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1

Hot Topics in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies at ground-based telescopes and new missions in space during the past few years are returning information about our Solar System that has surprised and delighted planetary scientists. This talk will highlight some of the more fascinating results, ranging from NEAR's exploration of the asteroid Eros, to Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the outer planets, to Galileo's investigation of

H. B. Hammel

2000-01-01

2

Our Solar System. Our Solar System Topic Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the planets and other objects in space that make up the solar system. It also shows how technology helps students learn about our neighbors in space. The suggested age range for this book is 3-8 with a guided reading level of Q-R. The Fry level is 3.2.

Phelan, Glen

2006-01-01

3

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of the space page of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), and provides information about the Sun, the planets and their moons, and other bodies in the solar system. It contains a travel guide to the Solar System including such topics as what to see, reason to visit, how to get there, and local history. A similar travel guide is then available for the Sun, each of the planets, asteroids, and comets. In addition, multiple links for more detailed information as well as space games and puzzles are provided.

2007-12-12

4

The outer solar system.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of approaches to exploration of the outer solar system beyond the asteroid belt as seen from reports of JPL scientific groups. The topics include the cosmogonic aspects of outer solar system exploration, the satellites of the outer planets, their atmospheres, dynamics and magnetism, and the outer solar wind.

Cameron, A. G. W.

1973-01-01

5

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the end of this project, you will be able to explain the components of the Solar System and know the order of the planets starting from the Sun. Objective Question: What is the Solar System? First, listen and read about the Solar System 1. How many planets make up our Solar System? 2. What is at the center of the Solar System? Next,listen and read about the Planets. 1. Can you name all of the planets? Finally, listen and watch The Solar System Movie. 1. Can you list the ...

Ms.west

2009-07-07

6

Solar System Ionospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews our understanding of the ionospheres in the solar system. It provides some basic information on the sources and sinks of the ionospheric plasma, its dynamics, the energetics and the coupling to the neutral atmosphere. Ionospheres in the solar system are reviewed and comparative ionospheric topics are discussed.

Witasse, O.; Cravens, T.; Mendillo, M.; Moses, J.; Kliore, A.; Nagy, A. F.; Breus, T.

7

Solar System Ionospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews our understanding of the ionospheres in the solar system. It provides some basic information on the sources\\u000a and sinks of the ionospheric plasma, its dynamics, the energetics and the coupling to the neutral atmosphere. Ionospheres\\u000a in the solar system are reviewed and comparative ionospheric topics are discussed.

O. Witasse; T. Cravens; M. Mendillo; J. Moses; A. Kliore; A. F. Nagy; T. Breus

2008-01-01

8

Solar System Ionospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews our understanding of the ionospheres in the solar system. It provides some basic information on the sources\\u000a and sinks of the ionospheric plasma, its dynamics, the energetics and the coupling to the neutral atmosphere. Ionospheres\\u000a in the solar system are reviewed and comparative ionospheric topics are discussed.

O. Witasse; T. Cravens; M. Mendillo; J. Moses; A. Kliore; A. F. Nagy; T. Breus

9

Solar System Ionospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews our understanding of the ionospheres in the solar system. It provides some basic information on the sources and sinks of the ionospheric plasma, its dynamics, the energetics and the coupling to the neutral atmosphere. Ionospheres in the solar system are reviewed and comparative ionospheric topics are discussed.

Witasse, O.; Cravens, T.; Mendillo, M.; Moses, J.; Kliore, A.; Nagy, A. F.; Breus, T.

2008-08-01

10

Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region of the universe in which we live, the Solar System, is but one of many clusters of stars and planets in space. Our Solar System lies in a particular region of the universe called the `Milky Way Galaxy'....

P. Masson

2000-01-01

11

Solar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

1979-01-01

12

The new solar system  

SciTech Connect

Current knowledge about the solar system is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the results of recent space exploration. Among the many topics discussed are the sun, magnetospheres and the interplanetary medium, the surfaces of the terrestrial bodies, the moon, Mars, asteroids, Jupiter and Saturn, planetary rings, the Galilean satellites, Titan, the outer solar system, comets, and meteorites. Particular attention is given to the Voyager 1 and 2 flybys of Jupiter and Saturn. The work includes many illustrative photographs of the celestial bodies discussed.

Beatty, J.K.; Oleary, B.; Chaikin, A.

1981-01-01

13

Meteorites and the early solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work discusses topics in the source regions for meteorites, their secondary processing, irradiation effects on meteorites, solar system chronology, the early solar system, the chemistry of chondrites and the early solar system, magnetic fields in the early solar system, the nature of chondrules, micrometeorites, inhomogeneity of the nebula, the survival of presolar material in meteorites, nucleosynthesis, and the

J. F. Kerridge; M. S. Matthews

1988-01-01

14

I would like to receive funding to continue my PhD course in Planetary Science at the University of Planetary science is the study of this and other solar systems. Current hot topics that have attracted  

E-print Network

I would like to receive funding to continue my PhD course in Planetary Science at the University of Arizona. Planetary science is the study of this and other solar systems. Current hot topics that have a planetary science department. Prestigious US universities like Caltech and MIT have excellent planetary

Withers, Paul

15

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts of our solar system? Let's learn about the parts of our Solar System! First, use the Solar System Chart Now read the Introduction to the Solar System and begin filling out the Solar System Chart by listing one fact for each planet. Now watch the Video 1 on the Solar System and fill out one characteristic about each planet in our Solar System. Now read the Facts about the Solar System and find ...

Kathrynbyers

2012-04-05

16

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA is charting a bold new course into the cosmos, a journey that will take humans back to the Moon, and eventually to Mars and beyond. Exploration of the solar system and beyond will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance. NASA exploration programs will seek profound answers to questions about the origins of our solar system, whether life exists beyond Earth, and how we could live on other worlds. The NASA Vision for space exploration calls for a combination of human and robotic missions to achieve new exploration goals. Robotic missions to the Moon will be followed by an extended human expedition as early as 2015. Lunar exploration will lay the groundwork for future exploration of Mars and other destinations. A new spacecraft to support these journeys--the Crew Exploration Vehicle--will be tested before the end of this decade. Space exploration holds a special place in the human imagination. Youth are especially drawn to Mars rovers, astronauts, and telescopes. If used effectively and creatively, space can inspire children to seek careers in math, science, and engineering. Exploration and discovery are key agents of growth in society--technologically, economically, socially, internationally, and intellectually. This module is a first step in engaging today's youth in space exploration and serves as an invitation to participate in the excitement of discovery.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

17

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify basic components of our solar system, including the sun, planets, and Earth's moon. We have just learned about the Solar System. Click here to watch an informational overview of the Solar System: Overview of the Solar System.. The planets in our Solar System are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. Every planet in our Solar System revolves around the sun. The sun provides the energy ...

Ms. Smithson

2009-07-07

18

Continued Development of the Solar System Concept Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed in order to provide a pre-\\/post-instruction assessment instrument suitable for use in an introductory solar system course. The topics included on the SSCI focus on formation mechanisms, planetary interiors, atmospheric and surface effects, and small solar system bodies. These topics were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when

Seth D. Hornstein; E. E. Prather; T. R. English; S. M. Desch; J. M. Keller

2010-01-01

19

Topics in Extended Dynamical Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis consists of three chapters. Each chapter is self-contained and is devoted to the investigation of a particular topic in extended dynamical systems. In the first chapter, an approach based on Langevin equations is implemented to understand the non-Gaussian nature of the probability distribution function (PDF) of local diffusive variables in extended dynamical systems, e.g., a passive scalar advected by turbulent velocity fluctuations. Two mechanisms are proposed for the origin of non-Gaussian tails: One relies on the nature of temporal correlations of the fluctuations that couple additively to the diffusive field, leading to exponential and stretched exponential tails in the PDF; the other depends on multiplicative coupling between the diffusive field and the fluctuations, producing algebraic tails in the PDF. The mechanisms are illustrated using models for a passive scalar and also a current driven Josephson junction array. This study indicates that shapes of local PDFs in turbulent states are non-universal and crucially depend on local couplings and time scales. The second chapter establishes the existence of a class of locally conserving chaotic (deterministic) systems that exhibit Generic Scale Invariance--algebraic decay of spatial and temporal correlations without tuning parameters. This study also reveals the similarity between noise and chaos in extended systems as far as long-wavelength and long -time behavior is concerned. Specifically, a two dimensional coupled-map lattice model with a conserved density is numerically shown to exhibit, in agreement with heuristic arguments, algebraic decay of spatio-temporal correlations in chaotic states with simple predictable exponents. The third chapter investigates scaling behavior of earthquakes in seismic zone models in which an earthquake is modeled by a quasi-static description that ignores short -time dynamics during an earthquake. The models incorporate the essential feature of long-ranged stress redistribution following a rupture or a slip event. A self-consistent method is devised to compute the stress redistribution due to multiple ruptures/slips that are modeled by non -elastic dipole (or double-couple) forces. Using this method, it is particularly shown that a self-consistent description that includes the rupture-rupture interactions during an earthquake leads to scaling behavior consistent with the seismological data. In addition, the stick-slip behavior at the fault surfaces in a model with an embedded linear fault driven by tectonic relative plate motion is also investigated; spatial and statistical features of earthquakes in this model are compared with the seismological observations.

Bhagavatula, Ravi S.

20

The New Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the definitive guide for the armchair astronomer, The New Solar System has established itself as the leading book on planetary science and solar system studies. Incorporating the latest knowledge of the solar system, a distinguished team of researchers, many of them Principal Investigators on NASA missions, explain the solar system with expert ease. The completely-revised text includes the most

J. Kelly Beatty; Carolyn Collins Petersen; Andrew Chaikin

1999-01-01

21

Solar electric systems  

SciTech Connect

Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

Warfield, G.

1984-01-01

22

Photovoltaic solar power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction into photovoltaic device theory and design is given to provide a background for discussing applications for solar power system. The potential for using silicon solar cells to provide large amounts of electrical power is shown and a proposed plan for developing solar power systems for a wide range of applications is described. Solar power systems utilized in remote

E. L. Ralph

1974-01-01

23

Solar System!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to our solar systemâthe planets, our Sun and Moon. To begin, students learn about the history and engineering of space travel. They make simple rockets to acquire a basic understanding Newton's third law of motion. They explore energy transfer concepts and use renewable solar energy for cooking. They see how engineers design tools, equipment and spacecraft to go where it is too far and too dangerous for humans. They explore the Earth's water cycle, and gravity as applied to orbiting bodies. They learn the steps of the design process as they create their own models of planetary rovers made of edible parts. Students conduct experiments to examine soil for signs of life, and explore orbit transfers. While studying about the International Space Station, they investigate the realities of living in space. Activities explore low gravity on human muscles, eating in microgravity, and satellite tracking. Finally, students learn about the context of our solar systemâthe universeâas they learn about the Hubble Space Telescope, celestial navigation and spectroscopy.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

24

External Resource: Planets and the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains links to numerous options from which to learn about planets and the Solar System through exploration and activities. Topics: lunar habitat, extreme weather, comets, aerogel, Pluto, asteroids, and planetary science.

1900-01-01

25

External Resource: Starchild: The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource allows learners/students to explore the Sun and everything that travels around it. Topics: asteroids, comets, meteoroids, satellites, galaxies, mass, astronomers, gravitational pull, solar system, the Moon, planets, dwarf planets

1900-01-01

26

External Resource: Build a Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource allows students to choose a diameter of the sun to calculate scaled dimensions of the Solar System and learn the REAL definition of "space." Topics: orbit, radius, diameter, distance.

1900-01-01

27

Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate: What's up? The topic of possible relations between solar and cosmic  

E-print Network

Preface Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate: What's up? The topic of possible relations between solar and cosmic ray variability on one hand, and Earth's climate on the other hand, is quite in Space Research topical issue on Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate presents a collection

Usoskin, Ilya G.

28

Water: Life's Elixir in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the possible occurrence of water in our solar system. Topics include the necessity of liquid water for life, distribution of water throughout the solar system, and the possibility that there may be liquid water on Mars or on some of Jupiter's moons.

29

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

1984-01-01

30

Galaxy and the solar system  

SciTech Connect

The solar-Galactic neighborhood, massive interstellar clouds and other Galactic features, the Oort cloud, perturbations of the solar system, and the existence and stability of a solar companion star are examined in chapters based on contributions to a conference held in Tucson, AZ during January 1985. The individual topics addressed include: the Galactic environment of the solar system; stars within 25 pc of the sun; the path of the sun in 100 million years; the local velocity field in the last billion years; interstellar clouds near the sun; and evidence for a local recent supernova. Also considered are: dynamic influence of Galactic tides and molecular clouds on the Oort cloud; cometary evidence for a solar companion; dynamical interactions between the Oort cloud and the Galaxy; geological periodicities and the Galaxy; giant comets and the Galaxy; dynamical evidence for Planet X; evolution of the solar system in the presence of a solar companion star; mass extinctions, crater ages, and comet showers; evidence for Nemesis, a solar companion star.

Smoluchowski, R.; Bahcall, J.M.; Matthews, M.S.

1986-01-01

31

Astronomy 161: The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This well-illustrated introductory college course in astronomy--the first semester of a two-semester sequence taught at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville--provides an overview of the solar system and the historical development of ideas on its nature and properties. Topics include the planets and their classification, aspects, and phases; the history of planetary astronomy and development of theories of planetary motion; and timekeeping and the celestial sphere. There are also discussions about Earth and its Moon, features of the other eight planets (Pluto is included), and discussions of other objects in the solar system (comets, asteroids, and meteors).

Dr. Steve Daunt

32

Systemic Side-Effects of Topical Corticosteroids  

PubMed Central

With the introduction of topical corticosteroids, a milestone has been achieved in dermatologic therapy; owing to its potent anti-inflammatory and ant proliferative effects, it became possible to treat some hitherto resistant dermatoses. But this magic drug can cause enough mischief if used inappropriately. Children are more susceptible to the systemic adverse effects because of enhanced percutaneous absorption through their tender skin. So, systemic side effects should be kept in mind while prescribing this therapeutically valuable topical medicament. PMID:25284850

Dhar, Sandipan; Seth, Joly; Parikh, Deepak

2014-01-01

33

Topic in Depth - Embedded Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Embedded systems are dedicated computers designed to perform a specific task. They are usually fairly simple devices that are used in areas where powerful, customizable computers are unnecessary; however, they can also be quite complex on occasion. Embedded systems can be found almost anywhere, including automobiles and cellular phones, and their importance is reflected in their near omnipresence.

34

Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

None

2011-01-01

35

Solar system positioning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

2006-01-01

36

Solar System Viewers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains three separate programs that produce animations of different aspects of our solar system. The Solar System Viewer indicates the location of terrestrial planets, gas giants, the asteroid belt, Kuiper Belt and comets in relation to the Sun. This program helps to give a sense of size and location within our solar system. The Other Solar Systems Viewer animates the recent discoveries of planets orbiting other stars. This application gives an animation of how these other solar systems operate. The Satellite Viewer animates the moons of the planets in our solar system to show their names and where they are located around their respective planets. The gas giants Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have more than one animation to show the different groups of moons that orbit them. The moons and planets in this animation are to scale to indicate size comparisons.

Mike Ashbury

37

Development of the Solar System Concept Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concept inventories can provide useful insight into students’ understanding of key physical concepts. Knowing what your students have learned during a course is a valuable tool for improving your own teaching. Unfortunately, current astronomy concept inventories are not suitable for an introductory solar system course because they either cover too broad of a range of topics (e.g. Astronomy Diagnostic Test) or are too narrowly focused (e.g. Greenhouse Effect Concept Inventory, Lunar Phase Concept Inventory). We have developed the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) to cover those topics commonly taught in an introductory solar system course. The topics included on the SSCI were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system. SSCI topics include formation mechanisms, planetary interiors, atmospheric effects, and small solar system bodies. Student interviews were conducted to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. The SSCI has been through two semesters of national, multi-institutional field-testing, involving over 1500 students. After the first semester of testing, question statistics were used to flag ineffective questions and flagged questions were revised or eliminated. We will present an overall outline of the SSCI development as well as our question-flagging criteria and question analyses from the latest round of field-testing. We would like to thank the NSF for funding under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

Hornstein, S.; Prather, E.

2009-12-01

38

Build a Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a scale model of the Solar System and learn the real definition of "space." Learners use the online calculator to create an appropriate scale to use as a basis for their model. Once learners have their scaled measurements (diameters and distances), then they can walk and "pace out" the solar system by marking sticks or flags in the ground. Learners can also build a solar system on a roll of toilet paper or receipt paper.

Hipschman, Ron

1997-01-01

39

Topical calcineurin inhibitors in systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) encompasses a variety of lesions that may be refractory to systemic or topical agents. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) are the most common lesions in clinical practice. The topical calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, have been used to treat resistant cutaneous lupus since 2002 and inhibit the proliferation and activation of T-cells and suppress immune-mediated cutaneous inflammation. This article reviews the mechanism of action, efficacy, adverse effects, and the recent concern about their possible carcinogenic effect. Although the total number of patients is small and there is only one relevant randomized controlled study, the data are encouraging. Many patients, previously resistant to systemic agents or topical steroids, improved after four weeks of treatment. DLE and SCLE lesions were less responsive, reflecting the chronicity of the lesions, although more than 50% of patients still showed improvement. Topical calcineurin inhibitors may be a safe and effective alternative to topical steroids for CLE although the only approved indication is for atopic dermatitis. PMID:20421909

Lampropoulos, Christos E; D’Cruz, David P

2010-01-01

40

Solar System Voyage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few decades, the exploration of our solar system has revealed fascinating details about the worlds that lie beyond our Earth. This lavishly illustrated book invites the reader on a journey through the solar system. After locating our planetary system in the Universe, Brunier describes the Sun and its planets, the large satellites, asteroids, and comets. Photographs and

Serge Brunier

2002-01-01

41

Solar System Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website Solar System Live includes applets showing the positions of the planets. One can see all of the planets in the solar system or just the inner planets. Visitors are encouraged to compare the view of the inner planets with what can be seen in the night sky.

Walker, John

2011-05-27

42

Observing the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Earth and sky; 2. Moon and planet observer's hardware; 3. The Solar System framed; 4. Stacking up the Solar System; 5. Our Moon; 6. Mercury and Venus; 7. Mars; 8. Jupiter; 9. Saturn, Uranus and Neptune; 10. Small worlds; 11. Comets; 12. Our daytime star; Appendices; Index.

North, Gerald

2012-10-01

43

Solar powered desalination system  

E-print Network

efficiency for a PV system is a ratio of the electrical power output to the solarSolar Energy Calculator using Google Maps 23 Table 1.24: PV System Power Production Average Daily Irradiance (kWh/m2) Instillation Efficiencysolar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency is 10%. (STH conversion efficiency is power

Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

2011-01-01

44

Build a Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Exploratorium provides directions to make a scale model of the Solar System and gain a sense of the relative sizes of the sun and planets. The user chooses the diameter of the sun, and the site calculates the diameters of the planets and their distances. Also, links to many solar-system-related sites are provided.

Hipschman, Ron

2006-07-18

45

Primordial Solar System Ices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) may harbor the least thermally-altered material in the solar system and are thought to be remnants of the planet-forming era. Thus, study of their surfaces may lead to insights into the composition and formation process of planets in our solar system. We propose to continue the first KBO photometric survey sensitive to volatile ices using

Chadwick Trujillo; Scott Sheppard; Emily Schaller

2009-01-01

46

Primordial Solar System Ices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) may harbor the least thermally-altered material in the solar system and are thought to be remnants of the planet-forming era. Thus, study of their surfaces may lead to insights into the composition and formation process of planets in our solar system. We propose to conduct the first KBO photometric survey sensitive to volatile ices. In

Chadwick Trujillo; Scott Sheppard

2008-01-01

47

Exploring the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different planets in the solar system? Use the KWL chart and fill out the 'What I Know' and 'What I Want to Know' columns about the different planets in the solar system. KWL Chart See what's in space that we can't see. What s in Space Book

Ms. Svagdis

2011-10-26

48

Solar photovoltaic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Department of Energy's photovoltaic program is outlined. The main objective of the program is the development of low cost reliable terrestrial photovoltaic systems. A second objective is to foster widespread use of the system in residential, industrial and commercial application. The system is reviewed by examining each component; silicon solar cell, silicon solar cell modules, advanced development modules and power systems. Cost and applications of the system are discussed.

Forney, R. G.

1978-01-01

49

Life in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life in the Solar System is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides a look at the environments of some places in the solar system, including Mercury, Venus, Mars present and past, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Saturn, Titan, other moons, Uranus, Neptune, Triton, Pluto, comets, and interstellar space. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Roberta Johnson

2000-07-01

50

Planetary Aeronomy of the Outer Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will give a historical tour of the highlights of my research on atmospheres in the outer solar system and their interaction with the magnetospheric plasma. Topics include atmospheric photochemistry, the Io plasma torus, the Galilean satellites, and the nitrogen atmospheres on Titan, Triton, and Pluto. The important role of observations combined with theory will be emphasized. The talk will finish with current research on the role that atmospheric escape plays on atmospheric structure in the outer solar system.

Strobel, Darrell

2012-10-01

51

Solar System: Formation of Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It explores the hypothesis that the solar system coalesced out of a giant cloud of gas and debris left in the wake of exploding stars about five billion years ago. Everything in and on the earth, including living organisms, is made of the material from this cloud. As Earth and the other planets formed, the heavier elements fell to their centers. On planets closer to the Sun (the inner planets), the lightest elements and their compounds were mostly blown or boiled away by radiation from the newly formed sun. However, on the outer planets, the lighter substances still surround them as deep atmospheres of gas or as frozen solid layers. Learning Outcomes:� Provide the basic story line of how the solar system may have formed from the debris of exploding stars. � Relate the different characteristics and features of the planets to their different distances from the sun.� Explain some of the methods scientists have used to learn about the formation and evolution of the solar system.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

52

Passive solar food system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A move towards residential self-sufficiency, the Passive Solar Food System (PSFS), was designed to produce both vegetables and high quality animal protein in the form of fish and shellfish. Housed in an attached, passively heated solar greenhouse, the aquaculture tank is designed to provide much of the thermal storage for the PSFS. Additional energy storage mass is provided by the

R. G. Gregoire; C. M. Gregoire

1980-01-01

53

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

1984-05-14

54

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, Robert B. (Wheatridge, CO); Pruett, Jr., James C. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

55

Fragmentary Solar System History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research is an improved understanding of the early solar system environment and of the processes involved in the nebula and in the evolution of solid bodies. We present results of our studies on the isotopic signatures in selected primitive solar system objects and on the evaluation of the cosmic ray records and of inferred collisional events. Furthermore, we report data of trapped martian atmospheric gases in meteorites and the inferred early evolution of Mars' atmosphere.

Marti, Kurt

1997-01-01

56

Outer Solar System Exploration  

E-print Network

are similar to Uranus and Neptune #12;Oh the Places we'll Go · The outer solar system is target-rich. We'd like to learn more about volcanoes on Io, storms on Titan, the rings around Uranus and whether Ariel ocean and how to access it in the future ­ Uranus orbiter, to study an ice giant in our own solar system

Rathbun, Julie A.

57

Development of the Solar System Concept Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concept inventories can provide useful insight into students' understanding of key physical concepts. Knowing what your students have learned during a course is a valuable tool for improving your own teaching. Unfortunately, current astronomy concept inventories are not suitable for an introductory solar system course because they either cover too broad of a range of topics (e.g. Astronomy Diagnostic Test)

S. Hornstein; E. Prather

2009-01-01

58

The progress of exploring extra-solar planetary systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advance of the space exploring, the study of the extra-solar planetary systems becomes an interesting topic since such system may exist the life or even the modern civilization. In this paper we give a brief introduction on the discovery of extra-solar planetary systems, and discuss the feasibility of detection techniques and methods developed in recent years. In particular,

Yu-Juan Liu; Gang Zhao

2005-01-01

59

Solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (inventors)

1979-01-01

60

Baby Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

2012-01-01

61

Solar System Exploration: Fast Lesson Finder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one get around the solar system? Well, that's a tricky question unless you have a lot of time on your hands, but it's certainly easy to learn about the solar system with these useful lessons provided courtesy of NASA. Their Solar System Exploration website includes hundreds of lessons designed for grades K-12, which visitors can navigate by using the helpful tab menus to look for specific types of materials. The tabs include Grade Level, Solar System Body, Mission, and Topic. Visitors looking for high school materials will do well to look at the Globe Visualization Student Activities, which include close examinations of the Earth hydrology, including aspects of air temperature, ozone, salinity, and so on. Additionally, visitors can use the Education section on the left-hand side of the site to learn about scientists' work in the "Through the Eyes of Scientists" features.

62

Topics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics discussed in this column include patterns of inverse multipliers in modular arithmetic; diagrams for product sets, set intersection, and set union; function notation; patterns in the number of partitions of positive integers; and tessellations. (DT)

Mathematics Teaching, 1972

1972-01-01

63

Solar System Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In these 18 years, the research has touched every major dynamical problem in the solar system, including: the effect of chaotic zones on the distribution of asteroids, the delivery of meteorites along chaotic pathways, the chaotic motion of Pluto, the chaotic motion of the outer planets and that of the whole solar system, the delivery of short period comets from the Kuiper belt, the tidal evolution of the Uranian arid Galilean satellites, the chaotic tumbling of Hyperion and other irregular satellites, the large chaotic variations of the obliquity of Mars, the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, and the resonant core- mantle dynamics of Earth and Venus. It has introduced new analytical and numerical tools that are in widespread use. Today, nearly every long-term integration of our solar system, its subsystems, and other solar systems uses algorithms that was invented. This research has all been primarily Supported by this sequence of PGG NASA grants. During this period published major investigations of tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system and of the passage of the Earth and Venus through non-linear core-mantle resonances were completed. It has published a major innovation in symplectic algorithms: the symplectic corrector. A paper was completed on non-perturbative hydrostatic equilibrium.

Wisdom, Jack

2002-01-01

64

Solar System Montage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a JPEG image of the planets in the solar system arranged as a montage. It is part of the GRIN (Great Images in NASA) library of images, which consists of photographs and other illustrations that are browsable by subject, NASA Center, or keyword.

65

Probing the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

Wilkinson, John

2013-01-01

66

Solar System Simulator Studio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application provides a multimedia simulation of the solar system. Many different animations are available to show the motion of planets, moons, and comets from different viewpoints, or interactive controls can be used to customize the display. Scripting of displays is possible.

Project, The S.

2005-04-27

67

Solar Electric System Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this sheet on the basics of solar electric systems. The document describes how photovoltaic cells work, basic energy terminology, photovoltaic materials and other related information. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Gordes, Joel N.

68

Origin of solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the main problems in the theory of the origin and evolution of the solar system are discussed. Consideration is given to the formation and evolution of interstellar clouds; the collapse of certain types of such clouds into protostars; the formation of planets around some of these stars; the formation of satellites around some of the planets; and the

H. Alfvén

1981-01-01

69

Browse the Solar System!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive chart of the solar system allows users to click on an image of one the planets or moons and see a full-size image of the object plus some data on physical constants (radius, mass, orbit period, etc.) and links to other resources such as nomenclature, additional imagery, and information on obtaining maps of the object.

70

Solar System Dark Matter  

E-print Network

I review constraints on solar system-bound dark matter, and discuss the possibility that dark matter could be gravitationally bound to the earth and other planets. I briefly survey various empirical constraints on such planet-bound dark matter, and discuss effects it could produce if present, including anomalous planetary heating and flyby velocity changes.

Stephen L. Adler

2009-03-27

71

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation Report presents the results of a thermal performance analysis of the Chester West solar energy system. The analysis covers operation of the system from September 1978 through March 1979. The Chester West solar energy system provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single-family dwelling located in Huntsville, Alabama. Section 2 presents a

Labbe

1979-01-01

72

Topics in the structure of hadronic systems  

SciTech Connect

In this dissertation the author examines a variety of different problems in the physics of strongly-bound systems. Each is elucidated by a different standard method of analysis developed to probe the properties of such systems. He begins with an examination of the properties and consequences of the current algebra of weak currents in the limit of heavy quark spin-flavor symmetry. In particular, he examines the assumptions in the proof of the Ademollo-Gatto theorem in general and for spin-flavor symmetry, and exhibit the constraints imposed upon matrix elements by this theorem. Then he utilizes the renormalization-group method to create composite fermions in a three-generation electroweak model. Such a model is found to reproduce the same low energy behavior as the top-condensate electroweak model, although in general it may have strong constraints upon its Higgs sector. Next he uncovers subtleties in the nonrelativistic quark model that drastically alter the picture of the physical origins of meson electromagnetic and hyperfine mass splittings; in particular, the explicit contributions due to (m{sub d}{minus}m{sub u}) and electrostatic potentials may be overwhelmed by other effects. Such novel effects are used to explain the anomalous pattern of mass splittings recently measured in bottom mesons. Finally, he considers the topic of baryon masses in heavy fermion chiral perturbation theory, including both tree-level and loop effects.

Lebed, R.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Physics Dept.]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Physics Div.

1994-04-01

73

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A system is disclosed for collection of solar energy by one or more reflectors which concentrate the suns rays on liquid circulating pipes which is part of a collecting and storing system for solar heated liquid to replace or supplement usual sources of heat in heating systems. More specifically, the system comprises one or more bent, preferably parabolic reflectors pivotly mounted on black heat absorbing pipes through which liquid circulates to absorb heat energy from the sun. The reflectors and the pipes are mounted in an open space such as a building roof with adjusting mechanism to pivot and fix the reflectors in different positions. Transparent plates bridge the space between the edges of the reflectors with hooked cross straps to hold the assembly together.

White, G.

1980-03-18

74

The Virtual Solar System Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the course, Virtual Solar System, students construct models of the solar system in an inquiry framework to learn fundamental astronomical concepts. This paper describes the course, the underlying principles for its design, the core technology that make

Hay, Kenneth E.; Barnett, Michael; Barab, Sasha A.

2001-02-01

75

Microcontroller based solar tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy is very important means of expanding renewable energy resources. In this paper is described the design and construction of a microcontroller based solar panel tracking system. Solar tracking allows more energy to be produce because the solar array is able to remain aligned to the sun. The paper begins with presenting background theory in light sensors and stepper

A. Stjepanovic; S. Stjepanovic; F. Softic; Z. Bundalo

2009-01-01

76

Maximum collectible solar energy by different solar tracking systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output energy from any solar energy system depends on the solar energy input to that system. Using different ways to track the solar energy system to follow the sun can increase solar energy input according to the type of the tracker. A practical study was carried out on difference solar tract systems. The layout of these systems are a

N. H. Helwa; A. B. G. Bahgat; A. M. R. El Shafee; E. T. El Shenawy

2000-01-01

77

Build Your Own Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet creates a model of a solar system with user-defined data. Users can create a solar system with up to four planets, choosing the star type at the center of the solar system, planet name, size, eccentricity of orbit and distance from the star. This site then calculates these factors to produce a graphic of the solar system with details about each planet such as its atmosphere, temperature, and whether life could exist on its surface.

Mike Asbury

78

Views of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a

1995-01-01

79

CRISSCROSS THROUGH OUR SOLAR SYSTEM  

E-print Network

CRISSCROSS THROUGH OUR SOLAR SYSTEM Dawn is the ninth Discovery mission scheduled for funding from Laboratory; German Space Center; Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research; and Italian Space Agency and other objects in outer space A rocky solar system object that is smaller than a planet and orbits

Waliser, Duane E.

80

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the temperature on differnt planets in our solar system. Learners will explore the planetary temperature system. They explore how each aspect (e.g., mass, temperature and gravity) influences the system and the consequences of disrupting that system. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 8 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

81

New mineralogy of the outer solar system and the high-pressure behaviour of methane   

E-print Network

This thesis will introduce the study of methane as a mineral. Along with ammonia and water, methane is one of the main planetary-forming materials in the outer solar system. The topic of `new mineralogy of the outer solar ...

Maynard-Casely, Helen E.

2009-01-01

82

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between a Terrestrial Planet and a Gas Giant? 1. Let's find out What is the solar system? 2. We live on planet Earth. Scroll to the bottom of this page: Earth. Tell me how many moons Earth has? What is Earth's moons name? 3. This video will tell you which planets are Terrestrial and which planets are Gas Giants. It will also tell you the ...

Brennan, Miss

2012-04-10

83

On solar system nomenclature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arguments in support of naming topographic features on other solar system objects after human beings other than astronomers are outlined. In particular, it is important to make sure that the end result will be a nonprovincial distribution of nationalities, epochs, and occupations, a distribution that future generations can be proud of. A more consistent scheme for Jovian satellite nomenclature is proposed which consistently maintains the tradition of naming Jovian satellites after prominent consorts.

Sagan, C.

1976-01-01

84

Solar System Trading Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will collect solar system trading cards by playing an interactive card game. They will identify the sun, planets, comets, and asteroids by answering questions about them. By playing the game, students will gain knowledge about the solar system and they will view pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and other NASA missions. Students will view an image accompanied by a question with three responses. By using the computer mouse, they will chose an answer. When the response is correct, additional information about the image is provided. If an incorrect answer is chosen, students are provided with additional information before they chose a new response. A glossary of terms can be found. At the end of the game, students are assessed with a list of correctly identified solar system objects. This site includes an overview, teacher lesson plans, links to the National Science Education Standards, science background for the teacher, downloadable cards, and links to other sites. The lesson plan includes the goal/purpose, desired outcomes, prerequisites, new vocabulary, general misconceptions, preparation time, execution time, needed materials, engagement activities, step-by-step instructions, evaluation/assessment, and follow-up activities. Suggestions are given for one computer classrooms, those without computers, and home schoolers.

Alex Storr

2007-12-12

85

Digital solar system geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All available synoptic maps of the solid-surface bodies of the Solar System were digitized for presentation in the planned Atlas of the Solar System by Greeley and Batson. Since the last report (Batson et al., 1990), preliminary Uranian satellite maps were replaced with improved versions, Galilean satellite geology was simplified and digitized, structure was added to many maps, and the maps were converted to a standard format, with corresponding standing colors for the mapped units. Following these changes, the maps were re-reviewed by their authors and are now undergoing final editing before preparation for publication. In some cases (for Mercury, Venus, and Mars), more detailed maps were digitized and then simplified for the Atlas. Other detailed maps are planned to be digitized in the coming year for the Moon and the Galilean satellites. For most of the remaining bodies such as the Uranian satellites, the current digitized versions contain virtually all the detail that can be mapped given the available data; those versions will be unchanged for the Atlas. These digital geologic maps are archived at the digital scale of 1/16 degree/ pixel, in sinusoidal format. The availability of geology of the Solar System in a digital database will facilitate comparisons and integration with other data: digitized lunar geologic maps have already been used in a comparison with Galileo SSI observations of the Moon.

Batson, R. M.; Kozak, R. C.; Isbell, Nancy K.

1991-01-01

86

Solar Angles and Tracking Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the daily and annual cycles of solar angles used in power calculations to maximize photovoltaic power generation. They gain an overview of solar tracking systems that improve PV panel efficiency by following the sun through the sky.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

87

The space-age solar system  

SciTech Connect

This book is a description of the sun, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets in the solar system. Discussion is based heavily on results obtained from recent space probes to Mercury, Venus, Mars Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Offers detailed descriptions of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and the results of the recent probes of Halley's comet. A discussion of meteorites leads to a description of the current models of the solar system. Introductory chapters present theories of the solar system from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Other topics covered include the sun, its structure, and how it generates energy; the surfaces, internal structures, and histories of the planets, from innermost Mercury to farthest Pluto, and their moons.

Baugher, J.F.

1988-01-01

88

Solar Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K.; Bergeron, David J., III

2002-09-01

89

Solar Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

2002-01-01

90

Solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (editor)

1989-01-01

91

Solar system plasma waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

Gurnett, Donald A.

1995-01-01

92

Virtual Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic website provides data and images of objects within the solar system. The Sun, the nine planets, comets, asteroids and meteors are all covered. Sun data includes details about solar winds, sunspots and the corona. Mercury data discusses the Caloris Basin, craters, ridges and faults. Venus data discusses volcanoes, mountains and clouds. Earth data covers water, the Moon, surface features and plate tectonics. Mars data covers polar ice caps, Olympus Mons volcano and the Mars Pathfinder project. Jupiter data discusses moons and rings, surface spots and the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact. Saturn details include rings, storms and moons. Uranus data covers its orbit, rings and moons. Neptune data includes surface storms and clouds. Pluto data discusses its odd orbit and satellite. There are links provided for more information.

William Newcott

93

Solar heating system  

DOEpatents

An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

1982-01-01

94

Microparticulate Based Topical Delivery System of Clobetasol Propionate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune skin disease affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Clobetasol propionate\\u000a which is a superpotent topical corticosteroid is widely used for topical treatment of psoriasis. Conventional dosage forms\\u000a like creams and ointments are commonly prefered for the therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a new topical delivery\\u000a system in order to provide

Ulya Bad?ll?; Tangül ?en; Nilüfer Tar?mc?

95

Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides very helpful information about our solar system in a fun and interesting way. There is a whole section about the sun, with facts about the surface, atmosphere, age, and varying temperatures of the sun. All the planets have their own webpage, with link to more in depth information as well as educational activities and games. There are interesting facts as well as myths about comets, asteroids, and meteoroids. The image archive has dozens of images of all the planets as well as the sun and moon.

96

Outer Solar System Nomenclature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Principal Investigator's responsibilities on this grant fell into two categories according to his participation. In the nomenclature work of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Owen is chair of the Task Group for the Outer Solar System. He is also a member of the IAU's Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) which is composed of the chairs of the several Task Groups plus the presidents of two IAU Commissions and several outside consultants. The WGPSN is presided over by its President, Professor Kaare Aksnes from the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway.

Owen, Tobias C.

1998-01-01

97

Views of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Views of the Solar System presents a vivid multimedia adventure unfolding the splendor of the Sun, planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and more. Discover the latest scientific information, or study the history of space exploration, rocketry, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft through a vast archive of photographs, scientific facts, text, graphics and videos. Views of the Solar System offers enhanced exploration and educational enjoyment of the solar system and beyond.

Hamilton, Calvin J.

98

Our Solar System's Cousin?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept illustrates two planetary systems -- 55 Cancri (top) and our own. Blue lines show the orbits of planets, including the dwarf planet Pluto in our solar system. The 55 Cancri system is currently the closest known analogue to our solar system, yet there are some fundamental differences.

The similarities begin with the stars themselves, which are about the same mass and age. Both stars also host big families of planets. Our solar system has eight planets, while 55 Cancri has five, making it the record-holder for having the most known exoplanets. In fact, 55 Cancri could have additional planets, possibly even rocky ones that are too small to be seen with current technologies. All of the planets in the two systems have nearly circular orbits.

In addition, both planetary systems have giant planets in their outer regions. The giant located far away from 55 Cancri is four times the mass of our Jupiter, and completes one orbit every 14 years at a distance of five times that between Earth and the sun (about 868 million kilometers or 539 million miles). Our Jupiter completes one orbit around the sun every 11.9 years, also at about five times the Earth-sun distance (778 million kilometers or 483 million miles). Fifty-five Cancri is still the only known star besides ours with a planet in a distant Jupiter-like orbit. Both systems also contain inner planets that are less massive than their outer planets.

The differences begin with the planets' masses. The planets orbiting 55 Cancri are all larger than Earth, and represent a 'souped-up' version of our own solar system. In fact, this is the first star that boasts more giant planets than our sun!

The arrangement of the planetary systems is also different. The inner four planets of 55 Cancri are all closer to the star than Earth is to the sun. The closest, about the mass of Uranus, whips around the star in just under three days at a distance of approximately 5.6 million kilometers (3.5 million miles). The second planet out from the star is a little smaller than Jupiter and completes one orbit every 14.7 days at a distance of approximately 17.9 million kilometers (11.2 million miles). The third planet out from the star is similar in mass to Saturn and completes one orbit every 44 days at a distance of approximately 35.9 million kilometers (22.3 million miles). The fourth planet is about half the mass of Saturn, orbits every 260 days and is approximately 116.7 million kilometers (72.5 million miles) away from the star.

2007-01-01

99

Primordial Solar System Ices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) may harbor the least thermally-altered material in the solar system and are thought to be remnants of the planet-forming era. Thus, study of their surfaces may lead to insights into the composition and formation process of planets in our solar system. We propose to continue the first KBO photometric survey sensitive to volatile ices using a set of custom bandpass filters. In the past, JHK broadband colors of KBOs have been collected by many researchers with inconclusive results because such filters are tuned to avoid telluric features and bear only weak correlations to absorption features found on the brightest KBOs. We have designed custom bandpass filters that allow the classification of KBOs into water, methane and featureless surface types. These filters were installed and commissioned in 2008B for use at Gemini with NIRI and at Magellan with PANIC. We continue our survey in this proposal. The survey is the first of its kind and will identify many more KBOs with volatiles than any previous spectral or photometric work.

Trujillo, Chadwick; Sheppard, Scott; Schaller, Emily

2009-08-01

100

Solar System Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site renders images of celestial bodies within our solar system. The simulator software looks up the positions of the Sun, planets and satellites from ephemeris files developed at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), as well as star positions and colors from a variety of stellar databases, and uses special-purpose renderers to draw a color scene. Texture maps for each of the planets and physical models for planetary rings have been derived (in most cases) from scientific data collected by various JPL spacecraft. Users can then request a rendered image of any celestial body from any other celestial body on the date of your choice (1600 to 2300). Users specify date and time, field of view, and whether orbits and constellation lines are to be depicted. Archived images (both rendered and actual) are available, as are simulated views from Cassini and Galilleo, and locations of current comets. The following named bodies can be rendered: Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Phobos, Deimos, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganeymede, Callisto, Saturn, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Titan, Lapetus, Uranus, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Miranda, Neptune, Triton, Pluto, Charon, Solar system, Cassini trajectory, Galileo trajectory, Comet Wild-2 trajectory, and the Voyager trajector.

David Seal

2000-07-30

101

Solar System Visualizations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar System Visualization products enable scientists to compare models and measurements in new ways that enhance the scientific discovery process, enhance the information content and understanding of the science results for both science colleagues and the public, and create.visually appealing and intellectually stimulating visualization products. Missions supported include MER, MRO, and Cassini. Image products produced include pan and zoom animations of large mosaics to reveal the details of surface features and topography, animations into registered multi-resolution mosaics to provide context for microscopic images, 3D anaglyphs from left and right stereo pairs, and screen captures from video footage. Specific products include a three-part context animation of the Cassini Enceladus encounter highlighting images from 350 to 4 meter per pixel resolution; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter screen captures illustrating various instruments during assembly and testing at the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at Kennedy Space Center; and an animation of Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' panorama where the rover was stuck in the deep fine sand for more than a month. This task creates new visualization products that enable new science results and enhance the public's understanding of the Solar System and NASA's missions of exploration.

Brown, Alison M.

2005-01-01

102

Solar Physics (2004) 224: 34 C Springer 2005 The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of  

E-print Network

Solar Physics (2004) 224: 3­4 C Springer 2005 PREFACE The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of Long-Term Solar Activity" is based on contributions presented at the First of solar activity, and their effects in the near-Earth environment and technoculture. As an analogy

Usoskin, Ilya G.

103

Extinct radionuclides. [in solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extinct radionuclides, or radioactive isotopes with lifetimes of the order of 1 to 100 Myr that are now extinct in the solar system are discussed. Evidence is presented for the presence of such radionuclides in the early solar system, including Al-26, Mn-53, Pd-107, I-129, Pu-244, and Sm-146. It is suggested that the abundances of these species provide constraints on nucleosynthetic time scales and the history of solar system materials before they became the solar system. The shortest-lived species is Al-26, which may have been sufficiently abundant to be the major heat source for meteorite parent-body metamorphism or igneous differentiation.

Podosek, F. A.; Swindle, T. D.

1988-01-01

104

Our Solar System 2013: Solar System Lithograph Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lithograph set about the solar system. It contains images of the planets, the sun, asteroids, comets, meteors and meteorites, the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud, and moons of the solar system. General information, significant dates, interesting facts and brief descriptions of the images are included.

2012-12-06

105

Economic Evaluation of Observatory Solar-Energy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Topics covered are system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization.

1982-01-01

106

Wind in the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short "TPT" articles on frost and precipitation. The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might motivate…

McIntosh, Gordon

2010-01-01

107

Geologic exploration of solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes that must have operated on the early Earth have been deduced from evidence from ancient surfaces of the Moon and planets. In particular, such comparative studies have demonstrated that only two geologic processes have been widespread throughout the history of the solar system: impact cratering and volcanism. Impact craters have formed throughout solar system history, indeed the planets

Wood

1987-01-01

108

Chemistry of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many hypotheses have been presented as to the origin and evolution of ; the solar system. There is an hypothesis that the Jovian planets and the other ; bodies in the outer solar system formed at low temperatures and the terrestrial ; planets formed at high temperatures. A second model for the formation of the ; terrestrial planets from the

1973-01-01

109

Spectroscopy of Solar System Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic observations of the Solar System with ISO have gratified planetary scientists with a wealth of new and exciting results. These findings relate to various investigation fields including the origin of the Solar System, the photochemistry of the giant planets, and the physical and chemical state of planetary surfaces. Observations of comets have shown fluorescence from various parent molecules, yielding

B. Bezard

2000-01-01

110

Solar System Studies with Ska  

Microsoft Academic Search

SKA will be a valuable instrument for Solar System research. In this paper I summarize the advantages of this array for a few selected Solar System projects, such as Jupiter, radar observations, imaging of cometary comas and extrasolar planet research. I show the importance of the ability to map extended time-variable sources simultaneously at low and high frequencies using the

Imke de Pater

2000-01-01

111

Solar System Observations with NHST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar system observations using HST have been tremendously successful in many scientific areas, taking advantage of the wealth of information from high angular resolution images and high sensitivity UV to IR spectra. These capabilities have led to major advances in the areas of planetary atmospheres, surfaces, aurora and magnetospheres, and planetary satellites. While solar system objects are normally considered to

J. T. Clarke

2003-01-01

112

Exploration of the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sourcebook of information on the solar system and the technology used for its exploration is presented. An outline of the potential achievements of solar system exploration is given along with a course of action which maximizes the rewards to mankind.

Henderson, A., Jr.; Grey, J.

1974-01-01

113

Overview of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource covers the size and scale of Solar System objects, such as the masses, densities, and relative radii of the sun and planets; revolution and rotation of the planets; conservation of angular momentum; theories on the origin of the solar system, such as the nebular hypothesis, which includes collapsing clouds of gas and dust, a spinning nebula that flattens, and condensation of the protosun and protoplanets; star formation, planets of other stars, and the creation of new solar systems; and comparison of binary star systems and planetary systems. An astrophysical calculator is provided in the size and scale subsection.

114

Solar dish/engine systems  

SciTech Connect

Solar dish/engine systems convert the energy from the sun into electricity at a very high efficiency. Using a mirror array formed into the shape of a dish, the solar dish focuses the sun`s rays onto a receiver. The receiver transmits the energy to an engine that generates electric power. Because of the high concentration ratios achievable with parabolic dishes and the small size of the receiver, solar dishes are efficient at collecting solar energy at very high temperatures. Tests of prototype systems and components at locations throughout the US have demonstrated net solar to electric conversion efficiencies as high as 30%. This is significantly higher than any other solar technology.

Not Available

1998-04-01

115

Integrated voice and visual systems research topics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of studies was performed to investigate factors of helicopter speech and visual system design and measure the effects of these factors on human performance, both for pilots and non-pilots. The findings and conclusions of these studies were applied by the U.S. Army to the design of the Army's next generation threat warning system for helicopters and to the linguistic functional requirements for a joint Army/NASA flightworthy, experimental speech generation and recognition system.

Williams, Douglas H.; Simpson, Carol A.

1986-01-01

116

Solar Power System Design for the Solar Probe+ Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar Probe+ is an ambitious mission proposed to the solar corona, designed to make a perihelion approach of 9 solar radii from the surface of the sun. The high temperature, high solar flux environment makes this mission a significant challenge for power system design. This paper summarizes the power system conceptual design for the solar probe mission. Power supplies considered included nuclear, solar thermoelectric generation, solar dynamic generation using Stirling engines, and solar photovoltaic generation. The solar probe mission ranges from a starting distance from the sun of 1 AU, to a minimum distance of about 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU, from the center of the sun. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 510 times AM0. This requires power systems that can operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Kinnison, James; Fraeman, Martin; Roufberg, Lew; Vernon, Steve; Wirzburger, Melissa

2008-01-01

117

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

1981-01-01

118

Advanced Turbine Systems Program. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The Allison Gas Turbine Division (Allison) of General Motors Corporation conducted the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program feasibility study (Phase I) in accordance with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`s) contract DE-AC21-86MC23165 A028. This feasibility study was to define and describe a natural gas-fired reference system which would meet the objective of {ge}60% overall efficiency, produce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions 10% less than the state-of-the-art without post combustion controls, and cost of electricity of the N{sup th} system to be approximately 10% below that of the current systems. In addition, the selected natural gas-fired reference system was expected to be adaptable to coal. The Allison proposed reference system feasibility study incorporated Allison`s long-term experience from advanced aerospace and military technology programs. This experience base is pertinent and crucial to the success of the ATS program. The existing aeroderivative technology base includes high temperature hot section design capability, single crystal technology, advanced cooling techniques, high temperature ceramics, ultrahigh turbomachinery components design, advanced cycles, and sophisticated computer codes.

NONE

1993-03-01

119

Formation of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall evolution of the solar system is discussed in terms of what is called the Kyoto model. Starting from the formation of the solar nebula, a multistep process is followed in detail, including growth and sedimentation of dust grains in the nebula, formation of planetesimals due to fragmentation of a dust layer, radial migration and accumulation of planetesimals to

C. Hayashi; K. Nakazawa; Y. Nakagawa

1985-01-01

120

Astrometric solar system anomalies  

SciTech Connect

There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

2009-01-01

121

Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300?C ñ 800?C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at Earth¥s surface. The higher the concentration, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy

Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

2012-08-01

122

Topics in biophysics and disordered quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a collection of problems applying the tools of statistical physics to biology. We also present work on the effects of disorder on quantum systems. First, we derive a mean-field phase diagram for the folding of a generic RNA molecule, focusing on the conditions under which a stable ribozyme may fold. Then, we study the statistical mechanics of nucleosorne positioning and trans-membrane protein alpha-helix prediction, applying related techniques. We compare the physical outcomes of each model, finding nucleosomes suffer from ubiquitous metastability while transmembrane proteins are designed to avoid this problem. Next we study the dynamical properties of a collection of neurons, believed to generate the spontaneous breathing rhythms of mammals, focusing on its ability to produce stable oscillations of activity. Next we address the competition between disorder and strong interaction in 2 D fermionic systems, finding that the Mott gap is completely washed out, leading to a glassy state. Finally, we study the rounding by disorder of first, order quantum phase transitions, both through a general heuristic argument and an in-depth study of a particular model.

Schwab, David Jason

123

Exobiology in Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A symposium, 'Exobiology in Solar System Exploration,' was held on 24-26 Aug. 1988. The symposium provided an in-depth investigation of the role of Exobiology in solar system exploration. It is expected that the symposium will provide direction for future participation of the Exobiology community in solar system exploration and alert the Planetary community to the continued importance of an Exobiology Flight Program. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily on Exobiology in solar system exploration missions, several ground based and Earth-orbital projects such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Gas Grain Facility, and Cosmic Dust Collection Facility represent upcoming research opportunities planned to accommodate the goals and objectives of the Exobiology community as well. This report contains papers for all but one of the presentations given at the symposium.

Carle, Glenn C. (editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (editor); Huntington, Judith L. (editor)

1992-01-01

124

Evolution of the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin and evolution of the solar system are analyzed. Physical processes are first discussed, followed by experimental studies of plasma-solid reactions and chemical and mineralogical analyses of meteorites and lunar and terrestrial samples.

Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.

1976-01-01

125

Solar System Observations with JWST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid- infrared, with sensitivity and spatial-spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010). It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV in 2012.

Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

2014-01-01

126

Formation of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter from an online astronomy course briefly describes the formation of the solar system from an accretionary disk. Links to additional resources, a homework assignment, and a quiz are included.

Barnes, Joshua

127

Solar System Observations with JWST  

E-print Network

The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010). It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV in 2012.

Norwood, James; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

2014-01-01

128

Keck Meets the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a 10-meter telescope on solar-system science began in 1994 when comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collided with Jupiter. Shortly after Keck's observation of this event, the advent of adaptive optics ushered in an explosion of solar-system observation opportunities, including volcanoes on Io, binary asteroids, rings of outer planets, clouds on Titan, shapes of main belt asteroids, imaging near-Earth asteroids,

Al Conrad; R. Campbell; R. Goodrich; D. Le Mignant; W. J. Merline; J. D. Drummond; C. Dumas; B. Carry

2007-01-01

129

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Early Solar System Chronology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics were presented in this report: Iron Isotopic Fractionation During Vacuum Evaporation of Molten W?stite and Solar Compositions; Mg Isotope Ratio Zonation in CAIs - New Constraints on CAI Evolution; Sm-Nd Systematics of Chondrites; AMS Measurement of Mg-24(He-3,p)Al-26 Cross Section, Implications for the Al-26 Production in the Early Solar System; On Early Solar System Chronology: Implications of an Initially Heterogeneous Distribution of Short-lived Radionuclides; Revisiting Extraterrestrial U Isotope Ratios; Helium-Shell Nucleosynthesis and Extinct Radioactivities; High Spatial Resolution Ion Microprobe Measurements Refine Chronology of Orgueil Carbonate Formation; and Calibration of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Flux.

2004-01-01

130

Solar-energy-system performance evaluation: Honeywell OTS 44, Ocmulgee, Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and technical performance of the solar operational test site (OTS 44) are described, based on data collected between April, 1981 and August, 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 44 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 5040 square

A. K. Mathur; S. Pederson

1982-01-01

131

Smaller solar system bodies and orbits; Proceedings of Symposium 3, Workshops II, III, and XXVI, and Topical Meetings of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed in this volume include the reappraisal of the moon and Mars/Phobos/Deimos; the origin and evolution of planetary and satellite systems; asteroids, comets, and dust (a post-IRAS perspective); satellite dynamics; future planetary missions; and orbital debris. Papers are presented on a comparison of the chemistry of moon and Mars, the use of a mobile surface radar to study the atmosphere and ionosphere, and laser-ionization studies with the technical models of the LIMA-D/Phobos. Attention is given to planetogonic scenarios and the evolution of relatively mass-rich preplanetary disks, the kinetic behavior of planetesimals revolving around the sun, the planetary evolution of Mars, and pre- and post-IRAS asteroid taxonomies. Consideration is also given to ocean tides and tectonic plate motions in high-precision orbit determination, the satellite altimeter calibration techniques, a theory of the motion of an artificial satellite in the earth atmosphere, ESA plans for planetary exploration, and the detection of earth orbiting objects by IRAS.

Runcorn, S. K. (editor); Carr, M. H. (editor); Moehlmann, D. (editor); Stiller, H. (editor); Matson, D. L. (editor); Ambrosius, B. A. C. (editor); Kessler, D. J. (editor)

1990-01-01

132

Exploring the Solar System? Let the Math Teachers Help!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scale measurement and ratio and proportion are topics that fall clearly in the middle-grades mathematics curriculum in Texas. So does the solar system. In their experience, the authors have found that students have trouble manipulating, much less comprehending, very large numbers and very small numbers. These concepts can be brought into students'…

Charles, Karen; Canales, J. D.; Smith, Angela; Zimmerman, Natalie

2012-01-01

133

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System SOLAR SYSTEM BODIES  

E-print Network

IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System SOLAR SYSTEM BODIES Planetary The Solar System has 8 planets : Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune #12;IntrAst1 (Petrovay) Chracteristics and origon of the Solar System "Small Solar System Bodies" (SSSB) (IAU 2006

Petrovay, Kristóf

134

Design data brochure for CSI series V solar heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generalized information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout is presented to assist the architect or designer in preparing construction drawings and specifications for the installation of the CSI integrated solar heating systems. Efficiency in space utilization of a full length collector and the importance of proper sizing of the collector array are among the topics discussed. Details of storage and transport subsystems are provided along with drawings and specifications of all components of the CSI system.

1978-01-01

135

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stewart-Teele-Mitchell site is a single-family residence in Malta, New York. The home has approximately 1900 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a gross area of 432 square feet. The array faces south at an

1979-01-01

136

Stability of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a well established myth that the solar system is stable. The argument is generally based on the fact that the rate of the radiative plus solar wind mass loss of the Sun has a relatively small value of 8.81E-05 (1\\/Byr = 1\\/Ma) (radiative: 6.63E-05 (1\\/By)). Experimental results, e.g., that the Earth is separating from the Sun (10m\\/100year)(1), put

I. H. Leubner

2008-01-01

137

CSCE 6933/5933 Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems  

E-print Network

technique called Design of Experiments-Monte Carlo (DOE-MC) approach is proposed, offering up to 6.25X computational time savings over traditional Monte-Carlo (TMC). Advanced Topics in VLSI Systems 5 #12;Related: Efficient Design of Current-Starved VCO NOTE: The figures, text etc included in slides are borrowed from

Mohanty, Saraju P.

138

Chaos in the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical basis of chaos in the solar system is now better understood: In all cases investigated so far, chaotic orbits result from overlapping resonances. Perhaps the clearest examples are found in the asteroid belt. Overlapping resonances account for its kirkwood gaps and were used to predict and find evidence for very narrow gaps in the outer belt. Further afield, about one new "short-peroid" comet is discovered each year. They are believed to come from the "Kuiper Belt" (at 40 AU or more) via chaotic orbits produced by mean-motion and secular resonances with Neptune. Finally, the planetary system itself is not immune from chaos. In the inner solar system, overlapping secular resonances have been identified as the possible source of chaos. For example, Mercury in 1012 years, may suffer a close encounter with Venus or plunge into the Sun. In the outer solar system, three-body resonances have been identified as a source of chaos, but on an even longer time scale of 109 times the age of the solar system. On the human time scale, the planets do follow their orbits in a stately procession, and we can predict their trajectories for hundreds of thousands of years. That is because the mavericks, with shorter instability times, have long since been ejected. The solar system is not stable; it is just old!

Lecar, Myron; Franklin, Fred A.; Holman, Matthew J.; Murray, Norman J.

2001-01-01

139

Chaos in the Solar System  

E-print Network

The physical basis of chaos in the solar system is now better understood: in all cases investigated so far, chaotic orbits result from overlapping resonances. Perhaps the clearest examples are found in the asteroid belt. Overlapping resonances account for its Kirkwood gaps and were used to predict and find evidence for very narrow gaps in the outer belt. Further afield, about one new ``short-period'' comet is discovered each year. They are believed to come from the ``Kuiper Belt'' (at 40 AU or more) via chaotic orbits produced by mean-motion and secular resonances with Neptune. Finally, the planetary system itself is not immune from chaos. In the inner solar system, overlapping secular resonances have been identified as the possible source of chaos. For example, Mercury, in 10^{12} years, may suffer a close encounter with Venus or plunge into the Sun. In the outer solar system, three-body resonances have been identified as a source of chaos, but on an even longer time scale of 10^9 times the age of the solar system. On the human time scale, the planets do follow their orbits in a stately procession, and we can predict their trajectories for hundreds of thousands of years. That is because the mavericks, with shorter instability times, have long since been ejected. The solar system is not stable; it is just old!

M. Lecar; F. Franklin; M. Holman; N. Murray

2001-11-30

140

Building Integration Of Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way solar systems are used in buildings is different from what it used to be. Buildings are no longer designed to use just passive solar energy systems, such as windows and sunspaces, or active solar systems, such as solar water collectors. In fact, the words passive and active no longer make sense, as the newer buildings combine several of

Anne Grete Hestnes

1999-01-01

141

The Wireless Monitoring System of Solar Receiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

In solar thermal utilization technology, one needs to calculate the conversion efficiency and verify whether safety and durability meet the design requirements by monitoring solar receiving system, and improve the solar receiving system according to the experimental data. This paper introduces a system designed for performance detecting of non vacuum solar thermal receiving pipe and its high efficiency selective coating.

Dai Yawen; Qin Tao

2012-01-01

142

Solar energy system performance evaluation: final report for Honeywell OTS 41, Shenandoah (Newnan), Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 41) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, are described, based on the analysis of data collected between January and August 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 41 is a hydronic heating and

A. K. Mathur; S. Pederson

1982-01-01

143

Solar energy system performance evaluation - final report for Honeywell OTS 45, Salt River Project, Phoenix, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 45) at Salt River Project in Phoenix, Arizona, based on the analysis of data collected between April 1981 and March 31, 1982. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS

Mathur

1983-01-01

144

Solar-energy-system performance evaluation: final report for Honeywell OTS 44, Ocmulgee, Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 44) at Ocmulgee National Monument, in Georgia, are described, based on the analysis of data collected between April 1981 and August, 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 44 is a

A. K. Mathur; S. Pederson

1982-01-01

145

Installation Guidelines for Solar DHW Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are some of the better techniques for installing solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems. By using these guidelines, along with the manufacturer's manual, professional installation contractors and skilled homeowners should be able to install and fill a solar DHW system. Among the topics considered are system layouts, siting, mounting…

Hollander, Peter; And Others

146

Solar tracking system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

White, P. R.; Scott, D. R. (inventors)

1981-01-01

147

Residential solar-heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

1978-01-01

148

Stability of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

AT the end of the eighteenth century, the French astronomer Laplace proved that a system of planets moving around the sun in definite orbits might suffer many serious disturbances, but still would always hold together. Laplace's statement involved certain approximations which, though legitimate at the time, can now no longer be accepted. Geologists place the birth of our solar system

Ernest W. Brown

1932-01-01

149

Odyssey: a Solar System Mission  

E-print Network

The Solar System Odyssey mission uses modern-day high-precision experimental techniques to test the laws of fundamental physics which determine dynamics in the solar system. It could lead to major discoveries by using demonstrated technologies. The mission proposes to perform a set of precision gravitation experiments from the vicinity of Earth to the outer Solar System. Its scientific objectives can be summarized as follows: i) test of the gravity force law in the Solar System up to and beyond the orbit of Saturn; ii) precise investigation of navigation anomalies at the fly-bys; iii) measurement of Eddington's parameter at occultations; iv) mapping of gravity field in the outer solar system and study of the Kuiper belt. To this aim, the Odyssey mission is built up on a main spacecraft, designed to fly up to 13 AU, with the following components: a) a high-precision accelerometer, with bias-rejection system, measuring the deviation of the trajectory from the geodesics; b) Ka-band transponders, as for Cassini, for a precise range and Doppler measurement up to 13 AU, with additional VLBI equipment; c) optional laser equipment, which would allow one to improve the range and Doppler measurement. In this baseline concept, the main spacecraft is designed to operate beyond the Saturn orbit, up to 13 AU. It experiences multiple planetary fly-bys at Earth, Mars or Venus, and Jupiter. The cruise and fly-by phases allow the mission to achieve its baseline scientific objectives (i) to iii) in the above list). In addition to this baseline concept, the Odyssey mission proposes the release of the Enigma radio-beacon at Saturn, allowing one to extend the deep space gravity test up to at least 50 AU, while achieving the scientific objective of a mapping of gravity field in the outer Solar System.

B. Christophe; P. H. Andersen; J. D. Anderson; S. Asmar; Ph. Bério; O. Bertolami; R. Bingham; F. Bondu; Ph. Bouyer; S. Bremer; J. -M. Courty; H. Dittus; B. Foulon; P. Gil; U. Johann; J. F. Jordan; B. Kent; C. Lämmerzahl; A. Lévy; G. Métris; O. Olsen; J. Pàramos; J. D. Prestage; S. V. Progrebenko; E. Rasel; A. Rathke; S. Reynaud; B. Rievers; E. Samain; T. J. Sumner; S. Theil; P. Touboul; S. Turyshev; P. Vrancken; P. Wolf; N. Yu

2008-01-18

150

Bring NASA's Year of the Solar System into Your Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Year of the Solar System ( http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss) is a celebration of our exploration of the solar system, which began in October 2010 and continues for one Martian year (687 Earth days) ending in late summer 2012. The diverse planetary missions in this period create a rare opportunity to engage students and the public, using NASA missions to reveal new worlds and new discoveries. Each month focuses on a particular topic, such as the scale of the solar system, its formation, water in the solar system, volcanism, atmospheres, and more! All educators are invited to join the celebration; indeed, the EPO community is needed in order for this event to be successful! Participants at the 2011 ASP Conference surveyed a variety of thematic activities, received resources and implementation ideas, and were invited to share their own experiences and upcoming events!

Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; LaConte, K.; Dalton, H.; Buxner, S.; Boonstra, D.; Ristvey, J.; Wessen, A.; Zimmerman-Brachman, R.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.

2012-08-01

151

Solar System Science with JWST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JWST will enable breakthroughs in our understanding of the physical characteristics of cold bodies in the outer reaches of the Solar System. These objects include Pluto and other Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), the icy moons of the giant planets, and distant cometary nuclei. Recent discoveries of large objects in the Kuiper belt, along with many smaller members, make it clear that this region represents a major constituent of our Solar System, one that was hidden until recently because it is so remote and challenging to observe. The near-IR and mid-IR performance of JWST will be unique in its power to probe this region. This poster describes the science drivers for JWST observations of Solar System objects and plans for implementing this capability.

Sonneborn, G.; Lunine, J.; Hammel, H.; Long, K.; Hutchings, J.; Rieke, G.

2007-01-01

152

Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

Krupka, M. C.

1980-09-01

153

Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

Ward, Dan S.

1976-01-01

154

Automatic solar lamp intensity control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System that substitutes solar cells directly in the path of the radiation incident on the test volume and uses a dc bridge-null system was developed. The solar cell is affixed to a heat sink mounted on each of three arms for each solar lamp. Control of the radiation from the solar lamps is automatic.

Leverone, H.; Mandell, N.

1968-01-01

155

Discovery of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of NASA's website "From Stargazers to Starships". It discusses the evolution of scientific thought concerning the nature of the solar system, beginning with the earth-centered solar system advocated by Hipparchus and Ptolemy. Ptolemy's idea that the sun and planets moved around the Earth persisted for nearly a thousand years until Copernicus and Galileo, using his newly-invented telescope, began to understand that the Earth and its companion planets all orbited in around the sun. The site features text, pictures, a scientific illustration showing retrograde motion, and links to other relevant sites.

156

Is the Solar System Stable ?  

E-print Network

Since the formulation of the problem by Newton, and during three centuries, astronomers and mathematicians have sought to demonstrate the stability of the Solar System. Thanks to the numerical experiments of the last two decades, we know now that the motion of the planets in the Solar System is chaotic, which prohibits any accurate prediction of their trajectories beyond a few tens of millions of years. The recent simulations even show that planetary collisions or ejections are possible on a period of less than 5 billion years, before the end of the life of the Sun.

Jacques Laskar

2012-09-26

157

Volcanoes in the Solar System Pictorial Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volcanoes in the Solar System is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides information and images about shield volcanoes, cinder cones, ash, lava, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Io, and the Moon. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Roberta Johnson

2000-07-01

158

Continued Development of the Solar System Concept Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed in order to provide a pre-/post-instruction assessment instrument suitable for use in an introductory solar system course. The topics included on the SSCI focus on formation mechanisms, planetary interiors, atmospheric and surface effects, and small solar system bodies. These topics were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system. Student interviews were then conducted to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. As of December 2009, the SSCI has been through four semesters of both pre- and post-instruction classroom testing, involving over 2000 students and 11 institutions (ranging from two-year colleges to doctoral/research universities). After each semester of testing, item analysis statistics such as point biserial, percentage correct on pre- or post-testing, and frequently-chosen distracters (incorrect answers) were used to flag ineffective questions. Flagged questions were revised or eliminated. We present an overall outline of the SSCI development as well as our question-flagging criteria and question analyses from the latest round of field-testing. We would like to thank the NSF for funding under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

Hornstein, Seth D.; Prather, E. E.; English, T. R.; Desch, S. M.; Keller, J. M.; CATS

2010-01-01

159

The distribution of mass and angular momentum in the solar system  

SciTech Connect

This book describes the contribution of the comets in the Oort cloud to the angular momentum of the solar system. Topics covered include: Nuclear mass of the new comets observed, Mass of the Oort cloud, Mass distribution in the solar system, Zone of comet formation, Angular momentum of the Oort cloud, and Angular momentum of the Hills cloud.

Marochnik, L.S.; Mukhin, L.M.; Sagdeev, R.Z. (Institute for Space Research, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow (SU))

1989-01-01

160

Exploring the Solar System: A Literature Unit within a Whole Language Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A useful framework for literature-based instruction is the curriculum related literature unit which provides a total resource for content area teaching. Such a unit could be based on the science curriculum, "Exploring the Solar System," and could be developed thematically through topics of space or the solar system. The teacher's initial step is…

Sandel, Lenore

161

Solar Tracking System: More Efficient Use of Solar Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the potential system benefits of simple tracking solar system using a stepper motor and light sensor. This method is increasing power collection efficiency by developing a device that tracks the sun to keep the panel at a right angle to its rays. A solar tracking system is designed, implemented and experimentally tested. The design details and the

J. Rizk; Y. Chaiko

2008-01-01

162

Exploration of the Solar System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review is one of a series of assessments and reviews prepared in the public interest by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The purpose of this review is to outline the potential achievements of solar system exploration and suggest a course of action which will maximize the rewards to mankind. A secondary purpose is…

Henderson, Arthur, Jr., Ed.; Grey, Jerry, Ed.

163

Surveying of the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some populations of objects in the solar system are poorly known, and the long range goal of this program is to improve that situation. For instance, the statistics of Trojan asteroids is being studied. A new technique is being developed for sky surveillance by scanning with CCD, particularly for the discovery of near Earth asteroids.

Gehrels, Tom

1991-01-01

164

Introduction to solar system MHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the solar systems are in the plasma state and its subtle non-linear interaction with the magnetic field is described for many purposes adequately by the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). These equations are also applicable to the electrically conducting liquid cores of planets, such as our Earth, where magnetic fields are being generated by dynamo action. Indeed, this realisation

E. R. Priest

1991-01-01

165

The Solar System Kuiper belt  

E-print Network

The Solar System #12;Contents Sun Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Venus Earth Mars Mercury Kuiper,He Ring #12;Uranus Discovered in 1781 by Wm Herschel Axis inclined 98o #12;Neptune Predicted using Newton's Laws, based on deviations in Uranus'orbit Discovered in 1840s Large moon: Triton #12;Mercury #12

Walter, Frederick M.

166

The Solar System primordial lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the primordial isotope composition of Pb in the Solar System is critical to the understanding of the early evolution of Earth and other planetary bodies. Here we present new Pb isotopic data on troilite (FeS) nodules from a number of different iron meteorites: Canyon Diablo, Mundrabilla, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Toluca (IAB–IIICD), Cape York (IIIA), Mt Edith (IIIB), and Seymchan

Janne Blichert-Toft; Brigitte Zanda; Denton S. Ebel; Francis Albarède

2010-01-01

167

Q in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secular changes brought about by tidal friction in the solar system are reviewed. The presence or absence of specific changes is used to bound the values of Q (the specific dissipation function) appropriate for the planets and satellites. It is shown that the values of Q separate sharply into two groups. Values in the range from 10 to 500 are

PETER GOLDREICH; STEVEN SOTER

1966-01-01

168

Solar System Scale and Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about planetary distances. Learners will create a model of the solar system using beads and string, and compare planetary sizes using common types of fruit and seeds. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

169

Sizing up the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS 1993) states that by the end of fifth grade, students should understand that a model, such as those depicting the solar system, is a smaller version of the real product, making it easier to physically work with and therefore learn from. However, for students and even adults,…

Wiebke, Heidi; Rogers, Meredith Park; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri

2011-01-01

170

Best of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about visual analysis. Learners will describe images and then compare their descriptions to ones that scientists wrote. Doing this helps them see how scientists study planets that are millions of miles away. Finally they are asked to analyze their data in order to learn about the overall compostion of the solar system.

171

Precipitation in the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an astronomy instructor, I am always looking for commonly observed Earthly experiences to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote a short TPT article on frost. This paper is on the related phenomena of precipitation. Precipitation, so common on most of the Earth's…

McIntosh, Gordon

2007-01-01

172

Chemical aspects of the formation of the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of Alfven's theory for the formation of the solar system and the constraints imposed by the chemical composition of space materials are discussed with reference to chemical processes involved in the formation of the solar system. Evidence for the chemical properties of the space medium and the chemical consequences of the postulated physical differentiation processes are outlined, and interpretations based on structure and composition of meteorite material are indicated. A large range of topics, including processes involving chemical differentiation, temperature effects, and isotope fractionation, are examined.

Arrhenius, G.

1978-01-01

173

Solar heating and cooling system design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application surveys and performance studies were conducted to determine a solar heating and hot water configuration that could be used in a variety of applications, and to identify subsystem modules that could be utilized in a building block fashion to adapt hardware items to single and multi-family residential and commercial systems. Topics discussed include: subsystem development for the solar collectors, controls, other components, energy management module, and the heating system configuration test. Operational tests conducted at an Illinois farmhouse, and a YWCA in Spokane, Washington are discussed.

1978-01-01

174

Impact of Reflectors on Solar Energy Systems  

E-print Network

Abstract—The paper aims to show that implementing different types of reflectors in solar energy systems, will dramatically improve energy production by means of concentrating and intensifying more sunlight onto a solar cell. The Solar Intensifier unit is designed to increase efficiency and performance of a set of solar panels. The unit was fabricated and tested. The experimental results show good improvement in the performance of the solar energy system. II. SOLAR INTENSIFIER UNIT A flat solar panel can incorporate reflectors at the side. The idea is to increase the sunlight intensity onto the panel by reflecting sunlight that would normally have missed panel.

J. Rizk; M. H. Nagrial

175

Topical nitrogen mustard exposure causes systemic toxic effects in mice.  

PubMed

Vesicating agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) are reported to be easily absorbed by skin upon exposure causing severe cutaneous injury and blistering. Our studies show that topical exposure of NM (3.2mg) onto SKH-1 hairless mouse skin, not only caused skin injury, but also led to significant body weight loss and 40-80% mortality (120h post-exposure), suggesting its systemic effects. Accordingly, further studies herein show that NM exposure initiated an increase in circulating white blood cells by 24h (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) and thereafter a decrease (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes). NM exposure also reduced both white and red pulp areas of the spleen. In the small intestine, NM exposure caused loss of membrane integrity of the surface epithelium, abnormal structure of glands and degeneration of villi. NM exposure also resulted in the dilation of glomerular capillaries of kidneys, and an increase in blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio. Our results here with NM are consistent with earlier reports that exposure to higher SM levels can cause damage to the hematopoietic system, and kidney, spleen and gastrointestinal tract toxicity. These outcomes will add to our understanding of the toxic effects of topical vesicant exposure, which might be helpful towards developing effective countermeasures against injuries from acute topical exposures. PMID:25481215

Goswami, Dinesh G; Kumar, Dileep; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Orlicky, David J; Jain, Anil K; Kant, Rama; Rancourt, Raymond C; Dhar, Deepanshi; Inturi, Swetha; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

2014-12-01

176

Systemic vs. Topical Therapy for the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that 75% of all women will experience at least 1 episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) during their lifetimes. Most patients with acute VVC can be treated with short-term regimens that optimize compliance. Since current topical and oral antifungals have shown comparably high efficacy rates, other issues should be considered in determining the most appropriate therapy. It is possible that the use of short-duration narrow-spectrum agents may increase selection of more resistant organisms which will result in an increase of recurrent VVC (RVVC). Women who are known or suspected to be pregnant and women of childbearing age who are not using a reliable means of contraception should receive topical therapy, as should those who are breast-feeding or receiving drugs that can interact with an oral azole and those who have previously experienced adverse effects during azole therapy. Because of the potential risks associated with systemic treatment, topical therapy with a broad-spectrum agent should be the method of choice for VVC, whereas systemic therapy should be reserved for either RVVC or cases where the benefits outweigh any possible adverse reactions. PMID:18475346

1994-01-01

177

The database management system: A topic and a tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data structures and data base management systems are common tools employed to deal with the administrative information of a university. An understanding of these topics is needed by a much wider audience, ranging from those interested in computer aided design and manufacturing to those using microcomputers. These tools are becoming increasingly valuable to academic programs as they develop comprehensive computer support systems. The wide use of these tools relies upon the relational data model as a foundation. Experience with the use of the IPAD RIM5.0 program is described.

Plummer, O. R.

1984-01-01

178

Modeling of Solar System Formation Using ACRETE  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the present structures of the Solar System as well as many new extrasolar planets recently discovered around solar-like stars, it is important to reexamine the theory of solar system formation. We will use a simple accretion model, built for the first time by Dole (1970), to generate planetary systems. In this model, some new adaptations are made to take

A. Yamani; R. Satyaningsih; T. Hidayat; I. Radiman; B. Dermawan; S. Siregar

179

The solar system - A new view  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison is presented of the properties found in the planets of the solar system, and how they relate to the evolution of life on earth is discussed. Attention is given to tectonic processes that are observed throughout the solar system. It is also pointed out that the evolution of many bodies in the solar system has been altered by

Edward C. Stone

1992-01-01

180

The cluster origin of the solar system  

E-print Network

The cluster origin of the solar system S.Pfalzner Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie #12;Today the solar system is located in a relatively sparse area of the Milky Way local stellar density: 0.122 stars/pc3 Did the solar system form in such an environment? Perseus arm Sagitarius arm #12;· http

Â?umer, Slobodan

181

Solar Resource and PV Systems Performance  

E-print Network

Solar Resource and PV Systems Performance at Selected Test Sites Prepared for the U.S. Department Subtask 11.1 Deliverables 2 and 4: Report on Solar Resource and PV Systems Performance at Selected Test agency thereof. #12;1 Solar Resource and PV Systems Performance at Selected Test Sites Contents 1

182

Stability of the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a well established myth that the solar system is stable. The argument is generally based on the fact that the rate of the radiative plus solar wind mass loss of the Sun has a relatively small value of 8.81E-05 (1/Byr = 1/Ma) (radiative: 6.63E-05 (1/By)). Experimental results, e.g., that the Earth is separating from the Sun (10m/100year)(1), put the concept of stability of solar planetary orbits into doubt. An understanding of the stability of the solar system is a critical step towards the understanding of the stability of galaxies and the Universe.(2,3) The stability of planetary orbits, which is the other factor determining the stability of the solar system, has until recently not been modeled.(4) A model is presented which shows that the planetary orbits are weakly bound relative to orbital separation, ranging from 0.6 percent for Mercury to 0.006 for Pluto, and 0.0011 percent for CR105, the furthest reported planetesimal. These values are in the order of solar mass/gravity loss, and as a consequence, the model predicts that the solar system is expanding since its formation. The present separation rate of Earth is calculated to 3.0 m/year. Eventually orbital separation of planets will occur, e.g., at 133.8, 1.30, and 0.23 Billion years for Mercury, Pluto, Cr105, respectively under current conditions. The model shows that Mars was previously closer to the Sun and exposed to higher radiation, and that the transition from water to ice on its surface occurred 3.6 Billion years ago.(4) Predictions of the model are reported for all planets and dwarf planets. References: 1. C. Laemmerzahl, 2006, 70th Annual Meeting, German Physical Society, (DPG); Note: indirect measurements, quote: The cause for the drifting apart of Sun and Earth cannot be explained by present knowledge and methods of gravitation physics' 2. I. H. Leubner, 2003, 'The Formation of the universe (Big Bang) as a Crystallization Process', Rochester Academy of Science, 30th Fall Paper Session, November 15, 2003, College of Science, Rochester Institute of Technology 3. I. H. Leubner, 2008, 'Derivation of the Hubble Constant' 35th Annual Fall Scientific Paper Session, Rochester Academy of Science Nazareth College, Rochester, NY, November 1, 2008 4. I. H. Leubner, 2004, 'Mars Orbit and Temperature: Why and When an Early wet Mars', AGU Fall Meeting, Session P01, #82

Leubner, I. H.

2008-12-01

183

Solar System Advisory Panel (SSAP) Developing the Roadmap for Solar System Science  

E-print Network

Solar System Advisory Panel (SSAP) Developing the Roadmap for Solar System Science Note of scientists providing an opportunity to highlight key issues in solar system science or to promote future of key questions for the science, along with the most pertinent sub-questions for solar system science

Crowther, Paul

184

C.3 SOLAR SYSTEM WORKINGS The Solar System Workings program element supports research into atmospheric, climatological,  

E-print Network

C.3-1 C.3 SOLAR SYSTEM WORKINGS The Solar System Workings program element supports research on planetary bodies, satellites, and other minor bodies (including rings) in the Solar System. This call seeks. Scope of Program 1.1 Programmatic Overview The Solar System Workings (SSW) program solicits

Rathbun, Julie A.

185

Steamy Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

This diagram illustrates the earliest journeys of water in a young, forming star system. Stars are born out of icy cocoons of gas and dust. As the cocoon collapses under its own weight in an inside-out fashion, a stellar embryo forms at the center surrounded by a dense, dusty disk. The stellar embryo 'feeds' from the disk for a few million years, while material in the disk begins to clump together to form planets.

NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was able to probe a crucial phase of this stellar evolution - a time when the cocoon is vigorously falling onto the pre-planetary disk. The infrared telescope detected water vapor as it smacks down on a disk circling a forming star called NGC 1333-IRAS 4B. This vapor started out as ice in the outer envelope, but vaporized upon its arrival at the disk.

By analyzing the water in the system, astronomers were also able learn about other characteristics of the disk, such as its size, density and temperature.

How did Spitzer see the water vapor deep in the NGC 1333-IRAS 4B system? This is most likely because the system is oriented in just the right way, such that its thicker disk is seen face-on from our Earthly perspective. In this 'face-on' orientation, Spitzer can peer through a window carved by an outflow of material from the embryonic star. This system in this drawing is shown in the opposite 'edge-on' configuration.

2007-01-01

186

Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide  

SciTech Connect

As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

None

1980-11-01

187

Goldstone solar system radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning, direction, experimental design, and coordination of data-acquisition and engineering activities in support of all Goldstone planetary radar astronomy were performed. This work demands familiarity with the various components of a planetary radar telescope (transmitter, receiver, antenna, computer hardware and software) as well as knowledge of how the entire system must function as a cohesive unit to meet the particular scientific objectives at hand in a given observation. Support radar data-processing facilities, currently being used for virtually all Goldstone data reduction includes: a VAX 11/780 computer system, an FPS 5210 array processor, terminals, tape drives, and image-display devices, as well as a large body of data-reduction software to accommodate the variety of data-acquisition formats and strategems. Successful 113-cm radar observation of Callisto and the near-Earth asteroid 1981 Midas and Goldstone/VLA radar observations of Saturn's rings were obtained. Quick-look verification programs from data taken with phase-coded cw (i.e., ranging) waveforms, applicable to Venus, the Moon, and small bodies were completed. Definition of scientific and engineering requirements on instrument performance, radar system configuration, and personnel, for all 1988 Goldstone radar investigations was accomplished.

Jurgens, Raymond F.

1988-01-01

188

Challenges in Solar System Ionospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar system contains a robust set of ionospheres among its nine planets, many moons and comets. If one sets aside the transient atmospheres\\/ionospheres of comets, and those of larger bodies with tenuous surface-boundary-exospheres (e.g., Mercury, Moon, Europa, etc.), plus the under-sampled Pluto, then 10 case studies exist for detailed study and comparison (Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter & Io, Saturn

M. Mendillo

2001-01-01

189

The solar system beyond Neptune  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a deep optical survey for distant solar system objects. An area of 1.2 sq deg of the ecliptic has been imaged to apparent red magnitude 25, resulting in the detection of seven trans-Neptunian objects. These are the first detected members of a trans-Neptunian disk that compries about 35 000 objects larger than 100 km in

David C. Jewitt; Jane X. Luu

1995-01-01

190

Formation of the solar system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed as a lab, but can also be used as a classroom demonstration. It requires the use of the VPython programs which require Python and VPython to be installed on your computers (this software is free and has been made available on the default image for all computers on our campus). The models show the gravitational collapse of a set of particles to create a central "Sun" with other orbiting particles, a simple model to demonstrate elliptical orbits, a simple model of the solar system showing the planetary orbits (speeded up). The task is to assess one hypothesis about the formation of the solar system (from a dust and gas nebula) by comparing the computer simulation (model 1) to the shape and form of the actual solar system (model 3). Students can interact with the 3d models by, for example, selecting planetary objects to track, and changing perspectives in 3d space. In doing this students learn about the shapes of the planetary orbits (ellipticity etc) and reasons that they change.

Urbano, Lensyl

191

Solar energy metering and recording system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete system for detecting and metering solar energy and recording the total integrated energy or power levels over a desired period of time is described. The system emphasizes simplicity of design to achieve: a transducer sensitive to the presence of solar radiance which efficiently absorbs the incident direct energy over the broad solar spectrum or may be filtered to

Morrill

1981-01-01

192

Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components  

DOEpatents

A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN)

2011-07-05

193

Small grains of truth. [solar system evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evidence concerning the formation of the solar nebula from preexisting clouds found in the chemical composition of solar system grains is discussed. Evidence for sequential star formation in the grains is examined. It is argued that there is no model for the origin of the solar system which can account for the increasing complexity of the evidence.

Nuth, Joe

1991-01-01

194

Hybrid solar lighting systems and components  

DOEpatents

A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN)

2007-06-12

195

Solar assisted heat pump desalination system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel system of solar assisted heat pump desalination. A single effect desalination unit has been designed and fabricated, and it is connected to an existing solar assisted heat pump. The system consists of a compressor, condenser, evaporator, solar evaporator-collector, desalination chamber, feed tank, vacuum pump and distillate collection unit. A vacuum pump is connected to the

M. N. A. Hawlader; Prasanta K. Dey; Sufyan Diab; Chan Ying Chung

2004-01-01

196

SIPS: Solar Irradiance Prediction System Stefan Achleitner  

E-print Network

SIPS: Solar Irradiance Prediction System Stefan Achleitner Computer Science and Engineering the variability and dynamics are the largest. We propose SIPS, Solar Irradiance Prediction System, a novel sensing-scaling capacities of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. However, variability and uncertainty in power

Cerpa, Alberto E.

197

Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

Hassani, V.

2000-06-18

198

Solar Max: Storm Warning - Effects on the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a promotional folder for Sun-Earth Days 2013, containing images and illustrations of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System. Also included is information about the period known as solar maximum, as well as links to Sun-Earth Day resources and the Space Weather Action Center.

199

Jupiter: Giant of the solar system. [its solar orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jupiter, its relationship to the other planets in the solar system, its twelve natural satellites, solar orbit and the appearance of Jupiter in the sky, and the sightings and motions of Jupiter in 1973 are discussed. Educational study projects for students are also included.

1975-01-01

200

Solar-Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K.; Bergeron, David J., III

2002-10-01

201

Solar-Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure. and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

2001-01-01

202

Solar-Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

2002-01-01

203

Solar Tracking System: More Efficient Use of Solar Panels  

E-print Network

Abstract—This paper shows the potential system benefits of simple tracking solar system using a stepper motor and light sensor. This method is increasing power collection efficiency by developing a device that tracks the sun to keep the panel at a right angle to its rays. A solar tracking system is designed, implemented and experimentally tested. The design details and the experimental results are shown. Keywords—Renewable Energy, Power Optimization. I.

J. Rizk; Y. Chaiko

204

Photobiology, photodermatology and sunscreens: a comprehensive overview. Part 2: topical and systemic photoprotection.  

PubMed

Sun exposure of the skin triggers several inflammatory pathways via a multitude of photochemical and photobiological effects. Furthermore, local and systemic immune suppression develops. The main clinical effects of UV exposure can be classified schematically into immediate, including sunburn, tanning, vitamin D production and exacerbation of inherited and acquired photosensitive skin disorders and long-term, including solar ageing and skin cancer. The protection against solar radiation is afforded by a healthy behavior of reasonable sun avoidance and the use of topical sunscreens as well as topical and oral antioxidants. However, users of sunscreen products should be able to choose correctly the most convenient product according to their needs. In Europe, the sun protection factor (SPF) and the UVA-protection factor (UVA-PF) are labeled to indicate the degree of protection against UVB and UVA, respectively. However, dermatologists must be aware that the present knowledge of UV effects on human skin needs to be clarified and several regulatory issues of photo-protection remain to be clarified and standardized. Finally, much work is needed to improve water resistance, spreadability, transparency and homogeneity of the sunscreen agents. PMID:23407082

Celleno, L; Calzavara-Pinton, P; Sala, R; Arisi, M C; Bussoletti, C

2013-02-01

205

Ionic liquids as ingredients in topical drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Because of their properties, ionic liquids (ILs) (Ranke et al.) offer many advantages in topical drug delivery systems. For example, ionic liquids can be used to increase the solubility of sparingly soluble drugs and to enhance their topical and transdermal delivery. Furthermore, ILs can be used either to synthesize active pharmaceutical ingredients or as antimicrobial ingredients. In the present work, the conventional oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions containing the hydrophilic IL [HMIM] [Cl] and the hydrophobic IL [BMIM] [PF6] were prepared, and the influence of the ILs on emulsion properties was evaluated. It was found that ILs could be successfully incorporated into the emulsion structure, resulting in stable formulations. The antimicrobial activity of ILs in the formulations was estimated, and their application as preservatives was confirmed by performing preservative efficacy tests. Evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxicity of the emulsions containing hydrophilic or hydrophobic ILs showed the low cytotoxicity of the carriers. Finally, penetration enhancement of a fluorescent dye as a model drug in the presence of ionic liquids was shown. PMID:23123180

Dobler, Dorota; Schmidts, Thomas; Klingenhöfer, Ines; Runkel, Frank

2013-01-30

206

Analysis of hybrid solar systems  

SciTech Connect

This study uses the TRNSYS simulation program to evaluate the performance of active charge/passive discharge solar systems with water as the working fluid. This design was introduced in the Village Homes development in Davis, Calif., and is currently being used by Trident Energy Systems in Davis. TRNSYS simulations are used to evaluate the heating performance and cooling augmentation provided by systems in several climates. The results of the simulations are used to develop a simplified analysis tool similar to the F-chart and Phi-bar procedures used for active systems. This tool, currently in a preliminary stage, should provide the designer with quantitative performance estimates for comparison with other passive, active, and nonsolar heating and cooling designs.

Swisher, J.

1980-10-01

207

Non-tracking solar energy collector system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy collector system is described characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flatplate receiver. Individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration supported for independent orientation are asymmetric included with vee-trough concentrators for deflecting incident solar energy toward the receiver.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor to nasa)

1978-01-01

208

Partitioned solar pond collector\\/storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the performance of a partitioned solar pond as a large-scale solar energy collection and long-term storage system for power production, as well as other applications. The absorption of solar radiation as it passes through the pond water is considered and an evaluation is made of the resulting temperature and heat fluxes at various levels

N. D. Kaushik; P. K. Bansal; M. S. Sodha

1980-01-01

209

Solar System Science with LSST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inventorying the Solar System is one of the four key science drivers for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). LSST will survey over 20,000 square degrees with a rapid observational cadence, to typical limiting magnitudes of 24.5. Near the ecliptic, LSST will detect approximately 4000 moving objects per visit with its 9.6 square degree field of view. Automated software will link these individual detections into orbits; these orbits, as well as precisely calibrated astrometry 50mas) and photometry 0.01-0.02 mag) in multiple bandpasses will be available as LSST data products. The result will be multi-color catalogs of hundreds of thousands of NEOs and Jupiter Trojans, millions of asteroids, tens of thousands of TNOs, as well as thousands of other objects such as comets and irregular satellites of the major planets. The LSST catalogs will provide an order of magnitude larger sample sizes than currently exist for small body populations throughout the Solar System, generating new insights into Solar System evolution. Precision multi-color photometry will allow determination of lightcurves and colors for a significant fraction of the objects detected, providing constraints on the physical parameters of small bodies. Some examples of science enabled with this rich data set: A large sample of TNOs with highly accurate orbits (and well-understood sample characteristics) will allow much tighter constraints on planetary migration models. Large samples of comets (especially comets with perihelia beyond a few AU) will provide new constraints on the structure and mass of the Oort Cloud. Derivation of proper elements for Main Belt asteroids would greatly enlarge existing asteroid families, particularly at smaller sizes, and color information will facilitate further division. Using sparse lightcurve inversion, spin state and shape models could be derived for thousands of main belt asteroids.

Jones, R. L.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Malhotra, Renu; Becker, Andy C.; Fernandez, Yan; Myers, Jon; Solontoi, Mike; Parker, Alex H.

2014-11-01

210

ASTM001/MAS423 Solar System Solar Nebula & Planet Formation  

E-print Network

Uranus 19.2 AU Neptune 30.1 AU #12;Solar system structure: the dark cold depths Kuiper belt (30 AU - 50 and Saturn have large gaseous envelopes of H2 Uranus & Neptune have a few M of gas. All have extensive of solar system Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptu 7 3.4 0 1.85 1.3 2.49 0.77 1.77 0.2 0

Agnor, Craig B.

211

Successful treatment of Fusarium keratitis with cornea transplantation and topical and systemic voriconazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of invasive Fusarium keratitis in a previously healthy male patient was treated successfully with cornea transplantation and systemic and topical voriconazole after treatment failure with topical amphotericin B and systemic itraconazole. Topical voriconazole was well tolerated, and, in conjunction with the oral administration, it resulted in a high level of the drug in the anterior chamber of the

Rocus R. Klont; Cathrien A. Eggink; Antonius J. M. M. Rijs; Pieter Wesseling; Paul E. Verweij

2005-01-01

212

Best of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to planetary research. Using some of the most famous and interesting images of the Solar System, students learn to focus on details by studying uncaptioned images. They increase their knowledge of the planets and their features by comparing their observations to those of real researchers. Students organize their findings to infer a key difference between inner and outer planets. They will be able: to understand that planetary images contain valuable information, but require interpretation, which is somewhat uncertain; to recognize each planet or moon by its unique and identifiable features; and understand that scientists summarize findings in order to look for patterns in groups like planets and moons.

213

Astronomy Workshop: Solar System Collisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive tool that calculates the crater depth and energy released when an asteroid or comet collides with a planet. Users can choose to bombard any planet in our solar system, and may also set the diameter, composition, and velocity of the impacting object. This resource was designed to help students understand the relationship between mass and momentum, and how a planet's atmosphere helps protect it from bombardment. This item is part of a larger collection of animations, simulations, and interactive tools for astronomy students. SEE RELATED MATERIALS on this page for a link to the full collection.

Hamilton, Doug

2010-03-02

214

Tracking system for solar collectors  

DOEpatents

A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

Butler, B.

1980-10-01

215

Tracking system for solar collectors  

DOEpatents

A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

Butler, Barry L. (Golden, CO)

1984-01-01

216

The solar system beyond Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of a deep optical survey for distant solar system objects. An area of 1.2 sq deg of the ecliptic has been imaged to apparent red magnitude 25, resulting in the detection of seven trans-Neptunian objects. These are the first detected members of a trans-Neptunian disk that compries about 35 000 objects larger than 100 km in the 30-50 AU heliocentric distance range. We interpret the new measurements using a set of Monte Carlo models in which the effects of observational bias in the data are taken into account.

Jewitt, David C.; Luu, Jane X.

1995-01-01

217

Exceptional Solar-System Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a target-of-opportunity proposal for HST observations to be executed if a previously unknown, truly exceptional solar-system object or phenomenon is discovered either in the normal course of HST work or by anyone, anywhere. Trails due to unknown moving objects will often appear on HST images made for other purposes. A short trail seen near the opposition point or at high ecliptic latitude could represent a major addition to our knowledge of the solar system. Thus we further propose that all short trials seen on HST images taken in favorable regions of the sky be given a quick analysis in the Observation Support System for their possible significance. If an unusual object is found we propose to: (1) Seek from the owner of data rights permission to proceed as may be appropriate; (2) Contact the Minor Planet Center for an evaluation of the significance of the discovery; and (3) For an object that appears to be of great significance where effective groundbased followup appears unlikely, request the HST schedule be replanned for followup images and physical studies using HST.

Zellner, Benjamin

1990-12-01

218

2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The ... http://www.agu.org/cgi-bin/SFgate/SFgate?language=English&verb... 1 of 2 11/14/06 11:27 AM  

E-print Network

2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The ... http://www=ng HR: 0800h AN: SH11A-0371 TI: 2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The Beginnings AU;2006 LWS TR & T Solar Wind Focused Science Topic Team: The ... http://www

Ng, Chung-Sang

219

Storage systems for solar thermal power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

1978-01-01

220

An Introduction to the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction; 1. A tour of the solar system; 2. The internal structure of the terrestrial planets; 3. Planetary volcanism - Ultima Thule?; 4. Planetary surface processes; 5. Atmospheres of terrestrial planets; 6. The giant planets; 7. Minor bodies of the solar system; 8. The origin of the solar system; 9. Meteorites: a record of formation; Answers and comments; Appendices; Glossary; Further reading; Acknowledgements; Figure references; Index.

Rothery, David A.; McBride, Neil; Gilmour, Iain

2011-05-01

221

Solar System Science with WISE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expected to measure the albedos and diameters of over 100,000 asteroids, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer spacecraft (WISE) will provide the most detailed look yet at the distributions of asteroid sizes in the Main Belt and inner Solar System, a property which traces the formation and collisional history of both populations. The albedo of an asteroid is a direct result of the surface composition and chemistry, and the WISE albedos will be able to trace compositional gradients as a function of both size and location in the Solar System, and thus the Sun's protoplanetary disk. Additionally, the serendipitous measurements of new classes of objects (e.g. Main Belt comets) or unusual transients (e.g. long period comets) will provide new windows into the structure, properties, formation and evolution of these bodies. We present a survey of the asteroid science planned for WISE, slated to run from Dec 2009 to Aug 2010. Funding provided by the NASA Postdoctoral Program at JPL, administered by ORAU.

Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A.; WISE Team

2009-09-01

222

Onsite solar energy systems - Economics and system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-site solar energy systems are discussed with reference to scale considerations, costs and ownership, costs of competing energy, risk, and net costs to society. A method for evaluating the quantitative worth of solar energy is presented, and attention is given to the design of solar equipment and to basic issues in solar design.

H. C. Kelly

1979-01-01

223

A Calibration Algorithm for Solar Tracking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar tracking systems that use cameras, lenses and mechanical motion stages usually calibrate each device independently. While this scheme allows modular systems characterization it has the disadvantage of using additional expensive calibration patterns. In this work, we present a low cost solar tracking platform integrating on the shelf components. To avoid the use of additional components for system calibration we

Miguel Romero; Rafael Lemuz; Irene O. Ayaquica-Martinez; Griselda Saldana-Gonz´lez

2011-01-01

224

Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

1982-01-01

225

Evaluating Performances of Solar-Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CONC11 computer program calculates performances of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. Solar thermal power system consists of one or more collectors, power-conversion subsystems, and powerprocessing subsystems. CONC11 intended to aid system designer in comparing performance of various design alternatives. Written in Athena FORTRAN and Assembler.

Jaffe, L. D.

1987-01-01

226

Biospheres and solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

Paine, Thomas O.

1990-01-01

227

Installation package for a solar heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Installation information is given for a solar heating system installed in Concho Indian School at El Reno, Oklahoma. This package includes a system Operation and Maintenance Manual, hardware brochures, schematics, system operating modes and drawings.

1978-01-01

228

MOTESS Solar System Observations: Implications for the GNAT System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Network of Astronomical Telescopes is developing a geographically distributed network of relatively small-aperture imaging telescopes. Equipped with CCD cameras and operating in scan mode, these instruments will be able to address a wide variety of solar system, stellar and extragalactic research topics. Although the design of the individual telescope emphasizes simplicity and low cost, the network will be able to deliver in aggregate data that would otherwise require more expensive facilities. The array of instruments may be tailored to the particular observing program by the selection of filters the individual instruments are provided and how the telescopes are pointed at the sky. A prototype array of three instruments has been in use since April of 2001, principally obtaining asteroid astrometry and searching for near-earth objects. The experience relating to solar system observations acquired during this period will be presented along with proposed strategies for future work using the full GNAT array of instruments. This work and continuing operation of the MOTESS prototype is supported in part by a Eugene Shoemaker Grant from The Planetary Society.

Tucker, R. A.

2002-12-01

229

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

NONE

1995-05-01

230

Solar System Science with SKA  

E-print Network

Radio wavelength observations of solar system bodies reveal unique information about them, as they probe to regions inaccessible by nearly all other remote sensing techniques and wavelengths. As such, the SKA will be an important telescope for planetary science studies. With its sensitivity, spatial resolution, and spectral flexibility and resolution, it will be used extensively in planetary studies. It will make significant advances possible in studies of the deep atmospheres, magnetospheres and rings of the giant planets, atmospheres, surfaces, and subsurfaces of the terrestrial planets, and properties of small bodies, including comets, asteroids, and KBOs. Further, it will allow unique studies of the Sun. Finally, it will allow for both indirect and direct observations of extrasolar giant planets.

B. J. Butler; D. B. Campbell; I. de Pater; D. E. Gary

2004-09-09

231

The Solar System Beyond Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This proposal supported deep and wide-field optical imaging of the trans-Neptunian Solar System capitalizing on our broad access to state-of-the-art facilities on Mauna Kea. Key quantities determined include the size distribution of Kuiper Belt objects (a differential power law with an index -4), and the inclination and radial distance distributions. We identified an outer edge to the classical Kuiper Belt that has since been confirmed by independent workers. We also obtained an assessment of the population densities in the mean-motion resonances with Neptune and discovered the Scattered Kuiper Belt Object dynamical class. Scientific issues on which these measurements have direct bearing include the collisional environment of the Kuiper Belt, the origin of the short-period comets, and the origin by capture into resonance of Pluto and other Kuiper Belt objects.

Jewitt, David; Nava, David (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

232

Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

1982-01-01

233

Solar system as space-probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the movement of the solar system through space are examined and the possibility is considered that in their circulation around the Galaxy center the stars and clouds move through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. In such an event, the solar system would pass through interstellar clouds and the sun's luminosity would temporarily increase due to an

W. H. McCrea

1975-01-01

234

The Birth Environment of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines our current understanding of the possible birth environments of our Solar System. Because most stars form within groups and clusters, the question becomes one of determining the nature of the birth aggregate of the Sun. This discussion starts by reviewing Solar System properties that provide constraints on our environmental history. We then outline the range of star-forming

Fred C. Adams

2010-01-01

235

Hybrid photovoltaic\\/thermal solar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present test results on hybrid solar systems, consisting of photovoltaic modules and thermal collectors (hybrid PV\\/T systems). The solar radiation increases the temperature of PV modules, resulting in a drop of their electrical efficiency. By proper circulation of a fluid with low inlet temperature, heat is extracted from the PV modules keeping the electrical efficiency at satisfactory values. The

Y. Tripanagnostopoulos; Th. Nousia; M. Souliotis; P. Yianoulis

2002-01-01

236

Symplectic integrators for solar system dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain symplectic integrators relevant to solar system dynamics are defined here. It is shown that the dominant long-term error arises from a constant error in the mean motion, and special starting procedure which can eliminate this error are described. The resulting improvement make these integrators easily the best available for a wide range of solar system problems.

Prasenjit Saha; Scott Tremaine

1992-01-01

237

Design procedure for solar heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the design of solar space and water heating systems for residences. A simulation model capable of estimating the long-term thermal performance of solar heating systems is described. The amount of meteorological data required by the simulation in order to estimate long-term performance is investigated. The information gained from many simulations is used to develop a

S. A. Klein; W. A. Beckman; J. A. Duffie

1976-01-01

238

Physics Flashlets: The Outer Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the orbits of the outer planets in the Solar System. This model of the outer solar system includes Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The paths of the planets are plotted and traced, and the user can see their relative speeds and periods to complete a full revolution.

Fowler, Michael; Welch, Heather

2008-09-24

239

The solar system in modern astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the astronomy of the solar system are discussed in a lecture presented at the G. C. McVittie Eightieth Birthday Celebration Conference held in Canterbury, UK, in June 1984, with a focus on the application of paleomagnetism to the moon. A number of astrophysical insights based on extrapolation from solar-system astronomy are listed, and the importance of space

S. K. Runcorn

1985-01-01

240

Young Solar System's Fifth Giant Planet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside ~15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals,

David Nesvorný

2011-01-01

241

TNO Recovery, Unlocking the Early Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discoveries of small bodies in the outer solar system in the vicinity of the Kuiper belt are revolutionizing solar system formation concepts by providing critical dynamical and compositional clues to its earliest epochs. However, the rapidly accelerating discovery rate means that follow-up observations for orbit determination cannot keep up. We report here on an innovative test program to

M. A. Kadooka; K. J. Meech; T. Chun

2004-01-01

242

An overview: Component development for solar thermal systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, I review the significant issues and the development of solar concentrators and thermal receivers for central-receiver power plants and dish/engine systems. Due to the breadth of the topic area, I have arbitrarily narrowed the content of this paper by choosing not to discuss line-focus (trough) systems and energy storage. I will focus my discussion on the development of heliostats, dishes, and receivers since the 1970s with an emphasis on describing the technologies and their evolution, identifying some key observations and lessons learned, and suggesting what the future in component development may be.

Mancini, T.R.

1994-10-01

243

Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

Qader, S. A. (inventor)

1981-01-01

244

Is the Outer Solar System Really Chaotic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of chaos among the system of Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) is not yet firmly established. Although Laskar originally found no chaos in the outer Solar System, his \\

Wayne B. Hayes

2006-01-01

245

The Solar System and Its Origin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a brief explanation of the solar system, including planets, asteroids, satellites, comets, planetary orbits, as well as, old and recent cosmogonic theories. Indicates that man is nearer a solution to the origin of the planetary system than ever before.

Dormand, J. R.

1973-01-01

246

Nitrogen isotopes in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotopic composition of nitrogen in the solar system is measured, and it is shown that the 30% change during the last 3-4 billion years of N-15\\/N-14 in solar-wind-bearing lunar soils and breccias probably does not reflect changes in the ratio at the solar surface. It is argued that accretion of interstellar matter does not work as a cause for

J. Geiss; P. Bochsler

1982-01-01

247

Solar heating system installed at Stamford, Connecticut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The system components are described. Appended data includes: the system design acceptance test, the operation and maintenance manual, and as-built drawings and photographs.

1979-01-01

248

Instrumenting hybrid passive\\/active solar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of recommendations are provided for instrumenting and reporting the performance of hybrid passive\\/active solar heating systems. The discussion centers on the entire system\\/subsystem\\/site combination and attempts to remove some of the uncertainties in providing sufficient data for adequate performance evaluations of such systems. The major subject of this paper concerns solar heating systems utilizing massive thermal storage that

W. W. Youngblood; J. C. Gray

1978-01-01

249

High voltage solar cell power generating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory solar power system regulated by on-panel switches has been delivered for operating high power (3 kW), high voltage (15,000 volt) loads (communication tubes, ion thrusters). The modular system consists of 26 solar arrays, each with an integral light source and cooling system. A typical array contains 2,560 series-connected cells. Each light source consists of twenty 500-watt tungsten iodide lamps providing plus or minus 5 percent uniformity at one solar constant. An array temperature of less than 40 C is achieved using an infrared filter, a water-cooled plate, a vacuum hold-down system, and air flushing.

Levy, E., Jr.; Opjorden, R. W.; Hoffman, A. C.

1974-01-01

250

Solar System Science with LSST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide a unique tool to study moving objects throughout the solar system, creating massive catalogs of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), asteroids, Trojans, TransNeptunian Objects (TNOs), comets and planetary satellites with well-measured orbits and high quality, multi-color photometry accurate to 0.005 magnitudes for the brightest objects. In the baseline LSST observing plan, back-to-back 15-second images will reach a limiting magnitude as faint as r=24.7 in each 9.6 square degree image, twice per night; a total of approximately 15,000 square degrees of the sky will be imaged in multiple filters every 3 nights. This time sampling will continue throughout each lunation, creating a huge database of observations. Fig. 1 Sky coverage of LSST over 10 years; separate panels for each of the 6 LSST filters. Color bars indicate number of observations in filter. The catalogs will include more than 80% of the potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 140m in diameter within the first 10 years of LSST operation, millions of main-belt asteroids and perhaps 20,000 Trans-Neptunian Objects. Objects with diameters as small as 100m in the Main Belt and <100km in the Kuiper Belt can be detected in individual images. Specialized `deep drilling' observing sequences will detect KBOs down to 10s of kilometers in diameter. Long period comets will be detected at larger distances than previously possible, constrainting models of the Oort cloud. With the large number of objects expected in the catalogs, it may be possible to observe a pristine comet start outgassing on its first journey into the inner solar system. By observing fields over a wide range of ecliptic longitudes and latitudes, including large separations from the ecliptic plane, not only will these catalogs greatly increase the numbers of known objects, the characterization of the inclination distributions of these populations will be much improved. Derivation of proper elements for main belt and Trojan asteroids will allow ever more resolution of asteroid families and their size-frequency distribution, as well as the study of the long-term dynamics of the individual asteroids and the asteroid belt as a whole. Fig. 2 Orbital parameters of Main Belt Asteroids, color-coded according to ugriz colors measured by SDSS. The figure to the left shows osculating elements, the figure to the right shows proper elements - note the asteroid families visible as clumps in parameter space [1]. By obtaining multi-color ugrizy data for a substantial fraction of objects, relationships between color and dynamical history can be established. This will also enable taxonomic classification of asteroids, provide further links between diverse populations such as irregular satellites and TNOs or planetary Trojans, and enable estimates of asteroid diameter with rms uncertainty of 30%. With the addition of light-curve information, rotation periods and phase curves can be measured for large fractions of each population, leading to new insight on physical characteristics. Photometric variability information, together with sparse lightcurve inversion, will allow spin state and shape estimation for up to two orders of magnitude more objects than presently known. This will leverage physical studies of asteroids by constraining the size-strength relationship, which has important implications for the internal structure (solid, fractured, rubble pile) and in turn the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt. Similar information can be gained for other solar system bodies. [1] Parker, A., Ivezic

Jones, R. L.; Chesley, S. R.; Connolly, A. J.; Harris, A. W.; Ivezic, Z.; Knezevic, Z.; Kubica, J.; Milani, A.; Trilling, D. E.

2008-09-01

251

Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any  

E-print Network

Solar Power Systems Find A Professional Solar Energy Installer For Any Type Of System www.CleanEnergyAuthority.com Install Solar Panels Enter Your Zip Code & Connect To Pre-Screened Solar Panel Installers www.ServiceMagic.com Biomass Pumps Reliable metering for apps from microflow to scale-up & pilot plant www.isco.com The Solar

Lovley, Derek

252

Research topics on EO systems for maritime platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our world is constantly changing, and this has its effect on worldwide military operations. For example, there is a change from conventional warfare into a domain that contains asymmetric threats as well. The availability of high-quality imaging information from Electro-Optical (EO) sensors is of high importance, for instance for timely detection and identification of small threatening vessels in an environment with a large amount of neutral vessels. Furthermore, Rules of Engagement often require a visual identification before action is allowed. The challenge in these operations is to detect, classify and identify a target at a reasonable range, while avoiding too many false alarms or missed detections. Current sensor technology is not able to cope with the performance requirements under all circumstances. For example, environmental conditions can reduce the sensor range in such a way that the operational task becomes challenging or even impossible. Further, limitations in automatic detection algorithms occur, e.g. due to the effects of sun glints and spray which are not yet well-modelled in the detection filters. For these reasons, Tactical Decision Aids will become an important factor in future operations to select the best moment to act. In this paper, we describe current research within The Netherlands on this topic. The Defence Research and Development Programme "Multifunctional Electro-Optical Sensor Suite (MEOSS)" aims at the development of knowledge necessary for optimal employment of Electro-Optical systems on board of current and future ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy, in order to carry out present and future maritime operations in various environments and weather conditions.

Dijk, Judith; Bijl, Piet; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Eijk, Alenxander M. J.

2014-10-01

253

Solar System: The Earth in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It provides an understanding of where Earth is located in space and explores evidence used by astronomers to place Earth at this location. Earth is a relatively small planet and the third from the Sun in our solar system. The Sun is the central and largest body in the solar system. Our still-growing knowledge of the solar system comes to us in part by direct observation from Earth, including the use of optical, radio, and x-ray telescopes that are sensitive to a broad spectrum of information coming to us from space; computers that can undertake increasingly complicated calculations, find patterns in data, and support or reject theories about the origins of the solar system; and space probes that send back detailed pictures and other data from distant planets. Learning Outcomes:� Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.� Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.� Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

254

Solar tracking system and modelling of PV module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximizing of output power from a solar system is desirable to increase its efficiency. It has been estimated that the yield from solar panels can be significantly increased utilizing a solar tracking system instead of a stationary solar array. In this paper is described the design of solar panel tracking system and modeling of used photovoltaic (PV) module. It is

Aleksandar Stjepanovic; Ferid Softic; Zlatko Bundalo; Sladjana Stjepanovic

2010-01-01

255

The Solar System primordial lead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the primordial isotope composition of Pb in the Solar System is critical to the understanding of the early evolution of Earth and other planetary bodies. Here we present new Pb isotopic data on troilite (FeS) nodules from a number of different iron meteorites: Canyon Diablo, Mundrabilla, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Toluca (IAB-IIICD), Cape York (IIIA), Mt Edith (IIIB), and Seymchan (pallasite). Lead abundances and isotopic compositions typically vary from one troilite inclusion to another, even within the same meteorite. The most primitive Pb was found in three leach fractions of two exceptionally Pb-rich Nantan troilite nodules. Its 204Pb/ 206Pb is identical to that of Canyon Diablo troilite as measured by Tatsumoto et al. [M. Tatsumoto, R.J. Knight, C.J. Allègre, Time differences in the formation of meteorites as determined from the ratio of lead-207 to lead-206, Science 180(1973) 1279-1283]. However, our measurements of 207Pb/ 206Pb and 208Pb/ 206Pb are significantly higher than theirs, as well as other older literature data obtained by TIMS, while consistent with the recent data of Connelly et al. [J.N. Connelly, M. Bizzarro, K. Thrane, J.A. Baker, The Pb-Pb age of Angrite SAH99555 revisited, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72(2008) 4813-4824], a result we ascribe to instrumental mass fractionation having biased the older data. Our current best estimate of the Solar System primordial Pb is that of Nantan troilite, which has the following isotopic composition: 204Pb/ 206Pb = 0.107459(16), 207Pb/ 206Pb = 1.10759(10), and 208Pb/ 206Pb = 3.17347(28). This is slightly less radiogenic than the intercept of the bundle of isotopic arrays formed in 207Pb/ 206Pb- 204Pb/ 206Pb space by our measurements of Canyon Diablo, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Cape York, and Mundrabilla, as well as literature data, which, in spite of rather large uncertainties, suggests a common primordial Pb component for all of these meteorites. The radiogenic Pb present in most of these irons is dominantly asteroidal and indicates evolution in a high-U/Pb environment. The apparent age of the radiogenic Pb component is consistent with the 39Ar- 40Ar ages of silicate inclusions found in the same meteorites. We propose that the radiogenic Pb was introduced more recently into troilite, from the surface rubble of the parent asteroid, possibly during the impacts that generated the IAB iron meteorites. The excellent correlation between 208Pb/ 206Pb and 204Pb/ 206Pb translates into a Th/U ratio of 3.876 ± 0.016 for the asteroid, which is the most precise estimate for the solar nebula to date.

Blichert-Toft, Janne; Zanda, Brigitte; Ebel, Denton S.; Albarède, Francis

2010-11-01

256

Beta Pictoris: an Early Solar System?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beta Pictoris (beta Pic) is the best studied of the normal main-sequence stars surrounded by circumstellar dust disks. We review the status of beta Pic and its disk, and compare it with both the early and the present Solar System. The disk has very little gas and therefore is more evolved and older than the primordial solar nebulae, which persists

Pawel Artymowicz

1997-01-01

257

Solar power satellite system definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synopsis of the study plan for the solar power satellite system is presented. Descriptions of early task progress is reported for the following areas: (1) laser annealing, (2) solid state power amplifiers, (3) rectenna option, (4) construction of an independent electric orbit transfer vehicle, and (5) construction of a 2.5 GW solar power satellite.

1978-01-01

258

Site planning for solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bibliographic citations are given for 391 works covering site planning considerations that apply to all solar systems, these being energy conservation, solar access, local laws and site integration. Also included are a subject guide, and a list of applicable periodicals, organizations and publishers. (LEW)

McAvin

1981-01-01

259

Non-tracking solar energy collector system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy collector system characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel vacuum-jacketed receivers or absorbers is described. Numerous individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration are supported for independent reorientation. Asymmetric vee-trough concentrators are defined.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1978-01-01

260

Prototype solar heating and hot water system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

1977-01-01

261

Combined solar collector and energy storage system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

Jensen, R. N. (inventor)

1980-01-01

262

Lunar solar-power system: Commerical power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed Lunar Solar-Power (LSP) System collects solar power on the moon. The power is converted to beams of microwaves and transmitted to fields of microwave receivers (rectennas) on Earth that provide electric power to local and regional power grids. LSP can provide abundant and low cost energy to Earth to sustain several centuries of economic development on Earth and

David R. Criswell

1995-01-01

263

Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using

Adam Faiers; Charles Neame

2006-01-01

264

System for variable spectra solar light source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a variable spectral and angular light source generator. The design and presented results are focused on solar radiation simulation, reproducing the spectral and angular distribution observed from the sun. This system is particularly interesting in the area of solar concentration. It permits to measure and test multi-junction photovoltaic cells alone or together with concentrating optics. We present some

Juan C. M. Antón; José A. Gómez-Pedrero; Daniel Vázquez; Eusebio Bernabeu

2009-01-01

265

Early chemical history of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extreme antiquity and lack of evidence for sigrificant chemical ; processing of the chondritic meteorites since they were formed suggest the ; possibility that their chemistry and mineralogy may have been established during ; the condensation of the solar system. By using equilibrium thermodynamics, the ; sequence of condensation of mineral phases from a cooling nebula of solar ;

Lawrence Grossman; J. W. Larimer

1974-01-01

266

Solar thermal water pumping systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of attempts have been made by scientists to utilize solar energy for irrigation water pumping. It is mainly a problem of conversion of heat energy available from the sun, to mechanical energy. Some ingenious methods have been devised to utilize the available energy at low temperatures. This paper reviews past efforts to develop solar thermal water pumping systems

Y. W. Wong; K. Sumathy

1999-01-01

267

Solar-System Ephemeris Toolbox  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) generates planetary and lunar ephemeris data and FORTRAN routines that allow users to obtain state data for the Sun, the moon, and the planets. The JPL Solar System Ephemeris Toolbox, developed at Kennedy Space Center, is a set of functions that provides the same functionality in the MATLAB computing environment along with some additional capabilities. The toolbox can be used interactively via a graphical user interface (GUI), or individual functions can be called from the MATLAB command prompt or other MATLAB scripts and functions. The toolbox also includes utility functions to define and perform coordinate transformation (e.g., mean-of-date, true-of-date, J2000) that are common in the use of these ephemerides. An attached README file guides the user through the process of constructing binary ephemeris files, verifying correct installation, and using functions to extract state data. This process also can be performed using the GUI. Help from each toolbox function is available through MATLAB s "help" function. Many of the functions in the toolbox are MATLAB equivalents of the JPL-written FORTRAN programs and subroutines used for the same purposes. A novice can use the GUI to extract state data, while a more experienced user can use the functions directly, as needed, in his/her applications. The toolbox has been tested using MATLAB Releases 13 an

Walker, Charles F.

2005-01-01

268

Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

2001-01-01

269

Computation of the solar energy captured by different solar tracking systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many ways to maximize solar energy input to solar collectors. A theoretical study was carried out for different solar tracking systems. This study was based on calculations of solar radiation energy collected by different systems using measured global and diffuse radiation on a horizontal surface and measure beam radiation. The layouts of these systems are a fixed system

N. H. Helwa; A. B. G. Bahgat; A. M. R. El Shafee; E. T. El Shenawy

2000-01-01

270

Resources for the State Education Agency Dissemination System. Conference Topic Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the information on resources in addition to ERIC which participants shared at the first topical conference for State Education Agency (SEA) personnel. The conference focused on the use and development of education information systems at the state level which go beyond the capacities of the ERIC system. Topics discussed…

Herlig, Richard K.; Vandermyn, Gaye

271

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2012-04-01

272

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2013-04-01

273

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2010-04-01

274

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2014-04-01

275

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2011-04-01

276

Cascade Helps JPL Explore the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we are involved with the unmanned exploration of the solar system. Unmanned probes observe the planet surfaces using radar and optical cameras to take a variety of measurements.

Burke, G. R.

1996-01-01

277

Solar System Lithograph Set for Space Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph set contains images with information about: Our Solar System, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Jupiter, Moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Charon, and Comets.

2009-09-01

278

Prototype solar heating and hot water systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in the development of a solar hot water and space heating system is described in four quarterly reports. The program schedules, technical status and other program activities from 6 October 1976 through 30 September 1977 are provided.

1978-01-01

279

The Birth Environment of the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In his comprehensive review on the birth environment of the solar system, Adams (2010) uses four primary dynamical, chemical, and radiation constraints to conclude that the solar system formed in a cluster with between 1000 and 10,000 members. The existence of the planetoid Sedna, on a highly elliptical orbit disconnected from the giant planets, is perhaps the weakest of these primary constraints. We propose a small Gemini imaging program to followup serendipitous discoveries of distant objets in the outer solar system from a 30 night Dark Energy Camera near earth asteroid survey. The Gemini observations will allow us to determine orbits of these distant objects which will allow us to (1) determine if Sedna was indeed emplaced by a birth cluster and (2) use full orbital population statistics to constrain the birth environment of the sun using this unique fossil record of the earliest history of our solar system.

Brown, Michael; Allen, Lori; Trilling, Davif

2014-02-01

280

Solar System Lithograph Set for Space Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set contains images with information about: Our Solar System, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Jupiter, Moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Charon, and Comets.

281

Astrophysical / Solar system Plasmas : an introduction  

E-print Network

Astrophysical / Solar system Plasmas : an introduction Philippe Zarka LESIA, CNRS UMR 8109 ­ Observatoire de Paris, Meudon philippe.zarka@obspm.fr #12;· Plasma = 4th state of matter .B = 0 .E = /o �E = -B

Demoulin, Pascal

282

The NASA atlas of the solar system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Describes every planet, moon, and body that has been the subject of a NASA mission, including images of 30 solar system objects and maps of 26 objects. The presentation includes geologic history, geologic and reference maps, and shaded relief maps.

Greeley, Ronald; Batson, Raymond M.

1997-01-01

283

How the Inner Solar System Formed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from NOVA, explore the theory that small bits of gas and dust combined to form protoplanets billions of years ago, which in turn collided to create the four rocky planets of the inner solar system.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-03-30

284

Igneous processes of the early solar system  

E-print Network

Experimental, petrographic and numerical methods are used to explore the igneous evolution of the early solar system. Chapters 1 and 2 detail the results of petrographic and experimental studies of a suite of primitive ...

Singletary, Steven J. (Steven James), 1973-

2004-01-01

285

Solar System: Sifting through the debris  

E-print Network

A quadrillion previously unnoticed small bodies beyond Neptune have been spotted as they dimmed X-rays from a distant source. Models of the dynamics of debris in the Solar System's suburbs must now be reworked.

Asantha Cooray

2006-08-11

286

The solar system mimics a hydrogen atom  

E-print Network

The solar system and the hydrogen atom are two well known systems on different scales and look unrelated: The former is a classical system on the scale of about billions of kilometers and the latter a quantum system of about tens of picometers. Here we show a connection between them. Specifically, we find that the orbital radii of the planets mimic the mean radii of the energy levels of a quantum system under the Coulomb-like potential. This connection might be explained by very light dark matter which manifests quantum behavior in the solar system, thereby hinting at a dark matter mass around $8 \\times 10^{-14}$ electron-volts.

Je-An Gu

2014-03-28

287

Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

Luckett, Rickey D.

288

Solar hydrogen energy system. Annual report, 1995--1996  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports progress on three tasks. Task A, System comparison of hydrogen with other alternative fuels in terms of EPACT requirements, investigates the feasibility of several alternative fuels, namely, natural gas, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen and electricity, to replace 10% of gasoline by the year 2000. The analysis was divided into two parts: analysis of vehicle technologies and analysis of fuel production, storage and distribution. Task B, Photovoltaic hydrogen production, involves this fuel production method for the future. The process uses hybrid solar collectors to generate dc electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The third task, Hydrogen safety studies, covers two topics: a review of codes, standards, regulations, recommendations, certifications, and pamphlets which address safety of gaseous fuels; and an experimental investigation of hydrogen flame impingement.

Veziroglu, T.N.

1996-12-31

289

Probabilistic modelling of hybrid solar\\/wind power system with solar tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a probabilistic model applied to a hybrid solar-wind power system (HSWPS), which is equipped with either a one-axis or a two-axis solar tracking system.Within the framework of a case study, the potential of the developed probabilistic approach is presented, and the effect of the solar tracking systems on the annual energy gain is discussed.Specifically, the impact of

Giuseppe Marco Tina; Salvina Gagliano

2011-01-01

290

The Solar System: Recent Exploration Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system has been visited by space probes, ranging from the Mariner Mercury-Venus mission exploring inward toward the sun, and continuing through the Voyager probes out into interstellar space and (on its way now) the New Horizons probe to Pluto and the Kuiper belt. This talk examines what we know of the planets of the solar system from probes, and talks about where we will go from here.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

2006-01-01

291

Placing the Solar System in its Universal Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from surveys and evaluations of recent space science education programs show that both teachers and students use the terms 'solar system', 'galaxy' and 'universe' interchangeably. For some this merely represents a barrier in vocabulary, but for most, it is indicative of an underlying lack of structure within their internal models of the solar system and universe. Some of the misconceptions of size of the solar system, placement, distance, scale and hierarchy of objects in the galaxy and universe are introduced by not including the solar system in a consistent, coherent picture within the rest of the galaxy and universe. If these ideas and misconceptions are not addressed through a targeted educational experience, they can form barriers to developing new and more accurate internal models, and impede the assimilation of any new evidence or ideas within those models. We are developing focused educational products and experiences that allow students to encounter the topics of 'solar system', 'galaxy' and 'universe' as an integrated whole, showing the common and unique features, natural interrelationships, and hierarchies that allow students and teachers to develop more powerful internal models of their place in space and time. We have used this approach to enhance the learning experience at Girl Scouts 'Train the Trainer' Workshops, in the 'Modeling the Universe' Professional Development Workshops, and in several venues for urban public school teachers. We have also created activities such as the "Cosmic Timeline", and products such as the "How Big is the Universe?" booklet to support learning about size and scale from the Earth to the Sun, and then all the way out to the edge of space.

Grier, J. A.; Steel, S. J.; Dussault, M. E.; Reinfeld, E. L.; Gould, R. R.

2004-11-01

292

Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Anderson, John D.

2009-05-01

293

Origin of Outer Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We feel that at the present moment the available theoretical models of the Kuiper belt are still in advance of the data, and thus our main task has been to conduct observational work guided by theoretical motivations. Our efforts over the past year can be divided into four categories: A) Wide-field Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects; B) Pencil-beam Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects; C) Wide-field Searches for Moons of the Outer Planets; D) Pencil-beam Searches for Faint Uranian and Neptunian Moons; E) Recovery Observations. As of April 2002, we have conducted several searches for Kuiper belt objects using large-format mosaic CCD camera on 4-meter class telescopes. In May 1999, we used the Kitt Peak 4-meter with the NOAO Mosaic camera we attempted a search for KBOs at a range of ecliptic latitudes. In addition to our wide-field searches, we have conducted three 'pencil-beam' searches in the past year. In a pencil-beam search we take repeated integrations of the same field throughout a night. After preprocessing the resulting images we shift and recombine them along a range of rates and directions consistent with the motion of KBOs. Stationary objects then smear out, while objects moving at near the shift rate appear as point sources. In addition to our searches for Kuiper belt objects, we are completing the inventory of the outer solar system by search for faint satellites of the outer planets. In August 2001 we conducted pencil beam searches for faint Uranian and Neptunian satellites at CFHT and CTIO. These searches resulted in the discover of two Neptunian and four Uranian satellite candidates. The discovery of Kuiper belt objects and outer planet satellites is of little use if the discoveries are not followed by systematic, repeated astrometric observations that permit reliable estimates of their orbits.

Holman, Matthew J.; Boyce, J. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

294

The formation of the solar system  

E-print Network

The solar system started to form about 4.56 Gyr ago and despite the long intervening time span, there still exist several clues about its formation. The three major sources for this information are meteorites, the present solar system structure and the planet-forming systems around young stars. In this introduction we give an overview of the current understanding of the solar system formation from all these different research fields. This includes the question of the lifetime of the solar protoplanetary disc, the different stages of planet formation, their duration, and their relative importance. We consider whether meteorite evidence and observations of protoplanetary discs point in the same direction. This will tell us whether our solar system had a typical formation history or an exceptional one. There are also many indications that the solar system formed as part of a star cluster. Here we examine the types of cluster the Sun could have formed in, especially whether its stellar density was at any stage hi...

Pfalzner, S; Gounelle, M; Johansen, A; Muenker, C; Lacerda, P; Zwart, S Portegies; Testi, L; Trieloff, M; Veras, D

2015-01-01

295

Exploring Solar Systems Across the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the value of exploring our solar system and others in the Universe. Learners will investigate, compare, and describe patterns in Solar System data. They will then hypothesize about the formation of the Solar System based on data and explain how extrasolar planets can be discovered. In the first activity, the students investigate Solar System data to find clues to how our planetary system was formed. By the end of the activity, the students come to understand that other stars form just like the Sun, and, therefore, many stars could have planets around them. The second activity examines how scientists can find these extrasolar planets. By observing the behavior of a model star-planet system, the students come to understand that it is possible to see the effect a planet has on its parent star even if the planet cannot be seen directly. By comparing the properties of our Solar System with other planetary systems, we can gain a deeper understanding of planetary systems across the Universe.

296

HARETU AND THE STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM1  

E-print Network

HARETU AND THE STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM1 Florin Diacu2 Pacific Institute for the Mathematical the contributions of Spiru Haretu to the problem of the solar system's stability and show their importance relative and the consequences of Haretu's results. Keywords: stability, solar system, n-body problem. #12;Is the solar system

Diacu, Florin

297

Solar energy systems for industrialization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a presentation given to illustrate a need for solar energy, and to suggest a solution as well as its implementation. Current sources of global energy mainly consist of fossil fuels, which are finite in their supply as well as harmful to the environment. A viable solution is solar energy, which is relatively inexhaustible in supply and available with emerging technology. In addition, a process for energy transmission via wireless power transmission is presented. The benefits of this technology include assisting rural areas of developing countries and aiding those countries' national economies. Implementation methods for this technology on a global scale are also given.

Glaser, Peter E.; Leonard, Raymond S.

298

On the occurrence and nature of planets outside the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of the occurence of planets outside the solar system is discussed in detail from the point of view of its potential in future astronomical research. It is found that in spite of the speculative nature of most considerations to date, many independent approaches are possible. They stem from present astrometric observations, future observations from space, physical theories on

Brian T. O'Leary

1966-01-01

299

Topical clindamycin versus systemic tetracycline in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Antibiotics are often used to treat hidradenitis, but only topical clindamycin has been shown to be effective in a randomized controlled trial. The paucity of these trials may be the result of difficulties in disease assessment. Objective: We compare topical clindamycin with systemic tetracycline in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa, and study clinical disease assessment. Methods: A total of

Gregor B. E. Jemec; Peter Wendelboe

1998-01-01

300

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

1994-01-01

301

Residential solar-heating system - design brochure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design brochure for commercially-available solar-heating system is valuable to architects, engineers, and designers. It contains information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout. Drawings and specifications of all components and typical installation details are included in appendix.

1978-01-01

302

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of monthly status reports on the development of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3, 25, and 75 ton size units.

1978-01-01

303

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of monthly status reports are given on the development of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems. This effort calls for the development, manufacturing, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3-, 25-, and 75-ton size units.

1978-01-01

304

An orientable solar panel system for nanospacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An orientable deployed solar array system for 1-5 kg weight nanospacecraft is described, enhancing the achievable performance of these typically power-limited systems. The system is based on a deployable solar panel system, previously developed with cooperation between Laboratorio di Sistemi Aerospaziali of University of Roma “la Sapienza” and the company IMT (Ingegneria Marketing Tecnologia). The system proposed is a modular one, and suitable in principle for the 1U, 2U and 3U standard Cubesat bus, even if the need for three axis attitude stabilization makes it typically preferred for 3U Cubesats. The size of each solar panel is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. A single degree of freedom maneuvering capability is given to the deployed solar array, in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun as close as possible, given the mission requirements on the spacecraft attitude. Considerable effort has been devoted to design the system compatible with the Cubesat standard, being mounted outside on the external spacecraft structure, without requiring modifications on the standard prescriptions. The small available volume is the major constraint, which forces to use miniaturized electric motor technology. The system design trade-off is discussed, leading to the selection of an architecture based on two independently steerable solar array wings.

Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Candini, Gian Paolo; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

2014-08-01

305

Theory and Simulations of Solar System Plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Theory and simulations of solar system plasmas" aims to highlight results from microscopic to global scales, achieved by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations of the plasma dynamics in the solar system. The theoretical approach must allow evidencing the universality of the phenomena being considered, whatever the region is where their role is studied; at the Sun, in the solar corona, in the interplanetary space or in planetary magnetospheres. All possible theoretical issues concerning plasma dynamics are welcome, especially those using numerical models and simulations, since these tools are mandatory whenever analytical treatments fail, in particular when complex nonlinear phenomena are at work. Comparative studies for ongoing missions like Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Stereo, Wind, SDO, Hinode, as well as those preparing future missions and proposals, like, e.g., MMS and Solar Orbiter, are especially encouraged.

Goldstein, Melvyn L.

2011-01-01

306

Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development  

SciTech Connect

Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

Mancini, T.R.

1997-12-31

307

Optimization of the solar energy collection in tracking and non-tracking photovoltaic solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical analysis is made of the conditions of collection of solar radiation in solar tracking system without concentration, and in ooo-trackiug system with standard and bifacial photovoltaic solar panel. For the experiments with solar tracking, an original Sun tracker was developed. The tracking effect calculated and measured shows an increase in energy collection around 30 - 40 %a;

P. Yu. Vorobiev; J. Gonzalez-Hernandez; Yuri V. Vorobiev

2004-01-01

308

Planet Formation in the Outer Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews coagulation models for planet formation in the Kuiper belt, emphasizing links to recent observations of our and other solar systems. At heliocentric distances of 35-50 AU, single-annulus and multiannulus planetesimal accretion calculations produce several 1000 km or larger planets and many 50-500 km objects on timescales of 10-30 Myr in a minimum-mass solar nebula. Planets form more

Scott J. Kenyon

2002-01-01

309

Take a Spin Through the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will make comparisons of the rotation rates of the Sun and three planets (Jupiter, Uranus, and Saturn). Students will gather current information and the latest images of the Solar System from the Internet; they will then review such concepts as ratios, circles, angles, arcs, angular velocity, and period of rotation to complete a worksheet for finding the rotation rates of the Sun and planets. A brief video of Saturn's rotation is included, as is a glossary of solar terms.

310

Planetary magnetism in the outer solar system.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review of the salient considerations which apply to the existence of magnetic fields in connection with planetary and subplanetary objects in the outer solar system is given. Consideration is given to internal dynamo fields, fields which might originate from interaction with the solar wind or magnetospheres (externally driven dynamos) and lastly fossil magnetic fields such as have been discovered on the moon. Where possible, connection is made between magnetism, means of detection, and internal body properties.

Sonett, C. P.

1973-01-01

311

Heating system with focused solar panels and heat pump assist  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heating system for a building having solar panels for collecting solar heat including sunlight concentrating lenses and a heat storage chamber for storing excess solar heat is disclosed. A heat pump is provided to supplement the solar heat when the temperature in the heat storage chamber is below a comfortable level. During heat pump operation, solar warmed air is

Franchina

1981-01-01

312

Development and Testing of the Solar System Concept Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trying to assess if our students really understand the ideas we present in class can be difficult. Concept inventories are research-validated assessment tools that can provide us with data to better understand whether we are successful in the classroom. The idea for the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) was born after realizing that no concept inventory currently available covered details regarding the formation and evolution of our solar system. Topics were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system and interviewing students in order to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. Beginning in fall of 2008, a national multi-institutional field test began which would eventually involve nearly 2500 students and 17 instructors from 10 different institutions. After each round of testing, a group of instructors from multiple institutions around the country worked together to analyze the data and revise or eliminate underperforming questions. Each question was examined using a combination of point biserial, percent correct on the pre-test, and item difficulty to determine if the question was properly differentiating student understanding while also ensuring the question was not too easy or too hard. In this talk, I will present an overall outline of the development of the SSCI as well as the final testing results. The final version of the SSCI can be found at http://casa.colorado.edu/ hornstei/ssci/. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any findings expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.

Hornstein, Seth D.; Prather, E. E.; English, T. R.; Desch, S. M.; Keller, J. M.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

2011-01-01

313

Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

Ringel, Robert F.

314

Analysis and simulation tools for solar array power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents simulation tools developed specifically for the design of solar array power systems. Contributions are made in several aspects of the system design phases, including solar source modeling, system simulation, and controller verification. A tool to automate the study of solar array configurations using general purpose circuit simulators has been developed based on the modeling of individual solar

Nattorn Pongratananukul

2005-01-01

315

STATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS (SDHW)  

E-print Network

STATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS (SDHW) CEC- CF-6R-MECH-02 (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-02 Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (SDHW 2009 SOLAR HOT WATER HEATING SYSTEMS: SRCC Certified Mfr Name & Model Number Net Solar Fraction (from

316

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System  

E-print Network

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System How did the outer planets mold the solar the science objectives for exploration of the outer solar system. It is consistent with Visions and Voyages but will be kept up-to-date as new discoveries are made, models evolve, our understanding of solar system processes

Rathbun, Julie A.

317

Application and design of solar photovoltaic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

Tianze, Li; Hengwei, Lu; Chuan, Jiang; Luan, Hou; Xia, Zhang

2011-02-01

318

National Solar Energy Convention, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India, November 29December 1, 1976, Proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains extended abstracts of papers devoted to various aspects of solar energy research, applications, and technology, covering such areas as national solar energy programs, solar collectors and storage systems, solar energy conversion techniques, and solar power plant systems. Specific topics include prospects for harnessing solar energy as a power source, measurements of global and diffuse solar radiation, a

A. R. Saha

1976-01-01

319

Pump efficiency in solar-energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study investigates characteristics of typical off-the-shelf pumping systems that might be used in solar systems. Report includes discussion of difficulties in predicting pump efficiency from manufacturers' data. Sample calculations are given. Peak efficiencies, flow-rate control, and noise levels are investigated. Review or theory of pumps types and operating characteristics is presented.

1978-01-01

320

Appropriate sizing of solar heating systems  

SciTech Connect

It is generally assumed that a solar heating system should be sized by minimizing its life cycle cost. This study shows, however, that the uncertainty in future economic trends makes the results of such a procedure questionable. The design conditions for minimum cost are extremely broad and all practical systems have a solar fraction within the limited range of 30% to 90%. Thus, by choosing only three collector areas that give systems within this range, one is assured of selecting a nearly optimal system for any realistic economic scenario. Selecting one of these three systems is essentially equivalent to economic optimization, but simpler. Procedures are derived in this paper for determining the sizes of the three systems. The conclusion is that the collector areas should be about 1/8, 1/5, and 1/3 of the building floor area. This rule of thumb eliminates the need to design solar systems individually, allowing the possibility of mass-produced homes with standardized solar heating systems.

Bendt, P.

1980-09-01

321

Chaotic evolution of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the entire planetary system for nearly 100 million years was studied using a computer with an integration technique. This calculation confirms that the evolution of the solar system as a whole is chaotic, with a remarkably short timescale of exponential divergence of about 4 million years. Additional numerical experiments indicate that the dynamical evolution of the Jovian

Gerald J. Sussman; Jack Wisdom

1992-01-01

322

Interstellar Dust in the Solar System  

E-print Network

The Ulysses spacecraft has been orbiting the Sun on a highly inclined ellipse almost perpendicular to the ecliptic plane (inclination 79 deg, perihelion distance 1.3 AU, aphelion distance 5.4 AU) since it encountered Jupiter in 1992. The in-situ dust detector on board continuously measured interstellar dust grains with masses up to 10^-13 kg, penetrating deep into the solar system. The flow direction is close to the mean apex of the Sun's motion through the solar system and the grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar cloud (LIC). While Ulysses monitored the interstellar dust stream at high ecliptic latitudes between 3 and 5 AU, interstellar impactors were also measured with the in-situ dust detectors on board Cassini, Galileo and Helios, covering a heliocentric distance range between 0.3 and 3 AU in the ecliptic plane. The interstellar dust stream in the inner solar system is altered by the solar radiation pressure force, gravitational focussing and interaction of charged grains with the time varying interplanetary magnetic field. We review the results from in-situ interstellar dust measurements in the solar system and present Ulysses' latest interstellar dust data. These data indicate a 30 deg shift in the impact direction of interstellar grains w.r.t. the interstellar helium flow direction, the reason of which is presently unknown.

Harald Krueger; Markus Landgraf; Nicolas Altobelli; Eberhard Gruen

2007-06-21

323

Redox storage systems for solar applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Redox energy storage system is described. The system is based on soluble aqueous iron and chromium chloride redox couples. The needed technology advances in the two elements (electrodes and membranes) that are key to its technological feasibility have been achieved and system development has begun. The design, construction, and test of a 1 kilowatt system integrated with a solar photovoltaic array is discussed.

Hagedorn, N. H.; Thaller, L. H.

1980-01-01

324

The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Changing Views and Fundamental Concepts: 1. Evolving perspectives: a historical prologue; 2. The new, close-up view from space; 3. The invisible buffer zone with space: atmospheres, magnetospheres and the solar wind; Part II. The Inner System - Rocky Worlds: 4. Third rock from the Sun: restless Earth; 5. The Moon: stepping stone to the planets; 6. Mercury: a dense battered world; 7. Venus: the veiled planet; 8. Mars: the red planet; Part III. The Giant Planets, Their Satellites and Their Rings - Worlds of Liquid, Ice and Gas: 9. Jupiter: a giant primitive planet; 10. Saturn: lord of the rings; 11. Uranus and Neptune; Part IV. Remnants of Creation - Small Worlds in the Solar System: 12. Asteroids and meteorites; 13. Colliding worlds; 14. Comets; 15. Beyond Neptune; Part V. Origin of the Solar System and Extrasolar Planets: 16. Brave new worlds; Index.

Lang, Kenneth R.

2011-03-01

325

Volcanic processes in the Solar System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article stresses that terrestrial volcanism represents only part of the range of volcanism in the solar system. Earth processes of volcanicity are dominated by plate tectonics, which does not seem to operate on other planets, except possibly on Venus. Lunar volcanicity is dominated by lava effusion at enormous rates. Mars is similar, with the addition to huge shield volcanoes developed over fixed hotspots. Io, the moon closest to Jupiter, is the most active body in the Solar System and, for example, much sulphur and silicates are emitted. The eruptions of Io are generated by heating caused by tides induced by Jupiter. Europa nearby seems to emit water from fractures and Ganymede is similar. The satellites of Saturn and Uranus are also marked by volcanic craters, but they are of very low temperature melts, possibly of ammonia and water. The volcanism of the solar system is generally more exotic, the greater the distance from Earth. -A.Scarth

Carr, M.H.

1987-01-01

326

Star Formation and the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have seen that studies of nearby star-forming regions are beginning to reveal the first signs of protoplanetary disks. Studies of interstellar and interplanetary grains are starting to provide clues about the processing and incorporation of matter into the Solar System. Studies of meteorites have yielded isotopic anomalies which indicate that some of the grains and inclusions in these bodies are very primitive. Although we have not yet detected a true interstellar grain, some of these materials have not been extensively modified since their removal from the ISM. We are indeed close to seeing our interstellar heritage. The overlap between astronomical and Solar System studies is in its infancy. What future experiments, observations, and missions can be performed in the near future that will greatly enhance our understanding of star formation and the formation of the Solar System?

Bally, John; Boss, Alan; Papanastassiou, Dimitri; Sandford, Scott; Sargent, Anneila

1988-01-01

327

Dark Matter in the Solar System  

E-print Network

We determine the density and mass distribution of dark matter within our Solar System. We explore the three-body interactions between dark matter particles, the Sun, and the planets to compute the amount of dark matter gravitationally captured over the lifetime of the Solar System. We provide an analytical framework for performing these calculations and detail our numerical simulations accordingly. We find that the local density of dark matter is enhanced by between three and five orders of magnitude over the background halo density, dependent on the radial distance from the Sun. This has profound implications for terrestrial direct dark matter detection searches. We also discuss our results in the context of gravitational signatures, including existing constraints, and find that dark matter captured in this fashion is not responsible for the Pioneer anomaly. We conclude that dark matter appears to, overall, play a much more important role in our Solar System than previously thought.

X. Xu; E. R. Siegel

2008-06-23

328

Introduction - Solar and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, there have been many exciting advances in all fields relating to our understanding of planetary systems. There has been a significant increase in our understanding of the general process of star formation, leading to an expectation that matter will be captured in a flattened envelope or nebula surrounding the young Sun. Theoretical models had predicted this for some time, but in the last decade, firm observational evidence of this has become fairly commonplace, with ? Pictoris in particular displaying all the characteristics that were expected in systems where planets formed. The discovery of extra-solar planets has also confirmed the view that planetary formation is a normal phenomenon so that our system is no longer regarded as a one off or special. Within the Solar System itself, both space exploration and improved facilities for ground-based observations have increased our knowedge of our own system dramatically. Pluto is now the only planet not to have been visited by a spacecraft, and spacecraft images also exist of asteroids and comets. In addition, it is now known that all the major planets have extensive satellite systems as well as complex ring structures. Finally, two new classes of objects have been discovered: the Centaurs orbiting between the major planets; and the Edgeworth-Kuiper objects beyond Neptune.This book is based on the lectures given at a Pre-Doctoral Summer School held in Ballyvaughn, County Clare, Ireland during 7 - 18 September 1998, supported by the European Astrophysical Doctoral Network (EADN). The aim of the School was to give an authoritative account of these new developments so that a thorough general background in the state of our knowledge would be obtained by all participants. The scientific contents of the School can be divided into a number of broad fields. The areas are: Formation of Planetary Systems; Planets and Satellites; and Small Bodies and Dust. The chapter on Dynamics by Murray spans all of these areas.

Williams, Iwan P.

329

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating  

E-print Network

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren �stergaard Jensen

330

On the Solar System-Debris Disk Connecction  

E-print Network

This paper emphasizes the connection between solar and extra-solar debris disks: how models and observations of the Solar System are helping us understand the debris disk phenomenon, and vice versa, how debris disks are helping us place our Solar System into context.

Amaya Moro-Martin

2007-12-14

331

Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research is aimed at testing gravitational theory, primarily on an interplanetary scale and using mainly observations of objects in the solar system. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to support this model by placing tighter bounds on any departure from it. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, as well as pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

2005-01-01

332

High throughput solar cell ablation system  

DOEpatents

A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

2014-10-14

333

Solar System Exploration: Paper Models for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA offers this website focusing on Solar System Exploration and projects for kids to build paper versions of the "super tough robots are out there exploring our solar system." Using colored, cut and folded pieces of paper, kids can construct models of Cassini, Galileo and many other spacecrafts. Along with the instructions (which need to be downloaded and printed), they provide a rating for level of difficulty as well as information on the spacecraft and its mission. A link to a website devoted to paper modeling provides some basic tips on paper model construction.

334

High throughput solar cell ablation system  

DOEpatents

A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

2012-09-11

335

Testing relativity with solar system dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major breakthrough is described in the accuracy of Solar System dynamical tests of relativistic gravity. The breakthrough was achieved by factoring in ranging data from Viking Landers 1 and 2 from the surface of Mars. Other key data sources included optical transit circle observations, lunar laser ranging, planetary radar, and spacecraft (Mariner 9 to Mars and Mariner 10 to Mercury). The Solar System model which is used to fit the data and the process by which such fits are performed are explained and results are discussed. The results are fully consistent with the predictions of General Relativity.

Hellings, R. W.

1984-01-01

336

System-level solar module optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems achieve the highest level of solar conversion efficiency of all photovoltaic (PV) technologies by combining solar concentration, sun tracking, and high-efficiency multi-junction PV cells. Although these design features increase the overall efficiency of the device, they also dramatically increase the cost and physical volume of the system and make the system fragile and unwieldy. In this paper, we present recent progress towards the development of a robust, reduced form-factor CPV system. The CPV system is designed for portable applications and utilizes a series of low profile optical and optomechanical components to concentrate the solar spectrum, enhance energy absorption, and track the sun throughout the diurnal cycle. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) single-junction PV cells, the system exploits the efficiency gains associated with tuning the wavelength of the incoming light to the band-gap of a PV material. This is accomplished by spectrally splitting the concentrated incident beam into multiple wavelength bands via a series of custom optical elements. Additional energy is harvested by the system through the use of scavenger PV cells, thermoelectric generators, and biologically inspired anti-reflective materials. The system's compact, low-profile active solar tracking module minimizes the effects of wind-induced loads and reduces the overall size of the system, thus enabling future ruggedization of the system for defense applications. Designed from a systems engineering approach, the CPV system has been optimized to maximize efficiency while reducing system size and cost per kilowatt-hour. Results from system tests will be presented and design trade-offs will be discussed.

Rivera, Monica; Roach, Grahm C.; Mitchell, Joseph N.; Boehme, Jeffrey L.

2013-05-01

337

Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are engaged in testing gravitational theory, mainly using observations of objects in the solar system and mainly on the interplanetary scale. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to support this model by placing tighter bounds on any departure from it. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, as well as pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements. In the past year, we have added to our data, primarily lunar laser ranging measurements, but also supplementary data concerning the physical properties of solar-system objects, such as the solar quadrupole moment, planetary masses, and asteroid radii. Because the solar quadrupole moment contributes to the classical precession of planetary perihelia, but with a dependence on distance from the Sun that differs from that of the relativistic precession, it is possible to estimate effects simultaneously. However, our interest is mainly in the relativistic effect, and we find that imposing a constraint on the quadrupole moment from helioseismology studies, gives us a dramatic (about ten-fold) decrease in the standard error of our estimate of the relativistic component of the perihelion advance.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

2005-01-01

338

Solar dynamic power system definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

1988-01-01

339

Solar heating system final design package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

1979-01-01

340

Meteorites: messengers from the early solar system.  

PubMed

Meteorites are fragments from solar system bodies, dominantly asteroids. A small fraction is derived from the Moon and from Mars. These rocks tell a rich history of the early solar system and range from solids little changed since the earliest phases of solid matter condensation in the solar nebula (chondrites) to material representing asteroidal metamorphism and melting, impact processes on the Moon and even aqueous alteration near the surface of Mars. Meteorites are very rare. Currently many meteorites result from searches in Antarctica and the hot deserts of North Africa and Arabia. The present high find rate likely represents a unique short-term event, asking for a careful management of this scarce scientific resource. PMID:21138163

Hofmann, Beda A

2010-01-01

341

Solar adsorption refrigeration (SAR) system modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar adsorption refrigeration (SAR) system has economical and environmental aspects that motivate many researches to\\u000a investigate its capability in cooling system design. In this study, multi-dimensional mathematical models have been generated\\u000a to predict the coefficient of performance (COP) value of the SAR system as function of the evaporator, condenser, and generator\\u000a temperatures. Fuzzy logic and regression analysis approaches were

Ghassan M. Tashtoush; Mohannad Al-Ata; Atif Al-Khazali

2011-01-01

342

Solar system installation at Louisville, Kentucky  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The installation of a solar space heating and domestic hot water system is described. The overall philosophy used was to install both a liquid and a hot air system retrofitted to existing office and combined warehouse building. The 1080 sq. ft. office space is heated first and excess heat is dumped into the warehouse. The two systems offer a unique opportunity to measure the performance and compare results of both air and liquid at one site.

1978-01-01

343

Solar System: A Look at the Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It explores the similarities and differences in the planets that make up our solar system. Each planet moves around the Sun in the same direction in a nearly circular orbit, though each planet has its own unique orbital period and speed. The planets vary in size, surface and atmospheric composition, and surface features. In orbit around the planets, we find a great variety of moons, flat rings of rock and ice debris, and/or artificial satellites. Features of many of the planets and their moons show evidence of formation and evolutionary processes similar to those that occur on Earth. These processes include earthquakes, lava flows, erosion, and changes in the atmosphere.Learning Outcomes:� Describe, compare, and contrast the following basic features of the planets in our solar system: size, composition, atmosphere, periods of rotation and revolution, surface features, and ring systems.� Describe the similarities and differences between the terrestrial and Jovian planets.� Describe, compare, and contrast the characteristics of planetary moons in our solar system.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

344

Solar dynamic power systems for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

1986-01-01

345

System integration issues of residential solar photovoltaic systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to evaluate the economic effects of residential solar PV systems on the utility's revenue, capacity, and energy requirements from the electric utility's perspective and to estimate the price that it might pay for surplus energy compared to what it would charge for deficits. The power and energy generated by the solar PV systems reduce the capital and operating costs that would otherwise be incurred by the utility. These avoided costs suggest what the utility might pay for surplus solar PV energy. The avoided costs are evaluated under three integration hypotheses, namely: (1) the utility has no system storage, (2) the utility has system storage, and (3) the solar PV systems are supported by dedicated storage devices, the purpose of which is to minimize sales to and purchases from the utility. Findings are reported in detail. (WHK)

Yamayee, Z.A.; Peschon, J.

1980-03-01

346

Advanced coal fueled gas turbine system definition: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The coal-fired gas turbine system definition and economic assessments are based on the Coal Burning Locomotive Study previously conducted by the GE Transportation Systems Business Operations with Burlington Northern and Norfolk Southern railroad sponsorship, and later with additional funding from the United States Department of Energy. The objectives of that study were to validate the feasibility of locomotive designs using coal as a fuel substitute for diesel oil. The objective of this report is to provide a preliminary definition of a coal fueled gas turbine locomotive system and a preliminary assessment of the system technical merits and economic boundaries. The system definition will be used to guide the technology development efforts in the Advanced Coal Fueled Gas Turbine System Program. The overall program objective is to develop the technological basis necessary for subsequent commercial development of direct coal fueled gas turbine power systems. The system definition will be updated as the technological bases mature through program component development and integrated system testing.

James, A.M.; Horner, M.W.

1987-02-01

347

Supernova Debris in the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorites contain clear evidence that isotopes with short half lives (as short as 100,000 years) were present in the cloud of gas and dust (the called solar nebula) from which the Sun and planets formed. Supernovae, the powerful explosions of spent stars, produce elements, including short-lived radioactive isotopes. Given the short lifetimes, these elements must have been added immediately before solids formed in the Solar System, and it is possible that a supernova triggered the collapse of the vast interstellar cloud in which the Solar System formed. However, there is some evidence that two isotopes, aluminum-26 and manganese-53, were not distributed uniformly in the solar nebula. If correct, does this mean that the supernova debris was not mixed thoroughly into the collapsing interstellar cloud? This possibility was tested by Robert H. Nichols, Frank Podosek, and Cristine Jennings (Washington University in St. Louis) and Brad Meyer (Clemson University). They evaluated how thoroughly supernova products were mixed into the solar nebula by searching for the effects on the isotopic make up of other elements. They conclude that the explosive products of a supernova would have been mixed uniformly into the nebula. Thus, either the evidence of heterogeneous distribution of short-lived isotopes is incorrect, or some isotopes were not formed in a supernova, but came from somewhere else. This research project is one of many that link studies of meteorites, astronomical observations, and astrophysical calculations.

Taylor, G. J.

2000-03-01

348

[Expert system to support the decision in topical therapy for venous ulcers].  

PubMed

Although the treatment of venous ulcers requires a set of specific knowledge, non-specialist nurses are unaware of the appropriate therapy, which is a concern in the topical therapy for these skin lesions. This paper aims to present an expert system to support the nursing decision making process in the topical therapy of venous ulcers. It is a development research implemented in five stages: system modeling, knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation from production rules, and system implementation and evaluation. The production rules are presented as well as some cases to simulate the expert system behavior, demonstrating the viability of its usage in nurse's practice. The system may support the decision making about the topical therapy of venous ulcers. However, ulcer evaluation should be correctly made, so that the system provides appropriate suggestions, allowing better organization and planning assistance. PMID:24015475

Sellmer, Danielle; Carvalho, Carina Maris Gaspar; Carvalho, Deborah Ribeiro; Malucelli, Andreia

2013-06-01

349

Some topics concerning the theory of singular dynamical systems  

E-print Network

Some subjects related to the geometric theory of singular dynamical systems are reviewed in this paper. In particular, the following two matters are considered: the theory of canonical transformations for presymplectic Hamiltonian systems, and the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian constraint algorithms and the time-evolution operator.

Narciso Roman-Roy

2006-03-01

350

External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our galaxy - the Milky Way - is a spiral galaxy with arms extending from the center like a pinwheel. Our solar system is in the Orion arm of the Milky Way. Our Sun is one of about 100 billion stars in the Milky Way. And our galaxy is just one of roughly 1

1900-01-01

351

Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar tracking control system, Sun Chaser, a method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions is described. The Sun Chaser follows the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and resets itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise.

Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

1978-01-01

352

Ten mysteries of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus: Ten mysteries of the Solar System: (1) Is there life on Titan? (2) How many asteroids are there? (3) What is the great wall of Iapetus? (4) How did Saturn's rings form? (5) Is there a tenth planet? (6) Are there giant volcanoes on Mercury? (7) Is Pluto a planet? (8) Why is Uranus so cold? (9) What triggers

David Hawksett; Alan Longstaff; Keith Cooper; Stuart Clark

2005-01-01

353

Solar Energy Forecast System Development and Implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecast systems for predicting real-time solar energy generation are being developed along similar lines to those of more established wind forecast systems, but the challenges and constraints are different. Clouds and aerosols play a large role, and for tilted photovoltaic panels and solar concentrating plants, the direct beam irradiance, which typically has much larger forecast errors than global horizontal irradiance, must be utilized. At MDA Information Systems, we are developing a forecast system based on first principles, with the well-validated REST2 clear sky model (Gueymard, 2008) at its backbone. In tuning the model and addressing aerosol scattering and surface albedo, etc., we relied upon the wealth of public data sources including AERONET (aerosol optical depth at different wavelengths), Suominet (GPS integrated water vapor), NREL MIDC solar monitoring stations, SURFRAD (includes upwelling shortwave), and MODIS (albedo in different wavelength bands), among others. The forecast itself utilizes a blend of NWP model output, which must be brought down to finer time resolution based on the diurnal cycle rather than simple interpolation. Many models currently do not output the direct beam irradiance, and one that does appears to have a bias relative to its global horizontal irradiance, with equally good performance attained by utilizing REST2 and the model global radiation to estimate the direct component. We will present a detailed assessment of various NWP solar energy products, evaluating forecast skill at a range of photovoltaic installations.

Jascourt, S. D.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Cassidy, C.

2012-12-01

354

The NASA Atlas of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploration of our solar system by spacecraft has been one of the greatest scientific achievements of the twentieth century. The mapping of other worlds has resulted from numerous space missions by NASA, extending over many years. The data from these planetary missions have been synthesised by the US Geological Survey to produce detailed maps. Every planet, moon, or small

Ronald Greeley; Raymond Batson

1997-01-01

355

Particle dark matter in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle dark matter in the Galactic halo may be bound to the solar system either by elastic scattering through weak interactions with nucleons in the Sun (weak scattering) or by gravitational interactions with the planets, mainly Jupiter (gravitational capture). In this thesis, I simulate weak scattering, gravitational capture, and the subsequent evolution of the bound orbits to determine the distribution

Annika H. G. Peter

2008-01-01

356

The Origin of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory here outlined attempts to relate the problem of the origin of the solar system to the general problem of star formation. Reasons are given for concluding that interstellar material in which stars are about to be formed consists of fragments (`floccules') moving at random amongst themselves and probably composed mainly of molecular hydrogen, the temperature being about 50

W. H. McCrea

1960-01-01

357

Inner Solar System Dynamical Analogues for Plutinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neptune and Pluto share a remarkable 3:2 mean motion resonance. Neptune orbits the Sun three times for each two circuits by Pluto, and Pluto in its eccentric orbit is never at perihelion when Neptune is close. In recent years many plutinos, which share the 3:2 resonance in the outer solar system, have been discovered. We now find Earth, Venus, and

M. Connors; R. Brasser; R. G. Stacey; P. Wiegert

2004-01-01

358

Inner Solar System dynamical analogs of plutinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

By studying orbits of asteroids potentially in 3:2 exterior mean motion resonance with Earth, Venus, and Mars, we have found plutino analogs. We identify at least 27 objects in the inner Solar System dynamically protected from encounter through this resonance. These are four objects associated with Venus, six with Earth, and seventeen with Mars. Bodies in the 3:2 exterior resonance

Martin Connors; R. Greg Stacey; Paul Wiegert; Ramon Brasser

2008-01-01

359

Solar-powered hot-air system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

1979-01-01

360

Controller for solar-energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes operation and testing of computerized control unit for solar-heating and cooling systems. Unit includes electronics and 'plumbing'. Components are modular. Microprocessor with ROM and RAM operates fans, pumps, and valves, and retains selected data for 32 hours.

Hankins, J. D.

1980-01-01

361

Radio bursts from Solar System planets  

E-print Network

Radio bursts from Solar System planets and Extrasolar planets Philippe Zarka Observatoire de Paris - CNRS, LESIA, France, philippe.zarka@obspm.fr #12;LF planetary radiosources : plasma phenomena Radio emissions #12;Radio emission from exoplanets ? Theory · Zarka, P., Plasma interactions of exoplanets

Demoulin, Pascal

362

Assessment of a Solar System Walk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of sending students and the general public on a walk through a scale model of the solar system in an attempt to instill an appreciation of the relative scales of the sizes of the objects compared to the immense distances between them is certainly not new. A good number of such models exist, including one on the National Mall in…

LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.; Kirchner, Brian

2010-01-01

363

The Dimensions of the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A few new wrinkles have been added to the popular activity of building a scale model of the solar system. Students can learn about maps and scaling using easily accessible online resources that include satellite images. This is accomplished by taking advantage of some of the special features of Google Earth. This activity gives students a much…

Schneider, Stephen E.; Davis, Kathleen S.

2007-01-01

364

Solar-system abundances of the elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental analyses of the Ogueil Cl meteorite and all previous Cl chondrite analyses were employed to develop a new solar system abundance table, including the standard deviation and number of analyses for each element. The table also comprises the abundances of radioactive and radiogenic nuclides at the present and 4.55 AE ago, as well as abundances by weight in a

E. Anders; M. Ebihara

1982-01-01

365

The Inner Solar System Characteristics of Earth  

E-print Network

The Inner Solar System #12;The Earth #12;Characteristics of Earth A terrestrial, rocky planet floats on mantle · Crust is created and destroyed #12;Characteristics of Earth Today Surface: · 70% water · 30% land Atmosphere: ·77% N2 ·21% O2 ·0.1% H2O ·+Ar, CO2, Ne #12;The Dynamic Earth Molten Core

Walter, Frederick M.

366

The Origin of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout this century, Soviet scientists had strongly influenced Western research on the origin of the solar system. Now this volume offers a comprehensive overview of Soviet research in planetary cosmogony from the last eight decades. It opens with a selection of the seminal papers of Otto Schmidt, some of which were never published in English. The book also includes a

A. E. Levin; S. G. Brush

1995-01-01

367

Comets at the solar system's edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of an object bound to the sun by gravity but situated beyond the orbit of Pluto is discussed. The discovery of this object, designated 1992 QB1, may confirm the existence of the Kuiper belt, envisioned to be a disk of far-flung comets left over from the origin of the solar system. The implications of the new discovery

P. R. Weissman

1993-01-01

368

Chaotic diffusion in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of the chaotic behavior of the planetary orbits in the Solar System (Laskar, 1989, 1990) was obtained using numerical integration of averaged equations. Since then, this chaotic behavior has been confirmed through direct numerical simulation, without averaging (Quinn et al, 1991, Sussman and Wisdom, 1992). More recently, integrations of more accurate planetary equations have been performed over 100

Jacques Laskar

2007-01-01

369

A proposal of efficiency improvement with solar power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with energy conversion efficiency improvement of solar power application systems. In order to extensively use solar power generation system in all aspects of lifestyle, including moving vehicles, efficiency tracking control systems are necessary for solar power condition change. In this paper, the authors have proposed two kinds of efficiency tracking system: one is the feedforward type which

Tetsumi Harakawa; T. Tujimoto

2001-01-01

370

IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat  

E-print Network

IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? A REMARK Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat Computer Science Department System is stable or not. Common belief is that the Solar System is stable if and only, a similar inequality is true for randomly chosen frequencies. In this paper, we show that the Solar system

Kreinovich, Vladik

371

Long simulations of the Solar System: Brouwer's Law and Chaos  

E-print Network

Long simulations of the Solar System: Brouwer's Law and Chaos K. R. Grazier W. I. Newman James M of motion for self- gravitating systems, particularly in the context of our Solar System's evolution growth can be attained in 3-D Solar System integrations. Our integrations are such that the positions

Sharp, Philip

372

IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat  

E-print Network

IS SOLAR SYSTEM STABLE? A REMARK Vladik Kreinovich, Andrew Bernat Computer Science Department System is stable or not. Common belief is that the Solar System is stable if and only that the Solar system does not have such resonances, and therefore (if the above­mentioned belief is correct), we

Kreinovich, Vladik

373

ON "ARNOLD'S THEOREM" ON THE STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM  

E-print Network

ON "ARNOLD'S THEOREM" ON THE STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM JACQUES F´EJOZ Abstract: Arnold 0 as the Sun and the other bodies as n planets revolving around the Sun. In our Solar System is a breakthrough in respect of the oldest question in Dy- namical Systems --the stability of the Solar System. Yet

Féjoz, Jacques

374

Solar thermal energy systems industrial applications assessment review: presentation summaries  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen presentation summaries consisting mainly of view-graphs and including some brief verbal explanation are compiled. They cover: solar thermal energy applications assessment and planning; industrial sector analysis in the industrial applications branch of SERI; regional assessment studies, an evaluation of solar thermal systems for thermal applications, central receiver market studies; assessment of solar central receiver technology, markets, and industry; industrial solar thermal market assessment; solar industrial process heat market for central receiver technology; solar total energy modularity; parabolic dishes; solar industrial process heat case studies market evaluation; economic potential of solar thermal energy to provide industrial process heat in the US; industrial solar process heat program at the Northeast Solar Energy Center; the Gas Research Institute Program projections of industrial end uses to assist evaluation of solar thermal options; conventional approaches to industrial marketing; solar energy incentives and buyer behavior; and financial aspects for commercialization of central receivers. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-12-01

375

Solar energy conversions: solar-electric thermophotovoltaic systems and solar-powered gas lasers  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with conversions of solar energy efficiently into electricity and into gas laser radiation. In the first section, a review study of the possibility of a solar-electric thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device has been done. In a proposed extension of the TPV concept, a Cassagranian optical system concentrates solar radiation to heat a blackbody cavity to 2400/sup 0/K. A double-layer solar cell, GaAs and Si, forming the cylindrical surface concentric to the blackbody cavity, receives the blackbody radiation and converts it into electricity efficiently. A cell conversion efficiency of 50% or more would be possible with the TPV system. The second section explores the concept of blackbody radiation pumping of gas laser media as a step toward utilization of solar energy as a laser pumping source. To demonstrate this concept, an experiment was performed in which various gas mixtures of CO/sub 2/ and He were exposed to 1500/sup 0/K thermal radiation for brief periods of time. A gain coefficient of 2.8 x 10/sup -3/cm/sup -1/ has been measured at 10.6..mu.. and 1 Torr of pressure. At 2 Torr and 0.5 Torr, the measured optical gain is less than that at 1 Torr. A simple analytical model was used to describe the rate of change of energy distribution of the vibrational modes of CO/sub 2/ and to predict the gain. There is a good agreement between prediction and experiment.

Yesil, O.

1980-12-01

376

Comparing the Document Representations of Two IR-Systems: CLARIT and TOPIC.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares two information retrieval systems, CLARIT and TOPIC, in terms of assigned versus derived and precoordinate versus postcoordinate indexing. Models of information retrieval systems are discussed, and a test of the systems using a demonstration database of full-text articles from the "Wall Street Journal" is described. (Contains 21…

Paijmans, Hans

1993-01-01

377

Diclofenac systemic exposure is not increased when topical diclofenac is applied to ultraviolet-induced erythema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for a variety of painful and inflammatory conditions. A new low-dose, topical-gel form of diclofenac sodium (diclofenac-Na) has been developed for pain relief and redness reduction after sunburn. The objective was to compare exposure to oral diclofenac-Na with the systemic exposure to diclofenac after application of the new topical diclofenac-Na 0.1% Emulgel

J.-L. Magnette; J.-L. Kienzler; D. Sallin; C. Ménart; F. Nollevaux; A. Knops

2004-01-01

378

Topical and systemic glucocorticoid potencies of budesonide and beclomethasone dipropionate in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Topical anti-inflammatory (cutaneous “vasoconstriction”) and systemic glucocorticoid (depression of plasma cortisol and changes\\u000a in differential WBC count) potencies of the two glucocorticoids budesonide and beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) were compared\\u000a in human volunteers. After topical application, budesonide was 2–3 times more potent than BDP in inducing “vasoconstriction”.\\u000a After oral administration, on the other hand, budesonide was 2–4 times less potent than

S.-Å. Johansson; K.-E. Andersson; R. Brattsand; E. Gruvstad; P. Hedner

1982-01-01

379

A web-based melanoma image diagnosis support system using topic map and AJAX technologies.  

PubMed

The design and implementation of a web-based diagnostic support tool for melanoma dermatological images and related diagnostic data is presented. The proposed system is semantic web-based and is driven by exploiting the combination of AJAX framework and topic map technology. A novel client/server architecture was developed that enables several clients to interact online with the topic map-based system. Users have the ability to access the system anywhere and anytime via a simple Internet browser. Additionally, an ABCD application has been developed for automated calculation of ABCD parameters and consequently embedded in the proposed TM-based system. PMID:18604754

Papastergiou, A; Tzekis, P; Hatzigaidas, A; Tryfon, G; Ioannidis, D; Zaharis, Z; Kampitaki, D; Lazaridis, P

2008-06-01

380

Review of solar-energy drying systems II: an overview of solar drying technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically-realised designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy

O. V Ekechukwu; B Norton

1999-01-01

381

Planet Formation in the Outer Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews coagulation models for planet formation in the Kuiper\\u000aBelt, emphasizing links to recent observations of our and other solar systems.\\u000aAt heliocentric distances of 35-50 AU, single annulus and multiannulus\\u000aplanetesimal accretion calculations produce several 1000 km or larger planets\\u000aand many 50-500 km objects on timescales of 10-30 Myr in a Minimum Mass Solar\\u000aNebula. Planets

2001-01-01

382

Solar recharging system for hearing aid cells.  

PubMed

We present a solar recharging system for nickel-cadmium cells of interest in areas where batteries for hearing aids are difficult to obtain. The charger has sun cells at the top. Luminous energy is converted into electrical energy, during the day and also at night if there is moonlight. The cost of the charger and hearing aid is very low at 35 US$. The use of solar recharging for hearing aids would be useful in alleviating the problems of deafness in parts of developing countries where there is no electricity. PMID:7964140

Gòmez Estancona, N; Tena, A G; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, L; Muñiz, L; Aristimuño, D; Unanue, J M; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, A

1994-09-01

383

SIMS prototype system 1: Design data brochure. [solar heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The system, subsystem, and installation requirements are described. System operation and performance are discussed, and procedures for sizing the system to a specific site are presented.

1978-01-01

384

Short-lived radionuclides and early solar system chronology -- A hibonite perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the 41 Ca- 41 K, 26 Al- 26 Mg, 10 Be- 10 B, oxygen and titanium iso-topic systems in 26 hibonite-bearing inclusions extracted from the CM meteorite Murchison provide important constraints for origins of short-lived radionuclides, early solar system chronology, and chemical evolution. Magnesium isotopic compositions divide these hibonite grains into two distinct populations which correlate perfectly with

Ming-Chang Liu

2008-01-01

385

Higher than Everest: An Adventurer's Guide to the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this unique guidebook, Paul Hodge takes you on a virtual tour of the most spectacular sites in the solar system. Hodge includes the latest information about the solar system into his vivid descriptions of imaginary, challenging expeditions.

Hodge, Paul W.

386

Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 7  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Guidelines and assumptions used in the design of a system of geosynchronous satellites for transmitting solar power to earth were discussed as well as the design evolutions of the principle types of solar power satellites and space support systems.

1977-01-01

387

Similarity Rules for Scaling Solar Sail Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future science missions will require solar sails on the order of 200 square meters (or larger). However, ground demonstrations and flight demonstrations must be conducted at significantly smaller sizes, due to limitations of ground-based facilities and cost and availability of flight opportunities. For this reason, the ability to understand the process of scalability, as it applies to solar sail system models and test data, is crucial to the advancement of this technology. This paper will approach the problem of scaling in solar sail models by developing a set of scaling laws or similarity criteria that will provide constraints in the sail design process. These scaling laws establish functional relationships between design parameters of a prototype and model sail that are created at different geometric sizes. This work is applied to a specific solar sail configuration and results in three (four) similarity criteria for static (dynamic) sail models. Further, it is demonstrated that even in the context of unique sail material requirements and gravitational load of earth-bound experiments, it is possible to develop appropriate scaled sail experiments. In the longer term, these scaling laws can be used in the design of scaled experimental tests for solar sails and in analyzing the results from such tests.

Canfield, Stephen L.; Peddieson, John; Garbe, Gregory

2010-01-01

388

Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

389

Topics in quantum information and the theory of open quantum systems  

E-print Network

This thesis examines seven topics in the areas of deterministic open-quantum-system dynamics, quantum measurements, and quantum error correction (QEC). The first topic concerns weak measurements and their universality as a means of generating quantum operations. It is shown that every generalized measurement can be implemented as a sequence of weak (infinitesimal) measurements. The second topic is an application of this result to the theory of entanglement. Necessary and sufficient differential conditions for entanglement monotones are derived and are used to find a new entanglement monotone for three-qubit states. The third topic is a study of the performance of different master equations for the description of non-Markovian dynamics. The system studied is a qubit coupled to a spin bath via the Ising interaction. The fourth topic investigates continuous QEC in the presence of non-Markovian noise. It is shown that due to the existence of a Zeno regime in non-Markovian dynamics, the performance of continuous QEC exhibits a quadratic improvement for a sufficiently high time resolution of the error-correcting operations. The fifth topic studies the conditions for correctability of subsystem codes under continuous dynamics. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the Lindbladian and the system-environment Hamiltonian are derived. The sixth topic examines the robustness of operator QEC codes against initialization errors. A new measure of fidelity for encoded information is introduced and is used to show that operator codes are robust against imperfect initialization without the need for restriction of the standard operator QEC conditions. The last topic concerns holonomic quantum computation (HQC) and stabilizer codes. A fault-tolerant scheme for HQC is presented, proving the scalability of the holonomic approach.

Ognyan Oreshkov

2008-12-27

390

Studies on system-level fault diagnosis and related topics  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation deals mainly with the diagnosis aspects of fault-tolerant computing. A number of system models are studied, and their diagnosability conditions established. Fault-diagnosis algorithms for some models are proposed and complexity of diagnosis problem analyzed for some other models. Finally, some fault-tolerant computer networks are studied, and efficient routing algorithms are proposed for these networks.

Sen, A.

1987-01-01

391

Scalable Many-Core Memory Systems Optional Topic 5: Interconnects  

E-print Network

://www.ece.cmu.edu/~omutlu onur@cmu.edu HiPEAC ACACES Summer School 2013 July 15-19, 2013 #12;What Will You Learn in This Course Mutlu, "Memory Scaling: A Systems Architecture Perspective," IMW 2013. 2 #12;Readings and Videos #12-Chip Networks," MICRO 2009. q Das et al., "Aergia: Exploiting Packet Latency Slack in On-Chip Networks," ISCA

Mutlu, Onur

392

Streaming of interstellar grains in the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a theoretical study of the interactions between interstellar grains streaming through the solar system and the solar wind are presented. It is shown that although elongated core-mantle interstellar particles of a characteristic radius of about 0.12 microns are subject to a greater force due to radiation pressure than to gravitational attraction, they are still able to penetrate deep inside the solar system. Calculations of particle trajectories within the solar system indicate substantial effects of the solar activity cycle as reflected in the interplanetary magnetic field on the distribution of 0.12- and 0.0005-micron interstellar grains streaming through the solar system, leading to a 50-fold increase in interstellar grain densities 3 to 4 AU ahead of the sun during years 8 to 17 of the solar cycle. It is noted that during the Solar Polar Mission, concentrations are expected which will offer the opportunity of detecting interstellar grains in the solar system.

Gustafson, B. A. S.; Misconi, N. Y.

1979-01-01

393

An efficient method of Solar Panel Energy Measurement System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Panel has its wide use starting from a simple 5 W diode lamp to a few kW ac drives. A solar panel with a battery and a charge controller and other auxiliary devices like dc to ac converters constitute a Solar Home System (SHS). The charge controller also known as solar panel voltage regulator, which is used to monitor

G. Mostafa; F. Khan

2009-01-01

394

Dust Measurements in the Outer Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust measurements in the outer solar system are reviewed. Only the plasma wave instrument on board Voyagers 1 and 2 recorded\\u000a impacts in the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt (EKB). Pioneers 10 and 11 measured a constant dust flux of 10-micron-sized particles\\u000a out to 20 AU. Dust detectors on board Ulysses and Galileo uniquely identified micron-sized interstellar grains passing through\\u000a the planetary system.

Eberhard Grün; Harald Krüger; Markus Landgraf

1993-01-01

395

Solar-powered environmental data collection system  

SciTech Connect

A solar-powered system consisting of a multipurpose remote data collector, a radio data link, and a data receiving station has been designed to acquire data from various remote areas at the Savannah River Plant. A prototype system has been built to monitor gamma radiation at the plant perimeter. It is operating satisfactorily and will be installed to monitor gamma radiation or other environmental parameters at many remote locations on the plant.

Randolph, H.W.

1980-02-01

396

Chaotic evolution of the solar system.  

PubMed

The evolution of the entire planetary system has been numerically integrated for a time span of nearly 100 million years. This calculation confirms that the evolution of the solar system as a whole is chaotic, with a time scale of exponential divergence of about 4 million years. Additional numerical experiments indicate that the Jovian planet subsystem is chaotic, although some small variations in the model can yield quasiperiodic motion. The motion of Pluto is independently and robustly chaotic. PMID:17800710

Sussman, G J; Wisdom, J

1992-07-01

397

Solar hydrogen from photovoltaic-electrolyzer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model has been developed to determine and optimize the thermal and economical performance of large scale photovoltaic-electrolyzer systems, either with fixed or sun tracking panels using hourly solar radiation data. It has been found that the overall thermal efficiency of photovoltaic-electrolyzer systems may be as high as 10.85% with sun tracking panels and 10.33% with fixed panels. The

E. Bilgen

2001-01-01

398

Environments in the Outer Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outer planets of our solar system Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are fascinating objects on their own. Their intrinsic\\u000a magnetic fields form magnetic environments (so called magnetospheres) in which charged and neutral particles and dust are\\u000a produced, lost or being transported through the system. These magnetic environments of the gas giants can be envisaged as\\u000a huge plasma laboratories in

N. Krupp; K. K. Khurana; L. Iess; V. Lainey; T. A. Cassidy; M. Burger; C. Sotin; F. Neubauer

2010-01-01

399

EAO database of Solar System bodies observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a large data bank of photographic observations of Solar System bodies at Engelhadt Astronomical Observatory (EAO). The brief description of the methods of observations and the accuracy of their reduction with the PPM and Tycho-2 catalogues is given. The photographic positions of the major planets, except Jupiter, are in the system of the Tycho-2 catalogue and their comparison with DE200 ephemeris coordinates are given.

Nefedyev, Y.; Zabbarova, R.; Churkin, K.; Andreev, A.

2013-09-01

400

A management strategy for solar panel — battery — super capacitor hybrid energy system in solar car  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of solar energy - battery - super-capacitor hybrid energy storage system in solar electric vehicles. The key point is the proposed energy management control algorithm. The entire system consists of a solar panel, a boost converter, a battery, a super capacitor, a bi-directional DC\\/DC converter, and a brushless DC motor. This paper gives the details

Bin Wu; Fang Zhuo; Fei Long; Weiwei Gu; Yang Qing; YanQin Liu

2011-01-01

401

Development of Experienced Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Models of the Solar System and the Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the developing pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced science teachers in their first few years of teaching a new science syllabus in the Dutch secondary education system. We aimed to identify the content and structure of the PCK for a specific topic in the new syllabus, "Models of the Solar System and the…

Henze, Ineke; van Driel, Jan H.; Verloop, Nico

2008-01-01

402

TOPICAL REVIEW: Prosthetic interfaces with the visual system: biological issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of effective visual prostheses for the blind represents a challenge for biomedical engineers and neuroscientists. Significant progress has been made in the miniaturization and processing power of prosthesis electronics; however development lags in the design and construction of effective machine brain interfaces with visual system neurons. This review summarizes what has been learned about stimulating neurons in the human and primate retina, lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex. Each level of the visual system presents unique challenges for neural interface design. Blind patients with the retinal degenerative disease retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are a common population in clinical trials of visual prostheses. The visual performance abilities of normals and RP patients are compared. To generate pattern vision in blind patients, the visual prosthetic interface must effectively stimulate the retinotopically organized neurons in the central visual field to elicit patterned visual percepts. The development of more biologically compatible methods of stimulating visual system neurons is critical to the development of finer spatial percepts. Prosthesis electrode arrays need to adapt to different optimal stimulus locations, stimulus patterns, and patient disease states.

Cohen, Ethan D.

2007-06-01

403

Topics in the mechanics of self-organizing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-organization, in one of its accepted definitions, is the appearance of non-random structures in a system without explicit constraints from forces outside the system. In this thesis two self-organizing systems are studied from the viewpoint of mechanics. In the first system---semiconductor crystal surfaces---the internal constraints that lead to self-assembly of nanoscale structures on silicon-germanium (SiGe) films are studied. In the second system---actin cytoskeleton---a consequence of dynamic self-organization of actin filaments in the form of motion of micron-sized beads through a cytoplasmic medium is studied. When Ge film is deposited on Si(001) substrate, nanoscale features form on the surface and self-organize by minimizing energy contributions from the surface and the strain resulting from difference in lattice constants of the film and the substrate. Clean Si(001) and Ge(001) surfaces are very similar, but experiments to date have shown that atomic scale defects such as dimer-vacancies self-organize into vacancy lines only on Si(001). Through atomic simulations, we show that the observed difference originate from the magnitude of compressive surface strain which reduces formation energy of the dimer-vacancies. During initial stages of the film deposition, the surface is composed of steps and vacancy lines organized in periodic patterns. Using theory of elasticity and atomic simulations we show that these line defects self-organize due to monopolar nature of steps and dipolar nature of the vacancy lines. This self-organized pattern further develops to form pyramidal islands bounded with (105) facets and high Ge content. Mismatch strain of the island is then reduced by incorporation of Si from the substrate surrounding the island leaving behind trenches whose depth is proportional to the basewidth of the island. Using finite element simulations we show that such a relationship is an outcome of competition between elastic energy and surface energy. Some experimental studies also report observation of steeper (103) and (104) facets on pyramidal islands. Using numerical simulations we derive a phase diagram which shows that the steeper facets are stabilized because they provide better relaxation of mismatch strain with only slight increase in surface energy. In the second system, the actin cytoskeleton is a key structural and propulsion element of eukaryotic cells. Micron-sized "cargoes", which under pathological conditions include bacteria, are propelled by dynamic self-organization of the actin filaments. Recently it is shown that the trajectories of a bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, propelled by actin filaments are periodic; implying that the organization of actin filaments impart an effective force that spins about the axis of the bacterium. We show that the motion of spherical beads is also non-random; the effective force has an additional degree of freedom due to the spherical symmetry of the bead. Agreement of the theoretical trajectories with experimental observations suggest that the actin-based motility can be generally described using deterministic equations. We also propose microscopic basis for the effective force model which can guide development of microscopic theory to predict the long term trajectories of actin propelled objects.

Tambe, Dhananjay

404

Wind loading and size effects in RRSRR solar tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to investigate wind loading and size effects in RRSRR solar tracking systems. It is the second of a series of papers on the design of an RRSRR solar system. The RRSRR system, which employed double axes for the displacement of its solar panel, enables in concept, a small mechanism to drive large panels or

J. E. Lay; B. E. Eidelberg; R. H. Owen

1980-01-01

405

Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

1980-01-01

406

Economic viability of solar home systems: Case study of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangladesh is richly endowed with solar energy. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) system seems to be an appropriate form of renewable energy despite the monsoon type of climate in Bangladesh. The most attractive use of solar home system (SHS) in Bangladesh is the lighting system. People in rural Bangladesh predominantly use kerosene oil based lamps for illuminating their homes at night. Dry

2010-01-01

407

Studying silicate-ice bodies in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution of Small Silicate-Ice Bodies in the Solar System; Winthrop, Washington, 6-8 August 2010; Interest is growing in a class of small bodies in the solar system, some of which are believed to be the building blocks of the terrestrial planets. These include Ceres, Vesta, Pallas, the icy satellites, and some solid objects farther out in the solar system. Many

Thomas B. McCord; Julie C. Castillo-Rogez

2011-01-01

408

External Resource: Go to the Head of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a NASA generated interactive game site that tests learner/student knowledge of the solar system. The more questions that are answered correctly, the farther the learner/student will travel in the solar system. Keywords: solar system, planets, game

1900-01-01

409

External Resource: Windows to the Universe: Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visit links to the Sun, and visit the planets and other small bodies in the Solar System. Find out about solar system formation, and facts about the bodies in the solar system. See news highlights, and archives of images of the Sun, planets, comets, and a

1900-01-01

410

Elementary Students' Mental Models of the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project aimed to identify and analyze Mexican primary school students' ideas about the components of the solar system. In particular, this study focused on conceptions of the solar system and representations of the dynamics of the solar system based on the functional and structural models that students make in school. Using a…

Calderon-Canales, Elena; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia

2013-01-01

411

Modeling and simulation of solar pond floor heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of modeling, simulation and analysis of a solar pond floor heating system. The developed computer simulation has been used to study the potential of using such a system under climatic conditions in Jordan. It was found that the solar pond heating system could meet most of the winter season in Jordan with Solar fraction in

M. T. Alkhalaileh; K. a. Atieh; N. G. Nasser; B. a. Jubran

1999-01-01

412

Is the outer Solar System chaotic? WAYNE B. HAYES  

E-print Network

LETTERS Is the outer Solar System chaotic? WAYNE B. HAYES Computer Science Department, University. There exists both apparently unassailable evidence that the outer Solar System is chaotic1 development. The Solar System is known to be `practically stable', in the sense that none of the known planets

Loss, Daniel

413

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System  

E-print Network

Scientific Goals for Exploration of the Outer Solar System Explore Diverse Worlds How did the outer planets mold the solar system and create habitable worlds? OPAG Report DRAFT 4 November 2014 #12;2 Outline of this document is to frame the science objectives for exploration of the outer solar system. It is consistent

Rathbun, Julie A.

414

SOLAR SYSTEM MODELS WITH A SELECTED SET OF FREQUENCIES  

E-print Network

SOLAR SYSTEM MODELS WITH A SELECTED SET OF FREQUENCIES G. G´OMEZ IEEC & Departament de Matem, such as a spacecraft or an asteroid, in the Solar System. The procedure is based on applying refined Fourier analysis that depend explicitly on nat- ural frequencies of the Solar System. Some examples of these new models

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

415

Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 2, Togus, Maine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic analysis of the solar energy system, is developed for Torgus and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-chart design procedure with inputs taken on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

1980-01-01

416

MOND habitats within the solar system  

E-print Network

MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is an interesting alternative to dark matter in extragalactic systems. We here examine the possibility that mild or even strong MOND behavior may become evident well inside the solar system, in particular near saddle points of the total gravitational potential. Whereas in Newtonian theory tidal stresses are finite at saddle points, they are expected to diverge in MOND, and to remain distinctly large inside a sizeable oblate ellipsoid around the saddle point. We work out the MOND effects using the nonrelativistic limit of the T$e$V$e$S theory, both in the perturbative nearly Newtonian regime and in the deep MOND regime. While strong MOND behavior would be a spectacular ``backyard'' vindication of the theory, pinpointing the MOND-bubbles in the setting of the realistic solar system may be difficult. Space missions, such as the LISA Pathfinder, equipped with sensitive accelerometers, may be able to explore the larger perturbative region.

Jacob Bekenstein; Joao Magueijo

2006-02-12

417

Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

2010-01-01

418

MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM: DESIGN/OPERATION OF SYSTEM AND RESULTS OF NON-SOLAR TESTING AT MRI  

EPA Science Inventory

A Minipilot Solar Reactor System (MSRS) with liquid organic feed was designed, constructed and tested without solar input (the Solar Tests were to be done later at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory). he non-solar tests were done to determine whether use of EPA's sampling...

419

CEEN-4940/8946-002 Special Topics: Introduction to Antennas and Radar Systems, Fall 2008  

E-print Network

and the Yagi-Uda array 8. Slot, patch and horn antennas 9. Broadband and frequency-independent antennas 10CEEN-4940/8946-002 Special Topics: Introduction to Antennas and Radar Systems, Fall 2008 Instructor Course Description: This course will provide an introduction to antenna designs and Radar Systems

Yang, Yaoqing "Lamar"

420

330: 519 Advanced Topics in Systems Engineering, Spring 1997 Kalman Filtering  

E-print Network

330: 519 Advanced Topics in Systems Engineering, Spring 1997 Kalman Filtering Instructor: Zoran, Kalman Filtering: Theory and Practice, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1993 Office Hours: After: Introduction to Kalman Filtering and Linear Dynamic Systems (Chapters 1 and 2) Week 2: Review of Probability

Gajic, Zoran

421

The Systems Analysis and Design Course: An Educators' Assessment of the Importance and Coverage of Topics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines instructors' perceptions regarding the skills and topics that are most important in the teaching of a Systems Analysis and Design ("SAD") course and the class time devoted to each. A large number of Information Systems ("IS") educators at AACSB accredited schools across the United States were surveyed. Shannon's entropy is used…

Guidry, Brandi N.; Stevens, David P.; Totaro, Michael W.

2011-01-01

422

External Resource: My Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A University of Colorado at Boulder simulation where students can build their own system of heavenly bodies and watch the gravitational ballet. With this orbit simulator, students can set initial positions, velocities, and masses of 2, 3, or 4 bodies, and

1900-01-01

423

Why Are So Many Things in the Solar System Round?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several years ago a student asked why so many things in the solar system were round. He noted that many objects in the solar system, although not all, are round. The standard answer, which he knew, is that the mutual gravitational attraction of the molecules pulls them into the shape that gets them as close to each other as possible: a sphere. This argument works fine for fluid bodies such as the Sun or Jupiter, but it isn't so simple for a solid object-we have all seen rocks that are not round. There is still a gravitational attraction acting between the rock's molecules, butfor small rocks that force does not overcome the strength of the bonds holding those molecules in their relative positions. Since the strength of the gravitational force grows with the size of the object, a large enough rock will have a strong enough gravitational attraction to force a deformation into a round shape. But how large is that? A simple model gives an answer to this question. There is also renewed interest in this topic as a result of the new definition of a planet approved by the International Astronomical Union, which says in part, ``A `planet' is a celestial body that... has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape.''1 What size object is large enough to satisfy this criterion? Where does Pluto fall regarding this question?

Heilig, Steven J.

2010-09-01

424

Beyond the Solar System: Expanding the Universe in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This DVD combines the latest scientific and educational research to help teachers in grades 8-12 deepen their own and their students’ understanding of our universe and of the nature of science. Produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in association with NASA, Beyond the Solar System is filled with video, print, and online resources. It is designed for Earth and space science educators, physical science educators, professional development providers, and classroom use. The National Science Education Standards includes the topic of origin and evolution of the universe as part of the essential content of Earth and space science understanding. Yet providing concrete, inquiry-based experiences for students to learn these concepts can be a challenge for teachers. Beyond the Solar System contains more than two hours of video, organized into two modular strands of material -- science content, and teaching and learning resources. These are intended to promote greater understanding of the scientific concepts through discussion and reflection, activities, and application of the ideas to teaching. Also included are lesson plans, student guides, assessments, content background, summaries of relevant standards, and links to further resources. These instructional materials are provided in PDF format and can be printed from a computer.

Mary Dussault

425

Creating the Solar System step by step  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this lesson is to encourage the clarification and understanding of the processes involved in the creation of our solar system. The lesson is part of a larger unit of astronomy which addresses the MA Science Curriculum Framework Standard concerning gravity and its' role in the formation of the planets, stars, and the solar system. The lesson is a springboard to other standards including; describing the layers of the earth lithosphere, mantle, and core, and differentiating among radiation, convection, and conduction- heat transfer in the earth's system. The lesson begins with a lecture describing the complex process of creation from molecular cloud to planetesimals to planets to organized solar system. The lecture is followed up with a draw/write activity in which the students are required to put in pictures or writing their interpretation of the series of steps that have been presented. The activity involves the students, working in pairs to create a visual model of one of the steps in the series. Their phase in the process will be assigned and the class as a whole will be creating a timeline in entirety. It is important to make clear that this process is not linear but certain steps overlap. In addition, this process is ongoing and is occurring in many places in the universe even today.

Curtin, Karen

426

Spacecraft Radio Scintillation and Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a wave propagates through a turbulent medium, scattering by the random refractive index inhomogeneities can lead to a wide variety of phenomena that have been the subject of extensive study. The observed scattering effects include amplitude or intensity scintillation, phase scintillation, angular broadening, and spectral broadening, among others. In this paper, I will refer to these scattering effects collectively as scintillation. Although the most familiar example is probably the twinkling of stars (light wave intensity scintillation by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere), scintillation has been encountered and investigated in such diverse fields as ionospheric physics, oceanography, radio astronomy, and radio and optical communications. Ever since planetary spacecraft began exploring the solar system, scintillation has appeared during the propagation of spacecraft radio signals through planetary atmospheres, planetary ionospheres, and the solar wind. Early studies of these phenomena were motivated by the potential adverse effects on communications and navigation, and on experiments that use the radio link to conduct scientific investigations. Examples of the latter are radio occultation measurements (described below) of planetary atmospheres to deduce temperature profiles, and the search for gravitational waves. However,these concerns soon gave way to the emergence of spacecraft radio scintillation as a new scientific tool for exploring small-scale dynamics in planetary atmospheres and structure in the solar wind, complementing in situ and other remote sensing spacecraft measurements, as well as scintillation measurements using natural (celestial) radio sources. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and review the solar system spacecraft radio scintillation observations, to summarize the salient features of wave propagation analyses employed in interpreting them, to underscore the unique remote sensing capabilities and scientific relevance of the scintillation measurements, and to highlight some of the scientific results obtained to date. Special emphasis is placed on comparing the remote sensing features of planetary and terrestrial scintillation measurements, and on contrasting spacecraft and natural radio source scintillation measurements. I will first discuss planetary atmospheres and ionospheres, and then the solar wind.

Woo, Richard

1993-01-01

427

Noninvasive Topical Loading for Manganese-Enhanced MRI of the Mouse Visual System  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate topical loading as an alternative to intravitreal injection for Mn2+-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) of the visual system. Methods. Topical administration of 0.5 to 1.5 M MnCl2 and intravitreal injections with 0.5 ?L 100 mM and 2 ?L 1 M MnCl2 for mouse MEMRI were conducted, followed by immunohistochemistry. In another mouse group, two topical administrations of 1 M Mn2+ were applied to the same animals 7 days apart, to evaluate the use of MEMRI in a time course study. Dynamic imaging was also conducted to reveal how Mn2+ travels to the retina. MEMRI with topically loaded MnCl2 was also conducted in eyes with retinal ischemia, to evaluate whether the enhancements required healthy neurons. Results. After 1 day, topical administration of 1 M and 1.5 M MnCl2 rendered significant signal enhancement (up to 20%) in the superior colliculus (P < 0.05) that was equivalent to that of the 2-?L 1 M injection. Repeated exposure to Mn2+ showed reproduced enhancement. Dynamic imaging showed significant enhancement in the iris, retina, and lens boundary, but not in the vitreous space. In retinal ischemic eyes, no enhancement of MEMRI was detected in the optic nerves. The immunohistochemistry of the optic nerve (1.5 mm anterior to the chiasm) and retina showed no injury 1 week after Mn2+ topical administrations to each mouse. Conclusions. The results demonstrated the feasibility of using topical administration of Mn2+ for MEMRI. Topically loaded Mn2+ did not diffuse into the vitreous space, but was it may have been absorbed into the iris to diffuse or travel via the capillary circulation to reach the retina. PMID:21421878

Campbell, Bruce; Lunderville, Chantal; Won, Eric; Liang, Hsiao-Fang

2011-01-01

428

Polymeric nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems for the treatment of dermatological diseases  

PubMed Central

Human skin not only functions as a permeation barrier (mainly due to the stratum corneum layer), but also provides a unique delivery pathway for therapeutic and other active agents. These compounds penetrate via intercellular, intracellular and transappendageal routes, resulting in topical delivery (into skin strata) and transdermal delivery (to subcutaneous tissues and into the systemic circulation). Passive and active permeation enhancement methods have been widely applied to increase the cutaneous penetration. The pathology, pathogenesis and topical treatment approaches of dermatological diseases, such as psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and skin cancer, are then discussed. Recent literature has demonstrated that nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems can be successful in treating these skin conditions. The studies are reviewed starting with the nanoparticles based on natural polymers specially chitosan, followed by those made of synthetic, degradable (aliphatic polyesters) and non-degradable (polyarylates) polymers; emphasis is given to nanospheres made of polymers derived from naturally occurring metabolites, the tyrosine-derived nanospheres (TyroSpheres™). In summary, the nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems combine the advantages of both the nano-sized drug carriers and the topical approach, and are promising for the treatment of skin diseases. For the perspectives, the penetration of ultra-small nanoparticles (size smaller than 40 nm) into skin strata, the targeted delivery of the encapsulated drugs to hair follicle stem cells, and the combination of nanoparticles and microneedle array technologies for special applications such as vaccine delivery are discussed. PMID:23386536

Zhang, Zheng; Tsai, Pei-Chin; Ramezanli, Tannaz; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

2013-01-01

429

Exploring the Planets: Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers information that will allow students to see just how big each planet and its major satellites are relative to each other in the scale model of the Solar System. Students will see where the planets are in relation to the Sun and to each other and learn just how big the Sun is compared to all the planets in our Solar System. Sections at this site include Planetary Physical Data, Planetary Satellites Physical Data, Relative Sizes of the Planets, Relative Planetary Distances from the Sun, and the Size of the Sun. In addition, each planet has an individual online section that gives an overview of what has been learned through imagery and data obtained from Earth-based and spacecraft exploration.

430

Solar System constraints to nonminimally coupled gravity  

E-print Network

We extend the analysis of Chiba, Smith and Erickcek \\cite{CSE} of Solar System constraints on $f(R)$ gravity to a class of nonminimally coupled (NMC) theories of gravity. These generalize $f(R)$ theories by replacing the action functional of General Relativity (GR) with a more general form involving two functions $f^1(R)$ and $f^2(R)$ of the Ricci scalar curvature $R$. While the function $f^1(R)$ is a nonlinear term in the action, analogous to $f(R)$ gravity, the function $f^2(R)$ yields a NMC between the matter Lagrangian density $\\LL_m$ and the scalar curvature. The developed method allows for obtaining constraints on the admissible classes of functions $f^1(R)$ and $f^2(R)$, by requiring that predictions of NMC gravity are compatible with Solar System tests of gravity. We apply this method to a NMC model which accounts for the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe.

Orfeu Bertolami; Riccardo March; Jorge Páramos

2013-06-05

431

Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1 sec. The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have been using adaptive optics (AO) on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1 sec resolution images solar system objects at far red and near infrared wavelengths (0.7-2.5 micron) which best discriminate their spectral signatures. Our efforts has been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential, such as the mapping of Titan and of large asteroids, the dynamics and composition of Neptune stratospheric clouds, the infrared photometry of Pluto, Charon, and close satellites previously undetected from the ground.

Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

1997-01-01

432

Dark matter chaos in the Solar System  

E-print Network

We study the capture of galactic dark matter particles in the Solar System produced by rotation of Jupiter. It is shown that the capture cross section is much larger than the area of Jupiter orbit being inversely diverging at small particle energy. We show that the dynamics of captured particles is chaotic and is well described by a simple symplectic dark map. This dark map description allows to simulate the scattering and dynamics of $10^{14}$ dark matter particles during the life time of the Solar System and to determine dark matter density profile as a function of distance from the Sun. The mass of captured dark matter in the radius of Neptune orbit is estimated to be $2 \\cdot 10^{15} g$. The radial density of captured dark matter is found to be approximately constant behind Jupiter orbit being similar to the density profile found in galaxies.

J. Lages; D. L. Shepelyansky

2012-11-05

433

Constraining MOND with Solar System dynamics  

E-print Network

In this letter we investigate the deep Newtonian regime of the MOND paradigm from a purely phenomenological point of view by exploiting the least-square estimated corrections to the secular rates of the perihelia of the inner and of some of the outer planets of the Solar System by E.V. Pitjeva with the EPM2004 ephemerides. By using $\\mu(x)\\approx 1-k_0(1/x)^n$ for the interpolating MONDian function, and by assuming that $k_0$, considered body-independent so to avoid violations of the equivalence principle, experiences no spatial variations throughout the Solar System we tightly constrain $n$ with the ratios of the perihelion precessions for different pairs of planets. We find that the range $1\\leq n\\leq 2$ is neatly excluded at much more than $3-\\sigma$ level. Such a test would greatly benefit from the use of extra-precessions of perihelia independently estimated by other groups as well.

Lorenzo Iorio

2007-11-18

434

Solar simulator for concentrator photovoltaic systems.  

PubMed

A solar simulator for measuring performance of large area concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules is presented. Its illumination system is based on a Xenon flash light and a large area collimator mirror, which simulates natural sun light. Quality requirements imposed by the CPV systems have been characterized: irradiance level and uniformity at the receiver, light collimation and spectral distribution. The simulator allows indoor fast and cost-effective performance characterization and classification of CPV systems at the production line as well as module rating carried out by laboratories. PMID:18795026

Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

2008-09-15

435

Boston University Physics Applets: Solar System Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is an animation depicting the orbits of the inner four planets of the solar system. Each planet is labeled so that users can view positions of each planet relative to another over time. Action may be paused or viewed in steps. The animation correlates the orbits to Kepler's Third Law. This item is part of a collection of simulation-based activities for students of introductory physics.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-08-22

436

Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar tracking control system (Sun Chaser) is believed to be an improved method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions. The Sun Chaser will follow the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and reset itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise. A description of the Sun Chaser hardware and its operation together with results is presented.

Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

1979-01-01

437

Dust Measurements in the Outer Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust measurements in the outer solar system are reviewed. Only the plasma wave instrument on board Voyagers 1 and 2 recorded impacts in the Edge- worth-Kuiper belt (EKB). Pioneers 10 and 11 measured a constant dust flux of 10- micron-sized particles out to 20 AU. Dust detectors on board Ulysses and Galileo uniquely identified micron-sized interstellar grains passing through the

Eberhard Grun; Harald Kruger; Markus Landgraf

1994-01-01

438

Solar energy collector/storage system  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

1983-05-24

439

Tidal Despinning Timescales in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planets and satellites in the Solar System despin to a spin-evolved end-state due to tidal dissipation. The usual derivation for the despinning timescale sets the change in spin angular momentum equal to to the gravitational torque acting on the object's tidal bulge (MacDonald 1964, Goldreich and Soter 1966, Peale 1974, 1977). The despinning timescale is found to be proportional to

C. F. Chyba; P. J. Thomas

1998-01-01

440

Overview: Exobiology in solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Aug. 1988, the NASA Ames Research Center held a three-day symposium in Sunnyvale, California, to discuss the subject of exobiology in the context of exploration of the solar system. Leading authorities in exobiology presented invited papers and assisted in setting future goals. The goals they set were as follows: (1) review relevant knowledge learned from planetary exploration programs; (2) detail some of the information that is yet to be obtained; (3) describe future missions and how exobiologists, as well as other scientists, can participate; and (4) recommend specific ways exobiology questions can be addressed on future exploration missions. These goals are in agreement with those of the Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council. Formed in 1980 to respond to the planetary exploration strategies set forth by the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), the SSEC's main function is to review the entire planetary program. The committee formulated a long-term plan (within a constrained budget) that would ensure a vital, exciting, and scientifically valuable effort through the turn of the century. The SSEC's goals include the following: determining the origin, evolution, and present state of the solar system; understanding Earth through comparative planetology studies; and revealing the relationship between the chemical and physical evolution of the solar system and the appearance of life. The SSEC's goals are consistent with the over-arching goal of NASA's Exobiology Program, which provides the critical framework and support for basic research. The research is divided into the following four elements: (1) cosmic evolution of the biogenic compounds; (2) prebiotic evolution; (3) origin and early evolution of life; and (4) evolution of advanced life.

Carle, Glenn C.; Schwartz, Deborah E.

1992-01-01

441

Radar Studies in the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We aid in a study of the solar system by means of ground-based radar. We have concentrated on (1) developing the ephemerides needed to acquire radar data at Arecibo Observatory and (2) analyzing the resultant data to: test fundamental laws of gravitation; determine the size, shape, topography, and spin vectors of the targets; and study the surface properties of these objects, through their scattering law and polarization characteristics.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

1996-01-01

442

A solar house instrumentation and control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the instrumentation and control system built for the USAF Academy Solar Test House. It is built around a microcomputer and includes a 64-channel analog multiplexer, temperature, flow, and weather transducers and flow-rate controls. Data is recorded on-site on either teletype paper tape and\\/or a cassette recorder. Also discussed is a remote communication adaptor which allows monitoring of

R. L. Schmiesing; R. N. Miller; M. L. Baumgartner

1977-01-01

443

Relativity Experiments in the Solar System  

E-print Network

Recent theoretical works on alternative metric theories of gravity give greater significance to solar-system tests of General Relativity. In particular, it is suggested that the post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$ ought to be determined with great precision in order to discover possible preferred frame effects or effects related to a tensor-scalar theory of gravitation. In this work we focus on a future experiment, based on Doppler tracking of an interplanetary spacecraft near superior conjunction.

Giacomo Giampieri

1995-04-27

444

Solar System Odyssey - Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show. Learners go on a futuristic journey through our Solar System. They explore the inner and outer planets, then the moons: Titan, Europa, and Callisto as possible places to establish a human colony. A full-length preview of the show is available on the website, you need to scroll down about 3/4 of the page - under section on children's shows, direct link not available.

445

The LSST and Solar System Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) was a highly ranked Major Initiative in Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millenium, the last decadal survey. The LSST's potential for exploring the Solar System was a major reason for this high ranking. The proposed design (see poster by Angel, this meeting) provides an effective aperture of 6.9-m and a 7 square degree

K. H. Cook; J. A. Tyson; C. Stubbs; E. L. Bowell; A. W. Harris; R. Binzel; W. Craig

2001-01-01

446

Comets at the solar system's edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of an object bound to the sun by gravity but situated beyond the orbit of Pluto is discussed. The discovery of this object, designated 1992 QB1, may confirm the existence of the Kuiper belt, envisioned to be a disk of far-flung comets left over from the origin of the solar system. The implications of the new discovery for the future search for distant comets beyond Pluto are examined.

Weissman, P. R.

1993-01-01

447

Chaotic diffusion in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of the chaotic behavior of the planetary orbits in the Solar System [Laskar, J., 1989. Nature 338, 237–238; Laskar, J., 1990. Icarus 88, 266–291] was obtained using numerical integration of averaged equations. In [Laskar, J., 1994. Astron. Astrophys. 287, L9–L12], these same equations are integrated over several Gyr and show the evidence of very large possible increase of

Jacques Laskar

2008-01-01

448

The Cradle of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of decay products of 60Fe in meteorites challenges conventional wisdom about the environment in which the Sun and planets formed. Rather than a region like the well-studied Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud, the solar system must have formed instead in a region more like the Eagle nebula--a region that contained one or more massive stars that went supernova, injecting

J. Jeff Hester; Steven J. Desch; Kevin R. Healy; Laurie A. Leshin

2004-01-01

449

Solar system constraints on Rindler acceleration  

E-print Network

We discuss the classical tests of general relativity in the presence of Rindler acceleration. Among these tests the perihelion shifts give the tightest constraints and indicate that the Pioneer anomaly cannot be caused by a universal solar system Rindler acceleration. We address potential caveats for massive test-objects. Our tightest bound on Rindler acceleration that comes with no caveats is derived from radar echo delay and yields |a|<3nm/s^2.

Sante Carloni; Daniel Grumiller; Florian Preis

2011-03-01

450

Topics in viscous potential flow of two-phase systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-phase flows are ubiquitous, from natural and domestic environments to industrial settings. However, due to their complexity, modeling these fluid systems remains a challenge from both the perspective of fundamental questions on the dynamics of an individual, smooth interface, and the perspective of integral analyses, which involve averaging of the conservation laws over large domains, thereby missing local details of the flow. In this work, we consider a set of five problems concerning the linear and non-linear dynamics of an interface or free surface and the study of cavitation inception. Analyses are carried out by assuming the fluid motion to be irrotational, that is, with zero vorticity, and the fluids to be viscous, although results from rotational analyses are presented for the purpose of comparison. The problems considered here are the following: First, we analyze the non-linear deformation and break-up of a bubble or drop immersed in a uniaxial extensional flow of an incompressible viscous fluid. The method of viscous potential flow, in which the flow field is irrotational and viscosity enters through the balance of normal stresses at the interface, is used in the analysis. The governing equations are solved numerically to track the motion of the interface by coupling a boundary element method with a time-integration routine. When break-up occurs, the break-up time computed here is compared with results obtained elsewhere from numerical simulations of the Navier.Stokes equations, which thus keeps vorticity in the analysis, for several combinations of the relevant dimensionless parameters of the problem. For the bubble, for Weber numbers 3 ? We ? 6, predictions from viscous potential flow shows good agreement with the results from the Navier.Stokes equations for the bubble break-up time, whereas for larger We, the former underpredicts the results given by the latter. Including viscosity increases the break-up time with respect to the inviscid case. For the drop, as expected, increasing the viscous effects of the irrotational motion produces large, elongated drops that take longer to break up in comparison with results for inviscid fluids. In the second problem, we compute the force acting on a spherical bubble of variable radius moving within a liquid with an outer spherical boundary. Viscous potential flow and the dissipation method, which is another purely irrotational approach stemming from the mechanical energy equation, are both systematically implemented. This exposes the role of the choice of the outer boundary condition for the stress on the drag, an issue not explained in the literature known to us. By means of the well-known "cell-model" analysis, the results for the drag are then applied to the case of a swarm of rising bubbles having a certain void fraction. Computations from the dissipation method for the drag coefficient and rise velocity for a bubble swarm agree with numerical solutions; evaluation against experimental data for high Reynolds and low Weber numbers shows that all the models considered, including those given in the literature, overpredict the bubble swarm rise velocity. In the next two problems, we apply the analysis of viscous potential flow and the dissipation method to study the linear dynamics of waves of "small" amplitude acting either on a plane or on a spherical interface separating a liquid from a dynamically inactive fluid. It is shown that the viscous irrational theories exhibit the features of the wave dynamics by comparing with the exact solution. The range of parameters for which good agreement with the exact solution exists is presented. The general trend shows that for long waves the dissipation method results in the best approximation, whereas for short waves, even for very viscous liquids, viscous potential flow demonstrates better agreement. Finally, the problem of cavitation inception for the flow of a viscous liquid past a stationary sphere is studied by means of the theory of stress-induced cavitation. The flow field for a single phase n

Padrino Inciarte, Juan Carlos

451

Solar System Test of Gravitational Theories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are engaged in testing gravitational theory, mainly using observations of objects in the solar system and mainly on the interplanetary scale. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to place tighter bounds on such departures. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including primarily planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, but also including both pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements. In the past year, we have included new data in the analysis, primarily tracking data from the Mars Pathfinder mission. Although these data are relatively few in number, they extend the time span of high-precision tracking on the surface of Mars from six years to over 20. As a result, the statistical standard deviation of our estimate of Mars precession rate has nearly halved, and the rest of the parameters in our solar-system model have experienced a corresponding, albeit smaller, improvement (about 20% for t,he relevant asteroid masses, 10% for the semimajor axis of Mars orbit, and smaller amounts for most other parameters). In the coming year, we plan to continue adding data to our set, as available. Ne 2 expect to use these data and improved models to obtain estimates of the gravitational- theory parameters and to publish these results.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

2003-01-01

452

ISAS: interferometric stratospheric astrometry for solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Interferometric Stratospheric Astrometry for Solar system (ISAS) project is designed for high precision astrometry on the brightest planets of the Solar System, with reference to many field stars, at the milli-arcsec (mas) level or better. The science goal is the improvement on our knowledge of the dynamics of the Solar System, complementing the Gaia observations of fainter objects. The technical goal is the validation of basic concepts for the proposed Gamma Astrometric Measurement Experiment (GAME) space mission, in particular, combination of Fizeau interferometry and coronagraphic techniques by means of pierced mirrors, intermediate angle dual field astrometry, smart focal plane management for increased dynamic range and pointing correction. We discuss the suitability of the stratospheric environment, close to space conditions, to the astrometric requirements. The instrument concept is a multiple field, multiple aperture Fizeau interferometer, observing simultaneously four fields, in order to improve on the available number of reference stars. Coronagraphic solutions are introduced to allow observation of internal planets (Mercury and Venus), as well as of external planets over a large fraction of their orbit, i.e. also close to conjunction with the Sun. We describe the science motivation, the proposed experiment profile and the expected performance.

Gai, M.; Fienga, A.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Riva, A.; Vecchiato, A.; Gallieni, D.; Chaillot, S.; Ligori, S.; Loreggia, D.

2012-09-01

453

A Distant Solar System (Artist's Concept Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This animation portrays an artist's concept of a distant hypothetical solar system, about the same age as our own. It begins close to the star, and then moves out past a number of planets. Though 'extrasolar' planets are too small to be seen with telescopes, astronomers have detected more than 100 gas giants like Jupiter via their gravitational tug on their parent stars.

The view pulls back to reveal the outer fringes of the system and a ring of dusty debris that circles the star. This debris is all that remains of the planet-forming disk from which the planets evolved.

Planets are formed when dusty material in a large disk surrounding a young star clumps together. Leftover material is eventually blown out by solar wind or pushed out by gravitational interactions with planets. Billions of years later, only an outer disk of debris remains.

These outer debris disks are too faint to be imaged directly by visible-light telescopes. They are washed out by the glare of the Sun. However, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope can detect their heat, or excess thermal emission, in infrared light. This allows astronomers to study the aftermath of planet building in distant solar systems like our own.

2004-01-01

454

Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?  

E-print Network

Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia; b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab); c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon; d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox; e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun; f) The Flyby Anomaly; g) The Pioneer Anomaly; and h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit

Lorenzo Iorio

2015-01-21

455

Spacewatch Survey of the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Spacewatch project is to explore the various populations of small objects throughout the solar system. Statistics on all classes of small bodies are needed to infer their physical and dynamical evolution. More Earth Approachers need to be found to assess the impact hazard. (We have adopted the term "Earth Approacher", EA, to include all those asteroids, nuclei of extinct short period comets, and short period comets that can approach close to Earth. The adjective "near" carries potential confusion, as we have found in communicating with the media, that the objects are always near Earth, following it like a cloud.) Persistent and voluminous accumulation of astrometry of incidentally observed main belt asteroids MBAs will eventually permit the Minor Planet Center (MPQ to determine the orbits of large numbers (tens of thousands) of asteroids. Such a large body of information will ultimately allow better resolution of orbit classes and the determinations of luminosity functions of the various classes, Comet and asteroid recoveries are essential services to planetary astronomy. Statistics of objects in the outer solar system (Centaurs, scattered-disk objects, and Trans-Neptunian Objects; TNOs) ultimately will tell part of the story of solar system evolution. Spacewatch led the development of sky surveying by electronic means and has acted as a responsible interface to the media and general public on this discipline and on the issue of the hazard from impacts by asteroids and comets.

McMillan, Robert S.

2000-01-01

456

Gravitational Anomalies in the Solar System?  

E-print Network

Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by U. Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by A. Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known bodies have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the Universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia; b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab); c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon; d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox; e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun; f) The Flyby Anomaly; g) The Pioneer Anomaly; and h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit

Lorenzo Iorio

2014-12-21

457

Thermal performance of the ARATEX Services, Inc. solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Business Machines Corporation is contributing to the National Solar Data Program of the Department of Energy by monitoring, evaluating, and reporting the performance of designated solar-energy systems. The ARATEX Services, Inc. solar-energy system for preheating process water in an industrial laundry in Fresno, CA, and its modes of operation are briefly described, and a performance evaluation of the

1978-01-01

458

Maximizing Efficiency of Solar-Powered Systems by Load Matching  

E-print Network

Maximizing Efficiency of Solar-Powered Systems by Load Matching Pai H. Chou, Dexin Li and Sungjun's total en- ergy output under a given solar profile by load matching. The power efficiency was validated,dexinl,ksungjun}@uci.edu ABSTRACT Solar power is an important source of renewable energy for many low-power systems. Matching

Shinozuka, Masanobu

459

The most primitive objects in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chondrites, the most primitive samples of the solar system known to man, contain minerals condensed directly out of the solar nebula. When the theoretical distribution of elements among crystalline phases and gaseous species at temperatures obtained at the time of solar system formation is calculated, it agrees well with the minerals identified in chondrites by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy,

Lawrence Grossman

1975-01-01

460

The cooling technology of solar cells under concentrated system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature control is very important to keep the efficiency of solar cells, because the open-circuit voltage of the system is obviously dropped, when the temperature is raised, so as to a decline in output power of solar cells. Especially in the concentrated system, solar cells worked several times even hundreds of times in the irradiation conditions, so the temperature will

Ye Zhangbo; Li Qifen; Zhu Qunzhi; Pan Weiguo

2009-01-01

461

GLAST Solar System Science Gerald H. Share1,2  

E-print Network

GLAST Solar System Science Gerald H. Share1,2 and Ronald J. Murphy2 1 Department of Astronomy from various energetic phenomena in our solar system. These emissions include: bremsstrahlung, nuclear-line and pion-decay gamma-radiation, and neutrons from solar flares; bremsstrahlung and pion-decay gamma

Share, Gerald

462

Installation manual for the SERI Class B passive-solar data-acquisition system  

SciTech Connect

The installation and operation of the data acquisition system used in the residential Class B Passive Solar Performance Monitoring Program, a low-cost program that evaluates the thermal performance of numerous residential buildings throughout the country is explained. Topics covered include: (1) program methodology; (2) site documentation; (3) one-time measurements; (4) continuous measurements; (5) data reduction software; (6) installation procedures; (7) site visits; (8) monthly reports; and (9) occupant interaction.

Frey, D.; McKinstry, M.; Swisher, J.

1982-11-01

463

Beyond Earth's boundaries: Human exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an annual report describing work accomplished in developing the knowledge base that will permit informed recommendations and decisions concerning national space policy and the goal of human expansion into the solar system. The following topics are presented: (1) pathways to human exploration; (2) human exploration case studies; (3) case study results and assessment; (4) exploration program implementation strategy; (5) approach to international cooperation; (6) recommendations; and (7) future horizons.

1991-01-01

464

Publications of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Project, 1976 to 1983  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bibliographical listings in this publication are documentation products associated with the solar thermal power system project carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1976 to 1983. Documents listed are categorized as conference and journal papers, JPL external reports, JPL internal reports, or contractor reports. Alphabetical listings by title were used in the bibliography itself to facilitate location of the document by subject. Two indexes are included for ease of reference: one, an author index; the other, a topical index.

Gray, V. (compiler); Marsh, C. (compiler); Panda, P. (compiler)

1984-01-01

465

Tuning energy transport in solar thermal systems using nanostructured materials  

E-print Network

Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured ...

Lenert, Andrej

2014-01-01

466

FOLLOWING CARBON'S EVOLUTIONARY PATH: FROM NUCLEOSYNTHESIS TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM  

E-print Network

FOLLOWING CARBON'S EVOLUTIONARY PATH: FROM NUCLEOSYNTHESIS TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM by Stefanie Nicole by Stefanie Nicole Milam entitled Following Carbon's Evolutionary Path: From Nucleosynthesis to the Solar of Doctor of Philosophy _______________________________________________________________________ Date

467

Experimental Research of an Active Solar Heating System  

E-print Network

: Solar is an abundant renewable energy, which is used more and more frequently with the emphasis on environment protection, especially in building heating. The different devised methods between an active solar heating system and normal heating...

Gao, X.; Li, D.

2006-01-01

468

Cosmogenic nuclides in early solar system materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall goal of this research was to assess early solar system processes, particularly ancient proto-solar activity. This goal was addressed on two fronts. First, a model was developed to explain the provenance of now extinct radionuclides in early solar system materials, namely the refractory inclusions termed CAIs (Calcium-Aluminum-Inclusion) found in carbonaceous chondrites. As CAIs are believed to be the first solids to condense in the solar system and are also believed to have formed close to the proto-Sun, a model which explains the now extinct radionuclides found in CAIs constrains early solar system processes. Secondly, a series of measurements were performed on samples of the early solar system, namely chrondritic meteorites and the inclusions called chondrules, often contained within these meteorites. Chondrules, which are often a chief constituent of these meteorites, are believed to have originated close to the proto-Sun. As such, these materials should contain clues about solar processes at the beginning of the solar system. We propose a model for the incorporation of SLRs (short lived radionuclide) within CAIs in primitive carbonaceous meteorites. In this model SLRs are produced by energetic particle reactions in the proto-solar atmosphere of a more active proto-Sun characterized by proton fluxes higher than contemporary particle fluxes. These SLRs are entrained in the solar wind that is then implanted into CAI precursor material. This production mechanism is operational in the contemporary solar system and is responsible for implantation of 10 Be, 14 C and other nuclides in lunar materials. We utilize contemporary experimental solar wind production rates for 10Be and 14 C and theoretical ancient production rates for 7 Be, 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 41 Ca, and 53 Mn. Using a ~ 10 5 enhancement in SEPs (solar energetic particles) and hence production rates in conjunction with an accepted refractory mass inflow rates close to the proto-Sun, we model the SLR concentrations in CAI precursors. The model predictions are consistent with measurements of 7 Be, 10 Be, 36 Cl, 41 Ca, and 53 Mn, but fails by two orders of magnitude to account for 26 Al. We also predict the 14 C content in CAIs, which to date has not been measured. The implantation model will be presented at the 2009 Meteoritical Society Conference in Nancy, France in July. Several chondritic meteorites have been processed for ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry), AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry), and noble gas analysis. Bulk analysis has been performed on the chondritic meteorites Bjurbole, Dhajala, and Sena through the use of ICP-OES. The radionuclides 10 Be (T 1/2 = 1.36 MYR), 26 Al (T 1/2 = 0.71 MYR), and 36 Cl (T 1/2 = 0.30 MYR) have been measured in chondrules and matrix material from Bjurbole and Dhajala using AMS at Primelab (Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Lab). In order to unravel the complex exposure scenario for these materials, especially chondrules, shielding information must be obtained. 10 Be data from AMS in conjunction with production rate calculations for three Bjurbole chondrules indicates that the location of the chondrule samples was close to the surface of the meteorite. 36 Cl data from AMS in conjunction with production rate calculations indicates the size of the meteoroid to be ~ 35 cm in radius. For Dhajala, 26 Al saturation activity in concert with 26 Al production rate calculations indicate our samples were located inside the meteoroid of radius > 100cm, at a depth of ~ 60 cm. The 10 Be activity and production rate for pre-atmospheric radius and depth characterized by 26 Al data indicate a recent cosmic ray exposure age of > 7 MYR for Dhajala. 36 Cl saturation activity and 36 Cl production rate calculations show that production rate model for 36 Cl in large bodies with radii > 100cm at depth ~ 60cm underestimates the production rate for 36 Cl by 15-30%.

Bricker, Glynn Edward

2009-09-01

469

Solar system studies with the Arecibo planetary radar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 305 m Arecibo telescope equipped with a 1 MW 2.38 GHz transmitter is used for studies of the terrestrial planets, planetary satellites including the Moon and small bodies in the solar system. Much of the recent program emphasis has been on astrometric and characterization observations of near-Earth objects for which the Arecibo radar system has capabilities not matched by

Donald B. Campbell; John K. Harmon; Michael C. Nolan

2011-01-01

470

Voriconazole Concentration in Human Aqueous Humor and Plasma during Topical or Combined Topical and Systemic Administration for Fungal Keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voriconazole (VRC) is an antifungal drug that effectively treats keratitis caused by yeasts and molds when administered orally. We retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes and plasma and aqueous humor drug concentrations in five patients with fungal keratitis and one patient with posttraumatic endophthalmitis who were treated with VRC. VRC was administered either topically (1% eye drops every hour) or orally (400

Michael A. Thiel; Annelies S. Zinkernagel; Jurgen Burhenne; Claude Kaufmann; Walter E. Haefeli

2007-01-01

471

Suprathermal Chemistry in the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many celestial bodies in the Solar System are surrounded by gaseous envelopes. Chemical evolution of the gaseous envelopes of icy astrophysical objects of different masses and sizes (dust particles with icy mantles, icy planetesimals, comets and KBOs, icy satellites in the Jovian and Saturnian systems, and etc.) is determined by the complex influence of a large number of interrelated processes including: - photolysis by the solar XUV (soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet) radiation, - radiolysis by the solar wind/magnetospheric plasma, - catalysis on the icy surface, - chemical exchange between the surface and atmosphere, - chemical changes in the gas composition of the envelope. These physical and chemical processes are initiated by the solar forcing, and are characterized by strongly differing time scales and the degrees of non-equilibrium. Theoretical predictions of the composition and chemical evolution of near-surface atmospheres of the icy astrophysical objects are of great importance for assessing the biological potential of these objects (Herbst and van Dishoeck, 2009). The water vapour is usually the dominant parent species in such gaseous envelope because of the ejection from the object’s icy surface due to the thermal outgassing, non-thermal photolysis and radiolysis and other active processes at work on the surface (Shematovich 2008). The photochemistry of water vapour in the near-surface atmospheric layer (Shematovich, 2008, 2012) and the radiolysis of icy regolith result in the supply of the atmosphere by an admixture of H _{2}O, H _{2}, O _{2}, OH and O with thermal and suprathermal kinetic energies. Returning molecules have a species-dependent behaviour in the impact with icy surface and non-thermal energy distributions for the chemical radicals. The suprathermal radicals OH, H, and O entering the regolith can drive the radiolytic chemistry. Chemical complexity of the near-surface atmosphere of the icy astrophysical object arises due to both primary processes of dissociation and ionization by solar XUV radiation and magnetospheric electrons and induced ion-molecular chemistry, and by chemical exchange between near-surface atmospheric layer and the satellite icy surface due to the thermal and non-thermal desorption processes (Shematovich, 2008, 2012). The standard astrochemical UDFA05 network is usually used to follow the main chemical pathways of photochemistry in the near-surface atmosphere and of diffusive chemistry in the icy regolith. Achievements and problems of the studies of suprathermal chemistry in the atmosphere-icy surface interface for the icy objects in the Solar System will be discussed. This work is supported by the RFBR project No. 14-02-00838a and by the Basic Research Program of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Program 22). begin{itemize} Herbst E., and van Dishoeck E.F., ARA&A, 2009, v. 47, 427. Shematovich, V.I. Solar System Res., 2008, v. 42, 473. Shematovich, V.I. Solar System Res., 2012, v. 46, 391.

Shematovich, Valery

472

A comprehensive solar energy system analysis data base in Huntsville, Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of a comprehensive solar energy system analysis data base developed by NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama is presented, along with its current status. The Marshall Information Retrieval and Data Storage (MIRADS) system was chosen for the data base, and feedback systems were arranged to cope with changes in the needs of the program management for the type of data gathered. The final structure of the data base consists of 22 files divided into 6 topical sections: summaries, climatological, utility rates, architectural, equipment, and economics. The data base offers help to the solar industry in two ways: it provides information and it serves as a model for users trying to establish the climatic and socioeconomic variables they should take into account when they examine a potential market for solar energy equipment.

Goddard, J. P.

1978-01-01

473

Walk Through Solar System Times: An Exhibit with an Astrobiology Emphasis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this astrobiology outreach project, we attempt to present the research of the Goddard Center for Astrobiology (GCA) in the context of the history of the Solar System. GCA research emphasizes the origin and formation of complex pre-biotic organic materials in extraterrestrial environments and explores whether the delivery of these primordial materials and water to the early Earth enabled the emergence and evolution of life. The content expounds on areas that are usually not touched upon in a timeline of the Earth's formation. The exhibit addresses the questions: How did our solar system form? How is the formation of our solar systems similar or different from others? How did the organic molecules we observe in space get to the Earth? What conditions are most suitable for life? We will address the issues and challenges of designing the exhibit and of explaining advanced astrobiology research topics to the public.

Cheung, C. Y.

2012-01-01

474

Solar “tower reflector” systems: A new approach for high-temperature solar plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years, considerable research efforts have been directed at the Weizmann Institute towards development of high-concentration, high-temperature solar energy systems. This included optical methods and devices, thermal receivers for solar thermal electricity generation, and thermo-chemical processes for solar energy storage and solar fuel production. Some of these efforts are now mature enough for transfer to industry, and

A. Yogev; A. Kribus; M. Epstein; A. Kogan

1998-01-01

475

Technology development in the solar absorption air-conditioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental control system utilizing solar energy would generally be more cost-effective if it were used to provide both heating and cooling requirements in the building it serves. Various solar powered heating systems have been tested extensively, but solar powered air-conditioners have received little more than short-term demonstration attention. This paper reviews past efforts in the field of solar powered

Z. F. Li; K. Sumathy

2000-01-01

476

Getting in touch with the edge of the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of the distance of the edge of the solar system from the sun is discussed. Voyager spacecraft observations of radio signals which may be generated when the solar wind collides with interstellar gases are described. The distance of the solar system boundary may be calculated if it is assumed that the source of these signals is the heliopause and that the signals are triggered by the solar wind.

Kerr, R. A.

1993-06-01

477

Similarity Rules for Scaling Solar Sail Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future science missions will require solar sails on the order 10,000 sq m (or larger). However, ground and flight demonstrations must be conducted at significantly smaller Sizes (400 sq m for ground demo) due to limitations of ground-based facilities and cost and availability of flight opportunities. For this reason, the ability to understand the process of scalability, as it applies to solar sail system models and test data, is crucial to the advancement of this technology. This report will address issues of scaling in solar sail systems, focusing on structural characteristics, by developing a set of similarity or similitude functions that will guide the scaling process. The primary goal of these similarity functions (process invariants) that collectively form a set of scaling rules or guidelines is to establish valid relationships between models and experiments that are performed at different orders of scale. In the near term, such an effort will help guide the size and properties of a flight validation sail that will need to be flown to accurately represent a large, mission-level sail.

Canfield, Stephen L.; Beard, James W., III; Peddieson, John; Ewing, Anthony; Garbe, Greg

2004-01-01

478

Solar System Science with Robotic Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing number of sky surveys is already on-line or soon will be, leading to a large boost in the detection of Solar System objects of all types. For Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) that could potentially hit the Earth, timely follow-up is essential. I describe the development of an automated system which responds to new detections of NEOs from Pan-STARRS and automatically observes them with the LCOGT telescopes. I present results from the first few months of operation, and plans for the future with the 6-site, 40-telescope global LCOGT Network.

Lister, T. A.

2012-04-01

479

Is the outer Solar System chaotic?  

E-print Network

The existence of chaos in the system of Jovian planets has been in question for the past 15 years. Various investigators have found Lyapunov times ranging from about 5 millions years upwards to infinity, with no clear reason for the discrepancy. In this paper, we resolve the issue. The position of the outer planets is known to only a few parts in 10 million. We show that, within that observational uncertainty, there exist Lyapunov timescales in the full range listed above. Thus, the ``true'' Lyapunov timescale of the outer Solar System cannot be resolved using current observations.

Wayne B. Hayes

2007-02-07

480

The Terrestrial Planets Formation in the Solar-System Analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we numerically studied the terrestrial planets formation in the Solar-Systems Analogs using MERCURY (Chambers 1999). The Solar-System Analogs are herein defined as a solar-system like planetary system, where the system consists of two wide-separated Jupiter-like planets (e.g., 47 UMa, Ji et al. 2005) move about the central star on nearly circular orbits with low inclinations, then low-mass

Jianghui Ji; L. Liu; J. E. Chambers; R. P. Butler

2006-01-01

481

Topics on Test Methods for Space Systems and Operations Safety: Applicability of Experimental Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews topics on test methods for space systems and operations safety through experimentation and analysis. The contents include: 1) Perception of reality through experimentation and analysis; 2) Measurements, methods, and correlations with real life; and 3) Correlating laboratory aerospace materials flammability data with data in spacecraft environments.

Hirsch, David B.

2009-01-01

482

Technical evaluation of Aerojet Energy Conversion Company's topical report on a mobile volume reduction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes EG and G Idaho's review of Aerojet Energy Conversion Company's (AECC's) topical report on a Mobile Volume Reduction System. The review evaluated compliance with pertinent codes, standards and regulations. The initial review was discussed with AECC by EG and G Idaho and the NRC, and all outstanding issues resolved before this final evaluation was made.

Henscheid

1984-01-01

483

Technical evaluation of Aerojet Energy Conversion Company's topical report on a mobile volume reduction system  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes EG and G Idaho's review of Aerojet Energy Conversion Company's (AECC's) topical report on a Mobile Volume Reduction System. The review evaluated compliance with pertinent codes, standards and regulations. The initial review was discussed with AECC by EG and G Idaho and the NRC, and all outstanding issues resolved before this final evaluation was made.

Henscheid, J.W.

1984-10-25

484

Scalable Many-Core Memory Systems Optional Topic 4: Cache Management  

E-print Network

Mechanism to Partition Shared Caches," MICRO 2006. 4 #12;Videos for Lecture Topic 4 n Cache basics: q http://www.ece.cmu.edu/~omutlu onur@cmu.edu HiPEAC ACACES Summer School 2013 July 15-19, 2013 #12;What Will You Learn in This Course Mutlu, "Memory Scaling: A Systems Architecture Perspective," IMW 2013. 2 #12;Readings and Videos #12

Mutlu, Onur

485

Two topics for a discussion on the $b \\bar s$ and $b \\bar q$ systems  

E-print Network

The analysis of the $b \\bar s$ system is an important issue in the Physics programs of the hadron colliders. We discuss two different topics: the structure of the orbitally excited states and prediction of the rates of a class of non leptonic $B_s$ decays.

P. Colangelo; F. De Fazio; R. Ferrandes

2006-09-07

486

Prototype solar heating and hot water systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alternative approaches to solar heating and hot water system configurations were studied, parametrizing the number and location of the dampers, the number and location of the fans, the interface locations with the furnace, the size and type of subsystems, and operating modes. A two-pass air-heating collector was selected based on efficiency and ease of installation. Also, an energy transport module was designed to compactly contain all the mechanical and electrical control components. System performance calculations were carried out over a heating season for the tentative site location at Tunkhnana, Pa. Results illustrate the effect of collector size, storage capacity, and use of a reflector. Factors which affected system performance include site location, insulative quality of the house, and of the system components. A preliminary system performance specification is given.

1977-01-01

487

Thermoeconomic Analysis of a Solar Heat-Pump System  

E-print Network

energy heat-pump. 2. INTRDUCTION OF SOLAR ENERGY HEAT-PUMP SYSTEM The solar energy heat-pump system consists of four subsystems: thermal collecting system (? ), heat-pump system (? ), user system (? ) and auxiliary heating system (? ), (see Fig. 1.... The user system consists of terminal units, condenser and circulating pumps. The user system is connected with the heat-pump system through the heat exchanger or condenser. Usually the heat transfer medium in the system is water. 2.4 The Auxiliary...

Gao, Y.; Wang, S.

2006-01-01

488

Lunar Science as a Window into the Early Evolution of the Solar System and Conditions on the Early Earth  

E-print Network

Earth In collaboration with the Geological Society of London, and the UK node of the NASA Lunar ScienceLunar Science as a Window into the Early Evolution of the Solar System and Conditions on the Early Meeting in the lecture theatre of the Geological Society on the topic of: Lunar Science as a Window

Crawford, Ian

489

NASA's SPICE System Models the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SPICE is NASA's multimission, multidiscipline information system for assembling, distributing, archiving, and accessing space science geometry and related data used by scientists and engineers for mission design and mission evaluation, detailed observation planning, mission operations, and science data analysis.

Acton, Charles

1996-01-01

490

Passive solar systems performance under conditions in Bulgaria  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents energy performance of 12 passive solar systems for three climatically different zones of Bulgaria. The results are compared with a base-case residential house that has a design typical for these areas. The different passive solar systems are compared on the basis of the percentage of solar savings and the yield, which is the annual net benefit of adding the passive solar system. The analyses are provided based on monthly meteorological data, and the method used for calculations is the Solar Load Ratio. Recommendations for Bulgarian conditions are given. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Lekov, A.B.; Balcomb, J.D.

1989-12-01

491

Young Solar System in the Making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger annotated version

This artist's diagram compares the Epsilon Eridani system to our own solar system. The two systems are structured similarly, and both host asteroids (brown), comets (blue) and planets (white dots).

Epsilon Eridani is our closest known planetary system, located about 10 light-years away in the constellation Eridanus. Its central star is a younger, fainter version of our sun, and is about 800 million years old about the same age of our solar system when life first took root on Earth.

Observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope show that the system hosts two asteroid belts, in addition to previously identified candidate planets and an outer comet ring.

Epsilon Eridani's inner asteroid belt is located at about the same position as ours, approximately three astronomical units from its star (an astronomical unit is the distance between Earth and the sun.). The system's second, denser belt lies at about the same place where Uranus orbits in our solar system, or 20 astronomical units from the star.

In the same way that Jupiter lies just outside our asteroid belt, shepherding its rocky debris into a ring, Epsilon Eridani is thought to have planets orbiting near the rims of its two belts. The first of these planets was identified in 2000 via the radial velocity technique. Called Epsilon Eridani b, it orbits at an average distance of 3.4 astronomical units placing it just outside the system's inner asteroid belt.

The second planet orbiting near the rim of the outer asteroid belt at 20 astronomical units was inferred when Spitzer discovered the belt.

A third planet might orbit in Epsilon Eridani at the inner edge of its outermost comet ring, which lies between 35 and 90 astronomical units. This planet was first hinted at in 1998 due to observed lumpiness in the comet ring.

The outer comet ring around Epsilon Eridani is denser than our comet ring, called the Kuiper belt, because the system is younger. Over time, Epsilon Eridani's ring will become wispier like the Kuiper Belt. Its comets will collide with each other and break up, or get pushed out of the ring by the gravitational influences of planets.

2008-01-01

492

Test and evaluation of a solar-heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report documents results of evaluation tests performed on components of commerical solar heating and hot water system. Subsystems tested include flat plate solar collector, energy transport module, and control panel. Tests conducted include snow and wind loads, flame spread, and smoke classification as well as solar heating operation.

1980-01-01

493

Optimization of solar pond electrical power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the potential of using a solar pond for the generation of electricity in Jordan. A solar pond power plant model is presented to simulate and optimize such a system under the Jordanian climatic conditions. A Rankine cycle analysis is carried out using an environmentally friendly working fluid, Refrigerant 134a.It was found that using a solar pond for

R. A. Haj Khalil; B. A. Jubran; N. M. Faqir

1997-01-01

494

The LSST and Solar System Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) was a highly ranked Major Initiative in Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millenium, the last decadal survey. The LSST's potential for exploring the Solar System was a major reason for this high ranking. The proposed design (see poster by Angel, this meeting) provides an effective aperture of 6.9-m and a 7 square degree field. This instrument will excel at time-domain surveys over wide fields, as well as allow extremely deep surveys. The LSST will be able to cover the whole available sky to 24th magnitude in three days or collect deep images to 28th magnitude over 1000 square degrees every 5 days. The LSST capabilities make it the best instrument for Solar System surveys. A proposed Near Earth Object (NEO) survey mode will cover about 15,000 square degrees in three weeks with 9 visits per field. This should allow an inventory of NEOs to 300-m in size to be 90&%slash complete in a decade if this survey is chosen as a priority. This survey mode will also yield a deep census of Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs), Main Belt Asteriods (MBAs) and comets. The LSST will provide its own follow up because it resurveys the sky on such a rapid schedule. The LSST will also collect deep multi-color photometry for its discoveries for classification and better understanding of compostion and evolution of these bodies. We will detail the LSST instrument and describe in detail the various surveys modes and how its moving body census will enable detailed study of the structure and evolution of the Solar System. More complete details of the design and science mission can be found at http://lssto.org. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

Cook, K.; Craig, B.; Tyson, J. A.; Stubbs, C.; Bowell, E. L.; Harris, A.; Binzel, R.; LSST Collaboration

2001-12-01

495

Solar heating and cooling system design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of marketable solar heating and cooling systems for single family and commercial applications is described. The delivery, installation, and monitoring of the prototype systems are discussed. Seven operational test sites are discussed in terms of system performance. Problems encountered with equipment and installation were usually due to lack of skills required for solar system installation.

1979-01-01

496

Improving the efficiency of solar photovoltaic power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the local and national clamor for foreign energy independent United States continues to grow unabated; renewable energy has been receiving increased focus and it's widely believed that it's not only the answer to ever increasing demand for energy in this country, but also the environmentally friendly means of meeting such demand. During the spring of 2010, I was involved with a 5KW solar power system design project; the project involved designing and building solar panels and associated accessories like the solar array mounts and Solar Inverter system. One of the key issues we ran into during the initial stage of the project was how to select efficient solar cells for panel building at a reasonable cost. While we were able to purchase good solar cells within our allocated budget, the issue of design for efficiency was not fully understood , not just in the contest of solar cells performance , but also in the overall system efficiency of the whole solar power system, hence the door was opened for this thesis. My thesis explored and expanded beyond the scope of the aforementioned project to research different avenues for improving the efficiency of solar photo-voltaic power system from the solar cell level to the solar array mounting, array tracking and DC-AC inversion system techniques.

Aribisala, Henry A.

497

ECE 461 FUNDAMENTALS OF SOLAR ENERGY Time/Day: TBA Room: TBA  

E-print Network

1 ECE 461 FUNDAMENTALS OF SOLAR ENERGY Time/Day: TBA Room: TBA Instructor: Rajendra Singh Topics Covered Topic Hours Course Overview 1 Solar Energy: Introduction 2 Importance of Solar Energy as Clean & Sustainable Energy 3 Fundamentals & Technology of Solar Thermal Systems 3 Fundamentals

Bolding, M. Chad

498

Solar astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

1991-01-01

499

Dark matter in the outer solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

1994-01-01

500

Microarray assays for solar system exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of evidence of extinct and extant life is a key issue in astrobiological research, particularly with respect to future exploration of the solar system. Simple life forms may have evolved and developed on planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa. At this point in time, tests whether life once was or still is present can only be carried out by means of in situ experiments. Here, we discuss the potential and advantages of immunological concepts for life detection and the development of a miniaturized automated immunoassay flight device.

Steele, Andrew; Toporski, Jan; McKay, David S.; Schweitzer, Mary; Pincus, Seth; Pérez-Mercader, Juan; Parro García, Victor

2001-08-01