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1

Our Solar System. Our Solar System Topic Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the planets and other objects in space that make up the solar system. It also shows how technology helps students learn about our neighbors in space. The suggested age range for this book is 3-8 with a guided reading level of Q-R. The Fry level is 3.2.

Phelan, Glen

2006-01-01

2

Chaotic diffusion in the outer solar system, and other topics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out extensive numerical orbit integrations to probe the long-term chaotic dynamics of the 2:3 (Plutinos) and 1:2 (Twotinos) mean motion resonances with Neptune. We derive maps of resonance stability measured both by time-averaged particle density and by mean dynamical diffusion rate, and investigate the effects of a massive perturber embedded in the resonance. We also investigate the population of Resonant Kuiper Belt Objects at 4 Gyr ago compared to the present, and discuss the implications for theories of Kuiper Belt origins. We have numerically investigated the long term dynamical behavior of known Centaurs. We find that their orbital evolution is characterized by frequent close encounters with the giant planets, with no significant long-term resonant behavior. Most of these Centaurs will escape from the inner solar system, while a fraction will enter the Jupiter-family comet (JFC) population and a few percent will impact a giant planet. We discuss the implications of our study for the spatial distribution of the actual Centaur population. Using numerical and analytical models, we investigate the ejection of water molecules from Europa's surface by sputtering, the subsequent evolution of their ballistic trajectories, and their re-deposition onto the surface as a water frost. We conclude that net deposition does occur under certain conditions, making sputtering erosion and re-deposition a plausible explanation for the observed color dichotomy between Europa's leading and trailing hemispheres. During Cassini's approach to Jupiter, a series of images was taken to search for any undiscovered satellites of Jupiter. Our analysis of these images indicates that no undiscovered satellites exist between 2.6 and 20 R J with inclination i < 1.6°, eccentricity e < 0.0002, diameter D > 15 km and albedo A > 0.1.

Tiscareno, Matthew Steven

3

Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation  

SciTech Connect

This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction.

Pathak, M.A.

1982-09-01

4

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of the space page of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), and provides information about the Sun, the planets and their moons, and other bodies in the solar system. It contains a travel guide to the Solar System including such topics as what to see, reason to visit, how to get there, and local history. A similar travel guide is then available for the Sun, each of the planets, asteroids, and comets. In addition, multiple links for more detailed information as well as space games and puzzles are provided.

2007-12-12

5

Solar-parabolic dish-Stirling-engine-system module. Task 1: Topical report, market assessment/conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The major activities reported are: a market study to identify an early market for a dish-Stirling module and assess its commercial potential; preparation of a conceptual system and subsystem design to address this market; and preparation of an early sales implementation plan. A study of the reliability of protection from the effects of walk-off, wherein the sun's image leaves the receiver if the dish is not tracking, is appended, along with an optical analysis and structural analysis. Also appended are the relationship between PURPA and solar thermal energy development and electric utility pricing rationale. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-11-30

6

Solar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

1979-01-01

7

Topical and systemic photoprotection.  

PubMed

Sunscreens are a valuable method of sun protection. Several new compounds are now available. It is important to remember, however, that photoprotection includes more than the use of sunscreens. There are a number of sun-protective behaviors that people can use to decrease their exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Dermatologists and other health professionals can work toward changing public policy, greatly increasing the ability of people to access shade. In addition, there is growing evidence about the effectiveness of other sun-protective agents. The only systemic medication for sun protection is beta-carotene, which is effective in erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). PMID:12919121

Rosen, Cheryl F

2003-01-01

8

I would like to receive funding to continue my PhD course in Planetary Science at the University of Planetary science is the study of this and other solar systems. Current hot topics that have attracted  

E-print Network

I would like to receive funding to continue my PhD course in Planetary Science at the University of Arizona. Planetary science is the study of this and other solar systems. Current hot topics that have a planetary science department. Prestigious US universities like Caltech and MIT have excellent planetary

Withers, Paul

9

Meteorites and the early solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work discusses topics in the source regions for meteorites, their secondary processing, irradiation effects on meteorites, solar system chronology, the early solar system, the chemistry of chondrites and the early solar system, magnetic fields in the early solar system, the nature of chondrules, micrometeorites, inhomogeneity of the nebula, the survival of presolar material in meteorites, nucleosynthesis, and the

J. F. Kerridge; M. S. Matthews

1988-01-01

10

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts of our solar system? Let's learn about the parts of our Solar System! First, use the Solar System Chart Now read the Introduction to the Solar System and begin filling out the Solar System Chart by listing one fact for each planet. Now watch the Video 1 on the Solar System and fill out one characteristic about each planet in our Solar System. Now read the Facts about the Solar System and find ...

Kathrynbyers

2012-04-05

11

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA is charting a bold new course into the cosmos, a journey that will take humans back to the Moon, and eventually to Mars and beyond. Exploration of the solar system and beyond will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance. NASA exploration programs will seek profound answers to questions about the origins of our solar system, whether life exists beyond Earth, and how we could live on other worlds. The NASA Vision for space exploration calls for a combination of human and robotic missions to achieve new exploration goals. Robotic missions to the Moon will be followed by an extended human expedition as early as 2015. Lunar exploration will lay the groundwork for future exploration of Mars and other destinations. A new spacecraft to support these journeys--the Crew Exploration Vehicle--will be tested before the end of this decade. Space exploration holds a special place in the human imagination. Youth are especially drawn to Mars rovers, astronauts, and telescopes. If used effectively and creatively, space can inspire children to seek careers in math, science, and engineering. Exploration and discovery are key agents of growth in society--technologically, economically, socially, internationally, and intellectually. This module is a first step in engaging today's youth in space exploration and serves as an invitation to participate in the excitement of discovery.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

12

Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory contains selected contributions written by lecturers at the third (annual) Formation d'Automatique de Paris (FAP) (Graduate Control School in Paris). Following on from the lecture notes from the second FAP (Volume 311 in the same series) it is addressed to graduate students and researchers in control theory with topics touching on a variety of

Françoise Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue; Elena Panteley

2006-01-01

13

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify basic components of our solar system, including the sun, planets, and Earth's moon. We have just learned about the Solar System. Click here to watch an informational overview of the Solar System: Overview of the Solar System.. The planets in our Solar System are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. Every planet in our Solar System revolves around the sun. The sun provides the energy ...

Smithson, Ms.

2009-07-07

14

Topic in Depth - Embedded Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Embedded systems are dedicated computers designed to perform a specific task. They are usually fairly simple devices that are used in areas where powerful, customizable computers are unnecessary; however, they can also be quite complex on occasion. Embedded systems can be found almost anywhere, including automobiles and cellular phones, and their importance is reflected in their near omnipresence.

2010-09-09

15

Systemic Side-Effects of Topical Corticosteroids  

PubMed Central

With the introduction of topical corticosteroids, a milestone has been achieved in dermatologic therapy; owing to its potent anti-inflammatory and ant proliferative effects, it became possible to treat some hitherto resistant dermatoses. But this magic drug can cause enough mischief if used inappropriately. Children are more susceptible to the systemic adverse effects because of enhanced percutaneous absorption through their tender skin. So, systemic side effects should be kept in mind while prescribing this therapeutically valuable topical medicament. PMID:25284850

Dhar, Sandipan; Seth, Joly; Parikh, Deepak

2014-01-01

16

Faraday rotation system. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The Faraday Rotation System (FRS) is one of the advanced laser-based diagnostics developed at DIAL to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the MHD channel, the system directly measures electron density through a measurement of the induced rotation in the polarization of a far infrared laser beam after passing through the MHD flow along the magnetic field lines. A measurement of the induced polarization ellipticity provides a measure of the electron collision frequency which together with the electron density gives the electron conductivity, a crucial parameter for MHD channel performance. The theory of the measurements, a description of the system, its capabilities, laboratory demonstration measurements on seeded flames with comparison to emission absorption measurements, and the current status of the system are presented in this final report.

Bauman, L.E.; Wang, W.

1994-07-01

17

Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate: What's up? The topic of possible relations between solar and cosmic  

E-print Network

Preface Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate: What's up? The topic of possible relations between solar and cosmic ray variability on one hand, and Earth's climate on the other hand, is quite in Space Research topical issue on Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate presents a collection

Usoskin, Ilya G.

18

Astronomy 150: Solar System Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, authored by Stacy Palen of the University of Washington, contains lab activities that deal with planetary astronomy. The labs cover: the earth-moon system, atmospheric escape, craters, meteorites, comets, lunar mapping, Mars, volcanoes on Io, Europa, Neptune, satellites of giant planets, and extra-solar planets. This is a nice comprehensive overview of different interactive astronomy topics.

Palen, Stacy

2009-05-25

19

Solar System!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to our solar systemâthe planets, our Sun and Moon. To begin, students learn about the history and engineering of space travel. They make simple rockets to acquire a basic understanding Newton's third law of motion. They explore energy transfer concepts and use renewable solar energy for cooking. They see how engineers design tools, equipment and spacecraft to go where it is too far and too dangerous for humans. They explore the Earth's water cycle, and gravity as applied to orbiting bodies. They learn the steps of the design process as they create their own models of planetary rovers made of edible parts. Students conduct experiments to examine soil for signs of life, and explore orbit transfers. While studying about the International Space Station, they investigate the realities of living in space. Activities explore low gravity on human muscles, eating in microgravity, and satellite tracking. Finally, students learn about the context of our solar systemâthe universeâas they learn about the Hubble Space Telescope, celestial navigation and spectroscopy.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

20

External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA webpage, Solar System Exploration, allows students to search missions by name, decade, nation, target, mission, and status. Topics: arial, atmospheric, flybys, impact, lander, orbiter, rover, Deep Space Network

1900-01-01

21

External Resource: Build a Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource allows students to choose a diameter of the sun to calculate scaled dimensions of the Solar System and learn the REAL definition of "space." Topics: orbit, radius, diameter, distance.

1900-01-01

22

External Resource: Planets and the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains links to numerous options from which to learn about planets and the Solar System through exploration and activities. Topics: lunar habitat, extreme weather, comets, aerogel, Pluto, asteroids, and planetary science.

1900-01-01

23

Systems Comprehensive Exams Topics Patrick G. Bridges  

E-print Network

Systems Comprehensive Exams Topics Patrick G. Bridges November 23, 2004 1 Introduction I've divided, servers, device drivers, interrupt processing) · Scheduling · Memory-management (e.g. virtual memory switched networks · Basic characteristics of physical networks like Ethernet · Routing basics · TCP

Maccabe, Barney

24

Texasgulf solar cogeneration program. Mid-term topical report  

SciTech Connect

The status of technical activities of the Texasgulf Solar Cogeneration Program at the Comanche Creek Sulfur Mine is described. The program efforts reported focus on preparation of a system specification, selection of a site-specific configuration, conceptual design, and facility performance. Trade-off studies performed to select the site-specific cogeneration facility configuration that would be the basis for the conceptual design efforts are described. Study areas included solar system size, thermal energy storage, and field piping. The conceptual design status is described for the various subsystems of the Comanche Creek cogeneration facility. The subsystems include the collector, receiver, master control, fossil energy, energy storage, superheat boiler, electric power generation, and process heat subsystems. Computer models for insolation and performance are also briefly discussed. Appended is the system specification. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-02-01

25

Water: Life's Elixir in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the possible occurrence of water in our solar system. Topics include the necessity of liquid water for life, distribution of water throughout the solar system, and the possibility that there may be liquid water on Mars or on some of Jupiter's moons.

26

Solar energy collection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collection system for a building is described. A solar energy collector is disposed at the exterior surface of the building and includes a solar energy absorbent body having a surface which is exposed to sunlight and from which solar energy can be transmitted as sensible heat. A panel which is transparent to sunlight is spaced from the

Hummell

1978-01-01

27

Solar energy collection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collection system for a building is described. A solar energy collector is disposed at the exterior surface of the building and includes a solar energy absorbent body having a surface which is exposed to sunlight and from which solar energy can be transmitted as sensible heat. A panel which is transparent to sunlight is spaced from the

1982-01-01

28

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Gas lasers with solar excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CONTENTS 1. Introduction 703 2. General requirements for laser media using solar excitation 704 3. Lasers with direct excitation by solar light 705 3.1. Basic characteristics of laser media. 3.2. Photodissociation Br2-CO2 lasers. 3.3. Interhalogen molecule lasers. 3.4. Iodine lasers. 3.5. Alkali metal vapor lasers. 4. Lasers with thermal conversion of solar pumping 709 4.1. General considerations. 4.2. CO2 laser with excitation in a black body cavity and with gas flow. 4.3. cw CO2 laser without gas flow. 5. Space laser media with solar excitation 713 5.1. Population inversion of molecular levels in the outer atmosphere of the Earth. 5.2. Laser effect in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. 5.3. Terrestrial experimental technique for observing infrared emission in the atmospheres of planets. 5.4. Designs for laser systems in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. 6. Conclusions 717 References 717

Gordiets, B. F.; Panchenko, Vladislav Ya

1986-07-01

29

Solar system positioning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

2006-01-01

30

Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

None

2011-01-01

31

Astronomy 161-The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astronomy 161-The Solar System online course is maintained by the Department of Physics & Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. The twenty two chapters cover everything from time and scale in the universe, development of modern astronomy, the planets, asteroids, meteors, and everything in between. Text, photographs, illustrations, and movies, help users understand the topics along with a handy back and next link on each page to let you navigate through each chapter.

1969-12-31

32

Solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating system for space air heating of a building has a solar energy collector in air flow communication with underground heat storage structure. The collector has an elongated frame defining a plurality of air passages. A plurality of solar energy absorption panels are arranged in ascending space elevations in each air passage so that the air flowing through

1980-01-01

33

Solar energy collecting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting system is described, which may be operated to provide usable energy throughout the year, comprises a plurality of rows of elongate radiant solar energy collecting panels, each having upper and lower edges, being mounted to form an angle to the horizon and to face the sun's position at solar noon. An elongate reflector, also having upper

Broberg

1977-01-01

34

Topical and systemic medications for wounds.  

PubMed

There are a plethora of topical and systemic medications available to the veterinary practitioner today that aid the wound healing process. Some of these help to maintain a moist environment. Others increase growth factors, provide local energy sources, control infection, provide for debridement, increase wound blood flow and temperature, or reduce wound edema. Modern wound care requires that the proper products(s)be used, depending on the condition of the wound and the phase of wound healing. This article discusses various wound care products and provides guidelines on their use. PMID:16787786

Krahwinkel, D J; Boothe, Harry W

2006-07-01

35

Solar System Viewers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains three separate programs that produce animations of different aspects of our solar system. The Solar System Viewer indicates the location of terrestrial planets, gas giants, the asteroid belt, Kuiper Belt and comets in relation to the Sun. This program helps to give a sense of size and location within our solar system. The Other Solar Systems Viewer animates the recent discoveries of planets orbiting other stars. This application gives an animation of how these other solar systems operate. The Satellite Viewer animates the moons of the planets in our solar system to show their names and where they are located around their respective planets. The gas giants Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have more than one animation to show the different groups of moons that orbit them. The moons and planets in this animation are to scale to indicate size comparisons.

Ashbury, Mike; Hamilton, Douglas

36

Simple Fictitious Solar Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Simple Artificial Solar Systems package is a zip archive containing a set of thirty different Java programs (created using Easy Java Simulations) that simulate the night sky for fictitious solar systems. Each simulation illustrates the motion of a "Sun" and some "planets" relative to a fixed background of stars. Students can use these simulations to make qualitative and quantitative observations of the solar and planetary motions. These observations can then be used to construct models (Ptolemaic, Copernican, Tychonic, etc) for that solar system. Handouts for these projects are provided as supplementary documents. All of the solar systems were constructed such that all planets orbit in a common plane around the central "Sun". All orbits are circular, and thus the planets move uniformly on their orbits. This makes the geometry of the models much simpler. Included in the zip archive is a spreadsheet giving the required data for each system. Instructors who want their students to complete the projects individually should assign the 30 solar systems at random and privately document which solar system (by number) each student receives. Change the name of the solar system file from "ejs_YourSolarSystem01.jar" to "StudentNameSolarSystem.jar" (using the actual names of your students, of course) and then distribute the files to your students. That way your students will not know which system they have, so even if they get a copy of the solar system data file they will not be able to determine the data for their solar system without doing the necessary work (unless they want to rely on a 1 in 30 chance of guessing correctly).

Timberlake, Todd

2013-01-04

37

Fluidic fuel feed system: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

This topical report has been prepared by Defense Research Technologies, Inc. in accordance with the statement of work under DOE contract DE-AC21-86MC23006. The purpose is to present the results of the first phase of the Fluidic Fuel Feed System program. The objectives of this Fluidic Fuel Feed System project are to improve the operating life of coal slurry fuel handling, control, and injector component hardware and the atomization process by use of no-moving-parts fluidic devices. Tasks in this project are to develop concepts and to analyze, design, fabricate, test, and evaluate fluidic systems which will control injection of coal fuel slurry into a diesel engine.

Not Available

1987-12-11

38

Build a Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a scale model of the Solar System and learn the real definition of "space." Learners use the online calculator to create an appropriate scale to use as a basis for their model. Once learners have their scaled measurements (diameters and distances), then they can walk and "pace out" the solar system by marking sticks or flags in the ground. Learners can also build a solar system on a roll of toilet paper or receipt paper.

Hipschman, Ron

1997-01-01

39

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Solar System SciPack explores the solar system and the various bodies within it. The focus in on the Standards and Benchmarks related to how we have learned about the solar system and what we know about the planets, moons, and other bodies in the solar system. Special focus is also given to how the solar system and its bodies formed. In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:� Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. � Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".� Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Solar System: The Earth in Space� Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.� Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.� Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.Solar System: A Look at the Planets� Describe, compare, and contrast the following basic features of the planets in our solar system: size, composition, atmosphere, periods of rotation and revolution, surface features, and ring systems.� Describe the similarities and differences between the terrestrial and Jovian planets.� Describe, compare, and contrast the characteristics of planetary moons in our solar system.Solar System: Asteroids, Comets, and Meteorites� Describe the similarities and differences in comets, asteroids, and meteors.� Describe the size, composition, and motion of meteors, asteroids, and comets.� Differentiate between meteors, meteorites, and meteoroids, and explain what happens to meteors as they fall through Earth's atmosphere.� Explain how we learn about asteroids, comets, and meteorites.Solar System: Formation of Our Solar System� Provide the basic story line of how the solar system may have formed from the debris of exploding stars. � Relate the different characteristics and features of the planets to their different distances from the sun.� Explain some of the methods scientists have used to learn about the formation and evolution of the solar system.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-21

40

CSCE 6933/5933 Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems  

E-print Network

· Static Power · Low Power Design 2 Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems #12;Power Dissipation Trend 3 Advanced and Harris 2005 Power Dissipation Static Dissipation Dynamic Dissipation Sub-threshold current Gate Leakage Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems #12;Dynamic and Static Power Sources 9 Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems #12

Mohanty, Saraju P.

41

Build A Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a scale model of the solar system using a tape measure or a very long roll of paper. A calculation tool is provided to determine the correct scaled distances and planet sizes. A brief discussion of the concept of the vast distances of space is included, along with links to other solar system resources.

42

Homemade Solar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the use of NASA Tech Briefs, Peter Kask, was able to build a solarized domestic hot water system. Also by applying NASA's solar energy design information, he was able to build a swimming pool heating system with minimal outlay for materials.

1981-01-01

43

Solar System: Formation of Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It explores the hypothesis that the solar system coalesced out of a giant cloud of gas and debris left in the wake of exploding stars about five billion years ago. Everything in and on the earth, including living organisms, is made of the material from this cloud. As Earth and the other planets formed, the heavier elements fell to their centers. On planets closer to the Sun (the inner planets), the lightest elements and their compounds were mostly blown or boiled away by radiation from the newly formed sun. However, on the outer planets, the lighter substances still surround them as deep atmospheres of gas or as frozen solid layers. Learning Outcomes:� Provide the basic story line of how the solar system may have formed from the debris of exploding stars. � Relate the different characteristics and features of the planets to their different distances from the sun.� Explain some of the methods scientists have used to learn about the formation and evolution of the solar system.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

44

Planetary Aeronomy of the Outer Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will give a historical tour of the highlights of my research on atmospheres in the outer solar system and their interaction with the magnetospheric plasma. Topics include atmospheric photochemistry, the Io plasma torus, the Galilean satellites, and the nitrogen atmospheres on Titan, Triton, and Pluto. The important role of observations combined with theory will be emphasized. The talk will finish with current research on the role that atmospheric escape plays on atmospheric structure in the outer solar system.

Strobel, Darrell

2012-10-01

45

Solar Electric System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat Pipe Technology, Inc. undertook the development of a PV system that could bring solar electricity to the individual home at reasonable cost. His system employs high efficiency PV modules plus a set of polished reflectors that concentrate the solar energy and enhance the output of the modules. Dinh incorporated a sun tracking system derived from space tracking technology. It automatically follows the sun throughout the day and turns the modules so that they get maximum exposure to the solar radiation, further enhancing the system efficiency.

1987-01-01

46

Topics in the structure of hadronic systems  

SciTech Connect

In this dissertation the author examines a variety of different problems in the physics of strongly-bound systems. Each is elucidated by a different standard method of analysis developed to probe the properties of such systems. He begins with an examination of the properties and consequences of the current algebra of weak currents in the limit of heavy quark spin-flavor symmetry. In particular, he examines the assumptions in the proof of the Ademollo-Gatto theorem in general and for spin-flavor symmetry, and exhibit the constraints imposed upon matrix elements by this theorem. Then he utilizes the renormalization-group method to create composite fermions in a three-generation electroweak model. Such a model is found to reproduce the same low energy behavior as the top-condensate electroweak model, although in general it may have strong constraints upon its Higgs sector. Next he uncovers subtleties in the nonrelativistic quark model that drastically alter the picture of the physical origins of meson electromagnetic and hyperfine mass splittings; in particular, the explicit contributions due to (m{sub d}{minus}m{sub u}) and electrostatic potentials may be overwhelmed by other effects. Such novel effects are used to explain the anomalous pattern of mass splittings recently measured in bottom mesons. Finally, he considers the topic of baryon masses in heavy fermion chiral perturbation theory, including both tree-level and loop effects.

Lebed, R.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Physics Dept.]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Physics Div.

1994-04-01

47

Solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1977-01-01

48

Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through out this project you will learn about the Solar System. You will read and learn specific information about each planet. After completing this project, you should be able to answer the question: how does a planet's distance from the sun affect its weather? Watch this video. It is an introduction to the lesson. Learn about our Solar System. Planet Video Print out the graphic organizer from this site. Fill out the information on the chart as you complete the next activities. Solar System Information Chart Visit this link. Read the summary about the planets and dwarf planets. While you ...

Norton, Ms.

2011-10-28

49

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains labs for students. This lab asks students: to create a mini solar system to scale, to be able to explain terms associated with orbits, and to demonstrate an understanding of Kepler's laws.

Hackworth, Martin

2005-04-15

50

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

1984-05-14

51

Solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various control methods and means are disclosed for varying the temperature of vaporization of a solar-powered system so that the instantaneous power delivered by the heat engine of this system, or by a device driven by this engine, is a maximum for given conditions external to the power system, or to the power system and the driven device, respectively, while

Molivadas

1982-01-01

52

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Millisecond solar radio spikes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently available models of one of the most intriguing types of unsteady rf solar emission, millisecond solar radio spikes, are discussed. A comparative analysis of the models' implications and of the body of existing data yields an outline of the most realistic radio spike model possible. The spikes are produced by the cyclotron maser mechanism. The cyclotron cone instability is caused by fast electrons distributed over energies according to a (piecewise) power law. The angular part of the distribution function (whose exact form is, as yet, undetermined) suffers fluctuations due to the magnetic field inhomogeneities that arise in the burst loop as a consequence of the original energy release. In some portions of the loop the distribution is not anisotropic enough to secure the development of a cyclotron instability; it is in these 'microtraps' where individual spikes form. Key areas of future theoretical and experimental research are suggested with a view to verifying the adequacy and realizing the diagnostic potential of the model.

Fleishman, G. D.; Mel'nikov, V. F.

1998-12-01

53

[The Story of the Solar System] The Solar System -I  

E-print Network

] #12;Inner solar system as of 1 Oct 2008 http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?ss_inner #12;Inner solar system as of 1 Oct 2008 http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?ss_inner #12;Outer solar system as of 1 Oct 2008 http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?ss_outer #12;Outer solar system as of 1 Oct 2008 http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?ss_outer #12;Distant solar system

Wardle, Mark

54

Solar System Educators Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar System Educators Program is a nationwide network of highly motivated teachers who lead workshops that show other teachers in their local communities how to successfully incorporate NASA materials and research into their classes. Currently there are 57 Solar System Educators in 37 states whose workshops are designed to assist their fellow teachers in understanding and including standards-based NASA materials into their classroom activities. Solar System Educators attend a training institute during their first year in the program and have the option of attending subsequent annual institutes. The volunteers in this program receive additional web-based mission-specific telecon trainings in conjunction with the Solar System Ambassadors. Resource and handout materials in the form of DVDs, posters, pamphlets, fact sheets, postcards and bookmarks are also provided. Scientists can get involved with this program by partnering with the Solar System Educators in their regions, presenting at their workshops and mentoring these outstanding volunteers. This formal education program helps optimize project funding set aside for education through the efforts of these volunteer master teachers. At the same time, teachers become familiar with NASA's educational materials with which to inspire students into pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering and math.

Knudsen, R.

2004-11-01

55

2006 LWS TR&T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: Overview of Current Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a summary of the research conducted by the members of the 2006 LWS TR&T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic (FST) Team on the physical processes that heat and accelerate the solar wind. The Team applied a combination of theoretical studies, numerical simulations, and observations for their investigation of the role of energy sources and kinetic mechanisms responsible for the heating and acceleration of the solar wind. In particular, the FST Team examined magnetic reconnection, waves, and turbulence as possible heating mechanisms. Plasma properties and their evolution over the solar cycle, determined from the analysis of remote and in situ measurements of solar wind source regions and streams, are being used to constrain the models. The consistency of candidate theoretical models with existing observational data for the solar wind will be discussed.

Miralles, M. P.; LWS Tr&T Solar Wind Fst Team

2008-12-01

56

Solar electricity storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible methods for the storage of solar-energy-generated electricity are reviewed. Attention is given to mechanical systems, including elevated weights, pumped water, compressed air, springs and flywheels, electric and magnetic field storage in a capacitor, electromagnet or superconducting coil, and chemical storage systems, including the electrolyzer hydrogen fuel cell and secondary electric storage batteries. Consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of

J. Jensen; C. Perram

1980-01-01

57

Solar System Fluff  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy notes is an educational resource for introductory astronomy classes for undergraduates. This section discusses smaller planetary objects, such as asteroids, meteorites, and comets, as well as the formation of the solar system, extrasolar planets, and how scientists detect other planetary systems.

Strobel, Nick

2004-07-16

58

Baby Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

2012-01-01

59

CSCE 6933/5933 Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems  

E-print Network

a digital output. 10 Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems #12;Sigma-Delta Modulator · Sigma-Delta modulation based analog to digital (A/D) conversion technology is an effective alternative for high resolution Topics in VLSI Systems 1 Lecture 6: Sigma-Delta Modulator and Evaluation of SPICE NOTE: The figures, text

Mohanty, Saraju P.

60

Solar System Scavenger Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy activity gives kids a grounded way to understand the scale of the planets in our solar system. The activity begins with a brief overview that tells them why all planets are round and introduces them to the concept that the planets vary widely in size. Kids are then asked to create a model of the solar system using found objects that match the provided scale in inches for the planets. The activity ends with a series of challenges, which include arranging the planets according to size and distance from Earth.

61

Solar System Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In these 18 years, the research has touched every major dynamical problem in the solar system, including: the effect of chaotic zones on the distribution of asteroids, the delivery of meteorites along chaotic pathways, the chaotic motion of Pluto, the chaotic motion of the outer planets and that of the whole solar system, the delivery of short period comets from the Kuiper belt, the tidal evolution of the Uranian arid Galilean satellites, the chaotic tumbling of Hyperion and other irregular satellites, the large chaotic variations of the obliquity of Mars, the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, and the resonant core- mantle dynamics of Earth and Venus. It has introduced new analytical and numerical tools that are in widespread use. Today, nearly every long-term integration of our solar system, its subsystems, and other solar systems uses algorithms that was invented. This research has all been primarily Supported by this sequence of PGG NASA grants. During this period published major investigations of tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system and of the passage of the Earth and Venus through non-linear core-mantle resonances were completed. It has published a major innovation in symplectic algorithms: the symplectic corrector. A paper was completed on non-perturbative hydrostatic equilibrium.

Wisdom, Jack

2002-01-01

62

Early Solar System Chronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondritic Meteorites as Probes of Early Solar System EvolutionThe evolutionary sequence involved in the formation of relatively low-mass stars, such as the Sun, has been delineated in recent years through impressive advances in astronomical observations at a variety of wavelengths, combined with improved numerical and theoretical models of the physical processes thought to occur during each stage. From the models and the observational statistics, it is possible to infer in a general way how our solar system ought to have evolved through the various stages from gravitational collapse of a fragment of a molecular cloud to the accretion of planetary-sized bodies (e.g., Cameron, 1995; Alexander et al., 2001; Shu et al., 1987; André et al., 2000; see Chapters 1.04, 1.17, and 1.20). However, the details of these processes remain obscured, literally from an astronomical perspective, and the dependence of such models on various parameters requires data to constrain the specific case of our solar system's origin.Fortunately, the chondritic meteorites sample aspects of this evolution. The term "chondrite" (or chondritic) was originally applied to meteorites bearing chondrules, which are approximately millimeter-sized solidified melt droplets consisting largely of mafic silicate minerals and glass commonly with included metal or sulfide. However, the meaning of chondritic has been expanded to encompass all extraterrestrial materials that are "primitive," i.e., are undifferentiated samples having nearly solar elemental composition. Thus, the chondrites represent a type of cosmic sediment, and to a first approximation can be thought of as "hand samples" of the condensable portion of the solar nebula. The latter is a general term referring to the phase(s) of solar system evolution intermediate between molecular cloud collapse and planet formation. During the nebular phase, the still-forming Sun was an embedded young-stellar object (YSO) enshrouded by gas and dust, which was distributed first in an extended envelope which later evolved into an accretion disk that ultimately defined the ecliptic plane. The chondrites agglomerated within this accretion disk, most likely close to the position of the present asteroid belt from whence meteorites are currently derived. In addition to chondrules, an important component of some chondrites are inclusions containing refractory oxide and silicate minerals, so-called calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) that also formed as free-floating objects within the solar nebula. These constituents are bound together by a "matrix" of chondrule fragments and fine-grained dust (which includes a tiny fraction of dust grains that predate the solar nebula; see Chapter 1.02). It is important to realize that, although these materials accreted together at a specific time in some planetesimal, the individual components of a given chondrite can, and probably do, sample different places and/or times during the nebular phase of solar system formation. Thus, each grain in one of these cosmic sedimentary rocks potentially has a story to tell regarding aspects of the early evolution of the solar system.Time is a crucial parameter in constructing any story. Understanding of relative ages allows placing events in their proper sequence, and measures of the duration of events are critical to developing an understanding of process. If disparate observations can be related temporally, then structure (at any one time) and evolution of the solar system can be better modeled; or, if a rapid succession of events can be inferred, it can dictate a cause and effect relationship. This chapter is concerned with understanding the timing of different physical and chemical processes that occurred in the solar nebula and possibly on early accreted planetesimals that existed during the nebula stage. These events are "remembered" by the components of chondrites and recorded in the chemical, and especially, isotopic compositions of the host mineral assemblages; the goal is to decide wh

McKeegan, K. D.; Davis, A. M.

2003-12-01

63

2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The Beginnings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Wind Focused Science Topic (FST) team was created to apply a combination of theoretical studies, numerical simulations, and observations to the understanding of how the fast and slow solar wind are heated and accelerated. Four proposals were selected for this FST team. They will investigate the role of energy sources and kinetic mechanisms responsible for the heating and acceleration of the solar wind. In particular, the FST team will examine magnetic reconnection and turbulence as possible heating mechanisms. Plasma properties and their evolution over the solar cycle, determined from the analysis of remote and in situ measurements, will be used to put firm constraints on the models. The work of the Solar Wind FST team is in its initial stages. The organization, planning, and findings resulting from the first FST team meeting will be reported.

Miralles, M. P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Landi, E.; Markovskii, S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Doschek, G. A.; Forbes, T. G.; Isenberg, P. A.; Kohl, J. L.; Ng, C.; Raymond, J. C.; Vasquez, B. J.

2006-12-01

64

The New Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2006, the details of bodies making up our solar system have been revised. This was largely as a result of new discoveries of a number of planet-like objects beyond the orbit of Pluto. The International Astronomical Union redefined what constituted a planet and established two new classifications--dwarf planets and plutoids. As a result, the…

Wilkinson, John

2009-01-01

65

Around the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Amazing Space lesson is an interactive card game which helps students learn the properties of comets, asteroids, and the Sun and planets. As students answer questions correctly about the solar system, they collect cards. Background information is provided for teachers.

Mccue, Betty; Flowers, Connie

66

Solar System Dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information related to all known bodies in orbit around the Sun. The resource has five divisions: general information, planets, natural satellites, comets and asteroids, and other Solar System bodies. Each division offers multiple links for more information such as outer planet gravity fields, physical parameters, mean orbital parameters, and a current ephemeris list.

67

Solar System Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

2002-01-01

68

Solar Electric System Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this sheet on the basics of solar electric systems. The document describes how photovoltaic cells work, basic energy terminology, photovoltaic materials and other related information. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Gordes, Joel N.

2011-10-17

69

The Formation of Solar Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered how our solar system was formed? In this project you will gain an understanding of how solar systems are formed. Earth Systems Core Standard 1-2f : Sun and Stars: Relation of the structure of the solar system to the forces acting on it How was our solar system formed? Watch the following video and answer these questions on your paper: How the planets were born 1) What is a stellar nursery ...

Witcher, Miss

2011-09-30

70

Liposomes and Niosomes as Topical Drug Delivery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin acts as a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical\\/transdermal (TT) drug delivery. The stratum corneum plays a crucial role in barrier function for TT drug delivery. Despite major research and development efforts in TT systems and the advantages of these routes, low stratum corneum permeability limits the usefulness of topical drug delivery. To overcome

M. J. Choi; H. I. Maibach

2005-01-01

71

Systemic Absorption of Topical Tacrolimus in Pyoderma Gangrenosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

64 Letters to the Editor Sir, Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a neutrophilic dermatosis characterized by painful ulcerations with purple edges. It is frequently associated with other diseases such as intestinal inflammatory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, monoclonal gammopathies and other haematological di- seases. Treatment includes topical and systemic steroids, cyclosporine and other immunosuppressants. Several cases of PG treated with topical tacrolimus have

Gerard Pitarch; Arantxa Torrijos; Laura Mahiques; José Luís Sánchez-Carazo; José Miguel Fortea

72

The Virtual Solar System Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the course, Virtual Solar System, students construct models of the solar system in an inquiry framework to learn fundamental astronomical concepts. This paper describes the course, the underlying principles for its design, the core technology that make

Hay, Kenneth E.; Barnett, Michael; Barab, Sasha A.

2001-02-01

73

Build Your Own Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet creates a model of a solar system with user-defined data. Users can create a solar system with up to four planets, choosing the star type at the center of the solar system, planet name, size, eccentricity of orbit and distance from the star. This site then calculates these factors to produce a graphic of the solar system with details about each planet such as its atmosphere, temperature, and whether life could exist on its surface.

Asbury, Mike; Hamilton, Douglas

74

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the temperature on differnt planets in our solar system. Learners will explore the planetary temperature system. They explore how each aspect (e.g., mass, temperature and gravity) influences the system and the consequences of disrupting that system. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 8 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

75

Integrated voice and visual systems research topics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of studies was performed to investigate factors of helicopter speech and visual system design and measure the effects of these factors on human performance, both for pilots and non-pilots. The findings and conclusions of these studies were applied by the U.S. Army to the design of the Army's next generation threat warning system for helicopters and to the linguistic functional requirements for a joint Army/NASA flightworthy, experimental speech generation and recognition system.

Williams, Douglas H.; Simpson, Carol A.

1986-01-01

76

Advanced Topic: Quasi-Hermitian Quantum Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far, the discussion has limited itself to hermitian operators and systems. However, superficially non-hermitian Hamiltonian quantum systems are also of considerable current interest, especially in the context of PT symmetric models [Ben07, Mos05], although many of the main ideas appeared earlier [SGH92, XA96]. For such systems, the Hilbert space structure is at first sight very different from that for hermitian Hamiltonian systems, inasmuch as the dual wavefunctions are not just the complex conjugates of the wavefunctions, or, equivalently, the Hilbert space metric is not the usual one. While it is possible to keep most of the compact Dirac notation in analyzing such systems, here we work with explicit functions and avoid abstract notation, in the hope to fully expose all the structure, rather than to hide it...

Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

2014-11-01

77

Advanced Turbine Systems Program. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The Allison Gas Turbine Division (Allison) of General Motors Corporation conducted the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program feasibility study (Phase I) in accordance with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`s) contract DE-AC21-86MC23165 A028. This feasibility study was to define and describe a natural gas-fired reference system which would meet the objective of {ge}60% overall efficiency, produce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions 10% less than the state-of-the-art without post combustion controls, and cost of electricity of the N{sup th} system to be approximately 10% below that of the current systems. In addition, the selected natural gas-fired reference system was expected to be adaptable to coal. The Allison proposed reference system feasibility study incorporated Allison`s long-term experience from advanced aerospace and military technology programs. This experience base is pertinent and crucial to the success of the ATS program. The existing aeroderivative technology base includes high temperature hot section design capability, single crystal technology, advanced cooling techniques, high temperature ceramics, ultrahigh turbomachinery components design, advanced cycles, and sophisticated computer codes.

NONE

1993-03-01

78

Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 4, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of an overall evaluation of the solar power satellite concept are reported. Specific topics covered include: solid state sandwich configuration; parametric development of reliability design; power distribution system for solid state solar power satellites; multibeam transmission; GEO base system configuration; suppression of the heavy lift launch vehicle trajectory; conceptual design of an offshore space center facility; solar power satellite development and operations scenario; and microwave power transmission technology, advancement, development, and facility requirements.

1979-01-01

79

On solar system nomenclature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arguments in support of naming topographic features on other solar system objects after human beings other than astronomers are outlined. In particular, it is important to make sure that the end result will be a nonprovincial distribution of nationalities, epochs, and occupations, a distribution that future generations can be proud of. A more consistent scheme for Jovian satellite nomenclature is proposed which consistently maintains the tradition of naming Jovian satellites after prominent consorts.

Sagan, C.

1976-01-01

80

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between a Terrestrial Planet and a Gas Giant? 1. Let's find out What is the solar system? 2. We live on planet Earth. Scroll to the bottom of this page: Earth. Tell me how many moons Earth has? What is Earth's moons name? 3. This video will tell you which planets are Terrestrial and which planets are Gas Giants. It will also tell you the ...

Brennan, Miss

2012-04-10

81

Solar System Trading Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will collect solar system trading cards by playing an interactive card game. They will identify the sun, planets, comets, and asteroids by answering questions about them. By playing the game, students will gain knowledge about the solar system and they will view pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and other NASA missions. Students will view an image accompanied by a question with three responses. By using the computer mouse, they will chose an answer. When the response is correct, additional information about the image is provided. If an incorrect answer is chosen, students are provided with additional information before they chose a new response. A glossary of terms can be found. At the end of the game, students are assessed with a list of correctly identified solar system objects. This site includes an overview, teacher lesson plans, links to the National Science Education Standards, science background for the teacher, downloadable cards, and links to other sites. The lesson plan includes the goal/purpose, desired outcomes, prerequisites, new vocabulary, general misconceptions, preparation time, execution time, needed materials, engagement activities, step-by-step instructions, evaluation/assessment, and follow-up activities. Suggestions are given for one computer classrooms, those without computers, and home schoolers.

Storr, Alex; Space, Amazing; Mccue, Betty; Flowers, Connie; Institute, Space T.

2007-12-12

82

Solar Physics (2004) 224: 34 C Springer 2005 The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of  

E-print Network

Solar Physics (2004) 224: 3­4 C Springer 2005 PREFACE The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of Long-Term Solar Activity" is based on contributions presented at the First of solar activity, and their effects in the near-Earth environment and technoculture. As an analogy

Usoskin, Ilya G.

83

TOPICAL REVIEW: Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment.

Ke, Pu Chun; Qiao, Rui

2007-09-01

84

Solar Angles and Tracking Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the daily and annual cycles of solar angles used in power calculations to maximize photovoltaic power generation. They gain an overview of solar tracking systems that improve PV panel efficiency by following the sun through the sky.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

85

Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12  

SciTech Connect

The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

Bauman, L.E.

1995-04-01

86

Solar Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

2002-01-01

87

The Scale of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can read about how distances are measured in the solar system. Attempts by early astronomers to estimate distances and ongoing work to establish and refine the astronomical unit (the mean distance from the Earth to the Sun) are described. This is part of NASA's online book entitled "From Stargazers to Starships" and links to other parts of the site and to related topics are provided.

88

Advanced Solar Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

1984-01-01

89

Solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (editor)

1989-01-01

90

Solar system plasma waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

Gurnett, Donald A.

1995-01-01

91

Solar heating system  

DOEpatents

An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

1982-01-01

92

Improved solar heating systems  

DOEpatents

An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

1980-05-16

93

Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides very helpful information about our solar system in a fun and interesting way. There is a whole section about the sun, with facts about the surface, atmosphere, age, and varying temperatures of the sun. All the planets have their own webpage, with link to more in depth information as well as educational activities and games. There are interesting facts as well as myths about comets, asteroids, and meteoroids. The image archive has dozens of images of all the planets as well as the sun and moon.

2009-09-01

94

Outer Solar System Nomenclature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Principal Investigator's responsibilities on this grant fell into two categories according to his participation. In the nomenclature work of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Owen is chair of the Task Group for the Outer Solar System. He is also a member of the IAU's Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) which is composed of the chairs of the several Task Groups plus the presidents of two IAU Commissions and several outside consultants. The WGPSN is presided over by its President, Professor Kaare Aksnes from the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway.

Owen, Tobias C.

1998-01-01

95

Views of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Views of the Solar System presents a vivid multimedia adventure unfolding the splendor of the Sun, planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and more. Discover the latest scientific information, or study the history of space exploration, rocketry, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft through a vast archive of photographs, scientific facts, text, graphics and videos. Views of the Solar System offers enhanced exploration and educational enjoyment of the solar system and beyond.

Hamilton, Calvin J.

96

Solar System Ambassadors Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar System Ambassadors Program is an informal education program designed to work with motivated volunteers across the nation. These competitively selected volunteers communicate information about NASA and JPL's space exploration plans and discoveries to members of their local communities. Currently, there are 375 volunteer Solar System Ambassadors in all 50 states, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia who seek to inspire general public audiences with information about NASA's space exploration missions. Each Ambassador participates in web-based telecon training sessions that provide interaction with NASA scientists, engineers and project team members. As such, each Ambassador's experience with the space program becomes personalized. Training sessions provide Ambassadors with general background on each mission and educate them concerning specific mission milestones, such as launches, planetary flybys, first image returns, arrivals, and ongoing key discoveries. In addition to on-line information, Ambassadors are given DVDs, slides, pamphlets, posters, postcards and lithographs in support of their public engagement.. In addition to participating in on-line trainings with Ambassadors, scientists have the opportunity to partner with, and mentor Ambassadors to strengthen their knowledge of space science and exploration, thereby improving the message that goes out to the general public through these enthusiastic volunteers. Integrating volunteers across the country in an informal education program helps optimize project funding set aside for education and outreach purposes and establishes a nationwide network of regional contacts.

Ferrari, K.

2004-11-01

97

Solar System Visualizations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar System Visualization products enable scientists to compare models and measurements in new ways that enhance the scientific discovery process, enhance the information content and understanding of the science results for both science colleagues and the public, and create.visually appealing and intellectually stimulating visualization products. Missions supported include MER, MRO, and Cassini. Image products produced include pan and zoom animations of large mosaics to reveal the details of surface features and topography, animations into registered multi-resolution mosaics to provide context for microscopic images, 3D anaglyphs from left and right stereo pairs, and screen captures from video footage. Specific products include a three-part context animation of the Cassini Enceladus encounter highlighting images from 350 to 4 meter per pixel resolution; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter screen captures illustrating various instruments during assembly and testing at the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at Kennedy Space Center; and an animation of Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' panorama where the rover was stuck in the deep fine sand for more than a month. This task creates new visualization products that enable new science results and enhance the public's understanding of the Solar System and NASA's missions of exploration.

Brown, Alison M.

2005-01-01

98

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and images about the solar system including detailed information about formation, planets, asteroids, comets, and the Sun. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

99

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Task 3 -- System selection; Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Solar Turbines Incorporated has elected to pursue an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine system to exceed the goals of the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program, which are to develop and commercialize an industrial gas turbine system that operates at thermal efficiencies at least 15% higher than 1991 products, and with emissions not exceeding eight ppmv NOx and 20 ppmv CO and UHC. Solar`s goal is to develop a commercially viable industrial system (3--20 MW) driven by a gas turbine engine with a thermal efficiency of 50% (ATS50), with the flexibility to meet the differing operational requirements of various markets. Dispersed power generation is currently considered to be the primary future target market for the ICR in the 5--15 MW size class. The ICR integrated system approach provides an ideal candidate for the assumed dispersed power market, with its small footprint, easy transportability, and environmental friendliness. In comparison with other systems that use water or toxic chemicals such as ammonia for NOx control, the ICR has no consumables other than fuel and air. The low pressure ratio of the gas turbine engine also is favorable in that less parasitic power is needed to pump the natural gas into the combustor than for simple-cycle machines. Solar has narrowed the ICR configuration to two basic approaches, a 1-spool, and a 2-spool version of the ATS50. The 1-spool engine will have a lower first-cost but lower part-power efficiencies. The 2-spool ATS may not only have better part-power efficiency, its efficiency will also be less sensitive to reduced turbine rotor inlet temperature levels. Thus hot-end parts life can be increased with only small sacrifices in efficiency. The flexibility of the 2-spool arrangement in meeting customer needs is its major advantage over the 1-spool. This Task 3 Topical Report is intended to present Solar`s preliminary system selection based upon the initial trade-off studies performed to date.

White, D.J.

1994-07-01

100

Our Solar System 2013: Solar System Lithograph Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lithograph set about the solar system. It contains images of the planets, the sun, asteroids, comets, meteors and meteorites, the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud, and moons of the solar system. General information, significant dates, interesting facts and brief descriptions of the images are included.

101

Wind in the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short "TPT" articles on frost and precipitation. The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might motivate…

McIntosh, Gordon

2010-01-01

102

Exploration of the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sourcebook of information on the solar system and the technology used for its exploration is presented. An outline of the potential achievements of solar system exploration is given along with a course of action which maximizes the rewards to mankind.

Henderson, A., Jr.; Grey, J.

1974-01-01

103

ENHANCED INTEGRATED SOLAR HOME SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, many traditional Solar Home Systems (SHS) have consisted of separate components requiring assembly by trained individuals in the field. While this cannot be secured, many SHSs in remote areas have not fulfilled their expected lifecycles or have not functioned at all. The Integrated Solar Home System (I-SHS) offers a solution: All components such as PV module, charge controller,

S. C. W. Krauter

104

CRISSCROSS THROUGH OUR SOLAR SYSTEM  

E-print Network

to the Sun Smaller than an asteroid, this rocky object can look like a shooting star The NASA mission traveling to the asteroid belt NASA's program to explore the Solar System using robots Pieces of space rockCRISSCROSS THROUGH OUR SOLAR SYSTEM Dawn is the ninth Discovery mission scheduled for funding from

Waliser, Duane E.

105

Smaller solar system bodies and orbits; Proceedings of Symposium 3, Workshops II, III, and XXVI, and Topical Meetings of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics discussed in this volume include the reappraisal of the moon and Mars/Phobos/Deimos; the origin and evolution of planetary and satellite systems; asteroids, comets, and dust (a post-IRAS perspective); satellite dynamics; future planetary missions; and orbital debris. Papers are presented on a comparison of the chemistry of moon and Mars, the use of a mobile surface radar to study the atmosphere and ionosphere, and laser-ionization studies with the technical models of the LIMA-D/Phobos. Attention is given to planetogonic scenarios and the evolution of relatively mass-rich preplanetary disks, the kinetic behavior of planetesimals revolving around the sun, the planetary evolution of Mars, and pre- and post-IRAS asteroid taxonomies. Consideration is also given to ocean tides and tectonic plate motions in high-precision orbit determination, the satellite altimeter calibration techniques, a theory of the motion of an artificial satellite in the earth atmosphere, ESA plans for planetary exploration, and the detection of earth orbiting objects by IRAS.

Runcorn, S. K.; Carr, M. H.; Moehlmann, D.; Stiller, H.; Matson, D. L.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Kessler, D. J.

106

Smaller solar system bodies and orbits; Proceedings of Symposium 3, Workshops II, III, and XXVI, and Topical Meetings of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed in this volume include the reappraisal of the moon and Mars/Phobos/Deimos; the origin and evolution of planetary and satellite systems; asteroids, comets, and dust (a post-IRAS perspective); satellite dynamics; future planetary missions; and orbital debris. Papers are presented on a comparison of the chemistry of moon and Mars, the use of a mobile surface radar to study the atmosphere and ionosphere, and laser-ionization studies with the technical models of the LIMA-D/Phobos. Attention is given to planetogonic scenarios and the evolution of relatively mass-rich preplanetary disks, the kinetic behavior of planetesimals revolving around the sun, the planetary evolution of Mars, and pre- and post-IRAS asteroid taxonomies. Consideration is also given to ocean tides and tectonic plate motions in high-precision orbit determination, the satellite altimeter calibration techniques, a theory of the motion of an artificial satellite in the earth atmosphere, ESA plans for planetary exploration, and the detection of earth orbiting objects by IRAS.

Runcorn, S. K. (editor); Carr, M. H. (editor); Moehlmann, D. (editor); Stiller, H. (editor); Matson, D. L. (editor); Ambrosius, B. A. C. (editor); Kessler, D. J. (editor)

1990-01-01

107

Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

1983-01-01

108

Microparticulate based topical delivery system of clobetasol propionate.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune skin disease affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Clobetasol propionate which is a superpotent topical corticosteroid is widely used for topical treatment of psoriasis. Conventional dosage forms like creams and ointments are commonly prefered for the therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a new topical delivery system in order to provide the prolonged release of clobetasol propionate and to reduce systemic absorption and side effects of the drug. Clobetasol propionate loaded-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared by oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Particle size analysis, morphological characterization, DSC and XRD analyses and in vitro drug release studies were performed on the microparticle formulations. Emulgel formulations were prepared as an alternative for topical delivery of clobetasol propionate. In vitro drug release studies were carried out from the emulgel formulations containing pure drug and drug-loaded microspheres. In addition, the same studies were performed to determine the drug release from the commercial cream product of clobetasol propionate. The release of clobetasol propionate from the emulgel formulations was significantly higher than the commercial product. In addition, the encapsulation of clobetasol propionate in the PLGA microspheres significantly delayed the drug release from the emulgel formulation. As a result, the decrease in the side effects of clobetasol propionate by the formulation containing PLGA microspheres is expected. PMID:21748539

Bad?ll?, Ulya; Sen, Tangül; Tar?mc?, Nilüfer

2011-09-01

109

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

M. F. Smith Associates is a single-family residence in Jamestown, Rhode Island. The home has approximately 1752 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a gross area of 512 square feet. The array faces 15 degrees

1979-01-01

110

Formation of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall evolution of the solar system is discussed in terms of what is called the Kyoto model. Starting from the formation of the solar nebula, a multistep process is followed in detail, including growth and sedimentation of dust grains in the nebula, formation of planetesimals due to fragmentation of a dust layer, radial migration and accumulation of planetesimals to

C. Hayashi; K. Nakazawa; Y. Nakagawa

1985-01-01

111

Outer Solar System Nomenclature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant has supported work by T. Owen and B. A. Smith on planetary and satellite nomenclature, carried out under the general auspices of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The IAU maintains a Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) whose current chair is Prof.Kaare Aksnes of the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway. Both Owen and Smith are members of the WGPSN; Owen as chair of the Outer Solar System Task Group, and Smith as chair of the Mars Task Group. The major activity during the last grant period (2002) was the approval of several new names for features on Mars by Smith's group and features on Jovian satellites plus new names for satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus by Owen's group. Much of this work was accomplished by e-mail exchanges, but the new nomenclature was formally discussed and approved at a meeting of the WGPSN held in conjunction with the Division for Planetary Sciences meeting in Birmingham, Alabama in October 2002.

Owen, Tobias C.; Grant, John (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

112

Planets in our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today, we're going to learn all about the planets in our solar system. First, watch these two short clips that introduce you to our solar system. Animaniacs Sing The Solar System Song Video on the Planets from IdahoPTV s D4K Once you are done watching the clip we are going to separate into groups. Your group will be everyone sitting at your table. Your group will then be drawing out the name of which planet you will become an ...

Barney, Miss

2011-09-26

113

SOLAR IRRADIANCE FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

SOLAR IRRADIANCE FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS Detlev Heinemann Oldenburg or progress with respect to the development of solar irradiance forecasting methods. Heck and Takle (1987 presents different state-of-the-art approaches to solar irradiance forecasting in different time scales

Heinemann, Detlev

114

Evolution of the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin and evolution of the solar system are analyzed. Physical processes are first discussed, followed by experimental studies of plasma-solid reactions and chemical and mineralogical analyses of meteorites and lunar and terrestrial samples.

Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.

1976-01-01

115

Exobiology in Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A symposium, 'Exobiology in Solar System Exploration,' was held on 24-26 Aug. 1988. The symposium provided an in-depth investigation of the role of Exobiology in solar system exploration. It is expected that the symposium will provide direction for future participation of the Exobiology community in solar system exploration and alert the Planetary community to the continued importance of an Exobiology Flight Program. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily on Exobiology in solar system exploration missions, several ground based and Earth-orbital projects such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Gas Grain Facility, and Cosmic Dust Collection Facility represent upcoming research opportunities planned to accommodate the goals and objectives of the Exobiology community as well. This report contains papers for all but one of the presentations given at the symposium.

Carle, Glenn C. (editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (editor); Huntington, Judith L. (editor)

1992-01-01

116

Solar System Observations with JWST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid- infrared, with sensitivity and spatial-spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010). It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV in 2012.

Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

2014-01-01

117

Views of the solar system  

SciTech Connect

Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

Hamilton, C.

1995-02-01

118

Solar System Observations with JWST  

E-print Network

The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010). It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV in 2012.

Norwood, James; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

2014-01-01

119

SOLAR SYSTEM DARK MATTER  

E-print Network

I review constraints on solar system-bound dark matter, and discuss the possibility that dark matter could be gravitationally bound to the earth and other planets. I briefly survey various empirical constraints on such planet-bound dark matter, and discuss effects it could produce if present, including anomalous planetary heating and flyby velocity changes. 1 Gravitationally Bound Dark Matter Cosmology suggests that only around 4 % of the mass-energy density of the universe is ordinary baryonic matter. In addition to ordinary matter, around 23 % of the mass-energy density consists of gravitationally attractive “dark matter”, and the remaining 73 % consists of gravitationally repulsive “dark energy”. Little is known about dark matter, other than that it is electrically neutral – hence dark, since it does not radiate photons – and that it interacts gravitationally through its mass-energy density. Among the unanswered questions are: Is dark matter bosonic or fermionic? Is it selfannihilating (i.e., its own antiparticle, or having equal abundances of particles and antiparticles). What is the mass (or are the masses, if more than one constituent) of dark matter particles? What are the non-gravitational interactions of dark matter? Dark matter can be gravitationally bound on different scales. We enumerate possibilities in the following subsections. 1.1 Galactic Halo Dark Matter Our galaxy is believed to be surrounded by a dark matter halo, with a mass density (to within a factor of about two) of ? ? 0.3GeV/c 2 cm ?3. The galactic dark matter is believed to have a roughly Maxwellian velocity distribution of the form f ? v 2 e ?3v2 /(2¯v 2)

Stephen L. Adler

120

EMLA-induced methemoglobinemia and systemic topical anesthetic toxicity.  

PubMed

This case report illustrates an adult presenting with the simultaneous occurrence of both methemoglobinemia (MetHb) and systemic toxicity from the topical application of local anesthetics while undergoing laser epilation therapy of the legs. The concurrent development of both is considered uncommon in this setting and may have been related to several factors, including her recent previous treatment, increased absorption secondary to abraded skin with the addition of occlusive dressing, and possible alteration of protein binding and drug metabolism due to the use of medications. The clinical manifestations and mechanisms of MetHb and systemic local anesthetic toxicity are discussed. PMID:14751483

Hahn, In-Hei; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

2004-01-01

121

Spiking Neural P Systems. Recent Results, Research Topics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a quick introduction of spiking neural P systems (a class of P systems inspired from the way neurons communicate by means of spikes, electrical impulses of identical shape), and presentation of typical results (in general equivalence with Turing machines as number computing devices, but also other issues, such as the possibility of handling strings or infinite sequences), we present a long list of open problems and research topics in this area, also mentioning recent attempts to address some of them. The bibliography completes the information offered to the reader interested in this research area.

P?un, Gheorghe; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario J.

122

Solar hot water heating system  

SciTech Connect

A solar hot water heating system is provided with solar collectors connected to a hot water storage tank with a recirculating pump to circulate the cooler water in the storage tank through the collector to absorb heat therefrom and to be returned to the storage tank. A plurality of temperature sensors are placed throughout the system to monitor various temperatures and to develop control signals for energizing or de-energizing the recirculating pump, for opening and closing solenoid valves to isolate the solar collectors from the storage tank and for opening and closing solenoid valves to permit supply water to circulate at a predetermined rate through the solar collectors. The storage tank is provided with inlet and outlet stratifier tubes which, while permitting water to be fed into and withdrawn from the tank, produces stratification of the water stored within the tank and increases the overall efficiency of the system.

Budzynski, J. V.; James, D. A.

1981-02-03

123

Roadmap for Solar System Research November 2012  

E-print Network

Roadmap for Solar System Research November 2012 Prepared by the Solar System Advisory Panel on behalf of the UK Community of Solar System Scientists for the STFC Programmatic Review Panel membership. The Solar System Advisory Panel (SSAP) invited its community to a Town Meeting in London on 10th September

Crowther, Paul

124

Topics in gradient maintenance and slat recycling in an operational solar pond  

SciTech Connect

Since 1986, the 3355 m{sup 2} salt gradient solar pond facility in El Paso, Texas, has operated with a temperature difference between the upper and lower zones of 55 to 75{degrees}C while delivering industrial process heat, grid-connected electrical power, and thermal energy for the experimental production of desalted water. Because the El Paso solar pond is an inland facility, it is necessary to recycle the salt in a sustainable salt management system. A method that uses the main pond surface for initial brine concentration and short-term storage was developed after it became evident that the original evaporation pond system was undersized. This paper examines the method for brine concentration and storage, the effects of a brine storage zone on pond operation, and the installation of an enhanced evaporation net system and an automatic scanning injection system. A short description of the performance history and current status of the project is also included.

Swift, A.H.P.; Golding, P. (Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering)

1992-02-01

125

Solar energy collector system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple flat plate reflectors, preferably compound of a panel with a reflector surface layer laminated thereto, are pivoted to move with the position of the sun and concentrate additional energy on a solar energy collector panel. The array can take a tented or triangular end view shape for closing to protect reflective surfaces from hail or sandstorm, etc. Also the

Dumbeck

1982-01-01

126

Exploring the Solar System? Let the Math Teachers Help!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scale measurement and ratio and proportion are topics that fall clearly in the middle-grades mathematics curriculum in Texas. So does the solar system. In their experience, the authors have found that students have trouble manipulating, much less comprehending, very large numbers and very small numbers. These concepts can be brought into students'…

Charles, Karen; Canales, J. D.; Smith, Angela; Zimmerman, Natalie

2012-01-01

127

Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Total Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental, safety, and social/institutional issues associated with the further development of Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). Solar total energy systems represent a specific application of the Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this analysis, the…

Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

128

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stewart-Teele-Mitchell site is a single-family residence in Malta, New York. The home has approximately 1900 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a gross area of 432 square feet. The array faces south at an

1979-01-01

129

Design data brochure for CSI series V solar heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generalized information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout is presented to assist the architect or designer in preparing construction drawings and specifications for the installation of the CSI integrated solar heating systems. Efficiency in space utilization of a full length collector and the importance of proper sizing of the collector array are among the topics discussed. Details of storage and transport subsystems are provided along with drawings and specifications of all components of the CSI system.

1978-01-01

130

Building Integration Of Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way solar systems are used in buildings is different from what it used to be. Buildings are no longer designed to use just passive solar energy systems, such as windows and sunspaces, or active solar systems, such as solar water collectors. In fact, the words passive and active no longer make sense, as the newer buildings combine several of

Anne Grete Hestnes

1999-01-01

131

Development of solar thermal systems in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has an abundant solar energy resource. Solar thermal conversion systems have been studied for 25yr, and solar thermal industry has developed rapidly for 10yr. There are various solar thermal systems, with an area of around 10millionm2 in 2002. These systems mainly provide domestic hot water, but some other applications are under extensive study and development as well. The purpose

Yin Zhiqiang

2005-01-01

132

Roadmap for Solar System Research October 2012  

E-print Network

Roadmap for Solar System Research October 2012 DRAFT Prepared by the Solar System Advisory Panel on behalf of the UK Community of Solar and Planetary Scientists for the STFC Programmatic Review Panel and processes that influence its dynamics. The remit of the Solar System Advisory Panel (SSAP) covers all b

Crowther, Paul

133

Installation Guidelines for Solar DHW Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are some of the better techniques for installing solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems. By using these guidelines, along with the manufacturer's manual, professional installation contractors and skilled homeowners should be able to install and fill a solar DHW system. Among the topics considered are system layouts, siting, mounting…

Hollander, Peter; And Others

134

Integrated solar energy system optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

Young, S. K.

1982-11-01

135

Residential solar-heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

1978-01-01

136

Solar-powered cooling system  

DOEpatents

A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-12-24

137

Building having solar heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A building is disclosed with an integrated solar heating system forming a part of the design of the building by a portion of the heating system being the structural support walls in the form of vertically disposed hollow vessels preferably made of metal. Insulation is applied to opposite sides of the vessels. A fluid is circulated from an upper manifold

McHugh

1981-01-01

138

Odyssey: a Solar System Mission  

E-print Network

The Solar System Odyssey mission uses modern-day high-precision experimental techniques to test the laws of fundamental physics which determine dynamics in the solar system. It could lead to major discoveries by using demonstrated technologies. The mission proposes to perform a set of precision gravitation experiments from the vicinity of Earth to the outer Solar System. Its scientific objectives can be summarized as follows: i) test of the gravity force law in the Solar System up to and beyond the orbit of Saturn; ii) precise investigation of navigation anomalies at the fly-bys; iii) measurement of Eddington's parameter at occultations; iv) mapping of gravity field in the outer solar system and study of the Kuiper belt. To this aim, the Odyssey mission is built up on a main spacecraft, designed to fly up to 13 AU, with the following components: a) a high-precision accelerometer, with bias-rejection system, measuring the deviation of the trajectory from the geodesics; b) Ka-band transponders, as for Cassini, for a precise range and Doppler measurement up to 13 AU, with additional VLBI equipment; c) optional laser equipment, which would allow one to improve the range and Doppler measurement. In this baseline concept, the main spacecraft is designed to operate beyond the Saturn orbit, up to 13 AU. It experiences multiple planetary fly-bys at Earth, Mars or Venus, and Jupiter. The cruise and fly-by phases allow the mission to achieve its baseline scientific objectives (i) to iii) in the above list). In addition to this baseline concept, the Odyssey mission proposes the release of the Enigma radio-beacon at Saturn, allowing one to extend the deep space gravity test up to at least 50 AU, while achieving the scientific objective of a mapping of gravity field in the outer Solar System.

B. Christophe; P. H. Andersen; J. D. Anderson; S. Asmar; Ph. Bério; O. Bertolami; R. Bingham; F. Bondu; Ph. Bouyer; S. Bremer; J. -M. Courty; H. Dittus; B. Foulon; P. Gil; U. Johann; J. F. Jordan; B. Kent; C. Lämmerzahl; A. Lévy; G. Métris; O. Olsen; J. Pàramos; J. D. Prestage; S. V. Progrebenko; E. Rasel; A. Rathke; S. Reynaud; B. Rievers; E. Samain; T. J. Sumner; S. Theil; P. Touboul; S. Turyshev; P. Vrancken; P. Wolf; N. Yu

2007-11-13

139

Universal solar energy desalination system  

SciTech Connect

The design which has been developed for a solar-powered water desalination plant is a highly flexible one; and thus, suitable for worldwide application. The system is modular in nature, utilizing a combination of solar thermal and wind energy to operate the reverse osmosis desalination unit. The system's flexibility lies in the fact that the configuration of the plant can be altered so that it is suitable for any given site. Plant capacity and the size of the solar thermal and wind energy systems are dependent upon a variety of site-specific characteristics. Furthermore, the design of each of the subsystems is also highly interdependent. Examination of the site characteristics and their interactions will allow a design which is optimal for the site.

Fusco, V.S.

1982-08-01

140

Solar System Science with JWST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JWST will enable breakthroughs in our understanding of the physical characteristics of cold bodies in the outer reaches of the Solar System. These objects include Pluto and other Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), the icy moons of the giant planets, and distant cometary nuclei. Recent discoveries of large objects in the Kuiper belt, along with many smaller members, make it clear that this region represents a major constituent of our Solar System, one that was hidden until recently because it is so remote and challenging to observe. The near-IR and mid-IR performance of JWST will be unique in its power to probe this region. This poster describes the science drivers for JWST observations of Solar System objects and plans for implementing this capability.

Sonneborn, G.; Lunine, J.; Hammel, H.; Long, K.; Hutchings, J.; Rieke, G.

2007-01-01

141

Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

Krupka, M. C.

1980-09-01

142

Ionic liquids as ingredients in topical drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Because of their properties, ionic liquids (ILs) (Ranke et al.) offer many advantages in topical drug delivery systems. For example, ionic liquids can be used to increase the solubility of sparingly soluble drugs and to enhance their topical and transdermal delivery. Furthermore, ILs can be used either to synthesize active pharmaceutical ingredients or as antimicrobial ingredients. In the present work, the conventional oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions containing the hydrophilic IL [HMIM] [Cl] and the hydrophobic IL [BMIM] [PF6] were prepared, and the influence of the ILs on emulsion properties was evaluated. It was found that ILs could be successfully incorporated into the emulsion structure, resulting in stable formulations. The antimicrobial activity of ILs in the formulations was estimated, and their application as preservatives was confirmed by performing preservative efficacy tests. Evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxicity of the emulsions containing hydrophilic or hydrophobic ILs showed the low cytotoxicity of the carriers. Finally, penetration enhancement of a fluorescent dye as a model drug in the presence of ionic liquids was shown. PMID:23123180

Dobler, Dorota; Schmidts, Thomas; Klingenhöfer, Ines; Runkel, Frank

2013-01-30

143

Solar System on a Stick  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners build a model of the planets in the solar system. In their model, the planets are spaced in their relative distance from the Sun. Separately, learners make model planets which are in relative size to one another. This solar system model includes Pluto as a planet. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

144

Discovery of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of NASA's website "From Stargazers to Starships". It discusses the evolution of scientific thought concerning the nature of the solar system, beginning with the earth-centered solar system advocated by Hipparchus and Ptolemy. Ptolemy's idea that the sun and planets moved around the Earth persisted for nearly a thousand years until Copernicus and Galileo, using his newly-invented telescope, began to understand that the Earth and its companion planets all orbited in around the sun. The site features text, pictures, a scientific illustration showing retrograde motion, and links to other relevant sites.

145

Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

Ward, Dan S.

1976-01-01

146

SIPS: Solar Irradiance Prediction System Stefan Achleitner  

E-print Network

SIPS: Solar Irradiance Prediction System Stefan Achleitner Computer Science and Engineering the variability and dynamics are the largest. We propose SIPS, Solar Irradiance Prediction System, a novel sensing infrastructure using wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to enable sensing of solar irradiance for solar power

Cerpa, Alberto E.

147

Solar desalination system and method  

SciTech Connect

A solar desalination system in which fresh water is derived from sea water by focussing solar ray energy from a collecting reflector onto an evaporator tube located at substantially the focal apex of the reflector. The reflector/evaporator tube assembly is mounted on a horizontal open grid platform which may support a plurality of parallel reflector/evaporator tube assemblies. The reflectors may serve as pontoons to support the desalination system unit on a body of sea water. The solar heat generated vapor is condensed in condenser tubes immersed in the sea water. Intermittently sea water concentrate is withdrawn from the evaporator tubes. Velocity of the vapor passing from the evaporator tubes to the condensers may be utilized for generating power.

Kruse, C.L.

1985-03-12

148

Advances in topical drug delivery system: micro to nanofibrous structures.  

PubMed

This paper is a review of the latest developments in the field of topical drug delivery via which the drug is directly applied onto the skin with high selectivity and efficiency. Advances in microfiber-based medical textiles such as sutures and wound dressings, especially those containing a drug or an antimicrobial agent, have been covered briefly. A special focus is on recent developments in the area of nanofibrous drug delivery systems, which have several advantages due to their large surface area to volume ratio, high porosity and flexibility. The electrospinning technique to produce nanofibers has also been discussed with reference to latest advances such as multiple needles, needleless and coaxial forms of electrospinning. The applications of nanofibers in different areas such as wound dressing, periodontal and anticancer treatment have also been discussed. PMID:24730303

Joshi, Mangala; Butola, B S; Saha, Kasturi

2014-01-01

149

Solar simulator for solar dynamic space power system testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planned vacuum tank testing of a solar dynamic space power system requires a solar simulator. Several solar simulators were previously built and used for vacuum tank testing of various space systems. However, the apparent solar subtense angle, i.e., the angular size of the apparent sun as viewed from the experiment, of these solar simulators is too large to enable testing of solar dynamic systems. A new design was developed to satisfy the requirements of the solar dynamic testing. This design provides 1.8 kW/m(sup 2) onto a 4.5M diameter test area from a source that subtends only 1 deg, full cone angle. Key features that enable this improved performance are (1) elimination of the collimating mirror commonly used in solar simulators to transform the diverging beam into a parallel beam; (2) a redesigned lamp module that has increased efficiency; and (3) the use of a segmented reflective surface to combine beams from several individual lamp modules at the pseudosun. Each segment of this reflective surface has complex curvature to control the distribution of light. By developing a new solar simulator design for testing of the solar dynamic system instead of modifying current designs, the initial cost was cut in half, the efficiency was increased by 50 percent reducing the operating costs by one-third, and the volume occupied by the solar simulator was reduced by a factor of 10.

Jefferies, Kent S.

1993-01-01

150

Precipitation in the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an astronomy instructor, I am always looking for commonly observed Earthly experiences to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote a short TPT article on frost. This paper is on the related phenomena of precipitation. Precipitation, so common on most of the Earth's…

McIntosh, Gordon

2007-01-01

151

Solar System Searches for Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exobiology--the search for extraterrestrial life and the study of conditions relevant to its origins--has been reborn in the past decade. This rebirth has been driven largely by discoveries related to Earth's deep biosphere, and the recognition that there may be several extraterrestrial environments within our own Solar System that could provide plausible environments for subsurface ecologies. Most prominent among these

C. F. Chyba

1998-01-01

152

Atmosphere and the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on the Earth's atmosphere and our solar system includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

153

Origin of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a powerpoint presentation describing astronomers current theory on the formation of our solar system. It contains slides describing star formation, protostars, the accretion of propoplanetary disks, the formation of gas giants and terrestrial planets, and the formation of bodies beyond the planets.

Carkner, Lee

2005-05-23

154

Solar System Scale and Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about planetary distances. Learners will create a model of the solar system using beads and string, and compare planetary sizes using common types of fruit and seeds. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

155

Exploring the Solar System: A Literature Unit within a Whole Language Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A useful framework for literature-based instruction is the curriculum related literature unit which provides a total resource for content area teaching. Such a unit could be based on the science curriculum, "Exploring the Solar System," and could be developed thematically through topics of space or the solar system. The teacher's initial step is…

Sandel, Lenore

156

Solar Tracking System: More Efficient Use of Solar Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the potential system benefits of simple tracking solar system using a stepper motor and light sensor. This method is increasing power collection efficiency by developing a device that tracks the sun to keep the panel at a right angle to its rays. A solar tracking system is designed, implemented and experimentally tested. The design details and the

J. Rizk; Y. Chaiko

2008-01-01

157

Solafern solar system design brochure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complete residential solar space heating and hot water system is described. Low maintenance, durable, and efficient air heating collectors are used. The collectors have a selective absorber and a tempered glass cover nearly one-quarter of an inch thick with an aluminum frame. The solar energy can be delivered directly to the living area when there is a demand; otherwise, it is stored in the form of hot water. Hot water storage is accomplished through the use of an air-to-water exchanger. The hot water storage is used simultaneously to preheat the domestic hot water, as well as to store energy for space heating.

1977-01-01

158

Online Short Course: The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eager to learn beyond your Earthly boundaries? Join us for the new NSTA Online Short Course: The Solar System . The focus of this course will be how the solar system and its bodies are formed. During this course, particular emp

1900-01-01

159

Impact of Reflectors on Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims to show that implementing different types of reflectors in solar energy systems, will dramatically improve energy production by means of concentrating and intensifying more sunlight onto a solar cell. The Solar Intensifier unit is designed to increase efficiency and performance of a set of solar panels. The unit was fabricated and tested. The experimental results show good

J. Rizk; M. H. Nagrial

2008-01-01

160

Impact of Reflectors on Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims to show that implementing different types of reflectors in solar energy systems, will dramatically improve energy production by means of concentrating and intensifying more sunlight onto a solar cell. The Solar Intensifier unit is designed to increase efficiency and performance of a set of solar panels. The unit was fabricated and tested. The experimental results show good

J. Rizk; M. H. Nagrial

2009-01-01

161

TOPICAL REVIEW: Quantum dynamics of two-spin-qubit systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this topical review is a systematic and concise presentation of the results of a series of theoretical works on the quantum dynamics of two-spin-qubit systems towards the elaboration of a physical mechanism of the quantum information transfer between two spin-qubits. For this purpose the main attention is paid to exactly solvable models of two-spin-qubit systems, since the analytical expressions of the elements of their reduced density matrices explicitly exhibit the mutual dependence of the quantum information encoded into the spin-qubits. The treatment of their decoherence due to the interaction with the environment is performed in the Markovian approximation. Rate equations for axially symmetric systems of two coupled spin-qubits non-interacting, as well as interacting, with the environment are exactly solved. It is shown how the solutions of rate equations demonstrate the physical mechanism of the quantum information exchange between the spin-qubits. This mechanism holds also in all two-spin-qubit systems whose rate equations can be solved only by means of numerical calculations. Exact solutions of rate equations for two uncoupled spin-qubits interacting with two separate environments reveal an interesting physical phenomenon in the time evolution of the qubit-qubit entanglement generated by their interaction with the environments: the entanglement sudden death and revival. A two-spin-qubit system with an asymptotically decoherence free subspace was also explicitly constructed. The presented calculations and reasonings can be extended for application to the study of spin-qubit chains or networks.

Nguyen, Van Hieu

2009-07-01

162

My Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Build your own system of heavenly bodies and watch the gravitational ballet. With this orbit simulator, you can set initial positions, velocities, and masses of 2, 3, or 4 bodies, and then see them orbit each other.

Simulations, Phet I.; Dubson, Michael; Gratny, Mindy; Harlow, Danielle

2007-01-01

163

Topical immunization: Mechanistic insight and novel delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topical application of antigen and adjuvant directly on intact skin, termed as Topical Immunization (TI) or Transcutaneous Immunization (TCI), is a novel and emerging method of vaccine delivery because it is safe and convenient. Moreover, skin is potentially rich site for immunization. Immune response elicited by TI depends upon structure and composition of the skin of target species. TI induces

Prem N Gupta; P Singh; V Mishra; Sanyog Jain; P K Dubey; S P Vyas

164

How big is our solar system?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will get a better understanding of the size of our solar system by putting it into a scale model using New York State. How Big is our Solar System? Govenour Cuomo wants to place the planets of the solar system along the New York State Thruway at the correct distances from the Sun but to scale. He has commissioned your company to set up this representation of our Solar System. Use the ...

Smith, Miss

2007-11-24

165

Solar System Analog; WMO Statement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists searching for extra-solar planets have discovered the closest known analog to our own Solar System. A planet with a mass about twice that of Jupiter is in a near-circular orbit of the star HD70642, a team of astronomers from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States announced on 3 July at a conference in Paris on extra-solar planets.The planet measures about three-fifths the size of Jupiter, circles its star about every six years, and is in an orbit equivalent to being about halfway between Mars and Jupiter if it were located in our Solar System, according to the astronomers. The star is about 90 light years away from Earth in the constellation Puppis.Public concern about a spate of well-publicized, extreme weather events around the world this year has prompted the World Meteorological Organization to issue a statement that, as global temperatures continues to rise due to climate change, the number and intensity of extreme events might increase. The July 2 statement is based on scientific assessments by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and others, rather than on any new studies, according to Ken Davidson, director orf WMO's World Climate Program Department. The statement cites record high termperatures so far this summer in southern France and in Switzerland, an abnormally high number of tornadoes in the U.S. in May, and particularly heavy rains from tropical cyclones in Sri Lanka.

Showstack, Randy

166

Solar System Bead Distance Activity Introduction  

E-print Network

Solar System Bead Distance Activity Introduction: Our solar system is immense in size. We think an easy way to calculate the distances of the other planets from the sun and build a scale model of a scale model solar system (based on their calculations where age-appropriate), students will observe

Williams, Gary A.

167

An Overview of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Nine/Eight Planets provides a general understanding about the solar system. Divisions, orbits, sizes, and classification of objects are all covered. Links to images of the solar system are included, as well as a chronological look at the discovery of the solar system and remaining unanswered questions.

Arnett, Bill

168

Solar System Exploration @ 50 Opportunity: Eagle Crater  

E-print Network

"Blueberries" MER 1October 25, 2012 MER CREDIT: NASA / JPL #12;Solar System Exploration @ 50 Opportunity Patterned Ground Solar System Exploration @ 50 3October 25, 2012 Credit: NASA / JPL / University of Arizona MRO CREDIT: U. Arizona / JPL / NASA #12;Solar System Exploration @ 50 Gale Crater and Mount Sharp

169

Solar powered desalination system  

E-print Network

2.3: Pro-Lab® Water Quality Test Test pH Total Alkalinitycompare. Table 2.5: Water Quality Test Results Test pH TotalWater Quality Test Result Strips Generally, each solution before going through the reverse osmosis system had low pH and

Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

2011-01-01

170

My Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can build their own system of heavenly bodies and watch the gravitational ballet. With this orbit simulator, users can set initial positions, velocities, and masses of 2, 3, or 4 bodies, and then see them orbit each other. The site includes ideas for using this animation in the classroom.

Dubson, Michael; Colorado, University O.

171

Steamy Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

This diagram illustrates the earliest journeys of water in a young, forming star system. Stars are born out of icy cocoons of gas and dust. As the cocoon collapses under its own weight in an inside-out fashion, a stellar embryo forms at the center surrounded by a dense, dusty disk. The stellar embryo 'feeds' from the disk for a few million years, while material in the disk begins to clump together to form planets.

NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was able to probe a crucial phase of this stellar evolution - a time when the cocoon is vigorously falling onto the pre-planetary disk. The infrared telescope detected water vapor as it smacks down on a disk circling a forming star called NGC 1333-IRAS 4B. This vapor started out as ice in the outer envelope, but vaporized upon its arrival at the disk.

By analyzing the water in the system, astronomers were also able learn about other characteristics of the disk, such as its size, density and temperature.

How did Spitzer see the water vapor deep in the NGC 1333-IRAS 4B system? This is most likely because the system is oriented in just the right way, such that its thicker disk is seen face-on from our Earthly perspective. In this 'face-on' orientation, Spitzer can peer through a window carved by an outflow of material from the embryonic star. This system in this drawing is shown in the opposite 'edge-on' configuration.

2007-01-01

172

Comparative Effectiveness Topics from a Large, Integrated Delivery System  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify high-priority comparative effectiveness questions directly relevant to care delivery in a large, US integrated health care system. Methods: In 2010, a total of 792 clinical and operational leaders in Kaiser Permanente were sent an electronic survey requesting nominations of comparative effectiveness research questions; most recipients (83%) had direct clinical roles. Nominated questions were divided into 18 surveys of related topics that included 9 to 23 questions for prioritization. The next year, 648 recipients were electronically sent 1 of the 18 surveys to prioritize nominated questions. Surveys were assigned to recipients on the basis of their nominations or specialty. High-priority questions were identified by comparing the frequency a question was selected to an “expected” frequency, calculated to account for the varying number of questions and respondents across prioritization surveys. High-priority questions were those selected more frequently than expected. Results: More than 320 research questions were nominated from 181 individuals. Questions most frequently addressed cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease; obesity, diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic disorders; or service delivery and systems-level questions. Ninety-five high-priority research questions were identified, encompassing a wide range of health questions that ranged from prevention and screening to treatment and quality of life. Many were complex questions from a systems perspective regarding how to deliver the best care. Conclusions: The 95 questions identified and prioritized by leaders on the front lines of health care delivery may inform the national discussion regarding comparative effectiveness research. Additionally, our experience provides insight in engaging real-world stakeholders in setting a health care research agenda. PMID:24361013

Danforth, Kim N; Patnode, Carrie D; Kapka, Tanya J; Butler, Melissa G; Collins, Bernadette; Compton-Phillips, Amy; Baxter, Raymond J; Weissberg, Jed; McGlynn, Elizabeth A; Whitlock, Evelyn P

2013-01-01

173

Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide  

SciTech Connect

As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

None

1980-11-01

174

Formation of the solar system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed as a lab, but can also be used as a classroom demonstration. It requires the use of the VPython programs which require Python and VPython to be installed on your computers (this software is free and has been made available on the default image for all computers on our campus). The models show the gravitational collapse of a set of particles to create a central "Sun" with other orbiting particles, a simple model to demonstrate elliptical orbits, a simple model of the solar system showing the planetary orbits (speeded up). The task is to assess one hypothesis about the formation of the solar system (from a dust and gas nebula) by comparing the computer simulation (model 1) to the shape and form of the actual solar system (model 3). Students can interact with the 3d models by, for example, selecting planetary objects to track, and changing perspectives in 3d space. In doing this students learn about the shapes of the planetary orbits (ellipticity etc) and reasons that they change.

Urbano, Lensyl

175

Small grains of truth. [solar system evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evidence concerning the formation of the solar nebula from preexisting clouds found in the chemical composition of solar system grains is discussed. Evidence for sequential star formation in the grains is examined. It is argued that there is no model for the origin of the solar system which can account for the increasing complexity of the evidence.

Nuth, Joe

1991-01-01

176

Environmental Impacts from the Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable, and domestic energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. Solar energy systems (i.e., photovoltaics, solar thermal) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources. It is known that these systems have some minor negative impacts on the environment during their production and operation. This study presents

H. Gunerhan; A. Hepbasli; U. Giresunlu

2008-01-01

177

Stochastic design of solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the statistical element in the behaviour of solar radiation on the performance of solar energy systems is investigated through a stochastic model constructed for diffuse radiance. A demonstration of the use of such a model in a transient simulation study of three conceptual solar thermal systems is presented. The discussion concentrates on features that would not be

Faud M. F. Siala

1995-01-01

178

Building a space solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar power satellite (SPS) and space solar power system (SSPS) have been studied for years as future alternative energy sources when fossil fuel becomes scarce. The SPS is a satellite in orbit that collects solar energy and transmits the energy to various destinations. SSPS is a total system that includes SPS and ground facilities to utilize power from the

Mitsushige Oda

2005-01-01

179

Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

180

Solar-Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

2002-01-01

181

Solar-Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure. and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

2001-01-01

182

Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism during topical steroid therapy: assessment of systemic effects by metabolic criteria.  

PubMed

Systemic absorption of topically applied glucocorticoids in quantities sufficient to replace endogenous production is not uncommon. However, iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome resulting from the use of topical corticosteroids is very rare. Thus the possibility that systemic absorption may cause hyperglucocorticism has been deemphasized and examined only sporadically. We have studied changes in carbohydrate metabolism induced by topical glucocorticoids in a psoriatic patient who had developed Cushing's syndrome from topical desoximetasone (Topicort). The results indicated that (1) fasting hyperglycemia and increased insulin-glucose ratios could be induced within 24 hours of administration of topical glucocorticoids, (2) insulin resistance accompanied abnormal carbohydrate tolerance, and (3) fluctuations in circulating leukocytes paralleled the changes in carbohydrate metabolism. The findings suggest that metabolic indexes of glucocorticoid action action may provide useful parameters for assessing systemic absorption of topical glucocorticoids. glucose relationship as one such index to assess the risk of treatment of extensive chronic skin disease with potent topical glucocorticoids. PMID:7047591

Cook, L J; Freinkel, R K; Zugerman, C; Levin, D L; Radtke, R

1982-06-01

183

Solar Max: Storm Warning - Effects on the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a promotional folder for Sun-Earth Days 2013, containing images and illustrations of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System. Also included is information about the period known as solar maximum, as well as links to Sun-Earth Day resources and the Space Weather Action Center.

184

Solar water cost and feasibility of solar water heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research work has been carried out on 1,000 litre installed capacity solar water heating system, at Jijau Hostel, Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Agricultural University (PDKV), Akola, Maharashtra, India. The main objectives were to evaluate various costs and benefits involved in the solar water production. The costs of hot water production per litre with comparison to electrical energy were calculated

Vivek P. Khambalkar; Sharashchandra R. Gadge; Dhiraj S. Karale

2009-01-01

185

Current topics on PV module and system reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation gives a brief introduction for current topics discussed in photovoltaics (PV) industry, especially by the international standard, testing and certification community. So far, the widely used standards are either deal with a design qualification and type approval (such as IEC 61215, IEC 61646), or module safety (such as IEC 61730, UL 1703). Some people in the PV community

Liang Ji

2009-01-01

186

CS 7910 Topics in Intelligent Systems Fall 2010 Course Information  

E-print Network

you to do research. This will be accomplished by having you read current literature and discuss in this class is to produce project. The goal of the project is to try to do something novel, rather than merely is encouraged. The only real constraint is that it has something to do with the material of the course Topics

Allan, Vicki H.

187

Analysis of hybrid solar systems  

SciTech Connect

This study uses the TRNSYS simulation program to evaluate the performance of active charge/passive discharge solar systems with water as the working fluid. This design was introduced in the Village Homes development in Davis, Calif., and is currently being used by Trident Energy Systems in Davis. TRNSYS simulations are used to evaluate the heating performance and cooling augmentation provided by systems in several climates. The results of the simulations are used to develop a simplified analysis tool similar to the F-chart and Phi-bar procedures used for active systems. This tool, currently in a preliminary stage, should provide the designer with quantitative performance estimates for comparison with other passive, active, and nonsolar heating and cooling designs.

Swisher, J.

1980-10-01

188

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluation and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Project status report, August--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report describes activities of the Colorado State University program on solar heating and cooling systems for the months of August and September 1993. The topics include: rating and certification of domestic water heating systems, unique solar system components, advanced residential solar domestic hot water systems, and desiccant cooling of buildings.

Not Available

1993-09-01

189

Solar System Science with LSST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inventorying the Solar System is one of the four key science drivers for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). LSST will survey over 20,000 square degrees with a rapid observational cadence, to typical limiting magnitudes of 24.5. Near the ecliptic, LSST will detect approximately 4000 moving objects per visit with its 9.6 square degree field of view. Automated software will link these individual detections into orbits; these orbits, as well as precisely calibrated astrometry 50mas) and photometry 0.01-0.02 mag) in multiple bandpasses will be available as LSST data products. The result will be multi-color catalogs of hundreds of thousands of NEOs and Jupiter Trojans, millions of asteroids, tens of thousands of TNOs, as well as thousands of other objects such as comets and irregular satellites of the major planets. The LSST catalogs will provide an order of magnitude larger sample sizes than currently exist for small body populations throughout the Solar System, generating new insights into Solar System evolution. Precision multi-color photometry will allow determination of lightcurves and colors for a significant fraction of the objects detected, providing constraints on the physical parameters of small bodies. Some examples of science enabled with this rich data set: A large sample of TNOs with highly accurate orbits (and well-understood sample characteristics) will allow much tighter constraints on planetary migration models. Large samples of comets (especially comets with perihelia beyond a few AU) will provide new constraints on the structure and mass of the Oort Cloud. Derivation of proper elements for Main Belt asteroids would greatly enlarge existing asteroid families, particularly at smaller sizes, and color information will facilitate further division. Using sparse lightcurve inversion, spin state and shape models could be derived for thousands of main belt asteroids.

Jones, R. L.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Malhotra, Renu; Becker, Andy C.; Fernandez, Yan; Myers, Jon; Solontoi, Mike; Parker, Alex H.

2014-11-01

190

Accretion in the Early Outer Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe calculations of the evolution of an ensemble of small planetesimals in the outer solar system. In a solar nebula with a mass of several times the minimum mass solar nebula, objects with radii of 100-1000 km can form on timescales of 10-100 Myr. Model luminosity functions derived from these calculations agree with current observations of bodies beyond the

Scott J. Kenyon; Jane X. Luu

1999-01-01

191

Solar System in My Neighborhood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners shrink the scale of the vast solar system to the size of their neighborhood. Learners are challenged to consider not only the traditional "planets," but also some of the smaller objects orbiting the Sun. Learners compare the relative sizes of scale models of the planets, two dwarf planets, and a comet as represented by fruits and other foods. They determine the spacing between the scaled planets on a map of the neighborhood and relate those distances to familiar landmarks. This activity is part of a sequence of activities focused on Jupiter's immense size.

Institute, Lunar A.; Nasa

2011-01-01

192

Astronomy Workshop: Solar System Collisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive tool that calculates the crater depth and energy released when an asteroid or comet collides with a planet. Users can choose to bombard any planet in our solar system, and may also set the diameter, composition, and velocity of the impacting object. This resource was designed to help students understand the relationship between mass and momentum, and how a planet's atmosphere helps protect it from bombardment. This item is part of a larger collection of animations, simulations, and interactive tools for astronomy students. SEE RELATED MATERIALS on this page for a link to the full collection.

Hamilton, Doug

2010-03-02

193

Solar System chemical abundances corrected for systematics  

E-print Network

The relative chemical abundances between CI meteorites and the solar photosphere exhibit a significant trend with condensation temperature. A trend with condensation temperature is also seen when the solar photospheric abundances are compared to those of nearby solar twins. We use both these trends to determine the alteration of the elemental abundances of the meteorties and the photosphere by fractionation and calculate a new set of primordial Solar System abundances.

Gonzalez, Guillermo

2014-01-01

194

Small Solar Power Systems /SSPS/  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed description is given of the project organization, hardware, and projected performance of the distributed collector and central receiver solar thermal research facilities comprising the Small Power Systems (SSPS) plants in Almeria, Spain. The Distributed Collector System (DCS) is rated at 500 kWe and employs two fields of line-focusing parabolic trough collectors. The Central Receiver System (CRS) has the same rating and uses liquid sodium as a heat-transfer medium to circulate the 530 C heat yielded by a concentration factor of 450 from 4000 sq m of reflective surface. The purpose of the plant's dual configuration is the comparison of the two concentration methods under identical environmental conditions and the responsibility of a single operator/evaluator.

Grasse, W.

1981-05-01

195

Solar thermal power systems. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

Not Available

1980-06-01

196

Solar System Studies with CCAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comets and Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) are among the most primitive bodies left from the planetesimal building stage of the Solar Nebula. Measurements of isotopic ratios in comets, in particular D/H, provide key information about the origin and evolution of cometary ices and possible links with the interstellar medium. The D/H ratio in water in long period, Oort cloud comets, ~3×10-4, corresponds to a factor of ~12 enrichment over the protosolar value and twice the Earth ocean ratio, VSMOW 1.56×10-4. However, recent Herschel/HIFI observations of the Jupiter family comet Hartley 2, originating from the Kuiper belt, suggest a D/H ratio in water of (1.6±0.24)×10-4 (1?), a factor of 2 lower than the earlier measurements in Oort cloud comets and the same as VSMOW. A relatively low D/H ratio of (2.06±0.22)×10-4 (1?) has also been derived from HIFI observations of the Oort cloud comet Garradd. These HIFI measurements indicate that the high D/H values previously measured in Oort cloud comets are not representative of all comets and that the current understanding of deuteration in different solar system reservoirs, or solar system dynamics, is incomplete and has to be revisited. CCAT offers exceptional observational capabilities to detect the 509 GHz HDO line in both Jupiter family and Oort cloud comets, which will significantly enlarge the source sample with accurate D/H measurements. In addition, studies of the thermal emission of TNOs at submillimeter wavelengths will allow the determination of their physical properties (i.e., size, albedo, density, as well as the thermal properties).

Lis, Dariusz C.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.

2013-01-01

197

[The Story of the Solar System] The Solar System -II  

E-print Network

-TauriPhase SolarNebula #12;Giant Molecular Cloud o About 50-100 light years across o more than a million times Cloud perturbed SolarglobuleProtosun GasGiants T-TauriPhase SolarNebula #12;[The Story of the Solar in a more distant, brighter and unrelated nebula." #12;Protosun o Core is a ball the size of the solar

Wardle, Mark

198

Storage systems for solar thermal power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

1978-01-01

199

An Introduction to the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction; 1. A tour of the solar system; 2. The internal structure of the terrestrial planets; 3. Planetary volcanism - Ultima Thule?; 4. Planetary surface processes; 5. Atmospheres of terrestrial planets; 6. The giant planets; 7. Minor bodies of the solar system; 8. The origin of the solar system; 9. Meteorites: a record of formation; Answers and comments; Appendices; Glossary; Further reading; Acknowledgements; Figure references; Index.

Rothery, David A.; McBride, Neil; Gilmour, Iain

2011-05-01

200

Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

1980-07-01

201

Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore : assessment of solar photovoltaic systems  

E-print Network

To evaluate the feasibility of solar energy based Electric Vehicle Transportation System in Singapore, the state of the art Photovoltaic Systems have been reviewed in this report with a focus on solar cell technologies. ...

Sun, Li

2009-01-01

202

The cluster origin of the solar system  

E-print Network

in Solar System: Sun Planets Kuiper belt Oort cloud Planets mostly on circular orbits System: Encounter (Moribelli & Levison 2004) But circular orbits of planets No encounter after solar system formed composition 30AU cut-off in mass distribution Sedna orbit Circular orbits of planets Supernova within 0

Â?umer, Slobodan

203

Solar and wind-powered irrigation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different direct solar and wind energy systems are technically feasible for powering irrigation pumps. However, with projected rates of fossil fuel costs, only two may produce significant unsubsidied energy for irrigation pumping before the turn of the century. These are photovoltaic systems with nonconcentrating collectors (providing that projected costs of manufacturing solar cells prove correct); and wind systems, especially

R. V. Enochian

1982-01-01

204

[Animal experiment studies on the topical and systemic effectiveness of prednisolone-17-ethylcarbonate-21-propionate].  

PubMed

Prednisolone-17-ethyl carbonate-21-propionate (PrEP, Hoe 777) was tested for antiinflammatory activity in various animal models by topical and systemic administration. In those models being indicative of topical efficacy, the potency of PrEP was the same as that of desoximetasone. However, systemic effects after topical administration of PrEP in shaved skin of the dorsum of rats were relatively weak compared with the reference compound. Moreover, there were less systemic corticoid effects after s.c. administration of PrEP than after desoximetasone. Thus, PrEP is obviously a compound with a considerable split of topical and systemic activity, suggesting its testing in man for systemic effects after topical administration. PMID:3705675

Alpermann, H G; Sandow, J; Vogel, H G

1986-01-01

205

[Experimental animal studies on the topical and systemic activity of prednisolone-17-ethylcarbonate-21-propionate].  

PubMed

Prednisolone-17-ethylcarbonate-21-propionate (PrEP, Hoe 777) was tested for antiinflammatory activity in various animal models by topical and systemic administration. In those models being indicative of topical efficacy, the potency of PrEP was the same as that of desoximetasone. However, systemic effects after topical administration of PrEP in shaved skin of the dorsum of rats were relatively weak compared with the reference compound. Moreover, there were less systemic glucocorticoid effects after s.c. administration of PrEP than after desoximetasone. Thus, PrEP is obviously a compound with a considerable split of topical and systemic activity, suggesting its testing in man for systemic effects after topical administration. PMID:6981416

Alpermann, H G; Sandow, J; Vogel, H G

1982-01-01

206

Direct solar steam-generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technology that generates steam by the use of solar energy is described. Steam is generated directly in the solar collectors. The advantages of direct solar steam generation are compared with the methods of indirect solar steam generation. Schematics and modes of operation of a demonstration system are presented. Feasibility of the concept, and how to obtain necessary design parameters, was established. The feasibility of direct solar steam generation is shown. This concept is suitable for generating low pressure steam. The major applications are expected to be in process steam, absorption cooling, and steam heating.

Vresk, J.

207

MOTESS Solar System Observations: Implications for the GNAT System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Network of Astronomical Telescopes is developing a geographically distributed network of relatively small-aperture imaging telescopes. Equipped with CCD cameras and operating in scan mode, these instruments will be able to address a wide variety of solar system, stellar and extragalactic research topics. Although the design of the individual telescope emphasizes simplicity and low cost, the network will be able to deliver in aggregate data that would otherwise require more expensive facilities. The array of instruments may be tailored to the particular observing program by the selection of filters the individual instruments are provided and how the telescopes are pointed at the sky. A prototype array of three instruments has been in use since April of 2001, principally obtaining asteroid astrometry and searching for near-earth objects. The experience relating to solar system observations acquired during this period will be presented along with proposed strategies for future work using the full GNAT array of instruments. This work and continuing operation of the MOTESS prototype is supported in part by a Eugene Shoemaker Grant from The Planetary Society.

Tucker, R. A.

2002-12-01

208

Solar thermionic power systems for terrestrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a feasibility study which showed that a low-temperature, high-efficient thermionic power system can efficiently convert solar energy to electrical energy without heat transport, as required by most solar thermal systems are described. A 3-dimensional (2-axis tracking) 93 sq m parabolic solar concentrator, consisting of mirrors on a foam glass substrate and designed to a concentration ratio (mirror

K. Shimada; M. Swerdling

1977-01-01

209

Solar System exploration and SORA .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long Duration Balloons are usually considered a reasonably cheap and easy access to space. In this paper the interest of the Italian Space Agency, and in particular of the Observation of the Universe (OSU) unit, for the applications of LDB in Solar System explorations is highlighted. The direct use in planetary atmosphere of aerial robots (aerobots) is described and their use for surface and subsurface observation together with light landers and/or rovers release on extended areas. Furthermore, the recent studies for Mars, Venus and Titan planetary balloons are briefly described and the proposed TANDEM mission to Titan is emphasized. A secondary application field is the comparative planetology, and experiments in this area are currently included in Italian programs; after the successful HASI campaign, in the near future the SORA experiment will be performed and it could pave the way to an intensive balloons use for the flight of scientific space payloads.

Flamini, E.; Pirrotta, S.

210

Solar System Science with LSST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LSST will provide a unique tool to study moving objects in the solar system. In the baseline LSST observing plan, back-to-back 15-second images will reach a limiting magnitude as faint as r=24.7 in each 9.6 square degree field twice per night; approximately 15,000 square degrees will be imaged in multiple filters every 3 nights. This time sampling will continue throughout each lunation, creating a massive catalog of solar system objects with accurately measured orbits, as well as colors and lightcurves accurate to 0.005 magnitudes for the brightest objects. The catalog will include more than 80\\% of the potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 140m diameter within 10 years, millions of main-belt asteroids and perhaps 20,000 Trans-Neptunian Objects. By observing fields over a wide range of ecliptic longitudes and latitudes, including large separations from the ecliptic plane, not only will these catalogs greatly increase the numbers of known objects, the characterization of the inclination distributions of these populations will be much improved. Derivation of proper elements for main belt and Trojan asteroids will allow ever more resolution of asteroid families and their size-frequency distribution, as well as the study of the long-term dynamics of the individual asteroids and the asteroid belt as a whole. By obtaining multi-color ugrizy data for a substantial fraction of objects, relationships between color and dynamical history can be established. With the addition of light-curve information, rotation periods and phase curves can be measured for large fractions of each population, leading to new insight on physical characteristics. In addition, long-period comets will be discovered at much larger distances than previously possible, enabling testing of Oort cloud population models.

Jones, R. Lynne; Chesley, S. R.; Connolly, A. J.; Harris, A. W.; Ivezic, Z.; Knezevic, Z.; Kubica, J.; Milani, A.; Trilling, D. E.; LSST Solar System Science Collaboration

2007-12-01

211

Corrosion and scaling in solar heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion, as experienced in solar heating systems, is described in simplistic terms to familiarize designers and installers with potential problems and their solutions. The role of a heat transfer fluid in a solar system is briefly discussed, and the choice of an aqueous solution is justified. The complexities of the multiple chemical and physical reactions are discussed in order that

Foresti; R. J. Jr

1981-01-01

212

Parachute suspended solar pointing control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high altitude parachute suspended solar pointing control system has been developed and flight tested for use in the altitude range of 30 to 70 kilometers. This development provides an opportunity for extended solar observations at altitudes higher than that attainable by helium balloons. The new system utilizes the NASA high altitude cross parachute to slow the descent of a

G. T. Sakoda; R. J. Fujimoto; J. M. Shigemoto; R. M. Windsor

1982-01-01

213

Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system  

SciTech Connect

This solar-heated gasification system avoids the problems inherent in other solar processes (such as blackened solar-input windows and overheated zones on the reactor walls) by heating the fluidizing gas and steam in a solar-heat absorption zone before they enter the reactor. Energy to heat the gas and steam concentrates in high-heat-capacity refractory honeycomb that surrounds the fluidized-bed reactor zone. Solar concentrators focus the solar energy on the honeycomb through a solar window. The reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the reactor. The reactor handles such solids as coal and biomass.

Frosch, R.A.; Qader, S.A.

1981-09-22

214

An overview: Component development for solar thermal systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, I review the significant issues and the development of solar concentrators and thermal receivers for central-receiver power plants and dish/engine systems. Due to the breadth of the topic area, I have arbitrarily narrowed the content of this paper by choosing not to discuss line-focus (trough) systems and energy storage. I will focus my discussion on the development of heliostats, dishes, and receivers since the 1970s with an emphasis on describing the technologies and their evolution, identifying some key observations and lessons learned, and suggesting what the future in component development may be.

Mancini, T.R.

1994-10-01

215

An overview: Component development for solar thermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, I review the significant issues and the development of solar concentrators and thermal receivers for central-receiver power plants and dish/engine systems. Due to the breadth of the topic area, I have arbitrarily narrowed the content of this paper by choosing not to discuss line-focus (trough) systems and energy storage. I will focus my discussion on the development of heliostats, dishes, and receivers since the 1970s with an emphasis on describing the technologies and their evolution, identifying some key observations and lessons learned, and suggesting what the future in component development may be.

Mancini, T. R.

216

An analysis of distributed solar fuel systems  

E-print Network

While solar fuel systems offer tremendous potential to address global clean energy needs, most existing analyses have focused on the feasibility of large centralized systems and applications. Not much research exists on ...

Thomas, Alex, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

217

Focus Groups for Solar System Investigations with the JWST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will make it NASA’s premier space-based facility for infrared astronomy. This 6.5-meter telescope, which is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared, will be equipped with four state-of-the-art instruments that include imaging, spectroscopy, and coronagraphy. These instruments, along with the telescope’s moving target capabilities, will enable the infrared study of solar system objects with unprecedented detail. A new white paper (Norwood et al., 2014) provides a general overview of JWST observatory and instrument capabilities for Solar System science, and updates and expands upon an earlier study by Lunine et al. (2010). In order to fully realize the potential of JWST for Solar System observations, we have recently organized 10 focus groups to explore various science use cases in more detail on topics including: Asteroids, Comets, Giant Planets, Mars, Near Earth Objects, Occultations, Rings, Satellites, Titan, and Trans-Neptunian Objects. The findings from these groups will help guide the project as it develops and implements planning tools, observing templates, the data pipeline and archives so that they enable a broad range of Solar System Science investigations. The purpose of this presentation is to raise awareness of the JWST Solar System planning, and to invite participation of DPS members with our Focus Groups and other pre-launch activities.References:Lunine, J., Hammel, H., Schaller, E., Sonneborn, G., Orton, G., Rieke, G., and Rieke, M. 2010, JWST Planetary Observations within the Solar System, http://www.stsci.edu/jwst/doc-archive/white-papers.Norwood, J., Hammel, H., Milam, S.,Stansberry, J., Lunine, J., Chanover, N., Hines, D., Sonneborn, G., Tiscareno, M., Brown, M. and Ferruit, P., 2014, ArXiv e-prints, 1403.6845.

Hines, Dean C.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John; Hammel, Heidi B.; Sonneborn, George; Lunine, Jonathan; Rivkin, Andrew; Woodward, Charles; Norwood, Jim; Villanueva, Geronimo; Thomas, Cristina; Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Tiscareno, Matthew; Kestay, Laszlo; Nixon, Conor; Parker, Alex

2014-11-01

218

Solar heating system installed at Stamford, Connecticut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The system components are described. Appended data includes: the system design acceptance test, the operation and maintenance manual, and as-built drawings and photographs.

1979-01-01

219

Corrosion and scaling in solar heating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion, as experienced in solar heating systems, is described in simplistic terms to familiarize designers and installers with potential problems and their solutions. The role of a heat transfer fluid in a solar system is briefly discussed, and the choice of an aqueous solution is justified. The complexities of the multiple chemical and physical reactions are discussed in order that uncertainties of corrosion behavior can be anticipated. Some basic theories of corrosion are described, aggressive environments for some common metals are identified, and the role of corrosion inhibitors is delineated. The similarities of thermal and material characteristics of a solor system and an automotive cooling system are discussed. Based on the many years of experience with corrosion in automotive systems, it is recommended that similar antifreezes and corrosion inhibitors should be used in solar systems. The importance of good solar system design and fabrication is stressed and specific characteristics that affect corrosion are identified.

Foresti, R. J., Jr.

1981-12-01

220

Solar System Science with LSST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide a unique tool to study moving objects throughout the solar system, creating massive catalogs of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), asteroids, Trojans, TransNeptunian Objects (TNOs), comets and planetary satellites with well-measured orbits and high quality, multi-color photometry accurate to 0.005 magnitudes for the brightest objects. In the baseline LSST observing plan, back-to-back 15-second images will reach a limiting magnitude as faint as r=24.7 in each 9.6 square degree image, twice per night; a total of approximately 15,000 square degrees of the sky will be imaged in multiple filters every 3 nights. This time sampling will continue throughout each lunation, creating a huge database of observations. Fig. 1 Sky coverage of LSST over 10 years; separate panels for each of the 6 LSST filters. Color bars indicate number of observations in filter. The catalogs will include more than 80% of the potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 140m in diameter within the first 10 years of LSST operation, millions of main-belt asteroids and perhaps 20,000 Trans-Neptunian Objects. Objects with diameters as small as 100m in the Main Belt and <100km in the Kuiper Belt can be detected in individual images. Specialized `deep drilling' observing sequences will detect KBOs down to 10s of kilometers in diameter. Long period comets will be detected at larger distances than previously possible, constrainting models of the Oort cloud. With the large number of objects expected in the catalogs, it may be possible to observe a pristine comet start outgassing on its first journey into the inner solar system. By observing fields over a wide range of ecliptic longitudes and latitudes, including large separations from the ecliptic plane, not only will these catalogs greatly increase the numbers of known objects, the characterization of the inclination distributions of these populations will be much improved. Derivation of proper elements for main belt and Trojan asteroids will allow ever more resolution of asteroid families and their size-frequency distribution, as well as the study of the long-term dynamics of the individual asteroids and the asteroid belt as a whole. Fig. 2 Orbital parameters of Main Belt Asteroids, color-coded according to ugriz colors measured by SDSS. The figure to the left shows osculating elements, the figure to the right shows proper elements - note the asteroid families visible as clumps in parameter space [1]. By obtaining multi-color ugrizy data for a substantial fraction of objects, relationships between color and dynamical history can be established. This will also enable taxonomic classification of asteroids, provide further links between diverse populations such as irregular satellites and TNOs or planetary Trojans, and enable estimates of asteroid diameter with rms uncertainty of 30%. With the addition of light-curve information, rotation periods and phase curves can be measured for large fractions of each population, leading to new insight on physical characteristics. Photometric variability information, together with sparse lightcurve inversion, will allow spin state and shape estimation for up to two orders of magnitude more objects than presently known. This will leverage physical studies of asteroids by constraining the size-strength relationship, which has important implications for the internal structure (solid, fractured, rubble pile) and in turn the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt. Similar information can be gained for other solar system bodies. [1] Parker, A., Ivezic

Jones, R. L.; Chesley, S. R.; Connolly, A. J.; Harris, A. W.; Ivezic, Z.; Knezevic, Z.; Kubica, J.; Milani, A.; Trilling, D. E.

2008-09-01

221

Pluronic lecithin organogel as a topical drug delivery system.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the pluronic lecithin organogel containing flurbiprofen for topical application. Different formulations of pluronic lecithin organogels were prepared by using pluronic F127, lecithin, flurbiprofen, isopropyl palmitate, water, sorbic acid, and potassium sorbate. To study the in vitro potential of these formulations, permeation studies were performed with Keshary-Chien diffusion cells. The results of the in vitro permeation studies found that release of flurbiprofen from dialysis membrane-70 was more than excised dorsal rat skin. Gelation temperature study was carried out to determine the temperature where sol-gel transformation takes place. The viscosities of different formulations were determined by using Brookfield Viscometer at 25°C, the viscosity of formulations increases as the lecithin concentration increases. Also the formulations were tested for appearance and feel psychorheologically, pH, and drug content. Interactions between the components of the gel have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The optimized formulation subjected to differential scanning calorimetry shows no drug-polymer interaction. To investigate the in vivo performance of the formulations, a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model and skin irritation study was used. The stability studies and freeze-thaw thermal cyclic test were carried out, showing no phase separation of gel, and representing gel stability. Statistical analysis of the data of animal study (anti-inflammatory activity) was done by using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test. The formulation shows a statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity and is non-irritant to skin. PMID:22747074

Pandey, Mohit; Belgamwar, Veena; Gattani, Surendra; Surana, Sanjay; Tekade, Avinash

2010-01-01

222

Solar System: The Earth in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It provides an understanding of where Earth is located in space and explores evidence used by astronomers to place Earth at this location. Earth is a relatively small planet and the third from the Sun in our solar system. The Sun is the central and largest body in the solar system. Our still-growing knowledge of the solar system comes to us in part by direct observation from Earth, including the use of optical, radio, and x-ray telescopes that are sensitive to a broad spectrum of information coming to us from space; computers that can undertake increasingly complicated calculations, find patterns in data, and support or reject theories about the origins of the solar system; and space probes that send back detailed pictures and other data from distant planets. Learning Outcomes:� Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.� Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.� Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

223

Accretion in the Early Outer Solar System  

E-print Network

We describe calculations of the evolution of an ensemble of small planetesimals in the outer solar system. In a solar nebula with a mass of several times the Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, objects with radii of 100-1000 km can form on timescales of 10-100 Myr. Model luminosity functions derived from these calculations agree with current observations of bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune (Kuiper Belt objects). New surveys with current and planned instruments can place better constraints on the mass and dynamics of the solar nebula by measuring the luminosity function at red magnitudes of 28 or larger.

Scott J. Kenyon; Jane X. Luu

1999-06-08

224

Solar radiation for Mars power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed information about the solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally and daily variation of the global, direct (or beam), and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated, are presented. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the Viking Lander cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1991-01-01

225

Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any  

E-print Network

Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any Type Of System www.CleanEnergy and uses solar energy more efficiently than plants. In fact, it provides a solution to one of the major, but the technology is primarily designed to be used with solar panels as a source of clean, renewable solar energy

Lovley, Derek

226

Throughput analysis of production systems: recent advances and future topics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughput analysis is important for the design, operation and management of production systems. A substantial amount of research has been devoted to developing analytical methods to estimate the throughput of production systems with unreliable machines and finite buffers. In this paper we summarise the recent studies in this area. In addition to the performance evaluation of serial lines, approximation methods

Jingshan Li; Dennis E. Blumenfeld; Ningjian Huang; Jeffrey M. Alden

2009-01-01

227

Prototype solar heating and hot water system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

1977-01-01

228

Combined solar collector and energy storage system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

Jensen, R. N. (inventor)

1980-01-01

229

Solar energy systems for manufactured housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunities for solar energy utilization in manufactured housing such as mobile homes and modular homes are discussed. The general characteristics of the manufactured housing industry are described including market and prices. Special problems of the utilization of liquid heating collectors, air heating collectors, or passive types of solar heating systems in manufactured housing are considered. The market situation for

Balcomb

1976-01-01

230

Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using

Adam Faiers; Charles Neame

2006-01-01

231

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Gamma astronomy of the Sun and study of solar cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed discussion is given of the various nuclear reactions proceeding in the Sun's atmosphere under the influence of flare-accelerated particles. The role of such reactions in formation of the line spectrum and continuum of gamma-rays from the disturbed and quiet Sun is discussed. The gamma-ray fluxes in individual lines and in the continuum are estimated. The possibility of applying data on gamma-ray emission from the Sun to analysis of particle acceleration in solar flares and the conditions of their ejection into interplanetary space is analyzed.

Kuzhevski?, B. M.

1982-06-01

232

ASTM001/MAS423 Solar System Solar Nebula & Planet Formation  

E-print Network

Uranus 19.2 AU Neptune 30.1 AU #12;Solar system structure: the dark cold depths Kuiper belt (30 AU - 50 and Saturn have large gaseous envelopes of H2 Uranus & Neptune have a few M of gas. All have extensive Formation Overview Some event (e.g. nearby supernova) triggers gravitational collapse of a cloud (nebula

Agnor, Craig B.

233

Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies  

E-print Network

There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr$^{-1}$. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is prudent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

John D. Anderson; Michael Martin Nieto

2009-07-14

234

Solar-System Ephemeris Toolbox  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) generates planetary and lunar ephemeris data and FORTRAN routines that allow users to obtain state data for the Sun, the moon, and the planets. The JPL Solar System Ephemeris Toolbox, developed at Kennedy Space Center, is a set of functions that provides the same functionality in the MATLAB computing environment along with some additional capabilities. The toolbox can be used interactively via a graphical user interface (GUI), or individual functions can be called from the MATLAB command prompt or other MATLAB scripts and functions. The toolbox also includes utility functions to define and perform coordinate transformation (e.g., mean-of-date, true-of-date, J2000) that are common in the use of these ephemerides. An attached README file guides the user through the process of constructing binary ephemeris files, verifying correct installation, and using functions to extract state data. This process also can be performed using the GUI. Help from each toolbox function is available through MATLAB s "help" function. Many of the functions in the toolbox are MATLAB equivalents of the JPL-written FORTRAN programs and subroutines used for the same purposes. A novice can use the GUI to extract state data, while a more experienced user can use the functions directly, as needed, in his/her applications. The toolbox has been tested using MATLAB Releases 13 an

Walker, Charles F.

2005-01-01

235

Prototype solar domestic hot water systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

1978-01-01

236

Pocket Solar System: Make a Scale Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun and simple hands-on astronomy activity lets learners build a scale model of the universe with little more than adding machine tape. Learners are often surprised to find how empty the outer solar system is (there is a reason they call it space!) and how close, relatively speaking, the orbits of the planets of the inner solar system are. The pdf contains step-by-step instructions, photos, presentation tips, common misconceptions about our solar system, and links to background information.

Pacific, Astronomical S.

2008-01-01

237

Spiking Neural P Systems. Recent Results, Research Topics  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a quick introduction of spiking neural P systems (a class of P systems inspired from the way neurons communicate by\\u000a means of spikes, electrical impulses of identical shape), and presentation of typical results (in general equivalence with\\u000a Turing machines as number computing devices, but also other issues, such as the possibility of handling strings or infinite\\u000a sequences), we present

Gheorghe Paun; Mario J. Pérez-Jiménez

2009-01-01

238

Comparative evaluation of acoustic holography systems: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The Sigma Research, Inc. SDL-1000 Acoustic Holography Imaging System developed under RP 606 was evaluated by the EPRI NDE Center. A preliminary evaluation completed in early 1986 included measuring the system performance for unclad surface inspections of the Program for the Inspection of Steel Components-II (PISC-II) Plate No. 2 and the Combustion Engineering (CE) plate and comparing it with the results of multifrequency holography system. Based on the preliminary investigation, a cooperative project between EPRI and the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Owners' Group was initiated to provide direction for possible future development efforts in acoustical holography. The project included the evaluation of the Sigma Research's SDL-1000 and the B and W's acoustical holography system. The project tasks were: an evaluation of the B and W Relative Partial Sums (RPS) procedure for setting the plotting threshold for reconstructed holographic images; re-analysis of the available 2 MHz data using the RPS procedure; collection of 5 MHz holographic data on the flaws in the CE slab; analysis of the 5 MHz data using the RPS procedure; and destructive sectioning of flaws in the CE plate to validate the RPS procedure for setting the image threshold and to compare acoustical holography system performance.

MacDonald, D.E.; Kietzman, E.K.

1987-04-01

239

Topics in the theory of heavy-quark systems  

SciTech Connect

Due to the kinematic and dynamic simplifications possible because of the large mass of heavy quark bound states, certain properties of these systems can be quantitatively analyzed within the framework of quantum chromodynamics. It is clear that dimensionally the size of the bound state is proportional to the inverse quark mass, and for very heavy quarkonia the radius of the system should become smaller than that of normal hadrons. When this small system interacts with external long wavelength field quanta, the natural expansion that results is of a multipole type, analogous to the familiar multipole expansion in electrodynamics. This multipole expansion has better convergence properties than the standard perturbative treatment in certain kinematic regimes, which opens up a new area for strong interaction physics calculations. More specifically, it is ideally suited to investigate soft non-perturbative effects in QCD which appear to be so crucial to present day phenomenology and the conjectured confinement mechanism.

Flory, C.A.

1981-04-01

240

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Global phase-stable radiointerferometric systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss from a unitary standpoint the possibility of building a phase-stable interferometric system with very long baselines that operate around the clock with real-time data processing. The various problems involved in the realization of this idea are discussed: the methods of suppression of instrumental and tropospheric phase fluctuations, the methods for constructing two-dimensional images and determining the coordinates of radio sources with high angular resolution, and the problem of the optimal structure of the interferometric system. We review in detail the scientific problems from the various branches of natural science (astrophysics, cosmology, geophysics, geodynamics, astrometry, etc.) whose solution requires superhigh angular resolution.

Dravskikh, A. F.; Korol'kov, Dimitrii V.; Pari?ski?, Yu N.; Stotski?, A. A.; Finkel'ste?n, A. M.; Fridman, P. A.

1981-12-01

241

Small hybrid solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel concept of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio-)Diesel engine. The Organic Rankine Cycles include hermetic scroll expander-generators11The word expander is often used to characterize units recovering the expansion energy of a gas, in particular when based on a volumetric machine. The word

M. Kane; D. Larrain; D. Favrat; Y. Allani

2003-01-01

242

Workshop 1: Passive solar systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a solar house for a latitude of 50 degrees north in Northern Europe is discussed. An evaluation of a 500 cubic meter house and a computerized simulation of a 350 cubic meter house are given. It was found that the heating demand of a poorly insulated house may be decreased by 70 to 75% by means of an extensive insulation; new buildings should be extensively insulated; passive solar energy utilization is usually not cost effective.

Schneider, M.; Schreitmueller, K. R.

1982-11-01

243

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: The hydromagnetic dynamo as the source of planetary, solar, and galactic magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetism of most celestial bodies, i.e., planets, stars, and galaxies, is of hydromagnetic origin. The turbulent hydromagnetic dynamo is the principal mechanism whereby the magnetic field is amplified and maintained, and the theory of this phenomenon has advanced significantly in recent years. This review discusses applications of the theory of the turbulent dynamo to real objects, taking the Sun, the Earth, and the Galaxy as examples. Most of the discussion is concentrated on the large-scale magnetic field averaged over turbulent fluctuations. The average field is amplified and maintained by the average helicity of turbulent motion and large-scale shear flows such as differential rotation. The dynamo theory explains striking phenomena such as geomagnetic field reversal, the solar cycle, and the ring and bisymmetric structure of spiral galaxies.

Zeldovich, Ya B.; Ruzma?kin, A. A.

1987-06-01

244

Topic 7: Japanese Macaque Society as a Complex Adaptive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The formation and maintenance of valuable (i.e., fitness-generating) relationships (Silk et al. 2003) are critical factors\\u000a influencing individual strategy and decision making in primates (Cords 1997). Here I briefly explain the strategic use of\\u000a social behavior to cultivate and maintain valuable relationships in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and suggest the possibility of applying “complex adaptive systems” theory to aid our

Nobuyuki Kutsukake

245

The NASA atlas of the solar system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Describes every planet, moon, and body that has been the subject of a NASA mission, including images of 30 solar system objects and maps of 26 objects. The presentation includes geologic history, geologic and reference maps, and shaded relief maps.

Greeley, Ronald; Batson, Raymond M.

1997-01-01

246

Solar System Lithograph Set for Space Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set contains images with information about: Our Solar System, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Jupiter, Moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Charon, and Comets.

2010-10-27

247

Solar System Visualization: Global Science Maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Solar System Visualization (SSV) project is to re-explore the planets using the data from previous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planetary missions on and public information.

DeJong, E. M.

1994-01-01

248

Solar system: Blink from a remote world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of stellar occultations to disclose unknown aspects of our Solar System is not new. But the latest such event to be reported involves an object that lies beyond the orbit of Neptune - and is a first.

Sicardy, Bruno

2010-06-01

249

Cascade Helps JPL Explore the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we are involved with the unmanned exploration of the solar system. Unmanned probes observe the planet surfaces using radar and optical cameras to take a variety of measurements.

Burke, G. R.

1996-01-01

250

How the Inner Solar System Formed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from NOVA, explore the theory that small bits of gas and dust combined to form protoplanets billions of years ago, which in turn collided to create the four rocky planets of the inner solar system.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-03-30

251

Igneous processes of the early solar system  

E-print Network

Experimental, petrographic and numerical methods are used to explore the igneous evolution of the early solar system. Chapters 1 and 2 detail the results of petrographic and experimental studies of a suite of primitive ...

Singletary, Steven J. (Steven James), 1973-

2004-01-01

252

Cutting Industrial Solar System Costs in Half  

E-print Network

While there are technical, social, environmental and institutional barriers to the widespread use of solar systems, the principle barrier is economic. For commercial and industrial firms to turn to this alternate energy source, the first cost must...

Niess, R. C.; Weinstein, A.

1982-01-01

253

Solar Heating System at a Racquetball Club  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed 93-page report describes Arlington, Virginia racquetball club which obtains heat and hot water for its support area from solar collectors. Report explains modes of operation of system and details of acceptance-test plan.

1982-01-01

254

External Resource: Our Solar System Lithograph Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph set features images of the planets, the sun, asteroids, comets, meteors and meteorites, the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud, and moons of the solar system. General information, significant dates, interesting facts and brief descriptions of the

1900-01-01

255

Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

Luckett, Rickey D.

256

The solar system mimics a hydrogen atom  

E-print Network

The solar system and the hydrogen atom are two well known systems on different scales and look unrelated: The former is a classical system on the scale of about billions of kilometers and the latter a quantum system of about tens of picometers. Here we show a connection between them. Specifically, we find that the orbital radii of the planets mimic the mean radii of the energy levels of a quantum system under the Coulomb-like potential. This connection might be explained by very light dark matter which manifests quantum behavior in the solar system, thereby hinting at a dark matter mass around $8 \\times 10^{-14}$ electron-volts.

Je-An Gu

2014-03-28

257

Climate Fundamentals for Solar Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design of any solar heating system is influenced heavily by climate; in this bulletin, information on climate as related to solar heating is as related to solar heating is provided. Topics discussed include: (1) solar radiation; (2) degree days; (3) climate and calculations which make use of solar radiation and degree days; and (4)…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

258

Topics in the mechanics of self-organizing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-organization, in one of its accepted definitions, is the appearance of non-random structures in a system without explicit constraints from forces outside the system. In this thesis two self-organizing systems are studied from the viewpoint of mechanics. In the first system---semiconductor crystal surfaces---the internal constraints that lead to self-assembly of nanoscale structures on silicon-germanium (SiGe) films are studied. In the second system---actin cytoskeleton---a consequence of dynamic self-organization of actin filaments in the form of motion of micron-sized beads through a cytoplasmic medium is studied. When Ge film is deposited on Si(001) substrate, nanoscale features form on the surface and self-organize by minimizing energy contributions from the surface and the strain resulting from difference in lattice constants of the film and the substrate. Clean Si(001) and Ge(001) surfaces are very similar, but experiments to date have shown that atomic scale defects such as dimer-vacancies self-organize into vacancy lines only on Si(001). Through atomic simulations, we show that the observed difference originate from the magnitude of compressive surface strain which reduces formation energy of the dimer-vacancies. During initial stages of the film deposition, the surface is composed of steps and vacancy lines organized in periodic patterns. Using theory of elasticity and atomic simulations we show that these line defects self-organize due to monopolar nature of steps and dipolar nature of the vacancy lines. This self-organized pattern further develops to form pyramidal islands bounded with (105) facets and high Ge content. Mismatch strain of the island is then reduced by incorporation of Si from the substrate surrounding the island leaving behind trenches whose depth is proportional to the basewidth of the island. Using finite element simulations we show that such a relationship is an outcome of competition between elastic energy and surface energy. Some experimental studies also report observation of steeper (103) and (104) facets on pyramidal islands. Using numerical simulations we derive a phase diagram which shows that the steeper facets are stabilized because they provide better relaxation of mismatch strain with only slight increase in surface energy. In the second system, the actin cytoskeleton is a key structural and propulsion element of eukaryotic cells. Micron-sized "cargoes", which under pathological conditions include bacteria, are propelled by dynamic self-organization of the actin filaments. Recently it is shown that the trajectories of a bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, propelled by actin filaments are periodic; implying that the organization of actin filaments impart an effective force that spins about the axis of the bacterium. We show that the motion of spherical beads is also non-random; the effective force has an additional degree of freedom due to the spherical symmetry of the bead. Agreement of the theoretical trajectories with experimental observations suggest that the actin-based motility can be generally described using deterministic equations. We also propose microscopic basis for the effective force model which can guide development of microscopic theory to predict the long term trajectories of actin propelled objects.

Tambe, Dhananjay

259

Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report  

SciTech Connect

The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

Rosenthal, A. [Southwest Technology Development Inst., Las Cruces, NM (US)

1993-05-01

260

Solar Energy Usage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with solar energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the broad aspects of solar energy use and to explain the general operation of solar systems. Some topics covered are availability and economics of solar

Crank, Ron

261

Solar System Science with LSST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide a unique tool to study moving objects throughout the solar system, creating massive catalogs of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), asteroids, Trojans, TransNeptunian Objects (TNOs), comets, planetary satellites and other rare, yet-undiscovered populations, with well-measured orbits and high quality, multi-color photometry, accurate to 0.005 magnitudes for the brightest objects. In the baseline LSST observing plan, back-to-back 15-second images reach a limiting magnitude as faint as r=24.7 in each 9.6 square degree visit, twice per night; a total of approximately 15,000 square degrees of the sky will be imaged in multiple filters every 3 nights. The catalogs will include more than 80\\% of the potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 140m in diameter, millions of main-belt asteroids and perhaps 20,000 Trans-Neptunian Objects. Objects with diameters as small as 100m in the Main Belt and <100km in the Kuiper Belt can be detected in individual images. Specialized deep drilling observing sequences will detect KBOs down to 10s of kilometers in diameter. Derivation of proper elements for main belt and Trojan asteroids will allow ever more resolution of asteroid families and their size-frequency distribution. By obtaining multi-color ugrizy data for a substantial fraction of objects, relationships between color and dynamical history can be established. This will also enable taxonomic classification of asteroids, provide further links between diverse populations such as irregular satellites and TNOs or planetary Trojans, and enable estimates of asteroid diameter with rms uncertainty of 30%. By obtaining high-quality photometric measurements, rotation periods and phase curves will be measured for large fractions of each population, leading to new insight on physical characteristics. Photometric variability information, together with sparse lightcurve inversion, will allow spin state and shape estimation for up to two orders of magnitude more objects than presently known.

Jones, R. Lynne; Chesley, S. R.; Connolly, A. J.; Harris, A. W.; Ivezic, Z.; Knezevic, Z.; Kubica, J.; Milani, A.; Trilling, D. E.; Pierfederici, F.; LSST Solar System Science Collaboration

2008-09-01

262

Solar underwater glider of photovoltaic system research and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar PV systems for underwater glider to solve the energy shortage, in this paper. First, establishes the mathematical model of solar panels equipped with underwater glider, and then analyzes the characteristics of solar radiation, and then gives the energy output of solar panels formula, and completed a solar photovoltaic system design, finally a brief analysis of the feasibility of carrying

Yu Zhang; Peiwu Xu

2010-01-01

263

The Solar System: Recent Exploration Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system has been visited by space probes, ranging from the Mariner Mercury-Venus mission exploring inward toward the sun, and continuing through the Voyager probes out into interstellar space and (on its way now) the New Horizons probe to Pluto and the Kuiper belt. This talk examines what we know of the planets of the solar system from probes, and talks about where we will go from here.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

2006-01-01

264

Solar Near-Infrared Filter System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a near-infrared (at FeI 15648.5 Å) filter system which is designed to obtain the chromatic images of the sun and measure the solar magnetic field at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). This system consists of a prefilter, a liquid crystal analyzer, a wavelength-tunable birefringent filter and a Fabry-Perot Etalon. The birefringent filter and the

Jingshan Wang; Haimin Wang; Nuggehalli M. Ravindra; Philip R. Goode; Feiming Tong; T. J. Spirock; Shu Yang

265

Chemical evolution: A solar system perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last three decades major advances were made in the understanding of the formation of carbon compounds in the universe and of the occurrence of processes of chemical evolution in the solar system and beyond. This was made possible by the development of new astronomical techniques and by the exploration of the solar system by means of properly instrumented spacecraft. Some of the major findings made as a result of these observations are summarized.

Oro, J.

1989-01-01

266

Meteoroids: The Smallest Solar System Bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume is a compilation of articles reflecting the current state of knowledge on the physics, chemistry, astronomy, and aeronomy of small bodies in the solar system. The articles included here represent the most recent results in meteor, meteoroid, and related research fields and were presented May 24-28, 2010, in Breckenridge, Colorado, USA at Meteoroids 2010: An International Conference on Minor Bodies in the Solar System.

Moser, Danille E. (Compiler); Hardin, B. F. (Compiler); Janches, Diego (Compiler)

2011-01-01

267

Advanced worker protection system. Topical report, Phase I  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system, maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles.

Myers, J.

1995-07-01

268

Diclofenac systemic exposure is not increased when topical diclofenac is applied to ultraviolet-induced erythema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for a variety of painful and inflammatory conditions. A new low-dose, topical-gel form of diclofenac sodium (diclofenac-Na) has been developed for pain relief and redness reduction after sunburn. The objective was to compare exposure to oral diclofenac-Na with the systemic exposure to diclofenac after application of the new topical diclofenac-Na 0.1% Emulgel

J.-L. Magnette; J.-L. Kienzler; D. Sallin; C. Ménart; F. Nollevaux; A. Knops

2004-01-01

269

The Telescope Control System of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory  

E-print Network

The Telescope Control System of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory G. Yang*a, J Telescope (NST) is an advanced solar telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). It features a 1.6-m the local seeing. The NST Telescope Control System (TCS) is a complex system, which provides powerful

270

INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, AND PUBLICATIONS  

E-print Network

INVENTORY OF SOLAR RADIATION/SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ESTIMATORS, MODELS, SITE-SPECIFIC DATA, and Buildings Systems Integration Center National Renewable Energy Laboratory 8 July 2009 SOLAR SYSTEM POTENTIAL/calculators/PVWATTS/version1/ http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/PVWATTS/version2/ Estimates the electrical energy

271

Final solar-systems monitoring report, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The Active Solar Monitoring Project was conducted by the Ministry of Energy of the Province of Ontario, Canada, between November, 1982, and October, 1985. The objective of the project was to instrument, monitor, assess, and report on the energy performance and reliability of the solar energy demonstration projects sponsored by the Ministry. The monitoring project was an essential part of Ontario's Solar Energy Program, which included over 190 solar-heating demonstration projects, and 2 photovoltaic demonstration projects. These were located on government buildings, and on commercial, industrial, municipal, institutional, and religious buildings. The solar energy systems on some of these buildings, and their monitoring activities, were sponsored jointly by the Ministry of Energy, and Energy Mines, and Resources Canada.

Not Available

1985-01-01

272

Design of a 30-hp solar steam-powered turbine. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The type-selection and complete design of a 30hp turbine which operates on superheated steam are described. The steam obtains most of its energy (the latent heat of vaporization) from solar energy at approximately 100/sup 0/C (design) and is then superheated by a fuel energy source to 600/sup 0/C (design). The turbine is designed for an exit pressure of 10.086 kPa(abs) corresponding to a condenser temperature of 46/sup 0/C (115/sup 0/F), as required for air-cooled condensers. The turbine selected is of counter-rotation radial outflow design, employing 10 rows of reaction-type blading, and it operates at 15300 rpm (design). The calculated turbine efficiency at design conditions is 75%, well above the efficiency of existing steam turbines of same power and steam conditions. Extensive calculations of the turbine efficiency at off-design conditions indicate a very small deterioration in efficiency, of the order of a few percent, over the practical range of operations.

Kroon, R.P.; Meyer, C.A.; Lior, N.; Yeh, H.

1980-05-01

273

Exploring Solar Systems Across the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the value of exploring our solar system and others in the Universe. Learners will investigate, compare, and describe patterns in Solar System data. They will then hypothesize about the formation of the Solar System based on data and explain how extrasolar planets can be discovered. In the first activity, the students investigate Solar System data to find clues to how our planetary system was formed. By the end of the activity, the students come to understand that other stars form just like the Sun, and, therefore, many stars could have planets around them. The second activity examines how scientists can find these extrasolar planets. By observing the behavior of a model star-planet system, the students come to understand that it is possible to see the effect a planet has on its parent star even if the planet cannot be seen directly. By comparing the properties of our Solar System with other planetary systems, we can gain a deeper understanding of planetary systems across the Universe.

274

Concentrators Enhance Solar Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Right now, solar electric propulsion is being looked at very seriously," says Michael Piszczor, chief of the photovoltaic and power technologies branch at Glen Research Center. The reason, he explains, originates with a unique NASA mission from the late 1990s. In 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft launched from Kennedy Space Center to test a dozen different space technologies, including SCARLET, or the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology. As a solar array that focused sunlight on a smaller solar cell to generate electric power, SCARLET not only powered Deep Space 1 s instruments but also powered its ion engine, which propelled the spacecraft throughout its journey. Deep Space 1 was the first spacecraft powered by a refractive concentrator design like SCARLET, and also utilized multi-junction solar cells, or cells made of multiple layers of different materials. For the duration of its 38-month mission, SCARLET performed flawlessly, even as Deep Space 1 flew by Comet Borrelly and Asteroid Braille. "Everyone remembers the ion engine on Deep Space 1, but they tend to forget that the SCARLET array powered it," says Piszczor. "Not only did both technologies work as designed, but the synergy between the two, solar power and propulsion together, is really the important aspect of this technology demonstration mission. It was the first successful use of solar electric propulsion for primary propulsion." More than a decade later, NASA is keenly interested in using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for future space missions. A key issue is cost, and SEP has the potential to substantially reduce cost compared to conventional chemical propulsion technology. "SEP allows you to use spacecraft that are smaller, lighter, and less costly," says Piszczor. "Even though it might take longer to get somewhere using SEP, if you are willing to trade time for cost and smaller vehicles, it s a good trade." Potentially, SEP could be used on future science missions in orbit around the Earth or Moon, to planets or asteroids, on deep space science missions, and even on exploration missions. In fact, electric propulsion is already being used on Earth-orbiting satellites for positioning.

2013-01-01

275

The Solar System Presentation for SRS 5th Grade  

E-print Network

The Solar System Presentation for SRS 5th Grade Prof. David Cohen, Swarthmore College #12;What astronomers try to answer: ·What are the things in the solar system like? Planets, moons, comets, asteroids, the Sun... ·Are there good conditions for life anywhere in the solar system? ·How did the solar system

Cohen, David

276

Photovoltaics: solar electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

The operation and uses of solar cells and the National Photovoltaic Program are briefly described. Eleven DOE photovoltaic application projects are described including forest lookout towers; Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Hawaii; WBNO daytime AM radio station; Schuchuli Indian Village; Meade, Nebraska, agricultural experiment; Mt. Laguna Air Force Station; public schools and colleges; residential applications; and Sea World of Florida. (WHK)

None

1980-02-01

277

Photovoltaics: Solar electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operation and uses of solar cells and the National Photovoltaic Program are briefly described. Eleven DOE photovoltaic application projects are described including forest lookout towers; Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Hawaii; WBNO daytime AM radio station; Schuchuli Indian Village; Meade, Nebraska, agricultural experiment; Mt. Laguna Air Force Station; public schools and colleges; residential applications; and Sea World of Florida.

1980-02-01

278

Green Systems Solar Hot Water  

E-print Network

Air Handlers Evaporative Cooling Tower (Trex enclosure) Storage tanks (underground) Heat Exchanger (HX Thermal Panels (Trex enclosure) Hot Water Storage Tank (TS-5; basement) Hot Water Heaters (HW-1-generation Unit (CHX-1; basement) Water Storage Tank (TS-3; basement) Provides electricity to building when solar

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

279

Topics in viscous potential flow of two-phase systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-phase flows are ubiquitous, from natural and domestic environments to industrial settings. However, due to their complexity, modeling these fluid systems remains a challenge from both the perspective of fundamental questions on the dynamics of an individual, smooth interface, and the perspective of integral analyses, which involve averaging of the conservation laws over large domains, thereby missing local details of the flow. In this work, we consider a set of five problems concerning the linear and non-linear dynamics of an interface or free surface and the study of cavitation inception. Analyses are carried out by assuming the fluid motion to be irrotational, that is, with zero vorticity, and the fluids to be viscous, although results from rotational analyses are presented for the purpose of comparison. The problems considered here are the following: First, we analyze the non-linear deformation and break-up of a bubble or drop immersed in a uniaxial extensional flow of an incompressible viscous fluid. The method of viscous potential flow, in which the flow field is irrotational and viscosity enters through the balance of normal stresses at the interface, is used in the analysis. The governing equations are solved numerically to track the motion of the interface by coupling a boundary element method with a time-integration routine. When break-up occurs, the break-up time computed here is compared with results obtained elsewhere from numerical simulations of the Navier.Stokes equations, which thus keeps vorticity in the analysis, for several combinations of the relevant dimensionless parameters of the problem. For the bubble, for Weber numbers 3 ? We ? 6, predictions from viscous potential flow shows good agreement with the results from the Navier.Stokes equations for the bubble break-up time, whereas for larger We, the former underpredicts the results given by the latter. Including viscosity increases the break-up time with respect to the inviscid case. For the drop, as expected, increasing the viscous effects of the irrotational motion produces large, elongated drops that take longer to break up in comparison with results for inviscid fluids. In the second problem, we compute the force acting on a spherical bubble of variable radius moving within a liquid with an outer spherical boundary. Viscous potential flow and the dissipation method, which is another purely irrotational approach stemming from the mechanical energy equation, are both systematically implemented. This exposes the role of the choice of the outer boundary condition for the stress on the drag, an issue not explained in the literature known to us. By means of the well-known "cell-model" analysis, the results for the drag are then applied to the case of a swarm of rising bubbles having a certain void fraction. Computations from the dissipation method for the drag coefficient and rise velocity for a bubble swarm agree with numerical solutions; evaluation against experimental data for high Reynolds and low Weber numbers shows that all the models considered, including those given in the literature, overpredict the bubble swarm rise velocity. In the next two problems, we apply the analysis of viscous potential flow and the dissipation method to study the linear dynamics of waves of "small" amplitude acting either on a plane or on a spherical interface separating a liquid from a dynamically inactive fluid. It is shown that the viscous irrational theories exhibit the features of the wave dynamics by comparing with the exact solution. The range of parameters for which good agreement with the exact solution exists is presented. The general trend shows that for long waves the dissipation method results in the best approximation, whereas for short waves, even for very viscous liquids, viscous potential flow demonstrates better agreement. Finally, the problem of cavitation inception for the flow of a viscous liquid past a stationary sphere is studied by means of the theory of stress-induced cavitation. The flow field for a single phase n

Padrino Inciarte, Juan Carlos

280

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

1994-01-01

281

Prototype residential solar-energy system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complete solar-energy domestic-hot-water system for single-family residences is described in brochure. It contains data on procurement, installation, operation, and maintainance of system in residential or light commercial buildings. Appendix includes vendor brochures for major system components. Drawings, tables, and graphs complement text.

1978-01-01

282

Lead acid batteries in solar refrigeration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batteries play a vital role in solar photovoltaic refrigeration systems. Despite breakthroughs in operational characteristics of various components of such systems, lead acid batteries continue to be the only viable electrical energy storage devices as of date. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of characterization of a lead acid battery system as a component of a

Thomachan A Kattakayam; K Srinivasan

2004-01-01

283

Multistep methods for integrating the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

High order multistep methods, run at constant stepsize, are one of the most effective schemes for integrating the Newtonian solar system, for extended periods of time. The stability and error growth of these methods is studied when applied to harmonic oscillators and two body systems like the Sun-Jupiter pair. The truncation error of multistep methods on two-body systems grows in

Panayotis A. Skordos

1988-01-01

284

Solar thermal desalination system with heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the energy and mass balance equations, the numerical simulation results for the production rate, and the experimental laboratory water tests for a thermal desalination unit with a heat recovery system. The system components are a solar collector and a desalination tower, although the system can be operated with other energy sources. The desalination tower is made of

Klemens Schwarzer; Maria Eugênia Vieira; Christian Faber; Christoph Müller

2001-01-01

285

Theory and Simulations of Solar System Plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Theory and simulations of solar system plasmas" aims to highlight results from microscopic to global scales, achieved by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations of the plasma dynamics in the solar system. The theoretical approach must allow evidencing the universality of the phenomena being considered, whatever the region is where their role is studied; at the Sun, in the solar corona, in the interplanetary space or in planetary magnetospheres. All possible theoretical issues concerning plasma dynamics are welcome, especially those using numerical models and simulations, since these tools are mandatory whenever analytical treatments fail, in particular when complex nonlinear phenomena are at work. Comparative studies for ongoing missions like Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Stereo, Wind, SDO, Hinode, as well as those preparing future missions and proposals, like, e.g., MMS and Solar Orbiter, are especially encouraged.

Goldstein, Melvyn L.

2011-01-01

286

Basic Solar Photovoltaic System Design Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this classroom activity for teaching students to design a small scale solar photovoltaic system. The class will use three small scale solar PV panels and perform tests and demonstrations with the equipment. A teacher's guide and student worksheets are provided. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2012-10-15

287

Planetary magnetism in the outer solar system.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review of the salient considerations which apply to the existence of magnetic fields in connection with planetary and subplanetary objects in the outer solar system is given. Consideration is given to internal dynamo fields, fields which might originate from interaction with the solar wind or magnetospheres (externally driven dynamos) and lastly fossil magnetic fields such as have been discovered on the moon. Where possible, connection is made between magnetism, means of detection, and internal body properties.

Sonett, C. P.

1973-01-01

288

Take a Spin Through the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will make comparisons of the rotation rates of the Sun and three planets (Jupiter, Uranus, and Saturn). Students will gather current information and the latest images of the Solar System from the Internet; they will then review such concepts as ratios, circles, angles, arcs, angular velocity, and period of rotation to complete a worksheet for finding the rotation rates of the Sun and planets. A brief video of Saturn's rotation is included, as is a glossary of solar terms.

289

An Automated Solar Synoptic Analysis Software System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an automated software system of identifying solar active regions, filament channels, and coronal holes, those are three major solar sources causing the space weather. Space weather forecasters of NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center produce the solar synoptic drawings as a daily basis to predict solar activities, i.e., solar flares, filament eruptions, high speed solar wind streams, and co-rotating interaction regions as well as their possible effects to the Earth. As an attempt to emulate this process with a fully automated and consistent way, we developed a software system named ASSA(Automated Solar Synoptic Analysis). When identifying solar active regions, ASSA uses high-resolution SDO HMI intensitygram and magnetogram as inputs and providing McIntosh classification and Mt. Wilson magnetic classification of each active region by applying appropriate image processing techniques such as thresholding, morphology extraction, and region growing. At the same time, it also extracts morphological and physical properties of active regions in a quantitative way for the short-term prediction of flares and CMEs. When identifying filament channels and coronal holes, images of global H-alpha network and SDO AIA 193 are used for morphological identification and also SDO HMI magnetograms for quantitative verification. The output results of ASSA are routinely checked and validated against NOAA's daily SRS(Solar Region Summary) and UCOHO(URSIgram code for coronal hole information). A couple of preliminary scientific results are to be presented using available output results. ASSA will be deployed at the Korean Space Weather Center and serve its customers in an operational status by the end of 2012.

Hong, S.; Lee, S.; Oh, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.; Moon, Y.; Lee, D.

2012-12-01

290

The Systems Analysis and Design Course: An Educators' Assessment of the Importance and Coverage of Topics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines instructors' perceptions regarding the skills and topics that are most important in the teaching of a Systems Analysis and Design ("SAD") course and the class time devoted to each. A large number of Information Systems ("IS") educators at AACSB accredited schools across the United States were surveyed. Shannon's entropy is used…

Guidry, Brandi N.; Stevens, David P.; Totaro, Michael W.

2011-01-01

291

Solar thermionic power systems for terrestrial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a feasibility study which showed that a low-temperature, high-efficient thermionic power system can efficiently convert solar energy to electrical energy without heat transport, as required by most solar thermal systems are described. A 3-dimensional (2-axis tracking) 93 sq m parabolic solar concentrator, consisting of mirrors on a foam glass substrate and designed to a concentration ratio (mirror area/aperture area) of 2000 is considered for producing a design temperature of 1100 C at an efficiency of 74%. A tracking subsystem must track the sun at an accuracy of a nominal plus or minus 1.0 degree for maximum use of the sun's energy. Each complete solar thermionic power system unit rated at about 20 kWe peak can generate approximately 48,000 kWh/yr. In addition, a thermal energy conversion system can be cascaded within the thermionic power system so that the high quality waste heat can be further utilized to increase the net electrical output. Potential applications of a solar thermionic power generation system are remote sites, apartment house complexes, heating and cooling, hydrogen production and large power stations.

Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

1977-01-01

292

MHD Modeling of the Interaction Between the Solar Wind and Solar System Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of plasma can be used to model many phenomena in the solar system. In this work we investigate the use of a general MHD solver - the Flash code - for the simulation of the interac- tion between the solar wind and solar system objects. As a test case we simulate the three-dimensional solar wind interaction with

Andreas Ekenbäck; Mats Holmström

2004-01-01

293

Development and Testing of the Solar System Concept Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trying to assess if our students really understand the ideas we present in class can be difficult. Concept inventories are research-validated assessment tools that can provide us with data to better understand whether we are successful in the classroom. The idea for the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) was born after realizing that no concept inventory currently available covered details regarding the formation and evolution of our solar system. Topics were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system and interviewing students in order to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. Beginning in fall of 2008, a national multi-institutional field test began which would eventually involve nearly 2500 students and 17 instructors from 10 different institutions. After each round of testing, a group of instructors from multiple institutions around the country worked together to analyze the data and revise or eliminate underperforming questions. Each question was examined using a combination of point biserial, percent correct on the pre-test, and item difficulty to determine if the question was properly differentiating student understanding while also ensuring the question was not too easy or too hard. In this talk, I will present an overall outline of the development of the SSCI as well as the final testing results. The final version of the SSCI can be found at http://casa.colorado.edu/ hornstei/ssci/. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any findings expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.

Hornstein, Seth D.; Prather, E. E.; English, T. R.; Desch, S. M.; Keller, J. M.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

2011-01-01

294

Monitoring solar-thermal systems: An outline of methods and procedures  

SciTech Connect

This manual discusses the technical issues associated with monitoring solar-thermal systems. It discusses some successful monitoring programs that have been implemented in the past. It gives the rationale for selecting a program of monitoring and gives guidelines for the design of new programs. In this report, solar thermal monitoring systems are classified into three levels. For each level, the report discusses the kinds of information obtained by monitoring, the effort needed to support the monitoring program, the hardware required, and the costs involved. Ultimately, all monitoring programs share one common requirement: the collection of accurate data that characterize some aspect or aspects of the system under study. This report addresses most of the issues involved with monitoring solar thermal systems. It does not address such topics as design fundamentals of thermal systems or the relative merits of the many different technologies employed for collection of solar energy.

Rosenthal, A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Southwest Technology Development Inst.

1994-04-01

295

Application and design of solar photovoltaic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

Tianze, Li; Hengwei, Lu; Chuan, Jiang; Luan, Hou; Xia, Zhang

2011-02-01

296

Polymeric nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems for the treatment of dermatological diseases  

PubMed Central

Human skin not only functions as a permeation barrier (mainly due to the stratum corneum layer), but also provides a unique delivery pathway for therapeutic and other active agents. These compounds penetrate via intercellular, intracellular and transappendageal routes, resulting in topical delivery (into skin strata) and transdermal delivery (to subcutaneous tissues and into the systemic circulation). Passive and active permeation enhancement methods have been widely applied to increase the cutaneous penetration. The pathology, pathogenesis and topical treatment approaches of dermatological diseases, such as psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and skin cancer, are then discussed. Recent literature has demonstrated that nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems can be successful in treating these skin conditions. The studies are reviewed starting with the nanoparticles based on natural polymers specially chitosan, followed by those made of synthetic, degradable (aliphatic polyesters) and non-degradable (polyarylates) polymers; emphasis is given to nanospheres made of polymers derived from naturally occurring metabolites, the tyrosine-derived nanospheres (TyroSpheres™). In summary, the nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems combine the advantages of both the nano-sized drug carriers and the topical approach, and are promising for the treatment of skin diseases. For the perspectives, the penetration of ultra-small nanoparticles (size smaller than 40 nm) into skin strata, the targeted delivery of the encapsulated drugs to hair follicle stem cells, and the combination of nanoparticles and microneedle array technologies for special applications such as vaccine delivery are discussed. PMID:23386536

Zhang, Zheng; Tsai, Pei-Chin; Ramezanli, Tannaz; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

2013-01-01

297

Discovering the 50 Years of Solar System Exploration: Sharing Your Science with the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Year of the Solar System (YSS) offers ways for scientists to bring NASA’s science discoveries to their audiences! YSS and the continuing salute to the 50-year history of solar system exploration provide an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system for educators and the general public. During the last five decades, NASA has launched a variety of robotic spacecraft to study our solar system. Over that time, our understanding of planets has been revolutionized, as has the technology that has made these discoveries possible.Looking forward, the numerous ongoing and future robotic missions are returning new discoveries of our solar system at an unprecedented rate. YSS combines the discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of the ongoing missions and connects them to related topics based on the big questions of planetary science, including solar system formation, volcanism, ice, and possible life elsewhere. Planetary scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS in a variety of ways: - Give a talk at a local museum, planetarium, library, or school to share YSS and your research - Partner with a local educational institution to organize a night sky viewing or mission milestone community event - Work with a classroom teacher to explore one of the topics with students - Connect with a planetary science E/PO professional to identify ways to participate, like creating podcasts,vodcasts, or contributing to monthly topics - Share your ideas for events and activities with the planetaryE/PO community to identify partners and pathways for distribution - And more! Promotional and educational materials, updates, a calendar of activities, and a space to share experiences are available at NASA’s Solar System website: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. This is an exciting time in planetary sciences as we learn about New Worlds and make New Discoveries!

Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; Shupla, C.; Halligan, E.; Boonstra, D.; Wessen, A.; Baerg, G.; Davis, P.; Burdick, A.; Zimmerman Brachman, R.

2012-10-01

298

Solar assisted heat pump air conditioning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the design of a solar assist to heat pumps in a year round air conditioning system. The residence in which the system is installed was intentionally designed to be energy conscious. It contains 1850 square feet over a 720 square foot basement, attached 12' x 20' pit greenhouse, two car garage, and associated porches and storage areas.

T. Dean

1976-01-01

299

Pump efficiency in solar-energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study investigates characteristics of typical off-the-shelf pumping systems that might be used in solar systems. Report includes discussion of difficulties in predicting pump efficiency from manufacturers' data. Sample calculations are given. Peak efficiencies, flow-rate control, and noise levels are investigated. Review or theory of pumps types and operating characteristics is presented.

1978-01-01

300

Volcanic processes in the Solar System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article stresses that terrestrial volcanism represents only part of the range of volcanism in the solar system. Earth processes of volcanicity are dominated by plate tectonics, which does not seem to operate on other planets, except possibly on Venus. Lunar volcanicity is dominated by lava effusion at enormous rates. Mars is similar, with the addition to huge shield volcanoes developed over fixed hotspots. Io, the moon closest to Jupiter, is the most active body in the Solar System and, for example, much sulphur and silicates are emitted. The eruptions of Io are generated by heating caused by tides induced by Jupiter. Europa nearby seems to emit water from fractures and Ganymede is similar. The satellites of Saturn and Uranus are also marked by volcanic craters, but they are of very low temperature melts, possibly of ammonia and water. The volcanism of the solar system is generally more exotic, the greater the distance from Earth. -A.Scarth

Carr, M. H.

1987-01-01

301

Dark Matter in the Solar System  

E-print Network

We determine the density and mass distribution of dark matter within our Solar System. We explore the three-body interactions between dark matter particles, the Sun, and the planets to compute the amount of dark matter gravitationally captured over the lifetime of the Solar System. We provide an analytical framework for performing these calculations and detail our numerical simulations accordingly. We find that the local density of dark matter is enhanced by between three and five orders of magnitude over the background halo density, dependent on the radial distance from the Sun. This has profound implications for terrestrial direct dark matter detection searches. We also discuss our results in the context of gravitational signatures, including existing constraints, and find that dark matter captured in this fashion is not responsible for the Pioneer anomaly. We conclude that dark matter appears to, overall, play a much more important role in our Solar System than previously thought.

X. Xu; E. R. Siegel

2008-06-23

302

Star Formation and the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have seen that studies of nearby star-forming regions are beginning to reveal the first signs of protoplanetary disks. Studies of interstellar and interplanetary grains are starting to provide clues about the processing and incorporation of matter into the Solar System. Studies of meteorites have yielded isotopic anomalies which indicate that some of the grains and inclusions in these bodies are very primitive. Although we have not yet detected a true interstellar grain, some of these materials have not been extensively modified since their removal from the ISM. We are indeed close to seeing our interstellar heritage. The overlap between astronomical and Solar System studies is in its infancy. What future experiments, observations, and missions can be performed in the near future that will greatly enhance our understanding of star formation and the formation of the Solar System?

Bally, John; Boss, Alan; Papanastassiou, Dimitri; Sandford, Scott; Sargent, Anneila

1988-01-01

303

Royal Society, Discussion on the Solar System: Chemistry as a Key to its Origin, London, England, July 15, 16, 1987, Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics discussed include the origins of solar system chemistry, chemical evidence from meteorites, and the chemistry of small bodies and terrestrial planets. Attention is also given to planetary volatiles and the origin of life.

Runcorn, S. K.; Turner, G.; Woolfson, M. M.

1988-07-01

304

High throughput solar cell ablation system  

DOEpatents

A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

2012-09-11

305

Infrared observations of small solar system bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared reflectance spectra were measured of dark primitive asteroids in the 2 to 5 micron wavelength region. The search was for organic complexes such and CN, CH, and NH in dark material on small bodies in the solar system. A search and study was made of volatiles such as nitrogen, methane, ammonia, and carbon monoxide, both as free ices and hydrates/clathrates, on icy surfaces in the outer solar system, using high resolution spectra obtained with a multichannel cooled grating, infrared spectrometer. An absorption that can be attributed to X-C (triple bond) N in the matrix of dark materials on the primitive asteroids.

Brown, R. H.

1991-01-01

306

Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are engaged in testing gravitational theory, mainly using observations of objects in the solar system and mainly on the interplanetary scale. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to support this model by placing tighter bounds on any departure from it. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, as well as pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements. In the past year, we have added to our data, primarily lunar laser ranging measurements, but also supplementary data concerning the physical properties of solar-system objects, such as the solar quadrupole moment, planetary masses, and asteroid radii. Because the solar quadrupole moment contributes to the classical precession of planetary perihelia, but with a dependence on distance from the Sun that differs from that of the relativistic precession, it is possible to estimate effects simultaneously. However, our interest is mainly in the relativistic effect, and we find that imposing a constraint on the quadrupole moment from helioseismology studies, gives us a dramatic (about ten-fold) decrease in the standard error of our estimate of the relativistic component of the perihelion advance.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

2005-01-01

307

Solar energy conversion and storage systems for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible utilization of solar energy in its various manifestations such as heat, winds, tides, and ocean thermal gradients is reviewed. Methods of solar energy collection, conversion, and utilization are examined, along with the solar energy potential. Special attention is given to various systems for meeting the needs of solar energy storage. The systems considered include: (1) thermal energy storage

R. Ramakumar; H. J. Allison; W. L. Hughes

1974-01-01

308

Solar energy collection panels and energy recovery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy collection panels and energy recovery systems for recovering solar energy to reduce the power consumption in water heaters, air-conditioning systems and the like are described. The solar panels comprise decorative roofing panels having a second formed panel thereunder so as to define an air flow passage therebetween. The panels absorb solar energy, thereby heating the air within, which

1978-01-01

309

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating  

E-print Network

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren �stergaard Jensen

310

System-level solar module optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems achieve the highest level of solar conversion efficiency of all photovoltaic (PV) technologies by combining solar concentration, sun tracking, and high-efficiency multi-junction PV cells. Although these design features increase the overall efficiency of the device, they also dramatically increase the cost and physical volume of the system and make the system fragile and unwieldy. In this paper, we present recent progress towards the development of a robust, reduced form-factor CPV system. The CPV system is designed for portable applications and utilizes a series of low profile optical and optomechanical components to concentrate the solar spectrum, enhance energy absorption, and track the sun throughout the diurnal cycle. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) single-junction PV cells, the system exploits the efficiency gains associated with tuning the wavelength of the incoming light to the band-gap of a PV material. This is accomplished by spectrally splitting the concentrated incident beam into multiple wavelength bands via a series of custom optical elements. Additional energy is harvested by the system through the use of scavenger PV cells, thermoelectric generators, and biologically inspired anti-reflective materials. The system's compact, low-profile active solar tracking module minimizes the effects of wind-induced loads and reduces the overall size of the system, thus enabling future ruggedization of the system for defense applications. Designed from a systems engineering approach, the CPV system has been optimized to maximize efficiency while reducing system size and cost per kilowatt-hour. Results from system tests will be presented and design trade-offs will be discussed.

Rivera, Monica; Roach, Grahm C.; Mitchell, Joseph N.; Boehme, Jeffrey L.

2013-05-01

311

Solar dynamic power system definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

1988-01-01

312

Comparative greenhouse emissions analysis of domestic solar hot water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that solar hot water systems save energy and reduce greenhouse emissions relative to conventional fossil fuel-powered systems. Very rarely has the life-cycle greenhouse emissions (including the embodied greenhouse emissions of manufacture) of solar hot water systems been analysed. The extent to which solar hot water systems can reduce emissions compared with conventional systems can be shown

Robert H Crawford; Graham John Treloar; B. D. Ilozor; Peter Love

2003-01-01

313

Systemic bioavailability of topical diclofenac sodium gel 1% versus oral diclofenac sodium in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Systemic bioavailability and pharmacodynamics of topical diclofenac sodium gel 1% were compared with those of oral diclofenac sodium 50-mg tablets. In a randomized, 3-way crossover study, healthy volunteers (n = 40) received three 7-day diclofenac regimens: (A) 16 g gel applied as 4 g to 1 knee 4 times daily (4 g on surface area 400 cm(2)), (B) 48 g gel applied as 4 g per knee 4 times daily to 2 knees plus 2 g gel per hand applied 4 times daily to 2 hands (12 g on 1200 cm(2)), and (C) 150 mg oral diclofenac applied as 50-mg tablets 3 times daily. Thirty-nine participants completed all 3 regimens. Systemic exposure was greater with oral diclofenac (AUC(0-24), 3890 +/- 1710 ng x h/mL) than with topical treatments A (AUC(0-24), 233 +/- 128 ng x h/mL) and B (AUC(0-24), 807 +/- 478 ng x h/mL). Oral diclofenac inhibited platelet aggregation, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), and COX-2. Topical diclofenac did not inhibit platelet aggregation and inhibited COX-1 and COX-2 less than oral diclofenac. Treatment-related adverse events were mild and limited to application site reactions with diclofenac sodium gel 1% (n = 4) and gastrointestinal reactions with oral diclofenac (n = 3). Systemic exposure with diclofenac sodium gel 1% was 5- to 17-fold lower than with oral diclofenac. Systemic effects with topical diclofenac were less pronounced. PMID:19841157

Kienzler, Jean-Luc; Gold, Morris; Nollevaux, Fabrice

2010-01-01

314

Systemic Bioavailability of Topical Diclofenac Sodium Gel 1% Versus Oral Diclofenac Sodium in Healthy Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic bioavailability and pharmacodynamics of topical diclofenac sodium gel 1% were compared with those of oral diclofenac sodium 50-mg tablets. In a randomized, 3-way crossover study, healthy volunteers (n = 40) received three 7-day diclofenac regimens: (A) 16 g gel applied as 4 g to 1 knee 4 times daily (4 g on surface area 400 cm2), (B) 48 g

Jean-Luc Kienzler; Morris Gold; Fabrice Nollevaux

2010-01-01

315

Topics on Test Methods for Space Systems and Operations Safety: Applicability of Experimental Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews topics on test methods for space systems and operations safety through experimentation and analysis. The contents include: 1) Perception of reality through experimentation and analysis; 2) Measurements, methods, and correlations with real life; and 3) Correlating laboratory aerospace materials flammability data with data in spacecraft environments.

Hirsch, David B.

2009-01-01

316

Topic 7 : Smart Grid Privacy and Security 1Networking and Distributed Systems  

E-print Network

Topic 7 : Smart Grid Privacy and Security 1Networking and Distributed Systems Department Tech UniversityCommunications and Control in Smart Grid 2 · Smart Meter Privacy · Concerns · Possible Solutions · Smart Grid Security · Load Altering Attacks · False Data Injection Attacks · Impact

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

317

Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The completed system was composed of three basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3,264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which included a 5,000 gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which included piping, pumping and heat transfer components as well as the solemoid activated valves and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and was, therefore, a retrofit system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

318

Solar System: A Look at the Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It explores the similarities and differences in the planets that make up our solar system. Each planet moves around the Sun in the same direction in a nearly circular orbit, though each planet has its own unique orbital period and speed. The planets vary in size, surface and atmospheric composition, and surface features. In orbit around the planets, we find a great variety of moons, flat rings of rock and ice debris, and/or artificial satellites. Features of many of the planets and their moons show evidence of formation and evolutionary processes similar to those that occur on Earth. These processes include earthquakes, lava flows, erosion, and changes in the atmosphere.Learning Outcomes:� Describe, compare, and contrast the following basic features of the planets in our solar system: size, composition, atmosphere, periods of rotation and revolution, surface features, and ring systems.� Describe the similarities and differences between the terrestrial and Jovian planets.� Describe, compare, and contrast the characteristics of planetary moons in our solar system.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

319

The Dimensions of the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A few new wrinkles have been added to the popular activity of building a scale model of the solar system. Students can learn about maps and scaling using easily accessible online resources that include satellite images. This is accomplished by taking advantage of some of the special features of Google Earth. This activity gives students a much…

Schneider, Stephen E.; Davis, Kathleen S.

2007-01-01

320

Solar-thermodynamic power systems in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical characteristics of a dynamic solar system with the organic Rankine cycle are presented. It is shown that dynamic power generation can satisfy the high energy requirements of future space applications. A theoretical diagram and physical equations for efficiency are presented as well as a functional scheme of the device. Toluene is shown to be the optimal working fluid.

Klein, Marian

321

Simulating Collisions in the Solar System  

E-print Network

.2.5. Other physical processes in the Solar System in which collisions play a key role include the production the dust population. Roughly 15% of nearby stars surveyed by IRAS show infrared excess that could be replenished by collisions between larger parent bodies, possibly the functional equivalent of our own Kuiper

Richardson, Derek Charles

322

Assessment of a Solar System Walk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of sending students and the general public on a walk through a scale model of the solar system in an attempt to instill an appreciation of the relative scales of the sizes of the objects compared to the immense distances between them is certainly not new. A good number of such models exist, including one on the National Mall in…

LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.; Kirchner, Brian

2010-01-01

323

Solar Energy Forecast System Development and Implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecast systems for predicting real-time solar energy generation are being developed along similar lines to those of more established wind forecast systems, but the challenges and constraints are different. Clouds and aerosols play a large role, and for tilted photovoltaic panels and solar concentrating plants, the direct beam irradiance, which typically has much larger forecast errors than global horizontal irradiance, must be utilized. At MDA Information Systems, we are developing a forecast system based on first principles, with the well-validated REST2 clear sky model (Gueymard, 2008) at its backbone. In tuning the model and addressing aerosol scattering and surface albedo, etc., we relied upon the wealth of public data sources including AERONET (aerosol optical depth at different wavelengths), Suominet (GPS integrated water vapor), NREL MIDC solar monitoring stations, SURFRAD (includes upwelling shortwave), and MODIS (albedo in different wavelength bands), among others. The forecast itself utilizes a blend of NWP model output, which must be brought down to finer time resolution based on the diurnal cycle rather than simple interpolation. Many models currently do not output the direct beam irradiance, and one that does appears to have a bias relative to its global horizontal irradiance, with equally good performance attained by utilizing REST2 and the model global radiation to estimate the direct component. We will present a detailed assessment of various NWP solar energy products, evaluating forecast skill at a range of photovoltaic installations.

Jascourt, S. D.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Cassidy, C.

2012-12-01

324

Future exploration of the outer solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Missions to the frigid outer reaches of our solar system present significant technological challenges, but there remains a breathtaking scope for new and exciting discoveries. Leigh Fletcher reports on an RAS meeting that demonstrated a host of innovative ideas to explore the giant planets.

Fletcher, Leigh

2013-04-01

325

Exploratour - Volcanoes of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visit this Windows to the Universe site for a tour of volcanoes in the solar system. Each page includes a picture with a brief description of the volcano and a link to more information. The tour includes volcanoes from Earth, Mars, the moon, Venus, Io, and Mercury.

2009-07-13

326

Advanced instrumentation for Solar System gravitational physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar System is a complex laboratory for testing gravitational physics. Indeed, its scale and hierarchical structure make possible a wide range of tests for gravitational theories, studying the motion of both natural and artificial objects. The usual methodology makes use of tracking information related to the bodies, fitted by a suitable dynamical model. Different equations of motion are provided

Roberto Peron; G. Bellettini; S. Berardi; A. Boni; C. Cantone; A. Coradini; D. G. Currie; S. Dell'Agnello; G. O. Delle Monache; E. Fiorenza; M. Garattini; V. Iafolla; N. Intaglietta; C. Lefevre; C. Lops; R. March; M. Martini; S. Nozzoli; G. Patrizi; L. Porcelli; A. Reale; F. Santoli; R. Tauraso; R. Vittori

2010-01-01

327

Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar tracking control system, Sun Chaser, a method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions is described. The Sun Chaser follows the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and resets itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise.

Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

1978-01-01

328

External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our galaxy - the Milky Way - is a spiral galaxy with arms extending from the center like a pinwheel. Our solar system is in the Orion arm of the Milky Way. Our Sun is one of about 100 billion stars in the Milky Way. And our galaxy is just one of roughly 1

1900-01-01

329

The human exploration of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a detailed program plan for the human exploration of the solar system. This thrust is clearly the next step in the long history of human exploration of the unknown. The program proposed here contemplates a return to the Moon by 1995. The principal purpose of the return mission is to look for water that might

Lisa Bell; Curt Bilby; John W. Boyd; George Davis; David Korsmeyer; Hans Mark; Todd McCuster; Brendan O'Connor; Elfego Pinon; Andrew Frizzell

1992-01-01

330

The human exploration of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a detailed program plan for the human exploration of the solar system. This thrust is clearly the next step in the long history of human exploration of the unknown. The program proposed here contemplates a return to the Moon by 1995. The principal purpose of the return mission is to look for water that might

Lisa Bell; Curt Bilby; John W. Boyd; George Davis; David Korsmeyer; Hans Mark; Todd McCusker; Brendan O'Connor; Elfego Pinon; Andrew Frizzell; Harlan J. Smith

1991-01-01

331

The Formation of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About 4.6 billion years ago, a cloud of interstellar dust, ice crystals, and gas collapsed to form a rapidly rotating disk with a young sun at its center: our solar system. This comic strip, a supplement to the Hall of Meteorites Educator's Guide, explains the processes that led to the creation of the planets and the asteroid belt.

332

Solar-system abundances of the elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental analyses of the Ogueil Cl meteorite and all previous Cl chondrite analyses were employed to develop a new solar system abundance table, including the standard deviation and number of analyses for each element. The table also comprises the abundances of radioactive and radiogenic nuclides at the present and 4.55 AE ago, as well as abundances by weight in a

E. Anders; M. Ebihara

1982-01-01

333

Sun tracking solar energy collector system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sun tracking solar energy collector system comprises a plurality of light focusing elements disposed side by side in the form of a surface array, providing a linear array of foci; and a metallic heat exchanger tube having externally a high absorbtivity, low reflectivity coating containing a working fluid such as water, air, hydrogen or helium, to which a substantial

Doundoulakis

1981-01-01

334

The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

Long, R.C.

1996-12-31

335

Topically applied N-acetylcysteine as a protector against UVB-induced systemic immunosuppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential protective efficacy of N-acetylcysteine against systemic immunosuppression in mice, as a result of UVB exposure, was investigated. The contact hypersensitivity response to trinitrochlorobenzene applied at a distant, non-irradiated site, was used to assess the systemic immunosuppression. Topical application of N-acetylcysteine (0.4–3.2 ?mol cm?2), 30 min prior to irradiation (15 kJ m?2), markedly inhibited the UVB-induced immunosuppression. Because N-acetylcysteine

Leon T. van den Broeke; Gerard M. J. Beijersbergenvan Henegouwen

1995-01-01

336

ORNL studies effects of solar storms on power systems  

SciTech Connect

A solar storm, or solar flare, is a giant explosion on the sun's surface. The frequency and intensity of solar storms is related to the sunspot cycle. Solar storms increase the intensity of the solar cosmic rays bombarding Earth. As a result the interaction between solar radiation and Earth's magnetic field is stronger. ORNL researchers are studying the effects of solar storms and other solar activity on electric power systems in the USA. This research is being sponsored by the DOE and the Defense Nuclear Agency.

Not Available

1990-01-01

337

Review of solar-energy drying systems II: an overview of solar drying technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically-realised designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy

O. V Ekechukwu; B Norton

1999-01-01

338

Energy transfer in the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of energy transfer are presented from the literature and are approached and commented on. It follows from these articles that energy transfer in addition to solar irradiation is less well understood by contemporary scientist. The transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy in planetary orbits might be of crucial importance for understanding energy transfer between celestial bodies and the development of commensurabilities. There is evidence pointing to interactions (friction) between space and satellites producing volcanism. The reversible transfer of energy between the orbit of Moon and Earth's rotational energy is crucial to the creation of the 13.6-day and 27.3-day periods in both solar variables and Earth bound climate variables. It is hypothesized that the Earth-Moon system is modulating the sunspot numbers and creating both these periods, and that the great planets are responsible for the 11 yr solar cycle.

Jelbring, H.

2013-12-01

339

Similarity Rules for Scaling Solar Sail Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future science missions will require solar sails on the order of 200 square meters (or larger). However, ground demonstrations and flight demonstrations must be conducted at significantly smaller sizes, due to limitations of ground-based facilities and cost and availability of flight opportunities. For this reason, the ability to understand the process of scalability, as it applies to solar sail system models and test data, is crucial to the advancement of this technology. This paper will approach the problem of scaling in solar sail models by developing a set of scaling laws or similarity criteria that will provide constraints in the sail design process. These scaling laws establish functional relationships between design parameters of a prototype and model sail that are created at different geometric sizes. This work is applied to a specific solar sail configuration and results in three (four) similarity criteria for static (dynamic) sail models. Further, it is demonstrated that even in the context of unique sail material requirements and gravitational load of earth-bound experiments, it is possible to develop appropriate scaled sail experiments. In the longer term, these scaling laws can be used in the design of scaled experimental tests for solar sails and in analyzing the results from such tests.

Canfield, Stephen L.; Peddieson, John; Garbe, Gregory

2010-01-01

340

Nonlinear Resonances in the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbital resonances are ubiquitous in the Solar system. They play a decisive role in the long term dynamics, and in some cases the physical evolution, of the planets and of their natural satellites, as well as the evolution of small bodies (including dust) in the planetary system. The few-body gravitational problem of hierarchical planetary-type systems allows for a complex range of dynamical timescales, from the fast orbital periods to the very slow orbit precession rates. The interaction of fast and slow degrees of freedom produces a rich diversity of resonance phenomena. Weak dissipative effects - such as tides or radiation drag forces - also produce unexpectedly rich dynamical behaviors. This paper provides a mostly qualitative discussion of simple dynamical models for the commonly encountered orbital resonance phenomena in the Solar system.

Malhotra, Renu

1994-01-01

341

Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

342

Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Space Explorations Part 2: Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews what is currently known about the solar system and the objects that make up the solar system. Information about the individual planets, comets, asteroids and moons is reviewed.

Chau, Savio

2005-01-01

343

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar heating and heating/cooling systems were designed for single family, multifamily, and commercial applications. Subsystems considered included solar collectors, heat storage systems, auxiliary energy sources, working fluids, and supplementary controls, piping, and pumps.

1976-01-01

344

Solar-hydrogen energy system for Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar-hydrogen energy system has been proposed for Pakistan as the best replacement for the present fossil fuel based energy system. It has been suggested to produce hydrogen via photovoltaic-electrolysis, utilizing the available non-agricultural sunny terrain in Baluchistan region. There will be a desalination plant for sea water desalination. The area under the photovoltaic panels with the availability of water

Lutfi

1990-01-01

345

Environments in the Outer Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outer planets of our solar system Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are fascinating objects on their own. Their intrinsic\\u000a magnetic fields form magnetic environments (so called magnetospheres) in which charged and neutral particles and dust are\\u000a produced, lost or being transported through the system. These magnetic environments of the gas giants can be envisaged as\\u000a huge plasma laboratories in

N. Krupp; K. K. Khurana; L. Iess; V. Lainey; T. A. Cassidy; M. Burger; C. Sotin; F. Neubauer

2010-01-01

346

Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

Terrado, E.

1997-12-01

347

Chemistry of the solar system: An elementary introductionto cosmochemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An introduction is presented to the chemistry of the solar system. The qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of the solar system is reviewed, and the elemental synthesis processes that led to the formation of the solar system are discussed. The chemical processes of the primordial mixture from which the solar system formed are examined, and the resulting chemical composition of meteorites, asteroids, comets, and planets is described.

Suess, Hans E.

1987-01-01

348

Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 2, Togus, Maine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic analysis of the solar energy system, is developed for Torgus and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-chart design procedure with inputs taken on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

1980-01-01

349

A management strategy for solar panel — battery — super capacitor hybrid energy system in solar car  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of solar energy - battery - super-capacitor hybrid energy storage system in solar electric vehicles. The key point is the proposed energy management control algorithm. The entire system consists of a solar panel, a boost converter, a battery, a super capacitor, a bi-directional DC\\/DC converter, and a brushless DC motor. This paper gives the details

Bin Wu; Fang Zhuo; Fei Long; Weiwei Gu; Yang Qing; YanQin Liu

2011-01-01

350

Elementary Students' Mental Models of the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project aimed to identify and analyze Mexican primary school students' ideas about the components of the solar system. In particular, this study focused on conceptions of the solar system and representations of the dynamics of the solar system based on the functional and structural models that students make in school. Using a…

Calderon-Canales, Elena; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia

2013-01-01

351

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System  

E-print Network

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System How did the outer planets mold the solar system and create habitable worlds? OPAG Report DRAFT 14 August 2014 #12;2 Outline Executive Summary Over the science objectives for exploration of the outer solar system. It is consistent with Visions and Voyages

Rathbun, Julie A.

352

Economic analysis of commercial solar water-heating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic performance of solar energy systems is described through the use of Cash Flow Diagrams. The economic performance of solar energy systems is described through the calculation of equivalent Return-On-Investment (ROI). Appendices are included that enable one to calculate the ROI for any particular solar hot water system investment.

1980-09-01

353

The economics of building solar heat supply systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of a technical and economic analysis of solar heating systems are reviewed. A new condition for the competitiveness of solar heating plants against traditional heating systems is formulated which is different from the condition used previously. The capital investments required for the building of a solar heating system are analyzed for the climatic conditions existing in the southern

O. S. Popel; S. E. Frid; E. E. Shpilrain

1983-01-01

354

Community Use of SIRTF III: Solar System Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIRTF will be a valuable tool for addressing a number of contemporary Solar System questions. Important advances in the study of debris disks, with or without entrained planets, around other stars will also be possible. The Solar System Working Group (SSWG) has identified three programs that appear suitable for Legacy Science surveys. 1. Core sample through the Solar System -

D. P. Cruikshank; M. S. Hanner

1996-01-01

355

External Resource: Go to the Head of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a NASA generated interactive game site that tests learner/student knowledge of the solar system. The more questions that are answered correctly, the farther the learner/student will travel in the solar system. Keywords: solar system, planets, game

1900-01-01

356

External Resource: Windows to the Universe: Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visit links to the Sun, and visit the planets and other small bodies in the Solar System. Find out about solar system formation, and facts about the bodies in the solar system. See news highlights, and archives of images of the Sun, planets, comets, and a

1900-01-01

357

Modeling of Performance, Cost, and Financing of Concentrating Solar, Photovoltaic, and Solar Heat Systems (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This poster, submitted for the CU Energy Initiative/NREL Symposium on October 3, 2006 in Boulder, Colorado, discusses the modeling, performance, cost, and financing of concentrating solar, photovoltaic, and solar heat systems.

Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christiansen, C.

2006-10-03

358

Life in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life, defined as a chemical system capable of transferring its molecular information via self-replication and also capable of evolving, must develop within a liquid to take advantage of the diffusion of complex molecules. On Earth, life probably originated from the evolution of reduced organic molecules in liquid water. Organic matter might have been formed in the primitive Earth's atmosphere or

A. Brack

1999-01-01

359

Development of Experienced Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Models of the Solar System and the Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the developing pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced science teachers in their first few years of teaching a new science syllabus in the Dutch secondary education system. We aimed to identify the content and structure of the PCK for a specific topic in the new syllabus, "Models of the Solar System and the…

Henze, Ineke; van Driel, Jan H.; Verloop, Nico

2008-01-01

360

Triggering the Formation of the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most amazing discoveries in space science is the unambiguous evidence from meteorites that the solar nebula (the cloud of gas and dust in which the Sun and planets formed) contained radioactive isotopes with half-lives so short that they no longer exist. These include isotopes with very short half-lives, such as calcium-41 (100,000 years) and aluminum-26 (740,000 years), and those with longer half-lives such as plutonium-244 (81 million years). The short-lived isotopes are particularly interesting. If they formed in an exploding star, that explosion might have triggered the collapse of the huge interstellar cloud in which the Sun formed. On the other hand, if they formed in the solar nebula by intense radiation close to the Sun, then it would prove some hypotheses about the young Sun and jets of radiation from it. As synthesized and lucidly explained by Ernst Zinner (Washington University in St. Louis), recent data from ancient objects in meteorites point strongly to the supernova trigger idea. K. K. Marhas and J. N. Goswami (Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India), and A. M. Davis (University of Chicago) found clear evidence in meteorites that beryllium-10, the one isotope that everybody agrees can be produced by solar radiation, is not accompanied by other short-lived isotopes as it would be if they were all produced by radiation flowing from the young Sun. (Beryllium-10 can also be made by galactic cosmic rays in the interstellar molecular cloud from which the solar system formed.) Two other research groups reported at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (March, 2003) that unmetamorphosed ordinary chondrites contained iron-60, an extinct isotope with a half-life of 1.5 million years. Iron-60 cannot be produced by intense, energetic solar radiation, so it must have been made before the Solar System began to form. The best bet is that much of it was made during the supernova explosion that triggered the formation of the Solar System.

Taylor, G. J.

2003-05-01

361

Solar energy system, Baltimore County Jail, Towson, Maryland. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Baltimore County Jail solar system incorporates four independent piping systems: (1) glycol loop system; (2) solar water system; (3) chilled water system; and (4) domestic cold and hot water system. This final report includes: final system description; construction costs; as-build drawings; acceptance test; control drawings; and product information.

Not Available

1984-02-20

362

Systemic absorption of topical steroids. Metabolic effects as an index of mild hypercortisolism.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine whether the commonly used treatment of psoriasis with potent topical glucocorticoids results in hypercortisolism and whether metabolic changes might provide a means for monitoring pharmacologic effects of excessive systemic absorption of glucocorticoids. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and insulin and circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes were assessed under controlled conditions in five otherwise healthy patients with psoriasis (40% to 85% involvement) treated with topical desoximetasone, without occlusion. In all patients, there were rapid and sustained suppression of endogenous cortisol production, twofold to threefold increases in fasting insulin levels indicating insulin resistance, and elevated levels of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Two patients also experienced reduced glucose tolerance. These findings suggest that application of potent corticosteroids to large areas of diseased skin results in sufficient systemic absorption to cause not only adrenal suppression but some degree of hypercortisolism with greater frequency and rapidity than has been suggested. Prospective monitoring of insulin-glucose relationships as a sensitive index of the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids may provide a means of assessing excess systemic absorption that is not predictable on the basis of adrenal suppression or circulating levels of the drug. Such prediction could have particular relevance in anticipating adverse clinical effects in the treatment of chronic skin disorders with potent topical glucocorticoids. PMID:3527074

Garden, J M; Freinkel, R K

1986-09-01

363

Beyond the Solar System: Expanding the Universe in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This DVD combines the latest scientific and educational research to help teachers in grades 8-12 deepen their own and their studentsâ understanding of our universe and of the nature of science. Produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in association with NASA, Beyond the Solar System is filled with video, print, and online resources. It is designed for Earth and space science educators, physical science educators, professional development providers, and classroom use. The National Science Education Standards includes the topic of origin and evolution of the universe as part of the essential content of Earth and space science understanding. Yet providing concrete, inquiry-based experiences for students to learn these concepts can be a challenge for teachers. Beyond the Solar System contains more than two hours of video, organized into two modular strands of material -- science content, and teaching and learning resources. These are intended to promote greater understanding of the scientific concepts through discussion and reflection, activities, and application of the ideas to teaching. Also included are lesson plans, student guides, assessments, content background, summaries of relevant standards, and links to further resources. These instructional materials are provided in PDF format and can be printed from a computer.

Dussault, Mary

364

Why Are So Many Things in the Solar System Round?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several years ago a student asked why so many things in the solar system were round. He noted that many objects in the solar system, although not all, are round. The standard answer, which he knew, is that the mutual gravitational attraction of the molecules pulls them into the shape that gets them as close to each other as possible: a sphere. This argument works fine for fluid bodies such as the Sun or Jupiter, but it isn't so simple for a solid object-we have all seen rocks that are not round. There is still a gravitational attraction acting between the rock's molecules, butfor small rocks that force does not overcome the strength of the bonds holding those molecules in their relative positions. Since the strength of the gravitational force grows with the size of the object, a large enough rock will have a strong enough gravitational attraction to force a deformation into a round shape. But how large is that? A simple model gives an answer to this question. There is also renewed interest in this topic as a result of the new definition of a planet approved by the International Astronomical Union, which says in part, ``A `planet' is a celestial body that... has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape.''1 What size object is large enough to satisfy this criterion? Where does Pluto fall regarding this question?

Heilig, Steven J.

2010-09-01

365

Life beyond the solar system.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of some of the highlights and more recent developments in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The first major problem is one of the generality of the formation of planetary systems. Observations of the nearest stars which are not members of binary or multiple stars indicates that fully half have companions of planetary mass. The presence of organic compounds in meteorites, probably in Jovian planets, in comets, in the interstellar medium, and in cool stars implies that the production of organic compounds essential for the origin of life should be pervasive throughout the universe. Possibilities of interstellar communication are discussed.

Sagan, C.

1972-01-01

366

Cosmogenic isotopes in the early solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is presented of isotope anomalies in meteorites with reference to the role of cosmic rays in the early stages of the solar system; particular attention is given to abundances of rare-gas isotopes, especially neon isotopes. Several hypotheses as to the origin of isotope anomalies are presented, including the hypothesis of the explosion of a single supernova near the protosolar nebula, the hypothesis that the solar system was formed directly from the ejecta of a single supernova, and the nucleosynthesis model of Lavrukhina and Kuznetsova (1974). This latter hypothesis is based on the idea that shock waves that arise during the supernova explosion lead simultaneously to the acceleration of particles to relativistic energies (i.e., to the generation of cosmic rays) and to the fragmentation of atomic nuclei in supernova shells by accelerated particles.

Lavrukhina, A. K.

1981-04-01

367

Solar system and small-field astrometry  

E-print Network

Astrometric issues for future solar system studies are discussed. An overview gives references and cover all aspects of the solar system where astrometry is important: orbits of planets, moons, asteroids and NEOs, masses of asteroids, occultations of asteroids and KBOs, and families of asteroids and KBOs. The roles of astrometry from the ground, from Gaia and from a Gaia successor are discussed. It appears from work with CCD cameras at the 1.55 m astrometric reflector in Flagstaff that an accuracy of 1 mas is the best possible from the ground during one night observing when using ordinary telescopes, i.e. without wave-front correctors, and for field sizes larger than 2 arcmin. It has been seen that the same accuracies can be reached with the much larger 4-m class telescope on Hawaii although it is not specifically designed for astrometry.

Høg, Erik

2014-01-01

368

Dark matter chaos in the Solar System  

E-print Network

We study the capture of galactic dark matter particles in the Solar System produced by rotation of Jupiter. It is shown that the capture cross section is much larger than the area of Jupiter orbit being inversely diverging at small particle energy. We show that the dynamics of captured particles is chaotic and is well described by a simple symplectic dark map. This dark map description allows to simulate the scattering and dynamics of $10^{14}$ dark matter particles during the life time of the Solar System and to determine dark matter density profile as a function of distance from the Sun. The mass of captured dark matter in the radius of Neptune orbit is estimated to be $2 \\cdot 10^{15} g$. The radial density of captured dark matter is found to be approximately constant behind Jupiter orbit being similar to the density profile found in galaxies.

J. Lages; D. L. Shepelyansky

2012-11-05

369

Dark matter chaos in the Solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the capture of Galactic dark matter particles in the Solar system produced by rotation of Jupiter. It is shown that the capture cross-section is much larger than the area of the Jupiter orbit being inversely diverging at small particle energy. We show that the dynamics of captured particles is chaotic and is well described by a simple symplectic dark map. This dark map description allows us to simulate the scattering and dynamics of 1014 dark matter particles during the lifetime of the Solar system and to determine the dark matter density profile as a function of distance from the Sun. The mass of captured dark matter in the radius of the Neptune orbit is estimated to be 2 × 1015g. The radial density of captured dark matter is found to be approximately constant behind the Jupiter orbit being similar to the density profile found in galaxies.

Lages, J.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

2013-03-01

370

Our Solar System Features Eight Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our solar system features eight planets, seen in this artist's diagram. Although there is some debate within the science community as to whether Pluto should be classified as a Planet or a dwarf planet, the International Astronomical Union has decided on the term plutoid as a name for dwarf planets like Pluto.

This representation is intentionally fanciful, as the planets are depicted far closer together than they really are. Similarly, the bodies' relative sizes are inaccurate. This is done for the purpose of being able to depict the solar system and still represent the bodies with some detail. (Otherwise the Sun would be a mere speck, and the planets even the majestic Jupiter would be far too small to be seen.)

2009-01-01

371

Exploring the Planets: Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers information that will allow students to see just how big each planet and its major satellites are relative to each other in the scale model of the Solar System. Students will see where the planets are in relation to the Sun and to each other and learn just how big the Sun is compared to all the planets in our Solar System. Sections at this site include Planetary Physical Data, Planetary Satellites Physical Data, Relative Sizes of the Planets, Relative Planetary Distances from the Sun, and the Size of the Sun. In addition, each planet has an individual online section that gives an overview of what has been learned through imagery and data obtained from Earth-based and spacecraft exploration.

372

Solar simulator for concentrator photovoltaic systems.  

PubMed

A solar simulator for measuring performance of large area concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules is presented. Its illumination system is based on a Xenon flash light and a large area collimator mirror, which simulates natural sun light. Quality requirements imposed by the CPV systems have been characterized: irradiance level and uniformity at the receiver, light collimation and spectral distribution. The simulator allows indoor fast and cost-effective performance characterization and classification of CPV systems at the production line as well as module rating carried out by laboratories. PMID:18795026

Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

2008-09-15

373

Radar Studies in the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We aid in a study of the solar system by means of ground-based radar. We have concentrated on (1) developing the ephemerides needed to acquire radar data at Arecibo Observatory and (2) analyzing the resultant data to: test fundamental laws of gravitation; determine the size, shape, topography, and spin vectors of the targets; and study the surface properties of these objects, through their scattering law and polarization characteristics.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

1996-01-01

374

Boston University Physics Applets: Solar System Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is an animation depicting the orbits of the inner four planets of the solar system. Each planet is labeled so that users can view positions of each planet relative to another over time. Action may be paused or viewed in steps. The animation correlates the orbits to Kepler's Third Law. This item is part of a collection of simulation-based activities for students of introductory physics.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-08-22

375

Solar System Odyssey - Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show. Learners go on a futuristic journey through our Solar System. They explore the inner and outer planets, then the moons: Titan, Europa, and Callisto as possible places to establish a human colony. A full-length preview of the show is available on the website, you need to scroll down about 3/4 of the page - under section on children's shows, direct link not available.

376

Overview: Exobiology in solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Aug. 1988, the NASA Ames Research Center held a three-day symposium in Sunnyvale, California, to discuss the subject of exobiology in the context of exploration of the solar system. Leading authorities in exobiology presented invited papers and assisted in setting future goals. The goals they set were as follows: (1) review relevant knowledge learned from planetary exploration programs; (2) detail some of the information that is yet to be obtained; (3) describe future missions and how exobiologists, as well as other scientists, can participate; and (4) recommend specific ways exobiology questions can be addressed on future exploration missions. These goals are in agreement with those of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council. Formed in 1980 to respond to the planetary exploration strategies set forth by the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), the SSEC's main function is to review the entire planetary program. The committee formulated a long-term plan (within a constrained budget) that would ensure a vital, exciting, and scientifically valuable effort through the turn of the century. The SSEC's goals include the following: determining the origin, evolution, and present state of the solar system; understanding Earth through comparative planetology studies; and revealing the relationship between the chemical and physical evolution of the solar system and the appearance of life. The SSEC's goals are consistent with the over-arching goal of NASA's Exobiology Program, which provides the critical framework and support for basic research. The research is divided into the following four elements: (1) cosmic evolution of the biogenic compounds; (2) prebiotic evolution; (3) origin and early evolution of life; and (4) evolution of advanced life.

Carle, Glenn C.; Schwartz, Deborah E.

1992-01-01

377

Solar energy collector/storage system  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

1983-05-24

378

Solar system constraints on Rindler acceleration  

E-print Network

We discuss the classical tests of general relativity in the presence of Rindler acceleration. Among these tests the perihelion shifts give the tightest constraints and indicate that the Pioneer anomaly cannot be caused by a universal solar system Rindler acceleration. We address potential caveats for massive test-objects. Our tightest bound on Rindler acceleration that comes with no caveats is derived from radar echo delay and yields |a|<3nm/s^2.

Sante Carloni; Daniel Grumiller; Florian Preis

2011-03-01

379

Testing gravity law in the solar system  

E-print Network

The predictions of General relativity (GR) are in good agreement with observations in the solar system. Nevertheless, unexpected anomalies appeared during the last decades, along with the increasing precision of measurements. Those anomalies are present in spacecraft tracking data (Pioneer and flyby anomalies) as well as ephemerides. In addition, the whole theory is challenged at galactic and cosmic scales with the dark matter and dark energy issues. Finally, the unification in the framework of quantum field theories remains an open question, whose solution will certainly lead to modifications of the theory, even at large distances. As long as those "dark sides" of the universe have no universally accepted interpretation nor are they observed through other means than the gravitational anomalies they have been designed to cure, these anomalies may as well be interpreted as deviations from GR. In this context, there is a strong motivation for improved and more systematic tests of GR inside the solar system, with the aim to bridge the gap between gravity experiments in the solar system and observations at much larger scales. We review a family of metric extensions of GR which preserve the equivalence principle but modify the coupling between energy and curvature and provide a phenomenological framework which generalizes the PPN framework and "fifth force" extensions of GR. We briefly discuss some possible observational consequences in connection with highly accurate ephemerides.

B. Lamine; J. -M. Courty; S. Reynaud; M. -T. Jaekel

2011-05-31

380

Spacewatch Survey of the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Spacewatch project is to explore the various populations of small objects throughout the solar system. Statistics on all classes of small bodies are needed to infer their physical and dynamical evolution. More Earth Approachers need to be found to assess the impact hazard. (We have adopted the term "Earth Approacher", EA, to include all those asteroids, nuclei of extinct short period comets, and short period comets that can approach close to Earth. The adjective "near" carries potential confusion, as we have found in communicating with the media, that the objects are always near Earth, following it like a cloud.) Persistent and voluminous accumulation of astrometry of incidentally observed main belt asteroids MBAs will eventually permit the Minor Planet Center (MPQ to determine the orbits of large numbers (tens of thousands) of asteroids. Such a large body of information will ultimately allow better resolution of orbit classes and the determinations of luminosity functions of the various classes, Comet and asteroid recoveries are essential services to planetary astronomy. Statistics of objects in the outer solar system (Centaurs, scattered-disk objects, and Trans-Neptunian Objects; TNOs) ultimately will tell part of the story of solar system evolution. Spacewatch led the development of sky surveying by electronic means and has acted as a responsible interface to the media and general public on this discipline and on the issue of the hazard from impacts by asteroids and comets.

McMillan, Robert S.

2000-01-01

381

Extreme Solar System in the Undergraduate Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest challenges for science educators today is to engage non-science students in the scientific process - to help them realize that science is cool, interesting, and fun. With NASA’s Year of the Solar System beginning in October 2010, a course that explores some of the most extreme places in our Solar System may be just the hook needed to improve attitudes toward science. We use three unique inquiry-based approaches in a freshman-level introductory science course to engage non-science students: 1) Emphasis on “extreme” phenomena in our Solar System, 2) Research papers and oral presentations in which “extreme experts” (students) try to convince a mock NASA panel where the next planetary mission should be, and 3) Science Portfolios in which students ask their own scientific questions, design their own scientific experiments, and evaluate their own scientific growth. The effectiveness of these approaches (as determined from pre-/post- surveys, focus groups, and other instruments) will be presented. Preliminary results show that students become less intimidated by science and feel that science has become more important in their everyday lives.

Baker, D.

2010-12-01

382

The Cradle of the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of decay products of 60Fe in meteorites challenges conventional wisdom about the environment in which the Sun and planets formed. Rather than a region like the well-studied Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud, the solar system must have formed instead in a region more like the Eagle nebula--a region that contained one or more massive stars that went supernova, injecting newly synthesized radionuclides into the nascent solar system. In their Perspective, Hester et al. discuss a scenario by which the solar system--and other low-mass stars like the Sun--could have formed. Radiant energy from massive, luminous stars first compresses surrounding interstellar gas, triggering the formation of Sun-like stars, then quickly disperses this material, exposing newborn stars and their protoplanetary disks to harsh radiation from the massive stars. When the massive stars go supernova, they pelt surrounding protoplanetary disks with ejecta laden with the products of stellar nucleosynthesis that are required to explain the isotopic composition we see today.

Hester, J. Jeff; Desch, Steven J.; Healy, Kevin R.; Leshin, Laurie A.

2004-05-01

383

Life in the solar system.  

PubMed

Life, defined as a chemical system capable of transferring its molecular information via self-replication and also capable of evolving, must develop within a liquid to take advantage of the diffusion of complex molecules. On Earth, life probably originated from the evolution of reduced organic molecules in liquid water. Organic matter might have been formed in the primitive Earth's atmosphere or near hydrothermal vents. A large fraction of prebiotic organic molecules might have been brought by extraterrestrial-meteoritic and cometary dust grains decelerated by the atmosphere. Any celestial body harboring permanent liquid water may therefore accumulate the ingredients that generated life on the primitive Earth. The possibility that life might have evolved on early Mars when water existed on the surface marks it as a prime candidate in a search for bacterial life beyond the Earth. Europa has an icy carapace. However, cryovolcanic flows at the surface point to a possible water subsurface region which might harbor a basic life form. The atmosphere and surface components of Titan are also of interest to exobiology for insight into a hydrocarbon-rich chemically evolving world. One-handed complex molecules and preferential isotopic fractionation of carbon, common to all terrestrial life forms, can be used as basic indicators when searching for life beyond the Earth. PMID:11543327

Brack, A

1999-01-01

384

Rings in the solar system  

SciTech Connect

Saturn, Jupiter, and Uranus have rings with different structure and composition. The rings consist of tiny masses in independent orbits. Photographs and data obtained by the Voyager project have aided in the understanding of Saturn's rings. Spokes have been found in B ring and boards, knots, and twist in F ring. Particles on the order of a micrometer in size are believed to occur in F, B, and A rings. The dominant component is water ice. The rings of Uranus are narrow and separated by broad empty regions. The technique used to study them has been stellar occulation. Nothing is known of particle size. The dominant component is believed to be silicates rich in compounds that absorb sunlight. Jupiter's rings consist of 3 main parts: a bright ring, a diffuse disk, and a halo. Use of Pioneer 10 data and other techniques have indicated particle sizes on the order of several micrometers and some at least a centimeter in diameter. The architecture of the ring system results from the interplay of a number of forces. These include gravitational forces due to moons outside the rings and moonlets embedded in them, electromagnetic forces due to the planet's rotating magnetic field, and even the gentle forces exerted by the dilute gaseous medium in which the rings rotate. Each of these forces is discussed. Several alternative explanations of how the rings arose are considered. The primary difference in these hypotheses is the account of the relationship between the ring particles of today and the primordial ring material. (SC)

Pollack, J.B.; Cuzzi, J.N.

1981-11-01

385

Experimental study of CPC type ICS solar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive experimental study on solar water heaters, which were developed in our laboratory, is presented. These solar devices are integrated collector storage (ICS) systems with single horizontal cylindrical storage tank properly placed in symmetric CPC type reflector trough. In this paper we study ICS solar systems, which differ in storage tank diameter and correlate their thermal performance and the ratios

M. Souliotis; Y. Tripanagnostopoulos

2004-01-01

386

The cooling technology of solar cells under concentrated system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature control is very important to keep the efficiency of solar cells, because the open-circuit voltage of the system is obviously dropped, when the temperature is raised, so as to a decline in output power of solar cells. Especially in the concentrated system, solar cells worked several times even hundreds of times in the irradiation conditions, so the temperature will

Ye Zhangbo; Li Qifen; Zhu Qunzhi; Pan Weiguo

2009-01-01

387

Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

1980-01-01

388

Systems Simulation and Economic Analysis for Active Solar Cooling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A consistent methodology has been developed by which general solar cooling market capture goals have been translated into specific cost and performance goals for solar cooling systems and subsystems. Preliminary results indicate that realistic cost/perfor...

M. Warren, M. Wahlig

1981-01-01

389

Experimental Research of an Active Solar Heating System  

E-print Network

: Solar is an abundant renewable energy, which is used more and more frequently with the emphasis on environment protection, especially in building heating. The different devised methods between an active solar heating system and normal heating...

Gao, X.; Li, D.

2006-01-01

390

Suprathermal Chemistry in the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many celestial bodies in the Solar System are surrounded by gaseous envelopes. Chemical evolution of the gaseous envelopes of icy astrophysical objects of different masses and sizes (dust particles with icy mantles, icy planetesimals, comets and KBOs, icy satellites in the Jovian and Saturnian systems, and etc.) is determined by the complex influence of a large number of interrelated processes including: - photolysis by the solar XUV (soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet) radiation, - radiolysis by the solar wind/magnetospheric plasma, - catalysis on the icy surface, - chemical exchange between the surface and atmosphere, - chemical changes in the gas composition of the envelope. These physical and chemical processes are initiated by the solar forcing, and are characterized by strongly differing time scales and the degrees of non-equilibrium. Theoretical predictions of the composition and chemical evolution of near-surface atmospheres of the icy astrophysical objects are of great importance for assessing the biological potential of these objects (Herbst and van Dishoeck, 2009). The water vapour is usually the dominant parent species in such gaseous envelope because of the ejection from the object’s icy surface due to the thermal outgassing, non-thermal photolysis and radiolysis and other active processes at work on the surface (Shematovich 2008). The photochemistry of water vapour in the near-surface atmospheric layer (Shematovich, 2008, 2012) and the radiolysis of icy regolith result in the supply of the atmosphere by an admixture of H _{2}O, H _{2}, O _{2}, OH and O with thermal and suprathermal kinetic energies. Returning molecules have a species-dependent behaviour in the impact with icy surface and non-thermal energy distributions for the chemical radicals. The suprathermal radicals OH, H, and O entering the regolith can drive the radiolytic chemistry. Chemical complexity of the near-surface atmosphere of the icy astrophysical object arises due to both primary processes of dissociation and ionization by solar XUV radiation and magnetospheric electrons and induced ion-molecular chemistry, and by chemical exchange between near-surface atmospheric layer and the satellite icy surface due to the thermal and non-thermal desorption processes (Shematovich, 2008, 2012). The standard astrochemical UDFA05 network is usually used to follow the main chemical pathways of photochemistry in the near-surface atmosphere and of diffusive chemistry in the icy regolith. Achievements and problems of the studies of suprathermal chemistry in the atmosphere-icy surface interface for the icy objects in the Solar System will be discussed. This work is supported by the RFBR project No. 14-02-00838a and by the Basic Research Program of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Program 22). begin{itemize} Herbst E., and van Dishoeck E.F., ARA&A, 2009, v. 47, 427. Shematovich, V.I. Solar System Res., 2008, v. 42, 473. Shematovich, V.I. Solar System Res., 2012, v. 46, 391.

Shematovich, Valery

391

Continued Analysis of EUVE Solar System Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final report for this project. We proposed to continue our work on extracting important results from the EUVE (Extreme UltraViolet Explorer) archive of lunar and jovian system observations. In particular, we planned to: (1) produce several monochromatic images of the Moon at the wavelengths of the brightest solar EUV emission lines; (2) search for evidence of soft X-ray emissions from the Moon and/or X-ray fluorescence at specific EUV wavelengths; (3) search for localized EUV and soft X-ray emissions associated with each of the Galilean satellites; (4) search for correlations between localized Io Plasma Torus (IPT) brightness and volcanic activity on Io; (5) search for soft X-ray emissions from Jupiter; and (6) determine the long term variability of He 58.4 nm emissions from Jupiter, and relate these to solar variability. However, the ADP review panel suggested that the work concentrate on the Jupiter/IPT observations, and provided half the requested funding. Thus we have performed no work on the first two tasks, and instead concentrated on the last three. In addition we used funds from this project to support reduction and analysis of EUVE observations of Venus. While this was not part of the original statement of work, it is entirely in keeping with extracting important results from EUVE solar system observations.

Gladstone, G. Randall

2001-01-01

392

Similarity Rules for Scaling Solar Sail Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future science missions will require solar sails on the order 10,000 sq m (or larger). However, ground and flight demonstrations must be conducted at significantly smaller Sizes (400 sq m for ground demo) due to limitations of ground-based facilities and cost and availability of flight opportunities. For this reason, the ability to understand the process of scalability, as it applies to solar sail system models and test data, is crucial to the advancement of this technology. This report will address issues of scaling in solar sail systems, focusing on structural characteristics, by developing a set of similarity or similitude functions that will guide the scaling process. The primary goal of these similarity functions (process invariants) that collectively form a set of scaling rules or guidelines is to establish valid relationships between models and experiments that are performed at different orders of scale. In the near term, such an effort will help guide the size and properties of a flight validation sail that will need to be flown to accurately represent a large, mission-level sail.

Canfield, Stephen L.; Beard, James W., III; Peddieson, John; Ewing, Anthony; Garbe, Greg

2004-01-01

393

Technology development in the solar absorption air-conditioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental control system utilizing solar energy would generally be more cost-effective if it were used to provide both heating and cooling requirements in the building it serves. Various solar powered heating systems have been tested extensively, but solar powered air-conditioners have received little more than short-term demonstration attention. This paper reviews past efforts in the field of solar powered

Z. F. Li; K. Sumathy

2000-01-01

394

Beyond Earth's boundaries: Human exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an annual report describing work accomplished in developing the knowledge base that will permit informed recommendations and decisions concerning national space policy and the goal of human expansion into the solar system. The following topics are presented: (1) pathways to human exploration; (2) human exploration case studies; (3) case study results and assessment; (4) exploration program implementation strategy; (5) approach to international cooperation; (6) recommendations; and (7) future horizons.

1991-01-01

395

Solar System Advisory Panel (SSAP) Developing the Roadmap for Solar System Science  

E-print Network

Meeting, calling for additional science input, will be circulated next week. Town meeting The SSAPSolar System Advisory Panel (SSAP) Developing the Roadmap for Solar System Science Note: This announcement relates to Projects, rather than Science. A separate announcement with the notes from the Town

Crowther, Paul

396

Beyond the Solar System: Expanding the Universe in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This DVD combines the latest scientific and educational research to help teachers in grades 8-12 deepen their own and their studentsâ understanding of our universe and of the nature of science. Produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in association with NASA, Beyond the Solar Systemthe DVD is filled with video, print, and online resources. It is designed for Earth and space science educators, physical science educators, professional development providers, and classroom use. The National Science Education Standards includes the topic of origin and evolution of the universe as part of the essential content of Earth and space science understanding. Yet providing concrete, inquiry-based experiences for students to learn these concepts can be a challenge for teachers. Beyond the Solar SystemThis DVD contains more than two hours of video, organized into two modular strands of material -- science content, and teaching and learning resources. These are intended to promote greater understanding of the scientific concepts through discussion and reflection, activities, and application of the ideas to teaching. Also included are lesson plans, student guides, assessments, content background, summaries of relevant standards, and links to further resources. These instructional materials are provided in PDF format and can be printed from a computer.

2006-03-01

397

Irradiation chemistry in the outer solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dark, reddish tinged surfaces of icy bodies in the outer solar are usually attributed to the long term irradiation of simple hydrocarbons such as methane leading to the loss of hydrogen and the production of long carbon chains. While methane is stable and detected on the most massive bodies in the Kuiper belt, evidence of active irradiation chemistry is scant except for the presence of ethane on methane-rich Makemake and possible detections of ethane on more methane-poor Pluto and Quaoar. We have obtained deep high signal-to-noise spectra of Makemake from 1.5 to 2.5 microns in an attempt to trace the radiation chemistry in the outer solar system beyond the initial ethane formation. We present the first astrophysical detections of solid ethylene, acetylene, and possibly propane -- all expected products of the continued irradiation of methane, and use these species to map the chemical pathway from methane to long-chain hydrocarbons.

Brown, Michael E.

2014-11-01

398

Solar “tower reflector” systems: A new approach for high-temperature solar plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years, considerable research efforts have been directed at the Weizmann Institute towards development of high-concentration, high-temperature solar energy systems. This included optical methods and devices, thermal receivers for solar thermal electricity generation, and thermo-chemical processes for solar energy storage and solar fuel production. Some of these efforts are now mature enough for transfer to industry, and

A. Yogev; A. Kribus; M. Epstein; A. Kogan

1998-01-01

399

Walk Through Solar System Times: An Exhibit with an Astrobiology Emphasis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this astrobiology outreach project, we attempt to present the research of the Goddard Center for Astrobiology (GCA) in the context of the history of the Solar System. GCA research emphasizes the origin and formation of complex pre-biotic organic materials in extraterrestrial environments and explores whether the delivery of these primordial materials and water to the early Earth enabled the emergence and evolution of life. The content expounds on areas that are usually not touched upon in a timeline of the Earth's formation. The exhibit addresses the questions: How did our solar system form? How is the formation of our solar systems similar or different from others? How did the organic molecules we observe in space get to the Earth? What conditions are most suitable for life? We will address the issues and challenges of designing the exhibit and of explaining advanced astrobiology research topics to the public.

Cheung, C. Y.

2012-01-01

400

Preliminary Design Package for Solar Heating and Hot Water System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The preliminary design review on the development of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is presented. The information contained in this report includes system certification, system functional description, system configuration, system specifi...

1977-01-01

401

Dust in the solar system and in extra-solar planetary systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the observed circumstellar dust envelopes a certain population, planetary debris disks, is ascribed to systems with\\u000a optically thin dust disks and low gas content. These systems contain planetesimals and possibly planets and are believed to\\u000a be systems that are most similar to our solar system in an early evolutionary stage. Planetary debris disks have been identified\\u000a in large numbers

Ingrid Mann; Melanie Köhler; Hiroshi Kimura; Andrzej Cechowski; Tetsunori Minato

2006-01-01

402

Solar electric power generation, volume 2. Citations from the NTIS data base  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citations of Federally-funded research are presented pertaining to electric power generation by both direct conversion with solar cells and indirect conversion using solar heat. Topic areas cover equipment design, site surveys, economics, and feasibility studies of solar power satellite systems, photovoltaic systems, solar total energy systems, and central receiver solar thermal power systems. A few abstracts deal with phase change

A. S. Hundemann

1978-01-01

403

System design optimization for large building integrated solar heating systems for domestic hot water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance and economy for building integrated solar domestic hot water (DHW) heating systems have been calculated as a function of installed solar collector area per housing unit, and benefits from having a high summer solar fraction are calculated and discussed. A presentation of new Danish solar heating DHW demonstration projects, where a high solar fraction is combined with heat loss

P PEDERSEN

1993-01-01

404

Young Solar System in the Making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger annotated version

This artist's diagram compares the Epsilon Eridani system to our own solar system. The two systems are structured similarly, and both host asteroids (brown), comets (blue) and planets (white dots).

Epsilon Eridani is our closest known planetary system, located about 10 light-years away in the constellation Eridanus. Its central star is a younger, fainter version of our sun, and is about 800 million years old about the same age of our solar system when life first took root on Earth.

Observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope show that the system hosts two asteroid belts, in addition to previously identified candidate planets and an outer comet ring.

Epsilon Eridani's inner asteroid belt is located at about the same position as ours, approximately three astronomical units from its star (an astronomical unit is the distance between Earth and the sun.). The system's second, denser belt lies at about the same place where Uranus orbits in our solar system, or 20 astronomical units from the star.

In the same way that Jupiter lies just outside our asteroid belt, shepherding its rocky debris into a ring, Epsilon Eridani is thought to have planets orbiting near the rims of its two belts. The first of these planets was identified in 2000 via the radial velocity technique. Called Epsilon Eridani b, it orbits at an average distance of 3.4 astronomical units placing it just outside the system's inner asteroid belt.

The second planet orbiting near the rim of the outer asteroid belt at 20 astronomical units was inferred when Spitzer discovered the belt.

A third planet might orbit in Epsilon Eridani at the inner edge of its outermost comet ring, which lies between 35 and 90 astronomical units. This planet was first hinted at in 1998 due to observed lumpiness in the comet ring.

The outer comet ring around Epsilon Eridani is denser than our comet ring, called the Kuiper belt, because the system is younger. Over time, Epsilon Eridani's ring will become wispier like the Kuiper Belt. Its comets will collide with each other and break up, or get pushed out of the ring by the gravitational influences of planets.

2008-01-01

405

Solar power satellite system sizing tradeoffs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical and economic tradeoffs of smaller solar power satellite systems configured with larger antennas, reduced output power, and smaller rectennas, are considered. The differential costs in electricity for seven antenna/rectenna configurations operating at 2.45 GHz and five satellite systems operating at 5.8 GHz are calculated. Two 2.45 GHz configurations dependent upon the ionospheric power density limit are chosen as examples. If the ionospheric limit could be increased to 54 mW sq/cm from the present 23 mW sq/cm level, a 1.53 km antenna satellite operating at 2.45 GHz would provide 5.05 GW of output power from a 6.8 km diameter rectenna. This system gives a 54 percent reduction in rectenna area relative to the reference solar power satellite system at a modest 17 percent increase in electricity costs. At 5.8 GHz, an 0.75 km antenna providing 2.72 GW of power from a 5.8 km diameter rectenna is selected for analysis. This configuration would have a 67 percent reduction in rectenna area at a 36 percent increase in electricity costs. Ionospheric, atmospheric, and thermal limitations are discussed. Antenna patterns for three configurations to show the relative main beam and sidelobe characteristics are included.

Arndt, G. D.; Monford, L. G.

1981-01-01

406

Solar-hydrogen energy system for Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

A solar-hydrogen energy system has been proposed for Pakistan as the best replacement for the present fossil fuel based energy system. It has been suggested to produce hydrogen via photovoltaic-electrolysis, utilizing the available non-agricultural sunny terrain in Baluchistan region. There will be a desalination plant for sea water desalination. The area under the photovoltaic panels with the availability of water would provide suitable environment for growing some cash crops. This would change the cast useless desert land into green productive farms. In order to show the quantitative benefits of the proposed system, future trends of important energy and economical parameters have been studied with and without hydrogen introduction. The following parameters have been included: population, energy demand (fossil + hydrogen), energy production (fossil + hydrogen), gross national product, fossil energy imports, world energy prices, air pollution, quality of life, environmental savings due to hydrogen introduction, savings due to the higher utilization efficiency of hydrogen, by-product credit, agricultural income, income from hydrogen sale, photovoltaic cell area, total land area, water desalination plant capacity, capital investment, operating and maintenance cost, and total income from the system. The results indicate that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would eliminate the import dependency of fossil fuels, increase gross product per capita, reduce pollution, improve quality of life and establish a permanent and clean energy system. The total annual expenditure on the proposed system is less than the total income from the proposed system. The availability of water, the cash crop production, electricity and hydrogen would result in rapid development of Baluchistan, the largest province of Pakistan.

Lutfi, N.

1990-01-01

407

The second generation of the solar desalination systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Solar Energy Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering & Technology—Sebha University, an investigation has been conducted of the productivity of solar desalination system working on the basis of evacuation. Solar energy intensity has been concentrated by means of concave mirror, which reflects the sunrays to the focus of the concave, where the still is located. The apparatus has

Yasser Fathi Nassar; Saib A. Yousif; Abubaker Awidat Salem

2007-01-01

408

Test and evaluation of a solar-heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report documents results of evaluation tests performed on components of commerical solar heating and hot water system. Subsystems tested include flat plate solar collector, energy transport module, and control panel. Tests conducted include snow and wind loads, flame spread, and smoke classification as well as solar heating operation.

1980-01-01

409

Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, September 1981March 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Craftsman Enterprises is an industrial laundry in Dallas, Texas. The active solar energy system is equipped with 1011 square feet of liquid collector panels, a 2000-gallon steel storage tank, and two 100-gallon gas-fired hot water heaters in series with a condensate heat exchanger which is piped to a steam boiler. The solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, operating

1982-01-01

410

Early Solar System Chronology K.D. McKeegan  

E-print Network

for Solar Nebula Origin and Evolution 30 1.16.7.2 Future Directions 31 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 32 REFERENCES 32 1, and to a first approximation can be thought of as ``hand samples'' of the condensable portion of the solar nebula1.16 Early Solar System Chronology K.D. McKeegan University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Reiners, Peter W.

411

Studies of control strategies for Building Integrated Solar Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development work on Building Integrated Solar Energy Systems (BISES) has become an area of growing interest, not only in New Zealand (NZ) but worldwide. This interest has led to a significant growth in the use of solar energy to provide heating and electricity generation. This paper presents the theoretical and experimental results of a novel building integrated solar

Hanani Abd Wahab; Mike Dukea; James K. Carsona; Tim Anderson

2011-01-01

412

ELECTROMAGNETIC ESCAPE OF DUST FROM THE SOLAR SYSTEM  

E-print Network

configuration of the solar magnetic field, perhaps accounting for particles detected by the Ulysses spacecraft at latitudes up to 80 ffi . When the solar magnetic field is reversed, particles are more strongly confined­sized particles in the solar system can cause these grains to escape along hyperbolic trajectories

Hamilton, Douglas P.

413

Building solar energy heating system and cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A built-in solar combination heating and cooling system for a building, particularly a residence, having a sub-floor below grade, walls, one or more ceilings, and a peaked roof comprises a first heat exchange means and a second heat exchange means, where the first heat exchange means absorbs heat from the southerly surface of the roof, and the second heat exchange

Stilber

1980-01-01

414

Improving the efficiency of solar photovoltaic power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the local and national clamor for foreign energy independent United States continues to grow unabated; renewable energy has been receiving increased focus and it's widely believed that it's not only the answer to ever increasing demand for energy in this country, but also the environmentally friendly means of meeting such demand. During the spring of 2010, I was involved with a 5KW solar power system design project; the project involved designing and building solar panels and associated accessories like the solar array mounts and Solar Inverter system. One of the key issues we ran into during the initial stage of the project was how to select efficient solar cells for panel building at a reasonable cost. While we were able to purchase good solar cells within our allocated budget, the issue of design for efficiency was not fully understood , not just in the contest of solar cells performance , but also in the overall system efficiency of the whole solar power system, hence the door was opened for this thesis. My thesis explored and expanded beyond the scope of the aforementioned project to research different avenues for improving the efficiency of solar photo-voltaic power system from the solar cell level to the solar array mounting, array tracking and DC-AC inversion system techniques.

Aribisala, Henry A.

415

Solar heating and cooling system design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of marketable solar heating and cooling systems for single family and commercial applications is described. The delivery, installation, and monitoring of the prototype systems are discussed. Seven operational test sites are discussed in terms of system performance. Problems encountered with equipment and installation were usually due to lack of skills required for solar system installation.

1979-01-01

416

Solar System Reveals a Whole New World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is there a tenth planet orbiting our sun? This radio broadcast reports on object 2003 UB13, which is at least as big as Pluto, has an elliptic orbit outside the plane of the other large planets, a water and methane surface like Pluto, and other properties which fit the description of a planet. But whether it is actually recognized as such may be a matter of semantic debate; the broadcast also presents the view that many asteroids and other objects of the solar system could count as planets. The clip is 3 minutes and 43 seconds in length.

417

Dark matter in the outer solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

1994-01-01

418

Microarray assays for solar system exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of evidence of extinct and extant life is a key issue in astrobiological research, particularly with respect to future exploration of the solar system. Simple life forms may have evolved and developed on planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa. At this point in time, tests whether life once was or still is present can only be carried out by means of in situ experiments. Here, we discuss the potential and advantages of immunological concepts for life detection and the development of a miniaturized automated immunoassay flight device.

Steele, Andrew; Toporski, Jan; McKay, David S.; Schweitzer, Mary; Pincus, Seth; Pérez-Mercader, Juan; Parro García, Victor

2001-08-01

419

Jewel of the Solar System - Saturn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Exploratorium offers a unique portrayal of the Cassini-Huygens mission's discoveries of Saturn. Individuals can discover the details about Titan, the only known moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. The Macromedia Flash Player enhanced tutorial about the rings and moons of Saturn is a fantastic addition to the website. Everyone can enjoy the web casts explaining the significances of the newest findings. Frequent visitors should visit the Updates link to receive the latest Cassini-Huygens news. This site is also reviewed in the January 21, 2005_NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

420

Chemical evolution of primitive solar system bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations on organic molecules and compounds containing biogenic elements in the interstellar medium and in the primitive bodies of the solar system are reviewed. The discovery of phosphorus molecular species in dense interstellar clouds, the existence of organic ions in the dust and gas phase of the comas of Comet Halley, and the presence of presolar, deuterium-hydrogen ratios in the amino acids of carbonaceous chondrites are discussed. The relationships between comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are examined. Also, consideration is given to the chemical evolution of Titan, the primitive earth, and early Mars.

Oro, J.; Mills, T.

1989-01-01

421

Solar Sailing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

Johnson, Les

2009-01-01

422

Solar energy system performance evaluation: final report for Honeywell OTS 41, Shenandoah (Newnan), Georgia  

SciTech Connect

The operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 41) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, are described, based on the analysis of data collected between January and August 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 41 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 702 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 1000-gallon thermal storage tank; a 3-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted air conditioner; a water-to-air heat exchanger for solar space heating; a finned-tube coil immersed in the storage tank to preheat water for a gas-fired hot water heater; and associated piping, pumps, valves, and controls. The solar system has six basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 7 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 53 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 219 MMBtu and provided 11.4 MMBtu for cooling, 8.6 MMBtu for heating, and 8.1 MMBtu for domestic hot water. The projected net annual energy savings due to the solar system were approximately 50 MMBtu of fossil energy (49,300 cubic feet of natural gas) and a loss of 280 kWh(e) of electrical energy.

Mathur, A K; Pederson, S

1982-08-01

423

Ultraviolet Radiation in the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV radiation is an important part in the electromagnetic spectrum since the energy of the photons is great enough to produce important chemical reactions in the atmospheres of planets and satellites of our Solar System, thereby affecting the transmission of this radiation to the ground and its physical properties. Scientists have used different techniques (balloons and rockets) to access to the information contained in this radiation, but the pioneering of this new frontier has not been free of dangers. The Sun is our main source of UV radiation and its description occupies the first two chapters of the book. The Earth is the only known location where life exists in a planetary system and therefore where the interaction of living organism with UV radiation can be tested through different epochs and on distinct species. The development of the human technology has affected the natural shield of ozone that protects complex lifeforms against damaging UV irradiation. The formation of the ozone hole and its consequences are described, together with the possible contribution of UV radiation to recent climate changes. Finally, we will discuss the the potential role of ultraviolet light in the development of life on bodies such as Mars, Europa and Titan. The Solar System is not isolated; other external sources can contribute to the enhancement of the UV radiation in our environment. The influence of such events as nearby supernovae and gamma-ray bursts are described, together with the consequences to terrestrial life from such events.

Vázquez, M., Hanslmeier, A.

424

An innovative deployable solar panel system for Cubesats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main Cubesat bus limitations is the available on-board power. The maximum power obtained using body mounted solar panels and advanced triple junction solar cells on a triple unit Cubesat is typically less than 10 W. The Cubesat performance and the mission scenario opened to these small satellite systems could be greatly enhanced by an increase of the available power. This paper describes the design and realization of a modular deployable solar panel system for Cubesats, consisting of a modular hinge and spring system that can be potentially used on-board single (1U), double(2U), triple (3U) and six units (6U) Cubesats. The size of each solar panels is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. The system developed is the basis for a SADA (Solar Array Drive Assembly), in which a maneuvering capability is added to the deployed solar array in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun. The system design trade-off is discussed, comparing different deployment concepts and architectures, leading to the final selection for the modular design. A prototype of the system has been realized for a 3U Cubesat, consisting of two deployable solar panel systems, made of three solar panels each, for a total of six deployed solar panels. The deployment system is based on a plastic fiber wire and thermal cutters, guaranteeing a suitable level of reliability. A test-bed for the solar panel deployment testing has been developed, supporting the solar array during deployment reproducing the dynamical situation in orbit. The results of the deployment system testing are discussed, including the design and realization of the test-bed, the mechanical stress given to the solar cells by the deployment accelerations and the overall system performance. The maximum power delivered by the system is about 50.4 W BOL, greatly enhancing the present Cubesat solar array performance.

Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Donati, Serena; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

2014-02-01

425

Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project. [for solar cell power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project was initiated by NASA in June, 1975, to develop economically feasible photovoltaic power systems suitable for a variety of terrestrial applications. Objectives include the determination of operating characteristic and lifetimes of a variety of solar cell systems and components and development of methodology and techniques for accurate measurements of solar cell and array performance and diagnostic measurements for solar power systems. Initial work will be concerned with residential applications, with testing of the first prototype system scheduled for June, 1976. An outdoor 10 kW array for testing solar power systems is under construction.

Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

1976-01-01

426

Teacher's Toolkit: It's a big, busy solar system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anyone who teaches about the solar system can't help but be impressed by the vast array of solar system objects, all of the robotic explorers, and the rapidly evolving view of each object and the systems they inhabit. Far from being a disconcerting jumble of, literally, alien places, the study of the solar system is a perfect example of how science progresses and evolves in the presence of new evidence and analysis. Here are some compelling visual activities (including mathematical computations) that give students an illustration of how empty the solar system is.

Seidel, David

2007-07-01

427

Six Hot Topics in Planetary Astronomy  

E-print Network

Six hot topics in modern planetary astronomy are described: 1) lightcurves and densities of small bodies 2) colors of Kuiper belt objects and the distribution of the ultrared matter 3) spectroscopy and the crystallinity of ice in the outer Solar system 4) irregular satellites of the giant planets 5) the Main Belt Comets and 6) comets and meteor stream parents.

David Jewitt

2008-11-14

428

The New Swedish Solar Telescope Control System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the new Swedish solar telescope control system which is currently in the final phases of testing and tuning. The telescope has two current controlled motors per axis and encoder resolution of 0.0016 arcsecond per pulse. The servo consists of a cascaded position-velocity loop system implemented on a Compaq Alpha workstation class computer. The servo position correction loop runs at a frequency of 100 Hz whilst the faster velocity loop runs at 1KHz. This choice of servo allows a methodical tuning of gains because each gain is correcting a seperate frequency range. We shall describe the mechanical design employed in the telescope and the computer control. The real time requirements of the control servo will be explained along with how we have used standard commercial hardware and operating system to achieve this.

Dettori, Peter M.; Hosinsky, Göran

2002-12-01

429

Solar Dynamic Power System Fault Diagnosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research is to conduct various fault simulation studies for diagnosing the type and location of faults in the power distribution system. Different types of faults are simulated at different locations within the distribution system and the faulted waveforms are monitored at measurable nodes such as at the output of the DDCU's. These fault signatures are processed using feature extractors such as FFT and wavelet transforms. The extracted features are fed to a clustering based neural network for training and subsequent testing using previously unseen data. Different load models consisting of constant impedance and constant power are used for the loads. Open circuit faults and short circuit faults are studied. It is concluded from present studies that using features extracted from wavelet transforms give better success rates during ANN testing. The trained ANN's are capable of diagnosing fault types and approximate locations in the solar dynamic power distribution system.

Momoh, James A.; Dias, Lakshman G.

1996-01-01

430

Occultation studies of the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Occultations of stars by planets, satellites, planetary ring systems, asteroids, and comets provide valuable opportunities to probe the Solar System in ways otherwise impossible from the surface of the earth. For example, one can precisely measure the size and shape of objects which are much too small to be resolved directly, accurately map the structure and transparency of ring systems, and detect the faintest trace of an atmosphere. In this investigation, researchers identify upcoming occultations through wide-ranging computer searches, provide accurate predictions for the more important events, and observe selected occultations with our specially designed portable photometric equipment. During the past year, researchers produced accurate predictions for an occultation of AG+40 degrees 0783 by 324 Bamberga on 8 December 1987 and coordinated efforts to observe this event. The occultation was successfully observed at 13 sites including two manned by Lowell Observatory astronomers.

Millis, Robert L.

1988-01-01

431

Communicating Herschel Key Programs in Solar System Studies to the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Herschel Space Observatory, one of the cornerstone missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) with participation from NASA, is delivering a wealth of far-infrared and sub-millimeter observations of the cold Universe. A considerable part of the observing time for the nominal three year mission lifetime has been awarded in the form of Key Programs. Between the 42 key programs (guaranteed and open times), only two key programs are dedicated to study the Solar System: "Water and Related Chemistry in the Solar System", also known as Herschel Solar System Observations (HssO) project [1], and "TNOs are Cool: A Survey of the Transneptunian Region" [2]. In the framework of these Programs, a serie of public outreach activities and efforts of its results are being carried out. We present some of the outreach strategies developed (e.g. press releases, web pages, logos, public lectures, exhibitions, interviews, reports, etc.) and some plans in this direction. Our activities introduce people to knowledge and beauty of solar system research and wider the opportunities for the public to become more involved in topics like solar system studies, specially in the times of frequent exo-planet discoveries.

Rengel, M.; Hartogh, P.; Müller, T.

2011-10-01

432

Solar astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

1991-01-01

433

Planet Formation in the Outer Solar System  

E-print Network

This paper reviews coagulation models for planet formation in the Kuiper Belt, emphasizing links to recent observations of our and other solar systems. At heliocentric distances of 35-50 AU, single annulus and multiannulus planetesimal accretion calculations produce several 1000 km or larger planets and many 50-500 km objects on timescales of 10-30 Myr in a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula. Planets form more rapidly in more massive nebulae. All models yield two power law cumulative size distributions, N_C propto r^{-q} with q = 3.0-3.5 for radii larger than 10 km and N_C propto r^{-2.5} for radii less than 1 km. These size distributions are consistent with observations of Kuiper Belt objects acquired during the past decade. Once large objects form at 35-50 AU, gravitational stirring leads to a collisional cascade where 0.1-10 km objects are ground to dust. The collisional cascade removes 80% to 90% of the initial mass in the nebula in roughly 1 Gyr. This dust production rate is comparable to rates inferred for alpha Lyr, beta Pic, and other extrasolar debris disk systems.

Scott J. Kenyon

2001-12-05

434

OSSOS: The Outer Solar System Origins Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first detection set from the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) which is a mammoth 560-hour CFHT Large Program over 4 years (finishing January 2017). This is likely to be the largest Kuiper Belt survey before LSST comes on line (in terms of the number of precise transneptunian object (TNO) orbits it provides).OSSOS studies gradually-slewing 21-square degree blocks of sky that are repeatedly imaged in many dark runs over two semesters. This strategy is designed to detect and track TNOs in order to provide extremely high-quality orbits in a short amount of time; in 16-18 month arcs we are obtaining fractional semimajor axis uncertainties in the range 0.01-0.1% and accuracies in the libration amplitudes of resonant objects better than 10 degrees, due to mean astrometric residuals routinely being of order 50-100 milliarcseconds.This talk will present the survey design and full detection sample for objects observed in the first half of 2013 and 2014. We will report how adding these detections to those from the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS) modifies conclusions about the orbital and size distribution of main classical Kuiper Belt, as well as other non-resonant sub-populations. In particular, because OSSOS is sensitive to, and has detected objects, from 8 AU to beyond 60 AU, we will report on how the combined distance and magnitude distribution impact dicsussions of the absolute magnitude distribution of outer Solar System objects.

Gladman, Brett; Bannister, Michele; Kavelaars, Jj; Petit, Jean-Marc; Gwyn, Stephen; Chen, Ying-Tung

2014-11-01

435

Solar System: Asteroids, Comets, and Meteorites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It provides an understanding of the bodies other than planets that exist in our solar system. There are many asteroids and meteoroids composed of rock orbiting the Sun. Occasionally, one of these bodies enters the Earth's atmosphere, glowing as they disintegrate from atmospheric friction. Those that do not completely burn up in the atmosphere may impact the ground. Other chunks of rock mixed with ice have such long and off-center orbits that they only periodically come very close to the Sun, where some of their surface material is boiled off by the Sun's radiation and pushed into a long illuminated tail that we see as a comet. Learning Outcomes:� Describe the similarities and differences in comets, asteroids, and meteors.� Describe the size, composition, and motion of meteors, asteroids, and comets.� Differentiate between meteors, meteorites, and meteoroids, and explain what happens to meteors as they fall through Earth's atmosphere.� Explain how we learn about asteroids, comets, and meteorites.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

436

ECE 461 FUNDAMENTALS OF SOLAR ENERGY Time/Day: TBA Room: TBA  

E-print Network

1 ECE 461 FUNDAMENTALS OF SOLAR ENERGY Time/Day: TBA Room: TBA Instructor: Rajendra Singh Topics Covered Topic Hours Course Overview 1 Solar Energy: Introduction 2 Importance of Solar Energy as Clean & Sustainable Energy 3 Fundamentals & Technology of Solar Thermal Systems 3 Fundamentals

Bolding, M. Chad

437

Systemic bioavailability, safety and tolerability of topical ozenoxacin in healthy adult volunteers.  

PubMed

A series of Phase I studies was conducted in healthy volunteers to examine the systemic bioavailability and safety of topical ozenoxacin. Study 1 examined increasing single doses (relating to quantity and body surface area) of ozenoxacin 1% ointment. Study 2 compared multiple doses of ozenoxacin 1% ointment and placebo applied for 7 days. Study 3 investigated multiple doses of ozenoxacin 2% cream and placebo applied for 7 days. Study 4 examined multiple doses of ozenoxacin 2% cream applied to intact and abraded skin for 8 days. No systemic absorption was observed in any study and ozenoxacin was well tolerated. The most common treatment-related adverse events were application-site reactions (erythema and pruritus), but the differences in local tolerability between ozenoxacin and placebo were not clinically significant. PMID:25209519

Gropper, Savion; Albareda, Nuria; Santos, Benjamin; Febbraro, Salvatore

2014-09-01

438

Potential of solar cooling systems for peak demand reduction  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the technical feasibility of solar cooling for peak demand reduction using a building energy simulation program (DOE2.1D). The system studied was an absorption cooling system with a thermal coefficient of performance of 0.8 driven by a solar collector system with an efficiency of 50% with no thermal storage. The analysis for three different climates showed that, on the day with peak cooling load, about 17% of the peak load could be met satisfactorily with the solar-assisted cooling system without any thermal storage. A performance availability analysis indicated that the solar cooling system should be designed for lower amounts of available solar resources that coincide with the hours during which peak demand reduction is required. The analysis indicated that in dry climates, direct-normal concentrating collectors work well for solar cooling; however, in humid climates, collectors that absorb diffuse radiation work better.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, J. [Neymark (Joel), Golden, CO (United States)] [Neymark (Joel), Golden, CO (United States)

1994-11-01

439

Experimental studies of a new solar water heater system using a solar water pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research goal was to develop a new solar water heater system (SWHS) that used a solar water pump instead of an electric pump. The pump was powered by the steam produced from a flat plate collector. Therefore, heat could be transferred downward from the collector to a hot water storage tank. The designed system consisted of four panels of

Natthaphon Roonprasang; Pichai Namprakai; Naris Pratinthong

2008-01-01

440

Performance analysis of a solar energy driven heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation temperature of solar heating systems makes the use of a radiant floor to transfer heat into the conditioned spaces suitable. Performance data related to solar heating systems are scarce. Knowledge of these data is important to establish control strategies that lead to an optimal operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to acquire and analyse the

P. J. Martínez; A. Velázquez; A. Viedma

2005-01-01

441

Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

1978-01-01

442

Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embed- ded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of

Vijay Raghunathan; Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

2005-01-01

443

Feasibility of solar hot water systems in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the prospects for solar hot water systems in Vietnam. Changes in domestic energy consumption, both in terms of quantity and patterns of usage, particularly the increase in electricity use for hot water systems, are expected. VIETSIM, a computer program for simulating solar hot water systems in Vietnam will be described. This program has been validated by comparing

B. T. Nguyen; T. L. Pryor

1998-01-01

444

Exergetic analysis of a solar thermal power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication presents a second law analysis based on an exergy concept for a solar thermal power system. Basic energy and exergy analysis for the system components (viz. parabolic trough collector\\/receiver and Rankine heat engine, etc.) are carried out for evaluating the respective losses as well as exergetic efficiency for typical solar thermal power systems under given operating conditions. It

Narendra Singh; S. C. Kaushik; R. D. Misra

2000-01-01

445

SURVEILLANCE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS USING METEOSAT DERIVED IRRADIANCES  

E-print Network

SURVEILLANCE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS USING METEOSAT DERIVED IRRADIANCES Annette Hammer of a year offering 90 % of the annual solar irradiation. 1 INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic (PV) Systems generate. These checks are done by calculating the estimated output of the PV system with a simulation-model. The model

Heinemann, Detlev

446

Solar electric power generation, volume 2. Citations from the Engineering Index data base  

Microsoft Academic Search

A worldwide literature survey cites power generation by direct conversion with solar cells and indirect conversion using solar heat. Topic areas cover solar tower power plants, orbital solar energy technology, photovoltaic power generation, and solar augmentation of hydroelectric power systems. A few abstracts pertain to the future role that solar energy will play in production of electric power and general

A. S. Hundemann

1978-01-01

447

Organic Matter in the Outer Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many solid bodies in the outer Solar System are covered with ices of various compositions, including water, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, and other molecules that are solid at the low temperatures that prevail there. These ices have all been detected by remote sensing observations made with telescopes on Earth, or more recently, spacecraft in orbit (notably Galileo at Jupiter). The data also reveal other solid materials that could be minerals or complex carbon-bearing organic molecules. A study in progress using large ground-based telescopes to acquire infrared spectroscopic data, and laboratory results on the optical properties of complex organic matter, seeks to identify the non-icy materials on several satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The work on the satellites of Saturn is in part preparatory to the Cassini spacecraft investigation of the Saturn system, which will begin in 2004 and extend for four years.

Cruiskshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

448

Occultation studies of the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Occultations of stars by planets, satellites, planetary ring systems, and asteroids offer opportunities to study the occulting bodies in ways not otherwise possible from the surface of the Earth. For example, one can detect even an extremely tenuous atmosphere and can measure the temperature and density profiles of the atmosphere in regions not ordinarily sampled by spacecraft. Occultations also permit direct measurement of the size and shape of solar system objects too small to be directly resolved by groundbased telescopes. The accuracy of such determinations is typically 1-2 percent and, moreover, is independent of the distance to the object. In this investigation, upcoming occultations through wide-ranging computer searches are identified, and accurate predictions for the more important events are provided. Selected occultations are observed with specially designed portable photometric equipment.

Millis, Robert L.

1991-01-01

449

Solar Thermal Energy: Design a Solar Hot Water Heater System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has students examine a collector and tank for a solar hot water heater and estimate the amount of energy and money saved by replacing the traditional hot water heater. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Bullwinkel, Matt

2013-01-08

450

Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems; (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters; (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-01-24

451

Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

2014-10-01

452

Universe: The Universe Beyond our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of five Science Objects in the Universe SciPack. It explores the more unknown parts of the universe beyond our solar system and provides an understanding of where and how we fit into the universe as a whole. Astronomers have carefully measured the changing positions of stars, leading them to believe that the Sun is located about half-way out from the center of a disk-shaped galaxy of stars, part of which can be seen as a glowing band of light that spans the sky on a very clear night. Although our Sun is a single star, most stars exist in systems of two or more stars orbiting around one another and are arranged in huge star clusters. Galaxies are isolated collections of billions of gravitationally bound stars and immense clouds of gas and dust. Galaxies are, in turn, grouped into galaxy clusters and super-clusters. The universe contains many billions of galaxies separated by immense distances of mostly empty space. Some of these distant galaxies are so far away that their light takes several billion years to reach Earth. This means that here on Earth we are seeing them as they were that long ago. Learning Outcomes:� Arrange various objects in order of size and distance, ranging from space probes and moons to galaxies and galactic clusters.� Catalogue, in simple terms, the objects within a galaxy.� Generally explain "what is within what" (planetary systems, star clusters, galaxies, etc.).� Describe the location of our solar system within the Milky Way galaxy.� Describe the limitations of using parallax, radar, and brightness to measure the distance of objects from Earth, and classify objects whose distance from Earth could be accurately measured using each type of measurement strategy.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

453

PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report addresses the environmental consequences of three kinds of solar energy utilization: photovoltaic, concentrator (steam electric) and flat plate. The application of solar energy toward central power generating stations is emphasized. Discussions of combined modes and o...

454

Advanced solar dynamic technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs and discussion on Advanced Solar Dynamic Technology Program are presented. Topics covered include: advanced solar dynamic technology program; advanced concentrators; advanced heat receivers; power conversion systems; dished all metal honeycomb sandwich panels; Stirling cavity heat pipe receiver; Brayton solar receiver; and thermal energy storage technology.

Calogeras, James

1990-01-01

455

Prototype residential solar-energy system-design package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compilation includes documents and drawings for complete solar-heating system. It discussed system installed in residential building at Veterns' Administration Hospital in Togus, Maine. System can be adapted to other buildings without changing design.

1979-01-01

456

Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems for Solar Thermal Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Existing and advanced electrochemical storage and inversion/conversion systems that may be used with terrestrial solar-thermal power systems are evaluated. The status, cost and performance of existing storage systems are assessed, and the cost, performanc...

S. Krauthamer, H. Frank

1980-01-01

457

Preliminary Design Package for Solar Heating and Hot Water System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A collection of documents submitted by the Fern Engineering Company for the preliminary design review on the development of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is presented. The information includes system certification, system functional de...

1977-01-01

458

Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

1978-01-01

459

Phase 1 of the First Solar Small Power System Experiment (experimental System No. 1). Volume 3: Appendix E - N  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a solar electric power plant for a small community is reported. Topics covered include: (1) control configurations and interface requirements for the baseline power system; (2) annual small power system output; (3) energy requirements for operation of the collectors and control building; (4) life cycle costs and reliability predictions; (5) thermal conductivities and costs of receiver insulation materials; (6) transient thermal modelling for the baseline receiver/thermal transport system under normal and inclement operating conditions; (7) high temperature use of sodium; (8) shading in a field of parabolic collectors; and (9) buffer storage materials.

Clark, T. B. (editor)

1979-01-01

460

Performance of solar energy hot water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of performance comparisons of four solar hot water\\/building heat installations of the National Solar Data Network are presented. The sites were monitored by various sensors and data were processed remotely at a central location. Statistics are presented for seasonal hot water demand, solar fraction, fuel saved, supply and delivery temperatures, auxiliary fuel required, and costs, in addition to

M. A. Cramer; K. D. Evans; J. M. Rosenbusch; R. A. Weinstein

1981-01-01

461

A solar heating system with annual storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar heated house with long term storage capability, built in Trento, Italy, is described. The one story house was built from modular components and has a total heated volume of 1130 cu m. Flat plate solar collectors with a water-antifreeze medium are located beneath the lawn, and six cylindrical underground tanks holding 130 cu m of water heated by thermal energy from the collectors are situated under the garden. The house walls have an 8 cm cavity filled with 5 cm of formaldehyde foam, yielding a heat transmission (U) of 0.37 W/sq m/deg C. The roof and ceilings are insulated with fiberglass and concrete, producing U-values of 0.46 W/sq m/deg C and 0.57 W/sq m/deg C, respectively. Heat pumps using 6 kW move thermal energy between the house and the tanks. Direct hot water heating occurs in the summer, and direct home heating when the stored water temperature exceeds 32 C. A computer model was developed which traces the annual heat flow and it is shown that the system supplies all heating requirements for the house, with electrical requirements equal to 20 percent of the annual house needs.

Lazzari, F.; Raffellini, G.

1981-07-01

462

MOND effects in the inner Solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I pinpoint a previously unrecognized MOND effect that may act in the inner Solar system, and is due to the galactic acceleration gg = ?a0: a byproduct of the MOND external-field effect. Predictions of the effect are not generic to the MOND paradigm, but depend on the particular MOND formulation at hand. However, the modified Poisson formulation, on which I concentrate, uniquely predicts a subtle anomaly that may be detected in planetary and spacecraft motions (and perhaps in other precision systems, such as binary pulsars), despite their very high accelerations, and even if the MOND interpolating function is arbitrarily close to unity at high accelerations. Near the Sun, this anomaly appears as a quadrupole field, with the acceleration at position u from the Sun being gai(u) = -qaijuj, with qaij diagonal, axisymmetric and traceless: -2qaxx = -2qayy = qazz = q(?)(a0/RM), where RM = (MsolarG/a0)1/2 ~ 8 × 103au is the MOND transition radius of the Sun. The anomaly is described and analysed as the Newtonian field of the fictitious cloud of `phantom matter' that hovers around the Sun. I find, for the relevant range of ? values and for a range of interpolating functions, ?(x), values of 10-2 <~ -q <~ 0.3, which turn out to be sensitive to the form of ?(x) around the MOND-to-Newtonian transition. This range verges on the present bounds from Solar system measurements. There might thus exist favourable prospects for either measuring the effect or constraining the theory and relevant parameters. Probing this anomaly may also help distinguish between modified-inertia and modified-gravity formulations of MOND. I also discuss briefly an anomaly that is generic to MOND in all its formulations, and competes with the quadrupole anomaly in the special case that 1 - ?(x) vanishes as x-3/2 as x -> ?.

Milgrom, Mordehai

2009-10-01

463

The LCOGT Network for Solar System Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network is a planned homogeneous network of over 35 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres. This network is versatile and designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to do long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects. Currently LCOGT is operating the two 2m Faulkes Telescopes at Haleakala, Maui and Siding Spring Observatory, Australia and in March 2012 completed the install of the first member of the new 1m telescope network at McDonald Observatory, Texas. Further deployments of six to eight 1m telescopes to CTIO in Chile, SAAO in South Africa and Siding Spring Observatory are expected in late 2012-early 2013. I am using the growing LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by PanSTARRS (PS1) and other sky surveys and to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects. I have developed an automated system to retrieve new PS1 NEOs, compute orbits, plan observations and automatically schedule them for follow-up on the robotic telescopes of the LCOGT Network. In the future, LCOGT has proposed to develop a Minor Planet Investigation Project (MPIP) that will address the existing lack of resources for minor planet follow-up, takes advantage of ever-increasing new datasets, and develops a platform for broad public participation in relevant scientific exploration. We plan to produce a cloud-based Solar System investigation environment, a citizen science project (AgentNEO), and a cyberlearning environment, all under the umbrella of MPIP.

Lister, Tim

2012-10-01

464

General theme report: Working session 2, solar thermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, over 90 percent of the world's large-scale solar electric energy is generated with concentrating solar thermal power plants. Such plants have the potential to meet many of the world's future energy needs. Research efforts are generally focused on generating electricity, though a variety of other applications are being pursued. Today, the technology for using solar thermal energy is well developed, cost competitive, and in many cases, ready for widespread application. The current state of each of the solar thermal technologies and their applications is reviewed, and recommendations for increasing their use are presented. The technologies reviewed in detail are: parabolic trough systems, central tower systems, and parabolic dish systems.

Alpert, D. J.; Kolb, G. J.

1991-01-01

465

Solar energy system performance evaluation: Honeywell OTS 41, Shenandoah (Newman), Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 41) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, are described, based on the analysis of the data collected between January and August 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 41 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 702 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 1000-gallon thermal storage tank; a 3-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted air conditioner; a water-to-are heat exchanger for solar space heating; a finned-tube coil immersed in the storage tank to preheat water for a gas-fired hot water heater; and associated piping, pumps, valves, and controls. The solar system has six basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics.

Mathur, A. K.; Pederson, S.

1982-08-01

466

Environments in the Outer Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outer planets of our solar system Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are fascinating objects on their own. Their intrinsic magnetic fields form magnetic environments (so called magnetospheres) in which charged and neutral particles and dust are produced, lost or being transported through the system. These magnetic environments of the gas giants can be envisaged as huge plasma laboratories in space in which electromagnetic waves, current systems, particle transport mechanisms, acceleration processes and other phenomena act and interact with the large number of moons in orbit around those massive planets. In general it is necessary to describe and study the global environments (magnetospheres) of the gas giants, its global configuration with its large-scale transport processes; and, in combination, to study the local environments of the moons as well, e.g. the interaction processes between the magnetospheric plasma and the exosphere/atmosphere/magnetosphere of the moon acting on time scales of seconds to days. These local exchange processes include also the gravity, shape, rotation, astrometric observations and orbital parameters of the icy moons in those huge systems. It is the purpose of this chapter of the book to describe the variety of the magnetic environments of the outer planets in a broad overview, globally and locally, and to show that those exchange processes can dramatically influence the surfaces and exospheres/atmospheres of the moons and they can also be used as a tool to study the overall physics of systems as a whole.

Krupp, N.; Khurana, K. K.; Iess, L.; Lainey, V.; Cassidy, T. A.; Burger, M.; Sotin, C.; Neubauer, F.

2010-06-01

467

HONR 279W -SYLLABUS (Fall 2004) The Solar System  

E-print Network

, comets, and other ET-objects. We'll finish with the questions: Is there life elsewhere in the solar Chapter 5 Th 2-Dec Comets II Chapter 24 Tu 7-Dec Life in the Solar System Chapter 27 Th 9-Dec Other: This will be a brief tour of the solar system. We will explore the origin and evolution of the sun, planets, moons

Mcdonough, William F.

468

Early results from solar dynamic space power system testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Agovernment\\/industry team designed, built and tested a 2-kWesolar dynamic,space power system in a large thermal\\/ vacuum,facility with a simulated ,Sun at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Lewis facility provides an accurate simulation of temperatures, high vacuum and solar flux as encountered,in low-Earth orbit. The solar dynamic ,system includes a Brayton power conversion unit integrated with a solar receiver

Richard K. Shaltens; Lee S. Mason

1996-01-01

469

The Redox flow system for solar photovoltaic energy storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method of storage was applied to a solar photovoltaic system. The storage method is a redox flow system which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two soluble electrochemical redox couples for its storage capacity. The particular variant described separates the charging and discharging function of the system such that the electrochemical couples are simultaneously charged and discharged in separate parts of the system. The solar array had 12 solar cells; wired in order to give a range of voltages and currents. The system stored the solar energy so that a load could be run continually day and night. The main advantages of the redox system are that it can accept a charge in the low voltage range and produce a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity.

Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.

1976-01-01