and economics. The data base offers help to the solar industry in two ways: it provides information and it serves as a model for users trying to establish the climatic and socioeconomic variables they should take into account when they examine a potential market for solar energy equipment.

Goddard, J. P.

1978-01-01

493

Similarity Rules for Scaling Solar Sail Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future science missions will require solar sails on the order 10,000 sq m (or larger). However, ground and flight demonstrations must be conducted at significantly smaller Sizes (400 sq m for ground demo) due to limitations of ground-based facilities and cost and availability of flight opportunities. For this reason, the ability to understand the process of scalability, as it applies to solar sail system models and test data, is crucial to the advancement of this technology. This report will address issues of scaling in solar sail systems, focusing on structural characteristics, by developing a set of similarity or similitude functions that will guide the scaling process. The primary goal of these similarity functions (process invariants) that collectively form a set of scaling rules or guidelines is to establish valid relationships between models and experiments that are performed at different orders of scale. In the near term, such an effort will help guide the size and properties of a flight validation sail that will need to be flown to accurately represent a large, mission-level sail.

Canfield, Stephen L.; Beard, James W., III; Peddieson, John; Ewing, Anthony; Garbe, Greg

2004-01-01

494

Solar System Exploration: Galileo Legacy Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched from the Kennedy Space Center on October 18th, 1989, the Galileo spacecraft "changed the way we look at our solar system." This is NASAâ??s website for the Galileo spacecraft's mission to Jupiter. Galileo was the first to measure Jupiter's atmosphere with a descent probe and the first to conduct long-term observations of the Jovian system from orbit. It found evidence of subsurface saltwater on Europa, Ganymede and Callisto and revealed the intensity of volcanic activity on Io. These photos, as well as others from this mission, are available at this site maintained by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

495

Is the outer Solar System chaotic?  

E-print Network

The existence of chaos in the system of Jovian planets has been in question for the past 15 years. Various investigators have found Lyapunov times ranging from about 5 millions years upwards to infinity, with no clear reason for the discrepancy. In this paper, we resolve the issue. The position of the outer planets is known to only a few parts in 10 million. We show that, within that observational uncertainty, there exist Lyapunov timescales in the full range listed above. Thus, the ``true'' Lyapunov timescale of the outer Solar System cannot be resolved using current observations.

Wayne B. Hayes

2007-02-07

496

Solar cooling system performance, Frenchman's Reef Hotel, Virgin Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational and thermal performance of a variety of solar systems are described. The Solar Cooling System was installed in a hotel at St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands. The system consists of the evacuated glass tube collectors, two 2500 gallon tanks, pumps, computerized controller, a large solar optimized industrial sized lithium bromide absorption chiller, and associated plumbing. Solar heated water is pumped through the system to the designed public areas such as lobby, lounges, restaurant and hallways. Auxiliary heat is provided by steam and a heat exchanger to supplement the solar heat.

Harber, H.

1981-01-01

497

Solar cooling system performance, Frenchman's Reef Hotel, Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operational and thermal performance of a variety of solar systems are described. The Solar Cooling System was installed in a hotel at St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands. The system consists of the evacuated glass tube collectors, two 2500 gallon tanks, pumps, computerized controller, a large solar optimized industrial sized lithium bromide absorption chiller, and associated plumbing. Solar heated water is pumped through the system to the designed public areas such as lobby, lounges, restaurant and hallways. Auxiliary heat is provided by steam and a heat exchanger to supplement the solar heat.

Harber, H.

1981-09-01

498

Solar “tower reflector” systems: A new approach for high-temperature solar plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years, considerable research efforts have been directed at the Weizmann Institute towards development of high-concentration, high-temperature solar energy systems. This included optical methods and devices, thermal receivers for solar thermal electricity generation, and thermo-chemical processes for solar energy storage and solar fuel production. Some of these efforts are now mature enough for transfer to industry, and

A. Yogev; A. Kribus; M. Epstein; A. Kogan

1998-01-01

499

Beyond Sedna: Probing the Distant Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents studies in observational planetary astronomy probing the structure of the Kuiper belt and beyond. The discovery of Sedna on a highly eccentric orbit beyond Neptune challenges our understanding of the solar system and suggests the presence of a population of icy bodies residing past the Kuiper belt. With a perihelion of 76 AU, Sedna is well beyond the reach of the gas-giants and could not be scattered onto its highly eccentric orbit from interactions with Neptune alone. Sedna's aphelion at ˜1000 AU is too far from the edge of the solar system to feel the perturbing effects of passing stars or galactic tides in the present-day solar neighborhood. Sedna must have been emplaced in its orbit at an earlier time when massive unknown bodies were present in or near the solar system. The orbits of distant Sedna-like bodies are dynamically frozen and serve as the relics of their formation process. We have performed two surveys to search for additional members of the Sedna population. In order to find the largest and brightest Sedna-like bodies we have searched ˜12,000 deg² within +/-30 degrees of the ecliptic to a limiting R magnitude of 21.3 using the QUEST camera on the 1.2m Samuel Oschin Telescope. To search for the fainter, more common members of this distant class of solar system bodies, we have performed an deep survey using the Subaru Prime Focus Camera on the 8.2m Subaru telescope covering 43 deg² to a limiting R magnitude of 25.3. Searching over a two-night baseline, we were sensitive to motions out to distances of approximately 1000 AU. We present the results of these surveys. We discuss the implications for a distant Sedna-like population beyond the Kuiper belt and discuss future prospects for detecting and studying these distant bodies, focusing in particular on the constraints we can place on the embedded stellar cluster environment the early Sun may have been born in, where the location and distribution of Sedna-like orbits sculpted by multiple stellar encounters is indicative of the birth cluster size. These surveys were specifically designed to find the select members of a distant Sedna population but were also sensitive to the dynamically excited off ecliptic populations of the Kuiper belt including the hot classicals, resonant, scattered disk, and detached Kuiper belt populations. We present our observed latitude distributions and implications for the plutino population.

Schwamb, Megan E.

500

Technology development in the solar absorption air-conditioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental control system utilizing solar energy would generally be more cost-effective if it were used to provide both heating and cooling requirements in the building it serves. Various solar powered heating systems have been tested extensively, but solar powered air-conditioners have received little more than short-term demonstration attention. This paper reviews past efforts in the field of solar powered

Z. F. Li; K. Sumathy

2000-01-01