Sample records for solar system topics

  1. Chaotic diffusion in the outer solar system, and other topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew Steven

    We carried out extensive numerical orbit integrations to probe the long-term chaotic dynamics of the 2:3 (Plutinos) and 1:2 (Twotinos) mean motion resonances with Neptune. We derive maps of resonance stability measured both by time-averaged particle density and by mean dynamical diffusion rate, and investigate the effects of a massive perturber embedded in the resonance. We also investigate the population of Resonant Kuiper Belt Objects at 4 Gyr ago compared to the present, and discuss the implications for theories of Kuiper Belt origins. We have numerically investigated the long term dynamical behavior of known Centaurs. We find that their orbital evolution is characterized by frequent close encounters with the giant planets, with no significant long-term resonant behavior. Most of these Centaurs will escape from the inner solar system, while a fraction will enter the Jupiter-family comet (JFC) population and a few percent will impact a giant planet. We discuss the implications of our study for the spatial distribution of the actual Centaur population. Using numerical and analytical models, we investigate the ejection of water molecules from Europa's surface by sputtering, the subsequent evolution of their ballistic trajectories, and their re-deposition onto the surface as a water frost. We conclude that net deposition does occur under certain conditions, making sputtering erosion and re-deposition a plausible explanation for the observed color dichotomy between Europa's leading and trailing hemispheres. During Cassini's approach to Jupiter, a series of images was taken to search for any undiscovered satellites of Jupiter. Our analysis of these images indicates that no undiscovered satellites exist between 2.6 and 20 R J with inclination i < 1.6°, eccentricity e < 0.0002, diameter D > 15 km and albedo A > 0.1.

  2. Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This site is part of the space page of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), and provides information about the Sun, the planets and their moons, and other bodies in the solar system. It contains a travel guide to the Solar System including such topics as what to see, reason to visit, how to get there, and local history. A similar travel guide is then available for the Sun, each of the planets, asteroids, and comets. In addition, multiple links for more detailed information as well as space games and puzzles are provided.

  3. Using Solar System Topics to Teach the Scientific Method in an Age of Science Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presto, M. C.

    2013-04-01

    A number of excellent opportunities to remind students of the scientific method and how the process of science works come about during coverage of common topics in a Solar System “unit” in an introductory college astronomy course. With the tremendous amount of misinformation about science that students are exposed to through the Internet and other forms of media, this is now more important than ever. If non-science majors can leave introductory astronomy, often the only science course they will take, with a decent appreciation of, or at least an exposure to, how science works, they will then be better able to judge the validity of what they hear about science in the media throughout their lives.

  4. Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Wright

    2009-10-09

    An introduction to to the solar system. How to distinguish between the different planets. Activities to play while getting to know the solar system. Cosmic Cookies Solar System Scavenger Hunt Edible Earth Strawkets and Control Strawkets and Thrust Strawkets and Weight ...

  5. Meteorites and the early solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Kerridge; M. S. Matthews

    1988-01-01

    The present work discusses topics in the source regions for meteorites, their secondary processing, irradiation effects on meteorites, solar system chronology, the early solar system, the chemistry of chondrites and the early solar system, magnetic fields in the early solar system, the nature of chondrules, micrometeorites, inhomogeneity of the nebula, the survival of presolar material in meteorites, nucleosynthesis, and the

  6. Solar System!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    An introduction to our solar system—the planets, our Sun and Moon. To begin, students learn about the history and engineering of space travel. They make simple rockets to acquire a basic understanding Newton's third law of motion. They explore energy transfer concepts and use renewable solar energy for cooking. They see how engineers design tools, equipment and spacecraft to go where it is too far and too dangerous for humans. They explore the Earth's water cycle, and gravity as applied to orbiting bodies. They learn the steps of the design process as they create their own models of planetary rovers made of edible parts. Students conduct experiments to examine soil for signs of life, and explore orbit transfers. While studying about the International Space Station, they investigate the realities of living in space. Activities explore low gravity on human muscles, eating in microgravity, and satellite tracking. Finally, students learn about the context of our solar system—the universe—as they learn about the Hubble Space Telescope, celestial navigation and spectroscopy.

  7. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  8. The Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Smithson

    2009-07-07

    Identify basic components of our solar system, including the sun, planets, and Earth's moon. We have just learned about the Solar System. Click here to watch an informational overview of the Solar System: Overview of the Solar System.. The planets in our Solar System are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. Every planet in our Solar System revolves around the sun. The sun provides the energy ...

  9. Solar electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warfield, G.

    1984-01-01

    Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

  10. External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Missions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This NASA webpage, Solar System Exploration, allows students to search missions by name, decade, nation, target, mission, and status. Topics: arial, atmospheric, flybys, impact, lander, orbiter, rover, Deep Space Network

  11. External Resource: Starchild: The Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This interactive resource allows learners/students to explore the Sun and everything that travels around it. Topics: asteroids, comets, meteoroids, satellites, galaxies, mass, astronomers, gravitational pull, solar system, the Moon, planets, dwarf planets

  12. External Resource: Planets and the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This site contains links to numerous options from which to learn about planets and the Solar System through exploration and activities. Topics: lunar habitat, extreme weather, comets, aerogel, Pluto, asteroids, and planetary science.

  13. Water: Life's Elixir in the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article discusses the possible occurrence of water in our solar system. Topics include the necessity of liquid water for life, distribution of water throughout the solar system, and the possibility that there may be liquid water on Mars or on some of Jupiter's moons.

  14. I would like to receive funding to continue my PhD course in Planetary Science at the University of Planetary science is the study of this and other solar systems. Current hot topics that have attracted

    E-print Network

    Withers, Paul

    I would like to receive funding to continue my PhD course in Planetary Science at the University of Arizona. Planetary science is the study of this and other solar systems. Current hot topics that have a planetary science department. Prestigious US universities like Caltech and MIT have excellent planetary

  15. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  16. Solar collector module and solar collector system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaacson

    1979-01-01

    The invention is directed to an easily fabricated, light-weight, solar collector module, and to a system for employing a plurality of said solar collector modules to achieve an efficient, relatively low cost method and means of collecting solar energy. The solar collector system comprises, preferably, a plurality of the light-weight, easily portable, module units which may be affixed to the

  17. Solar System Viewers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mike Ashbury

    This website contains three separate programs that produce animations of different aspects of our solar system. The Solar System Viewer indicates the location of terrestrial planets, gas giants, the asteroid belt, Kuiper Belt and comets in relation to the Sun. This program helps to give a sense of size and location within our solar system. The Other Solar Systems Viewer animates the recent discoveries of planets orbiting other stars. This application gives an animation of how these other solar systems operate. The Satellite Viewer animates the moons of the planets in our solar system to show their names and where they are located around their respective planets. The gas giants Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have more than one animation to show the different groups of moons that orbit them. The moons and planets in this animation are to scale to indicate size comparisons.

  18. The Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2007-03-21

    The Solar System SciPack explores the solar system and the various bodies within it. The focus in on the Standards and Benchmarks related to how we have learned about the solar system and what we know about the planets, moons, and other bodies in the solar system. Special focus is also given to how the solar system and its bodies formed. In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:? Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. ? Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".? Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Solar System: The Earth in Space? Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.? Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.? Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.Solar System: A Look at the Planets? Describe, compare, and contrast the following basic features of the planets in our solar system: size, composition, atmosphere, periods of rotation and revolution, surface features, and ring systems.? Describe the similarities and differences between the terrestrial and Jovian planets.? Describe, compare, and contrast the characteristics of planetary moons in our solar system.Solar System: Asteroids, Comets, and Meteorites? Describe the similarities and differences in comets, asteroids, and meteors.? Describe the size, composition, and motion of meteors, asteroids, and comets.? Differentiate between meteors, meteorites, and meteoroids, and explain what happens to meteors as they fall through Earth's atmosphere.? Explain how we learn about asteroids, comets, and meteorites.Solar System: Formation of Our Solar System? Provide the basic story line of how the solar system may have formed from the debris of exploding stars. ? Relate the different characteristics and features of the planets to their different distances from the sun.? Explain some of the methods scientists have used to learn about the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  19. [The Story of the Solar System] The Solar System -II

    E-print Network

    Wardle, Mark

    [The Story of the Solar System] The Solar System - II Alexei Gilchrist #12;Some resources o Section of the Solar System, M Garlick, (Cambridge Uni. Press, 2002) #12;Timeline Today Big Bang Earliest Fossils Birth of Solar System Death of Solar System Dinasaurs Extinct Cloud perturbed T-Tauri Phase Ice Giants Com ets

  20. Solar energy systems cost

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Five major areas of work currently being pursued in the United States in solar energy which will have a significant impact on the world's energy situation in the future are addressed. The five significant areas discussed include a technical description of several solar technologies, current and projected cost of the selected solar systems, and cost methodologies which are under development. In addition, sensitivity considerations which are unique to solar energy systems and end user applications are included. A total of six solar technologies - biomass, photovoltaics, wind, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), solar thermal, and industrial process heat (IPH) have been included in a brief technical description to present the variety of systems and their techncial status. System schematics have been included of systems which have been constructed, are currently in the detail design and test stage of development, or are of a conceptual nature.

  1. Solar System Voyage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Brunier

    2002-01-01

    In the last few decades, the exploration of our solar system has revealed fascinating details about the worlds that lie beyond our Earth. This lavishly illustrated book invites the reader on a journey through the solar system. After locating our planetary system in the Universe, Brunier describes the Sun and its planets, the large satellites, asteroids, and comets. Photographs and

  2. Life in the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    Life in the Solar System is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides a look at the environments of some places in the solar system, including Mercury, Venus, Mars present and past, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Saturn, Titan, other moons, Uranus, Neptune, Triton, Pluto, comets, and interstellar space. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

  3. Solar System Educators Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    The Solar System Educators Program is a nationwide network of highly motivated teachers who lead workshops that show other teachers in their local communities how to successfully incorporate NASA materials and research into their classes. Currently there are 57 Solar System Educators in 37 states whose workshops are designed to assist their fellow teachers in understanding and including standards-based NASA

  4. Solar System Live

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walker, John

    The website Solar System Live includes applets showing the positions of the planets. One can see all of the planets in the solar system or just the inner planets. Visitors are encouraged to compare the view of the inner planets with what can be seen in the night sky.

  5. Solar powered desalination system

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    efficiency for a PV system is a ratio of the electrical power output to the solarSolar Energy Calculator using Google Maps 23 Table 1.24: PV System Power Production Average Daily Irradiance (kWh/m2) Instillation Efficiencysolar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency is 10%. (STH conversion efficiency is power

  6. Solar photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy's photovoltaic program is outlined. The main objective of the program is the development of low cost reliable terrestrial photovoltaic systems. A second objective is to foster widespread use of the system in residential, industrial and commercial application. The system is reviewed by examining each component; silicon solar cell, silicon solar cell modules, advanced development modules and power systems. Cost and applications of the system are discussed.

  7. Planetary Aeronomy of the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, Darrell

    2012-10-01

    This talk will give a historical tour of the highlights of my research on atmospheres in the outer solar system and their interaction with the magnetospheric plasma. Topics include atmospheric photochemistry, the Io plasma torus, the Galilean satellites, and the nitrogen atmospheres on Titan, Triton, and Pluto. The important role of observations combined with theory will be emphasized. The talk will finish with current research on the role that atmospheric escape plays on atmospheric structure in the outer solar system.

  8. Solar System: Formation of Our Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It explores the hypothesis that the solar system coalesced out of a giant cloud of gas and debris left in the wake of exploding stars about five billion years ago. Everything in and on the earth, including living organisms, is made of the material from this cloud. As Earth and the other planets formed, the heavier elements fell to their centers. On planets closer to the Sun (the inner planets), the lightest elements and their compounds were mostly blown or boiled away by radiation from the newly formed sun. However, on the outer planets, the lighter substances still surround them as deep atmospheres of gas or as frozen solid layers. Learning Outcomes:? Provide the basic story line of how the solar system may have formed from the debris of exploding stars. ? Relate the different characteristics and features of the planets to their different distances from the sun.? Explain some of the methods scientists have used to learn about the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  9. Solar Electric System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Heat Pipe Technology, Inc. undertook the development of a PV system that could bring solar electricity to the individual home at reasonable cost. His system employs high efficiency PV modules plus a set of polished reflectors that concentrate the solar energy and enhance the output of the modules. Dinh incorporated a sun tracking system derived from space tracking technology. It automatically follows the sun throughout the day and turns the modules so that they get maximum exposure to the solar radiation, further enhancing the system efficiency.

  10. Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Goldstone Solar System Radar is the investigation of solar system bodies by means of Earth-based radar. Targets of primary interest include the Galilean moons, Saturn's rings and moons, and Earth-approaching asteroids and comets. Planets are also of interest, particularly Mercury and the planets to which NASA has not yet planned spacecraft visits. Based on a history of solid achievement, including the definition of the Astronomical Unit, imaging and topography of Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and contributions to the general theory of relativity, the program will continue to support flight project requirements and its primary objectives. The individual target objectives are presented, and information on the following topics are presented in tabular form: Deep Space Network support, compatibility tests, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  11. Solar tracking system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chromie

    1978-01-01

    A solar powered engine and tracking system comprises a piston working within a cylinder for turning a drive shaft for driving an electrical generator or performing other useful work, and a solar concentrator comprising a plurality of mirrors, each reflecting Sun light on a common focal point on the end of the cylinder for heating a flash boiler located thereon.

  12. Residential Solar Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  13. Satellite solar energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Flood

    1997-01-01

    Summary form only given. The first space solar array was carried aloft on Vanguard I on March 17, 1958. The array on Vanguard I consisted of six photovoltaic panels mounted on the outer surface of the satellite and produced one watt of power for over six years. Space solar arrays and power systems have grown in size and complexity since

  14. Solar Stirling system development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Stearns Jr.; Y. S. Won; P. T. Poon; R. Das; E. Y. Chow

    1979-01-01

    A low-cost, high-efficiency dish-Stirling solar thermal-electric power system is being developed for test in 1981. System components are the solar concentrator, receiver, fossil fuel combustor, thermal energy storage (TES), engine-generator, and power processing. System conceptualization is completed and design is in progress. Two receiver alternatives are being evaluated, a direct-coupled receiver-engine configuration with no TES and a heat pipe receiver

  15. [The Story of the Solar System] The Solar System -I

    E-print Network

    Wardle, Mark

    [The Story of the Solar System] The Solar System - I Alexei Gilchrist #12;Some resources · Section of the Solar System, M Garlick, (Cambridge Uni. Press, 2002) #12;Constraints o The clues ­ where, what and when We don't yet have enough constraints ­ many models could have led to the Solar System #12;Caveat o

  16. Fragmentary Solar System History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research is an improved understanding of the early solar system environment and of the processes involved in the nebula and in the evolution of solid bodies. We present results of our studies on the isotopic signatures in selected primitive solar system objects and on the evaluation of the cosmic ray records and of inferred collisional events. Furthermore, we report data of trapped martian atmospheric gases in meteorites and the inferred early evolution of Mars' atmosphere.

  17. Solar System Exploration: Fast Lesson Finder

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How does one get around the solar system? Well, that's a tricky question unless you have a lot of time on your hands, but it's certainly easy to learn about the solar system with these useful lessons provided courtesy of NASA. Their Solar System Exploration website includes hundreds of lessons designed for grades K-12, which visitors can navigate by using the helpful tab menus to look for specific types of materials. The tabs include Grade Level, Solar System Body, Mission, and Topic. Visitors looking for high school materials will do well to look at the Globe Visualization Student Activities, which include close examinations of the Earth hydrology, including aspects of air temperature, ozone, salinity, and so on. Additionally, visitors can use the Education section on the left-hand side of the site to learn about scientists' work in the "Through the Eyes of Scientists" features.

  18. Solar electricity storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jensen; C. Perram

    1980-01-01

    Possible methods for the storage of solar-energy-generated electricity are reviewed. Attention is given to mechanical systems, including elevated weights, pumped water, compressed air, springs and flywheels, electric and magnetic field storage in a capacitor, electromagnet or superconducting coil, and chemical storage systems, including the electrolyzer hydrogen fuel cell and secondary electric storage batteries. Consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of

  19. Solar energy reflecting system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Polley

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy reflecting system is disclosed which can modify its reflector configuration in accordance with the movement of the sun across the sky. The system includes a circular dish-like housing with upper and lower circular hoops in spaced relationship within the housing which can be displaced relative to each other. A series of reflector panels are sequentially spaced around

  20. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K. Ewert; David J. Bergeron III

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant

  1. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  2. The Formation of Solar Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Witcher

    2011-09-30

    Have you ever wondered how our solar system was formed? In this project you will gain an understanding of how solar systems are formed. Earth Systems Core Standard 1-2f : Sun and Stars: Relation of the structure of the solar system to the forces acting on it How was our solar system formed? Watch the following video and answer these questions on your paper: How the planets were born 1) What is a stellar nursery ...

  3. Solar System Dynamics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides information related to all known bodies in orbit around the Sun. The resource has five divisions: general information, planets, natural satellites, comets and asteroids, and other Solar System bodies. Each division offers multiple links for more information such as outer planet gravity fields, physical parameters, mean orbital parameters, and a current ephemeris list.

  4. Solar System Dark Matter

    E-print Network

    Stephen L. Adler

    2009-03-27

    I review constraints on solar system-bound dark matter, and discuss the possibility that dark matter could be gravitationally bound to the earth and other planets. I briefly survey various empirical constraints on such planet-bound dark matter, and discuss effects it could produce if present, including anomalous planetary heating and flyby velocity changes.

  5. Origin of solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Alfvén

    1981-01-01

    Some of the main problems in the theory of the origin and evolution of the solar system are discussed. Consideration is given to the formation and evolution of interstellar clouds; the collapse of certain types of such clouds into protostars; the formation of planets around some of these stars; the formation of satellites around some of the planets; and the

  6. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  7. The Galaxy and the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoluchowski, Roman; Bahcall, John M.; Matthews, Mildred S.

    The solar-Galactic neighborhood, massive interstellar clouds and other Galactic features, the Oort cloud, perturbations of the solar system, and the existence and stability of a solar companion star are examined in chapters based on contributions to a conference held in Tucson, AZ during January 1985. The individual topics addressed include: the Galactic environment of the solar system; stars within 25 pc of the sun; the path of the sun in 100 million years; the local velocity field in the last billion years; interstellar clouds near the sun; and evidence for a local recent supernova. Also considered are: dynamic influence of Galactic tides and molecular clouds on the Oort cloud; cometary evidence for a solar companion; dynamical interactions between the Oort cloud and the Galaxy; geological periodicities and the Galaxy; giant comets and the Galaxy; dynamical evidence for Planet X; evolution of the solar system in the presence of a solar companion star; mass extinctions, crater ages, and comet showers; evidence for Nemesis, a solar companion star.

  8. The Virtual Solar System Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kenneth E. Hay

    2001-02-01

    In the course, Virtual Solar System, students construct models of the solar system in an inquiry framework to learn fundamental astronomical concepts. This paper describes the course, the underlying principles for its design, the core technology that make

  9. Build Your Own Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mike Asbury

    This Java applet creates a model of a solar system with user-defined data. Users can create a solar system with up to four planets, choosing the star type at the center of the solar system, planet name, size, eccentricity of orbit and distance from the star. This site then calculates these factors to produce a graphic of the solar system with details about each planet such as its atmosphere, temperature, and whether life could exist on its surface.

  10. Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate: What's up? The topic of possible relations between solar and cosmic

    E-print Network

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    Preface Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate: What's up? The topic of possible relations between solar and cosmic ray variability on one hand, and Earth's climate on the other hand, is quite in Space Research topical issue on Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate presents a collection

  11. CRISSCROSS THROUGH OUR SOLAR SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    CRISSCROSS THROUGH OUR SOLAR SYSTEM Dawn is the ninth Discovery mission scheduled for funding from Laboratory; German Space Center; Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research; and Italian Space Agency and other objects in outer space A rocky solar system object that is smaller than a planet and orbits

  12. The Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about the temperature on differnt planets in our solar system. Learners will explore the planetary temperature system. They explore how each aspect (e.g., mass, temperature and gravity) influences the system and the consequences of disrupting that system. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 8 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

  13. Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 4, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of an overall evaluation of the solar power satellite concept are reported. Specific topics covered include: solid state sandwich configuration; parametric development of reliability design; power distribution system for solid state solar power satellites; multibeam transmission; GEO base system configuration; suppression of the heavy lift launch vehicle trajectory; conceptual design of an offshore space center facility; solar power satellite development and operations scenario; and microwave power transmission technology, advancement, development, and facility requirements.

  14. New mineralogy of the outer solar system and the high-pressure behaviour of methane 

    E-print Network

    Maynard-Casely, Helen E.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis will introduce the study of methane as a mineral. Along with ammonia and water, methane is one of the main planetary-forming materials in the outer solar system. The topic of `new mineralogy of the outer solar ...

  15. Solar System Voyage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunier, Serge

    2002-11-01

    In the last few decades, the exploration of our solar system has revealed fascinating details about the worlds that lie beyond our Earth. This lavishly illustrated book invites the reader on a journey through the solar system. After locating our planetary system in the Universe, Brunier describes the Sun and its planets, the large satellites, asteroids, and comets. Photographs and information taken from the latest space missions allow readers to experience spectacular scenes: the lunar plains scarred by asteroid impacts, the frozen deserts of Mars and Europa, the continuously erupting volcanoes of Io and the giant geysers of Triton, the rings of Saturn and the clouds of Venus and Titan, and the powerful crash of the comet Shoemaker-Levy into Jupiter. Inspired by the extraordinary photographs and incisive text, readers of Solar System Voyage will gain a greater appreciation of the hospitable planet we call home. Serge Brunier is chief editor of the journal Ciel et Espace, a photojournalist, and the author of many nonfiction books aimed at both specialists and the general public. His previous books include Space Odyssey (Cambridge, 2002), Glorious Eclipses with Jean-Pierre Luminet (Cambridge, 2000), and Majestic Universe (Cambridge, 1999).

  16. On solar system nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1976-01-01

    Arguments in support of naming topographic features on other solar system objects after human beings other than astronomers are outlined. In particular, it is important to make sure that the end result will be a nonprovincial distribution of nationalities, epochs, and occupations, a distribution that future generations can be proud of. A more consistent scheme for Jovian satellite nomenclature is proposed which consistently maintains the tradition of naming Jovian satellites after prominent consorts.

  17. The Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Brennan

    2012-04-10

    What is the difference between a Terrestrial Planet and a Gas Giant? 1. Let's find out What is the solar system? 2. We live on planet Earth. Scroll to the bottom of this page: Earth. Tell me how many moons Earth has? What is Earth's moons name? 3. This video will tell you which planets are Terrestrial and which planets are Gas Giants. It will also tell you the ...

  18. Solar System Trading Cards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alex Storr

    2007-12-12

    The students will collect solar system trading cards by playing an interactive card game. They will identify the sun, planets, comets, and asteroids by answering questions about them. By playing the game, students will gain knowledge about the solar system and they will view pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and other NASA missions. Students will view an image accompanied by a question with three responses. By using the computer mouse, they will chose an answer. When the response is correct, additional information about the image is provided. If an incorrect answer is chosen, students are provided with additional information before they chose a new response. A glossary of terms can be found. At the end of the game, students are assessed with a list of correctly identified solar system objects. This site includes an overview, teacher lesson plans, links to the National Science Education Standards, science background for the teacher, downloadable cards, and links to other sites. The lesson plan includes the goal/purpose, desired outcomes, prerequisites, new vocabulary, general misconceptions, preparation time, execution time, needed materials, engagement activities, step-by-step instructions, evaluation/assessment, and follow-up activities. Suggestions are given for one computer classrooms, those without computers, and home schoolers.

  19. Solar trough systems

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Trough systems predominate among today`s commercial solar power plants. All together, nine trough power plants, also called Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS), were built in the 1980s in the Mojave Desert near Barstow, California. These plants have a combined capacity of 354 megawatts (MW) and today generate enough electricity to meet the needs of approximately 500,000 people. Trough systems convert the heat from the sun into electricity. Because of their parabolical shape, troughs can focus the sun at 30--60 times its normal intensity on a receiver pipe located along the focal line of the trough. Synthetic oil captures this heat as the oil circulates through the pipe, reaching temperatures as high as 390 C (735 F). The hot oil is pumped to a generating station and routed through a heat exchanger to produce steam. Finally, electricity is produced in a conventional steam turbine. In addition to operating on solar energy the SEGS plants are configured as hybrids to operate on natural gas on cloudy days or after dark. Natural gas provides 25% of the output of the SEGS plants.

  20. The Scale of the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Users can read about how distances are measured in the solar system. Attempts by early astronomers to estimate distances and ongoing work to establish and refine the astronomical unit (the mean distance from the Earth to the Sun) are described. This is part of NASA's online book entitled "From Stargazers to Starships" and links to other parts of the site and to related topics are provided.

  1. The space-age solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Baugher, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    This book is a description of the sun, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets in the solar system. Discussion is based heavily on results obtained from recent space probes to Mercury, Venus, Mars Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Offers detailed descriptions of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and the results of the recent probes of Halley's comet. A discussion of meteorites leads to a description of the current models of the solar system. Introductory chapters present theories of the solar system from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Other topics covered include the sun, its structure, and how it generates energy; the surfaces, internal structures, and histories of the planets, from innermost Mercury to farthest Pluto, and their moons.

  2. Solar Angles and Tracking Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about the daily and annual cycles of solar angles used in power calculations to maximize photovoltaic power generation. They gain an overview of solar tracking systems that improve PV panel efficiency by following the sun through the sky.

  3. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  4. Virtual Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William Newcott

    This National Geographic website provides data and images of objects within the solar system. The Sun, the nine planets, comets, asteroids and meteors are all covered. Sun data includes details about solar winds, sunspots and the corona. Mercury data discusses the Caloris Basin, craters, ridges and faults. Venus data discusses volcanoes, mountains and clouds. Earth data covers water, the Moon, surface features and plate tectonics. Mars data covers polar ice caps, Olympus Mons volcano and the Mars Pathfinder project. Jupiter data discusses moons and rings, surface spots and the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact. Saturn details include rings, storms and moons. Uranus data covers its orbit, rings and moons. Neptune data includes surface storms and clouds. Pluto data discusses its odd orbit and satellite. There are links provided for more information.

  5. Solar thermal power system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  6. Solar power system, with high concentration, linear reflective solar panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    A solar power system with high concentration linear reflective solar panels of the linear parabolic type is described which increases the electrical power output from conventional silicon solar cells and heats water for steam power. The solar power system may be arranged as an all electric type using continuous lines of silicon solar cells located at the apex or focal

  7. Solar simulator for solar dynamic space power system testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent S. Jefferies

    1993-01-01

    Planned vacuum tank testing of a solar dynamic space power system requires a solar simulator. Several solar simulators were previously built and used for vacuum tank testing of various space systems. However, the apparent solar subtense angle, i.e., the angular size of the apparent sun as viewed from the experiment, of these solar simulators is too large to enable testing

  8. Solar thermal energy systems in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Lovegrove; Mike Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Australia has developed world leading solar thermal technologies, with only very low national market penetration. Domestic solar water heating is the most common solar thermal instrument, with around 5% of homes using it and most of these systems are conventional flat plate thermosyphon systems. Other low temperature solar thermal research includes solar crop drying, solar ponds and solar air heating

  9. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.

    1998-01-01

    The Principal Investigator's responsibilities on this grant fell into two categories according to his participation. In the nomenclature work of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Owen is chair of the Task Group for the Outer Solar System. He is also a member of the IAU's Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) which is composed of the chairs of the several Task Groups plus the presidents of two IAU Commissions and several outside consultants. The WGPSN is presided over by its President, Professor Kaare Aksnes from the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway.

  10. Our Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides very helpful information about our solar system in a fun and interesting way. There is a whole section about the sun, with facts about the surface, atmosphere, age, and varying temperatures of the sun. All the planets have their own webpage, with link to more in depth information as well as educational activities and games. There are interesting facts as well as myths about comets, asteroids, and meteoroids. The image archive has dozens of images of all the planets as well as the sun and moon.

  11. Solar System Simulator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Seal

    2000-07-30

    This site renders images of celestial bodies within our solar system. The simulator software looks up the positions of the Sun, planets and satellites from ephemeris files developed at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), as well as star positions and colors from a variety of stellar databases, and uses special-purpose renderers to draw a color scene. Texture maps for each of the planets and physical models for planetary rings have been derived (in most cases) from scientific data collected by various JPL spacecraft. Users can then request a rendered image of any celestial body from any other celestial body on the date of your choice (1600 to 2300). Users specify date and time, field of view, and whether orbits and constellation lines are to be depicted. Archived images (both rendered and actual) are available, as are simulated views from Cassini and Galilleo, and locations of current comets. The following named bodies can be rendered: Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Phobos, Deimos, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganeymede, Callisto, Saturn, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Titan, Lapetus, Uranus, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Miranda, Neptune, Triton, Pluto, Charon, Solar system, Cassini trajectory, Galileo trajectory, Comet Wild-2 trajectory, and the Voyager trajector.

  12. Decentralized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Krupta

    1979-01-01

    A model residential photovoltaic system which utilizes a solar cell array roof shingle combination is discussed in relation to developing and generating the environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems. Material requirements, operating residuals, land requirements, water requirements, production processes, and production residuals for the systems operation are examined. Environmental, health, safety, and resource availability impacts are reported.

  13. The Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and images about the solar system including detailed information about formation, planets, asteroids, comets, and the Sun. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

  14. Extrasolar Planets! Solar System Planets!

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Richard

    Extrasolar Planets! #12;Solar System Planets! #12;Small, rocky planets on the inside Large, gas-giant and ice-giant planets on the outside ! #12;Relative sizes of Solar System planets! #12;Relative sizes of Sun and planets The Sun is ~ 1000 times more massive than Jupiter Jupiter is ~ 300 times more massive

  15. Space: Modeling the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students compare and contrast the diameters of the other planets in the solar system to that of the Earth, create a scale factor based on a reasonable size for the Earth's model and build a scale model of the solar system.

  16. Solar energy collection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Leininger; R. G. Decker

    1985-01-01

    A pyramid-shaped solar collector is provided which is capable of operation in conjunction with heat transfer media such as air, water and oil. A pre-heater assembly is provided for use in conjunction with the solar collector to develop improved thermal output capabilities. Series of mirrors are provided for use in conjunction with the solar collector and pre-heater to provide further

  17. Solar Power System Design for the Solar Probe+ Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Kinnison, James; Fraeman, Martin; Roufberg, Lew; Vernon, Steve; Wirzburger, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Solar Probe+ is an ambitious mission proposed to the solar corona, designed to make a perihelion approach of 9 solar radii from the surface of the sun. The high temperature, high solar flux environment makes this mission a significant challenge for power system design. This paper summarizes the power system conceptual design for the solar probe mission. Power supplies considered included nuclear, solar thermoelectric generation, solar dynamic generation using Stirling engines, and solar photovoltaic generation. The solar probe mission ranges from a starting distance from the sun of 1 AU, to a minimum distance of about 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU, from the center of the sun. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 510 times AM0. This requires power systems that can operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

  18. The Nine Planets: A Multimedia Tour of the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arnett, Bill

    Created by Bill Arnett, "The Nine Planets" is an overview of the history, mythology, and current scientific knowledge of each of the planets, moons, and some other objects in our solar system. Text, images, sounds, and movies are all used. Information about planets outside our solar system is also provided. This is a nice overview of everything relating to our solar system. It provides insight into lesser known topics such as each one of the planet's moon. An introduction and frequently asked questions provide information about the website.

  19. Solar powered street lighting system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    A solar powered street lighting system is disclosed that is totally independent of any external power supply. Solar panels are connected in such a manner to charge a maintenance-free storage battery with sufficient capacity to light street lights and\\/or traffic signals. An auxiliary generator may also be provided having a wind driven vane for also charging the battery if sufficient

  20. Solar and standby fireplace system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binner

    1983-01-01

    A home heating system for supplying heated air and water is made up of a solar energy heating unit. The solar energy heating unit is provided with a channel in an insulating layer mounted within the housing, which channel directs heated air to the interior of the home. The interior of the housing also is provided with a plurality of

  1. Formation of the solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hayashi; K. Nakazawa; Y. Nakagawa

    1985-01-01

    The overall evolution of the solar system is discussed in terms of what is called the Kyoto model. Starting from the formation of the solar nebula, a multistep process is followed in detail, including growth and sedimentation of dust grains in the nebula, formation of planetesimals due to fragmentation of a dust layer, radial migration and accumulation of planetesimals to

  2. Closed loop solar collector system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    A closed loop solar collector system includes a linear concentrating parabolic reflector, a linear vaporizer tube horizontally aligned along the focal line of the parabolic reflector, and a fluid metering assembly attached to the input end of the vaporizer tube for precisely metering a quantity of a vaporizable heat transfer fluid from a supply tank to the vaporizer tube. Solar

  3. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  4. Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

    2012-08-01

    A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300?C ñ 800?C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at Earth¥s surface. The higher the concentration, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Early Solar System Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The following topics were presented in this report: Iron Isotopic Fractionation During Vacuum Evaporation of Molten W?stite and Solar Compositions; Mg Isotope Ratio Zonation in CAIs - New Constraints on CAI Evolution; Sm-Nd Systematics of Chondrites; AMS Measurement of Mg-24(He-3,p)Al-26 Cross Section, Implications for the Al-26 Production in the Early Solar System; On Early Solar System Chronology: Implications of an Initially Heterogeneous Distribution of Short-lived Radionuclides; Revisiting Extraterrestrial U Isotope Ratios; Helium-Shell Nucleosynthesis and Extinct Radioactivities; High Spatial Resolution Ion Microprobe Measurements Refine Chronology of Orgueil Carbonate Formation; and Calibration of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Flux.

  6. Exobiology in Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, Glenn C. (editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (editor); Huntington, Judith L. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    A symposium, 'Exobiology in Solar System Exploration,' was held on 24-26 Aug. 1988. The symposium provided an in-depth investigation of the role of Exobiology in solar system exploration. It is expected that the symposium will provide direction for future participation of the Exobiology community in solar system exploration and alert the Planetary community to the continued importance of an Exobiology Flight Program. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily on Exobiology in solar system exploration missions, several ground based and Earth-orbital projects such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Gas Grain Facility, and Cosmic Dust Collection Facility represent upcoming research opportunities planned to accommodate the goals and objectives of the Exobiology community as well. This report contains papers for all but one of the presentations given at the symposium.

  7. Evolution of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.

    1976-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the solar system are analyzed. Physical processes are first discussed, followed by experimental studies of plasma-solid reactions and chemical and mineralogical analyses of meteorites and lunar and terrestrial samples.

  8. Solar System Observations with JWST

    E-print Network

    Norwood, James; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010). It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV in 2012.

  9. Views of the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, C.

    1995-02-01

    Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

  10. Formation of the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joshua Barnes

    This chapter from an online astronomy course briefly describes the formation of the solar system from an accretionary disk. Links to additional resources, a homework assignment, and a quiz are included.

  11. Performance of a solar desiccant cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. O. G. Lof; G. Cler; T. Brisbane

    1988-01-01

    A solar desiccant cooling system was operated at the Solar Energy Applications Laboratory, Colordado State University, throughout the 1986 summer. The system comprises an American Solar King fresh air heating\\/desiccant evaporative cooling unit, a Sunmaster evacuated tube solar collector, hot water solar storage tank, auxiliary electric boiler, controls, and accessories. The cooling unit is operated in the ventilation mode, fresh

  12. Wind in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2010-02-01

    As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short TPT articles on frost1 and precipitation.2 The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might motivate the inclusion of this subject into a lecture.

  13. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

  14. Experiences in solar cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Oberoi, H. S.

    Six of the nine solar cooling systems discussed in this paper had negative energy savings. In several cases the solar cooling system used substantially more energy than a conventional system could have been expected to use. Two systems, however, had significant energy savings. These systems (1 residential and 1 commercial) obtained system thermal efficiencies of 12.0 to 12.4 percent. Their system overall efficiences averaged 11.2 and 5.2 percent respectively. The residential-sized system achieved an annual energy savings of about 16.8 GJ/year, or approximately .34 GJ/year.m2 of collector. The commercial system had equivalent values of 137 GJ/year or about .22 GJ/year/sq m of collector. It should be noted that these efficiencies re much lower than those of well-designed and properly controlled cooling systems in commercial sizes. However, with realistic system modifications and subsequent improvements in performance these solar cooling systems can be expected to achieve savings in nonrenewable energy sources of approximately 1.2 GJ/year/sq m of collector. These savings can be compared to those associated with solar space and domestic hot water heating systems of 2.2 and 2.5 GJ/year/sq m of collector, respectively.

  15. Amorphous silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Takahashi; M. Konagai

    1986-01-01

    The fabrication, performance, and applications of a-Si solar cells are discussed, summarizing the results of recent experimental investigations and trial installations. Topics examined include the fundamental principles and design strategies of solar power installations; the characteristics of monocrystalline-Si solar cells; techniques for reducing the cost of solar cells; independent, linked, and hybrid solar power systems; proposed satellite solar power systems;

  16. Design data brochure for CSI series V solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Generalized information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout is presented to assist the architect or designer in preparing construction drawings and specifications for the installation of the CSI integrated solar heating systems. Efficiency in space utilization of a full length collector and the importance of proper sizing of the collector array are among the topics discussed. Details of storage and transport subsystems are provided along with drawings and specifications of all components of the CSI system.

  17. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by such hybrids.

  18. Inner roof solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allegro

    1979-01-01

    An invention which adds liquid solar heating to conventional house construction without altering the plans is described. Sections of moulded polyester resin embedding pipes connect together to provide a continuous liquid pathway which is hidden from view, or conduits may be moulded in the polyester resin thereby eliminating the pipes. The sections are artistically styled, obviating the unsightly appearance of

  19. Solar energy collection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorbeck

    1980-01-01

    An efficient solar collector includes an outer evacuated envelope having an upper transparent surface to admit light rays to the envelope and a tube extending in the envelope from one end towards the other for conveying fluid to be heated into the collector and for removing heated fluid from the collector. A selectively absorbing surface is provided on the tube

  20. Solar energy power generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, J.E.; Cochran, C.D.

    1986-05-06

    A solar energy power generation system is described which consists of: (a) means for collecting and concentrating solar energy; (b) heat storage means; (c) Stirling engine means for producing power; (d) first heat transfer means for receiving the concentrated solar energy and for transferring heat to the heat storage means; and (e) second heat transfer means for controllably transferring heat from the storage means to the Stirling engine means and including a discharge heat pipe means for transferring heat to the Stirling engine means and further including means for inserting and withdrawing the discharge heat pipe means into and out of the heat storage means.

  1. Universal solar energy desalination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, V. S.

    Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover water at a ratio of 90%. The power system comprises a parabolic trough solar thermal system with an organic Rankine cycle generator, rock-oil thermal storage, and 200 kW wind turbines. Analysis of the complementarity of the solar and wind subsystems indicates that at any site one system will supplement the other. Energy storage, e.g., battery banks, would increase system costs to unacceptable levels. Climatic conditions will significantly influence the sizing of each segment of the total power system.

  2. Solar–geothermal hybrid system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Álvaro Lentz; Rafael Almanza

    2006-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant is located in the northwest of Mexico, lat. 32°39?, long. 115°21? in the northern hemisphere. A solar–geothermal hybrid system is proposed in order to increase the steam flow during the present geothermal cycle, adding a solar field of parabolic trough concentrators. Energy is supplied to the geothermal flow from wells in order to increase

  3. Chaos in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecar, Myron; Franklin, Fred A.; Holman, Matthew J.; Murray, Norman J.

    2001-01-01

    The physical basis of chaos in the solar system is now better understood: In all cases investigated so far, chaotic orbits result from overlapping resonances. Perhaps the clearest examples are found in the asteroid belt. Overlapping resonances account for its kirkwood gaps and were used to predict and find evidence for very narrow gaps in the outer belt. Further afield, about one new "short-peroid" comet is discovered each year. They are believed to come from the "Kuiper Belt" (at 40 AU or more) via chaotic orbits produced by mean-motion and secular resonances with Neptune. Finally, the planetary system itself is not immune from chaos. In the inner solar system, overlapping secular resonances have been identified as the possible source of chaos. For example, Mercury in 1012 years, may suffer a close encounter with Venus or plunge into the Sun. In the outer solar system, three-body resonances have been identified as a source of chaos, but on an even longer time scale of 109 times the age of the solar system. On the human time scale, the planets do follow their orbits in a stately procession, and we can predict their trajectories for hundreds of thousands of years. That is because the mavericks, with shorter instability times, have long since been ejected. The solar system is not stable; it is just old!

  4. Chaos in the Solar System

    E-print Network

    M. Lecar; F. Franklin; M. Holman; N. Murray

    2001-11-30

    The physical basis of chaos in the solar system is now better understood: in all cases investigated so far, chaotic orbits result from overlapping resonances. Perhaps the clearest examples are found in the asteroid belt. Overlapping resonances account for its Kirkwood gaps and were used to predict and find evidence for very narrow gaps in the outer belt. Further afield, about one new ``short-period'' comet is discovered each year. They are believed to come from the ``Kuiper Belt'' (at 40 AU or more) via chaotic orbits produced by mean-motion and secular resonances with Neptune. Finally, the planetary system itself is not immune from chaos. In the inner solar system, overlapping secular resonances have been identified as the possible source of chaos. For example, Mercury, in 10^{12} years, may suffer a close encounter with Venus or plunge into the Sun. In the outer solar system, three-body resonances have been identified as a source of chaos, but on an even longer time scale of 10^9 times the age of the solar system. On the human time scale, the planets do follow their orbits in a stately procession, and we can predict their trajectories for hundreds of thousands of years. That is because the mavericks, with shorter instability times, have long since been ejected. The solar system is not stable; it is just old!

  5. Solar hot-water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design data brochure describes domestic solar water system that uses direct-feed system designed to produce 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day to meet needs of single family dwelling. Brochure also reviews annual movements of sun relative to earth and explains geographic considerations in collector orientation and sizing.

  6. Stirling cycle solar cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. I. Pedroso

    1978-01-01

    The Stirling cycle engine is considered for application to solar powered cooling systems. Two approaches are possible. First, the use of a Stirling engine transmitting mechanical power to any type of cooling unit, and the integral design of a Stirling engine and cooling system. The first approach offers more flexibility in the design of the engine and allows for a

  7. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K. Ewert; David J. Bergeron III

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant

  8. Solar-powered cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-12-24

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  9. Solar System Science with JWST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, G.; Lunine, J.; Hammel, H.; Long, K.; Hutchings, J.; Rieke, G.

    2007-01-01

    JWST will enable breakthroughs in our understanding of the physical characteristics of cold bodies in the outer reaches of the Solar System. These objects include Pluto and other Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), the icy moons of the giant planets, and distant cometary nuclei. Recent discoveries of large objects in the Kuiper belt, along with many smaller members, make it clear that this region represents a major constituent of our Solar System, one that was hidden until recently because it is so remote and challenging to observe. The near-IR and mid-IR performance of JWST will be unique in its power to probe this region. This poster describes the science drivers for JWST observations of Solar System objects and plans for implementing this capability.

  10. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  11. Discovery of the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page is part of NASA's website "From Stargazers to Starships". It discusses the evolution of scientific thought concerning the nature of the solar system, beginning with the earth-centered solar system advocated by Hipparchus and Ptolemy. Ptolemy's idea that the sun and planets moved around the Earth persisted for nearly a thousand years until Copernicus and Galileo, using his newly-invented telescope, began to understand that the Earth and its companion planets all orbited in around the sun. The site features text, pictures, a scientific illustration showing retrograde motion, and links to other relevant sites.

  12. Solar System on a Stick

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science

    2009-01-01

    Learners build a model of the planets in the solar system. In their model, the planets are spaced in their relative distance from the Sun. Separately, learners make model planets which are in relative size to one another. This solar system model includes Pluto as a planet. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

  13. Is the Solar System Stable ?

    E-print Network

    Jacques Laskar

    2012-09-26

    Since the formulation of the problem by Newton, and during three centuries, astronomers and mathematicians have sought to demonstrate the stability of the Solar System. Thanks to the numerical experiments of the last two decades, we know now that the motion of the planets in the Solar System is chaotic, which prohibits any accurate prediction of their trajectories beyond a few tens of millions of years. The recent simulations even show that planetary collisions or ejections are possible on a period of less than 5 billion years, before the end of the life of the Sun.

  14. Volcanoes in the Solar System Pictorial Tour

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    Volcanoes in the Solar System is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about shield volcanoes, cinder cones, ash, lava, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Io, and the Moon. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

  15. Continued Development of the Solar System Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornstein, Seth D.; Prather, E. E.; English, T. R.; Desch, S. M.; Keller, J. M.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    The Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed in order to provide a pre-/post-instruction assessment instrument suitable for use in an introductory solar system course. The topics included on the SSCI focus on formation mechanisms, planetary interiors, atmospheric and surface effects, and small solar system bodies. These topics were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system. Student interviews were then conducted to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. As of December 2009, the SSCI has been through four semesters of both pre- and post-instruction classroom testing, involving over 2000 students and 11 institutions (ranging from two-year colleges to doctoral/research universities). After each semester of testing, item analysis statistics such as point biserial, percentage correct on pre- or post-testing, and frequently-chosen distracters (incorrect answers) were used to flag ineffective questions. Flagged questions were revised or eliminated. We present an overall outline of the SSCI development as well as our question-flagging criteria and question analyses from the latest round of field-testing. We would like to thank the NSF for funding under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  16. Sizing up the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebke, Heidi; Rogers, Meredith Park; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri

    2011-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS 1993) states that by the end of fifth grade, students should understand that a model, such as those depicting the solar system, is a smaller version of the real product, making it easier to physically work with and therefore learn from. However, for students and even adults,…

  17. Anomalies in the Solar System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hansjoerg Dittus

    2008-01-01

    Several observations show unexplained phenomena in our solar system. These observations are e.g. the Pioneer Anomaly, an unexplained constant acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, the Flyby Anomaly, an unexplained increase of the velocity of a series of spacecraft after Earth gravity assists, the recently reported increase of the Astronomical Unit defined by the distance of the planets

  18. Intelligence in the solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tough

    2002-01-01

    Could extraterrestrial intelligence have already reached our solar system--in the form of an interstellar probe, for instance? If any other civilizations exist in our galaxy, they are likely thousands of years older than us. With such advanced science and technology, interstellar exploration is likely easy and attractive for them. If they launched interstellar probes thousands of years ago, at least

  19. Q in the Solar System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER GOLDREICH; STEVEN SOTER

    1966-01-01

    Secular changes brought about by tidal friction in the solar system are reviewed. The presence or absence of specific changes is used to bound the values of Q (the specific dissipation function) appropriate for the planets and satellites. It is shown that the values of Q separate sharply into two groups. Values in the range from 10 to 500 are

  20. Exploration of the Solar System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Arthur, Jr., Ed.; Grey, Jerry, Ed.

    This review is one of a series of assessments and reviews prepared in the public interest by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The purpose of this review is to outline the potential achievements of solar system exploration and suggest a course of action which will maximize the rewards to mankind. A secondary purpose is…

  1. Surveying of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Some populations of objects in the solar system are poorly known, and the long range goal of this program is to improve that situation. For instance, the statistics of Trojan asteroids is being studied. A new technique is being developed for sky surveillance by scanning with CCD, particularly for the discovery of near Earth asteroids.

  2. Atmosphere and the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on the Earth's atmosphere and our solar system includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  3. Solafern solar system design brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A complete residential solar space heating and hot water system is described. Low maintenance, durable, and efficient air heating collectors are used. The collectors have a selective absorber and a tempered glass cover nearly one-quarter of an inch thick with an aluminum frame. The solar energy can be delivered directly to the living area when there is a demand; otherwise, it is stored in the form of hot water. Hot water storage is accomplished through the use of an air-to-water exchanger. The hot water storage is used simultaneously to preheat the domestic hot water, as well as to store energy for space heating.

  4. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Application surveys and performance studies were conducted to determine a solar heating and hot water configuration that could be used in a variety of applications, and to identify subsystem modules that could be utilized in a building block fashion to adapt hardware items to single and multi-family residential and commercial systems. Topics discussed include: subsystem development for the solar collectors, controls, other components, energy management module, and the heating system configuration test. Operational tests conducted at an Illinois farmhouse, and a YWCA in Spokane, Washington are discussed.

  5. Online Short Course: The Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Eager to learn beyond your Earthly boundaries? Join us for the new NSTA Online Short Course: The Solar System . The focus of this course will be how the solar system and its bodies are formed. During this course, particular emp

  6. The cluster origin of the solar system

    E-print Network

    ?umer, Slobodan

    The cluster origin of the solar system S.Pfalzner Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie #12;Today the solar system is located in a relatively sparse area of the Milky Way local stellar density: 0.122 stars/pc3 Did the solar system form in such an environment? Perseus arm Sagitarius arm #12;· http

  7. C.3 SOLAR SYSTEM WORKINGS The Solar System Workings program element supports research into atmospheric, climatological,

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    C.3-1 C.3 SOLAR SYSTEM WORKINGS The Solar System Workings program element supports research on planetary bodies, satellites, and other minor bodies (including rings) in the Solar System. This call seeks. Scope of Program 1.1 Programmatic Overview The Solar System Workings (SSW) program solicits

  8. New solar systems?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Reichhardt

    1984-01-01

    A team of astronomers from UCLA, Cornell University, and the University of Hawaii have discovered what may be two new planetary systems aborning around young stars in the constellations Taurus and Monoceros. The team's ground-based infrared observations of HL Tau and R Mon reveal features similar to those seen around Vega and Fomalhaut last year by NASA's Infrared Astronomical Satellite

  9. My Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Dubson

    Users can build their own system of heavenly bodies and watch the gravitational ballet. With this orbit simulator, users can set initial positions, velocities, and masses of 2, 3, or 4 bodies, and then see them orbit each other. The site includes ideas for using this animation in the classroom.

  10. My Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive simulation lets you build your own system of heavenly bodies and watch the gravitational ballet. With this orbit simulator, you can set initial positions, velocities, and masses of 2, 3, or 4 bodies, and then see them orbit each other.

  11. Steamy Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This diagram illustrates the earliest journeys of water in a young, forming star system. Stars are born out of icy cocoons of gas and dust. As the cocoon collapses under its own weight in an inside-out fashion, a stellar embryo forms at the center surrounded by a dense, dusty disk. The stellar embryo 'feeds' from the disk for a few million years, while material in the disk begins to clump together to form planets.

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was able to probe a crucial phase of this stellar evolution - a time when the cocoon is vigorously falling onto the pre-planetary disk. The infrared telescope detected water vapor as it smacks down on a disk circling a forming star called NGC 1333-IRAS 4B. This vapor started out as ice in the outer envelope, but vaporized upon its arrival at the disk.

    By analyzing the water in the system, astronomers were also able learn about other characteristics of the disk, such as its size, density and temperature.

    How did Spitzer see the water vapor deep in the NGC 1333-IRAS 4B system? This is most likely because the system is oriented in just the right way, such that its thicker disk is seen face-on from our Earthly perspective. In this 'face-on' orientation, Spitzer can peer through a window carved by an outflow of material from the embryonic star. This system in this drawing is shown in the opposite 'edge-on' configuration.

  12. Solar probe power systems concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Nesmith, B.J. (JPL, Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Some of the design options under consideration for providing on-board electric power for the Solar Probe Mission are discussed. Five spacecraft configurations were evaluated with slightly different power demands and volumetric constraints on the power system. This resulted in three different baseline power system designs to satisfy the five spacecraft configurations. These three current baseline power system designs use modified general-purpose heat source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) similar to those launched on the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft. The modular RTG currently under development and testing is a potential advanced alternative to the current baseline GPHS-RTG technology design. 8 refs.

  13. Earth and the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sara Harris

    This is high enrollment science course for non-science students in which we examine the evidence for how geological, biological, atmospheric, oceanic, and climatic processes work and interact here on Earth. We then attempt to apply those processes to other planets in our solar system. The course structure includes pre-class student preparation and in-class small group activities to require students to engage with the material regularly throughout the term.

  14. The solar system beyond Neptune

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Jewitt; Jane X. Luu

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a deep optical survey for distant solar system objects. An area of 1.2 sq deg of the ecliptic has been imaged to apparent red magnitude 25, resulting in the detection of seven trans-Neptunian objects. These are the first detected members of a trans-Neptunian disk that compries about 35 000 objects larger than 100 km in

  15. Simple Simulation of Solar System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Vrbik

    1999-01-01

    The article presents a simple derivation of a set of approximate formulas for the rate of change of orbital elements of a\\u000a planet, perturbed by a time-averaged gravitational force due to the remaining planets of the solar system. The corresponding\\u000a set of differential equations for long-time development of planetary orbits is then numerically integrated and the results\\u000a are shown to

  16. Building a space solar power system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsushige Oda

    2005-01-01

    The solar power satellite (SPS) and space solar power system (SSPS) have been studied for years as future alternative energy sources when fossil fuel becomes scarce. The SPS is a satellite in orbit that collects solar energy and transmits the energy to various destinations. SSPS is a total system that includes SPS and ground facilities to utilize power from the

  17. SIPS: Solar Irradiance Prediction System Stefan Achleitner

    E-print Network

    Cerpa, Alberto E.

    SIPS: Solar Irradiance Prediction System Stefan Achleitner Computer Science and Engineering the variability and dynamics are the largest. We propose SIPS, Solar Irradiance Prediction System, a novel sensing-scaling capacities of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. However, variability and uncertainty in power

  18. Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hassani, V.

    2000-06-18

    This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

  19. Storage systems for solar thermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

    1978-01-01

    A major constraint to the evolution of solar thermal power systems is the need to provide continuous operation during periods of solar outage. A number of high temperature thermal energy storage technologies which have the potential to meet this need are currently under development. The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

  20. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  1. 'Mini-Me' Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This artist's conception shows the relative size of a hypothetical brown dwarf-planetary system (below) compared to our own solar system.

    A brown dwarf is a cool or 'failed' star, which lacks the mass to ignite and shine like our Sun. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes on an extraordinarily low-mass brown dwarf called OTS 44 and found a swirling disc of planet-building dust. At only 15 times the mass of Jupiter, OTS 44 is the smallest known brown dwarf to host a planet-forming, or protoplanetary, disc.

    Astronomers believe that this unusual system will eventually spawn planets. If so, they speculate that OTS 44's disc has enough mass to make one small gas giant and a few Earth-sized rocky planets.

    Examples of these possible planets are depicted at the bottom of this picture, circling a low-mass brown dwarf. Above, the bodies of our own solar system have been drawn to the same scale. In each system, the terrestrial planets have been enlarged and the distances between the planets and their parent bodies have been scaled down for easier viewing.

  2. Practical solar energy heating and cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. ONeill; A. J. McDanal; W. H. Sims

    1973-01-01

    A practical solar energy heating and cooling system technically and economically feasible for residential application, according to a NASA study by Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., would include a flat-plate solar collector, a thermal energy storage system, an absorption-cycle heat pump for both heating and cooling, and a hot water system that uses heat from the thermal energy storage system.

  3. Solar powered CP system protects gathering lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    The wholly owned gas transmission subsidiary of Public Service Co. of Colorado has installed 2 solar-powered cathodic protection systems in its Ignacio Gathering System. The system is designed for the level of light available in the winter months when the least amount of sunshine is available. The 6 panel system, voltage regulation, automatic load connection\\/disconnection, and groundbed are described. Solar

  4. Topical calcineurin inhibitors in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Lampropoulos, Christos E; D’Cruz, David P

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) encompasses a variety of lesions that may be refractory to systemic or topical agents. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) are the most common lesions in clinical practice. The topical calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, have been used to treat resistant cutaneous lupus since 2002 and inhibit the proliferation and activation of T-cells and suppress immune-mediated cutaneous inflammation. This article reviews the mechanism of action, efficacy, adverse effects, and the recent concern about their possible carcinogenic effect. Although the total number of patients is small and there is only one relevant randomized controlled study, the data are encouraging. Many patients, previously resistant to systemic agents or topical steroids, improved after four weeks of treatment. DLE and SCLE lesions were less responsive, reflecting the chronicity of the lesions, although more than 50% of patients still showed improvement. Topical calcineurin inhibitors may be a safe and effective alternative to topical steroids for CLE although the only approved indication is for atopic dermatitis. PMID:20421909

  5. Solar-wind energy conversion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    A combined solar-wind energy conversion system in which the combined effects of solar and wind energy are utilized in raising water from a lower to an upper water storage tank to increase its potential energy for generation of electricity. Incoming solar energy heats water to form steam which is temporarily stored. The stored steam is vented to one of first

  6. Solar-wind energy conversion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    A combined solar-wind energy conversion system in which the combined effects of solar and wind energy are utilized in raising water from a lower to an upper water storage tank to increase its potential energy for generation of electricity. Incoming solar energy heats water to form steam which is temporarily stored. The stored steam is vented to one of first

  7. Solar System Science with LSST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Jones; S. R. Chesley; A. J. Connolly; A. W. Harris; Z. Ivezic; Z. Knezevic; J. Kubica; A. Milani; D. E. Trilling

    2009-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide a unique tool to study moving objects throughout the solar system,\\u000a creating massive catalogs of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), asteroids, Trojans, TransNeptunian Objects (TNOs), comets and planetary\\u000a satellites with well-measured orbits and high quality, multi-color photometry accurate to 0.005 magnitudes for the brightest\\u000a objects. In the baseline LSST observing plan, back-to-back 15-second

  8. Best of the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson introduces students to planetary research. Using some of the most famous and interesting images of the Solar System, students learn to focus on details by studying uncaptioned images. They increase their knowledge of the planets and their features by comparing their observations to those of real researchers. Students organize their findings to infer a key difference between inner and outer planets. They will be able: to understand that planetary images contain valuable information, but require interpretation, which is somewhat uncertain; to recognize each planet or moon by its unique and identifiable features; and understand that scientists summarize findings in order to look for patterns in groups like planets and moons.

  9. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  10. Solar thermal power systems. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

  11. An Introduction to the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, David A.; McBride, Neil; Gilmour, Iain

    2011-05-01

    Introduction; 1. A tour of the solar system; 2. The internal structure of the terrestrial planets; 3. Planetary volcanism - Ultima Thule?; 4. Planetary surface processes; 5. Atmospheres of terrestrial planets; 6. The giant planets; 7. Minor bodies of the solar system; 8. The origin of the solar system; 9. Meteorites: a record of formation; Answers and comments; Appendices; Glossary; Further reading; Acknowledgements; Figure references; Index.

  12. Storage systems for solar thermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

    1978-01-01

    The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

  13. Origins of Solar Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'D. Alexander, Conel

    2002-01-01

    The chondrites are aggregates of components (e.g. chondrules, chondrule rims and matrix) that formed in the nebula but, at present, there is no consensus on how any of these components formed or whether their formation produced or post dated the chemical fractionations between the chondrites. Chondrites are, at present, the most primitive Solar System objects available for laboratory study and the conditions under which their principle components formed would provide the most direct constraints for models of nebula formation and evolution. The conditions under which chondrules formed is of particular importance because, if their relative abundance in chondrites approximates that in the nebula, they are the products of one of the most energetic and pervasive processes that operated in the early Solar System. The goal of this proposal was to combine theoretical modeling with a comprehensive study of the elemental and isotopic compositions of the major components in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs), with the aim of determining the conditions in the nebula at the time of their formation. The isotopes of volatile and moderately volatile elements should be particularly revealing of conditions during chondrule formation, as evaporation under most conditions would lead to isotopic mass fractionation. Modeling of chondrule and matrix formation requires the development of a kinetic model of evaporation and condensation, and calibration of this model against experiments.

  14. Defining Components of Our Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bowden

    2012-04-10

    What are the different components of our Solar System and what are the unique features of each? Use this organizer to record what you learn about each of the components of our solar system. https://docs.google.com/document/d/1S7Lnm2bCKPhmpDmu60u3iA3hXjjxWMWk1IdbaRRyzGM/edit First, explore this website learning as much as you can. Later in the lesson, you will explore different types of things you find in our solar system. Information on Solar System Read both of these articles on comets. Make ...

  15. Prototype solar-heating system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for complete residential solar-heating system is given. Includes documents and drawings describing performance design, verification standards, and analysis of system with sufficient information to assemble working system.

  16. MOTESS Solar System Observations: Implications for the GNAT System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Global Network of Astronomical Telescopes is developing a geographically distributed network of relatively small-aperture imaging telescopes. Equipped with CCD cameras and operating in scan mode, these instruments will be able to address a wide variety of solar system, stellar and extragalactic research topics. Although the design of the individual telescope emphasizes simplicity and low cost, the network will be able to deliver in aggregate data that would otherwise require more expensive facilities. The array of instruments may be tailored to the particular observing program by the selection of filters the individual instruments are provided and how the telescopes are pointed at the sky. A prototype array of three instruments has been in use since April of 2001, principally obtaining asteroid astrometry and searching for near-earth objects. The experience relating to solar system observations acquired during this period will be presented along with proposed strategies for future work using the full GNAT array of instruments. This work and continuing operation of the MOTESS prototype is supported in part by a Eugene Shoemaker Grant from The Planetary Society.

  17. Methanogens in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubner, Ruth-Sophie; Schleper, Christa; Firneis, Maria G.; Rittmann, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The last decade of space science revealed that potential habitats in the Solar System may not be limited to the classical habitable zone supporting life as we know it. These microorganisms were shown to thrive under extremophilic growth conditions. Here, we outline the main eco-physiological characteristics of methanogens like their response on temperature, pressure, or pH changes or their resistance against radiation or desiccation. They can withstand extreme environmental conditions which makes them intriguing organisms for astrobiological studies. On Earth, they are found for example in wetlands, in arctic and antarctic subglacial environments, in ruminants, and even in the environment surrounding the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. These obligate anaerobic chemolithoautotrophs or chemolithoheterotrophs are able to use e.g. hydrogen and C1 compounds like CO2, formate, or methanol as energy source and carbon source, respectively. We point out their capability to be able to habitat potential extraterrestrial biospheres all over the planetary system. We will give an overview about these possible environments on Mars, icy moons like Europa or Enceladus, and minor planets. We present an overview about studies of methanogens with an astrobiological relevance and we show our conclusions about the role of methanogens for the search for extraterrestrial life in the Solar System. We will present first results of our study about the possibility to cultivate methanogens under Enceladus-like conditions. For that, based on the observations obtained by the Cassini spacecraft concerning the plume compounds, we produce a medium with a composition similar to the ocean composition of this icy moon which is far more Enceladus-like than in any (published) experiment before. Eventually, we give an outlook on the feasibility and the necessity of future astrobiological studies with these microbes. We point out the importance of future in-situ or even sample and return missions to the mentioned potential habitats.

  18. Faraday rotation system. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, L.E.; Wang, W.

    1994-07-01

    The Faraday Rotation System (FRS) is one of the advanced laser-based diagnostics developed at DIAL to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the MHD channel, the system directly measures electron density through a measurement of the induced rotation in the polarization of a far infrared laser beam after passing through the MHD flow along the magnetic field lines. A measurement of the induced polarization ellipticity provides a measure of the electron collision frequency which together with the electron density gives the electron conductivity, a crucial parameter for MHD channel performance. The theory of the measurements, a description of the system, its capabilities, laboratory demonstration measurements on seeded flames with comparison to emission absorption measurements, and the current status of the system are presented in this final report.

  19. An overview: Component development for solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, T.R.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, I review the significant issues and the development of solar concentrators and thermal receivers for central-receiver power plants and dish/engine systems. Due to the breadth of the topic area, I have arbitrarily narrowed the content of this paper by choosing not to discuss line-focus (trough) systems and energy storage. I will focus my discussion on the development of heliostats, dishes, and receivers since the 1970s with an emphasis on describing the technologies and their evolution, identifying some key observations and lessons learned, and suggesting what the future in component development may be.

  20. The Solar System Beyond Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David; Nava, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supported deep and wide-field optical imaging of the trans-Neptunian Solar System capitalizing on our broad access to state-of-the-art facilities on Mauna Kea. Key quantities determined include the size distribution of Kuiper Belt objects (a differential power law with an index -4), and the inclination and radial distance distributions. We identified an outer edge to the classical Kuiper Belt that has since been confirmed by independent workers. We also obtained an assessment of the population densities in the mean-motion resonances with Neptune and discovered the Scattered Kuiper Belt Object dynamical class. Scientific issues on which these measurements have direct bearing include the collisional environment of the Kuiper Belt, the origin of the short-period comets, and the origin by capture into resonance of Pluto and other Kuiper Belt objects.

  1. Economic Evaluation of Space Solar Power System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Matsuoka

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the value that the solar panels will be set on the orbit from the economic standpoint and consider the necessity of the Space Solar Power System (SSPS). In order to these evaluations, we compare the SSPS with the photovoltaic power system on the ground (PVPSG). Firstly, we examined the generation cost of the PVPSG. When

  2. New isotopic clues to solar system formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Typhoon Lee

    1979-01-01

    The presence of two new extinct nuclides Al-26 and Pd-107 with half lives of approximately one million years in the early solar system implies that there were nucleosynthetic activities involving a great many elements almost at the instant of solar system formation. Rate gas and oxygen isotopic abundance variations ('anomalies') relative to the 'cosmic' composition were observed in a variety

  3. Solar System Trading Cards Jr. Edition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    This collection of thirteen cards depicts Solar System objects such as planets, comets, asteroids, and the Sun. The front of each card displays a color image of a Solar System object; the back provides facts about the object. The Hubble Space Telescope card contains the directions for the game.

  4. Planet Formation Is the Solar System Misleading?

    E-print Network

    Wuchterl, Günther

    Planet Formation Is the Solar System Misleading? Günther Wuchterl Max://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/wuchterl/ Abstract The discovery of more than hundred extrasolar planet candidates chal- lenges our understanding of planet formation. Do we have to modify the theories that were mostly developed for the solar system

  5. Symplectic integrators for solar system dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prasenjit Saha; Scott Tremaine

    1992-01-01

    Certain symplectic integrators relevant to solar system dynamics are defined here. It is shown that the dominant long-term error arises from a constant error in the mean motion, and special starting procedure which can eliminate this error are described. The resulting improvement make these integrators easily the best available for a wide range of solar system problems.

  6. Hybrid photovoltaic\\/thermal solar systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Tripanagnostopoulos; Th. Nousia; M. Souliotis; P. Yianoulis

    2002-01-01

    We present test results on hybrid solar systems, consisting of photovoltaic modules and thermal collectors (hybrid PV\\/T systems). The solar radiation increases the temperature of PV modules, resulting in a drop of their electrical efficiency. By proper circulation of a fluid with low inlet temperature, heat is extracted from the PV modules keeping the electrical efficiency at satisfactory values. The

  7. Design procedure for solar heating systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Klein; W. A. Beckman; J. A. Duffie

    1976-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design of solar space and water heating systems for residences. A simulation model capable of estimating the long-term thermal performance of solar heating systems is described. The amount of meteorological data required by the simulation in order to estimate long-term performance is investigated. The information gained from many simulations is used to develop a

  8. Solar-heating system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes solar heating system composed of warm-air solar collector, logic control unit, and switching and transport unit, that meets government standards for installation in residential dwellings. Text describes system operation and performance specifications complemented by comprehensive set of subcomponent design drawings.

  9. The formation of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfalzner, S.; Davies, M. B.; Gounelle, M.; Johansen, A.; Münker, C.; Lacerda, P.; Portegies Zwart, S.; Testi, L.; Trieloff, M.; Veras, D.

    2015-06-01

    The solar system started to form about 4.56 Gyr ago and despite the long intervening time span, there still exist several clues about its formation. The three major sources for this information are meteorites, the present solar system structure and the planet-forming systems around young stars. In this introduction we give an overview of the current understanding of the solar system formation from all these different research fields. This includes the question of the lifetime of the solar protoplanetary disc, the different stages of planet formation, their duration, and their relative importance. We consider whether meteorite evidence and observations of protoplanetary discs point in the same direction. This will tell us whether our solar system had a typical formation history or an exceptional one. There are also many indications that the solar system formed as part of a star cluster. Here we examine the types of cluster the Sun could have formed in, especially whether its stellar density was at any stage high enough to influence the properties of today’s solar system. The likelihood of identifying siblings of the Sun is discussed. Finally, the possible dynamical evolution of the solar system since its formation and its future are considered.

  10. Solar Physics (2004) 224: 34 C Springer 2005 The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of

    E-print Network

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    2004-01-01

    Solar Physics (2004) 224: 3­4 C Springer 2005 PREFACE The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of Long-Term Solar Activity" is based on contributions presented at the First of solar activity, and their effects in the near-Earth environment and technoculture. As an analogy

  11. Distant Comets in the Early Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meech, Karen J.

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of this project is to physically characterize the small outer solar system bodies. An understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of the outer solar system small bodies is currently one of planetary science's highest priorities. The measurement of the size distributions of these bodies will help constrain the early mass of the outer solar system as well as lead to an understanding of the collisional and accretional processes. A study of the physical properties of the small outer solar system bodies in comparison with comets in the inner solar system and in the Kuiper Belt will give us information about the nebular volatile distribution and small body surface processing. We will increase the database of comet nucleus sizes making it statistically meaningful (for both Short-Period and Centaur comets) to compare with those of the Trans-Neptunian Objects. In addition, we are proposing to do active ground-based observations in preparation for several upcoming space missions.

  12. Focus Groups for Solar System Investigations with the JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Dean C.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John; Hammel, Heidi B.; Sonneborn, George; Lunine, Jonathan; Rivkin, Andrew; Woodward, Charles; Norwood, Jim; Villanueva, Geronimo; Thomas, Cristina; Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Tiscareno, Matthew; Kestay, Laszlo; Nixon, Conor; Parker, Alex

    2014-11-01

    The unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will make it NASA’s premier space-based facility for infrared astronomy. This 6.5-meter telescope, which is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared, will be equipped with four state-of-the-art instruments that include imaging, spectroscopy, and coronagraphy. These instruments, along with the telescope’s moving target capabilities, will enable the infrared study of solar system objects with unprecedented detail. A new white paper (Norwood et al., 2014) provides a general overview of JWST observatory and instrument capabilities for Solar System science, and updates and expands upon an earlier study by Lunine et al. (2010). In order to fully realize the potential of JWST for Solar System observations, we have recently organized 10 focus groups to explore various science use cases in more detail on topics including: Asteroids, Comets, Giant Planets, Mars, Near Earth Objects, Occultations, Rings, Satellites, Titan, and Trans-Neptunian Objects. The findings from these groups will help guide the project as it develops and implements planning tools, observing templates, the data pipeline and archives so that they enable a broad range of Solar System Science investigations. The purpose of this presentation is to raise awareness of the JWST Solar System planning, and to invite participation of DPS members with our Focus Groups and other pre-launch activities.References:Lunine, J., Hammel, H., Schaller, E., Sonneborn, G., Orton, G., Rieke, G., and Rieke, M. 2010, JWST Planetary Observations within the Solar System, http://www.stsci.edu/jwst/doc-archive/white-papers.Norwood, J., Hammel, H., Milam, S.,Stansberry, J., Lunine, J., Chanover, N., Hines, D., Sonneborn, G., Tiscareno, M., Brown, M. and Ferruit, P., 2014, ArXiv e-prints, 1403.6845.

  13. Chaotic Evolution of the Solar System

    E-print Network

    Sussman, Gerald J.

    1992-03-01

    The evolution of the entire planetary system has been numerically integrated for a time span of nearly 100 million years. This calculation confirms that the evolution of the solar system as a whole is chaotic, with a ...

  14. An analysis of distributed solar fuel systems

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Alex, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    While solar fuel systems offer tremendous potential to address global clean energy needs, most existing analyses have focused on the feasibility of large centralized systems and applications. Not much research exists on ...

  15. The Solar System and Its Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormand, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a brief explanation of the solar system, including planets, asteroids, satellites, comets, planetary orbits, as well as, old and recent cosmogonic theories. Indicates that man is nearer a solution to the origin of the planetary system than ever before.

  16. Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qader, S. A.

    1981-09-01

    A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

  17. Nitrogen isotopes in the solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Geiss; P. Bochsler

    1982-01-01

    The isotopic composition of nitrogen in the solar system is measured, and it is shown that the 30% change during the last 3-4 billion years of N-15\\/N-14 in solar-wind-bearing lunar soils and breccias probably does not reflect changes in the ratio at the solar surface. It is argued that accretion of interstellar matter does not work as a cause for

  18. Corrosion and scaling in solar heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresti, R. J., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Corrosion, as experienced in solar heating systems, is described in simplistic terms to familiarize designers and installers with potential problems and their solutions. The role of a heat transfer fluid in a solar system is briefly discussed, and the choice of an aqueous solution is justified. The complexities of the multiple chemical and physical reactions are discussed in order that uncertainties of corrosion behavior can be anticipated. Some basic theories of corrosion are described, aggressive environments for some common metals are identified, and the role of corrosion inhibitors is delineated. The similarities of thermal and material characteristics of a solor system and an automotive cooling system are discussed. Based on the many years of experience with corrosion in automotive systems, it is recommended that similar antifreezes and corrosion inhibitors should be used in solar systems. The importance of good solar system design and fabrication is stressed and specific characteristics that affect corrosion are identified.

  19. Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any Type Of System www.CleanEnergyAuthority.com Install Solar Panels Enter Your Zip Code & Connect To Pre-Screened Solar Panel Installers www.ServiceMagic.com Biomass Pumps Reliable metering for apps from microflow to scale-up & pilot plant www.isco.com The Solar

  20. Solar System: The Earth in Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It provides an understanding of where Earth is located in space and explores evidence used by astronomers to place Earth at this location. Earth is a relatively small planet and the third from the Sun in our solar system. The Sun is the central and largest body in the solar system. Our still-growing knowledge of the solar system comes to us in part by direct observation from Earth, including the use of optical, radio, and x-ray telescopes that are sensitive to a broad spectrum of information coming to us from space; computers that can undertake increasingly complicated calculations, find patterns in data, and support or reject theories about the origins of the solar system; and space probes that send back detailed pictures and other data from distant planets. Learning Outcomes:? Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.? Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.? Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.

  1. Climate Fundamentals for Solar Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    The design of any solar heating system is influenced heavily by climate; in this bulletin, information on climate as related to solar heating is as related to solar heating is provided. Topics discussed include: (1) solar radiation; (2) degree days; (3) climate and calculations which make use of solar radiation and degree days; and (4)…

  2. Solar Energy Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with solar energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the broad aspects of solar energy use and to explain the general operation of solar systems. Some topics covered are availability and economics of solar

  3. Accretion in the Early Outer Solar System

    E-print Network

    Scott J. Kenyon; Jane X. Luu

    1999-06-08

    We describe calculations of the evolution of an ensemble of small planetesimals in the outer solar system. In a solar nebula with a mass of several times the Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, objects with radii of 100-1000 km can form on timescales of 10-100 Myr. Model luminosity functions derived from these calculations agree with current observations of bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune (Kuiper Belt objects). New surveys with current and planned instruments can place better constraints on the mass and dynamics of the solar nebula by measuring the luminosity function at red magnitudes of 28 or larger.

  4. Solar powered engine and tracking system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chromie

    1980-01-01

    A solar powered engine and tracking system comprises a piston working within a cylinder for turning a drive shaft for driving an electrical generator or performing other useful work, a solar concentrator comprising a plurality of mirrors, each reflecting sun light on a common focal point on the end of the cylinder for heating a flash boiler located thereon, preheated

  5. Solar powered engine and tracking system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chromie

    1979-01-01

    A solar powered engine and tracking system comprises a piston working within a cylinder for turning a drive shaft for driving an electrical generator or performing other useful work, a solar concentrator comprising a plurality of mirrors, each reflecting sunlight on a common focal point on the end of the cylinder for heating a flash boiler located thereon, preheated water

  6. Prototype solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

  7. Solar power satellite system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A synopsis of the study plan for the solar power satellite system is presented. Descriptions of early task progress is reported for the following areas: (1) laser annealing, (2) solid state power amplifiers, (3) rectenna option, (4) construction of an independent electric orbit transfer vehicle, and (5) construction of a 2.5 GW solar power satellite.

  8. Solar operated closed system power generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    deGeus

    1978-01-01

    A solar operated closed system power generator is provided in which a low boiling fluid is vaporized and superheated by solar energy concentrated within a parabolic reflector upon an elongated boiler which extends along the focus of the reflector. A turbine is connected to the boiler for obtaining power by the expansion of superheated vapor. The expanded vapors are condensed

  9. Solar energy refrigeration and air conditioning system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Pitts; H. A. Ingley; E. A. Farber; C. A. Morrison

    1977-01-01

    A solar energy refrigeration and air conditioning system for cooling an enclosed area comprising a low temperature vapor generator, condenser and evaporator specifically configured for use with a low boiling point refrigerant to use solar energy as a means of vapor generation is described. The low temperature vapor generator is coupled to an externally heated water source through a first

  10. Early chemical history of the solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Grossman; J. W. Larimer

    1974-01-01

    The extreme antiquity and lack of evidence for sigrificant chemical ; processing of the chondritic meteorites since they were formed suggest the ; possibility that their chemistry and mineralogy may have been established during ; the condensation of the solar system. By using equilibrium thermodynamics, the ; sequence of condensation of mineral phases from a cooling nebula of solar ;

  11. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Faiers; Charles Neame

    2006-01-01

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using

  12. Primordial Antimatter Plasmas in Our Solar System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Hansen

    2006-01-01

    Summary form only given. Comets have been discovered to be the source of primordial antimatter in our solar system. The announcement was made at April 2002 joint meeting of American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society. When sungrazer comets colliding with the Sun, they produce large sunspots and gigantic solar storms. These enormous ambiplasma storms travel hundreds of millions of

  13. The triggered origin of the solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harri A. T. Vanhala

    1998-01-01

    The scenario of the triggered origin of the solar system suggests that the formation of our planetary system was initiated\\u000a by the impact of an interstellar shock wave on a molecular cloud core. The strength of this scenario lies in its ability to\\u000a explain the presence of short-lived radionuclides in the early solar system. According to the proposal, the radioactivities

  14. Prototype solar domestic hot water systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

  15. Pocket Solar System: Make a Scale Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-15

    This fun and simple hands-on astronomy activity lets learners build a scale model of the universe with little more than adding machine tape. Learners are often surprised to find how empty the outer solar system is (there is a reason they call it space!) and how close, relatively speaking, the orbits of the planets of the inner solar system are. The pdf contains step-by-step instructions, photos, presentation tips, common misconceptions about our solar system, and links to background information.

  16. Nitrogen isotope variations in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füri, Evelyn; Marty, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    The relative proportion of the two isotopes of nitrogen, 14N and 15N, varies dramatically across the Solar System, despite little variation on Earth. NASA's Genesis mission directly sampled the solar wind and confirmed that the Sun -- and, by inference, the protosolar nebula from which the Solar System formed -- is highly depleted in the heavier isotope compared with the reference nitrogen isotopic composition, that of Earth's atmosphere. In contrast, the inner planets, asteroids, and comets are enriched in 15N by tens to hundreds of per cent; organic matter in primitive meteorites records the highest 15N/14N isotopic ratios. The measurements indicate that the protosolar nebula, inner Solar System, and cometary ices represent three distinct isotopic reservoirs, and that the 15N enrichment generally increases with distance from the Sun. The 15N enrichments were probably not inherited from presolar material, but instead resulted from nitrogen isotope fractionation processes that occurred early in Solar System history. Improvements in analytical techniques and spacecraft observations have made it possible to measure nitrogen isotopic variability in the Solar System at a level of accuracy that offers a window into the processing of early Solar System material, large-scale disk dynamics and planetary formation processes.

  17. Survey of solar desalination systems and system selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soteris Kalogirou

    1997-01-01

    The most common sea water desalination systems available today are described. These are divided into two broad categories, namely, direct and indirect collection systems. In the former, solar energy is absorbed and used in the same piece of equipment whereas in the latter, two separate sub-systems are used, one for solar energy conversion and one for desalination. Various systems are

  18. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    E-print Network

    Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr$^{-1}$. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction ...

  19. Astrometric solar-system anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John D.; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is reportedly increasing by about 15 cm yr-1. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists, including us, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is prudent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  20. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    E-print Network

    John D. Anderson; Michael Martin Nieto

    2009-08-06

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr$^{-1}$. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is prudent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  1. Solar-System Ephemeris Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) generates planetary and lunar ephemeris data and FORTRAN routines that allow users to obtain state data for the Sun, the moon, and the planets. The JPL Solar System Ephemeris Toolbox, developed at Kennedy Space Center, is a set of functions that provides the same functionality in the MATLAB computing environment along with some additional capabilities. The toolbox can be used interactively via a graphical user interface (GUI), or individual functions can be called from the MATLAB command prompt or other MATLAB scripts and functions. The toolbox also includes utility functions to define and perform coordinate transformation (e.g., mean-of-date, true-of-date, J2000) that are common in the use of these ephemerides. An attached README file guides the user through the process of constructing binary ephemeris files, verifying correct installation, and using functions to extract state data. This process also can be performed using the GUI. Help from each toolbox function is available through MATLAB s "help" function. Many of the functions in the toolbox are MATLAB equivalents of the JPL-written FORTRAN programs and subroutines used for the same purposes. A novice can use the GUI to extract state data, while a more experienced user can use the functions directly, as needed, in his/her applications. The toolbox has been tested using MATLAB Releases 13 an

  2. Development of Solar Powered Irrigation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkerim, A. I.; Sami Eusuf, M. M. R.; Salami, M. J. E.; Aibinu, A.; Eusuf, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Development of a solar powered irrigation system has been discussed in this paper. This system would be SCADA-based and quite useful in areas where there is plenty of sunshine but insufficient water to carry out farming activities, such as rubber plantation, strawberry plantation, or any plantation, that requires frequent watering. The system is powered by solar system as a renewable energy which uses solar panel module to convert Sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of an automated SCADA controlled system that uses PLC as a controller is significant to agricultural, oil and gas monitoring and control purpose purposes. In addition, the system is powered by an intelligent solar system in which solar panel targets the radiation from the Sun. Other than that, the solar system has reduced energy cost as well as pollution. The system is equipped with four input sensors; two soil moisture sensors, two level detection sensors. Soil moisture sensor measures the humidity of the soil, whereas the level detection sensors detect the level of water in the tank. The output sides consist of two solenoid valves, which are controlled respectively by two moistures sensors.

  3. Soiling losses for solar photovoltaic systems in California

    E-print Network

    Mejia, Felipe A; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Soiling Losses for Solar Photovoltaic Systems in Californiaof Soiling on Large Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems inSoiling is the accumulation of dust on solar panels that causes a decrease in the solar photovoltaic (

  4. Demonstration of portable solar adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Deqing; Dong, Bing

    2012-10-01

    Solar-adaptive optics (AO) are more challenging than night-time AO, in some aspects. A portable solar adaptive optics (PSAO) system featuring compact physical size, low cost, and good performance has been proposed and developed. PSAO can serve as a visiting instrument for any existing ground-based solar telescope to improve solar image quality by replacing just a few optical components. High-level programming language, LabVIEW, is used to develop the wavefront sensing and control software, and general purpose computers are used to drive the whole system. During October 2011, the feasibility and good performance of PSAO was demonstrated with the 61-cm solar telescope at San Fernando Observatory. The image contrast and resolution are noticeably improved after AO correction.

  5. Small hybrid solar power system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kane; D. Larrain; D. Favrat; Y. Allani

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel concept of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio-)Diesel engine. The Organic Rankine Cycles include hermetic scroll expander-generators11The word expander is often used to characterize units recovering the expansion energy of a gas, in particular when based on a volumetric machine. The word

  6. Solar System Lithograph Set for Space Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lithograph set contains images with information about: Our Solar System, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Jupiter, Moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Charon, and Comets.

  7. Solar System Lithograph Set for Space Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This set contains images with information about: Our Solar System, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Jupiter, Moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Charon, and Comets.

  8. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  9. International solar system exploration - Opportunities and obstacles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Parks, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A review is conducted of the exploration of the solar system carried out with the aid of various types of spacecraft during the past two decades, taking into account also space missions planned for thy next few years. A wealth of information has been obtained regarding the planets and their satellites. However, there remain many important questions concerning the solar system, and a continuation of space exploration for the solution of these questions appears highly desirable, particularly when the comparatively little cost of these missions is taken into account. However, major fiscal limitations within the U.S. economy have led to pressure to postpone any new solar system exploration projects unless there can be major reductions in their cost. A special committee has been studying the options for future low-cost solar system exploration missions, giving attention also to some options for international implementation. Various aspects of joint space projects are examined.

  10. Gallery Walk Questions about the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the solar system. The questions are organized according to the ...

  11. External Resource: Our Solar System Lithograph Set

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This lithograph set features images of the planets, the sun, asteroids, comets, meteors and meteorites, the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud, and moons of the solar system. General information, significant dates, interesting facts and brief descriptions of the

  12. The Birth Environment of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael; Allen, Lori; Trilling, Davif

    2014-02-01

    In his comprehensive review on the birth environment of the solar system, Adams (2010) uses four primary dynamical, chemical, and radiation constraints to conclude that the solar system formed in a cluster with between 1000 and 10,000 members. The existence of the planetoid Sedna, on a highly elliptical orbit disconnected from the giant planets, is perhaps the weakest of these primary constraints. We propose a small Gemini imaging program to followup serendipitous discoveries of distant objets in the outer solar system from a 30 night Dark Energy Camera near earth asteroid survey. The Gemini observations will allow us to determine orbits of these distant objects which will allow us to (1) determine if Sedna was indeed emplaced by a birth cluster and (2) use full orbital population statistics to constrain the birth environment of the sun using this unique fossil record of the earliest history of our solar system.

  13. Planetary science: Birth of a Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    2002-08-01

    Radioisotope dating of meteorites suggests that planets formed in the Solar System over shorter timescales than had been thought. There are consequences for how the Moon formed, but is this the final word?

  14. Solar System: Sifting through the debris

    E-print Network

    Asantha Cooray

    2006-08-11

    A quadrillion previously unnoticed small bodies beyond Neptune have been spotted as they dimmed X-rays from a distant source. Models of the dynamics of debris in the Solar System's suburbs must now be reworked.

  15. Multistep Methods for Integrating the Solar System

    E-print Network

    Skordos, Panayotis S.

    1988-07-01

    High order multistep methods, run at constant stepsize, are very effective for integrating the Newtonian solar system for extended periods of time. I have studied the stability and error growth of these methods when ...

  16. Modular solar-heating system - design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinton, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    Compilation contains design, performance, and hardware specifications in sufficient detail to fabricate or procure materials and install, operate, and maintain complete modular solar heating and hot water system for single family size dwellings.

  17. How the Inner Solar System Formed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-23

    In this video segment adapted from NOVA, explore the theory that small bits of gas and dust combined to form protoplanets billions of years ago, which in turn collided to create the four rocky planets of the inner solar system.

  18. How special is the Solar System?

    E-print Network

    M. E. Beer; A. R. King; M. Livio; J. E. Pringle

    2004-07-22

    Most mechanisms proposed for the formation of planets are modified versions of the mechanism proposed for the solar system. Here we argue that, in terms of those planetary systems which have been observed, the case for the solar system being a typical planetary system has yet to be established. We consider the possibility that most observed planetary systems have been formed in some quite different way. If so, it may be that none of the observed planetary systems is likely to harbour an earth-like planet.

  19. Solar-heating system performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains results of performance tests on complete system for solar space and hot-water heating system that uses commercially available components. Results were used to determine system suitability for field installation and to generate performance data base for comparison with future tests on field installed systems.

  20. Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A. [Southwest Technology Development Inst., Las Cruces, NM (US)

    1993-05-01

    The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

  1. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  2. Meteoroids: The Smallest Solar System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, Danille E. (Compiler); Hardin, B. F. (Compiler); Janches, Diego (Compiler)

    2011-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of articles reflecting the current state of knowledge on the physics, chemistry, astronomy, and aeronomy of small bodies in the solar system. The articles included here represent the most recent results in meteor, meteoroid, and related research fields and were presented May 24-28, 2010, in Breckenridge, Colorado, USA at Meteoroids 2010: An International Conference on Minor Bodies in the Solar System.

  3. Chaos and stability of the solar system

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Renu; Holman, Matthew; Ito, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has come about a recognition that chaotic dynamics is pervasive in the solar system. We now understand that the orbits of small members of the solar system—asteroids, comets, and interplanetary dust—are chaotic and undergo large changes on geological time scales. Are the major planets' orbits also chaotic? The answer is not straightforward, and the subtleties have prompted new questions. PMID:11606772

  4. The Solar System: Recent Exploration Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The solar system has been visited by space probes, ranging from the Mariner Mercury-Venus mission exploring inward toward the sun, and continuing through the Voyager probes out into interstellar space and (on its way now) the New Horizons probe to Pluto and the Kuiper belt. This talk examines what we know of the planets of the solar system from probes, and talks about where we will go from here.

  5. Basics of a Solar Electric System: Better Buildings Series Solar Electric Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-07-01

    Today's solar technologies are more efficient and versatile than ever before, adding to the appeal of an already desirable energy source. This fact sheet provides information on the basics of a solar electric system, including components of a system, how to choose solar modules, and how to choose a solar system.

  6. The Telescope Control System of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    E-print Network

    The Telescope Control System of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory G. Yang*a, J Telescope (NST) is an advanced solar telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). It features a 1.6-m the local seeing. The NST Telescope Control System (TCS) is a complex system, which provides powerful

  7. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John D.

    2009-05-01

    There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  8. Star Witness News: Icy Visitor Makes First Appearance to Inner Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This news story highlights Comet ISON's travels through our region of the solar system. This science content reading identifies and defines vocabulary that may be new to students. Discussion questions help to focus student attention on important information and to challenge students to more deeply explore the topic of comets.

  9. The Solar System Presentation for SRS 5th Grade

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    The Solar System Presentation for SRS 5th Grade Prof. David Cohen, Swarthmore College #12;What astronomers try to answer: ·What are the things in the solar system like? Planets, moons, comets, asteroids, the Sun... ·Are there good conditions for life anywhere in the solar system? ·How did the solar system

  10. HARETU AND THE STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM1

    E-print Network

    Diacu, Florin

    HARETU AND THE STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM1 Florin Diacu2 Pacific Institute for the Mathematical the contributions of Spiru Haretu to the problem of the solar system's stability and show their importance relative and the consequences of Haretu's results. Keywords: stability, solar system, n-body problem. #12;Is the solar system

  11. Concentrators Enhance Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    "Right now, solar electric propulsion is being looked at very seriously," says Michael Piszczor, chief of the photovoltaic and power technologies branch at Glen Research Center. The reason, he explains, originates with a unique NASA mission from the late 1990s. In 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft launched from Kennedy Space Center to test a dozen different space technologies, including SCARLET, or the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology. As a solar array that focused sunlight on a smaller solar cell to generate electric power, SCARLET not only powered Deep Space 1 s instruments but also powered its ion engine, which propelled the spacecraft throughout its journey. Deep Space 1 was the first spacecraft powered by a refractive concentrator design like SCARLET, and also utilized multi-junction solar cells, or cells made of multiple layers of different materials. For the duration of its 38-month mission, SCARLET performed flawlessly, even as Deep Space 1 flew by Comet Borrelly and Asteroid Braille. "Everyone remembers the ion engine on Deep Space 1, but they tend to forget that the SCARLET array powered it," says Piszczor. "Not only did both technologies work as designed, but the synergy between the two, solar power and propulsion together, is really the important aspect of this technology demonstration mission. It was the first successful use of solar electric propulsion for primary propulsion." More than a decade later, NASA is keenly interested in using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for future space missions. A key issue is cost, and SEP has the potential to substantially reduce cost compared to conventional chemical propulsion technology. "SEP allows you to use spacecraft that are smaller, lighter, and less costly," says Piszczor. "Even though it might take longer to get somewhere using SEP, if you are willing to trade time for cost and smaller vehicles, it s a good trade." Potentially, SEP could be used on future science missions in orbit around the Earth or Moon, to planets or asteroids, on deep space science missions, and even on exploration missions. In fact, electric propulsion is already being used on Earth-orbiting satellites for positioning.

  12. Residential solar-heating/cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report documents progress of residential solar-heating and cooling system development program at 5-month mark of anticipated 17-month program. System design has been completed, and development and component testing has been initiated. Report includes diagrams, operation overview, optimization studies of subcomponents, and marketing plans for system.

  13. Solar Thermal Power Systems parabolic dish project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    The status of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Project for FY 1980 is summarized. Included is: a discussion of the project's goals, program structure, and progress in parabolic dish technology. Analyses and test results of concentrators, receivers, and power converters are discussed. Progress toward the objectives of technology feasibility, technology readiness, system feasibility, and system readiness are covered.

  14. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A collection of monthly status reports are given on the development of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems. This effort calls for the development, manufacturing, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3-, 25-, and 75-ton size units.

  15. ICS solar systems with two water tanks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Tripanagnostopoulos; M. Souliotis

    2006-01-01

    Integrated collector storage (ICS) systems are compact solar water heaters, simple in construction, installation and operation. They are cheaper than flat plate thermosiphonic units, but their higher thermal losses make them suitable mainly for application in locations with favourable weather conditions. Aiming to the achievement of low system height and satisfactory water temperature stratification, new types of ICS systems with

  16. Lead acid batteries in solar refrigeration systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomachan A Kattakayam; K Srinivasan

    2004-01-01

    Batteries play a vital role in solar photovoltaic refrigeration systems. Despite breakthroughs in operational characteristics of various components of such systems, lead acid batteries continue to be the only viable electrical energy storage devices as of date. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of characterization of a lead acid battery system as a component of a

  17. Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

    1994-01-01

    Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

  18. The Birth Environment of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Fred C.

    2010-09-01

    This review examines our current understanding of the possible birth environments of our Solar System. Because most stars form within groups and clusters, the question becomes one of determining the nature of the birth aggregate of the Sun. This discussion starts by reviewing Solar System properties that provide constraints on our environmental history. We then outline the range of star-forming environments that are available in the Galaxy and discuss how they affect star and planet formation. The nature of the solar birth cluster is constrained by many physical considerations, including radiation fields provided by the background environment, dynamical scattering interactions, and by the necessity of producing the short-lived radioactive nuclear species inferred from meteoritic measurements. Working scenarios for the solar birth aggregate can be constructed, as discussed herein, although significant uncertainties remain.

  19. Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

  20. Corrosivity of glycol antifreezes in solar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Foresti, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The National Solar Data Network (NSDN) has been continuously monitoring the performance of solar energy systems throughout the country for the past four years. A number of antifreeze solutions from the solar collector loops were chemically analyzed to determine the nature of the antifreezes and their effect on corrosion. The solutions had various residence times in the systems, but, with the exception of three systems, these times were unknown. It was found that a wide variety of antifreeze-corrosion inhibitor systems were being used, and no pattern could be detected to indicate a preference of quality. A question was raised on toxicity, where toxic inhibitors were added to nontoxic antifreezes, i.e., proplyene glycol. The results appear to refute published laboratory studies that predict significant decomposition of the glycols. It appears the corrosion is not a serious problem for inhibited ethylene or propylene glycol solutions in properly constructed copper systems.

  1. Planetary magnetism in the outer solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.

    1973-01-01

    A brief review of the salient considerations which apply to the existence of magnetic fields in connection with planetary and subplanetary objects in the outer solar system is given. Consideration is given to internal dynamo fields, fields which might originate from interaction with the solar wind or magnetospheres (externally driven dynamos) and lastly fossil magnetic fields such as have been discovered on the moon. Where possible, connection is made between magnetism, means of detection, and internal body properties.

  2. Development and Testing of the Solar System Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornstein, Seth D.; Prather, E. E.; English, T. R.; Desch, S. M.; Keller, J. M.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    Trying to assess if our students really understand the ideas we present in class can be difficult. Concept inventories are research-validated assessment tools that can provide us with data to better understand whether we are successful in the classroom. The idea for the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) was born after realizing that no concept inventory currently available covered details regarding the formation and evolution of our solar system. Topics were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system and interviewing students in order to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. Beginning in fall of 2008, a national multi-institutional field test began which would eventually involve nearly 2500 students and 17 instructors from 10 different institutions. After each round of testing, a group of instructors from multiple institutions around the country worked together to analyze the data and revise or eliminate underperforming questions. Each question was examined using a combination of point biserial, percent correct on the pre-test, and item difficulty to determine if the question was properly differentiating student understanding while also ensuring the question was not too easy or too hard. In this talk, I will present an overall outline of the development of the SSCI as well as the final testing results. The final version of the SSCI can be found at http://casa.colorado.edu/ hornstei/ssci/. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any findings expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.

  3. Chemical energy storage system for Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) solar thermal power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Brown; J. L. LaMarche; G. E. Spanner

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated the potential feasibility of using chemical energy storage at the Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) power plants developed by Luz International. Like sensible or latent heat energy storage systems, chemical energy storage can be beneficially applied to solar thermal power plants to dampen the impact of cloud transients, extend the daily operating

  4. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a Section 203...Procedures Eligible Mortgages § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation...residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

  5. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a Section 203...Procedures Eligible Mortgages § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation...residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

  6. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a Section 203...Procedures Eligible Mortgages § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation...residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

  7. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a Section 203...Procedures Eligible Mortgages § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation...residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy...

  8. STATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS (SDHW)

    E-print Network

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS (SDHW) CEC- CF-6R-MECH-02 (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-02 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (SDHW 2009 SOLAR HOT WATER HEATING SYSTEMS: SRCC Certified Mfr Name & Model Number Net Solar Fraction (from

  9. Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System How did the outer planets mold the solar the science objectives for exploration of the outer solar system. It is consistent with Visions and Voyages but will be kept up-to-date as new discoveries are made, models evolve, our understanding of solar system processes

  10. CSCE 6933/5933 Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    of inverters, - delay of each inverterpt f Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems 9 #12;Ring Oscillator Accuracy Physical design is done only 2 times in the proposed design flow. Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems 8 #12;Ring Oscillator: 45nm CMOS Design pNt f 2 1 Where - frequency of oscillations, N - number

  11. A solar-Stirling small power system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Pons

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents results of an in-depth analysis of a 1 MWe solar power system consisting of multiple parabolic dish concentrators employing Stirling cycle engines for power conversion. The engine, ac generator, cavity receiver and integral sodium pool boiler\\/heat transport system are combined in a single package and mounted at the focus of each concentrator. The output of each concentrator

  12. Chaotic evolution of the solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald J. Sussman; Jack Wisdom

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of the entire planetary system for nearly 100 million years was studied using a computer with an integration technique. This calculation confirms that the evolution of the solar system as a whole is chaotic, with a remarkably short timescale of exponential divergence of about 4 million years. Additional numerical experiments indicate that the dynamical evolution of the Jovian

  13. Interstellar Dust in the Solar System

    E-print Network

    Harald Krueger; Markus Landgraf; Nicolas Altobelli; Eberhard Gruen

    2007-06-21

    The Ulysses spacecraft has been orbiting the Sun on a highly inclined ellipse almost perpendicular to the ecliptic plane (inclination 79 deg, perihelion distance 1.3 AU, aphelion distance 5.4 AU) since it encountered Jupiter in 1992. The in-situ dust detector on board continuously measured interstellar dust grains with masses up to 10^-13 kg, penetrating deep into the solar system. The flow direction is close to the mean apex of the Sun's motion through the solar system and the grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar cloud (LIC). While Ulysses monitored the interstellar dust stream at high ecliptic latitudes between 3 and 5 AU, interstellar impactors were also measured with the in-situ dust detectors on board Cassini, Galileo and Helios, covering a heliocentric distance range between 0.3 and 3 AU in the ecliptic plane. The interstellar dust stream in the inner solar system is altered by the solar radiation pressure force, gravitational focussing and interaction of charged grains with the time varying interplanetary magnetic field. We review the results from in-situ interstellar dust measurements in the solar system and present Ulysses' latest interstellar dust data. These data indicate a 30 deg shift in the impact direction of interstellar grains w.r.t. the interstellar helium flow direction, the reason of which is presently unknown.

  14. Redox storage systems for solar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, N. H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Redox energy storage system is described. The system is based on soluble aqueous iron and chromium chloride redox couples. The needed technology advances in the two elements (electrodes and membranes) that are key to its technological feasibility have been achieved and system development has begun. The design, construction, and test of a 1 kilowatt system integrated with a solar photovoltaic array is discussed.

  15. The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    2011-03-01

    Part I. Changing Views and Fundamental Concepts: 1. Evolving perspectives: a historical prologue; 2. The new, close-up view from space; 3. The invisible buffer zone with space: atmospheres, magnetospheres and the solar wind; Part II. The Inner System - Rocky Worlds: 4. Third rock from the Sun: restless Earth; 5. The Moon: stepping stone to the planets; 6. Mercury: a dense battered world; 7. Venus: the veiled planet; 8. Mars: the red planet; Part III. The Giant Planets, Their Satellites and Their Rings - Worlds of Liquid, Ice and Gas: 9. Jupiter: a giant primitive planet; 10. Saturn: lord of the rings; 11. Uranus and Neptune; Part IV. Remnants of Creation - Small Worlds in the Solar System: 12. Asteroids and meteorites; 13. Colliding worlds; 14. Comets; 15. Beyond Neptune; Part V. Origin of the Solar System and Extrasolar Planets: 16. Brave new worlds; Index.

  16. Igneous activity in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewins, R. H.; Newsom, H. E.

    1988-01-01

    Although the main emphasis of this book is on what can be learned about the early solar system from material that has escaped secondary processing, the study of differentiated meteorites can provide unique insights into the processes of basalt generation and core formation. Such processes would have been of fundamental importance during the evolution of planetary objects, including the terrestrial planets, early in solar-system history. The properties of igneous meteorites are studied with attention given to the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) suite. Geochemical and petrologic trends in those meteorites are discussed with the objective of defining the thermal and chemical evolution of the HED parent body. A major issue is the nature of the dominant source of heat in the early solar system.

  17. The Changing Perception of the Solar System

    E-print Network

    Nesvorny, D

    2015-01-01

    The solar system has changed dramatically since its birth, and so did our understanding of it. A considerable research effort has been invested in the past decade in an attempt to reconstruct the solar system history, including the earliest stages some 4.5 billion years ago. The results indicate how several processes, such as planetary migration and dynamical instabilities, acted to relax the orbital spacing of the outer planets, and provided the needed perturbation to explain the present planetary orbits that are not precisely circular and coplanar. Here we highlight this work and illustrate the key results in a computer simulation that unifies several recently developed theories. The emerging view represents another step away from the initial perception of the solar system as part of unchanging heavens.

  18. Dark Matter in the Solar System

    E-print Network

    X. Xu; E. R. Siegel

    2008-06-23

    We determine the density and mass distribution of dark matter within our Solar System. We explore the three-body interactions between dark matter particles, the Sun, and the planets to compute the amount of dark matter gravitationally captured over the lifetime of the Solar System. We provide an analytical framework for performing these calculations and detail our numerical simulations accordingly. We find that the local density of dark matter is enhanced by between three and five orders of magnitude over the background halo density, dependent on the radial distance from the Sun. This has profound implications for terrestrial direct dark matter detection searches. We also discuss our results in the context of gravitational signatures, including existing constraints, and find that dark matter captured in this fashion is not responsible for the Pioneer anomaly. We conclude that dark matter appears to, overall, play a much more important role in our Solar System than previously thought.

  19. The chaotic "sculpting" of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiganis, K.

    2006-01-01

    The orbits of the large celestial bodies in our Solar System are stable for very long times, as can be shown by numerical simulation. This gives the erroneous impression of perpetual stability of the system. It is only when we study the orbital distribution of the numerous minor bodies in the Solar System that we discover the rich variety of complex dynamical processes that have in fact shaped our system. During the last decade, enormous progress has been made, in understanding the evolution of the system over the last ~3.9 Gy. However, it also became clear that, in order to unveil its behaviour during the first ~700 million years of its lifetime, we have to find convincing explanations for observations that appear as details of its dynamical architecture. In the following we are going to show how the two best known - and up to now unexplained - observations in the Solar System, namely (i) the heavily cratered surface of the Moon and (ii) the elliptic (and not circular) motion of the planets, lead us to the discovery of the chaotic sculpting of the Solar System [1]-[3].

  20. Seasonal and longitudinal variations of the solar quiet (Sq) current system during solar minimum determined by CHAMP satellite

    E-print Network

    Forbes, Jeffrey

    Seasonal and longitudinal variations of the solar quiet (Sq) current system during solar minimum are used to determine the solar quiet (Sq) current system during the recent solar minimum. Observations. Richmond (2011), Seasonal and longitudinal variations of the solar quiet (Sq) current system during solar

  1. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-print Network

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen

  2. On the Solar System-Debris Disk Connecction

    E-print Network

    Amaya Moro-Martin

    2007-12-14

    This paper emphasizes the connection between solar and extra-solar debris disks: how models and observations of the Solar System are helping us understand the debris disk phenomenon, and vice versa, how debris disks are helping us place our Solar System into context.

  3. Infrared observations of small solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    Infrared reflectance spectra were measured of dark primitive asteroids in the 2 to 5 micron wavelength region. The search was for organic complexes such and CN, CH, and NH in dark material on small bodies in the solar system. A search and study was made of volatiles such as nitrogen, methane, ammonia, and carbon monoxide, both as free ices and hydrates/clathrates, on icy surfaces in the outer solar system, using high resolution spectra obtained with a multichannel cooled grating, infrared spectrometer. An absorption that can be attributed to X-C (triple bond) N in the matrix of dark materials on the primitive asteroids.

  4. Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2005-01-01

    This research is aimed at testing gravitational theory, primarily on an interplanetary scale and using mainly observations of objects in the solar system. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to support this model by placing tighter bounds on any departure from it. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, as well as pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements.

  5. Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2005-01-01

    We are engaged in testing gravitational theory, mainly using observations of objects in the solar system and mainly on the interplanetary scale. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to support this model by placing tighter bounds on any departure from it. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, as well as pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements. In the past year, we have added to our data, primarily lunar laser ranging measurements, but also supplementary data concerning the physical properties of solar-system objects, such as the solar quadrupole moment, planetary masses, and asteroid radii. Because the solar quadrupole moment contributes to the classical precession of planetary perihelia, but with a dependence on distance from the Sun that differs from that of the relativistic precession, it is possible to estimate effects simultaneously. However, our interest is mainly in the relativistic effect, and we find that imposing a constraint on the quadrupole moment from helioseismology studies, gives us a dramatic (about ten-fold) decrease in the standard error of our estimate of the relativistic component of the perihelion advance.

  6. Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The completed system was composed of three basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3,264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which included a 5,000 gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which included piping, pumping and heat transfer components as well as the solemoid activated valves and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and was, therefore, a retrofit system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  7. Solar heating system final design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

  8. Smaller solar system bodies and orbits; Proceedings of Symposium 3, Workshops II, III, and XXVI, and Topical Meetings of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runcorn, S. K. (editor); Carr, M. H. (editor); Moehlmann, D. (editor); Stiller, H. (editor); Matson, D. L. (editor); Ambrosius, B. A. C. (editor); Kessler, D. J. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics discussed in this volume include the reappraisal of the moon and Mars/Phobos/Deimos; the origin and evolution of planetary and satellite systems; asteroids, comets, and dust (a post-IRAS perspective); satellite dynamics; future planetary missions; and orbital debris. Papers are presented on a comparison of the chemistry of moon and Mars, the use of a mobile surface radar to study the atmosphere and ionosphere, and laser-ionization studies with the technical models of the LIMA-D/Phobos. Attention is given to planetogonic scenarios and the evolution of relatively mass-rich preplanetary disks, the kinetic behavior of planetesimals revolving around the sun, the planetary evolution of Mars, and pre- and post-IRAS asteroid taxonomies. Consideration is also given to ocean tides and tectonic plate motions in high-precision orbit determination, the satellite altimeter calibration techniques, a theory of the motion of an artificial satellite in the earth atmosphere, ESA plans for planetary exploration, and the detection of earth orbiting objects by IRAS.

  9. Meteorites: messengers from the early solar system.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Beda A

    2010-01-01

    Meteorites are fragments from solar system bodies, dominantly asteroids. A small fraction is derived from the Moon and from Mars. These rocks tell a rich history of the early solar system and range from solids little changed since the earliest phases of solid matter condensation in the solar nebula (chondrites) to material representing asteroidal metamorphism and melting, impact processes on the Moon and even aqueous alteration near the surface of Mars. Meteorites are very rare. Currently many meteorites result from searches in Antarctica and the hot deserts of North Africa and Arabia. The present high find rate likely represents a unique short-term event, asking for a careful management of this scarce scientific resource. PMID:21138163

  10. A regional comparison of solar, heat pump, and solar-heat pump systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Manton; J. W. Mitchell

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study of the thermal and economic performance of the parallel and series solar heat pump systems, stand alone solar and stand alone heat pump systems for residential space and domestic hot water heating for the U.S. using FCHART 4.0 is presented. Results show that the parallel solar heat pump system yields the greatest energy savings in the south.

  11. Passive vapor transport solar heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In the systems under consideration, refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector and condensed in thermal storage for space or water heating located within the building at a level below that of the collector. Condensed liquid is lifted to an accumulator above the collector by the vapor pressure generated in the collector. Tests of two systems are described, and it is concluded that one of these systems offers distinct advantages.

  12. Solar potential for the solar photovoltaic roof integration system in China explored by the geographic information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinping Zhou; Jiakuan Yang; Xudong Yuan; Bo Xiao; Guoxiang Hou

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the potential solar power for the solar photovoltaic Roof Integration System (RIS) using the Geographic Information System (GIS) method, taking into account the geographic distribution of solar irradiation and the estimate of costs for the RIS and identifies the distribution of potential solar energy radiating on the RIS and power. The total urban roof area is estimated

  13. CSCE 6933/5933 Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    . Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems #12;2 Scaling Trends and Effects: Summary · Scaling improves Transistor in Nanoscale Transistors: NMOS Vs PMOS Perspective", in Proceedings of the 20th IEEE International Conference and also gives a qualitative idea of the driving capacity of a Nano-CMOS transistor. Advanced Topics

  14. Supernova Debris in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2000-03-01

    Meteorites contain clear evidence that isotopes with short half lives (as short as 100,000 years) were present in the cloud of gas and dust (the called solar nebula) from which the Sun and planets formed. Supernovae, the powerful explosions of spent stars, produce elements, including short-lived radioactive isotopes. Given the short lifetimes, these elements must have been added immediately before solids formed in the Solar System, and it is possible that a supernova triggered the collapse of the vast interstellar cloud in which the Solar System formed. However, there is some evidence that two isotopes, aluminum-26 and manganese-53, were not distributed uniformly in the solar nebula. If correct, does this mean that the supernova debris was not mixed thoroughly into the collapsing interstellar cloud? This possibility was tested by Robert H. Nichols, Frank Podosek, and Cristine Jennings (Washington University in St. Louis) and Brad Meyer (Clemson University). They evaluated how thoroughly supernova products were mixed into the solar nebula by searching for the effects on the isotopic make up of other elements. They conclude that the explosive products of a supernova would have been mixed uniformly into the nebula. Thus, either the evidence of heterogeneous distribution of short-lived isotopes is incorrect, or some isotopes were not formed in a supernova, but came from somewhere else. This research project is one of many that link studies of meteorites, astronomical observations, and astrophysical calculations.

  15. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Task 3 -- System selection; Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.J.

    1994-07-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated has elected to pursue an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine system to exceed the goals of the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program, which are to develop and commercialize an industrial gas turbine system that operates at thermal efficiencies at least 15% higher than 1991 products, and with emissions not exceeding eight ppmv NOx and 20 ppmv CO and UHC. Solar`s goal is to develop a commercially viable industrial system (3--20 MW) driven by a gas turbine engine with a thermal efficiency of 50% (ATS50), with the flexibility to meet the differing operational requirements of various markets. Dispersed power generation is currently considered to be the primary future target market for the ICR in the 5--15 MW size class. The ICR integrated system approach provides an ideal candidate for the assumed dispersed power market, with its small footprint, easy transportability, and environmental friendliness. In comparison with other systems that use water or toxic chemicals such as ammonia for NOx control, the ICR has no consumables other than fuel and air. The low pressure ratio of the gas turbine engine also is favorable in that less parasitic power is needed to pump the natural gas into the combustor than for simple-cycle machines. Solar has narrowed the ICR configuration to two basic approaches, a 1-spool, and a 2-spool version of the ATS50. The 1-spool engine will have a lower first-cost but lower part-power efficiencies. The 2-spool ATS may not only have better part-power efficiency, its efficiency will also be less sensitive to reduced turbine rotor inlet temperature levels. Thus hot-end parts life can be increased with only small sacrifices in efficiency. The flexibility of the 2-spool arrangement in meeting customer needs is its major advantage over the 1-spool. This Task 3 Topical Report is intended to present Solar`s preliminary system selection based upon the initial trade-off studies performed to date.

  16. IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? A REMARK Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat Computer Science Department System is stable or not. Common belief is that the Solar System is stable if and only, a similar inequality is true for randomly chosen frequencies. In this paper, we show that the Solar system

  17. Long simulations of the Solar System: Brouwer's Law and Chaos

    E-print Network

    Sharp, Philip

    Long simulations of the Solar System: Brouwer's Law and Chaos K. R. Grazier W. I. Newman James M of motion for self- gravitating systems, particularly in the context of our Solar System's evolution growth can be attained in 3-D Solar System integrations. Our integrations are such that the positions

  18. IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? A REMARK Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat Computer Science Department System is stable or not. Common belief is that the Solar System is stable if and only that the Solar system does not have such resonances, and therefore (if the above­mentioned belief is correct), we

  19. ON "ARNOLD'S THEOREM" ON THE STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Féjoz, Jacques

    ON "ARNOLD'S THEOREM" ON THE STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM JACQUES F´EJOZ Abstract: Arnold 0 as the Sun and the other bodies as n planets revolving around the Sun. In our Solar System is a breakthrough in respect of the oldest question in Dy- namical Systems --the stability of the Solar System. Yet

  20. An inexpensive economical solar heating system for homes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Allred; J. M. Shinn Jr.; C. E. Kirby; S. R. Barringer

    1976-01-01

    A low-cost solar home heating system to supplement existing warm-air heating systems is described. The report is written in three parts: (1) a brief background on solar heating, (2) experience with a demonstration system, and (3) information for the homeowner who wishes to construct such a system. Instructions are given for a solar heating installation in which the homeowner supplies

  1. Solar energy system performance evaluation - final report for Honeywell OTS 45, Salt River Project, Phoenix, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, A K

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 45) at Salt River Project in Phoenix, Arizona, based on the analysis of data collected between April 1981 and March 31, 1982. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 45 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 8208 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 2500-gallon thermal storage tank; two 25-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted water chillers; a forced-draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 8 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 1143 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 3440 MMBtu and provided 241 MMBtu for cooling and 64 MMBtu for heating. The projected net annual electrical energy savings due to the solar system was approximately 40,000 kWh(e).

  2. Air medium solar heating system. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    A demonstration of an air medium solar heating system retrofitted to an existing dwelling in a northern climate, latitude 48°N, is described. The collector measures 64 ft in length by 8 ft high and is located 40 ft from the dwelling. The air transfer is accomplished via 2 - 12 in. round PVC air ducts insulated with 1 in. of

  3. Momentum harvesting techniques for solar system travel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan J. Willoughby

    1991-01-01

    Astronomers are lately estimating there are 400,000 earth visiting asteroids larger than 100 meters in diameter. These asteroids are uniquely accessible sources of building materials, propellants, oxygen, water, and minerals. They also constitute a huge momentum reserve, potentially usable for travel throughout the solar system. To use this momentum, these stealthy objects must be tracked and the ability to extract

  4. Solar-thermodynamic power systems in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Marian

    The physical characteristics of a dynamic solar system with the organic Rankine cycle are presented. It is shown that dynamic power generation can satisfy the high energy requirements of future space applications. A theoretical diagram and physical equations for efficiency are presented as well as a functional scheme of the device. Toluene is shown to be the optimal working fluid.

  5. Testing gravity law in the solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lamine; J.-M. Courty; S. Reynaud; M.-T. Jaekel

    2011-01-01

    The predictions of General relativity (GR) are in good agreement with observations in the solar system. Nevertheless, unexpected anomalies appeared during the last decades, along with the increasing precision of measurements. Those anomalies are present in spacecraft tracking data (Pioneer and flyby anomalies) as well as ephemerides. In addition, the whole theory is challenged at galactic and cosmic scales with

  6. External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Our galaxy - the Milky Way - is a spiral galaxy with arms extending from the center like a pinwheel. Our solar system is in the Orion arm of the Milky Way. Our Sun is one of about 100 billion stars in the Milky Way. And our galaxy is just one of roughly 1

  7. Solar-system abundances of the elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Anders; M. Ebihara

    1982-01-01

    Elemental analyses of the Ogueil Cl meteorite and all previous Cl chondrite analyses were employed to develop a new solar system abundance table, including the standard deviation and number of analyses for each element. The table also comprises the abundances of radioactive and radiogenic nuclides at the present and 4.55 AE ago, as well as abundances by weight in a

  8. The Inner Solar System Characteristics of Earth

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The Inner Solar System #12;The Earth #12;Characteristics of Earth A terrestrial, rocky planet floats on mantle · Crust is created and destroyed #12;Characteristics of Earth Today Surface: · 70% water · 30% land Atmosphere: ·77% N2 ·21% O2 ·0.1% H2O ·+Ar, CO2, Ne #12;The Dynamic Earth Molten Core

  9. Sun tracking solar energy collector system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doundoulakis

    1981-01-01

    A sun tracking solar energy collector system comprises a plurality of light focusing elements disposed side by side in the form of a surface array, providing a linear array of foci; and a metallic heat exchanger tube having externally a high absorbtivity, low reflectivity coating containing a working fluid such as water, air, hydrogen or helium, to which a substantial

  10. Foundation-based solar heating system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bounds

    1983-01-01

    The foundation-based solar heating system includes a plurality of preformed beams that define a perimeter, the beams being elevated above the earth and receiving a building thereon. The building floor, the beams, and the earth enclosed by the beams define a plenum chamber, and the beams have internal air flow channels therein. One of the beams is south-facing, and carries

  11. Simulation of solar hydrogen energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Kauranen, P.S.; Lund, P.D.; Manninen, L.M. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland))

    1994-09-01

    Solar hydrogen is a promising long-term global energy option for the post-fossil fuel era. On the other hand, solar hydrogen may have already found an early commercial application in the form of seasonal energy storage for remote stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) applications. In a stand-alone solar hydrogen energy system, the photovoltaic array is coupled with an electrolyser to produce H[sub 2] which is stored to be later converted back to electricity in a fuel cell. The system setup comprises several subsystems which have to be controlled in an optimal way. Numerical simulations are used to get a closer insight into the transient response behavior of these elegant, but rather complicated systems during variable insolation conditions and to estimate the overall system performance accurately over extensive periods of time. The simulations are performed with the H2PHOTO program which has been successfully used for the design of a solar hydrogen pilot plant. It has also shown good accuracy against experimental data.

  12. Cutting Industrial Solar System Costs in Half 

    E-print Network

    Niess, R. C.; Weinstein, A.

    1982-01-01

    collectors that result in an installed first cost that approximates one half of that of conventional solar systems. This technology is now available for producing up to 220 F hot water for industrial process heat, space heating, and service hot water heating...

  13. Extending Human Presence into the Solar System

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Extending Human Presence into the Solar System An Independent Study for The Planetary Society. Dependence on International Partners 14 3. Regulatory Concerns 15 Safety and Exploration Beyond LEO 15) and the smallest number of additional flights necessary to satisfy our international partners' ISS requirements

  14. The Formation of the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    About 4.6 billion years ago, a cloud of interstellar dust, ice crystals, and gas collapsed to form a rapidly rotating disk with a young sun at its center: our solar system. This comic strip, a supplement to the Hall of Meteorites Educator's Guide, explains the processes that led to the creation of the planets and the asteroid belt.

  15. Planetary accretion in the inner Solar System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Chambers

    2004-01-01

    Unlike gas-giant planets, we lack examples of terrestrial planets orbiting other Sun-like stars to help us understand how they formed. We can draw hints from elsewhere though. Astronomical observations of young stars; the chemical and isotopic compositions of Earth, Mars and meteorites; and the structure of the Solar System all provide clues to how the inner rocky planets formed. These

  16. Recent Goldstone Solar System Radar Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Haldemann; L. Benner; B. J. Butler; L. Harcke; R. F. Jurgens; K. W. Larsen; J. Margot; S. J. Ostro; M. A. Slade

    2003-01-01

    Planetary radar exploration started on the ground with the detection of the Moon in 1946. In recent years, the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has for example made contributions to (i) understanding of the hazards and trafficability at various proposed Mars robotic landing sites, (ii) under-standing of polar water ice for the terrestrial planets and the surfaces of the icy

  17. Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1978-01-01

    The solar tracking control system, Sun Chaser, a method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions is described. The Sun Chaser follows the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and resets itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise.

  18. Thermal control system for solar collector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    A fluid cycling system for a solar collector is disclosed. The collector has a pump to force fluid through the collector to a fluid exit. The present invention provides a vertically extending expansion tank with an inlet coupled to the fluid exit from the collector located intermediate the top and bottom of the expansion tank. A primary outlet is provided

  19. Review of solar-energy drying systems II: an overview of solar drying technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V Ekechukwu; B Norton

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically-realised designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy

  20. Planet Formation in the Outer Solar System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews coagulation models for planet formation in the Kuiper\\u000aBelt, emphasizing links to recent observations of our and other solar systems.\\u000aAt heliocentric distances of 35-50 AU, single annulus and multiannulus\\u000aplanetesimal accretion calculations produce several 1000 km or larger planets\\u000aand many 50-500 km objects on timescales of 10-30 Myr in a Minimum Mass Solar\\u000aNebula. Planets

  1. Experimental Research of an Active Solar Heating System 

    E-print Network

    Gao, X.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    system are discussed in this paper. Based on the design, construction, testing and economic analysis of a demonstration project with the solar heating system, this paper discusses how to connect the solar energy collector with the electricity heater...

  2. Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Space Explorations Part 2: Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what is currently known about the solar system and the objects that make up the solar system. Information about the individual planets, comets, asteroids and moons is reviewed.

  3. Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines and assumptions used in the design of a system of geosynchronous satellites for transmitting solar power to earth were discussed as well as the design evolutions of the principle types of solar power satellites and space support systems.

  4. Nonlinear Resonances in the Solar System

    E-print Network

    Renu Malhotra

    1994-06-13

    Orbital resonances are ubiquitous in the Solar system. They play a decisive role in the long term dynamics, and in some cases the physical evolution, of the planets and of their natural satellites, as well as the evolution of small bodies (including dust) in the planetary system. The few-body gravitational problem of hierarchical planetary-type systems allows for a complex range of dynamical timescales, from the fast orbital periods to the very slow orbit precession rates. The interaction of fast and slow degrees of freedom produces a rich diversity of resonance phenomena. Weak dissipative effects --- such as tides or radiation drag forces --- also produce unexpectedly rich dynamical behaviors. This paper provides a mostly qualitative discussion of simple dynamical models for the commonly encountered orbital resonance phenomena in the Solar system.

  5. Energy transfer in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelbring, H.

    2013-12-01

    Different types of energy transfer are presented from the literature and are approached and commented on. It follows from these articles that energy transfer in addition to solar irradiation is less well understood by contemporary scientist. The transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy in planetary orbits might be of crucial importance for understanding energy transfer between celestial bodies and the development of commensurabilities. There is evidence pointing to interactions (friction) between space and satellites producing volcanism. The reversible transfer of energy between the orbit of Moon and Earth's rotational energy is crucial to the creation of the 13.6-day and 27.3-day periods in both solar variables and Earth bound climate variables. It is hypothesized that the Earth-Moon system is modulating the sunspot numbers and creating both these periods, and that the great planets are responsible for the 11 yr solar cycle.

  6. Similarity Rules for Scaling Solar Sail Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Stephen L.; Peddieson, John; Garbe, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Future science missions will require solar sails on the order of 200 square meters (or larger). However, ground demonstrations and flight demonstrations must be conducted at significantly smaller sizes, due to limitations of ground-based facilities and cost and availability of flight opportunities. For this reason, the ability to understand the process of scalability, as it applies to solar sail system models and test data, is crucial to the advancement of this technology. This paper will approach the problem of scaling in solar sail models by developing a set of scaling laws or similarity criteria that will provide constraints in the sail design process. These scaling laws establish functional relationships between design parameters of a prototype and model sail that are created at different geometric sizes. This work is applied to a specific solar sail configuration and results in three (four) similarity criteria for static (dynamic) sail models. Further, it is demonstrated that even in the context of unique sail material requirements and gravitational load of earth-bound experiments, it is possible to develop appropriate scaled sail experiments. In the longer term, these scaling laws can be used in the design of scaled experimental tests for solar sails and in analyzing the results from such tests.

  7. Interstellar Dust in the Solar System

    E-print Network

    Krueger, Harald; Altobelli, Nicolas; Gruen, Eberhard

    2007-01-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft has been orbiting the Sun on a highly inclined ellipse almost perpendicular to the ecliptic plane (inclination 79 deg, perihelion distance 1.3 AU, aphelion distance 5.4 AU) since it encountered Jupiter in 1992. The in-situ dust detector on board continuously measured interstellar dust grains with masses up to 10^-13 kg, penetrating deep into the solar system. The flow direction is close to the mean apex of the Sun's motion through the solar system and the grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar cloud (LIC). While Ulysses monitored the interstellar dust stream at high ecliptic latitudes between 3 and 5 AU, interstellar impactors were also measured with the in-situ dust detectors on board Cassini, Galileo and Helios, covering a heliocentric distance range between 0.3 and 3 AU in the ecliptic plane. The interstellar dust stream in the inner solar system is altered by the solar radiation pressure force, gravitational focussing and interaction of charged gr...

  8. Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

  9. Condensation and Evaporation of Solar System Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. M.; Richter, F. M.

    The volatile element depletion patterns of planetary size objects and the chemical and isotopic composition of numerous smaller objects such as chondrules and calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) provide the motivation to consider evaporation and condensation processes in the early solar system. Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations of condensation of phases in the solar nebula provide an important reference with which natural solar system materials can be compared. The theoretical background for fractionation of elemental and isotopic compositions during kinetically controlled evaporation and condensation is explored in some detail. Some parameters can be calculated from first principles, but others must be measured in the laboratory, and a number of evaporation experiments are described and interpreted. Elemental and isotopic fractionations of solar system materials are then intepreted in the context of the theoretical and experimental considerations. A key point is that the processes that led to chondrules and planets appear to have occurred under conditions very close to equilibrium, whereas the processes that led to CAIs involved significant departures from equilibrium.

  10. Comparison of solar absorption air conditioning systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Wilbur; T. R. Mancini

    1976-01-01

    A computer simulation of solar powered absorption air conditioning systems is discussed. The results of simulations of various systems composed of conventional flat plate or evacuated tube collectors, wet or dry cooling towers, lithium bromide-water or aqua-ammonia working fluids and hot water, chilled water or refrigerant storage alternatives are obtained over a common operating cycle. Performance of the lithium bromide-water

  11. Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Tripanagnostopoulos; M. Souliotis; Th. Makris

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic\\/thermal (PV\\/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV\\/Ts)

  12. Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2002-01-01

    We are engaged in testing gravitational theory by means of observations of objects in the solar system. This work tests the equivalence principle (EP), the Shapiro time delay, the advances of planetary perihelion, the possibility of a secular variation G(dot) in the 'gravitational constant' G, and the rate of the de Sitter (geodetic) precession of the Earth-Moon system. We describe here the results under this contract.

  13. Concentrated Solar Power Generation Systems: The SAIC Dish

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Concentrated Solar Power Generation Systems: The SAIC Dish Center for Energy Research at UNLV #12 of concentrating solar dishes for electrical power generation. One of these solar dishes was marketed by Science the sun, resulting in a very high intensity solar beam on the target. This beam can be used to power

  14. Economic analysis of commercial solar water-heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-09-23

    A brief description is given of a typical commercial solar water heating system, outlining typical cost and performance levels. The economic performance of solar energy systems is described through the use of Cash Flow Diagrams. The economic performance of solar energy systems is described through the calculation of equivalent Return-On-Investment (ROI). Appendices are included that enable one to calculate the ROI for any particular solar hot water system investment. (MHR)

  15. Chemistry of the solar system: An elementary introductionto cosmochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Hans E.

    1987-01-01

    An introduction is presented to the chemistry of the solar system. The qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of the solar system is reviewed, and the elemental synthesis processes that led to the formation of the solar system are discussed. The chemical processes of the primordial mixture from which the solar system formed are examined, and the resulting chemical composition of meteorites, asteroids, comets, and planets is described.

  16. A management strategy for solar panel — battery — super capacitor hybrid energy system in solar car

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Wu; Fang Zhuo; Fei Long; Weiwei Gu; Yang Qing; YanQin Liu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an application of solar energy - battery - super-capacitor hybrid energy storage system in solar electric vehicles. The key point is the proposed energy management control algorithm. The entire system consists of a solar panel, a boost converter, a battery, a super capacitor, a bi-directional DC\\/DC converter, and a brushless DC motor. This paper gives the details

  17. New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

    2007-10-01

    Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

  18. Data Analysis with the SolarSoft System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Freeland; B. N. Handy

    1998-01-01

    The SolarSoftWare (SSW) system is a set of integrated software libraries, databases and system utilities which provide a common programming and data analysis environment for solar physics. Primarily an IDL based system, SSW is a collection of common data management and analysis routines derived from the Yohkoh and SOHO missions, the Solar Data Analysis Center, the astronomy libraries and other

  19. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  20. Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System Explore Diverse Worlds How did the outer planets mold the solar system and create habitable worlds? OPAG Report DRAFT 4 November 2014 #12;2 Outline of this document is to frame the science objectives for exploration of the outer solar system. It is consistent

  1. Is the outer Solar System chaotic? WAYNE B. HAYES

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Is the outer Solar System chaotic? WAYNE B. HAYES Computer Science Department, University. There exists both apparently unassailable evidence that the outer Solar System is chaotic1 development. The Solar System is known to be `practically stable', in the sense that none of the known planets

  2. SOLAR SYSTEM MODELS WITH A SELECTED SET OF FREQUENCIES

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    SOLAR SYSTEM MODELS WITH A SELECTED SET OF FREQUENCIES G. G´OMEZ IEEC & Departament de Matem, such as a spacecraft or an asteroid, in the Solar System. The procedure is based on applying refined Fourier analysis that depend explicitly on nat- ural frequencies of the Solar System. Some examples of these new models

  3. External Resource: Windows to the Universe: Our Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Visit links to the Sun, and visit the planets and other small bodies in the Solar System. Find out about solar system formation, and facts about the bodies in the solar system. See news highlights, and archives of images of the Sun, planets, comets, and a

  4. External Resource: Go to the Head of the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This is a NASA generated interactive game site that tests learner/student knowledge of the solar system. The more questions that are answered correctly, the farther the learner/student will travel in the solar system. Keywords: solar system, planets, game

  5. MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM: DESIGN/OPERATION OF SYSTEM AND RESULTS OF NON-SOLAR TESTING AT MRI

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Minipilot Solar Reactor System (MSRS) with liquid organic feed was designed, constructed and tested without solar input (the Solar Tests were to be done later at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory). he non-solar tests were done to determine whether use of EPA's sampling...

  6. Beyond the Solar System: Expanding the Universe in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Dussault

    This DVD combines the latest scientific and educational research to help teachers in grades 8-12 deepen their own and their students’ understanding of our universe and of the nature of science. Produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in association with NASA, Beyond the Solar System is filled with video, print, and online resources. It is designed for Earth and space science educators, physical science educators, professional development providers, and classroom use. The National Science Education Standards includes the topic of origin and evolution of the universe as part of the essential content of Earth and space science understanding. Yet providing concrete, inquiry-based experiences for students to learn these concepts can be a challenge for teachers. Beyond the Solar System contains more than two hours of video, organized into two modular strands of material -- science content, and teaching and learning resources. These are intended to promote greater understanding of the scientific concepts through discussion and reflection, activities, and application of the ideas to teaching. Also included are lesson plans, student guides, assessments, content background, summaries of relevant standards, and links to further resources. These instructional materials are provided in PDF format and can be printed from a computer.

  7. Vesta and Ceres: crossing the history of the Solar System

    E-print Network

    Coradini, Angioletta; Federico, Costanzo; Magni, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of the Solar System can be schematically divided into three different phases: the Solar Nebula, the Primordial Solar System and the Modern Solar System. These three periods were characterized by very different conditions, both from the point of view of the physical conditions and from that of the processes there were acting through them. Across the Solar Nebula phase, planetesimals and planetary embryos were forming and differentiating due to the decay of short-lived radionuclides. At the same time, giant planets formed their cores and accreted the nebular gas to reach their present masses. After the gas dispersal, the Primordial Solar System began its evolution. In the inner Solar System, planetary embryos formed the terrestrial planets and, in combination with the gravitational perturbations of the giant planets, depleted the residual population of planetesimals. In the outer Solar System, giant planets underwent a violent, chaotic phase of orbital rearrangement which caused the Late Heavy Bom...

  8. Life in the solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Brack

    1999-01-01

    Life, defined as a chemical system capable of transferring its molecular information via self-replication and also capable of evolving, must develop within a liquid to take advantage of the diffusion of complex molecules. On Earth, life probably originated from the evolution of reduced organic molecules in liquid water. Organic matter might have been formed in the primitive Earth's atmosphere or

  9. 2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The ... http://www.agu.org/cgi-bin/SFgate/SFgate?language=English&verb... 1 of 2 11/14/06 11:27 AM

    E-print Network

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The ... http://www=ng HR: 0800h AN: SH11A-0371 TI: 2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The Beginnings AU;2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The ... http://www

  10. Spacecraft Radio Scintillation and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1993-01-01

    When a wave propagates through a turbulent medium, scattering by the random refractive index inhomogeneities can lead to a wide variety of phenomena that have been the subject of extensive study. The observed scattering effects include amplitude or intensity scintillation, phase scintillation, angular broadening, and spectral broadening, among others. In this paper, I will refer to these scattering effects collectively as scintillation. Although the most familiar example is probably the twinkling of stars (light wave intensity scintillation by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere), scintillation has been encountered and investigated in such diverse fields as ionospheric physics, oceanography, radio astronomy, and radio and optical communications. Ever since planetary spacecraft began exploring the solar system, scintillation has appeared during the propagation of spacecraft radio signals through planetary atmospheres, planetary ionospheres, and the solar wind. Early studies of these phenomena were motivated by the potential adverse effects on communications and navigation, and on experiments that use the radio link to conduct scientific investigations. Examples of the latter are radio occultation measurements (described below) of planetary atmospheres to deduce temperature profiles, and the search for gravitational waves. However,these concerns soon gave way to the emergence of spacecraft radio scintillation as a new scientific tool for exploring small-scale dynamics in planetary atmospheres and structure in the solar wind, complementing in situ and other remote sensing spacecraft measurements, as well as scintillation measurements using natural (celestial) radio sources. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and review the solar system spacecraft radio scintillation observations, to summarize the salient features of wave propagation analyses employed in interpreting them, to underscore the unique remote sensing capabilities and scientific relevance of the scintillation measurements, and to highlight some of the scientific results obtained to date. Special emphasis is placed on comparing the remote sensing features of planetary and terrestrial scintillation measurements, and on contrasting spacecraft and natural radio source scintillation measurements. I will first discuss planetary atmospheres and ionospheres, and then the solar wind.

  11. Testing gravity law in the solar system

    E-print Network

    Lamine, B; Reynaud, S; Jaekel, M -T

    2011-01-01

    The predictions of General relativity (GR) are in good agreement with observations in the solar system. Nevertheless, unexpected anomalies appeared during the last decades, along with the increasing precision of measurements. Those anomalies are present in spacecraft tracking data (Pioneer and flyby anomalies) as well as ephemerides. In addition, the whole theory is challenged at galactic and cosmic scales with the dark matter and dark energy issues. Finally, the unification in the framework of quantum field theories remains an open question, whose solution will certainly lead to modifications of the theory, even at large distances. As long as those "dark sides" of the universe have no universally accepted interpretation nor are they observed through other means than the gravitational anomalies they have been designed to cure, these anomalies may as well be interpreted as deviations from GR. In this context, there is a strong motivation for improved and more systematic tests of GR inside the solar system, wit...

  12. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

    1999-01-01

    Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1". The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have successfully used adaptive optics on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1" resolution images of solar system objects in the far red and near infrared (0.7-2.5 microns), at wavelengths which best discriminate their spectral signatures. Our efforts have been put into areas of research for which high angular reso!ution is essential.

  13. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

    1999-01-01

    Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1". The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have successfully used adaptive optics on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1" resolution images of solar system objects in the far red and near infrared (0.7-2.5 microns), aE wavelengths which best discl"lmlnate their spectral signatures. Our efforts have been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential.

  14. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

    1997-01-01

    Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1 sec. The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have been using adaptive optics (AO) on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1 sec resolution images solar system objects at far red and near infrared wavelengths (0.7-2.5 micron) which best discriminate their spectral signatures. Our efforts has been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential, such as the mapping of Titan and of large asteroids, the dynamics and composition of Neptune stratospheric clouds, the infrared photometry of Pluto, Charon, and close satellites previously undetected from the ground.

  15. Exploring the Planets: Our Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource offers information that will allow students to see just how big each planet and its major satellites are relative to each other in the scale model of the Solar System. Students will see where the planets are in relation to the Sun and to each other and learn just how big the Sun is compared to all the planets in our Solar System. Sections at this site include Planetary Physical Data, Planetary Satellites Physical Data, Relative Sizes of the Planets, Relative Planetary Distances from the Sun, and the Size of the Sun. In addition, each planet has an individual online section that gives an overview of what has been learned through imagery and data obtained from Earth-based and spacecraft exploration.

  16. Solar System Constraints on Disformal Gravity Theories

    E-print Network

    Hiu Yan Ip; Jeremy Sakstein; Fabian Schmidt

    2015-07-02

    Disformal theories of gravity are scalar-tensor theories where the scalar couples derivatively to matter via the Jordan frame metric. These models have recently attracted interest in the cosmological context since they admit accelerating solutions. We derive the solution for a static isolated mass in generic disformal gravity theories and transform it into the parameterised post-Newtonian form. This allows us to investigate constraints placed on such theories by local tests of gravity. The tightest constraints come from preferred-frame effects due to the motion of the Solar System with respect to the evolving cosmological background field. The constraints we obtain improve upon the previous solar system constraints by two orders of magnitude, and constrain the scale of the disformal coupling for generic models to $\\mathcal{M} \\gtrsim 100$ eV. These constraints render all disformal effects irrelevant for cosmology.

  17. Dark matter chaos in the Solar System

    E-print Network

    J. Lages; D. L. Shepelyansky

    2012-12-02

    We study the capture of galactic dark matter particles in the Solar System produced by rotation of Jupiter. It is shown that the capture cross section is much larger than the area of Jupiter orbit being inversely diverging at small particle energy. We show that the dynamics of captured particles is chaotic and is well described by a simple symplectic dark map. This dark map description allows to simulate the scattering and dynamics of $10^{14}$ dark matter particles during the life time of the Solar System and to determine dark matter density profile as a function of distance from the Sun. The mass of captured dark matter in the radius of Neptune orbit is estimated to be $2 \\cdot 10^{15} g$. The radial density of captured dark matter is found to be approximately constant behind Jupiter orbit being similar to the density profile found in galaxies.

  18. Constraining MOND with Solar System dynamics

    E-print Network

    Lorenzo Iorio

    2008-02-15

    In this letter we investigate the deep Newtonian regime of the MOND paradigm from a purely phenomenological point of view by exploiting the least-square estimated corrections to the secular rates of the perihelia of the inner and of some of the outer planets of the Solar System by E.V. Pitjeva with the EPM2004 ephemerides. By using $\\mu(x)\\approx 1-k_0(1/x)^n$ for the interpolating MONDian function, and by assuming that $k_0$, considered body-independent so to avoid violations of the equivalence principle, experiences no spatial variations throughout the Solar System we tightly constrain $n$ with the ratios of the perihelion precessions for different pairs of planets. We find that the range $1\\leq n\\leq 2$ is neatly excluded at much more than $3-\\sigma$ level. Such a test would greatly benefit from the use of extra-precessions of perihelia independently estimated by other groups as well.

  19. Solar System Constraints on Disformal Gravity Theories

    E-print Network

    Ip, Hiu Yan; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Disformal theories of gravity are scalar-tensor theories where the scalar couples derivatively to matter via the Jordan frame metric. These models have recently attracted interest in the cosmological context since they admit accelerating solutions. We derive the solution for a static isolated mass in generic disformal gravity theories and transform it into the parameterised post-Newtonian form. This allows us to investigate constraints placed on such theories by local tests of gravity. The tightest constraints come from preferred-frame effects due to the motion of the Solar System with respect to the evolving cosmological background field. The constraints we obtain improve upon the previous solar system constraints by two orders of magnitude, and constrain the scale of the disformal coupling for generic models to $\\mathcal{M} \\gtrsim 100$ eV. These constraints render all disformal effects irrelevant for cosmology.

  20. Small Comet Abundance and Solar System Location

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Phillips; J. Moore; K. Zahnle

    2001-01-01

    We present geological, historical, and observational evidence which implies that the proportion of small comets is related to where in the solar system the population is counted. A detailed count of craters in the 1-5 km size range on Jupiter's moon Europa yields a slope of -1.45 for the cumulative size-frequency crater distribution. This is strongly depleted in small objects

  1. Solar energy collector\\/storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Bettis; F. R. Clearman

    1983-01-01

    A solar energy collector\\/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably

  2. Solar system constraints on Rindler acceleration

    E-print Network

    Sante Carloni; Daniel Grumiller; Florian Preis

    2011-05-09

    We discuss the classical tests of general relativity in the presence of Rindler acceleration. Among these tests the perihelion shifts give the tightest constraints and indicate that the Pioneer anomaly cannot be caused by a universal solar system Rindler acceleration. We address potential caveats for massive test-objects. Our tightest bound on Rindler acceleration that comes with no caveats is derived from radar echo delay and yields |a|<3nm/s^2.

  3. Solar energy collector/storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  4. Radar Studies in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    1996-01-01

    We aid in a study of the solar system by means of ground-based radar. We have concentrated on (1) developing the ephemerides needed to acquire radar data at Arecibo Observatory and (2) analyzing the resultant data to: test fundamental laws of gravitation; determine the size, shape, topography, and spin vectors of the targets; and study the surface properties of these objects, through their scattering law and polarization characteristics.

  5. Inexpensive economical solar heating system for homes (un sistema economico de calefaccion solar para viviendas)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Alfred; J. M. Jr Shinn; C. E. Kirby; S. R. Barringer

    1976-01-01

    This report describes a low-cost solar home heating system to supplement the home-owner's present warm-air heating system. It has three parts: (1) A brief background on solar heating, (2) Langley's experience with a demonstration system, and (3) information for the home-owner who wishes to construct such a system. Instructions are given for a solar heating installation in which he supplies

  6. Spacewatch Survey of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Spacewatch project is to explore the various populations of small objects throughout the solar system. Statistics on all classes of small bodies are needed to infer their physical and dynamical evolution. More Earth Approachers need to be found to assess the impact hazard. (We have adopted the term "Earth Approacher", EA, to include all those asteroids, nuclei of extinct short period comets, and short period comets that can approach close to Earth. The adjective "near" carries potential confusion, as we have found in communicating with the media, that the objects are always near Earth, following it like a cloud.) Persistent and voluminous accumulation of astrometry of incidentally observed main belt asteroids MBAs will eventually permit the Minor Planet Center (MPQ to determine the orbits of large numbers (tens of thousands) of asteroids. Such a large body of information will ultimately allow better resolution of orbit classes and the determinations of luminosity functions of the various classes, Comet and asteroid recoveries are essential services to planetary astronomy. Statistics of objects in the outer solar system (Centaurs, scattered-disk objects, and Trans-Neptunian Objects; TNOs) ultimately will tell part of the story of solar system evolution. Spacewatch led the development of sky surveying by electronic means and has acted as a responsible interface to the media and general public on this discipline and on the issue of the hazard from impacts by asteroids and comets.

  7. Testing gravity law in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamine, B.; Courty, J.-M.; Reynaud, S.; Jaekel, M.-T.

    2011-10-01

    The predictions of General relativity (GR) are in good agreement with observations in the solar system. Nevertheless, unexpected anomalies appeared during the last decades, along with the increasing precision of measurements. Those anomalies are present in spacecraft tracking data (Pioneer and flyby anomalies) as well as ephemerides. In addition, the whole theory is challenged at galactic and cosmic scales with the dark matter and dark energy issues. Finally, the unification in the framework of quantum field theories remains an open question, whose solution will certainly lead to modifications of the theory, even at large distances. As long as those "dark sides" of the universe have no universally accepted interpretation nor are they observed through other means than the gravitational anomalies they have been designed to cure, these anomalies may as well be interpreted as deviations from GR. In this context, there is a strong motivation for improved and more systematic tests of GR inside the solar system, with the aim to bridge the gap between gravity experiments in the solar system and observations at much larger scales. We review a family of metric extensions of GR which preserve the equivalence principle but modify the coupling between energy and curvature and provide a phenomenological framework which generalizes the PPN framework and "fifth force" extensions of GR. We briefly discuss some possible observational consequences in relation with highly accurate ephemerides.

  8. Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?

    E-print Network

    Lorenzo Iorio

    2015-03-16

    Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia; b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab); c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon; d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox; e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun; f) The Flyby Anomaly; g) The Pioneer Anomaly; and h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit

  9. Solar System Test of Gravitational Theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2003-01-01

    We are engaged in testing gravitational theory, mainly using observations of objects in the solar system and mainly on the interplanetary scale. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to place tighter bounds on such departures. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including primarily planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, but also including both pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements. In the past year, we have included new data in the analysis, primarily tracking data from the Mars Pathfinder mission. Although these data are relatively few in number, they extend the time span of high-precision tracking on the surface of Mars from six years to over 20. As a result, the statistical standard deviation of our estimate of Mars precession rate has nearly halved, and the rest of the parameters in our solar-system model have experienced a corresponding, albeit smaller, improvement (about 20% for t,he relevant asteroid masses, 10% for the semimajor axis of Mars orbit, and smaller amounts for most other parameters). In the coming year, we plan to continue adding data to our set, as available. Ne 2 expect to use these data and improved models to obtain estimates of the gravitational- theory parameters and to publish these results.

  10. Publications of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Project, 1976 to 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, V. (compiler); Marsh, C. (compiler); Panda, P. (compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The bibliographical listings in this publication are documentation products associated with the solar thermal power system project carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1976 to 1983. Documents listed are categorized as conference and journal papers, JPL external reports, JPL internal reports, or contractor reports. Alphabetical listings by title were used in the bibliography itself to facilitate location of the document by subject. Two indexes are included for ease of reference: one, an author index; the other, a topical index.

  11. GLAST Solar System Science Gerald H. Share1,2

    E-print Network

    Share, Gerald

    GLAST Solar System Science Gerald H. Share1,2 and Ronald J. Murphy2 1 Department of Astronomy from various energetic phenomena in our solar system. These emissions include: bremsstrahlung, nuclear-line and pion-decay gamma-radiation, and neutrons from solar flares; bremsstrahlung and pion-decay gamma

  12. Maximizing Efficiency of Solar-Powered Systems by Load Matching

    E-print Network

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    Maximizing Efficiency of Solar-Powered Systems by Load Matching Pai H. Chou, Dexin Li and Sungjun,dexinl,ksungjun}@uci.edu ABSTRACT Solar power is an important source of renewable energy for many low-power systems. Matching's total en- ergy output under a given solar profile by load matching. The power efficiency was validated

  13. A comprehensive solar energy system analysis data base in Huntsville, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The history of a comprehensive solar energy system analysis data base developed by NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama is presented, along with its current status. The Marshall Information Retrieval and Data Storage (MIRADS) system was chosen for the data base, and feedback systems were arranged to cope with changes in the needs of the program management for the type of data gathered. The final structure of the data base consists of 22 files divided into 6 topical sections: summaries, climatological, utility rates, architectural, equipment, and economics. The data base offers help to the solar industry in two ways: it provides information and it serves as a model for users trying to establish the climatic and socioeconomic variables they should take into account when they examine a potential market for solar energy equipment.

  14. Tuning energy transport in solar thermal systems using nanostructured materials

    E-print Network

    Lenert, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured ...

  15. Animation of the Origin of the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC, Center for Earth and Space Science Education

    This animation depicts the solar system forming from an immense rotating cloud of gas and dust called the solar nebula and the planets forming by accumulating material within the swirling currents of the cloud.

  16. Design package for a solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains sufficient information to assemble complete tested residential flat-plate solar heating system. Descriptive material provides design, performance, and hardware specifications for utilization by architectural engineers, and contractors in procurement, installation, operation, and maintenance of similar solar applications.

  17. Solar nebula chemistry - Implications for volatiles in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    Current theoretical models of solar nebula chemistry which take into account the interplay between chemistry and dynamics are presented for the abundant reactive volatile elements including hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Results of these models indicate that, in the solar nebula, the dominant carbon and nitrogen gases were CO and NO, whereas, in giant planet subnebulae, the dominant carbon and nitrogen gases were CH4 and NH3; in the solar nebula, the Fe metal grains catalyzed the formation of organic compounds from CO and H2 via the Fischer-Tropsch-type reaction. It was also found that, in solar nebula, bulk FeS formation was kinetically favorable, while FeO incorporation into silicates and bulk Fe3O4 formation were kinetically inhibited. Furthermore, clathrate formation was kinetically inhibited in the solar nebula, while it was kinetically favorable in giant planet subnebulae.

  18. Beyond the Solar System: Expanding the Universe in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This DVD combines the latest scientific and educational research to help teachers in grades 8-12 deepen their own and their students’ understanding of our universe and of the nature of science. Produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in association with NASA, Beyond the Solar Systemthe DVD is filled with video, print, and online resources. It is designed for Earth and space science educators, physical science educators, professional development providers, and classroom use. The National Science Education Standards includes the topic of origin and evolution of the universe as part of the essential content of Earth and space science understanding. Yet providing concrete, inquiry-based experiences for students to learn these concepts can be a challenge for teachers. Beyond the Solar SystemThis DVD contains more than two hours of video, organized into two modular strands of material -- science content, and teaching and learning resources. These are intended to promote greater understanding of the scientific concepts through discussion and reflection, activities, and application of the ideas to teaching. Also included are lesson plans, student guides, assessments, content background, summaries of relevant standards, and links to further resources. These instructional materials are provided in PDF format and can be printed from a computer.

  19. Proposal of an edited volume Topics in Time Delay Systems

    E-print Network

    Sipahi, Rifat

    Proposal of an edited volume Topics in Time Delay Systems Analysis, Algorithms, and Control Jean Time Delay MIMO Systems with Delay - Decouplability Concept Kamran Turkoglu, Nejat Olgac Matrices for Neutral Type Time Delay Systems Gilberto Ochoa, José E. Velazquez, Vladimir L. Kharitonov

  20. Suprathermal Chemistry in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shematovich, Valery

    Many celestial bodies in the Solar System are surrounded by gaseous envelopes. Chemical evolution of the gaseous envelopes of icy astrophysical objects of different masses and sizes (dust particles with icy mantles, icy planetesimals, comets and KBOs, icy satellites in the Jovian and Saturnian systems, and etc.) is determined by the complex influence of a large number of interrelated processes including: - photolysis by the solar XUV (soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet) radiation, - radiolysis by the solar wind/magnetospheric plasma, - catalysis on the icy surface, - chemical exchange between the surface and atmosphere, - chemical changes in the gas composition of the envelope. These physical and chemical processes are initiated by the solar forcing, and are characterized by strongly differing time scales and the degrees of non-equilibrium. Theoretical predictions of the composition and chemical evolution of near-surface atmospheres of the icy astrophysical objects are of great importance for assessing the biological potential of these objects (Herbst and van Dishoeck, 2009). The water vapour is usually the dominant parent species in such gaseous envelope because of the ejection from the object’s icy surface due to the thermal outgassing, non-thermal photolysis and radiolysis and other active processes at work on the surface (Shematovich 2008). The photochemistry of water vapour in the near-surface atmospheric layer (Shematovich, 2008, 2012) and the radiolysis of icy regolith result in the supply of the atmosphere by an admixture of H _{2}O, H _{2}, O _{2}, OH and O with thermal and suprathermal kinetic energies. Returning molecules have a species-dependent behaviour in the impact with icy surface and non-thermal energy distributions for the chemical radicals. The suprathermal radicals OH, H, and O entering the regolith can drive the radiolytic chemistry. Chemical complexity of the near-surface atmosphere of the icy astrophysical object arises due to both primary processes of dissociation and ionization by solar XUV radiation and magnetospheric electrons and induced ion-molecular chemistry, and by chemical exchange between near-surface atmospheric layer and the satellite icy surface due to the thermal and non-thermal desorption processes (Shematovich, 2008, 2012). The standard astrochemical UDFA05 network is usually used to follow the main chemical pathways of photochemistry in the near-surface atmosphere and of diffusive chemistry in the icy regolith. Achievements and problems of the studies of suprathermal chemistry in the atmosphere-icy surface interface for the icy objects in the Solar System will be discussed. This work is supported by the RFBR project No. 14-02-00838a and by the Basic Research Program of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Program 22). begin{itemize} Herbst E., and van Dishoeck E.F., ARA&A, 2009, v. 47, 427. Shematovich, V.I. Solar System Res., 2008, v. 42, 473. Shematovich, V.I. Solar System Res., 2012, v. 46, 391.

  1. Solar “tower reflector” systems: A new approach for high-temperature solar plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yogev; A. Kribus; M. Epstein; A. Kogan

    1998-01-01

    During the last few years, considerable research efforts have been directed at the Weizmann Institute towards development of high-concentration, high-temperature solar energy systems. This included optical methods and devices, thermal receivers for solar thermal electricity generation, and thermo-chemical processes for solar energy storage and solar fuel production. Some of these efforts are now mature enough for transfer to industry, and

  2. Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) Model: Documentation and Sample Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Denholm; Easan Drury; Robert Margolis

    2009-01-01

    The Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) model is a bottom-up, market penetration model that simulates the potential adoption of photovoltaics (PV) on residential and commercial rooftops in the continental United States through 2030. NREL developed SolarDS to examine the market competitiveness of PV based on regional solar resources, capital costs, electricity prices, utility rate structures, and federal and local incentives. The

  3. Technology development in the solar absorption air-conditioning systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. F. Li; K. Sumathy

    2000-01-01

    An environmental control system utilizing solar energy would generally be more cost-effective if it were used to provide both heating and cooling requirements in the building it serves. Various solar powered heating systems have been tested extensively, but solar powered air-conditioners have received little more than short-term demonstration attention. This paper reviews past efforts in the field of solar powered

  4. Is the outer Solar System chaotic?

    E-print Network

    Wayne B. Hayes

    2007-02-07

    The existence of chaos in the system of Jovian planets has been in question for the past 15 years. Various investigators have found Lyapunov times ranging from about 5 millions years upwards to infinity, with no clear reason for the discrepancy. In this paper, we resolve the issue. The position of the outer planets is known to only a few parts in 10 million. We show that, within that observational uncertainty, there exist Lyapunov timescales in the full range listed above. Thus, the ``true'' Lyapunov timescale of the outer Solar System cannot be resolved using current observations.

  5. The 'wind-wall' - An integrated wind\\/solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. McVeigh; G. W. W. Pontin

    1977-01-01

    Design of an integrated system combining a windmill system and solar panels is discussed. The system is intended for power supply to residential areas. A bank of fixed ducted windmills and batteries of solar collectors sharing a common overall site are considered in an arrangement providing hot water and space heating. A water reservoir heat storage system, basic electrical system,

  6. Beyond Sedna: Probing the Distant Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamb, Megan E.

    This thesis presents studies in observational planetary astronomy probing the structure of the Kuiper belt and beyond. The discovery of Sedna on a highly eccentric orbit beyond Neptune challenges our understanding of the solar system and suggests the presence of a population of icy bodies residing past the Kuiper belt. With a perihelion of 76 AU, Sedna is well beyond the reach of the gas-giants and could not be scattered onto its highly eccentric orbit from interactions with Neptune alone. Sedna's aphelion at ˜1000 AU is too far from the edge of the solar system to feel the perturbing effects of passing stars or galactic tides in the present-day solar neighborhood. Sedna must have been emplaced in its orbit at an earlier time when massive unknown bodies were present in or near the solar system. The orbits of distant Sedna-like bodies are dynamically frozen and serve as the relics of their formation process. We have performed two surveys to search for additional members of the Sedna population. In order to find the largest and brightest Sedna-like bodies we have searched ˜12,000 deg² within +/-30 degrees of the ecliptic to a limiting R magnitude of 21.3 using the QUEST camera on the 1.2m Samuel Oschin Telescope. To search for the fainter, more common members of this distant class of solar system bodies, we have performed an deep survey using the Subaru Prime Focus Camera on the 8.2m Subaru telescope covering 43 deg² to a limiting R magnitude of 25.3. Searching over a two-night baseline, we were sensitive to motions out to distances of approximately 1000 AU. We present the results of these surveys. We discuss the implications for a distant Sedna-like population beyond the Kuiper belt and discuss future prospects for detecting and studying these distant bodies, focusing in particular on the constraints we can place on the embedded stellar cluster environment the early Sun may have been born in, where the location and distribution of Sedna-like orbits sculpted by multiple stellar encounters is indicative of the birth cluster size. These surveys were specifically designed to find the select members of a distant Sedna population but were also sensitive to the dynamically excited off ecliptic populations of the Kuiper belt including the hot classicals, resonant, scattered disk, and detached Kuiper belt populations. We present our observed latitude distributions and implications for the plutino population.

  7. Solar Sailing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  8. YOUNG SOLAR SYSTEM's FIFTH GIANT PLANET?

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside {approx}15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.

  9. Topical diclofenac in hyaluronan gel for the treatment of solar keratoses.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Kurt; Brown, Pam; Varigos, George

    2003-02-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy and safety of a topical gel containing 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan in 150 patients with solar keratoses (SK). The active treatment was compared with the vehicle only, hyaluronan gel, as placebo over a 12-week period. Patients in both groups applied the active treatment or placebo to a targeted area of skin (0.25 g b.d.). At 12 weeks the mean lesion-count reduction in the targeted area was not significantly different between treatments. However, at post-termination follow up (16 weeks), there was a highly significant decrease in the number of lesions, 6.2 +/- 7.5 standard deviations (SD) (56.1% reduction) in the active treatment group compared with 2.4 +/- 4.3 SD (23.6% reduction) in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Other efficacy measures (complete lesion resolution, >50% lesion reduction) were also significantly different (P < 0.01) between treatments at 16 weeks. In conclusion, topical 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel was effective and well tolerated in this study, suggesting a role for this therapy in the treatment of SK. PMID:12581080

  10. Solar handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    There is no best solar system for everybody. But there usually is a best solar system for each situation. This book describes a variety of working solar energy systems in Colorado, how much they cost, how well they have worked and factors that influence the solar decision-making process. Basics about how much solar energy is available and the principles used to collect it are discussed in the appendix section. Detailed information on these topics is widely available. Some solar systems operate by themselves. Some are controlled by thermostats, pumps and fans. Still others are controlled by people. The goal of this book is to give a variety of solar options to help one decide which, if any, is the most appropriate. Energy solar equipment cost data were obtained in 1977 when this research was conducted. Since that time, although the price of many energy resources has doubled, solar system costs have increased nearer to the pace of inflation. This trend will continue through the 1980s making investments in solar and energy conservation even more attractive today and tomorrow than investments made in 1977.

  11. Residential solar heat pump systems - Thermal and economic performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Morehouse; P. J. Hughes

    1979-01-01

    This study performed an analysis of series and parallel configured solar heat pump systems for residences. The year-round thermal performance for all the heating, cooling and hot water system configurations were determined by simulation and compared against conventional heating and cooling systems in three geographic locations. The series and parallel combined solar heat pump systems investigated are at best marginally

  12. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of marketable solar heating and cooling systems for single family and commercial applications is described. The delivery, installation, and monitoring of the prototype systems are discussed. Seven operational test sites are discussed in terms of system performance. Problems encountered with equipment and installation were usually due to lack of skills required for solar system installation.

  13. Special Topics in Accounting Survey of Accounting Information Systems Research

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    1 Special Topics in Accounting Survey of Accounting Information Systems Research 26:010:685 Fall the way in which accountant and auditors practice, with such standbys as T-accounts, paper ledgers, inventory counts and accounting reports consigned to history. The role of Accounting Information Systems

  14. Sun tracking system for productivity enhancement of solar still

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Abdallah; O. O. Badran

    2008-01-01

    A sun tracking system was deployed for enhancing the solar still productivity. A computerized sun tracking device was used for rotating the solar still with the movement of the sun. A comparison between fixed and sun tracked solar stills showed that the use of sun tracking increased the productivity for around 22%, due to the increase of overall efficiency by

  15. A nature compatible intelligent control system for solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Jing; Sun Fengchi; Wu Tao

    2008-01-01

    This paper propose and implement a control system for pose control and state monitoring of the solar cell panel. A control model is established for the solar cell panel to adapt to the change of Sunlight in natural environment based on the relative movement between the sun and the earth. It enables the solar cell panel follow the movement of

  16. Optimization of solar pond electrical power generation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Haj Khalil; B. A. Jubran; N. M. Faqir

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of using a solar pond for the generation of electricity in Jordan. A solar pond power plant model is presented to simulate and optimize such a system under the Jordanian climatic conditions. A Rankine cycle analysis is carried out using an environmentally friendly working fluid, Refrigerant 134a.It was found that using a solar pond for

  17. Electrical system design of a solar electric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian R. Borchers; Jonathan A. Locker

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a team approach to the design and construction of an electrical system for a solar electric vehicle. The design proceeds from the selection of solar cells to the brushless DC motor inverter fed electric drive with solar tracking and optimal battery storage. The vehicle design is being implemented for construction in the 1997 Sunrayce

  18. Test and evaluation of a solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report documents results of evaluation tests performed on components of commerical solar heating and hot water system. Subsystems tested include flat plate solar collector, energy transport module, and control panel. Tests conducted include snow and wind loads, flame spread, and smoke classification as well as solar heating operation.

  19. Implementation of a Prototype for a Traditional Solar Tracking System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nader Barsoum

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy is rapidly advancing as an important means of renewable energy resource. More energy is produced by tracking the solar panel to remain aligned to the sun at a right angle to the rays of light. This paper describes in detail the design and construction of a prototype for solar tracking system with two degrees of freedom, which detects

  20. Solar energy utilization and microcomputer control in the greenhouse builk curing and drying solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, A.N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three agricultural applications in a specially designed greenhouse solar system functioning as a multi-purpose solar air collector for crop production and curing/drying processes are examined. An automated hydroponic crop production system is proposed for the greenhouse solar system. Design criteria of the proposed system and its utilization of solar energy for root-zone warming are presented and discussed. Based upon limited testing of the hydroponic system considered, hydroponic production of greenhouse crops is believed reasonable to complement the year-round use of the greenhouse solar system. The hardware/software design features of a microcomputer-based control system applied in the greenhouse solar barn are presented and discussed. On-line management and utilization of incident solar energy by the microcomputer system are investigated for both the greenhouse and tobacco curing/drying modes of operation. The design approach considered for the microcomputer control system is believed suitable for regulating solar energy collection and utilization for crop production applications in greenhouse systems.

  1. An innovative deployable solar panel system for Cubesats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Donati, Serena; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

    2014-02-01

    One of the main Cubesat bus limitations is the available on-board power. The maximum power obtained using body mounted solar panels and advanced triple junction solar cells on a triple unit Cubesat is typically less than 10 W. The Cubesat performance and the mission scenario opened to these small satellite systems could be greatly enhanced by an increase of the available power. This paper describes the design and realization of a modular deployable solar panel system for Cubesats, consisting of a modular hinge and spring system that can be potentially used on-board single (1U), double(2U), triple (3U) and six units (6U) Cubesats. The size of each solar panels is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. The system developed is the basis for a SADA (Solar Array Drive Assembly), in which a maneuvering capability is added to the deployed solar array in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun. The system design trade-off is discussed, comparing different deployment concepts and architectures, leading to the final selection for the modular design. A prototype of the system has been realized for a 3U Cubesat, consisting of two deployable solar panel systems, made of three solar panels each, for a total of six deployed solar panels. The deployment system is based on a plastic fiber wire and thermal cutters, guaranteeing a suitable level of reliability. A test-bed for the solar panel deployment testing has been developed, supporting the solar array during deployment reproducing the dynamical situation in orbit. The results of the deployment system testing are discussed, including the design and realization of the test-bed, the mechanical stress given to the solar cells by the deployment accelerations and the overall system performance. The maximum power delivered by the system is about 50.4 W BOL, greatly enhancing the present Cubesat solar array performance.

  2. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 4, Clinton, Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    An economic analysis of the solar energy system was developed for five sites, typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. The analysis was based on the technical and economic models in the F-chart design procedure, with inputs based on the characteristic of the installed system and local conditions. The results are of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a 20 year time span: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  3. Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project. [for solar cell power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project was initiated by NASA in June, 1975, to develop economically feasible photovoltaic power systems suitable for a variety of terrestrial applications. Objectives include the determination of operating characteristic and lifetimes of a variety of solar cell systems and components and development of methodology and techniques for accurate measurements of solar cell and array performance and diagnostic measurements for solar power systems. Initial work will be concerned with residential applications, with testing of the first prototype system scheduled for June, 1976. An outdoor 10 kW array for testing solar power systems is under construction.

  4. Microarray assays for solar system exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Andrew; Toporski, Jan; McKay, David S.; Schweitzer, Mary; Pincus, Seth; Pérez-Mercader, Juan; Parro García, Victor

    2001-08-01

    The detection of evidence of extinct and extant life is a key issue in astrobiological research, particularly with respect to future exploration of the solar system. Simple life forms may have evolved and developed on planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa. At this point in time, tests whether life once was or still is present can only be carried out by means of in situ experiments. Here, we discuss the potential and advantages of immunological concepts for life detection and the development of a miniaturized automated immunoassay flight device.

  5. Where are We in the Solar System?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-27

    This is a set of three activities about the distance to Saturn. Learners will use simple props to create a playground model for size and distance for the Sun, Earth, and Saturn - then walk on their scale model to Saturn. Includes a glossary, information for families, and guidance for deepening the science. This is lesson 2 of 8 in the Jewel of the Solar System: From Out-of-School to Outer Space an adaptation for afterschool programs of the Cassini-Huygens educational product Reading, Writing, and Rings.

  6. Jewel of the Solar System - Saturn

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium offers a unique portrayal of the Cassini-Huygens mission's discoveries of Saturn. Individuals can discover the details about Titan, the only known moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. The Macromedia Flash Player enhanced tutorial about the rings and moons of Saturn is a fantastic addition to the website. Everyone can enjoy the web casts explaining the significances of the newest findings. Frequent visitors should visit the Updates link to receive the latest Cassini-Huygens news. This site is also reviewed in the January 21, 2005_NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

  7. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  8. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ropp; Sigifredo Gonzalez; Alan Schaffer; Stanley Katz; Jim Perkinson; Ward Isaac Bower; Mark Prestero; Leo Casey; Houtan Moaveni; David Click; Kristopher Davis; Robert Reedy; Scott S. Kuszmaul; Lisa Sena-Henderson; Carolyn David; Abbas Ali Akhil

    2012-01-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in

  9. On The 53Mn Heterogeneity In The Early Solar System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Shukolyukov; Günter W. Lugmair

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that the prolonged and thorough mixing of numerous nucleosynthetic components that constitutes the\\u000a matter in the solar nebula resulted in an essential isotopic homogeneity of the solar system material. This may or may not\\u000a be true for the short-lived radionuclides which were injected into or formed within the solar nebula just prior to or during\\u000a solar

  10. Resources and Opportunities to Help Scientists Engage Learners in Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, S. S.; Halligan, E.; Shupla, C.; Dalton, H.; Boonstra, D.; Buxner, S.; Zimmerman-Brachman, R.; Wessen, A.; Baerg, G.; Davis, P.; Burdick, A.

    2012-12-01

    Within NASA's New Worlds, New Discoveries initiative, the Year of the Solar System (YSS) and 50 Years of Solar System Exploration offer resources and opportunities to help scientists engage the public. An unprecedented number of missions - from Curiosity roving Mars, to Cassini's stunning images of Saturn, to New Horizons' journey to the icy world of Pluto - are building a new scientific understanding of our solar system and affording opportunities to engage the public in the excitement of discovery. More than 20 thematic topics are presented on the YSS website, including ice in the solar system, planetary volcanism, small bodies, and the possibility of life elsewhere. Each is accompanied by recommended activities for classroom and informal learning environments, educational resources, current research results, and opportunities to engage the public, such as mission milestones and celestial events. Scientists are encouraged to integrate the resources into their current education and public outreach activities, or use the opportunities for engagement to initiate a new activity. Examples of successful ways the resources are being used in the classroom, with informal venues, and with the public will be presented. Through the YSS resources, scientists are invited to share the excitement of new solar system discoveries with teachers, students, and families in their communities.

  11. Solar central receiver systems comparative economics

    SciTech Connect

    Eicker, P J

    1980-04-01

    Several major conceptual design studies of solar central receiver systems and components have been completed in the last year. The results of these studies are used to compare the projected cost of electric power generation using central receiver systems with that of more conventional power generation. The cost estimate for a molten salt central receiver system is given. Levelized busbar energy cost is shown as a function of annual capacity factor indicating the fraction of the cost due to each of the subsystems. The estimated levelized busbar energy cost for a central receiver (70 to 90 mills per kilowatt hour) is compared with the levelized busbar energy cost for a new coal fired Rankine cycle plant. Sensitivities to the initial cost of coal and the delta fuel escalation are shown. (WHK)

  12. Solar central receiver systems comparative economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicker, P. J.

    1980-04-01

    Several major conceptual design studies of solar central receiver systems and components were completed in the last year. The results of these studies were used to compare the projected cost of electric power generation using central receiver systems with that of more conventional power generation. The cost estimate for a molten salt central receiver system is given. Levelized busbar energy cost is shown as a function of annual capacity factor indicating the fraction of the cost due to each of the subsystems. The estimated levelized busbar energy cost for a central receiver (70 to 90 mills per kilowatt hour) is compared with the levelized busbar energy cost for a new coal fired Rankine cycle plant. Sensitivities to the initial cost of coal and the delta fuel escalation are shown.

  13. A regional comparison of solar, heat pump, and solar-heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manton, B. E.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1982-08-01

    A comparative study of the thermal and economic performance of the parallel and series solar heat pump systems, stand alone solar and stand alone heat pump systems for residential space and domestic hot water heating for the U.S. using FCHART 4.0 is presented. Results show that the parallel solar heat pump system yields the greatest energy savings in the south. Very low cost collectors (50-150 dollars/sq m) are required for a series solar heat pump system in order for it to compete economically with the better of the parallel or solar systems. Conventional oil or gas furnaces need to have a seasonal efficiency of at least 70-85% in order to save as much primary energy as the best primary system in the northeast. In addition, the implications of these results for current or proposed federal tax credit measures are discussed.

  14. Megawatt solar power systems for lunar surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, B.; Alhadeff, S.; Beard, S.; Carlile, D.; Cook, D.; Douglas, C.; Garcia, D.; Gillespie, D.; Golingo, R.; Gonzalez, D.

    1990-01-01

    The work presented here shows that a solar power system can provide power on the order of one megawatt to a lunar base with a fairly high specific power. The main drawback to using solar power is still the high mass, and therefore, cost of supplying energy storage through the solar night. The use of cryogenic reactant storage in a fuel cell system, however, greatly reduces the total system mass over conventional energy storage schemes.

  15. Dual conversion steam and electric solar power system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    The dual conversion, steam and electric solar power system is aimed at attaining an optimum cost\\/effective balance between arrays of direct electric conversion solar cells, and an indirect steam-to-electric solar power system. The concentration panels for the system consist of the previously disclosed four quadrant, two dimensional type of concentration panel with higher side concave extensions to provide concentration ratios

  16. Early Solar System Chronology K.D. McKeegan

    E-print Network

    Reiners, Peter W.

    1.16 Early Solar System Chronology K.D. McKeegan University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Meteorites as Probes of Early Solar System Evolution 2 1.16.1.2 Short-Lived Radioactivity at the Origin of the Solar System 2 1.16.1.3 A Brief History and the Scope of the Present Review 3 1.16.2 DATING WITH ANCIENT

  17. Development of the 3-D MHD model of the solar corona-solar wind combining system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nakamizo; T. Tanaka; Y. Kubo; S. Kamei; H. Shimazu; H. Shinagawa

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of integrated numerical space weather prediction, we have developed a 3-D MHD simulation model of the solar surface-solar wind system. We report the construction method of the model and its first results. By implementing a grid system with angularly unstructured and increasing radial spacing, we realized a spherical grid that has no pole singularity and realized a

  18. OSSOS: The Outer Solar System Origins Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladman, Brett; Bannister, Michele; Kavelaars, Jj; Petit, Jean-Marc; Gwyn, Stephen; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2014-11-01

    We present the first detection set from the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) which is a mammoth 560-hour CFHT Large Program over 4 years (finishing January 2017). This is likely to be the largest Kuiper Belt survey before LSST comes on line (in terms of the number of precise transneptunian object (TNO) orbits it provides).OSSOS studies gradually-slewing 21-square degree blocks of sky that are repeatedly imaged in many dark runs over two semesters. This strategy is designed to detect and track TNOs in order to provide extremely high-quality orbits in a short amount of time; in 16-18 month arcs we are obtaining fractional semimajor axis uncertainties in the range 0.01-0.1% and accuracies in the libration amplitudes of resonant objects better than 10 degrees, due to mean astrometric residuals routinely being of order 50-100 milliarcseconds.This talk will present the survey design and full detection sample for objects observed in the first half of 2013 and 2014. We will report how adding these detections to those from the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS) modifies conclusions about the orbital and size distribution of main classical Kuiper Belt, as well as other non-resonant sub-populations. In particular, because OSSOS is sensitive to, and has detected objects, from 8 AU to beyond 60 AU, we will report on how the combined distance and magnitude distribution impact dicsussions of the absolute magnitude distribution of outer Solar System objects.

  19. Solar System: Asteroids, Comets, and Meteorites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It provides an understanding of the bodies other than planets that exist in our solar system. There are many asteroids and meteoroids composed of rock orbiting the Sun. Occasionally, one of these bodies enters the Earth's atmosphere, glowing as they disintegrate from atmospheric friction. Those that do not completely burn up in the atmosphere may impact the ground. Other chunks of rock mixed with ice have such long and off-center orbits that they only periodically come very close to the Sun, where some of their surface material is boiled off by the Sun's radiation and pushed into a long illuminated tail that we see as a comet. Learning Outcomes:? Describe the similarities and differences in comets, asteroids, and meteors.? Describe the size, composition, and motion of meteors, asteroids, and comets.? Differentiate between meteors, meteorites, and meteoroids, and explain what happens to meteors as they fall through Earth's atmosphere.? Explain how we learn about asteroids, comets, and meteorites.

  20. Solar System Test for Alternative Gravity Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Over the past year I've worked with Dr. Biswas and Dr.Brans from Loyola University, on different aspects of General relativity. More recently we have been focusing on particle and photon orbits in Schwarzschild-like metric which is relevant to understand observations such as photon deflection and perihelion precession of Mercury. These observations can be used to test alternative gravity theories, such as f(R) Theories. Such solar system tests have proved extremely useful to constrain alternative theories of gravity, such as f(R) theories that try to solve the dark energy problem. While so far most theorists have focused on the simplest f(R) type of modification of gravity to realize the phase of late time cosmic speed-up that we are observing, there are several other viable candidates. In particular, many ``effective'' approaches to gravity gives rise to f(R,G) type of modifications, where G is the Gauss Bonnet term. Accordingly, we are currently trying to understand how solar system tests can constrain this more general class of f(R,G) dark energy models. In my talk I will present our progress in this direction. NSF Grant

  1. Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin

    1997-01-01

    We are engaged in testing gravitational theory by means of observations of objects in the solar system. These tests include an examination of the Principle Of Equivalence (POE), the Shapiro delay, the advances of planetary perihelia, the possibility of a secular variation G in the "gravitational constant" G, and the rate of the de Sitter (geodetic) precession of the Earth-Moon system. These results are consistent with our preliminary results focusing on the contribution of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), which were presented at the seventh Marcel Grossmann meeting on general relativity. The largest improvement over previous results comes in the uncertainty for (eta): a factor of five better than our previous value. This improvement reflects the increasing strength of the LLR data. A similar analysis presented at the same meeting by a group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a similar result for (eta). Our value for (beta) represents our first such result determined simultaneously with the solar quadrupole moment from the dynamical data set. These results are being prepared for publication. We have shown how positions determined from different planetary ephemerides can be compared and how the combination of VLBI and pulse timing information can yield a direct tie between planetary and radio frames. We have continued to include new data in our analysis as they became available. Finally, we have made improvement in our analysis software (PEP) and ported it to a network of modern workstations from its former home on a "mainframe" computer.

  2. Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2001-01-01

    We are engaged in testing gravitational theory, primarily using observations of objects in the solar system and primarily on that scale. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to place tighter bounds on such departures. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including mostly planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, but also including both pulsar timing and pulsar very long base interferometry (VLBI) measurements. This year, we have extended our model of Earth nutation with adjustable correction terms at the principal frequencies. We also refined our model of tidal drag on the Moon's orbit. We believe these changes will make no substantial changes in the results, but we are now repeating the analysis of the whole set of data to verify that belief. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are being developed. The effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  4. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Odonnell; R. F. Gahn; W. Pfeiffer

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing

  5. Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Raghunathan; Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embed- ded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of

  6. Residential solar power systems using Z - source inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amitava Das; Debasish Lahiri; A. K. Dhakar

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a residential solar power system using Z-source inverter. The Z-source inverter employs a unique impedance network couple with the solar cell and inverter main circuit. The operating principle, control strategy and characteristics of the system are described. The new and traditional system configurations are compared in this paper. Analysis and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the

  7. Sensivity analysis of solar assisted heat pump systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. White; T. D. Swanson; J. H. Morehouse

    1980-01-01

    Space heating systems which combine the use of solar energy with an electrical heat pump have been proposed as a practical approach to the cost effective utilization of solar energy. Through utilization of previously developed thermal and economic models, areas for possible cost reduction and\\/or performance improvement in SAHP systems are identified. Major system components evaluated include collectors, heat pump,

  8. Deployment Experiment for Ultralarge Solar Sail System (UltraSail)

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Deployment Experiment for Ultralarge Solar Sail System (UltraSail) Byoungsam Woo, Kevin M. Ertmer.2514/1.51519 UltraSail is a next-generation high-payoff system with very large (kilometers-squared class) solar sails of the UltraSail system. A potential problem associated with trapped air between film layers was identified

  9. Inhibitor analysis for a solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabony, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    A study of potential corrosion inhibitors for the NASA solar heating and cooling system which uses aluminum solar panels is provided. Research consisted of testing using a dynamic corrosion system, along with an economic analysis of proposed corrosion inhibitors. Very good progress was made in finding a suitable inhibitor for the system.

  10. Solar tracking system with fuzzy reasoning applied to crisp sets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Louchene; A. Benmakhlouf; A. Chaghi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a low cost and an easy to implement solar tracker system is presented. The design of the system is based on the fuzzy reasoning applied to crisp sets. In this case, it can be easily implemented on general purpose microprocessor systems. Four light sensitive devices, such as LDR, photodiodes or phototransistors are mounted on the solar panel

  11. Exergetic analysis of a solar thermal power system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narendra Singh; S. C. Kaushik; R. D. Misra

    2000-01-01

    This communication presents a second law analysis based on an exergy concept for a solar thermal power system. Basic energy and exergy analysis for the system components (viz. parabolic trough collector\\/receiver and Rankine heat engine, etc.) are carried out for evaluating the respective losses as well as exergetic efficiency for typical solar thermal power systems under given operating conditions. It

  12. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  13. Breakeven costs of storage in optimized solar energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, R. W.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of an analysis of the breakeven cost, or value, of energy storage to solar energy systems. It is shown that the value of storage depends strongly both on solar fraction of the solar energy system in which the storage is employed, and on the cost of the collectors used in the system. Various strategies for dealing with this ambiguity are presented, and it is shown that for a broad class of technically and economically practical solar energy systems, storage costs need only be low enough to make a system employing very small amounts of storage practical. Reductions in cost of collectors will thereafter produce greater reductions in the total system costs or provide greater fuel displacement at constant total system cost than will reductions in the cost of storage, within limits discussed. The analysis makes use of a simple, accurate representation of solar energy system performance which may prove useful in other contexts.

  14. Solar Thermal Energy: Design a Solar Hot Water Heater System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bullwinkel, Matt

    This classroom activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has students examine a collector and tank for a solar hot water heater and estimate the amount of energy and money saved by replacing the traditional hot water heater. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  15. Phase 1 of the First Solar Small Power System Experiment (experimental System No. 1). Volume 3: Appendix E - N

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. B. (editor)

    1979-01-01

    The design of a solar electric power plant for a small community is reported. Topics covered include: (1) control configurations and interface requirements for the baseline power system; (2) annual small power system output; (3) energy requirements for operation of the collectors and control building; (4) life cycle costs and reliability predictions; (5) thermal conductivities and costs of receiver insulation materials; (6) transient thermal modelling for the baseline receiver/thermal transport system under normal and inclement operating conditions; (7) high temperature use of sodium; (8) shading in a field of parabolic collectors; and (9) buffer storage materials.

  16. SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: University of Riyadh. Solar air conditioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Research on solar air conditioning at the University of Riyadh in Riyhadh, Saudi Arabia is presented. Topics relevant to the university's proposed solar cooling laboratory are discussed: absorption systems and various contingencies, photovoltaic solar collectors and thermoelectric elements, measuring instruments, solar radiation measurement and analysis, laboratory specifications, and decision theories. Dual cycle computations and equipment specifications are included among the appendices.

  17. Comparison of photovoltaic energy systems for the solar village

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piercefrench, Eric C.

    1988-08-01

    Three different solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are compared to determine if the electrical needs of a solar village could be supplied more economically by electricity generated by the sun than by existing utility companies. The solar village, a one square mile community of 900 homes and 50 businesses, would be located in a semi-remote area of the Arizona desert. A load survey is conducted and information on the solar PV industry is reviewed for equipment specifications, availability, and cost. Three specific PV designs, designated as Stand-Alone, Stand-Alone with interconnection, and Central Solar Plant, were created and then economically compared through present worth analysis against utility supplied electrical costs. A variety of technical issues, such as array protection, system configuration and operation, and practicability, are discussed for each design. The present worth analysis conclusively shows none of the solar PV designs could supply electricity to the solar village for less cost than utility supplied electricity, all other factors being equal. No construction on a solar village should begin until the cost of solar generated electricity is more competitive with electricity generated by coal, oil, and nuclear energy. However, research on ways to reduce solar PV equipment costs and on ways to complement solar PV energy, such as the use of solar thermal ponds for heating and cooling, should continue.

  18. Universe: The Universe Beyond our Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the fourth of five Science Objects in the Universe SciPack. It explores the more unknown parts of the universe beyond our solar system and provides an understanding of where and how we fit into the universe as a whole. Astronomers have carefully measured the changing positions of stars, leading them to believe that the Sun is located about half-way out from the center of a disk-shaped galaxy of stars, part of which can be seen as a glowing band of light that spans the sky on a very clear night. Although our Sun is a single star, most stars exist in systems of two or more stars orbiting around one another and are arranged in huge star clusters. Galaxies are isolated collections of billions of gravitationally bound stars and immense clouds of gas and dust. Galaxies are, in turn, grouped into galaxy clusters and super-clusters. The universe contains many billions of galaxies separated by immense distances of mostly empty space. Some of these distant galaxies are so far away that their light takes several billion years to reach Earth. This means that here on Earth we are seeing them as they were that long ago. Learning Outcomes:? Arrange various objects in order of size and distance, ranging from space probes and moons to galaxies and galactic clusters.? Catalogue, in simple terms, the objects within a galaxy.? Generally explain "what is within what" (planetary systems, star clusters, galaxies, etc.).? Describe the location of our solar system within the Milky Way galaxy.? Describe the limitations of using parallax, radar, and brightness to measure the distance of objects from Earth, and classify objects whose distance from Earth could be accurately measured using each type of measurement strategy.

  19. Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

  20. Solar Assisted Adsorptive Desiccant Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkura, Masashi; Kodama, Akio

    Solar assisted desiccant coo1ing process is an effective means to reduce a latent heat load of the ventilation air. This paper describes the influences of ambient humidity and sensible heat factor (SHF) of the indoor room on the performance and scale of the desiccant cooling system. Two process configurations termed “ambient air mode” and “mixed air mode” were assumed. At “ambient air mode”, only ambient air is dehumidified and cooled in the desiccant process. The dehumidified air stream is mixed with return air and further cooled in the cooling coil. At “mixed air mode”, ambient air is mixed with return air and this mixed air stream is dehumidified in the desiccant process and cooled at the cooling coil. At “ambient air mode”, ambient air humidity had a significant impact on required amount of dehumidification since humid ambient air entered the desiccant process directly. In this case, higher temperature level and quantity, which is impossible to be supplied from commonly commercialized flat panel solar collectors, was required. At “mixed air mode”, the influence of increase of ambient humidity was not significant since humidity of the air entering the desiccant process became low by mixing with return air. At this mode, it was expected that 70°C of the circulating water and 37m2 of surface area of solar collector could produce a sufficient dehumidifying performance even in high latent heat condition. The contributing ratio of the desiccant wheel was also estimated. The ratio increased in higher latent heat condition due to increase of required amount of dehumidification. The contributing ratio of the thermal wheel became lower due to increase of saturated air temperature in the evaporative cooler.

  1. Array automated assembly task low cost silicon solar array project, phase 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Rhee; G. T. Jones; K. L. Allison

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of solar cells and module process steps for low-cost solar arrays is reported. Specific topics covered include: (1) a system to automatically measure solar cell electrical performance parameters; (2) automation of wafer surface preparation, printing, and plating; (3) laser inspection of mechanical defects of solar cells; and (4) a silicon antireflection coating system. Two solar cell

  2. CSCE 6933/5933 Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    Topics in VLSI Systems 1 Lecture 6: Sigma-Delta Modulator and Evaluation of SPICE NOTE: The figures, text Contribution · High level Design of Sigma-Delta Modulator · Design of Individual Components · Comparative view of Sigma-Delta modulation is done using Verilog-A in Cadence and design of individual components (Diff

  3. A regional comparison of solar, heat pump, and solar heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manton, B. E.; Mitchell, J. W.

    The thermal and economic performance of the parallel and series solar-heat pump systems, stand-alone solar and stand-alone heat pump systems for residential space and domestic hot water heating is being compared for the United States using FCHART 4.0. The results are useful for a regional assessment of the viability of the different systems, and for assessing policies that will encourage the implementation of the most energy efficient system.

  4. Wide band gap Gallium Phosphide solar cells for multi-junction solar cell system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuesong Lu; S. R. Huang; M. Diaz; R. L. Opila; A. Barnett

    2010-01-01

    Gallium Phosphide (GaP) solar cells have been designed, fabricated, characterized and analyzed as candidates for the top junction solar cell in a multi-junction solar cell system. Liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) has been used as the growth method for the epitaxial layers. Open circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.535V has been achieved under one sun illumination from the outdoor test. Quantum efficiency

  5. Integrated solar powered climate conditioning systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Denton

    1974-01-01

    Performance comparisons were made between direct solar heating, solar powered vapor compression and gas absorption heat pumps, electric resistance heating, and combustion furnace heating. Seasonal resource energy consumption for a Philadelphia single family residence was used as the measure of comparison. The attitudes of prospective purchasers toward using solar heating in their new homes were surveyed. Financial institutions were polled

  6. Soil solarization in various agricultural production systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Stapleton

    2000-01-01

    Soil solarization is a natural, hydrothermal process of disinfesting soil of plant pests that is accomplished through passive solar heating. Solarization occurs through a combination of physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms, and is compatible with many other disinfestation methods to provide integrated pest management. Commercially, it is used on a relatively small scale worldwide as a substitute for synthetic chemical

  7. Early results from solar dynamic space power system testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard K. Shaltens; Lee S. Mason

    1996-01-01

    Abstract Agovernment\\/industry team designed, built and tested a 2-kWesolar dynamic,space power system in a large thermal\\/ vacuum,facility with a simulated ,Sun at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Lewis facility provides an accurate simulation of temperatures, high vacuum and solar flux as encountered,in low-Earth orbit. The solar dynamic ,system includes a Brayton power conversion unit integrated with a solar receiver

  8. Amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, K.; Konagai, M.

    1986-01-01

    The fabrication, performance, and applications of a-Si solar cells are discussed, summarizing the results of recent experimental investigations and trial installations. Topics examined include the fundamental principles and design strategies of solar power installations; the characteristics of monocrystalline-Si solar cells; techniques for reducing the cost of solar cells; independent, linked, and hybrid solar power systems; proposed satellite solar power systems; and the use of solar cells in consumer appliances. Consideration is given to the history of a-Si, a-Si fabrication techniques, quality criteria for a-Si films, solar cells based on a-Si, and techniques for increasing the efficiency and lowering the cost of a-Si solar cells. Graphs, diagrams, drawings, and black-and-white and color photographs are provided. 136 references.

  9. Amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.; Konagai, M.

    The fabrication, performance, and applications of a-Si solar cells are discussed, summarizing the results of recent experimental investigations and trial installations. Topics examined include the fundamental principles and design strategies of solar power installations; the characteristics of monocrystalline-Si solar cells; techniques for reducing the cost of solar cells; independent, linked, and hybrid solar power systems; proposed satellite solar power systems; and the use of solar cells in consumer appliances. Consideration is given to the history of a-Si, a-Si fabrication techniques, quality criteria for a-Si films, solar cells based on a-Si, and techniques for increasing the efficiency and lowering the cost of a-Si solar cells. Graphs, diagrams, drawings, and black-and-white and color photographs are provided.

  10. Solar spectrograph design concept for occultation and solar flux measurements in the solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill R. Sandel; A. Lyle Broadfoot

    1993-01-01

    Future space missions, large or small, that address planetary atmospheres should have the capability to observed occultations of the Sun by the atmosphere and to monitor the solar EUV and FUV flux. To be a viable candidate, the solar spectrograph must not compete with the primary experiments for mass and power. We have designed a compact solar spectrograph that covers

  11. Solar spectrograph design concept for occultation and solar flux measurements in the solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill R. Sandel; A. L. Broadfoot

    1993-01-01

    Future space missions, large or small, that address planetary atmospheres should have the capability to observe the occultations of the Sun by the atmosphere and to monitor the solar EUV and FUV flux. To be a viable candidate, the solar spectrograph must not compete with the primary experiments for mass and power. The authors have designed a compact solar spectrograph

  12. Solar system ice - Amorphous or crystalline?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoluchowski, R.

    1983-01-01

    The meteoritic bombardment of icy surfaces is discussed, focusing on the formation of amorphous ice and its thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. A numerical code has been developed for evaluating the ratio of the volume of the melted and vaporized ice target to the volume of the projectile that has impacted the surface and left a crater. However, water will only vaporize with impact speeds over 4 to 6 km/sec, and subsequent condensation into ice below 150 K will produce amorphous ice. A denser form of amorphous ice exists below 10 K, with the transition into a crystalline form occurring above 150 K. Maximum impact velocities have been defined for all major bodies in the solar system, with the finding that crystalline ice will form in the crater while amorphous ice will form on the ejecta. The amount of each is dependent on the ratio of solidified water to condensed water vapor and on the fraction of solid ejecta.

  13. Operations Concept for a Solar System Internetwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Denis, Michel; Braatz, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Space communications to date has been largely managed at the link layer, with simple point-to-point links between a spacecraft at Earth. However, future space exploration scenarios involve much richer communications scenarios, with complex network scenarios involving space assets communicating back to Earth via multiple intermediate relay service providers. To support these more complex network scenarios, the Space Internetworking Strategy Group has developed an operations concept for a Solar System Internetwork (SSI). The operations concept draws on the successes of the terrestrial Internet while addressing unique aspects of space communications. Key elements of the operations concept include a standardized network layer across the end-to-end SSI and the underlying processes for development of a contact plan that captures the link layer connectivity among SSI network nodes.

  14. Solar system tests of brane world models

    E-print Network

    Christian G. Boehmer; Tiberiu Harko; Francisco S. N. Lobo

    2008-02-05

    The classical tests of general relativity (perihelion precession, deflection of light, and the radar echo delay) are considered for the Dadhich, Maartens, Papadopoulos and Rezania (DMPR) solution of the spherically symmetric static vacuum field equations in brane world models. For this solution the metric in the vacuum exterior to a brane world star is similar to the Reissner-Nordstrom form of classical general relativity, with the role of the charge played by the tidal effects arising from projections of the fifth dimension. The existing observational solar system data on the perihelion shift of Mercury, on the light bending around the Sun (obtained using long-baseline radio interferometry), and ranging to Mars using the Viking lander, constrain the numerical values of the bulk tidal parameter and of the brane tension.

  15. Picking a Planet, Exploring Our Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chari

    2008-11-23

    It is the year 2025 and a large company, Z-Tech, wants to put a hotel in space having it orbit around one of the planets in our solar system. Our 5th grade class has been given a very important job. We have to search for the perfect location for the hotel. Our job is to report back to the company with the planet that is the best place for an orbiting hotel. The Task: You are to write a report recommending which planet should be chosen. Your report should include pictures of the planet you recommended. Here are the questions you should answer in order to report back to Z-Tech with your recommendation. * Which planet will be the ...

  16. Gravity fields of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zendell, A.; Brown, R. D.; Vincent, S.

    1975-01-01

    The most frequently used formulations of the gravitational field are discussed and a standard set of models for the gravity fields of the earth, moon, sun, and other massive bodies in the solar system are defined. The formulas are presented in standard forms, some with instructions for conversion. A point-source or inverse-square model, which represents the external potential of a spherically symmetrical mass distribution by a mathematical point mass without physical dimensions, is considered. An oblate spheroid model is presented, accompanied by an introduction to zonal harmonics. This spheroid model is generalized and forms the basis for a number of the spherical harmonic models which were developed for the earth and moon. The triaxial ellipsoid model is also presented. These models and their application to space missions are discussed.

  17. Chaotic Disintegration of the Inner Solar System

    E-print Network

    Konstantin Batygin; Alessandro Morbidelli; Mathew J. Holman

    2014-11-18

    On timescales that greatly exceed an orbital period, typical planetary orbits evolve in a stochastic yet stable fashion. On even longer timescales, however, planetary orbits can spontaneously transition from bounded to unbound chaotic states. Large-scale instabilities associated with such behavior appear to play a dominant role in shaping the architectures of planetary systems, including our own. Here we show how such transitions are possible, focusing on the specific case of the long-term evolution of Mercury. We develop a simple analytical model for Mercury's dynamics and elucidate the origins of its short term stochastic behavior as well as of its sudden progression to unbounded chaos. Our model allows us to estimate the timescale on which this transition is likely to be triggered, i.e. the dynamical lifetime of the Solar System as we know it. The formulated theory is consistent with the results of numerical simulations and is broadly applicable to extrasolar planetary systems dominated by secular interactions. These results constitute a significant advancement in our understanding of the processes responsible for sculpting of the dynamical structures of generic planetary systems.

  18. Chaotic Disintegration of the Inner Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Holman, Matthew J.

    2015-02-01

    On timescales that greatly exceed an orbital period, typical planetary orbits evolve in a stochastic yet stable fashion. On even longer timescales, however, planetary orbits can spontaneously transition from bounded to unbound chaotic states. Large-scale instabilities associated with such behavior appear to play a dominant role in shaping the architectures of planetary systems, including our own. Here we show how such transitions are possible, focusing on the specific case of the long-term evolution of Mercury. We develop a simple analytical model for Mercury's dynamics and elucidate the origins of its short-term stochastic behavior as well as of its sudden progression to unbounded chaos. Our model allows us to estimate the timescale on which this transition is likely to be triggered, i.e., the dynamical lifetime of the solar system as we know it. The formulated theory is consistent with the results of numerical simulations and is broadly applicable to extrasolar planetary systems dominated by secular interactions. These results constitute a significant advancement in our understanding of the processes responsible for sculpting of the dynamical structures of generic planetary systems.

  19. Testing and modeling of a solar thermophotovoltaic power system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth W. Stone; Donald L. Chubb; David M. Wilt; Mark W. Wanlass

    1996-01-01

    A solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) power system has attractive attributes for both space and terrestrial applications. This paper presents the results of testing by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) over the last year with components furnished by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). The testing has included a large scale solar TPV testbed system and

  20. Thermoeconomic Analysis of a Solar Heat-Pump System 

    E-print Network

    Gao, Y.; Wang, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a solar energy heat-pump system and analyzes the thermoeconomics. The results show that the solar energy heat-pump system can be operated in different modes and used for room heating in winter and cooling in summer and...

  1. C.6 SOLAR SYSTEM OBSERVATIONS 1. Scope of Program

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    . Additionally, Solar System Observations supports NASA's commitment to discover and inventory potentially and must support those NASA Solar System program objectives that cannot be met by current spacecraft that supplement NASA missions returning significant amounts of data within the next three years are especially

  2. RMP Colloquia Sputtering of ices in the outer solar system

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    , University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903 Exploration of the outer solar system has led-solar-system phenomena: the sputter-produced plasma trapped in Saturn's magnetosphere; the O2 atmosphere on Europa; and optical absorption features such as SO2 in the surface of Europa and O2 and, possibly, O3 in the surface

  3. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    These combined quarterly reports summarize the activities from November 1977 through September 1978, and over the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  4. Thermoeconomic Analysis of a Solar Heat-Pump System

    E-print Network

    Gao, Y.; Wang, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a solar energy heat-pump system and analyzes the thermoeconomics. The results show that the solar energy heat-pump system can be operated in different modes and used for room heating in winter and cooling in summer and...

  5. Penetration of nearby supernova dust in the inner solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Themis Athanassiadou; B. D. Fields

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the method by which nearby supernovae – within a few tens of pc of the solar system – can penetrate the solar system and deposit live radioactivities on earth. The radioactive isotopic signatures that could potentially leave an observable geological imprint are in the form of refractory metals; consequently, it is likely they would arrive in the form

  6. Solar car cruising strategy and its supporting system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Shimizu; Yasuyuki Komatsu; Minoru Torii; Masato Takamuro

    1998-01-01

    Cruising strategy in a solar car race consists of the techniques used to generate as much power as possible under fluctuating weather conditions while cruising at the highest speed possible with minimal motor power consumption. This paper introduces the Cruising Strategy Supporting System used by the Honda Team for the third World Solar Challenge as a concrete example. This system

  7. Outline of the Solar System: Activities for elementary students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartsfield, J.; Sellers, M.

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to the solar system for the elementary school student is given. The introduction contains historical background, facts, and pertinent symbols concerning the sun, the nine major planets and their moons, and information about comets and asteroids. Aids to teaching are given, including a solar system crossword puzzle with answers.

  8. Astronomical Resources. The Solar System: An Introductory Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    This reference surveys resources of astronomical information including books and articles about the solar system, Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, Asteroids, Comets, and Meteors. Also included is a list of seven available slide sets about the solar system. (CW)

  9. Our Solar System at a Glance. Information Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The United States has explored the solar system with automated spacecraft and human-crewed expeditions that have produced a quantum leap in our knowledge and understanding of the solar system. Through the electronic sight and other "senses" of our automated spacecraft, color and complexion have been given to worlds that for centuries appeared to…

  10. Solar System tests disfavor $f(R)$ gravities

    E-print Network

    Xing-hua Jin; Dao-jun Liu; Xin-zhou Li

    2007-03-06

    Using the elegant method employed recently by Erickcek, Smith and Kamionkowski, on the premise that the space-time of Solar System is described by a metric with constant-curvature background added by a static perturbation, we show that many $f(R)$ gravities are ruled out by Solar System tests.

  11. Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without

  12. Solar steam generating systems using parabolic trough concentrators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Solar steam generating systems using parabolic trough concentrators have been in use for the past decade in several countries in the world. During the past years, various R & D efforts have been put into use to improve the performance. This paper reviews various aspects of solar steam generating systems and the operational problems that were encountered by various users

  13. Habitability of Terrestrial Planets in the Early Solar System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. H. SLEEP

    2001-01-01

    The Protoearth, Mars, Venus, and the Moon-forming impactor were potentially habitable in the early solar system. The interiors of larger asteroids had habitable circulating water. To see when the inner solar system became continuously habitable, one needs to consider the most dangerous events and the safest refugia from them. Early geochemical and accretionary processes set the subsequent silicate planet reservoirs

  14. Online Courses: AMNH Seminars on Science: The Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    The Solar System is our local neighborhood in space, comprising our closest star, the Sun, along with the matter and radiation that surround it. The origins of the Solar System, its rich diversity and extreme environments, its dynamic nature and its impac

  15. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-09-01

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  16. Increasing Community Access to Solar: Designing and Developing a Shared Solar Photovoltaic System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This document introduces the Energy Department's new Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility, Private, and Nonprofit Project Development. The guide is designed to help those who want to develop community shared solar projects - from community organizers and advocates to utility managers and government officials - navigate the process of developing shared systems, from early planning to implementation.

  17. Kerava solar village - a solar assisted heat pump system with long-term heat storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Maekinen; P. D. Lund

    1983-01-01

    The Kerava solar village is the first regional building complex in Finland with a combined solar heating and heat pump system using seasonal storage. Besides the operational principles, we present the findings of a cost, performance and sensitivity analysis of the village.

  18. "From Earth to the Solar System:" Public Science Exhibitions for NASA's Year of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcand, K. K.; Watzke, M.; Fletcher, J.; Scalice, D.

    2012-08-01

    Launched in May 2011, "From Earth to the Solar System" (FETTSS) is a public science program that brings planetary science, astronomy, and astrobiology images to audiences in non-traditional science outreach locations. FETTSS seeks to sustain and build upon the success of the award-winning International Year of Astronomy 2009 project "From Earth to the Universe." FETTSS utilizes a similar grass-roots-type of approach to emphasize the point that science-learning experiences can be anywhere. Exhibiting a curated collection of print-ready images of the Solar System, FETTSS aims to spark socially-based engagement and enhance exploration of astronomical content through free-choice learning outside the walls of (but also in partnership with) science centers or planetariums. The research component of FETTSS investigates casual versus intentional audiences, the possibility for participants to reshape their identity or non-identity with science through public events, and additional audience demographics.

  19. Application of RIMS to the Study of Beryllium ChronologyApplication of RIMS to the Study of Beryllium Chronology in Early Solar System Condensatesin Early Solar System Condensates

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Lawrence

    of Beryllium Chronology in Early Solar System Condensatesin Early Solar System Condensates K. B. Knight1 of Be decay products shows potential for addressing early solar system events.Resonant Ionization (RIMS) detection of Be decay products shows potential for addressing early solar system events. 1 2 3 4 The

  20. New Thematic Solar System Exploration Products for Scientists and Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, Lesile; Wessen, Alice; Davis, Phil; Lindstrom, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    The next several years are an exciting time in the exploration of the solar system. NASA and its international partners have a veritable armada of spaceships heading out to the far reaches of the solar system. We'll send the first spacecraft beyond our solar system into interstellar space. We'll launch our first mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt and just our second to Mercury (the first in 30 years). We'll continue our intensive exploration of Mars and begin our detailed study of Saturn and its moons. We'll visit asteroids and comets and bring home pieces of the Sun and a comet. This is truly an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery! To facilitate access to information and to provide the thematic context for these missions NASA s Solar System Exploration Program and Solar System Exploration Education Forum have developed several products.

  1. Integrated voice and visual systems research topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Douglas H.; Simpson, Carol A.

    1986-01-01

    A series of studies was performed to investigate factors of helicopter speech and visual system design and measure the effects of these factors on human performance, both for pilots and non-pilots. The findings and conclusions of these studies were applied by the U.S. Army to the design of the Army's next generation threat warning system for helicopters and to the linguistic functional requirements for a joint Army/NASA flightworthy, experimental speech generation and recognition system.

  2. SOLAR SYSTEM MOONS AS ANALOGS FOR COMPACT EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Stephen R.; Hinkel, Natalie R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Raymond, Sean N., E-mail: skane@ipac.caltech.edu [CNRS, UMR 5804, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux, 2 rue de l'Observatoire, BP 89, F-33271 Floirac Cedex (France)

    2013-11-01

    The field of exoplanetary science has experienced a recent surge of new systems that is largely due to the precision photometry provided by the Kepler mission. The latest discoveries have included compact planetary systems in which the orbits of the planets all lie relatively close to the host star, which presents interesting challenges in terms of formation and dynamical evolution. The compact exoplanetary systems are analogous to the moons orbiting the giant planets in our solar system, in terms of their relative sizes and semimajor axes. We present a study that quantifies the scaled sizes and separations of the solar system moons with respect to their hosts. We perform a similar study for a large sample of confirmed Kepler planets in multi-planet systems. We show that a comparison between the two samples leads to a similar correlation between their scaled sizes and separation distributions. The different gradients of the correlations may be indicative of differences in the formation and/or long-term dynamics of moon and planetary systems.

  3. Photobiology, photodermatology and sunscreens: a comprehensive overview. Part 2: topical and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Celleno, L; Calzavara-Pinton, P; Sala, R; Arisi, M C; Bussoletti, C

    2013-02-01

    Sun exposure of the skin triggers several inflammatory pathways via a multitude of photochemical and photobiological effects. Furthermore, local and systemic immune suppression develops. The main clinical effects of UV exposure can be classified schematically into immediate, including sunburn, tanning, vitamin D production and exacerbation of inherited and acquired photosensitive skin disorders and long-term, including solar ageing and skin cancer. The protection against solar radiation is afforded by a healthy behavior of reasonable sun avoidance and the use of topical sunscreens as well as topical and oral antioxidants. However, users of sunscreen products should be able to choose correctly the most convenient product according to their needs. In Europe, the sun protection factor (SPF) and the UVA-protection factor (UVA-PF) are labeled to indicate the degree of protection against UVB and UVA, respectively. However, dermatologists must be aware that the present knowledge of UV effects on human skin needs to be clarified and several regulatory issues of photo-protection remain to be clarified and standardized. Finally, much work is needed to improve water resistance, spreadability, transparency and homogeneity of the sunscreen agents. PMID:23407082

  4. Future exploration of the outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T.

    Exploration of the outer solar system is constrained by vast distances, consequent communications and light time limitations, power, and long flight times. Early reconnaissance missions (Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2) employed relatively fast trajectories resulting in very fast fly-bys. The next generation of exploration (Galileo and Cassini) has been characterized by spacecraft with large propellant systems and relatively slow (gravity assist) trajectories needed energetically to achieve orbit around Jupiter and Saturn. All of these spacecraft utilized radioisotope thermoelectric generators for reliable, but modest power. Future exploration priorities require highly capable spacecraft systems that go into orbit around the primary planet and then perform multiple tasks (e.g. orbiting individual moons and delivering surface and atmospheric scientific probes). To achieve major scientific advances will require significant increases in communication rates, improved instrumentation and high power available for experiments. Fission-powered nuclear electric propulsion is being studied to meet these requirements. A Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter is proposed as the first of this class of new, highly capable missions. The paper will review the scientific rationale for the JIMO mission and prospects for applying these techniques to exploration of Saturn and the other outer planets.

  5. Residential solar-heating system uses pyramidal optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes reflective panels which optimize annual solar energy collection in attic installation. Subunits include collection, storage, distribution, and 4-mode control systems. Pyramid optical system heats single-family and multi-family dwellings.

  6. Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The research activities described herein were concentrated on the areas of economics, heating and cooling systems, architectural design, materials characteristics, climatic conditions, educational information packages, and evaluation of solar energy systems and components.

  7. Solar System Data Access and Analysis with AstroGrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla, S.; Richards, A. M. S.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Walton, N. A.; Tedds, J. A.

    2007-10-01

    AstroGrid is the UK's contribution to a global Virtual Observatory (VO). This paper emphasizes the Solar System aspects of the 2006.3 AstroGrid release. The HelioScope service is presented, providing access to solar image data from the Virtual Solar Observatory, and to time series data from a variety of heliospheric and magnetospheric datasets part of the NASA Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops (CDAW) archive. Results from Helioscope can be streamed to visualization tools via PLASTIC. The AstroGrid Solar Movie Maker service allows the automatic generation of movies of solar images for visualization of flares, filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections. Data retrieval for specified events and cross matching based on time will be emphasized as essential for future Solar System VO developments.

  8. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George

    2011-09-01

    The general theory of relativity was developed by Einstein a century ago. Since then, it has become the standard theory of gravity, especially important to the fields of fundamental astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and experimental gravitational physics. Today, the application of general relativity is also essential for many practical purposes involving astrometry, navigation, geodesy, and time synchronization. Numerous experiments have successfully tested general relativity to a remarkable level of precision. Exploring relativistic gravity in the solar system now involves a variety of high-accuracy techniques, for example, very long baseline radio interferometry, pulsar timing, spacecraft Doppler tracking, planetary radio ranging, lunar laser ranging, the global positioning system (GPS), torsion balances and atomic clocks. Over the last few decades, various groups within the International Astronomical Union have been active in exploring the application of the general theory of relativity to the modeling and interpretation of high-accuracy astronomical observations in the solar system and beyond. A Working Group on Relativity in Celestial Mechanics and Astrometry was formed in 1994 to define and implement a relativistic theory of reference frames and time scales. This task was successfully completed with the adoption of a series of resolutions on astronomical reference systems, time scales, and Earth rotation models by the 24th General Assembly of the IAU, held in Manchester, UK, in 2000. However, these resolutions only form a framework for the practical application of relativity theory, and there have been continuing questions on the details of the proper application of relativity theory to many common astronomical problems. To ensure that these questions are properly addressed, the 26th General Assembly of the IAU, held in Prague in August 2006, established the IAU Commission 52, "Relativity in Fundamental Astronomy". The general scientific goals of the new commission are to: * clarify the geometrical and dynamical concepts of fundamental astronomy within a relativistic framework, * provide adequate mathematical and physical formulations to be used in fundamental astronomy, * deepen the understanding of relativity among astronomers and students of astronomy, and * promote research needed to accomplish these tasks. The present book is intended to make a theoretical contribution to the efforts undertaken by this commission. The first three chapters of the book review the foundations of celestial mechanics as well as those of special and general relativity. Subsequent chapters discuss the theoretical and experimental principles of applied relativity in the solar system. The book is written for graduate students and researchers working in the area of gravitational physics and its applications inmodern astronomy. Chapters 1 to 3 were written by Michael Efroimsky and Sergei Kopeikin, Chapters 4 to 8 by Sergei Kopeikin, and Chapter 9 by George Kaplan. Sergei Kopeikin also edited the overall text. It hardly needs to be said that Newtonian celestial mechanics is a very broad area. In Chapter 1, we have concentrated on derivation of the basic equations, on explanation of the perturbed two-body problem in terms of osculating and nonosculating elements, and on discussion of the gauge freedom in the six-dimensional configuration space of the orbital parameters. The gauge freedom of the configuration space has many similarities to the gauge freedom of solutions of the Einstein field equations in general theory of relativity. It makes an important element of the Newtonian theory of gravity, which is often ignored in the books on classic celestial mechanics. Special relativity is discussed in Chapter 2. While our treatment is in many aspects similar to the other books on special relativity, we have carefully emphasised the explanation of the Lorentz and Poincaré transformations, and the appropriate transformation properties of geometric objects like vectors and tensors, for example, the velocity, acceleration, force, ele

  9. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...standards and certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section...standards and certification program for solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...

  10. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...standards and certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section...standards and certification program for solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...

  11. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...standards and certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section...standards and certification program for solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...

  12. Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels 

    E-print Network

    Tora, Eman

    2012-02-14

    and integration of solar-biofuel-fossil cogeneration systems • Design of solar-assisted absorption refrigeration systems and integration with the processing facility • Development of thermally-coupled dual absorption refrigeration systems, and • Design of solar...

  13. A Modern Almagest An Updated Version of Ptolemy's Model of the Solar System

    E-print Network

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    A Modern Almagest An Updated Version of Ptolemy's Model of the Solar System Richard Fitzpatrick and Ptolemy's Almagest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2 Ptolemy's Model of the Solar System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3 Copernicus's Model of the Solar System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1

  14. Recent R&D topics on concentrator multi-junction solar cells and materials under innovative solar cells's project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yamaguchi; H. Suzuki; Y. Ohshita; N. Kojima; T. Takamoto

    2010-01-01

    III-V compound multi-junction solar cells have great potential for space and terrestrial applications because they have high efficiency potential of more than 50% and superior radiation-resistance. We have been studying concentrator multi-junction solar cells under Japanese Innovative Photovoltaic R&D program started since FY2008. This paper presents our new achievements in super high-efficiency multi-junction and concentrator solar cells. We have obtained

  15. Topic: Catchment system dynamics: Processes and feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia

    2015-04-01

    In this meeting we can talk about my main expertise: the focus of my research ocus revolves around understanding catchment system dynamics in a holistic way by incorporating both processes on hillslopes as well as in the river channel. Process knowledge enables explanation of the impact of natural and human drivers on the catchment systems and which consequences these drivers have for water and sediment connectivity. Improved understanding of the catchment sediment and water dynamics will empower sustainable land and river management and mitigate soil threats like erosion and off-side water and sediment accumulation with the help of nature's forces. To be able to understand the system dynamics of a catchment, you need to study the catchment system in a holistic way. In many studies only the hillslopes or even plots are studied; or only the channel. However, these systems are connected and should be evaluated together. When studying a catchment system any intervention to the system will create both on- as well as off sites effects, which should especially be taken into account when transferring science into policy regulations or management decisions.

  16. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved relative to DA forecasts, but still imperfect. Finally, we represent decisions within the operating hour by schedulers and transmission system operators as real-time (RT) balancing. We simulate the DA and HA scheduling processes with a detailed unit-commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED) optimization model. This model creates a least-cost dispatch and commitment plan for the conventional generating units using forecasts and reserve requirements as inputs. We consider only the generation units and load of the utility in this analysis; we do not consider opportunities to trade power with neighboring utilities. We also do not consider provision of reserves from renewables or from demand-side options. We estimate dynamic reserve requirements in order to meet reliability requirements in the RT operations, considering the uncertainty and variability in load, solar PV, and wind resources. Balancing reserve requirements are based on the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of 1-min deviations from the HA schedule in a previous year. We then simulate RT deployment of balancing reserves using a separate minute-by-minute simulation of deviations from the HA schedules in the operating year. In the simulations we assume that balancing reserves can be fully deployed in 10 min. The minute-by-minute deviations account for HA forecasting errors and the actual variability of the load, wind, and solar generation. Using these minute-by-minute deviations and deployment of balancing reserves, we evaluate the impact of PV on system reliability through the calculation of the standard reliability metric called Control Performance Standard 2 (CPS2). Broadly speaking, the CPS2 score measures the percentage of 10-min periods in which a balancing area is able to balance supply and demand within a specific threshold. Compliance with the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) reliability standards requires that the CPS2 score must exceed 90% (i.e., the balancing area must maintain adequate balance for 90% of the 10-min periods). The combination of representing DA forecast errors in the

  17. Chronology of meteorites and the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the chronology of the chondritic and differentiated meteorites can potentially important constraints on the accretion and origin of the solar system planets, life-time of our protoplanetary disk and circumstellar disks around solar mass stars, and astrophysical setting of the solar system formation. The special issue of Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta consists of invited and contributed papers presented at the Workshop on The Chronology of Meteorites and the Early Solar System, Kauai, 2007 and is honoring the outstanding contributions of C.J. Allégre, G.W. Lugmair, L.E. Nyquist, D.A. Papanastassiou, and G.J. Wasserburg to our understanding of the chronology of the early Solar System.

  18. Design Considerations for an Integrated Solar Sail Diagnostics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Christopher H. M.; Gough, Aaron R.; Pappa, Richard S.; Carroll, Joe; Blandino, Joseph R.; Miles, Jonathan J.; Rakoczy, John

    2004-01-01

    Efforts are continuing under NASA support to improve the readiness level of solar sail technology. Solar sails have one of the best chances to be the next gossamer spacecraft flown in space. In the gossamer spacecraft community thus far, solar sails have always been considered a "low precision" application compared with, say, radar or optical devices. However, as this paper shows, even low precision gossamer applications put extraordinary demands on structural measurement systems if they are to be traceable to use in space.

  19. Reuniting the Solar System: Integrated Education and Public Outreach Projects for Solar System Exploration Missions and Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Klug, Sheri

    2003-01-01

    The Solar System Exploration Education Forum has worked for five years to foster Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) cooperation among missions and programs in order to leverage resources and better meet the needs of educators and the public. These efforts are coming together in a number of programs and products and in '2004 - The Year of the Solar System.' NASA's practice of having independent E/PO programs for each mission and its public affairs emphasis on uniqueness has led to a public perception of a fragmented solar system exploration program. By working to integrate solar system E/PO, the breadth and depth of the solar system exploration program is revealed. When emphasis is put on what missions have in common, as well as their differences, each mission is seen in the context of the whole program.

  20. Impact Processes in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The three main topics of this program as described initially in our May 2003 proposal are: 1) Shock-induced damage and attenuation in planetary materials. 2 ) Shock-induced melting and phase changes. 3) Impact-induced volatilization and vapor speciation of planetary materials Topic 4 has been the subject of a continuing investigation since approximately 1990. On Topic 5, we have a paper in preparation and have submitted a proposal to Astrobiology. 4) Responses of planetary atmospheres to giant impact, 5) Effects of impact-induced shock waves on microbial life

  1. Solar photovoltaic systems for residences in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, MIT Lincoln Laboratory is conducting a program to develop residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. The first phase of this activity involves the design, construction and testing of four prototype systems at the Northeast Residential Experiment Station. The systems employ roof-mounted photovoltaic arrays of 500 to 800 square feet which provide solar-generated electricity sufficient to cut in half the electrical demand of an energy-efficient, passive-solar residence. Construction of these systems will be complete by December 1980, and will be followed by a one-year test period.

  2. Early evolution of the birth cluster of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfalzner, S.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The solar system was most likely born in a star cluster containing at least 1000 stars. It is highly probable that this cluster environment influenced various properties of the solar system such as its chemical composition, size, and the orbital parameters of some of its constituting bodies. Aims: In the Milky Way, clusters with more than 2000 stars only form in two types - starburst clusters and leaky clusters -, each following a unique temporal development in the mass-radius plane. The aim is here to determine the encounter probability in the range relevant to solar system formation for starburst or leaky cluster environments as a function of cluster age. Methods.N-body methods were used to investigate the cluster dynamics and the effect of gravitational interactions between cluster members on young solar-type stars surrounded by discs. Results: Using the now available knowledge of the cluster density at a given cluster age we demonstrate that in starburst clusters the central densities over the first 5 Myr are so high (initially > 105 M? pc-3) that hardly any discs with solar system building potential would survive this phase. This makes starburst clusters an unlikely environment for the formation of our solar system. Instead it is highly probable that the solar system formed in a leaky cluster (often classified as OB association). We demonstrate that an encounter determining the characteristic properties existing in our solar systems most likely happened very early on (<2 Myr) in its formation history and that after 5 Myr the likelihood of a solar-type star experiencing such an encounter in a leaky cluster is negligible even if it was still part of the bound remnant. This explains why the solar system could develop and maintain its high circularity later in its development.

  3. Where is Saturn in the Solar System? Where am I in the Solar System?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is a lesson about the Cassini mission to Saturn. Learners will see Saturn as part of the larger system of the Sun and its orbiting planets. A whole-class read-aloud provides students practice in listening to nonfiction text and a KWL chart supports the discussion of the text. Also included in the lesson is a structured writing activity that leads students to understand and explain their own place in the solar system. This is lesson 2 of 10 in the Mission to Saturn Educators Guide, Reading Writing Rings, for grades 1-2.

  4. Pulsar Navigation in the Solar System

    E-print Network

    Dong, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray Pulsar-based Autonomous Navigation(XNAV) were recently tested which use the Crab pulsar (PSR B0531+21) in the USA Experiment on flown by the Navy on the Air Force Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) under the Space Test Program. It provide the way that the spacecraft could autonomously determine its position with respect to an inertial origin. Now I analysis the sensitivity of the exist instrument and the signal process to use radio pulsar navigation and discuss the integrated navigation use pulsar,then give the different navigation mission analysis and design process basically which include the space, the airborne, the ship and the land of the planet or the lunar.So the pulsar navigation can give the continuous position in deep spaces, that means we can freedom fly successfully in the solar system use celestial navigation that include pulsar and traditional star sensor.It also can less or abolish the depend of Global Navigation Satellite System which include GPS, GRONSS, Gali...

  5. Solar dynamic power system development for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The development of a solar dynamic electric power generation system as part of the Space Station Freedom Program is documented. The solar dynamic power system includes a solar concentrator, which collects sunlight; a receiver, which accepts and stores the concentrated solar energy and transfers this energy to a gas; a Brayton turbine, alternator, and compressor unit, which generates electric power; and a radiator, which rejects waste heat. Solar dynamic systems have greater efficiency and lower maintenance costs than photovoltaic systems and are being considered for future growth of Space Station Freedom. Solar dynamic development managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center from 1986 to Feb. 1991 is covered. It summarizes technology and hardware development, describes 'lessons learned', and, through an extensive bibliography, serves as a source list of documents that provide details of the design and analytic results achieved. It was prepared by the staff of the Solar Dynamic Power System Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The report includes results from the prime contractor as well as from in-house efforts, university grants, and other contracts. Also included are the writers' opinions on the best way to proceed technically and programmatically with solar dynamic efforts in the future, on the basis of their experiences in this program.

  6. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

  7. Retrofittable solar heating systems. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to demonstrate a major improvement in the collection efficiency of solar panels through the use of a unique collector design. Three prototype products were constructed and tested: a solar space heating panel, a domestic hot water panel and a Trombe wall-type of energy storage panel. Collection efficiencies, measured for the hot air and

  8. THE AGE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM REVISITED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwa, M.; Bouvier, A.

    2009-12-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites are believed to be the earliest solids to form in solar protoplanetary disk [1]. As such, their absolute ages have been taken to represent the time of formation of the Solar System. Recently, several high precision Pb-Pb studies of CAIs from the CV3 chondrites Efremovka and Allende have been conducted, and estimates of the Pb-Pb ages for CAIs range from 4567.1 ± 0.1 Ma [2] to 4568.5 ± 0.5 Ma [3]. This age range of ~1-2 Ma is significantly larger than the time interval for CAI formation estimated from 26Al-26Mg isotope systematics [4,5]. To resolve the question of the absolute formation age of CAIs and to, thereby, obtain better constrains on the age of the Solar System, we have conducted high precision Pb-Pb and Al-Mg studies of CAIs from the CV3 meteorites Allende, Leoville and NWA 2364 [6-8]. Our results show that the initial 26Al/27Al ratio in these CAIs at the time of last equilibration of Mg isotopes was, within errors, the same as the canonical value (i.e., ~5 × 10^-5) and that this equilibration event for each of these CAIs occurred within a span of ~300,000 years. We obtained a Pb-Pb internal isochron age for an Allende CAI (based on 3 leached residues of interior fragments and 1 radiogenic leachate having 206Pb/204Pb ratios up to ~3,500) of 4567.6 ± 0.1 Ma (MSWD = 0.2) [6]. For the NWA 2364 CAI, however, we obtained an older Pb-Pb internal isochron age of 4568.7 ± 0.2 Ma (MSWD = 1.4) [7] based on even more radiogenic compositions than those that we obtained for the Allende CAI (3 leached residues of interior fragments and their most radiogenic leachates having 206Pb/204Pb ratios up to ~10,200). This older age is consistent with the Hf-W and Al-Mg model ages of CAIs, if these short-lived chronometers are anchored to the angrite D’Orbigny for which precise Pb-Pb, Al-Mg and Hf-W systematics were recently reported [9-11]. If the older age of 4568.7 ± 0.2 Ma for the NWA 2364 CAI represents the age of the Solar System, it is as yet unclear why the Pb-Pb ages recorded by CAIs analyzed thus far from Allende and Efremovka are resolvably younger. Recent work on high precision U isotope analyses of CAIs has shown that the 238U/235U ratio can vary up to ~3.5 ‰ in Allende CAIs [12], and this could potentially result in an uncertainty of as much as ~5 Ma in the previously determined Pb-Pb ages of CAIs. We are currently evaluating whether variations in U isotope compositions of CAIs may result in the range of CAI ages reported thus far. [1] C. M. Gray et al. (1973) The identification of early condensates from the solar nebula. Icarus v. 20, p 213-239. [2] Y. Amelin et al. (2006) 37th LPSC, abstr. #1970. [3] A. Bouvier et al. (2007) GCA, 71, 1583-1604. [4] E. Young et al. (2005) Science, 308, 223-227. [5] K. Thrane et al. (2006) ApJ, 646, L159-L162. [6] A. Bouvier et al. (2008) Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 41, abstr. #5299. [7] A. Bouvier and M. Wadhwa (2009) 40th LPSC, abstr. #2184. [8] A. Bouvier and M. Wadhwa (2009) Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 42, abstr. #5408. [9] Y. Amelin (2008) GCA, 72, 221-232. [10] L. Spivak-Birndorf et al. (2009) GCA, 73, 5202-5211. [11] A. Markowski et al. (2007) EPSL, 262, 214-229. [12] G. Brennecka et al. (2009) Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 42, abstr. #5303.

  9. Assessment of residential passive solar/gas-fired energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, D. L.; Hirshberg, A. S.

    1982-12-01

    The study was made to provide a comprehensive analysis of the issues involved in integrating passive solar with gas-fired back-up energy systems including: characterize major passive solar technologies; analyze technical and economic requirements of back-up heating and cooling systems; evaluate potential improvements for gas-fired heating equipment that could enhance its fit with passive solar heating; investigate the feasibility of passive solar cooling coupled with gas dehumidification equipment; and identify R&D opportunities for GRI which offer benefits to the gas ratepayer and to the gas industry. Passive solar heating, because of its potential to significantly reduce home heating loads and of the ease with which electric backup systems can be installed could result in a decrease in gas market share, as a primary heating fuel in new housing.

  10. Testing for Dark Matter Trapped in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisher, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the possibility of dark matter trapped in the solar system in bound solar orbits. If there exist mechanisms for dissipating excess kinetic energy by an amount sufficient for generating bound solar orbits, then trapping of galactic dark matter might have taken place during formation of the solar system, or could be an ongoing process. Possible locations for acumulation of trapped dark matter are orbital resonances with the planets or regions in the outer solar system. It is posible to test for the presence of unseen matter by detecting its gravitational effects. Current results for dynamical limits obtained from analyses of planetary ephemeris data and spacecraft tracking data are presented. Possible future improvements are discussed.

  11. Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-09-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at Troy-Miami County Public Library, Troy, Ohio. The completed system is composed of tree basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which includes a 5000-gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which includes piping, pumping and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and is, therefore, a retrofit system. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  12. Measured piping and component heat losses from a typical SFBP (Solar in Federal Buildings Program) solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Francetic; K. S. Robinson

    1987-01-01

    Recent comprehensive monitoring of solar energy systems has indicated that heat losses from system piping and components are much higher than originally expected. Theoretical analyses conducted at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) predict that operating plus standby (during shutdown) heat losses from a typical solar system could equal up to one-third of the total gross solar energy collected by

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Pu Chun; Qiao, Rui

    2007-09-01

    This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment.

  14. ERDA's central receiver solar thermal power system studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippy, L. J.; Heaton, T. R.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy for electrical power production was studied. Efforts underway on the central receiver solar thermal power system are presented. Preliminary designs are included of pilot plant utilizing large numbers of heliostats in a collector field. Safety hazards are also discussed, as well as the most beneficial location of such a plant within the United States.

  15. Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Brown; J. L. Lamarche; G. E. Spanner

    1991-01-01

    In October 1988, a symposium was held in Helendale, California, to discuss thermal energy storage (TES) concepts applicable to medium temperature (200 to 400 C) solar thermal electric power plants, in general, and the solar electric generating system (SEGS) plants developed by Luz International, in particular. Chemical reaction energy storage based on the reversible reaction between metal oxides and metal

  16. Soil Quality and the Solar Corridor Crop System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  17. Hybrid solar-wind energy conversion systems meteorological aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. I. Aspliden

    1981-01-01

    Both the solar and wind resources available in the boundary layer vary in time and space. Data indicate, however, that the availability of the two resources may complement each other on both short and long term bases in many regions to meet different load requirements in various applications. This suggests that solar-wind hybrid systems may be more attractive and suitable

  18. Solar heat pump systems for domestic hot water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Aye; W. W. S Charters; C Chaichana

    2002-01-01

    Vapour compression heat pumps can upgrade ambient heat sources to match the desired heating load temperature. They can offer considerable increase in operational energy efficiency compared to current water heating systems. Solar heat pumps collect energy not only from solar radiation but also from the ambient air. They can operate even at night or in totally overcast conditions. Since the

  19. Systems analysis of Mars solar electric propulsion vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Hickman; H. B. Curtis; B. H. Kenny; R. J. Sefcik

    1990-01-01

    Mission performance, mass, initial power, and cost are determined for solar electric propulsion vehicles across a range of payload masses, reference powers, and mission trajectories. Thick radiation shielding is added to arrays using indium phosphide or III-V multijunction solar cells to reduce the damage incurred through the radiation belts. Special assessments of power management and distribution systems, atmospheric drag, and

  20. Integration of Antennas and Solar Cells for Autonomous Communication Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Jose Roo Ons

    2010-01-01

    Solar energy is becoming an attractive alternative for powering autonomous communication systems. These devices often involve the use of separate photovoltaics and antennas, which demand a compromise in the utilization of the limited space available. This thesis deals with the design, analysis, fabrication and validation of different techniques for the integration of antennas and solar cells in a single multifunctional