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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Our Solar System. Our Solar System Topic Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book examines the planets and other objects in space that make up the solar system. It also shows how technology helps students learn about our neighbors in space. The suggested age range for this book is 3-8 with a guided reading level of Q-R. The Fry level is 3.2.|

Phelan, Glen

2006-01-01

2

Chaotic diffusion in the outer solar system, and other topics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out extensive numerical orbit integrations to probe the long-term chaotic dynamics of the 2:3 (Plutinos) and 1:2 (Twotinos) mean motion resonances with Neptune. We derive maps of resonance stability measured both by time-averaged particle density and by mean dynamical diffusion rate, and investigate the effects of a massive perturber embedded in the resonance. We also investigate the population of Resonant Kuiper Belt Objects at 4 Gyr ago compared to the present, and discuss the implications for theories of Kuiper Belt origins. We have numerically investigated the long term dynamical behavior of known Centaurs. We find that their orbital evolution is characterized by frequent close encounters with the giant planets, with no significant long-term resonant behavior. Most of these Centaurs will escape from the inner solar system, while a fraction will enter the Jupiter-family comet (JFC) population and a few percent will impact a giant planet. We discuss the implications of our study for the spatial distribution of the actual Centaur population. Using numerical and analytical models, we investigate the ejection of water molecules from Europa's surface by sputtering, the subsequent evolution of their ballistic trajectories, and their re-deposition onto the surface as a water frost. We conclude that net deposition does occur under certain conditions, making sputtering erosion and re-deposition a plausible explanation for the observed color dichotomy between Europa's leading and trailing hemispheres. During Cassini's approach to Jupiter, a series of images was taken to search for any undiscovered satellites of Jupiter. Our analysis of these images indicates that no undiscovered satellites exist between 2.6 and 20 R J with inclination i < 1.6°, eccentricity e < 0.0002, diameter D > 15 km and albedo A > 0.1.

Tiscareno, Matthew Steven

3

Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation  

SciTech Connect

This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction.

Pathak, M.A.

1982-09-01

4

Using Solar System Topics to Teach the Scientific Method in an Age of Science Denial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of excellent opportunities to remind students of the scientific method and how the process of science works come about during coverage of common topics in a Solar System “unit” in an introductory college astronomy course. With the tremendous amount of misinformation about science that students are exposed to through the Internet and other forms of media, this is now more important than ever. If non-science majors can leave introductory astronomy, often the only science course they will take, with a decent appreciation of, or at least an exposure to, how science works, they will then be better able to judge the validity of what they hear about science in the media throughout their lives.

Lo Presto, M. C.

2013-04-01

5

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of the space page of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), and provides information about the Sun, the planets and their moons, and other bodies in the solar system. It contains a travel guide to the Solar System including such topics as what to see, reason to visit, how to get there, and local history. A similar travel guide is then available for the Sun, each of the planets, asteroids, and comets. In addition, multiple links for more detailed information as well as space games and puzzles are provided.

2007-12-12

6

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the end of this project, you will be able to explain the components of the Solar System and know the order of the planets starting from the Sun. Objective Question: What is the Solar System? First, listen and read about the Solar System 1. How many planets make up our Solar System? 2. What is at the center of the Solar System? Next,listen and read about the Planets. 1. Can you name all of the planets? Finally, listen and watch The Solar System Movie. 1. Can you list the ...

Ms.west

2009-07-07

7

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to to the solar system. How to distinguish between the different planets. Activities to play while getting to know the solar system. Cosmic Cookies Solar System Scavenger Hunt Edible Earth Strawkets and Control Strawkets and Thrust Strawkets and Weight ...

Wright, Ms.

2009-10-09

8

Solar system  

SciTech Connect

An improved solar heat collecting system is described comprising: a collecting means having upper and lower end caps; means for supporting the collecting means in a position generally perpendicular to ambit solar radiation and to permit periodic adjustment thereof; the support means including a base, a first support bar pivotally secured to the base and extending parallel to the ground, and a first support member extending perpendicular from the first support bar to the lower end cap. The support means also includes a second support bar pivotally secured to the base and extending generally parallel to the first support bar, a support leg having a lower portion that extends perpendicularly from the second support bar, an intermediate leg portion slidingly mounted on the lower leg portion and an upper leg portion pivotally secured to the intermediate leg portion, and a second support member extending perpendicularly from the upper leg portion to the upper end cap; lens means disposed above the collecting means for concentrating solar radiation on the collecting means; a pair of reflector means mounted below and on opposite sides of the radiation shadow of the lens means for concentrating solar radiation on the collecting means; mounting means for mounting the lens means and the reflector means. The mounting means includes first and second bracket means rotatively mounted respectively to the first and second support members. A pair of radially extending U-shaped reflector mounts have opposite ends secured to respective bracket means, and a pair of radially extending lens supports secured to respective bracket means; and means for rotating the mounting means and associated lens mean and reflector means to track the source of solar radiation whereby an improved, highly efficient solar heat collecting system is provided.

Gregory, S.T.

1987-02-24

9

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts of our solar system? Let's learn about the parts of our Solar System! First, use the Solar System Chart Now read the Introduction to the Solar System and begin filling out the Solar System Chart by listing one fact for each planet. Now watch the Video 1 on the Solar System and fill out one characteristic about each planet in our Solar System. Now read the Facts about the Solar System and find ...

Kathrynbyers

2012-04-05

10

NASA: Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Popular Topics section of the main NASA site, this collection of NASA resources is jam-packed with great photos, learning tools, announcements, and NASA agency news. Anyone interested in learning more about the solar system or the United States' efforts in space exploration (both manned and unmanned) will want to check out this great resource. In addition to the features on the main page, be sure to check out the Archives section for even more.

11

Solar System!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to our solar system: the planets, our Sun and our Moon. Students begin by learning the history and engineering of space travel. They make simple rockets to acquire a basic understanding Newton's third law of motion. They explore energy transfer concepts and use renewable solar energy for cooking. They see how engineers design tools, equipment and spacecraft to go where it is too far and too dangerous for humans. They explore the Earth's water cycle, and gravity as applied to orbiting bodies. They learn the steps of the design process as they create their own planetary rovers made of edible parts. Students conduct experiments to examine soil for signs of life, and explore orbit transfers. While studying about the International Space Station (ISS), they investigate the realities of living in space. Activities explore low gravity on human muscles, eating in microgravity, and satellite tracking. Finally, students learn about the context of our solar system, the universe, as they learn about the Hubble Space Telescope, celestial navigation and spectroscopy.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

12

Solar system: observations and interpretations  

SciTech Connect

Topics treated include the sun, the solar nebula, the planetary system, the nebular origin of the solar system, the structure and evolution of terrestrial planets, and isotopic constraints on planetary evolution. The atmospheres of the terrestrial planets, the principles of planetary volatile history, the tectonics of the terrestrial planets, planetary surface weathering, Jupiter and Saturn, and the origin, evolution, and structure of the giant planets are discussed. Consideration is given to tidal evolution, the generation of magnetic fields in planets, solar and planetary magnetic fields, comets, the origin of the universe and the origin of the solar system, and future planetary exploration.

Kivelson, M.G.

1986-01-01

13

Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

Knapp, Henry H., III

14

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA is charting a bold new course into the cosmos, a journey that will take humans back to the Moon, and eventually to Mars and beyond. Exploration of the solar system and beyond will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance. NASA exploration programs will seek profound answers to questions about the origins of our solar system, whether life exists beyond Earth, and how we could live on other worlds. The NASA Vision for space exploration calls for a combination of human and robotic missions to achieve new exploration goals. Robotic missions to the Moon will be followed by an extended human expedition as early as 2015. Lunar exploration will lay the groundwork for future exploration of Mars and other destinations. A new spacecraft to support these journeys--the Crew Exploration Vehicle--will be tested before the end of this decade. Space exploration holds a special place in the human imagination. Youth are especially drawn to Mars rovers, astronauts, and telescopes. If used effectively and creatively, space can inspire children to seek careers in math, science, and engineering. Exploration and discovery are key agents of growth in society--technologically, economically, socially, internationally, and intellectually. This module is a first step in engaging today's youth in space exploration and serves as an invitation to participate in the excitement of discovery.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

15

Continued Development of the Solar System Concept Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed in order to provide a pre-\\/post-instruction assessment instrument suitable for use in an introductory solar system course. The topics included on the SSCI focus on formation mechanisms, planetary interiors, atmospheric and surface effects, and small solar system bodies. These topics were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when

Seth D. Hornstein; E. E. Prather; T. R. English; S. M. Desch; J. M. Keller

2010-01-01

16

Solar energy recovery system  

SciTech Connect

A solar tracking system for a sun sensitive system such as a solar energy generating unit is described. Means for tracking the sun in bright sunlight and in cloudy conditions having a sun sensing mode and a blind mode are disclosed. Solar energy generating units compatible with the solar tracking system capable of automatically operating a stock watering system are also disclosed.

Arbogast, C.C.

1984-10-16

17

External Resource: Build a Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource allows students to choose a diameter of the sun to calculate scaled dimensions of the Solar System and learn the REAL definition of "space." Topics: orbit, radius, diameter, distance.

1900-01-01

18

External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA webpage, Solar System Exploration, allows students to search missions by name, decade, nation, target, mission, and status. Topics: arial, atmospheric, flybys, impact, lander, orbiter, rover, Deep Space Network

1900-01-01

19

Topic in Depth - Embedded Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Embedded systems are dedicated computers designed to perform a specific task. They are usually fairly simple devices that are used in areas where powerful, customizable computers are unnecessary; however, they can also be quite complex on occasion. Embedded systems can be found almost anywhere, including automobiles and cellular phones, and their importance is reflected in their near omnipresence.

2010-09-09

20

Water: Life's Elixir in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the possible occurrence of water in our solar system. Topics include the necessity of liquid water for life, distribution of water throughout the solar system, and the possibility that there may be liquid water on Mars or on some of Jupiter's moons.

21

Solar systems maintenance  

SciTech Connect

This article examines several hundred solar systems, especially those in the HUD Solar Residential Demonstration Program, in order to show that solar energy systems have all the maintenance requirements of non-solar HVAC systems, as well as additional ones peculiar to solar systems. The additional maintenance requirements occur because of the special features in solar systems, such as the collector panels, the conditions to which the heat-transfer fluid can be subjected, and the special corrosion problems. It is concluded that the simplest systems are the easiest to maintain; regular inspection and maintenance of a solar system can help prevent major expenses for repair and replacement; the ease of maintenance should be a factor considered during design and installation of a solar system; it is important to include adequate measuring instruments in a solar system, especially thermometers, flowmeters, and pressure gages; in liquid-based solar systems, the major cause of problems is corrosion which requires special attention; in air solar systems, the main problem is air leakage, which is not easily detected directly and generally shows itself in terms of poor performance; and site-built and site-assembled solar collectors are generally high-maintenance parts of a solar system and should be inspected regularly.

Dubin, F.S.; Raman, K.

1983-12-01

22

Galaxy and the solar system  

SciTech Connect

The solar-Galactic neighborhood, massive interstellar clouds and other Galactic features, the Oort cloud, perturbations of the solar system, and the existence and stability of a solar companion star are examined in chapters based on contributions to a conference held in Tucson, AZ during January 1985. The individual topics addressed include: the Galactic environment of the solar system; stars within 25 pc of the sun; the path of the sun in 100 million years; the local velocity field in the last billion years; interstellar clouds near the sun; and evidence for a local recent supernova. Also considered are: dynamic influence of Galactic tides and molecular clouds on the Oort cloud; cometary evidence for a solar companion; dynamical interactions between the Oort cloud and the Galaxy; geological periodicities and the Galaxy; giant comets and the Galaxy; dynamical evidence for Planet X; evolution of the solar system in the presence of a solar companion star; mass extinctions, crater ages, and comet showers; evidence for Nemesis, a solar companion star.

Smoluchowski, R.; Bahcall, J.M.; Matthews, M.S.

1986-01-01

23

Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Name and describe each of the planets, including the sun, in our solar system. 1. Use the organizer provided to record the information you collect. Click Solar System Organizer. 2. Now watch a short video about our solar system. As you watch the video, begin writing information you learn about the planets on your organizer. Click Solar System 101 for the video. 3. Next, watch the video with the ...

Tbeauchamp

2012-04-09

24

Hybrid solar energy generating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid solar energy generating system is described for effectively utilizing the total solar spectrum gathered by a solar ray concentrator. The system include: a solar ray concentrator, a first solar ray receiver having photovoltaic solar cells for generating electricity, a second solar ray receiver for generating high temperature heat, a lens for focusing the solar rays on one of

Soule

1987-01-01

25

Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory contains selected contributions written by lecturers at the second (annual) Formation d'Automatique de Paris (FAP) (Graduate Control School in Paris). It is addressed to graduate students and researchers in control theory with topics touching on a variety of areas of interest to the control community such as cascaded systems, flatness, optimal control, and Hamiltonian and infinite-dimensional systems. The reader is provided with a well-integrated synthesis of the latest thinking in these subjects without the need for an exhaustive literature review.

Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, Françoise; Loría, Antonio; Panteley, Elena

26

Systemic drug interactions with topical glaucoma medications.  

PubMed

Topically administered ophthalmic medications are capable of attaining clinically important serum concentrations, as evidenced by the variety of systemic side effects they can produce. These drugs are therefore also capable of interacting with other drugs administered orally and intravenously. This is especially important when medications are administered to an elderly population, who are often receiving multiple medications. The Physician's Desk Reference and the United States Pharmacopeia Drug Information directory contain numerous warnings of potential interactions between topical glaucoma medications and systemically administered drugs. Unfortunately, literature supporting such interactions is limited, both in quantity and quality, being anecdotal in many cases. This report summarizes available information regarding the nonocular interactions between topical ophthalmic glaucoma medications and other systemically administered medications. Clinical evidence of these interactions is lacking in many cases. PMID:1980380

Gerber, S L; Cantor, L B; Brater, D C

27

Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

None

2011-01-01

28

Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory contains selected contributions written by lecturers at the third (annual) Formation d'Automatique de Paris (FAP) (Graduate Control School in Paris). Following on from the lecture notes from the second FAP (Volume 311 in the same series) it is addressed to graduate students and researchers in control theory with topics touching on a variety of areas of interest to the control community such as nonlinear optimal control, observer design, stability analysis and structural properties of linear systems.

Lorsa, Antonio; Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, Françoise; Panteley, Elena

29

Texasgulf solar cogeneration program. Mid-term topical report  

SciTech Connect

The status of technical activities of the Texasgulf Solar Cogeneration Program at the Comanche Creek Sulfur Mine is described. The program efforts reported focus on preparation of a system specification, selection of a site-specific configuration, conceptual design, and facility performance. Trade-off studies performed to select the site-specific cogeneration facility configuration that would be the basis for the conceptual design efforts are described. Study areas included solar system size, thermal energy storage, and field piping. The conceptual design status is described for the various subsystems of the Comanche Creek cogeneration facility. The subsystems include the collector, receiver, master control, fossil energy, energy storage, superheat boiler, electric power generation, and process heat subsystems. Computer models for insolation and performance are also briefly discussed. Appended is the system specification. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-02-01

30

Astronomy 161-The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astronomy 161-The Solar System online course is maintained by the Department of Physics & Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. The twenty two chapters cover everything from time and scale in the universe, development of modern astronomy, the planets, asteroids, meteors, and everything in between. Text, photographs, illustrations, and movies, help users understand the topics along with a handy back and next link on each page to let you navigate through each chapter.

1969-12-31

31

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Gas lasers with solar excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CONTENTS 1. Introduction 703 2. General requirements for laser media using solar excitation 704 3. Lasers with direct excitation by solar light 705 3.1. Basic characteristics of laser media. 3.2. Photodissociation Br2-CO2 lasers. 3.3. Interhalogen molecule lasers. 3.4. Iodine lasers. 3.5. Alkali metal vapor lasers. 4. Lasers with thermal conversion of solar pumping 709 4.1. General considerations. 4.2. CO2 laser with excitation in a black body cavity and with gas flow. 4.3. cw CO2 laser without gas flow. 5. Space laser media with solar excitation 713 5.1. Population inversion of molecular levels in the outer atmosphere of the Earth. 5.2. Laser effect in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. 5.3. Terrestrial experimental technique for observing infrared emission in the atmospheres of planets. 5.4. Designs for laser systems in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. 6. Conclusions 717 References 717

Gordiets, B. F.; Panchenko, Vladislav Ya

1986-07-01

32

Solar energy systems cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five major areas of work currently being pursued in the United States in solar energy which will have a significant impact on the world's energy situation in the future are addressed. The five significant areas discussed include a technical description of several solar technologies, current and projected cost of the selected solar systems, and cost methodologies which are under development.

Lavender

1980-01-01

33

Tehachapi solar thermal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and

A. Rosenthal

1993-01-01

34

Solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy system is disclosed in which the solar energy is converted to electrical energy for immediate use or the energy may be stored for use at a later date. The solar energy is converted to electrical energy by a large photo-voltaic array and the output of the photo-voltaic array is fed through an inverter and other control circuitry

1983-01-01

35

Solar powered lighting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar powered lighting system including a light emitting unit electrically connected to a rechargeable power storage unit, a solar powered recharger connected to that power storage unit, means to prevent discharge of that power storage unit through the solar powered recharger, means to prevent overcharging of the power storage unit, means to prevent discharging the power storage unit below

Stackpole

1983-01-01

36

Solar System Viewers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains three separate programs that produce animations of different aspects of our solar system. The Solar System Viewer indicates the location of terrestrial planets, gas giants, the asteroid belt, Kuiper Belt and comets in relation to the Sun. This program helps to give a sense of size and location within our solar system. The Other Solar Systems Viewer animates the recent discoveries of planets orbiting other stars. This application gives an animation of how these other solar systems operate. The Satellite Viewer animates the moons of the planets in our solar system to show their names and where they are located around their respective planets. The gas giants Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have more than one animation to show the different groups of moons that orbit them. The moons and planets in this animation are to scale to indicate size comparisons.

Ashbury, Mike; Hamilton, Douglas

37

Simple Fictitious Solar Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Simple Artificial Solar Systems package is a zip archive containing a set of thirty different Java programs (created using Easy Java Simulations) that simulate the night sky for fictitious solar systems. Each simulation illustrates the motion of a "Sun" and some "planets" relative to a fixed background of stars. Students can use these simulations to make qualitative and quantitative observations of the solar and planetary motions. These observations can then be used to construct models (Ptolemaic, Copernican, Tychonic, etc) for that solar system. Handouts for these projects are provided as supplementary documents. All of the solar systems were constructed such that all planets orbit in a common plane around the central "Sun". All orbits are circular, and thus the planets move uniformly on their orbits. This makes the geometry of the models much simpler. Included in the zip archive is a spreadsheet giving the required data for each system. Instructors who want their students to complete the projects individually should assign the 30 solar systems at random and privately document which solar system (by number) each student receives. Change the name of the solar system file from "ejs_YourSolarSystem01.jar" to "StudentNameSolarSystem.jar" (using the actual names of your students, of course) and then distribute the files to your students. That way your students will not know which system they have, so even if they get a copy of the solar system data file they will not be able to determine the data for their solar system without doing the necessary work (unless they want to rely on a 1 in 30 chance of guessing correctly).

Timberlake, Todd

2013-01-04

38

Meteorites and the early solar system  

SciTech Connect

The present work discusses topics in the source regions for meteorites, their secondary processing, irradiation effects on meteorites, solar system chronology, the early solar system, the chemistry of chondrites and the early solar system, magnetic fields in the early solar system, the nature of chondrules, micrometeorites, inhomogeneity of the nebula, the survival of presolar material in meteorites, nucleosynthesis, and the relationship between extinct radionuclides and nucleocosmochronology. Attention is given to igneous activity in the early solar system, principles of radiometric aging, the cosmochemical classification of the elements, highly labile elements, the potential significance of pristine material, the astrophysical implications of presolar grains, boundary conditions for the origin of the solar system, and iodine-xenon dating.

Kerridge, J.F.; Matthews, M.S.

1988-01-01

39

Build a Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a scale model of the Solar System and learn the real definition of "space." Learners use the online calculator to create an appropriate scale to use as a basis for their model. Once learners have their scaled measurements (diameters and distances), then they can walk and "pace out" the solar system by marking sticks or flags in the ground. Learners can also build a solar system on a roll of toilet paper or receipt paper.

Hipschman, Ron

1997-01-01

40

The Schoolyard Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Schoolyard Solar System was developed to demonstrate the solar system to scale; to show the relationship between units of thousands, millions, and billions; and to accomplish these goals with student involvement that will re-enforce the lessons." Students and educators can find images of the Sun and the nine planets in our solar system. The website presents bulk, orbital, and observational parameters as well as additional facts for the objects. By printing out the materials and following the hands-on activity discussed at the website, students can learn about the scale of the solar system.

Mallama, Anthony.; Williams, David.

41

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Solar System SciPack explores the solar system and the various bodies within it. The focus in on the Standards and Benchmarks related to how we have learned about the solar system and what we know about the planets, moons, and other bodies in the solar system. Special focus is also given to how the solar system and its bodies formed. In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:� Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. � Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".� Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Solar System: The Earth in Space� Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.� Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.� Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.Solar System: A Look at the Planets� Describe, compare, and contrast the following basic features of the planets in our solar system: size, composition, atmosphere, periods of rotation and revolution, surface features, and ring systems.� Describe the similarities and differences between the terrestrial and Jovian planets.� Describe, compare, and contrast the characteristics of planetary moons in our solar system.Solar System: Asteroids, Comets, and Meteorites� Describe the similarities and differences in comets, asteroids, and meteors.� Describe the size, composition, and motion of meteors, asteroids, and comets.� Differentiate between meteors, meteorites, and meteoroids, and explain what happens to meteors as they fall through Earth's atmosphere.� Explain how we learn about asteroids, comets, and meteorites.Solar System: Formation of Our Solar System� Provide the basic story line of how the solar system may have formed from the debris of exploding stars. � Relate the different characteristics and features of the planets to their different distances from the sun.� Explain some of the methods scientists have used to learn about the formation and evolution of the solar system.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-21

42

Build A Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a scale model of the solar system using a tape measure or a very long roll of paper. A calculation tool is provided to determine the correct scaled distances and planet sizes. A brief discussion of the concept of the vast distances of space is included, along with links to other solar system resources.

43

Observing the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Earth and sky; 2. Moon and planet observer's hardware; 3. The Solar System framed; 4. Stacking up the Solar System; 5. Our Moon; 6. Mercury and Venus; 7. Mars; 8. Jupiter; 9. Saturn, Uranus and Neptune; 10. Small worlds; 11. Comets; 12. Our daytime star; Appendices; Index.

North, Gerald

2012-10-01

44

Solar system exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fundamental goals lie at the heart of U.S. solar system exploration efforts: first, to characterize the evolution of the solar system; second, to understand the processes which produced life. Progress in planetary science is traced from Newton's definition of the principles of gravitation through a variety of NASA planetary probes in orbit, on other planets and traveling beyond the

Geoffrey A. Briggs; William L. Quaide

1986-01-01

45

Cosmology of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early solar system accreted from ice crystals, which encapsulated the refractory elements. Ice was needed to bind the smallest particles, so accretion only occurred in the outer solar system. Solar wind gusts expelled dust in the inner solar system to where it became accreted into the giant planets. Thus, the original solar system comprised four giant planets, accreted from

J. Ackerman

2004-01-01

46

Life in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life in the Solar System is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides a look at the environments of some places in the solar system, including Mercury, Venus, Mars present and past, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Saturn, Titan, other moons, Uranus, Neptune, Triton, Pluto, comets, and interstellar space. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

47

Planetary Aeronomy of the Outer Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will give a historical tour of the highlights of my research on atmospheres in the outer solar system and their interaction with the magnetospheric plasma. Topics include atmospheric photochemistry, the Io plasma torus, the Galilean satellites, and the nitrogen atmospheres on Titan, Triton, and Pluto. The important role of observations combined with theory will be emphasized. The talk will finish with current research on the role that atmospheric escape plays on atmospheric structure in the outer solar system.

Strobel, Darrell

2012-10-01

48

Solar System: Formation of Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It explores the hypothesis that the solar system coalesced out of a giant cloud of gas and debris left in the wake of exploding stars about five billion years ago. Everything in and on the earth, including living organisms, is made of the material from this cloud. As Earth and the other planets formed, the heavier elements fell to their centers. On planets closer to the Sun (the inner planets), the lightest elements and their compounds were mostly blown or boiled away by radiation from the newly formed sun. However, on the outer planets, the lighter substances still surround them as deep atmospheres of gas or as frozen solid layers. Learning Outcomes:� Provide the basic story line of how the solar system may have formed from the debris of exploding stars. � Relate the different characteristics and features of the planets to their different distances from the sun.� Explain some of the methods scientists have used to learn about the formation and evolution of the solar system.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

49

Solar system fault detection  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for detecting predetermined faults in a variety of active, different solar systems. Each of the different solar systems uses a heat transfer fluid and has a tank for receiving fluid or a heat exchanger to transfer heat from the heat transfer fluid to a tank, and at least one collector and one pipe through which fluid flows. The different solar systems each has different predetermined operating conditions associated with a given type of fault, comprising: a. sensing means for sensing the presence of different predetermined operating conditions associated with each of the solar systems. Each of the sensing means includes a switch that changes in state in response to a change in a predetermined operating condition in at least one of the fluid, tank or heat exchanger, collector, and pipe; b. means in communication with each of the sensing means for determining whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in one of the solar systems, the means for determining including combining means. The combining means includes logic gates at least one of which is actuated by logic gate actuating voltages via the associated states of at least two of the switches to produce an output signal indicative of whether a predetermined fault is present in the one solar system; and c. indicating means responsive to the output signal for indicating the presence and identity of the one predetermined fault in the one solar system.

Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr

1986-12-02

50

Formation of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation depicts the formation of the solar system from a solar nebula, a great swirling cloud of gas and dust. It is accompanied by a link to a written description explaining the solar system's formation in greater detail.

51

Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

Knapp, Henry H., III

52

Assessment of Topical Hypopigmenting Agents on Solar Lentigines of Asian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: So-called darkened age spots encompass distinct pathological processes. The efficacy of topical depigmenting agents is difficult to objectivate. Objective: To assess the hypopigmenting effect of three cosmetic formulations using objective biometrological methods. Methods: 50 women of South-East Asian ancestry were enrolled in this pilot study. They had solar lentigines according to dermoscopic criteria. The lesions were treated by topical

J. F. Hermanns; L. Petit; C. Piérard-Franchimont; P. Paquet; G. E. Piérard

2002-01-01

53

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains labs for students. This lab asks students: to create a mini solar system to scale, to be able to explain terms associated with orbits, and to demonstrate an understanding of Kepler's laws.

Hackworth, Martin

2005-04-15

54

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

1984-05-14

55

Outer Solar System Nomenclature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Principal Investigator's responsibilities on this grant fell into two categories according to his participation. In the nomenclature work of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), Owen is chair of the Task Group for the Outer Solar System. He is ...

T. C. Owen

1998-01-01

56

Tehachapi solar thermal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

Rosenthal, A.

1993-05-01

57

Fragmentary Solar System History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is an improved understanding of the early solar system environment and of the processes involved in the nebula and in the evolution of solid bodies. We present results of our studies on the isotopic signatures in selected primitive solar system objects and on the evaluation of the cosmic ray records and of inferred collisional events. Furthermore, we report data of trapped martian atmospheric gases in meteorites and the inferred early evolution of Mars' atmosphere.

Marti, Kurt

1997-10-01

58

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fourth grade students will explore the solar system and write a one page paper about their journey through space. Hold on tight! 3... 2... 1... Blast off! We're on our way to outer space. We are going to explore our solar system. We will go to this website Kids Astronomy to begin our exploration. While on our trip, we will follow these steps: 1. Go to website Kids Astronomy 2. Click on Outer ...

Gardner, Miss

2009-09-15

59

Solar System Lithograph Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This color Solar System Lithograph Set contains lithographs of: Our Solar System, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Jupiter, Moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Charon, and Comets. Suitable for formal education, informal education, and the general public. This is part of a collection of resources provided by the Space Science Education Resource Directory, and has passed a SSERD Panel Review.

Sohus, Anita

2010-09-03

60

NASA: Solar System Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Solar System Exploration website offers a wealth of information about the objects in our solar system, recent technology used to explore these worlds, space missions, and stories about the people behind the missions. Users will find image galleries, multimedia resources for teachers and learners, videos, animations, and other interactive features to explore the planets, comets, asteroids, the history of robotic exploration, and future missions.

2005-05-10

61

Development of the Solar System Concept Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concept inventories can provide useful insight into students' understanding of key physical concepts. Knowing what your students have learned during a course is a valuable tool for improving your own teaching. Unfortunately, current astronomy concept inventories are not suitable for an introductory solar system course because they either cover too broad of a range of topics (e.g. Astronomy Diagnostic Test)

S. Hornstein; E. Prather

2009-01-01

62

Development of a Solar System Concept Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concept inventories can provide useful insight into students' understanding of key physical concepts. Knowing what your students have learned during a course is a valuable tool for improving your own teaching. Unfortunately, current astronomy concept inventories are not suitable for an introductory solar system course because they either cover too broad of a range of topics (e.g. Astronomy Diagnostic Test)

Seth D. Hornstein; D. Duncan; C. A. T. S

2009-01-01

63

Discovering the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovering the Solar System Barrie W. Jones The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK Discovering the Solar System is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the Solar System and of the ways in which the various bodies have been investigated and modelled. The approach is thematic, with sequences of chapters on the interiors of planetary bodies, on their surfaces, and on their atmospheres. Within each sequence there is a chapter on general principles and processes followed by one or two chapters on specific bodies. There is also an introductory chapter, a chapter on the origin of the Solar System, and a chapter on asteroids, comets and meteorites. Liberally illustrated with diagrams, black and white photographs and colour plates, Discovering the Solar System also features: * tables of essential data * question and answers within the text * end of section review questions with answers and comments Discovering the Solar System is essential reading for all undergraduate students for whom astronomy or planetary science are components of their degrees, and for those at a more advanced level approaching the subject for the first time. It will also be of great interest to non-specialists with a keen interest in astronomy. A small amount of scientific knowledge is assumed plus familiarity with basic algebra and graphs. There is no calculus. Praise for this book includes: ".certainly qualifies as an authoritative text. The author clearly has an encyclopedic knowledge of the subject." Meteorics and Planetary Science ".liberally doused with relevant graphs, tables, and black and white figures of good quality." EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union ".one of the best books on the Solar System I have seen. The general accuracy and quality of the content is excellent." Journal of the British Astronomical Association

Jones, Barrie W.

1999-04-01

64

GLAST Solar System Science  

SciTech Connect

We briefly discuss GLAST's capabilities for observing high-energy radiation from various energetic phenomena in our solar system. These emissions include: bremsstrahlung, nuclear-line and pion-decay gamma-radiation, and neutrons from solar flares; bremsstrahlung and pion-decay gamma radiation from cosmic-ray interactions with the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth's atmosphere; and inverse Compton radiation from cosmic-ray electron interactions with sunlight.

Share, Gerald H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Md. 20742 (United States); Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Murphy, Ronald J. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2007-07-12

65

Solar System Exploration: Fast Lesson Finder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one get around the solar system? Well, that's a tricky question unless you have a lot of time on your hands, but it's certainly easy to learn about the solar system with these useful lessons provided courtesy of NASA. Their Solar System Exploration website includes hundreds of lessons designed for grades K-12, which visitors can navigate by using the helpful tab menus to look for specific types of materials. The tabs include Grade Level, Solar System Body, Mission, and Topic. Visitors looking for high school materials will do well to look at the Globe Visualization Student Activities, which include close examinations of the Earth hydrology, including aspects of air temperature, ozone, salinity, and so on. Additionally, visitors can use the Education section on the left-hand side of the site to learn about scientists' work in the "Through the Eyes of Scientists" features.

66

Future solar system missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's planetary exploration program is discussed, with emphasis on strategy, namely, exploration of all three main classes of solar system bodies (the terrestrial planets, the outer giants and their moons, and the primitive small bodies). Planning of an extensive search for other planetary systems is focused on the application of various approaches to ultra-high precision astrometry and the possible use

Geoffrey A. Briggs

1990-01-01

67

Solar System Fluff  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astronomy notes is an educational resource for introductory astronomy classes for undergraduates. This section discusses smaller planetary objects, such as asteroids, meteorites, and comets, as well as the formation of the solar system, extrasolar planets, and how scientists detect other planetary systems.

Strobel, Nick

2004-07-16

68

Solar heater freeze protection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar water heating system heats water in a solar panel and stores it in a water storage tank. A pump circulates the water in the system, from the water storage tank through the solar panel back to the water storage tank when energy can be transferred from the solar panel to the water. When the circulating pump stops, the

Cartland

1979-01-01

69

Solar system exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two fundamental goals lie at the heart of U.S. solar system exploration efforts: first, to characterize the evolution of the solar system; second, to understand the processes which produced life. Progress in planetary science is traced from Newton's definition of the principles of gravitation through a variety of NASA planetary probes in orbit, on other planets and traveling beyond the solar system. It is noted that most of the planetary data collected by space probes are always eventually applied to improving the understanding of the earth, moon, Venus and Mars, the planets of greatest interest to humans. Significant data gathered by the Mariner, Viking, Apollo, Pioneer, and Voyager spacecraft are summarized, along with the required mission support capabilities and mission profiles. Proposed and planned future missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, the asteroids and for a comet rendzvous are described.

Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Quaide, William L.

70

Solar System Scavenger Hunt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy activity gives kids a grounded way to understand the scale of the planets in our solar system. The activity begins with a brief overview that tells them why all planets are round and introduces them to the concept that the planets vary widely in size. Kids are then asked to create a model of the solar system using found objects that match the provided scale in inches for the planets. The activity ends with a series of challenges, which include arranging the planets according to size and distance from Earth.

71

The Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we will understand the solar system better. It is comprised of the sun, planets (including the Earth), other smaller bodies (which include comets and asteroids) as well as the interplanetary medium. What are these stars? How are they different? How big are they? How do they move? What are they made of? What is their origin? At the present time, man can answer some of these questions with a degree of certainty. In the next sections we will present a little of what is known about the solar system.

Rodrigues, Claudia Vilega

1999-01-01

72

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Millisecond solar radio spikes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently available models of one of the most intriguing types of unsteady rf solar emission, millisecond solar radio spikes, are discussed. A comparative analysis of the models' implications and of the body of existing data yields an outline of the most realistic radio spike model possible. The spikes are produced by the cyclotron maser mechanism. The cyclotron cone instability is caused by fast electrons distributed over energies according to a (piecewise) power law. The angular part of the distribution function (whose exact form is, as yet, undetermined) suffers fluctuations due to the magnetic field inhomogeneities that arise in the burst loop as a consequence of the original energy release. In some portions of the loop the distribution is not anisotropic enough to secure the development of a cyclotron instability; it is in these 'microtraps' where individual spikes form. Key areas of future theoretical and experimental research are suggested with a view to verifying the adequacy and realizing the diagnostic potential of the model.

Fleishman, G. D.; Mel'nikov, V. F.

1998-12-01

73

TOPICAL REVIEW The solar UV-x-ray spectrum from 1.5 to 2000 Å  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review illustrates the potential of UV-x-ray spectroscopy for determining the physical conditions in the solar chromosphere, transition region and corona, and how spectroscopy can be used as a tool to understand the physical mechanisms governing the atmosphere. It also illustrates the potential for understanding transient events such as solar flares. This is a vast topic, and therefore the review is necessarily not complete, but we have tried to be as general as possible in showing in particular how solar spectra are currently being used to understand the solar upper atmosphere. The review is intended for non-solar physicists with an interest in spectroscopy as well as for solar physicists who are not specialists in spectroscopy.

Doschek, G. A.; Feldman, U.

2010-12-01

74

Solar System Beyond Neptune.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This proposal supported deep and wide-field optical imaging of the trans-Neptunian Solar System capitalizing on our broad access to state-of-the-art facilities on Mauna Kea. Key quantities determined include the size distribution of Kuiper Belt objects (a...

D. Jewitt

2002-01-01

75

Solar heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating system for a structure in which a matrix of beverage containers of the convenient opening variety is mounted on a generally flat support member. The beverage containers extend through holes in the support member formed from alternating polygons of a generally checkerboard surface design. A resilient plug seals the opening at one end of each container and

Root

1980-01-01

76

The New Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 2006, the details of bodies making up our solar system have been revised. This was largely as a result of new discoveries of a number of planet-like objects beyond the orbit of Pluto. The International Astronomical Union redefined what constituted a planet and established two new classifications--dwarf planets and plutoids. As a result, the…

Wilkinson, John

2009-01-01

77

Solar System Montage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a JPEG image of the planets in the solar system arranged as a montage. It is part of the GRIN (Great Images in NASA) library of images, which consists of photographs and other illustrations that are browsable by subject, NASA Center, or keyword.

78

Solar System Simulator Studio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application provides a multimedia simulation of the solar system. Many different animations are available to show the motion of planets, moons, and comets from different viewpoints, or interactive controls can be used to customize the display. Scripting of displays is possible.

Project, The S.

2005-04-27

79

Future solar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widely regarded as pathological variable stars – with erratic photometric and spectroscopic behavior of unknown physical origin – 20 years ago, T Tauri stars (TTSs) turned out in the last decade to be promising laboratories for observing the formation of solar systems such as ours. This is because circumstellar, presumably protoplanetary disks were found to surround a large fraction of

Claude Bertout; François Ménard

2001-01-01

80

The Virtual Solar System Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the course, Virtual Solar System, students construct models of the solar system in an inquiry framework to learn fundamental astronomical concepts. This paper describes the course, the underlying principles for its design, the core technology that make

Hay, Kenneth E.; Barnett, Michael; Barab, Sasha A.

2001-02-01

81

Decentalized Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic sys...

M. C. Krupka

1980-01-01

82

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating system is described for an opening of a building comprising: a frame to fit tightly within the opening; an outer panel glazed within the frame, the outer panel being at least partially transparent to solar radiation; absorptive screen material spaced opposite the inner surface of the outer panel; an adjustable blind disposed between the outer panel and the absorptive screen material. The spacing between the outer panel and the outer surface of the absorptive screen material is sufficient to permit adjustment of the blind for transmitting different amounts of the solar radiation both to and through the absorptive screen material; an inner shade disposed over the inner surface of the absorptive screen material, the inner shade having a desired degree of translucence for transmitting therethrough a desired portion of light derived from the solar radiation transmitted through the absorptive screen; and both the inner and outer surfaces of the absorptive screen being highly absorptive, the outer surface of the inner shade being a good reflector and facing the inner surface of the absorptive screen material. The outer surface of the inner shade reflects a substantial portion of the solar radiation to the inner surface of the absorptive screen material for conversion thereby to heat.

Kelly, R.J.

1987-03-17

83

Build Your Own Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet creates a model of a solar system with user-defined data. Users can create a solar system with up to four planets, choosing the star type at the center of the solar system, planet name, size, eccentricity of orbit and distance from the star. This site then calculates these factors to produce a graphic of the solar system with details about each planet such as its atmosphere, temperature, and whether life could exist on its surface.

Asbury, Mike; Hamilton, Douglas

84

NASA Solar System Exploration Website  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Solar System Exploration website, http:\\/\\/solarsystem.nasa.gov, sponsored by the Science Director for Solar System Exploration, Office of Space Science, NASA, is a gateway to information about our solar system and NASA's missions and research to understand it. The site has been designed for easy navigation and is becoming known as a resource for educators, students, media, and publishers. Major

A. M. Sohus

2000-01-01

85

Solar System Magnetospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article proposes a short review of our present knowledge of solar system magnetospheres, with the purpose of placing the study of Saturn’s magnetosphere in the context of a comparative approach. We describe the diversity of solar system magnetospheres and the underlying causes of this diversity: nature and magnetization state of the planetary obstacle, presence or not of a dense atmosphere, rotation state of the planet, existence of a system of satellites, rings and neutral gas populations in orbit around the planet. We follow the “russian doll” hierarchy of solar system magnetospheres to briefly describe the different objects of this family: the heliosphere, which is the Sun’s magnetosphere; the “elementary” magnetospheres of the inner planets, Earth and Mercury; the “complex” magnetospheres of the giant planets, dominated by planetary rotation and the presence of interacting objects within their magnetospheric cavities, some of which, like Ganymede, Io or Titan, produce small intrinsic or induced magnetospheres inside the large one.We finally describe the main original features of Saturn’s magnetosphere as we see them after the Voyager fly-bys and before the arrival of Cassini at Saturn, and list some of the key questions which Cassini will have to address during its four-year orbital tour.

Blanc, M.; Kallenbach, R.; Erkaev, N. V.

2005-01-01

86

NASA Solar System Exploration Website  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Solar System Exploration website, http://solarsystem.nasa.gov, sponsored by the Science Director for Solar System Exploration, Office of Space Science, NASA, is a gateway to information about our solar system and NASA's missions and research to understand it. The site has been designed for easy navigation and is becoming known as a resource for educators, students, media, and publishers. Major subsections include latest news, newest images, a link to NASA research opportunities in space science, technology, missions, information on solar system bodies, the people who are involved in solar system exploration, and the history of solar system exploration in the space age. There is also a link to the NASA Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach Forum. Members of the planetary science community are invited to contribute suggestions, comments, and content to the website, including links to their own institutions and research.

Sohus, A. M.

2000-10-01

87

Solar trough systems  

SciTech Connect

Trough systems predominate among today`s commercial solar power plants. All together, nine trough power plants, also called Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS), were built in the 1980s in the Mojave Desert near Barstow, California. These plants have a combined capacity of 354 megawatts (MW) and today generate enough electricity to meet the needs of approximately 500,000 people. Trough systems convert the heat from the sun into electricity. Because of their parabolical shape, troughs can focus the sun at 30--60 times its normal intensity on a receiver pipe located along the focal line of the trough. Synthetic oil captures this heat as the oil circulates through the pipe, reaching temperatures as high as 390 C (735 F). The hot oil is pumped to a generating station and routed through a heat exchanger to produce steam. Finally, electricity is produced in a conventional steam turbine. In addition to operating on solar energy the SEGS plants are configured as hybrids to operate on natural gas on cloudy days or after dark. Natural gas provides 25% of the output of the SEGS plants.

NONE

1998-04-01

88

Solar System Trading Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will collect solar system trading cards by playing an interactive card game. They will identify the sun, planets, comets, and asteroids by answering questions about them. By playing the game, students will gain knowledge about the solar system and they will view pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and other NASA missions. Students will view an image accompanied by a question with three responses. By using the computer mouse, they will chose an answer. When the response is correct, additional information about the image is provided. If an incorrect answer is chosen, students are provided with additional information before they chose a new response. A glossary of terms can be found. At the end of the game, students are assessed with a list of correctly identified solar system objects. This site includes an overview, teacher lesson plans, links to the National Science Education Standards, science background for the teacher, downloadable cards, and links to other sites. The lesson plan includes the goal/purpose, desired outcomes, prerequisites, new vocabulary, general misconceptions, preparation time, execution time, needed materials, engagement activities, step-by-step instructions, evaluation/assessment, and follow-up activities. Suggestions are given for one computer classrooms, those without computers, and home schoolers.

Storr, Alex; Space, Amazing; Mccue, Betty; Flowers, Connie; Institute, Space T.

2007-12-12

89

Simulations of Solar AO Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, first we compare the two kinds of algorithms that are being used in solar AO systems to sense a distorted wave-front through simulations. Then, we comment on the various issues related to solar AO systems and describe solar features that can be studied using AO as a tool. Then we briefly describe the laboratory model of AO that is being built at the Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO), India.

Sridharan, R.; Bayanna, A. Raja; Venkatakrishnan, P.

90

The space-age solar system  

SciTech Connect

This book is a description of the sun, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets in the solar system. Discussion is based heavily on results obtained from recent space probes to Mercury, Venus, Mars Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Offers detailed descriptions of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and the results of the recent probes of Halley's comet. A discussion of meteorites leads to a description of the current models of the solar system. Introductory chapters present theories of the solar system from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Other topics covered include the sun, its structure, and how it generates energy; the surfaces, internal structures, and histories of the planets, from innermost Mercury to farthest Pluto, and their moons.

Baugher, J.F.

1988-01-01

91

Virtual Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic website provides data and images of objects within the solar system. The Sun, the nine planets, comets, asteroids and meteors are all covered. Sun data includes details about solar winds, sunspots and the corona. Mercury data discusses the Caloris Basin, craters, ridges and faults. Venus data discusses volcanoes, mountains and clouds. Earth data covers water, the Moon, surface features and plate tectonics. Mars data covers polar ice caps, Olympus Mons volcano and the Mars Pathfinder project. Jupiter data discusses moons and rings, surface spots and the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact. Saturn details include rings, storms and moons. Uranus data covers its orbit, rings and moons. Neptune data includes surface storms and clouds. Pluto data discusses its odd orbit and satellite. There are links provided for more information.

Newcott, William

92

Liposomes and Niosomes as Topical Drug Delivery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin acts as a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical\\/transdermal (TT) drug delivery. The stratum corneum plays a crucial role in barrier function for TT drug delivery. Despite major research and development efforts in TT systems and the advantages of these routes, low stratum corneum permeability limits the usefulness of topical drug delivery. To overcome

M. J. Choi; H. I. Maibach

2005-01-01

93

Solar thermal energy systems in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia has developed world leading solar thermal technologies, with only very low national market penetration. Domestic solar water heating is the most common solar thermal instrument, with around 5% of homes using it and most of these systems are conventional flat plate thermosyphon systems. Other low temperature solar thermal research includes solar crop drying, solar ponds and solar air heating

Keith Lovegrove; Mike Dennis

2006-01-01

94

Solar heating system  

DOEpatents

An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

1982-01-01

95

Improved solar heating systems  

DOEpatents

An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

1980-05-16

96

Solar hot air system  

SciTech Connect

This solar hot air system is designed to trap and hold heat radiation from the sun, so as to heat one's home and reduce fuel consumption. It consists primarily of a glass, a screen, a collector, and air chambers, the combination of which utilizes two sheets of aluminum to trap and hold heat waves, until removed from the unit. It further includes a powerful small fan, to extract maximum heat from the collector while the sun is shining, and the unit is such, that it may be installed upon a vertical exterior wall, on a sloping roof, or upon a flat roof.

Moore, D.E.; Wiggins, J.W.

1983-04-12

97

Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides very helpful information about our solar system in a fun and interesting way. There is a whole section about the sun, with facts about the surface, atmosphere, age, and varying temperatures of the sun. All the planets have their own webpage, with link to more in depth information as well as educational activities and games. There are interesting facts as well as myths about comets, asteroids, and meteoroids. The image archive has dozens of images of all the planets as well as the sun and moon.

2009-09-01

98

Solar lighting system  

SciTech Connect

Light energy from the sun is directed by a solar collector device onto the end of a bundle of optical fibers. Means which may comprise a tracking system is provided to maintain the collector device directed toward the sun throughout the day so that a maximum amount of light energy is collected thereby. The optical fiber bundle is run into a building or other place where the light energy is to be utilized where the bundle may be split off to provide light in various areas through various utilization devices, such as lamps, indicator devices, signs, etc.

Fries, J.E.

1981-10-27

99

Track Systems and Other Related Railroad Topics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 11 papers in this report deal with the following areas: effect of design parameters on track support systems; improvement in rail support; track structure systems; problems and needs in tie and fastener research; track-structure analysis: methodology ...

1977-01-01

100

Views of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Views of the Solar System presents a vivid multimedia adventure unfolding the splendor of the Sun, planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and more. Discover the latest scientific information, or study the history of space exploration, rocketry, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft through a vast archive of photographs, scientific facts, text, graphics and videos. Views of the Solar System offers enhanced exploration and educational enjoyment of the solar system and beyond.

Hamilton, Calvin J.

101

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and images about the solar system including detailed information about formation, planets, asteroids, comets, and the Sun. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

102

Solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus are disclosed for use of solar energy. The method and apparatus have the advantage and benefit of providing for use of all collected solar energy, whether or not there is an immediate need in the home for heating. Solar energy is also used for cooling a home or existing building structure via utilization of a heat

Schoenfelder

1978-01-01

103

Integrated Voice and Visual Systems Research Topics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of studies was performed to investigate factors of helicopter speech and visual system design and measure the effects of these factors on human performance, both for pilots and non-pilots. The findings and conclusions of these studies were applie...

D. H. Williams C. A. Simpson

1986-01-01

104

Solar thermal energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research and development conducted within the US Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Technology Program is described. The goal of the program is to advance the engineering and scientific understanding of solar thermal technology and to establish the technology base from which private industry can develop solar thermal power production options. Research areas emphasized include central receivers, distributed receiveres, and solar thermal materials. Brief descriptions are provided of the contractor's activities at the Sandia National Laboratories, Solar Energy Research Institute, and the San Francisco and Albuquerque DOE operations offices. A list of the FY 1984 publications is included.

1985-05-01

105

TOPICAL REVIEW: Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment.

Ke, Pu Chun; Qiao, Rui

2007-09-01

106

Topics in optimization and sparse linear systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of the thesis, we study three problems in optimization-Network Optimization Problem, A Convex Optimization Problem arising out of Timing Analysis of VLSI circuits, and A Geometric Solution to two variable Convex Optimization Problems. In the second part of the thesis, we analyze the quality of a new graph-based preconditioner for large sparse Symmetric Positive Definite Diagonally Dominant (SPDDD) linear systems. These kinds of linear systems arise in the solution of scalar second order PDEs for Heat Transfer, Electrostatics, Electromagnetics, Ground Water Flow, and Diffusion (with or without reaction) when they are discretized using finite differences. They also arise in discrete problems like Network Flow Problems (Assignment, Maximum Flow, and Minimum Cost Flow), Large Resistive Networks, and Laminar Flow in Pipe Networks.

Joshi, Anil

1997-06-01

107

Solar Power Systems Web Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

All over the world the peak demand load is increasing and the load factor is decreasing year-by-year. The fossil fuel is considered insufficient thus solar energy systems are becoming more and more useful, not only in terms of installation but monitoring of these systems is very crucial. Monitoring becomes very important when there are a large number of solar panels.

Bimal Aklesh Kumar

2011-01-01

108

Space: Modeling the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students compare and contrast the diameters of the other planets in the solar system to that of the Earth, create a scale factor based on a reasonable size for the Earth's model and build a scale model of the solar system.

2010-01-01

109

Wind in the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short "TPT" articles on frost and precipitation. The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might motivate…

McIntosh, Gordon

2010-01-01

110

Solar System Observations with NHST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar system observations using HST have been tremendously successful in many scientific areas, taking advantage of the wealth of information from high angular resolution images and high sensitivity UV to IR spectra. These capabilities have led to major advances in the areas of planetary atmospheres, surfaces, aurora and magnetospheres, and planetary satellites. While solar system objects are normally considered to

J. T. Clarke

2003-01-01

111

Solar System exploration Road Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has commissioned a group of scientists, engineers, educators and technologists to prepare a ``Road Map'' for Solar System exploration which covers the next 15-20 years. This Road Map is expected to serve as a guide for the continuation of Solar System exploration and future space science activities supported by NASA. The Road Map is currently in draft form, however,

Jurgen Rahe; Samuel Gulkis

1997-01-01

112

Landings Throughout the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valuable in situ observations provided by landers and probes are a pri- mary way we learn about other environments in our Solar System. This paper will discuss the successes and failures over the years in human kind's attempts to land spacecraft on objects in the Solar System, excluding the Moon. From the first successful lander, Venera 7 on Venus,

E. Bowsher

113

Geologic exploration of solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes that must have operated on the early Earth have been deduced from evidence from ancient surfaces of the Moon and planets. In particular, such comparative studies have demonstrated that only two geologic processes have been widespread throughout the history of the solar system: impact cratering and volcanism. Impact craters have formed throughout solar system history, indeed the planets

Wood

1987-01-01

114

Solar System Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web-site contains three programs for calculating various information about our solar system. The Planetary Calculator allows users to compare the mass, size, spin periods, surface gravity and orbital information for each of the nine planets. Users can also create their own formulae to compare different combinations of properties. The Satellite Calculator allows users to compare physical and orbital data for the 63 currently known moons of the planets to see which moon is the largest, has the strongest gravity, and make many other comparisons. The Collision Calculator indicates what happens when a comet or asteroid hits a planet. Users send different-sized objects into different-sized planets to see what the effect would be.

Hamilton, Douglas

115

Topics in biophysics and disordered quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a collection of problems applying the tools of statistical physics to biology. We also present work on the effects of disorder on quantum systems. First, we derive a mean-field phase diagram for the folding of a generic RNA molecule, focusing on the conditions under which a stable ribozyme may fold. Then, we study the statistical mechanics of nucleosorne positioning and trans-membrane protein alpha-helix prediction, applying related techniques. We compare the physical outcomes of each model, finding nucleosomes suffer from ubiquitous metastability while transmembrane proteins are designed to avoid this problem. Next we study the dynamical properties of a collection of neurons, believed to generate the spontaneous breathing rhythms of mammals, focusing on its ability to produce stable oscillations of activity. Next we address the competition between disorder and strong interaction in 2 D fermionic systems, finding that the Mott gap is completely washed out, leading to a glassy state. Finally, we study the rounding by disorder of first, order quantum phase transitions, both through a general heuristic argument and an in-depth study of a particular model.

Schwab, David Jason

116

Collapsing ring model of the origin of the solar system  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the following topics on the origin of the solar systems: derivation of candidate angular momentum transfer equations; dust ring identified; classic accretional problems in planetary formation; formation of the outer planets; outer solar system satellites; rock rings; comets; the asteroids; formation of the inner planets; meteoric formation processes; formation of the inner planetary satellites; the moon facilitated life on earth; origin of the sun; and residual evidence of the collapsing ring configuration.

Schlenker, L.D.

1988-12-01

117

Solar Data Base Management System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The data base management system that has been established at Argonne National Laboratory to handle the reliability and materials assessment data being generated by over 100 solar heating and cooling systems that are sponsored by the Department of Energy i...

I. Singh R. M. Wolosewicz H. Singh P. S. Chopra

1980-01-01

118

Solar energy applications in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a seminar on the use of solar energy in tropical regions. Topics considered at the seminar included solar decision making, solar radiation measurement, solar air conditioning, solar refrigeration, solar collectors, solar water heaters, photovoltaics, solar architecture, solar heating systems, research programs, solar drying, and performance testing.

1983-01-01

119

Solar energy collection system  

SciTech Connect

A pyramid-shaped solar collector is provided which is capable of operation in conjunction with heat transfer media such as air, water and oil. A pre-heater assembly is provided for use in conjunction with the solar collector to develop improved thermal output capabilities. Series of mirrors are provided for use in conjunction with the solar collector and pre-heater to provide further improvements, a first series of mirrors primarily serving to amplify the quantity of incident solar radiation delivered to the solar collector and pre-heater, and a second series of mirrors primarily serving to compensate for movement of the sun with respect to the solar collector and pre-heater throughout the day.

Leininger, R. W.; Decker, R. G.

1985-09-17

120

Solar and central fireplace heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating system for supplying heated air to various portions of a building is described. A solar panel is mounted externally of the building. The solar panel includes a solar radiation absorbing plate and a solar radiation transmissive plate spaced from the absorbing plate to define a solar air heating chamber. Ducts leading from the building circulate air through

Gaines

1981-01-01

121

Solar active region display system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare

M. Golightly; V. Raben; M. Weyland

2003-01-01

122

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

1981-01-01

123

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a progress report for the period of July 1, 1990 to 31 August 1990 on activities at Colorado State University in a program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Topics covered are: solar heating with isothermal collectors; solid cooling with solid desiccant; liquid desiccant cooling systems; solar heating systems; solar water heaters; fields tests; and program management. 6 figs., 2 tabs. (FSD)

Not Available

1990-09-07

124

Astrometric solar system anomalies  

SciTech Connect

There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

2009-01-01

125

The invariable plane of the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invariable plane of the solar system is defined as the plane perpendicular to the total angular momentum of the system and passing through its centre of mass. The idea of using the invariable plane as a reference plane in the study of the dynamics of solar system bodies goes back at least to Laplace [3]. The latest study on this plane dates back to Burkhardt [2]. The aim of this work is to determine at best the orientation of the invariable plane with respect to both the ICRS and the equinox-ecliptic of J2000.0, and to evaluate the accuracy of its determination. Such a determination is of fundamental interest in the topic of solar system studies, as suggested by the WGCCRE 2009 [1] for the determination of planet's and satellites' rotational elements. Using the long-term numerical ephemerides DE405, DE406 [6] and INPOP10a[4] over their entire available time span, we compute the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the individual contribution of each planet. We then deduce the orientation of the invariable plane for each ephemeris, and establish their relative differences. Preliminary results can be found in [5]. Here we update them with more accurate data, and a more complete analysis of the problem, taking into account the effect of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres as well as two of the biggest asteroids, (4) Vesta and (2) Pallas. Moreover, we give the orbital elements (inclination, longitude of the ascending node) with respect to the invariable plane. As given its accuracy of determination, and its fundamental dynamical meaning, the invariable plane provides a permanent natural reference plane that should be used when studying solar system dynamics, instead of the ecliptic. Thus, we recommend referring to it when working on long-term dynamics.

Souami, D.; Souchay, J.

2012-04-01

126

Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300?C ñ 800?C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at Earth¥s surface. The higher the concentration, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy

Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

2012-08-01

127

Smaller solar system bodies and orbits; Proceedings of Symposium 3, Workshops II, III, and XXVI, and Topical Meetings of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics discussed in this volume include the reappraisal of the moon and Mars/Phobos/Deimos; the origin and evolution of planetary and satellite systems; asteroids, comets, and dust (a post-IRAS perspective); satellite dynamics; future planetary missions; and orbital debris. Papers are presented on a comparison of the chemistry of moon and Mars, the use of a mobile surface radar to study the atmosphere and ionosphere, and laser-ionization studies with the technical models of the LIMA-D/Phobos. Attention is given to planetogonic scenarios and the evolution of relatively mass-rich preplanetary disks, the kinetic behavior of planetesimals revolving around the sun, the planetary evolution of Mars, and pre- and post-IRAS asteroid taxonomies. Consideration is also given to ocean tides and tectonic plate motions in high-precision orbit determination, the satellite altimeter calibration techniques, a theory of the motion of an artificial satellite in the earth atmosphere, ESA plans for planetary exploration, and the detection of earth orbiting objects by IRAS.

Runcorn, S. K.; Carr, M. H.; Moehlmann, D.; Stiller, H.; Matson, D. L.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Kessler, D. J.

128

EMLA®-induced methemoglobinemia and systemic topical anesthetic toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report illustrates an adult presenting with the simultaneous occurrence of both methemoglobinemia (MetHb) and systemic toxicity from the topical application of local anesthetics while undergoing laser epilation therapy of the legs. The concurrent development of both is considered uncommon in this setting and may have been related to several factors, including her recent previous treatment, increased absorption secondary

In-Hei Hahn; Robert S Hoffman; Lewis S Nelson

2004-01-01

129

Solar Thermal Electric Power Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research program is to develop design parameters for solar thermal electric power systems that can provide lowest cost electric power. Parametric performance and cost models are being developed for subsystems such as the concentrator...

1974-01-01

130

Biospheres and Solar System Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly c...

T. O. Paine

1990-01-01

131

Solar-powered lighting system  

SciTech Connect

A solar-powered lighting system suitable for signs or hoardings, navigation beacons or as an emergency supply for hotels, cinemas, hospitals or other services. The system incorporates solar cell arrays which generate electricity which is stored in batteries. A sensing circuit selectively connects the batteries to lights. A timing/switching circuit may be provided to selectively connect the lights to a mains supply.

O'Brien, P.

1984-11-20

132

A look at emerging delivery systems for topical drug products.  

PubMed

The introduction of new topical drugs based on new chemical entities has become a rare event. Instead, pharmaceutical companies have been focused on reformulating existing drugs resulting in an ever-growing number of topical drug products for every approved drug substance. In light of this trend, soon reformulations may not be as rewarding to their sponsors as they are today unless they offer a substantial improvement over other formulations of the same drug substance and the same indication, namely improved efficacy over existing drugs, reduced side effects, unique drug combinations, or applicability for new indications. This article reviews and compares topical drug delivery systems currently under active research that are designed to offer such advantages in the coming years. The reviewed delivery systems are: liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes, ethosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, cyclodextrin, and sol-gel microcapsules. Among all the topical drug delivery systems currently undergoing active research, only the sol-gel microencapsulation is at clinical stages. PMID:22353154

Fireman, Sharon; Toledano, Ofer; Neimann, Karine; Loboda, Natalia; Dayan, Nava

133

Systemic effects of topical ophthalmic beta-adrenoceptor antagonists.  

PubMed

Topical ophthalmic beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers) are generally recognized as the treatment of choice in glaucoma management due to favourable efficacy, safety and tolerability. Despite topical ocular administration, beta-blockers are systemically absorbed, in relatively small amounts, through the nasolacrimal drainage system and can adversely affect cardiovascular and pulmonary function. While cardioselective beta-blockers, such as betaxolol, possibly confer an advantage with respect to clinical safety through their receptor affinity, systemic effects are also influenced by other pharmacological factors, including the rate and extent of systemic absorption and the extent of plasma protein binding. These factors are reviewed to distinguish the various ophthalmic beta-blockers and to explain the observed clinical differences in the safety profiles of these medications. PMID:10080340

Rait, J L

1999-02-01

134

Exploring the Solar System? Let the Math Teachers Help!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scale measurement and ratio and proportion are topics that fall clearly in the middle-grades mathematics curriculum in Texas. So does the solar system. In their experience, the authors have found that students have trouble manipulating, much less comprehending, very large numbers and very small numbers. These concepts can be brought into…

Charles, Karen; Canales, J. D.; Smith, Angela; Zimmerman, Natalie

2012-01-01

135

Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

136

Solar System Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource focuses on NASA's interplanetary exploration and discovery missions. The site features links to topics that include news, the planets, missions (current and past), science and technology, a multimedia gallery of images and animations, NASA employees, a kids' section, and education and history sections.

137

Experiences in solar cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six of the nine solar cooling systems discussed in this paper had negative energy savings. In several cases the solar cooling system used substantially more energy than a conventional system could have been expected to use. Two systems, however, had significant energy savings. These systems (1 residential and 1 commercial) obtained system thermal efficiencies of 12.0 to 12.4 percent. Their system overall efficiences averaged 11.2 and 5.2 percent respectively. The residential-sized system achieved an annual energy savings of about 16.8 GJ/year, or approximately .34 GJ/year.m2 of collector. The commercial system had equivalent values of 137 GJ/year or about .22 GJ/year/sq m of collector. It should be noted that these efficiencies re much lower than those of well-designed and properly controlled cooling systems in commercial sizes. However, with realistic system modifications and subsequent improvements in performance these solar cooling systems can be expected to achieve savings in nonrenewable energy sources of approximately 1.2 GJ/year/sq m of collector. These savings can be compared to those associated with solar space and domestic hot water heating systems of 2.2 and 2.5 GJ/year/sq m of collector, respectively.

Ward, D. S.; Oberoi, H. S.

138

Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Total Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental, safety, and social/institutional issues associated with the further development of Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). Solar total energy systems represent a specific application of the Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this analysis,…

Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

139

Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Total Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental, safety, and social/institutional issues associated with the further development of Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). Solar total energy systems represent a specific application of the Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this analysis, the…

Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

140

Development of solar thermal systems in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has an abundant solar energy resource. Solar thermal conversion systems have been studied for 25yr, and solar thermal industry has developed rapidly for 10yr. There are various solar thermal systems, with an area of around 10millionm2 in 2002. These systems mainly provide domestic hot water, but some other applications are under extensive study and development as well. The purpose

Yin Zhiqiang

2005-01-01

141

Building Integration Of Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way solar systems are used in buildings is different from what it used to be. Buildings are no longer designed to use just passive solar energy systems, such as windows and sunspaces, or active solar systems, such as solar water collectors. In fact, the words passive and active no longer make sense, as the newer buildings combine several of

Anne Grete Hestnes

1999-01-01

142

Development of advanced solar assisted drying systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar Energy Research Group in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia has been set-up more than two decades ago. One of the activities is in the field of solar thermal process, particularly in development of solar assisted drying systems. Solar drying systems technical development can proceed in two directions. Firstly simple, low power, short life, and comparatively low efficiency-drying system. Secondly,

M. Y. H. Othman; K. Sopian; B. Yatim; W. R. W. Daud

2006-01-01

143

Solar collection system  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of the solute in solution in a saturated nonconvecting solar pond is greatest at a lower hotter level decreases continuously toward a higher cooler level and is saturated at all levels, thus preventing solute diffusion. In the customary operation of such saturated non-convecting solar ponds, the heat generated by incident radiation is absorbed in a bottom or lower layer. Because of the continuously decreasing density of solute which is near saturation from the lower to the upper layers, there is little salt convection and the pool tends to be further stabilized. Further, by heating due to absorption of the radiation largely at the lower level, a temperature gradient is maintained in which the upper layers remain cool, evaporation and consequent loss of heat is inhibited and the efficiency of the solar pond is improved. It has been discovered that a brine consisting essentially of an appropriate mixture of sodium carbonate (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as a solute in water is an especially desirable solution for use in a saturated non-convecting solar pond. A cover material may be used as a barrier material over the solution to impede carbon dioxide transfer across the solution surface.

Loeb, S.; Mehta, G.D.

1981-01-13

144

Universal solar energy desalination system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover water at a ratio of 90%. The power system comprises a parabolic trough solar thermal system with an organic Rankine cycle generator, rock-oil thermal storage, and 200 kW wind turbines. Analysis of the complementarity of the solar and wind subsystems indicates that at any site one system will supplement the other. Energy storage, e.g., battery banks, would increase system costs to unacceptable levels. Climatic conditions will significantly influence the sizing of each segment of the total power system.

Fusco, V. S.

145

The progress of exploring extra-solar planetary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advance of the space exploring, the study of the extra-solar planetary systems becomes an interesting topic since such system may exist the life or even the modern civilization. In this paper we give a brief introduction on the discovery of extra-solar planetary systems, and discuss the feasibility of detection techniques and methods developed in recent years. In particular, we present detailed interpretations of the results by the radial velocity method. With the launch of some specific small satellites, we can predict the discovery of a large number of candidates of the extra-solar planetary systems. We can expect that the exploring of extra-solar planetary systems will have a prospective era in the near future.

Liu, Yu-Juan; Zhao, Gang

2005-09-01

146

Installation Guidelines for Solar DHW Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are some of the better techniques for installing solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems. By using these guidelines, along with the manufacturer's manual, professional installation contractors and skilled homeowners should be able to install and fill a solar DHW system. Among the topics considered are system layouts, siting, mounting…

Hollander, Peter; And Others

147

Installation Guidelines for Solar DHW Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are some of the better techniques for installing solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems. By using these guidelines, along with the manufacturer's manual, professional installation contractors and skilled homeowners should be able to install and fill a solar DHW system. Among the topics considered are system layouts, siting, mounting…

Hollander, Peter; And Others

148

Passive solar heating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Toas State Office Building is a single-story office building in New Mexico which incorporates passive collection and storage of solar energy along with natural lighting for general illumination. The building is oriented to take advantage of early morning sunlight and is designed to supply 70% of the heating load by solar heat. The site is equipped with clerestory windows, totaling 2695 square feet, 296 square feet of south facing windows, and east and west window scoops totaling 218 square feet. The collected solar energy is stored in 14,080 gallons of water contained in drums located in the clerestory area, as well as in the masonry construction mass. Auxiliary heat is provided via electric strips in the supply ducts. Movable, insulated shutters are provided to reduce the loss from the clerestory window area at night. The project is described with pictures and diagrams of the final installation provided. An updated performance data report is included, and functional problems, general comments, maintenance and refurbishment recommendations are discussed.

Mingenbach, W.

1981-08-01

149

Topical diclofenac/hyaluronic acid gel in the treatment of solar keratoses.  

PubMed

A randomized double-blind controlled trial of 130 patients was performed to study the efficacy and tolerability of topical 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronic acid (HA) gel (active) versus gel containing 2.5% HA alone (control) in the treatment of solar keratoses. Patients were asked to apply trial gel to the target lesion twice a day and also sunscreen once a day for 24 weeks. The complete response rates were 29% for the active gel and 17% for the control gel. The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.14). A high percentage of patients in both groups experienced a partial response to treatment (38% active, 45% control) but there was no significant difference in the spectrum of response between the two treatments (P = 0.18). Local adverse reactions occurred significantly more frequently in patients using the active gel (29% compared to 5% using control gel, P = 0.0002). PMID:9431711

McEwan, L E; Smith, J G

1997-11-01

150

Quantitative solar system science with AO systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive Optics systems, today available on 8-10m class telescopes are playing a significant role in the study of our solar system bodies. We describe three main science cases i) small solar system bodies ii) satellites of giant planets iii) giant planets atmospheres. We describe recent results acquired with these systems in these fields. We discuss the limitation and potential of AO systems for these studies, and address the problem of observability specific to moving targets. The potential for planetary science of future and improved AO systems is described.

Marchis, Franck; Berthier, Jerome; Wong, Michael H.

2012-07-01

151

Bring NASA's Year of the Solar System into Your Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Year of the Solar System ( http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss) is a celebration of our exploration of the solar system, which began in October 2010 and continues for one Martian year (687 Earth days) ending in late summer 2012. The diverse planetary missions in this period create a rare opportunity to engage students and the public, using NASA missions to reveal new worlds and new discoveries. Each month focuses on a particular topic, such as the scale of the solar system, its formation, water in the solar system, volcanism, atmospheres, and more! All educators are invited to join the celebration; indeed, the EPO community is needed in order for this event to be successful! Participants at the 2011 ASP Conference surveyed a variety of thematic activities, received resources and implementation ideas, and were invited to share their own experiences and upcoming events!

Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; LaConte, K.; Dalton, H.; Buxner, S.; Boonstra, D.; Ristvey, J.; Wessen, A.; Zimmerman-Brachman, R.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.

2012-08-01

152

Experiences in solar cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of performance evaluations for nine solar cooling systems are presented, and reasons fow low or high net energy balances are discussed. Six of the nine systems are noted to have performed unfavorably compared to standard cooling systems due to thermal storage losses, excessive system electrical demands, inappropriate control strategies, poor system-to-load matching, and poor chiller performance. A reduction in heat losses in one residential unit increased the total system efficiency by 2.5%, while eliminating heat losses to the building interior increased the efficiency by 3.3%. The best system incorporated a lithium bromide absorption chiller and a Rankine cycle compression unit for a commercial application. Improvements in the cooling tower and fan configurations to increase the solar cooling system efficiency are indicated. Best performances are expected to occur in climates inducing high annual cooling loads.

Ward, D. S.

153

Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

Ward, Dan S.

1976-01-01

154

Universal solar energy desalination system  

SciTech Connect

The design which has been developed for a solar-powered water desalination plant is a highly flexible one; and thus, suitable for worldwide application. The system is modular in nature, utilizing a combination of solar thermal and wind energy to operate the reverse osmosis desalination unit. The system's flexibility lies in the fact that the configuration of the plant can be altered so that it is suitable for any given site. Plant capacity and the size of the solar thermal and wind energy systems are dependent upon a variety of site-specific characteristics. Furthermore, the design of each of the subsystems is also highly interdependent. Examination of the site characteristics and their interactions will allow a design which is optimal for the site.

Fusco, V.S.

1982-08-01

155

Topical diclofenac in hyaluronan gel for the treatment of solar keratoses.  

PubMed

This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy and safety of a topical gel containing 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan in 150 patients with solar keratoses (SK). The active treatment was compared with the vehicle only, hyaluronan gel, as placebo over a 12-week period. Patients in both groups applied the active treatment or placebo to a targeted area of skin (0.25 g b.d.). At 12 weeks the mean lesion-count reduction in the targeted area was not significantly different between treatments. However, at post-termination follow up (16 weeks), there was a highly significant decrease in the number of lesions, 6.2 +/- 7.5 standard deviations (SD) (56.1% reduction) in the active treatment group compared with 2.4 +/- 4.3 SD (23.6% reduction) in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Other efficacy measures (complete lesion resolution, >50% lesion reduction) were also significantly different (P < 0.01) between treatments at 16 weeks. In conclusion, topical 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel was effective and well tolerated in this study, suggesting a role for this therapy in the treatment of SK. PMID:12581080

Gebauer, Kurt; Brown, Pam; Varigos, George

2003-02-01

156

Solar cell junction processing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated system and process for the continuous formation of p-n junctions in solar cells in a cost-effective manner and under computer control. The integrated system essentially comprises an ion beam implanter, an electron beam annealer and a combination vacuum lock-and-wafer transport system, all disposed within a unitary housing maintained under a common vacuum environment. The integrated system employs no

A. J. Armini; R. G. Little

1982-01-01

157

Flow Analysis of Solar Thermal Propulsion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial CFD scheme FLUENT was used to simulate the working fluid (H2) flow process in solar thermal propulsion system. According to the ground test operating conditions and parameters of the solar thermal propulsion system, the system properties such as hydrogen flow, heat transfer in the solar thermal propulsion system were studied. The flow field structure of the system and

Dai Jian-feng; Li Xing; Zhao Pei; Sun Yi-bin; Mu Xiao-wen; Wang Jun-hong

2010-01-01

158

[Topical and systemic corticosteroid therapy for uveitis in childhood].  

PubMed

Systemic and topical corticosteroids constitute an important part in the treatment of children with uveitis, because of their rapid therapeutic onset. Patients with anterior uveitis receive eye drops initially every 30 minutes or every hour. Children will experience the same side effects as adults but, in addition, there will be a growth retardation. Therefore, if treatment is required for extended periods of time it is important to avoid steroid quantities above the Cushing level and to initiate an additional systemic immunosuppressive treatment regimen early. PMID:17594623

Thurau, S R; Frosch, M; Zierhut, M; Gümbel, H; Heiligenhaus, A

2007-06-01

159

Liquid metal solar power system  

SciTech Connect

A solar power system for cogenerating heat and electricity is disclosed. An improved solar collector includes a transparent reflector envelope through which a reflective liquid metal such as mercury is circulated. The liquid metal is preheated as it focuses solar radiation onto the receiver of the collector module. A baffle tube within the receiver is perforated to permit the circulation of working fluid out of the absorption chamber of the receiver into the narrow annulus between the baffle tube and the receiver wall, thereby promoting the rapid generation of vapor. The liquid metal vapor is discharged through the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic generator for producing electrical power in a first power generating stage. The liquid metal vapor is condensed and accumulated in a primary storage reservoir for driving a turbine generator in a second generating stage, thereby providing electrical power during periods of insufficient solar radiation. Liquid metal discharged from the turbine is accumulated in a secondary storage reservoir for supplying the solar collector module during periods of adquate solar radiation.

Tammen, B.J.

1984-06-19

160

The distribution of mass and angular momentum in the solar system  

SciTech Connect

This book describes the contribution of the comets in the Oort cloud to the angular momentum of the solar system. Topics covered include: Nuclear mass of the new comets observed, Mass of the Oort cloud, Mass distribution in the solar system, Zone of comet formation, Angular momentum of the Oort cloud, and Angular momentum of the Hills cloud.

Marochnik, L.S.; Mukhin, L.M.; Sagdeev, R.Z. (Institute for Space Research, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow (SU))

1989-01-01

161

Solar energy decision support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy plays a prominent role in human society. As a result of technological and industrial developments, the demand for energy is rapidly increasing. Existing power sources that are mainly fossil fuel based are leaving an unacceptable legacy of waste and pollution apart from diminishing stock of fuels. Hence, the focus is now shifted to large-scale propagation of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies. Solar energy is one such renewable energy. Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Estimation of solar energy potential of a region requires detailed solar radiation climatology, and it is necessary to collect extensive radiation data of high accuracy covering all climatic zones of the region. In this regard, a decision support system (DSS) would help to estimate solar energy potential considering the regions’ energy requirement. This article explains the design and implementation of DSS for assessment of solar energy. The DSS with executive information systems and reporting tools helps to tap vast data resources and deliver information. The main hypothesis is that this tool can be used to form a core of practical methodology that is resilient and can be used by decision-making bodies to assess various scenarios. It also offers means of entering, accessing and interpreting the information for the purpose of sound decision-making.

Ramachandra, T. V.; Rajeev Kumar, J.; Vamsee Krishna, S.; Shruthi, B. V.

2006-03-01

162

Solar energy decision support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy plays a prominent role in human society. As a result of technological and industrial development, the demand for energy is rapidly increasing. Existing power sources that are mainly fossil fuel based are leaving an unacceptable legacy of waste and pollution apart from diminishing stock of fuels. Hence, the focus is now shifted to large-scale propagation of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies. Solar energy is one such renewable energy. Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Estimation of solar energy potential of a region requires detailed solar radiation climatology, and it is necessary to collect extensive radiation data of high accuracy covering all climatic zones of the region. In this regard, a decision support system (DSS) would help in estimating solar energy potential considering the region's energy requirement. This article explains the design and implementation of DSS for assessment of solar energy. The DSS with executive information systems and reporting tools helps to tap vast data resources and deliver information. The main hypothesis is that this tool can be used to form a core of practical methodology that will result in more resilient in time and can be used by decision-making bodies to assess various scenarios. It also offers means of entering, accessing, and interpreting the information for the purpose of sound decision making.

Ramachandra, T. V.; Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Vamsee Krishna, S.; Shruthi, B. V.

2005-12-01

163

Solar Tracking System: More Efficient Use of Solar Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the potential system benefits of simple tracking solar system using a stepper motor and light sensor. This method is increasing power collection efficiency by developing a device that tracks the sun to keep the panel at a right angle to its rays. A solar tracking system is designed, implemented and experimentally tested. The design details and the

J. Rizk; Y. Chaiko

2008-01-01

164

Maximum collectible solar energy by different solar tracking systems  

SciTech Connect

The output energy from any solar energy system depends on the solar energy input to that system. Using different ways to track the solar energy system to follow the sun can increase solar energy input according to the type of the tracker. A practical study was carried out on difference solar tract systems. The layout of these systems are a fixed system facing south and tilted 40{degree}, a vertical-axis tracker, a 6{degree} tilted-axis tracker, and a two-axis tracker. All the trackers are microprocessor controlled systems, and all systems have photovoltaic arrays for electric energy production. The evaluation of the different systems is based on a complete year of measurements for solar radiation input to the systems and the electric power output from them. The study also includes the effect of some operating parameters on the tracker operation. These studies showed that the collected solar energy as well as the electrical output energy of the tracking solar system are more than that of the stationary system. These gains are higher in the case of the two-axis tracker and decrease gradually from the vertical-axis tracker to the tilted-axis tracker.

Helwa, N.H.; Bahgat, A.B.G.; El Shafee, A.M.R.; El Shenawy, E.T.

2000-01-01

165

SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS WITH PCM SOLAR COLLECTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the technical feasibility of using a compact, air-cooled, solar absorption air conditioning system coupled to an innovative array of solar collectors. The absorption system is single-effect with lithium bromide and water as the absorbent and refrigerant fluid pair. The geographical location of interest is Puerto Rico and similar subtropical regions. The heat input to the absorption system

L. H. Alva; J. E. González; N. Dukhan

166

Best of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces students to planetary research. Students learn to focus on details by studying and writing descriptions of uncaptioned images of the Solar System. They then increase their knowledge of the planets and their features by comparing their descriptions to those of real researchers. Students organize their findings to infer a key difference between inner and outer planets.

2001-01-01

167

Volcanism in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myriad bodies that occur in the Solar System have a wide range of properties, from giant gaseous planets such as Jupiter to small, solid, rocky satellites such as our Moon. Exploration by spacecraft during the past four decades has shown that volcanism - an important mechanism by which internal heat is transported to the surface - is common on

Lionel Wilson

2009-01-01

168

Pumping system using solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pumping system comprising a pumping unit formed by a motor and a pump and adapted to raise a liquid from an underground level to a utilization level, a vaporizable fluid flowing in a closed circuit between a solar evaporator and a condenser, the said motor being disposed in the outgoing branch between the evaporator and the condenser and a

P. Thureau; M. Bremont

1974-01-01

169

Precipitation in the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an astronomy instructor, I am always looking for commonly observed Earthly experiences to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote a short TPT article on frost. This paper is on the related phenomena of precipitation. Precipitation, so common on most of the Earth's…

McIntosh, Gordon

2007-01-01

170

Precipitation in the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As an astronomy instructor, I am always looking for commonly observed Earthly experiences to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote a short TPT article on frost. This paper is on the related phenomena of precipitation. Precipitation, so common on most of the Earth's…

McIntosh, Gordon

2007-01-01

171

Sizing up the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS 1993) states that by the end of fifth grade, students should understand that a model, such as those depicting the solar system, is a smaller version of the real product, making it easier to physically work with and therefore learn from. However, for students and even adults,…

Wiebke, Heidi; Rogers, Meredith Park; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri

2011-01-01

172

OPPORTUNITIES IN SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Office of Space Science launches several space missions a year and is always looking for technology development that will enable return of new and interesting data. The Division of Solar System Exploration has several technology development programs that solicit proposals for new or improved instruments, including thermal detectors. The Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program solicits ideas for low

Susan M. Niebur

173

Economic Evaluation of Solar Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, the performance and economic evaluation of a solar heating and cooling system was studied using the transient simulation program (TRNSYS). The domestic water heating load, space heating load, and the cooling load of a typical Egyptian house were considered. The study involves five different localities which were chosen to represent the climatic changes all over Egypt. These

A. A. Ghoneim; M. M. Sorour

1995-01-01

174

Anomalies in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several observations show unexplained phenomena in our solar system. These observations are e.g. the Pioneer Anomaly, an unexplained constant acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, the Flyby Anomaly, an unexplained increase of the velocity of a series of spacecraft after Earth gravity assists, the recently reported increase of the Astronomical Unit defined by the distance of the planets

Hansjoerg Dittus

2008-01-01

175

Online Short Course: The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eager to learn beyond your Earthly boundaries? Join us for the new NSTA Online Short Course: The Solar System . The focus of this course will be how the solar system and its bodies are formed. During this course, particular emp

1900-01-01

176

Scope on the Skies: Solar system update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our knowledge of the solar system and of orbital dynamics has undergone some changes as telescope technology improved. This month's Scope on the skies discusses the newest developments within the solar system and redefines the meaning of the word "planet."

Riddle, Bob

2006-04-01

177

Distant Comets in the Early Solar System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main goal of this project is to physically characterize the small outer solar system bodies. An understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of the outer solar system small bodies is currently one of planetary science's highest priorities. Th...

K. J. Meech

2000-01-01

178

Solar active region display system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing operation through network firewalls; data is compressed to enhance performance over limited bandwidth connections. All applications and services are written in the JAVA program language for platform independence. Several versions of SARDS have been in operational use by the NASA Space Radiation Analysis Group, NOAA Space Weather Operations, and U.S. Air Force Weather Agency since 1999.

Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

2003-04-01

179

How big is our solar system?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will get a better understanding of the size of our solar system by putting it into a scale model using New York State. How Big is our Solar System? Govenour Cuomo wants to place the planets of the solar system along the New York State Thruway at the correct distances from the Sun but to scale. He has commissioned your company to set up this representation of our Solar System. Use the ...

Smith, Miss

2007-11-24

180

Design of solar heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a method for making an energy and an economic cost\\/benefit analysis of solar energy systems. A graphical method is presented for evaluating the performance of solar domestic hot water system, solar heating systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Methods for selecting the optimum collector area based on benefit-to-cost ratio and for systematically making detailed design calculations

D. M. Joncich; D. J. Leverenz; D. C. Hittle; G. N. Walton

1978-01-01

181

Solar System Science with the SMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Submillimeter Array is a unique instrument with capabilities that are well-matched to the often challenging requirements needed for planetary astronomy. The SMA allows imaging with spatial resolution down to 0.3" at 850 ? m, with 4 GHz of total bandwidth coupled with high spectral resolution. This allows deep continuum sensitivity for imaging small & cold solar system bodies, as well as allowing observations of a multitude of spectral lines in a single tuning with enough spectral coverage to include even highly pressure broadened features. I will discuss some of the most recent SMA work in solar system science which highlight the instrument's strengths and versatility. I will present the first ever resolved image of the Pluto/Charon binary system at wavelengths longer than the near-IR; these observations show that the surface of Pluto is very cold, below the temperature of radiative equilibrium. Other topics include detailed measurements of Titan's atmospheric temperature and composition, the broadband millimeter/submillimeter spectra of Uranus and Neptune, and observations of near-Earth comets.

Gurwell, M. A.

2005-12-01

182

Dynamics of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic properties of the two- and three-body problems are reviewed together with applications to observed phenomena in\\u000a the solar system. A study of the properties of the planetary disturbing function is presented showing how the dynamics of\\u000a resonances can be understood using a pendulum approximation. Newtonian gravitation also permits chaotic motion. The properties\\u000a of chaotic systems are examined together

Carl D. Murray

183

Advanced survivable space solar power system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar power system. It comprises: generally planar support means for providing support to the solar power system; heat pipe wall means, located along the outer edges of the support means and perpendicular with respect to the support means, for radiating waste heat away form the solar power system; foldable strut means; and transducer means.

Blackman, J.B.; Stone, K.W.; Gerrick, R.A.; Jones, N.E.

1992-10-13

184

Solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic, self sustaining and self perpetuating, device for the production of motive force by combining cryogenic and thermodynamic principles into one system, keeping the systems separated, two open to atmosphere, the other closed, sealed, pressurized and utilizing special compounded fluids, which when alternately exposed to the heat of atmospheric temperature, then, to the coldness of a liquid or an

A. L. Cahill; J. L. Scott

1982-01-01

185

Solar System Analog; WMO Statement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists searching for extra-solar planets have discovered the closest known analog to our own Solar System. A planet with a mass about twice that of Jupiter is in a near-circular orbit of the star HD70642, a team of astronomers from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States announced on 3 July at a conference in Paris on extra-solar planets.The planet measures about three-fifths the size of Jupiter, circles its star about every six years, and is in an orbit equivalent to being about halfway between Mars and Jupiter if it were located in our Solar System, according to the astronomers. The star is about 90 light years away from Earth in the constellation Puppis.Public concern about a spate of well-publicized, extreme weather events around the world this year has prompted the World Meteorological Organization to issue a statement that, as global temperatures continues to rise due to climate change, the number and intensity of extreme events might increase. The July 2 statement is based on scientific assessments by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and others, rather than on any new studies, according to Ken Davidson, director orf WMO's World Climate Program Department. The statement cites record high termperatures so far this summer in southern France and in Switzerland, an abnormally high number of tornadoes in the U.S. in May, and particularly heavy rains from tropical cyclones in Sri Lanka.

Showstack, Randy

186

My Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can build their own system of heavenly bodies and watch the gravitational ballet. With this orbit simulator, users can set initial positions, velocities, and masses of 2, 3, or 4 bodies, and then see them orbit each other. The site includes ideas for using this animation in the classroom.

Dubson, Michael; Colorado, University O.

187

Installation effect by solar heater system using solar radiation forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, CO2 emissions from residential sector are increasing rapidly due to the proliferation of all-electric houses. Therefore, it is expected that renewable energy is installed in all-electric houses. The solar heater system, as a kind of renewable energy, is assumed to be installed in a typical residence. However, solar radiation is not constant and collected thermal energy of solar heater

Kousuke Uchida; Tomonobu Senjyu; Naomitsu Urasaki; Atsushi Yona

2009-01-01

188

Environmental Impacts from the Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable, and domestic energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. Solar energy systems (i.e., photovoltaics, solar thermal) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources. It is known that these systems have some minor negative impacts on the environment during their production and operation. This study presents

H. Gunerhan; A. Hepbasli; U. Giresunlu

2008-01-01

189

Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy…

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

190

Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

191

Solar System Bodies and “Primitiveness”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planets and small bodies. Besides the Sun, which represents about 99.85% of its mass, the present day solar system include large bodies, i.e., the\\u000a four terrestrial planets, the four giant planets, and Pluto, which is probably not a planet, but rather an object from the\\u000a Edgeworth–Kuiper belt of comets captured by Neptune; more than 130 satellites of the planets. Jupiter,

Michel Maurette

2006-01-01

192

Solar System Science with LSST  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide a unique tool to study moving objects throughout the solar system, creating massive catalogs of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), asteroids, Trojans, TransNeptunian Objects (TNOs), comets, planetary satellites and other rare, yet-undiscovered populations, with well-measured orbits and high quality, multi-color photometry, accurate to 0.005 magnitudes for the brightest objects. In the baseline LSST

R. Lynne Jones; S. R. Chesley; A. J. Connolly; A. W. Harris; Z. Ivezic; Z. Knezevic; J. Kubica; A. Milani; D. E. Trilling; F. Pierfederici

2008-01-01

193

Formation of the solar system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is designed as a lab, but can also be used as a classroom demonstration. It requires the use of the VPython programs which require Python and VPython to be installed on your computers (this software is free and has been made available on the default image for all computers on our campus). The models show the gravitational collapse of a set of particles to create a central "Sun" with other orbiting particles, a simple model to demonstrate elliptical orbits, a simple model of the solar system showing the planetary orbits (speeded up). The task is to assess one hypothesis about the formation of the solar system (from a dust and gas nebula) by comparing the computer simulation (model 1) to the shape and form of the actual solar system (model 3). Students can interact with the 3d models by, for example, selecting planetary objects to track, and changing perspectives in 3d space. In doing this students learn about the shapes of the planetary orbits (ellipticity etc) and reasons that they change.

Urbano, Lensyl

194

Inhabiting the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new field of space architecture is introduced. Defined as the "theory and practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space," the field synthesizes human space flight systems engineering subjects with the long tradition of making environments that support human living, work, and aspiration. The scope of the field is outlined, and its three principal domains differentiated. The current state of the art is described in terms of executed projects. Foreseeable options for 21st century developments in human space flight provide a framework to tease out potential space architecture opportunities for the next century.

Sherwood, Brent

2011-03-01

195

A needle-free approach for topical immunization: antigen delivery via vesicular carrier system(s).  

PubMed

Topical immunization (TI) is novel and needle free strategy involving vaccine delivery through topical application of antigen and adjuvant(s) directly or via a suitable carrier system on intact skin. Anatomy and physiology of skin attracts scientists in developing topical carrier system(s) for enhanced delivery of bioactive(s). Numerous techniques i.e. physical, chemical and vesicular carrier systems have been exploited for topical immunization. The present review discuss various vesicular systems i.e. liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, vesosomes etc. for the efficient topical delivery of various immunogens along with comparative points of their merit(s) in TI. The mechanism of permeation of bioactive(s) through skin route via these carriers to the immune system for development of both cellular and humeral immunity has also been discussed. Moreover, the effect of composition and type of carrier system on type of immunity induced has also been focused to develop new effective carrier system(s) for topical immunization. PMID:18045135

Mahor, Sunil; Gupta, Prem N; Rawat, Amit; Vyas, Suresh P

2007-01-01

196

Elastic vesicles as topical/transdermal drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Skin acts a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical/transdermal drug delivery. Despite the many advantages of this system, the major obstacle is the low diffusion rate of drugs across the stratum corneum. Several methods have been assessed to increase the permeation rate of drugs temporarily. One simple and convenient approach is application of drugs in formulation with elastic vesicles or skin enhancers. Elastic vesicles are classified with phospholipid (Transfersomes((R)) and ethosomes) and detergent-based types. Elastic vesicles were more efficient at delivering a low and high molecular weight drug to the skin in terms of quantity and depth. Their effectiveness strongly depends on their physicochemical properties: composition, duration and application volume, and entrapment efficiency and application methods. This review focuses on the effect of elastic liposomes for enhancing the drug penetration and defines the action mechanism of penetration into deeper skin. PMID:18492190

Choi, M J; Maibach, H I

2005-08-01

197

Pharmacogenetics of topical and systemic treatment of psoriasis.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. The cause of psoriasis is unknown, although genetics may play a key role in its development. Treatment of the disease varies with severity. Topical drugs, such as corticosteroids, coal tar, retinoids and vitamin D analogs, are commonly used to treat mild psoriasis. Phototherapy and systemic drugs, such as calcineurin inhibitors, methotrexate, acitretin and biological drugs, are usually used to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Not all patients respond well to treatment, and some can develop severe adverse effects. Interindividual differences in several genes may explain this variation in response to treatment. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics can facilitate more personalized medicine and prevent the adverse effects associated with treatment. PMID:24088133

Prieto-Pérez, Rocío; Cabaleiro, Teresa; Daudén, Esteban; Ochoa, Dolores; Román, Manuel; Abad-Santos, Francisco

2013-10-01

198

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluation and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Project status report, August--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report describes activities of the Colorado State University program on solar heating and cooling systems for the months of August and September 1993. The topics include: rating and certification of domestic water heating systems, unique solar system components, advanced residential solar domestic hot water systems, and desiccant cooling of buildings.

Not Available

1993-09-01

199

Delayed Topical Antimicrobials as Adjuncts to Systemic Antibiotic Therapy of War Wounds: Bacteriologic Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were carried out to determine the effect of topical antimicrobials on the bacterial flora of war wounds of Vietnamese soldiers. The topical antimicrobials were in addition to the systemic penicillin and streptomycin used routinely. The qualitative...

H. E. Noyes N. H. Chi L. T. Linh D. H. Mo K. Punyashthiti

1967-01-01

200

Solar system employing ground level heliostats and solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

This specification discloses an improvement in a solar system having one or more collectors for receiving and using radiant energy from the sun and at least one and preferably a plurality of respective reflector means for reflecting the radiant energy onto the collectors. The improvement is characterized by having towerless collectors and towerless reflectors that are disposed at ground level or substantially the same level, to eliminate the major expense of a collector tower, which is inefficient and nonfunctional in a solar system. Also disclosed is a complete system, or combination, for generating power employing solar energy and the improvement delineated above; as well as structural details of preferred arrangements and equipment.

Blake, F.A.; Northrup, L.L.

1981-07-07

201

Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and

Rosenthal

1993-01-01

202

Glasses for solar energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar technologies are projected to increase tremendously over the next 10 years. Glasses are playing an important role as transparent materials of photovoltaic (PV) cells and concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. Glasses are materials of short energy payback time and environmental compatibility suitable for sustainable energy concepts. The paper reviews recent solar applications. Surface structuring and coating of glasses are

J. Deubener; G. Helsch; A. Moiseev; H. Bornhöft

2009-01-01

203

Solar power source for a lighting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar recharged power supply circuit for a lighting system which circuit includes a rechargeable power source, a solar powered recharger connected to that rechargeable power source and which circuit prevents discharge of that rechargeable power source through the solar powered recharger during times when the recharger is inactive; prevents overcharging of that power source; prevents discharging that power source

1982-01-01

204

Solar-wind energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined solar-wind energy conversion system in which the combined effects of solar and wind energy are utilized in raising water from a lower to an upper water storage tank to increase its potential energy for generation of electricity. Incoming solar energy heats water to form steam which is temporarily stored. The stored steam is vented to one of first

1984-01-01

205

Solar-wind energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined solar-wind energy conversion system in which the combined effects of solar and wind energy are utilized in raising water from a lower to an upper water storage tank to increase its potential energy for generation of electricity. Incoming solar energy heats water to form steam which is temporarily stored. The stored steam is vented to one of first

1982-01-01

206

Solar-gas systems impact analysis study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of solar/gas technologies on gas consumers and on gas utilities were measured separately and compared against the impacts of competing gas and electric systems in four climatic regions of the U.S. A methodology was developed for measuring the benefits or penalties of solar/gas systems on a combined basis for consumers sand distribution companies. It is shown that the combined benefits associated with solar/gas systems are generally greatest when the systems are purchased by customers who would have otherwise chosen high-efficiency electric systems (were solar/gas systems not available in the market place). The role of gas utilities in encouraging consumer acceptance of solar/gas systems was also examined ion a qualitative fashion. A decision framework for analyzing the type and level of utility involvement in solar/gas technologies was developed.

Neill, C. P.; Hahn, E. F.; Loose, J. C.; Poe, T. E.; Hirshberg, A. S.; Haas, S.; Preble, B.; Halpin, J.

1984-07-01

207

Heat Receiver Design for Solar Dynamic Space Power Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An advanced heat pipe receiver designed for a solar dynamic space power system is described. The power system consists of a solar concentrator, solar heat receiver, Stirling heat engine, linear alternator and waste heat radiator. The solar concentrator fo...

K. W. Baker M. O. Dustin R. Crane

1990-01-01

208

Analysis of hybrid solar systems  

SciTech Connect

This study uses the TRNSYS simulation program to evaluate the performance of active charge/passive discharge solar systems with water as the working fluid. This design was introduced in the Village Homes development in Davis, Calif., and is currently being used by Trident Energy Systems in Davis. TRNSYS simulations are used to evaluate the heating performance and cooling augmentation provided by systems in several climates. The results of the simulations are used to develop a simplified analysis tool similar to the F-chart and Phi-bar procedures used for active systems. This tool, currently in a preliminary stage, should provide the designer with quantitative performance estimates for comparison with other passive, active, and nonsolar heating and cooling designs.

Swisher, J.

1980-10-01

209

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

NONE

1995-05-01

210

Solar thermal power systems. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

Not Available

1980-06-01

211

Tracking system for solar collectors  

DOEpatents

A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

Butler, B.

1980-10-01

212

Solar System Science with LSST  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide a unique tool to study moving objects throughout the solar system,\\u000a creating massive catalogs of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), asteroids, Trojans, TransNeptunian Objects (TNOs), comets and planetary\\u000a satellites with well-measured orbits and high quality, multi-color photometry accurate to 0.005 magnitudes for the brightest\\u000a objects. In the baseline LSST observing plan, back-to-back 15-second

R. L. Jones; S. R. Chesley; A. J. Connolly; A. W. Harris; Z. Ivezic; Z. Knezevic; J. Kubica; A. Milani; D. E. Trilling

2009-01-01

213

Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

1980-07-01

214

Solar System Studies with CCAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comets and Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) are among the most primitive bodies left from the planetesimal building stage of the Solar Nebula. Measurements of isotopic ratios in comets, in particular D/H, provide key information about the origin and evolution of cometary ices and possible links with the interstellar medium. The D/H ratio in water in long period, Oort cloud comets, ~3×10-4, corresponds to a factor of ~12 enrichment over the protosolar value and twice the Earth ocean ratio, VSMOW 1.56×10-4. However, recent Herschel/HIFI observations of the Jupiter family comet Hartley 2, originating from the Kuiper belt, suggest a D/H ratio in water of (1.6±0.24)×10-4 (1?), a factor of 2 lower than the earlier measurements in Oort cloud comets and the same as VSMOW. A relatively low D/H ratio of (2.06±0.22)×10-4 (1?) has also been derived from HIFI observations of the Oort cloud comet Garradd. These HIFI measurements indicate that the high D/H values previously measured in Oort cloud comets are not representative of all comets and that the current understanding of deuteration in different solar system reservoirs, or solar system dynamics, is incomplete and has to be revisited. CCAT offers exceptional observational capabilities to detect the 509 GHz HDO line in both Jupiter family and Oort cloud comets, which will significantly enlarge the source sample with accurate D/H measurements. In addition, studies of the thermal emission of TNOs at submillimeter wavelengths will allow the determination of their physical properties (i.e., size, albedo, density, as well as the thermal properties).

Lis, Dariusz C.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.

2013-01-01

215

Defining Components of Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different components of our Solar System and what are the unique features of each? Use this organizer to record what you learn about each of the components of our solar system. https://docs.google.com/document/d/1S7Lnm2bCKPhmpDmu60u3iA3hXjjxWMWk1IdbaRRyzGM/edit First, explore this website learning as much as you can. Later in the lesson, you will explore different types of things you find in our solar system. Information on Solar System Read both of these articles on comets. Make ...

Bowden, Ms.

2012-04-10

216

WELMM analysis and solar energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the WELMM (water, energy, land, materials, manpower) systems approach to the analysis of the competitiveness of solar energy conversion systems is discussed. Economic analyses of solar energy conversion systems are shown to depend on the values of parameters (interest and inflation rates and the price of petroleum) which are difficult to predict over the long term. The

J.-L. Abatut

1979-01-01

217

System for collecting and storing solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for collecting and storing solar energy which includes solar panels which are installed between the joists of the roof so that the collector surface of each panel acts as part of the roof of each panel and also includes a heat storage system connected to the back side of each panel. Each heat storage system has

Hepp

1976-01-01

218

A comparison of solar absorption system configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal driven cooling systems for residential applications are a promising alternative to electric compression chillers, although its market introduction still represents a challenge, mainly due to the higher investment costs. The most common system configuration is an absorption chiller driven by a solar thermal system, backed up by a secondary heating source, normally a gas boiler. Heat storage in

N. Molero-Villar; J. M. Cejudo-López; F. Domínguez-Muñoz; A. Carrillo-Andrés

219

Is Solar System Stable? A Remark  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not yet known (1994) whether the Solar System is stable or not. Common belief is that the Solar System is stable if and only if it is not a resonant system, i.e., whenever its orbital frequencies !i satisfy an inequality j P ni!ij • \\

Vladik Kreinovich; Andrew Bernat

1997-01-01

220

Intelligence in the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Could extraterrestrial intelligence have already reached our solar system--in the form of an interstellar probe, for instance? If any other civilizations exist in our galaxy, they are likely thousands of years older than us. With such advanced science and technology, interstellar exploration is likely easy and attractive for them. If they launched interstellar probes thousands of years ago, at least one may have already reached our solar system. What scientific strategies might detect evidence of such probes? Two strategies are especially promising. (1) Astronomy and space missions could, with very little additional expense, look for evidence of ETI in addition to the observations already scheduled. They could search for derelict probes, exhaust or heat from active probes, ancient mining, monuments, or other artifacts. (2) If a super-smart probe has reached our planet, it is likely monitoring our radio broadcasts, television broadcasts, and World Wide Web. Consequently we could use these media to invite contact. A group of eighty scientists already uses the Web to issue an invitation to ETI.

Tough, A.

221

Performance of a solar desiccant cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A solar desiccant cooling system was operated at the Solar Energy Applications Laboratory, Colordado State University, throughout the 1986 summer. The system comprises an American Solar King fresh air heating/desiccant evaporative cooling unit, a Sunmaster evacuated tube solar collector, hot water solar storage tank, auxiliary electric boiler, controls, and accessories. The cooling unit is operated in the ventilation mode, fresh air being dried in a rotating desiccant matrix, and cooled by heat exchange and evaporative cooling. Return air is used as a cooling medium in a rotating heat exchange matrix, heated by solar energy in a heat exchange coil, and discarded through the rotating desiccant bed. The solar-driven system provided over 90 percent of the seasonal cooling requirements in an experimental, residence type building at average COP levels of 1.0 and solar collection efficiencies of 50 percent when supplied with solar heated water at temperatures of 50 to 65/sup 0/C. Detailed operating results, including total and average solar cooling provided, coefficients of performance, and overall solar cooling performance ratios are presented.

Lof, G.O.G.; Cler, G.; Brisbane, T.

1988-08-01

222

Climate fundamentals for solar energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Climate greatly influences the performance of any solar energy system. How many daylight hours are there in January. How much cloud cover is there in March. These are some of the first questions that must be asked when considering a solar heating or photovoltaic system for your home or community. The more direct sunlight a solar energy system receives, the better it will perform. In this fact sheet, sunlight is referred to as solar radiation. (It is also called solar irradiance and insolation.) Microclimate also has an important effect on solar heating and photovoltaic systems. Microclimate refers to the weather patterns (e.g., winds, fog, frost) that are unique to the building site. 28 refs., 5 figs.

Not Available

1988-04-01

223

Solar power source for a lighting system  

SciTech Connect

A solar recharged power supply circuit for a lighting system which circuit includes a rechargeable power source, a solar powered recharger connected to that rechargeable power source and which circuit prevents discharge of that rechargeable power source through the solar powered recharger during times when the recharger is inactive; prevents overcharging of that power source; prevents discharging that power source below a predetermined level; and automatically connects and disconnects the lighting system to and from the rechargeable power source.

Rogers, W.E.

1982-02-02

224

MOTESS Solar System Observations: Implications for the GNAT System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Network of Astronomical Telescopes is developing a geographically distributed network of relatively small-aperture imaging telescopes. Equipped with CCD cameras and operating in scan mode, these instruments will be able to address a wide variety of solar system, stellar and extragalactic research topics. Although the design of the individual telescope emphasizes simplicity and low cost, the network will be able to deliver in aggregate data that would otherwise require more expensive facilities. The array of instruments may be tailored to the particular observing program by the selection of filters the individual instruments are provided and how the telescopes are pointed at the sky. A prototype array of three instruments has been in use since April of 2001, principally obtaining asteroid astrometry and searching for near-earth objects. The experience relating to solar system observations acquired during this period will be presented along with proposed strategies for future work using the full GNAT array of instruments. This work and continuing operation of the MOTESS prototype is supported in part by a Eugene Shoemaker Grant from The Planetary Society.

Tucker, R. A.

2002-12-01

225

The dynamical history of our solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of the formation and long term evolution of the solar system has undergone a revolution in recent years, owing to new discoveries and new theoretical insights. The emerging picture is one of a dramatic orbital migration of the giant planets ˜ four gigayears ago (i.e., almost half a gigayear subsequent to the completion of planetary formation), which had major effects on the terrestrial planets and on the minor planet reservoirs also, and which produced the final solar system architecture that we live in today. I will describe the evidence for and our current understanding of giant planet migration in our solar system, the associated late heavy bombardment throughout the solar system, and implications for investigations of many aspects of the solar system and of exo-planetary systems.

Malhotra, Renu

2012-07-01

226

Solar hybrid systems with thermoelectric generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using of thermoelectric generators in solar hybrid systems has been investigated. Four systems were examined, one working without radiation concentration, of the traditional PV\\/Thermal geometry, but with TEGs between the solar cells and heat extractor, and three other using concentrators, namely: concentrator – TEG ? heat extractor, concentrator ? PV cell ? TEG ? heat extractor, and

E. A. Chávez-Urbiola; Yu. V. Vorobiev; L. P. Bulat

227

Physics Flashlets: The Outer Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the orbits of the outer planets in the Solar System. This model of the outer solar system includes Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The paths of the planets are plotted and traced, and the user can see their relative speeds and periods to complete a full revolution.

Fowler, Michael; Welch, Heather

2008-09-24

228

Hybrid photovoltaic\\/thermal solar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present test results on hybrid solar systems, consisting of photovoltaic modules and thermal collectors (hybrid PV\\/T systems). The solar radiation increases the temperature of PV modules, resulting in a drop of their electrical efficiency. By proper circulation of a fluid with low inlet temperature, heat is extracted from the PV modules keeping the electrical efficiency at satisfactory values. The

Y. Tripanagnostopoulos; Th. Nousia; M. Souliotis; P. Yianoulis

2002-01-01

229

Solar System Trading Cards Jr. Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of thirteen cards depicts Solar System objects such as planets, comets, asteroids, and the Sun. The front of each card displays a color image of a Solar System object; the back provides facts about the object. The Hubble Space Telescope card contains the directions for the game.

2005-01-01

230

The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System provides a comprehensive, funamental, and up-to-date description of the solar system. It is written in a concise, light and uniform style, without being unnecessarily weighted down with specialized materials or the variable writing of multiple authors. It is filled with vital facts and information for astronomers of all types and for anyone with

Kenneth R. Lang

2003-01-01

231

Solar system as space-probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the movement of the solar system through space are examined and the possibility is considered that in their circulation around the Galaxy center the stars and clouds move through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. In such an event, the solar system would pass through interstellar clouds and the sun's luminosity would temporarily increase due to an

W. H. McCrea

1975-01-01

232

Solar assisted heat pump heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar assisted heat pump fluid heating system capable of reliable operation at higher than normal ambient temperatures is disclosed. The system includes a collection of solar panels and primary fluid storage tanks having integral coiled heat exchangers interconnected and charged with heat transfer fluid to produce heat. Temperature sensors positioned at the panels and storage tanks transmit temperature signals

Pendergrass

1984-01-01

233

The origin of the solar system  

SciTech Connect

This book describes in detail the capture theory of the origin of the solar system. Traces the history of solar system theories from pre-Christian Greece through the late 1920's. The authors examine the shortcomings of modern theories, and show how new knowledge supports the capture hypothesis.

Dormand, J.R.; Woolfson, M.M.

1989-01-01

234

Solar-energy drying systems: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries of the world, the use of solar thermal systems in the agricultural area to conserve vegetables, fruits, coffee and other crops has shown to be practical, economical and the responsible approach environmentally. Solar heating systems to dry food and other crops can improve the quality of the product, while reducing wasted produce and traditional fuels—thus improving the

Atul Sharma; C. R. Chen; Nguyen Vu Lan

2009-01-01

235

Solar '94: Technical papers  

SciTech Connect

The Solar 94 Conference of the American Solar Energy Society met in San Jose, California to provide a forum for state-of-the-art work in all the solar technologies. The following topics were included in the proceedings: Photovoltaic Modules and Systems; Wind Energy; Solar Thermal Systems; Utility Programs; Solar Water Heating; Solar Fuels; Resource Assessment; Economics and Education. A total of 83 papers were indexed separately for the data base.

Burley, S.M.; Arden, M.E.; Campbell-Howe, R.; Wilkins-Crowder, B. (eds.)

1994-01-01

236

Method and system for indentifying significant topics of a document  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A "domain-general" method for representing the "sense" of a document includes the steps of extracting a list of simplex noun phrases representing candidate significant topics in the document, clustering the simplex noun phrases by head, and ranking the simplex noun phrases according to a significance measure to indicate the relative importance of the simplex noun phrases as significant topics of the document. Furthermore, the output can be filtered in a variety of ways, both for automatic processing and for presentation to users.

2000-12-26

237

Development of jet pump solar cooling system. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small vapor jet solar cooling system capable of cooling about one room (7000 Btu\\/h) was designed, built and performance tested. The vapor jet solar cooling system is a new low cost cooling system which runs primarily on solar energy from relatively low cost flat plate solar collectors. The jet pump solar cooling system is basically a standard vapor compression

R. E. Holmes; F. Zeren

1983-01-01

238

Heliostatic solar energy conversion system  

SciTech Connect

A heliostatic solar energy conversion system in which a plurality of multi-faceted heliostats are supported on one or more platforms that move in a segment of a circular path about a central receiver as a center. The heliostats are mounted in frames that pivot on the platform on an edge of each heliostat. In one embodiment the platforms are supported in a concave spherical depression in the ground. The heliostats of the invention are constructed with a plurality of intersecting beams and stringers, and the stringers are formed with parabolic flanges which support the facets so that the angle of incidence between the sun and the focal point of the central receiver is generally in the center of each facet. A vernier adjustment is provided for each heliostat.

Jones, D.

1982-12-28

239

An overview: Component development for solar thermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, I review the significant issues and the development of solar concentrators and thermal receivers for central-receiver power plants and dish/engine systems. Due to the breadth of the topic area, I have arbitrarily narrowed the content of this paper by choosing not to discuss line-focus (trough) systems and energy storage. I will focus my discussion on the development of heliostats, dishes, and receivers since the 1970s with an emphasis on describing the technologies and their evolution, identifying some key observations and lessons learned, and suggesting what the future in component development may be.

Mancini, T. R.

240

Topical Report Review Status, Regulatory Activities Manpower System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Topical Report Program is to provide a procedure whereby industry organizations may, upon their own volition or at the request of the NRC staff, submit reports on specific safety related subjects to t...

1979-01-01

241

Solar-Powered Systems for Environmental Remediation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study assesses the market and specific applications for solar-powered environmental remediation. To assist in the assessment, system specifications and a mathematical model of system performance and life-cycle cost were developed for the most promisi...

C. Miralles B. Jensen A. Flack B. Yelin J. Cromwell R. Lopez S. Berge

1999-01-01

242

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determining how our solar system formed and understanding whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) exploring the diverse changes that planets have und...

D. Black G. Varsi J. Veverka L. Soderblom S. Squyres

1994-01-01

243

The Solar System and Its Origin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a brief explanation of the solar system, including planets, asteroids, satellites, comets, planetary orbits, as well as, old and recent cosmogonic theories. Indicates that man is nearer a solution to the origin of the planetary system than ever before.|

Dormand, J. R.

1973-01-01

244

Innovative point focus solar concentrator. Task 2(b) topical report: Optical element evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acurex Corporation has a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to design, build and test a 15-meter diameter Innovative Point Focus Solar Concentrator. This report presents the results of the Phase I prototype reflective ...

1986-01-01

245

Performance of solar energy hot water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative analysis of solar energy hot water systems installed in sites monitored by the National Solar Data Network is presented. Two single family and two multi-family residences were selected for evaluation. These systems represent different types of hot water systems: passive hot water, active hot water with space heating, hot water with recirculation, and hot water thermosiphon. The data is provided in a number of forms including average monthly performance values for each hot water system, average monthly values for the summer and winter seasons, and estimated operational dollar savings. The conclusions are directed at both solar and conventional design features that cause good or bad performance.

Cramer, M. A.; Evans, K. D.; Rosenbusch, J. M.; Weinstein, R. A.

246

Corrosion and scaling in solar heating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion, as experienced in solar heating systems, is described in simplistic terms to familiarize designers and installers with potential problems and their solutions. The role of a heat transfer fluid in a solar system is briefly discussed, and the choice of an aqueous solution is justified. The complexities of the multiple chemical and physical reactions are discussed in order that uncertainties of corrosion behavior can be anticipated. Some basic theories of corrosion are described, aggressive environments for some common metals are identified, and the role of corrosion inhibitors is delineated. The similarities of thermal and material characteristics of a solor system and an automotive cooling system are discussed. Based on the many years of experience with corrosion in automotive systems, it is recommended that similar antifreezes and corrosion inhibitors should be used in solar systems. The importance of good solar system design and fabrication is stressed and specific characteristics that affect corrosion are identified.

Foresti, R. J., Jr.

1981-12-01

247

Climate Fundamentals for Solar Heating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The design of any solar heating system is influenced heavily by climate; in this bulletin, information on climate as related to solar heating is as related to solar heating is provided. Topics discussed include: (1) solar radiation; (2) degree days; (3) climate and calculations which make use of solar radiation and degree days; and (4)…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

248

Observations on the systemic effect of topical clobetasol propionate (Dermovate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topical application of clobetasol propionate in a strength of 0-05% in cream or ointment (Dermovate) suppressed the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in both normal people and patients with diseased skin. In normal people the 9 am serum cortisol level was suppressed when between 45 and 90 g was applied weekly. Insulin stress test results in patients with diseased skin showed an abnormally

J A Carruthers; P J August; R C Staughton

1975-01-01

249

The origin of the architecture of the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article relates two topics of central importance in modern astronomy - the discovery some 15 years ago of the first planets around other stars (referred to as exoplanets), and the centuries-old problem of understanding the origin of our own solar system, with its planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, and comets. The surprising diversity of exoplanets, of which more than 500 have already been discovered, has required new models to explain their formation and evolution. In turn, these models explain, rather naturally, a number of important features of our own solar system, amongst them the masses and orbits of the "terrestrial" and "gas giant" planets, the presence and distribution of asteroids and comets, the origin and impact cratering of the Moon, and the existence of water on Earth.

Perryman, Michael

2012-05-01

250

Solar System: The Earth in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It provides an understanding of where Earth is located in space and explores evidence used by astronomers to place Earth at this location. Earth is a relatively small planet and the third from the Sun in our solar system. The Sun is the central and largest body in the solar system. Our still-growing knowledge of the solar system comes to us in part by direct observation from Earth, including the use of optical, radio, and x-ray telescopes that are sensitive to a broad spectrum of information coming to us from space; computers that can undertake increasingly complicated calculations, find patterns in data, and support or reject theories about the origins of the solar system; and space probes that send back detailed pictures and other data from distant planets. Learning Outcomes:� Explain that we discovered and learn about the other planets through the use of various kinds of telescopes, space probes, and other technologies.� Relate observations of the motion of objects in the sky to a Sun-centric model of the solar system, including observations of the "wandering" stars (planets) from Earth's frame of reference.� Recognize that Earth is one of the planets in the solar system, that it orbits the Sun just as the other planets do.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

251

The Joys of Applying UV Spectroscopy to Understanding the Solar-Stellar Connection and Related Topics in Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than 40 years a central theme of my research has been the application of spectroscopy mostly at ultraviolet wavelengths to a clearer understanding of phenomena and physical processes occuring in the outer atmospheres of the Sun, cool stars, premain sequence stars, and the interstellar medium near the Sun. The sensitivity and spectral resolution available for this work has increased enormously over time. My thesis involved the analysis of solar chromosphere spectra of the Ca II H and K lines using the McMath-Pierce solar telescope on Kitt Peak. Then with spectra from the Copernicus and IUE satellites and the GHRS, STIS, and COS instruments on HST, I extended this research to the study of stellar chromospheres. The availability of X-ray observations and spectra with HEAO-1, Einstein, XMM-Newton, and Chandra observatories opened up the study of stellar coronae. Absorption lines observed against stellar emission lines are not noise but important signals leading to a better understanding of the local interstellar medium, deuterium in the Galaxy, and even mass loss from a transiting planet. In all of these research areas, I have had the pleasure of working with and learning from many stimulating graduate students and postdocs. In this talk I will select several key discoveries in the above topics, summarize our present understanding of these topics, identify what we need to understand better, and suggest what observational and theoretical advances should be pursued to improve our understanding.

Linsky, Jeffrey

2011-05-01

252

Solar Energy Usage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with solar energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the broad aspects of solar energy use and to explain the general operation of solar systems. Some topics covered are availability and economics of solar

Crank, Ron

253

Solar Energy Usage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with solar energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the broad aspects of solar energy use and to explain the general operation of solar systems. Some topics covered are availability and economics of solar

Crank, Ron

254

Storage Systems for Solar Thermal Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major constraint to the evolution of solar thermal power systems is the need to provide continuous operation during periods of solar outage. A number of high temperature thermal energy storage technologies which have the potential to meet this need are ...

J. E. Calogeras L. H. Gordon

1978-01-01

255

Design options in solar total energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar total energy system consists of a collector field which converts solar radiation to thermal energy in a working fluid which in turn drives a heat engine. Shaft power from this engine drives a mechanical electrical generator while exhaust from the heat engine is used for such applications as space heating, domestic hot water, and process heat. Cooling can

A. A. J. Hoffman; D. Rapp

1977-01-01

256

Village power plants versus solar home systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Figures on rural energy consumption is presented along with past experience in rural electrification projects which show clearly the limits of any rural electrification policy. Three alternatives are compared using a network for electricity distribution, i.e. connection to the national grid, village networks with diesel and solar power stations, and the solar home system.

B. Schmidt-Kuentzel; G. Schaefer

1993-01-01

257

Small Bodies of the Outer Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of small bodies of the outer Solar System includes objects of different nature: Jupiter Trojans, Centaurs, trans-Neptunian objects, cometary nuclei and satellites of the giant planets. The analysis of these bodies can give us important hints on the composition of the primordial solar nebula at large heliocentric distances, and on the processes which governed the early phases of

E. Dotto; M. A. Barucci

2004-01-01

258

Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using

Adam Faiers; Charles Neame

2006-01-01

259

Solar energy food dehydration system: Concept development  

SciTech Connect

The research activities to be carried out to form the body of this work were planned, first, to increase the general knowledge in the areas of solar energy application and, secondly, to provide sufficient data for the development of a new solar energy powered food dehydrating system. The research work does not aim merely at pursuing the study and development of a new component or a new type of material to be used in the solar industry. But the final and main part of this research is devoted to the development and design of a solar energy system uncharted before the purpose of dehydrating various agricultural products. This proposed solar powered system development is thereby a contribution of technological knowledge to the field of Applied Sciences. It is one of the viable and effective solutions to solving the world's food and energy shortage problem, especially in the less developed regions of the world. The body of this work, thus is divided into three major parts as follows: (1) The search for a thorough understanding of the origin and fundamental characteristics of solar energy. (2) Past and present applications of solar energy. (3) The development and design of a new solar energy powered system for the dehydration of food crops.

Pham, L.V.

1988-01-01

260

Primordial Antimatter Plasmas in Our Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Comets have been discovered to be the source of primordial antimatter in our solar system. The announcement was made at April 2002 joint meeting of American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society. When sungrazer comets colliding with the Sun, they produce large sunspots and gigantic solar storms. These enormous ambiplasma storms travel hundreds of millions of

N. Hansen

2006-01-01

261

Computer simulation of a solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating and cooling system designed for use at the El Camino Real School in Irvine, California is presented. The solar energy is collected by banks of evacuated glass tube collectors mounted on tilted platforms on the roof of the school and provide an effective collector area of 5000 sq ft. Along with the government-sponsored design and construction of

J. M. Key

1979-01-01

262

Simulation of an adsorption solar cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more realistic theoretical simulation model for a tubular solar adsorption refrigerating system using activated carbon–methanol (AC\\/M) pair has been introduced. The mathematical model represents the heat and mass transfer inside the adsorption bed, the condenser, and the evaporator. The simulation technique takes into account the variations of ambient temperature and solar radiation along the day. Furthermore, the local pressure,

H. Z. Hassan; A. A. Mohamad; R. Bennacer

2011-01-01

263

Economics of solar heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar heating and cooling for a private residence are discussed in terms of amortization time for a house with a 30 year mortgage at 8.5%. Different collector systems (tubular, flat, concentrating) and sizes are compared, with reference to their initial and life cycle costs. National energy savings are calculated for widespread use of solar power, which could reach the Quad

W. L. Corcoran

1978-01-01

264

Solar Heating System Installed at Stamford, Connecticut.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar syst...

1979-01-01

265

Solar Total Energy Systems. Technical progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Solar Total Energy System (STES) is characterized by the use of solar energy for on-site generation of electricity, with recovery and reuse of turbine waste heat to meet thermal demands such as process heat, space heating and cooling, and water heating. The STES Mission Analysis being performed by The Aerospace Corporation has as objectives the identification and selection of

1977-01-01

266

Solar energy systems for industrialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a presentation given to illustrate a need for solar energy, and to suggest a solution as well as its implementation. Current sources of global energy mainly consist of fossil fuels, which are finite in their supply as well as harmful to the environment. A viable solution is solar energy, which is relatively inexhaustible in supply and available with

Peter E. Glaser; Raymond S. Leonard

1994-01-01

267

Survey of solar desalination systems and system selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common sea water desalination systems available today are described. These are divided into two broad categories, namely, direct and indirect collection systems. In the former, solar energy is absorbed and used in the same piece of equipment whereas in the latter, two separate sub-systems are used, one for solar energy conversion and one for desalination. Various systems are

Soteris Kalogirou

1997-01-01

268

Solar- and wind-powered irrigation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five different direct solar and wind energy systems are technically feasible for powering irrigation pumps. However, with projected rates of fossil fuel costs, only two may produce significant unsubsidied energy for irrigation pumping before the turn of the century. These are photovoltaic systems with nonconcentrating collectors (providing that projected costs of manufacturing solar cells prove correct); and wind systems, especially in remote areas where adequate wind is available.

Enochian, R. V.

1982-02-01

269

Pocket Solar System: Make a Scale Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun and simple hands-on astronomy activity lets learners build a scale model of the universe with little more than adding machine tape. Learners are often surprised to find how empty the outer solar system is (there is a reason they call it space!) and how close, relatively speaking, the orbits of the planets of the inner solar system are. The pdf contains step-by-step instructions, photos, presentation tips, common misconceptions about our solar system, and links to background information.

Pacific, Astronomical S.

2008-01-01

270

Topical Retinoic Acid Enhances, and a Dark Tan Protects, from Subedemal Solar-Simulated Photocarcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies into the effects of topical retinoic acid on photocarcinogenesis have yielded ambiguous findings. This may be due to different Experimental protocols and ultraviolet spectra. Retinoic acid is commonly used for a range of dermatologic conditions, and therefore it is important to resolve whether it affects skin tumor formation. To address this issue we used a protocol to mimic as

Gary M. Halliday; Bryan O. Robertson; Ross S. T. C. Barnetson

2000-01-01

271

The Solar System primordial lead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the primordial isotope composition of Pb in the Solar System is critical to the understanding of the early evolution of Earth and other planetary bodies. Here we present new Pb isotopic data on troilite (FeS) nodules from a number of different iron meteorites: Canyon Diablo, Mundrabilla, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Toluca (IAB-IIICD), Cape York (IIIA), Mt Edith (IIIB), and Seymchan (pallasite). Lead abundances and isotopic compositions typically vary from one troilite inclusion to another, even within the same meteorite. The most primitive Pb was found in three leach fractions of two exceptionally Pb-rich Nantan troilite nodules. Its 204Pb/206Pb is identical to that of Canyon Diablo troilite as measured by Tatsumoto et al. [M. Tatsumoto, R.J. Knight, C.J. Allègre, Time differences in the formation of meteorites as determined from the ratio of lead-207 to lead-206, Science 180(1973) 1279-1283]. However, our measurements of 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb are significantly higher than theirs, as well as other older literature data obtained by TIMS, while consistent with the recent data of Connelly et al. [J.N. Connelly, M. Bizzarro, K. Thrane, J.A. Baker, The Pb-Pb age of Angrite SAH99555 revisited, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72(2008) 4813-4824], a result we ascribe to instrumental mass fractionation having biased the older data. Our current best estimate of the Solar System primordial Pb is that of Nantan troilite, which has the following isotopic composition: 204Pb/206Pb = 0.107459(16), 207Pb/206Pb = 1.10759(10), and 208Pb/206Pb = 3.17347(28). This is slightly less radiogenic than the intercept of the bundle of isotopic arrays formed in 207Pb/206Pb-204Pb/206Pb space by our measurements of Canyon Diablo, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Cape York, and Mundrabilla, as well as literature data, which, in spite of rather large uncertainties, suggests a common primordial Pb component for all of these meteorites. The radiogenic Pb present in most of these irons is dominantly asteroidal and indicates evolution in a high-U/Pb environment. The apparent age of the radiogenic Pb component is consistent with the 39Ar-40Ar ages of silicate inclusions found in the same meteorites. We propose that the radiogenic Pb was introduced more recently into troilite, from the surface rubble of the parent asteroid, possibly during the impacts that generated the IAB iron meteorites. The excellent correlation between 208Pb/206Pb and 204Pb/206Pb translates into a Th/U ratio of 3.876 ± 0.016 for the asteroid, which is the most precise estimate for the solar nebula to date.

Blichert-Toft, Janne; Zanda, Brigitte; Ebel, Denton S.; Albarède, Francis

2010-11-01

272

Liposomal delivery system for topical anaesthesia of the palatal mucosa.  

PubMed

An effective topical agent to reduce pain during local anaesthesia of the palate is not yet available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of liposome-encapsulated ropivacaine in different concentrations for topical anaesthesia of the palatal mucosa. In this single-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study 40 (20 male) healthy volunteers were randomised to be given: liposome-encapsulated 2% ropivacaine, liposome-encapsulated 1% ropivacaine, a eutectic mixture of 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine (EMLA), and liposomal placebo gel, topically on to the palatal mucosa of the right canine region for 5 min each, at four different sessions. Pain associated with insertion of a 30G needle, and with injection of a local anaesthetic, was rated on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The effect of liposomal ropivacaine 1% and 2% did not differ from that of placebo (p=0.3 and p=0.1, respectively) in reducing pain during insertion of the needle. Lower VAS were obtained with EMLA. In this group VAS were lower in women than men (p=0.007). There was no difference in VAS among groups (p=0.3) as far as injection of the local anaesthetic was concerned. In conclusion, liposomal-encapsulated ropivacaine formulations did not reduce the pain of insertion of a needle into the palatal mucosa. None of the anaesthetic formulations tested, including the positive control (EMLA), were effective in reducing the pain of an injection of local anaesthetic compared with placebo. PMID:21106282

Franz-Montan, M; de Paula, E; Groppo, F C; Silva, A L R; Ranali, J; Volpato, M C

2010-11-23

273

Low-cost solar Radiation Sensing Transducer for Photovoltaic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of solar irradiance are critical for evaluating solar energy potential in a given location and for calculating the efficiency of a solar system (Photovoltaic and solar thermal). In order to maximize the energy collected by a given Photovoltaic System tracking the position of the sun in order to expose a solar panel to the maximum radiation level at any

S. GAGLIANO; D. NERI; N. PITRONE; N. SAVALLI; G. TINA

2009-01-01

274

Testing of modular industrial solar retrofit industrial process steam systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Department of Energy's Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit project, five industrial process heat systems incorporating line-focus solar collectors were designed and hardware was installed and tested at Sandia National Laboratories and the Solar Energy Research Institute. System designers and collector manufacturers participating in the project included Acurex Solar Corporation, BDM, Inc., Custom Engineering, Inc., Foster Wheeler Solar Development Corporation,

C. P. Cameron; V. E. Dudley

1984-01-01

275

Small hybrid solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel concept of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio-)Diesel engine. The Organic Rankine Cycles include hermetic scroll expander-generators11The word expander is often used to characterize units recovering the expansion energy of a gas, in particular when based on a volumetric machine. The word

M. Kane; D. Larrain; D. Favrat; Y. Allani

2003-01-01

276

Gallery Walk Questions about the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the solar system. The questions are organized according to the ...

277

How the Inner Solar System Formed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from NOVA, explore the theory that small bits of gas and dust combined to form protoplanets billions of years ago, which in turn collided to create the four rocky planets of the inner solar system.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-03-30

278

Solar System Lithograph Set for Space Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph set contains images with information about: Our Solar System, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Jupiter, Moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Charon, and Comets.

2009-09-01

279

Solar System Lithograph Set for Space Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set contains images with information about: Our Solar System, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Jupiter, Moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Charon, and Comets.

2010-10-27

280

Solar hydrogen energy system. Annual report, 1995--1996  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports progress on three tasks. Task A, System comparison of hydrogen with other alternative fuels in terms of EPACT requirements, investigates the feasibility of several alternative fuels, namely, natural gas, methanol, ethanol, hydrogen and electricity, to replace 10% of gasoline by the year 2000. The analysis was divided into two parts: analysis of vehicle technologies and analysis of fuel production, storage and distribution. Task B, Photovoltaic hydrogen production, involves this fuel production method for the future. The process uses hybrid solar collectors to generate dc electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The third task, Hydrogen safety studies, covers two topics: a review of codes, standards, regulations, recommendations, certifications, and pamphlets which address safety of gaseous fuels; and an experimental investigation of hydrogen flame impingement.

Veziroglu, T.N.

1996-12-31

281

Chaos and stability of the solar system  

PubMed Central

Over the last two decades, there has come about a recognition that chaotic dynamics is pervasive in the solar system. We now understand that the orbits of small members of the solar system—asteroids, comets, and interplanetary dust—are chaotic and undergo large changes on geological time scales. Are the major planets' orbits also chaotic? The answer is not straightforward, and the subtleties have prompted new questions.

Malhotra, Renu; Holman, Matthew; Ito, Takashi

2001-01-01

282

Origin of Elements in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar system is chemically and isotopically heterogeneous. The earth contains only 0.0003% of the mass of the solar system,\\u000a but the abundance pattern of non-radiogenic isotopes for each terrestrial element has been defined as “normal”.\\u000a \\u000a The outer planets consist mostly of light elements like H, He and C. The inner planets are rich in heavy elements like Fe\\u000a and

O. Manuel

2000-01-01

283

Solar System SETI Using Radio Telescope Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for extraterrestrial intelligence must include complementary observing programs that investigate our solar system and near Earth. Solar system observing strategies involve a search for energy (e.g., artificial microwaves) or physical manifestations (e.g., exploratory robotic probes) that may be present. Artificial electromagnetic emissions from robotic probes may be detectable using existing ground-based radio-telescope observatories like Arecibo, or those undergoing

Bruce Cornet; Scot L. Stride

2003-01-01

284

Using corticosteroids during pregnancy. Are topical, inhaled, or systemic agents associated with risk?  

PubMed Central

QUESTION: I am concerned about use of corticosteroids during pregnancy. Some of my women patients of reproductive age are using topical, inhaled, or oral preparations, and I am not sure what to advise. ANSWER: Both topical and systemic corticosteroids are used for a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Results of first-trimester studies were inconclusive and underpowered. Recent meta-analyses suggest a small but significant association between use of systemic corticosteroids during the first trimester and oral clefts. This is consistent with results of animal studies. No similar evidence exists for topical or inhaled corticosteroids, probably because of much lower systemic exposure.

Oren, D.; Nulman, I.; Makhija, M.; Ito, S.; Koren, Gideon

2004-01-01

285

Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Anderson, John D.

2009-05-01

286

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

1994-09-01

287

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Gamma astronomy of the Sun and study of solar cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed discussion is given of the various nuclear reactions proceeding in the Sun's atmosphere under the influence of flare-accelerated particles. The role of such reactions in formation of the line spectrum and continuum of gamma-rays from the disturbed and quiet Sun is discussed. The gamma-ray fluxes in individual lines and in the continuum are estimated. The possibility of applying data on gamma-ray emission from the Sun to analysis of particle acceleration in solar flares and the conditions of their ejection into interplanetary space is analyzed.

Kuzhevski?, B. M.

1982-06-01

288

Topics in the mechanics of self-organizing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-organization, in one of its accepted definitions, is the appearance of non-random structures in a system without explicit constraints from forces outside the system. In this thesis two self-organizing systems are studied from the viewpoint of mechanics. In the first system---semiconductor crystal surfaces---the internal constraints that lead to self-assembly of nanoscale structures on silicon-germanium (SiGe) films are studied. In the

Dhananjay Tambe

2008-01-01

289

Solar thermal desalination system with heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the energy and mass balance equations, the numerical simulation results for the production rate, and the experimental laboratory water tests for a thermal desalination unit with a heat recovery system. The system components are a solar collector and a desalination tower, although the system can be operated with other energy sources. The desalination tower is made of

Klemens Schwarzer; Maria Eugênia Vieira; Christian Faber; Christoph Müller

2001-01-01

290

Experiments in social data mining: The TopicShop system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social data mining systems enable people to share opinions and benefit from each other's experience. They do this by mining and redistributing information from computational records of social activity such as Usenet messages, system usage history, citations, or hyperlinks. Some general questions for evaluating such systems are: (1) is the extracted information valuable? and (2) do interfaces based on the

Brian Amento; Loren G. Terveen; William C. Hill; Deborah Hix; Robert S. Schulman

2003-01-01

291

Economic penalties of problems and errors in solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience with a large number of installed solar energy systems in the HUD Solar Program has shown that a variety of problems and design\\/installation errors have occurred in many solar systems, sometimes resulting in substantial additional costs for repair and\\/or replacement. In this paper, the effect of problems and errors on the economics of solar energy systems is examined. A

K. Raman; H. R. Sparkes

1983-01-01

292

Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

Ringel, Robert F.

293

Evaluation of the measured energy performance of four solar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the measured energy performance of four solar systems installed in military construction. Based on measured performance for a period of about 1 year, none of the solar systems provided the energy savings expected from the design calculations. When the fuel cost savings produced by the solar components of the systems were compared with the added solar costs,

D. L. Johnson; D. C. Hittle

1984-01-01

294

Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

Ringel, Robert F.

295

Photovoltaics: solar electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

The operation and uses of solar cells and the National Photovoltaic Program are briefly described. Eleven DOE photovoltaic application projects are described including forest lookout towers; Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Hawaii; WBNO daytime AM radio station; Schuchuli Indian Village; Meade, Nebraska, agricultural experiment; Mt. Laguna Air Force Station; public schools and colleges; residential applications; and Sea World of Florida. (WHK)

None

1980-02-01

296

Solar energy collector and system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar collectors whose absorbers are made of a conventional building material form the outer surface of the roof and wall of a building. Air flows behind the absorbers and heat is transferred to the air by expanded metal conductors which extend from adjacent the outside surfaces of the absorbers into the flow passages. Heat from the collectors is stored in

Mcelwain

1982-01-01

297

Monitoring solar-thermal systems: An outline of methods and procedures  

SciTech Connect

This manual discusses the technical issues associated with monitoring solar-thermal systems. It discusses some successful monitoring programs that have been implemented in the past. It gives the rationale for selecting a program of monitoring and gives guidelines for the design of new programs. In this report, solar thermal monitoring systems are classified into three levels. For each level, the report discusses the kinds of information obtained by monitoring, the effort needed to support the monitoring program, the hardware required, and the costs involved. Ultimately, all monitoring programs share one common requirement: the collection of accurate data that characterize some aspect or aspects of the system under study. This report addresses most of the issues involved with monitoring solar thermal systems. It does not address such topics as design fundamentals of thermal systems or the relative merits of the many different technologies employed for collection of solar energy.

Rosenthal, A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Southwest Technology Development Inst.

1994-04-01

298

Basic Solar Photovoltaic System Design Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this classroom activity for teaching students to design a small scale solar photovoltaic system. The class will use three small scale solar PV panels and perform tests and demonstrations with the equipment. A teacher's guide and student worksheets are provided. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2012-10-15

299

Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development  

SciTech Connect

Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

Mancini, T.R.

1997-12-31

300

System and method for classifying legal concepts using legal topic scheme  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An economic, scalable machine learning system and process perform document (concept) classification with high accuracy using large topic schemes, including large hierarchical topic schemes. One or more highly relevant classification topics is suggested for a-given document (concept) to be classified. The invention includes training and concept classification processes. The invention also provides methods that may be used as part of the training and/or concept classification processes, including: a method of scoring the relevance of features in training concepts, a method of ranking concepts based on relevance score, and a method of voting on topics associated with an input concept. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is applied to the legal (case law) domain, classifying legal concepts (rules of law) according to a proprietary legal topic classification scheme (a hierarchical scheme of areas of law).

2002-12-31

301

Advanced coal fueled gas turbine system definition: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal-fired gas turbine system definition and economic assessments are based on the Coal Burning Locomotive Study previously conducted by the GE Transportation Systems Business Operations with Burlington Northern and Norfolk Southern railroad sponsorship, and later with additional funding from the United States Department of Energy. The objectives of that study were to validate the feasibility of locomotive designs using

A. M. James; M. W. Horner

1987-01-01

302

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: The hydromagnetic dynamo as the source of planetary, solar, and galactic magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetism of most celestial bodies, i.e., planets, stars, and galaxies, is of hydromagnetic origin. The turbulent hydromagnetic dynamo is the principal mechanism whereby the magnetic field is amplified and maintained, and the theory of this phenomenon has advanced significantly in recent years. This review discusses applications of the theory of the turbulent dynamo to real objects, taking the Sun, the Earth, and the Galaxy as examples. Most of the discussion is concentrated on the large-scale magnetic field averaged over turbulent fluctuations. The average field is amplified and maintained by the average helicity of turbulent motion and large-scale shear flows such as differential rotation. The dynamo theory explains striking phenomena such as geomagnetic field reversal, the solar cycle, and the ring and bisymmetric structure of spiral galaxies.

Zeldovich, Ya B.; Ruzma?kin, A. A.

1987-06-01

303

Predicting Solar Disturbance Effects on Navigation Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of operational systems are vulnerable to disruption by solar disturbances brought to the Earth by the solar wind. Of particular importance to navigation systems are energetic charged particles which can generate temporary malfunctions and permanent damage in satellites. Modern spacecraft technology may prove to be particularly at risk during the next maximum of the solar cycle. In addition, the associated ionospheric disturbances cause phase shifts of transionospheric and ionosphere-reflected signals, giving positioning errors and loss of signal for GPS and Loran-C positioning systems and for over-the-horizon radars. We now have sufficient understanding of the solar wind, and how it interacts with the Earth's magnetic field, to predict statistically the likely effects on operational systems over the next solar cycle. We also have a number of advanced ways of detecting and tracking these disturbances through space but we cannot, as yet, provide accurate forecasts of individual disturbances that could be used to protect satellites and to correct errors. In addition, we have recently discovered long-term changes in the Sun, which mean that the number and severity of the disturbances to operational systems are increasing.

Lockwood, M.; Wild, M. N.; Stamper, R.; Davis, C. J.; Grande, M.

304

Geophysics and cosmogony of solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attention to primary importance of geophysics in formation of modern representations about planets of Solar system is inverted. [ Kuzjmenko G.I. Deep Processes in the Earth's Interior. Geophys. J. 2001. Vol. 20, pp 813 -831; Kuzjmenko G.I., Smirnov V.A. Minor Bodys and Cosmogony of a Solar System. CAMMAC 2002. Intern. Conf. September 23 - 29, Vinnitsia, 2002, pp 35 -36]. The analysis rocket given about electromagnetic properties of Solar system has helped utilization Generalized Statistical-Wavemechanical Equations (GSWE), which special case is the quantum equation of Schrödinger. From GSWE the decision not only old problems of Solar system, but also prediction of presence of a belt of small bodies of Kuiper's and features of absent-minded substance in Solar system follows. The modern geophysical data on properties of the Earth with use GSWE result not only in the description of the electromagnetic characteristics of planets, but open existence dark mattery, which properties now are actively studied [Kuzjmenko G.I., Zelinsky I.P. Generalized Statistical-Wavemechanical Equations (GSWE) and its Applications. Proc. of 16-th IMACS World Congress 2000. Lausanne, Switzerland, August 21-25, 2000. CD File 416 -1].

Kuzjmenko, G. I.; Smirnov, V. A.

2003-04-01

305

Application and design of solar photovoltaic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

Tianze, Li; Hengwei, Lu; Chuan, Jiang; Luan, Hou; Xia, Zhang

2011-02-01

306

[Expert system to support the decision in topical therapy for venous ulcers].  

PubMed

Although the treatment of venous ulcers requires a set of specific knowledge, non-specialist nurses are unaware of the appropriate therapy, which is a concern in the topical therapy for these skin lesions. This paper aims to present an expert system to support the nursing decision making process in the topical therapy of venous ulcers. It is a development research implemented in five stages: system modeling, knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation from production rules, and system implementation and evaluation. The production rules are presented as well as some cases to simulate the expert system behavior, demonstrating the viability of its usage in nurse's practice. The system may support the decision making about the topical therapy of venous ulcers. However, ulcer evaluation should be correctly made, so that the system provides appropriate suggestions, allowing better organization and planning assistance. PMID:24015475

Sellmer, Danielle; Carvalho, Carina Maris Gaspar; Carvalho, Deborah Ribeiro; Malucelli, Andreia

2013-06-01

307

Solar Pointing Attitude Rocket Control System \\/SPARCS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SPARCS system is described and its use since Dec. 1967 is reviewed. SPARCS was developed to fulfill a requirement for a lightweight, precision, three-axis pointing control system for solar-sounding rockets. The use of sounding rockets to calibrate satellite instruments before flight for subsequent recovery and orbital flight is noted, along with the calibration of Skylab instruments with sounding rocket

J. M. Shigemoto

1982-01-01

308

Low cost automatic solar energy trapping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the hardware design and implementation of a system that ensures a perpendicular profile of the solar panel with the sun in order to extract maximum energy falling on it. Renewable energy is rapidly gaining importance as an energy resource as fossil fuel prices fluctuate.The unique feature of the proposed system is that instead of taking the earth

I. William Christopher; R. Ramesh; C. Saravanan

2011-01-01

309

Appropriate sizing of solar heating systems  

SciTech Connect

It is generally assumed that a solar heating system should be sized by minimizing its life cycle cost. This study shows, however, that the uncertainty in future economic trends makes the results of such a procedure questionable. The design conditions for minimum cost are extremely broad and all practical systems have a solar fraction within the limited range of 30% to 90%. Thus, by choosing only three collector areas that give systems within this range, one is assured of selecting a nearly optimal system for any realistic economic scenario. Selecting one of these three systems is essentially equivalent to economic optimization, but simpler. Procedures are derived in this paper for determining the sizes of the three systems. The conclusion is that the collector areas should be about 1/8, 1/5, and 1/3 of the building floor area. This rule of thumb eliminates the need to design solar systems individually, allowing the possibility of mass-produced homes with standardized solar heating systems.

Bendt, P.

1980-09-01

310

Future exploration of the outer solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration of the outer solar system is constrained by vast distances, consequent communications and light time limitations, power, and long flight times. Early reconnaissance missions (Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2) employed relatively fast trajectories resulting in very fast fly-bys. The next generation of exploration (Galileo and Cassini) has been characterized by spacecraft with large propellant systems and

T. Johnson

2004-01-01

311

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might

S. Squyres; G. Varsi; J. Veverka; L. Soderblom; D. Black; A. Stern; D. Stetson; R. A. Brown; J. Niehoff; G. Squibb

1994-01-01

312

Solar energy conversion and storage systems for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible utilization of solar energy in its various manifestations such as heat, winds, tides, and ocean thermal gradients is reviewed. Methods of solar energy collection, conversion, and utilization are examined, along with the solar energy potential. Special attention is given to various systems for meeting the needs of solar energy storage. The systems considered include: (1) thermal energy storage

R. Ramakumar; H. J. Allison; W. L. Hughes

1974-01-01

313

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Global phase-stable radiointerferometric systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss from a unitary standpoint the possibility of building a phase-stable interferometric system with very long baselines that operate around the clock with real-time data processing. The various problems involved in the realization of this idea are discussed: the methods of suppression of instrumental and tropospheric phase fluctuations, the methods for constructing two-dimensional images and determining the coordinates of radio sources with high angular resolution, and the problem of the optimal structure of the interferometric system. We review in detail the scientific problems from the various branches of natural science (astrophysics, cosmology, geophysics, geodynamics, astrometry, etc.) whose solution requires superhigh angular resolution.

Dravskikh, A. F.; Korol'kov, Dimitrii V.; Pari?ski?, Yu N.; Stotski?, A. A.; Finkel'ste?n, A. M.; Fridman, P. A.

1981-12-01

314

Interdisciplinary topics in Engineering curricula: System Theory option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control principles and concepts are pervading most engineering and scientific fields as they are mainly based on the existence of two kinds of subsystems with different goals: the energy\\/material transformer involving the basic activities, the plant, and the information processor and goal achiever, the controller. The interaction between these subsystems affects the systems dynamics, their properties and the options to

Pedro Albertos

2002-01-01

315

Topics in system generated electromagnetic pulse analysis and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to compile a number of memos prepared during 1973 on System Generated Electromagnetic Pulse (SGEMP) problems relating to satellites. The original seven memos were concerned with three specific areas: Satellite Response Modeling, Electron Environment and SGEMP, and Experimental Verification. Each memo has been revised and appears as a separate section in this document. Calculations

E. P. Wenaas; E. P. Deplomb; R. C. Keyser; A. H. Woods

1974-01-01

316

Topics on the stochastical treatement of an open quantum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper shortly presents the role of Stochastic Processes Theory in the present day Quantum Theory, and the relation to Operational Quantum Physics. The dynamics of an open quantum system is studied on a usual example from Quantum Optics, suggesting the definition of a Neumark-type dilation for the non-thermal states.

Ioan Sturzu

2002-01-01

317

Searching for Solar System Analogs with SIM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present initial results from a SIM Science Study aimed at identifying extra-solar planetary systems that resemble the outer solar system. Such Solar System Giant Analogs (SOSGAs) would have periods between 12 and 165 years and are virtually impossible to characterize using conventional astrometric techniques. We present a new method based on SIM proper-motions and accelerations AND observed positions at earlier times, such as at the Hipparcos (1991) and the ACT (1907) epochs. Preliminary results indicate that Jupiter-mass objects can be characterized (mass & period determination) with periods up to 80 years. Objects at the planet/brown-dwarf mass limit can be characterized if their periods are less than about 200 years.

Olling, Robert; Shaya, E.

2009-01-01

318

Volcanic processes in the Solar System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article stresses that terrestrial volcanism represents only part of the range of volcanism in the solar system. Earth processes of volcanicity are dominated by plate tectonics, which does not seem to operate on other planets, except possibly on Venus. Lunar volcanicity is dominated by lava effusion at enormous rates. Mars is similar, with the addition to huge shield volcanoes developed over fixed hotspots. Io, the moon closest to Jupiter, is the most active body in the Solar System and, for example, much sulphur and silicates are emitted. The eruptions of Io are generated by heating caused by tides induced by Jupiter. Europa nearby seems to emit water from fractures and Ganymede is similar. The satellites of Saturn and Uranus are also marked by volcanic craters, but they are of very low temperature melts, possibly of ammonia and water. The volcanism of the solar system is generally more exotic, the greater the distance from Earth. -A.Scarth

Carr, M. H.

1987-01-01

319

The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Changing Views and Fundamental Concepts: 1. Evolving perspectives: a historical prologue; 2. The new, close-up view from space; 3. The invisible buffer zone with space: atmospheres, magnetospheres and the solar wind; Part II. The Inner System - Rocky Worlds: 4. Third rock from the Sun: restless Earth; 5. The Moon: stepping stone to the planets; 6. Mercury: a dense battered world; 7. Venus: the veiled planet; 8. Mars: the red planet; Part III. The Giant Planets, Their Satellites and Their Rings - Worlds of Liquid, Ice and Gas: 9. Jupiter: a giant primitive planet; 10. Saturn: lord of the rings; 11. Uranus and Neptune; Part IV. Remnants of Creation - Small Worlds in the Solar System: 12. Asteroids and meteorites; 13. Colliding worlds; 14. Comets; 15. Beyond Neptune; Part V. Origin of the Solar System and Extrasolar Planets: 16. Brave new worlds; Index.

Lang, Kenneth R.

2011-03-01

320

Plutonium-244 in the early solar system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt has been made to calculate the ages of lunar fines and carbonaceous chondrites from the contents of 244Pu fission xenon and uranium. The carbonaceous chondrites such as Renazzo and Allende appear to be the oldest objects in the solar system and they began to retain their xenon about 4,900 million years ago when the ratio of 244Pu to 238U in the solar system was about 0.123 (atom/atom). Lunar fines, which appear to be the second oldest objects in the solar system, began to retain their xenon 4,568 to 4,857 million years ago, when the ratio of 244Pu to 238U was 0.0078 to 0.0855 (atom/atom).

Kuroda, P. K.; Myers, W. A.

321

Solar photovoltaic\\/thermal residential systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a conceptual design study using computer simulations to determine the physical and economic performance of combined photovoltaic\\/thermal collector heat-pump solar systems for a single-family residence are presented. Economic analyses are based upon projected costs for a 1986 system installation. The results show that PV\\/T collector systems can be economically competitive for a cold climate residence, that systems

1979-01-01

322

Evaluation of Quranic text retrieval system based on manually indexed topics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effectiveness of a state of the art information retrieval (IR) system in the verse retrieval problem for Quranic text. The evaluation is based on manually indexed topics of the Quran that provides both the queries and the relevance judgments. Furthermore, the system is evaluated in both Malay and English environment. The performance of the system is

Ammar Mohammed Sultan; Azreen Azman; Rabiah Abdul Kadir; Muhamad Taufik Abdullah

2011-01-01

323

Topical and systemic glucocorticoid potencies of budesonide and beclomethasone dipropionate in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Topical anti-inflammatory (cutaneous “vasoconstriction”) and systemic glucocorticoid (depression of plasma cortisol and changes\\u000a in differential WBC count) potencies of the two glucocorticoids budesonide and beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) were compared\\u000a in human volunteers. After topical application, budesonide was 2–3 times more potent than BDP in inducing “vasoconstriction”.\\u000a After oral administration, on the other hand, budesonide was 2–4 times less potent than

S.-Å. Johansson; K.-E. Andersson; R. Brattsand; E. Gruvstad; P. Hedner

1982-01-01

324

TOPICAL REVIEW: Review of modeling electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) and devices are actuated using electrostatic forces. Multiphysics modeling is required, since coupling among different fields such as solid and fluid mechanics, thermomechanics and electromagnetism is involved. This work presents an overview of models for electrostatically actuated MEMSs. Three-dimensional nonlinear formulations for the coupled electromechanical fluid-structure interaction problem are outlined. Simplified reduced-order models

R. C. Batra; M. Porfiri; D. Spinello

2007-01-01

325

Topics in the Physics of Two-Phase Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is essentially divided into two parts. In the first part, we have developed a density -functional theory for the two-phase system -, the body-centered-cubic (bcc) solid-liquid interface, within the Ginzburg-Landau formalism. The principal order parameter is the amplitude of the density wave at the smallest nonzero reciprocal-lattice vector of the solid. The parameters entering the theory are fitted to the measured properties of bulk liquid at freezing. Application to surfaces of several systems has been carried out, including metals Na and Fe, semiconductors Si and Ge, the classical one -component-plasma, and quantum boson system He^4 . Agreements with experimental data of surface tension is quite reasonable where comparison is possible. In the second part of this dissertation, we have treated several systems consisting of two types of materials with different physical properties, the so-called two-component granular media or binary composites. Materials of this kind often have properties very different from their components. In particular, we have investigated the optical properties of Drude metal-insulator and normal metal-superconductor composites, by use of a computer simulation technique. A real composite system is modeled by a network of resistor -inductor-capacitor. A very fast numerical algorithm, the propagation algorithm, has been applied for our simulations. Many physical results have been obtained from simulations, for example, strong far-infrared absorption due to clusters of small metal particles in a composite, anomalous far -infrared spectrum of a metal-superconductor composite, and anomalous frequency scaling behavior of Swiss-cheese model of a metal-insulator composite. We have also developed an analytic theory of calculating nonlinear susceptibility for a composite whose component is cubic (so-called "Kerr -like") nonlinear material. The approximation entering our theory is similar in spirit of well-known effective -medium approximation for linear composite media. Finally, we have investigated the superconducting transition behavior for a site-diluted superconductive array, one kind of important granular superconductor, using the state-of-art Monte Carlo simulation method. Results of simulation, such as the power law behavior of transition temperature as a function of volume fraction of superconductive grains, are in excellent agreement with recent experimental measurements.

Zeng, Xiao Cheng

326

The stability of the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical criteria are presented for the stability of a hierarchical dynamical n-body system and applied to the problem of the long-term stability of hierarchical planetary and satellite systems in the solar system. The criterion of Zare (1976, 1977) for the stability of a three-body system consisting of a binary around which a third body orbits is introduced, and a statistical empirical approach to the question of the stability of hierarchical dynamic systems of three or more bodies is presented which is based on Zare's criterion and involves the establishment of a set of parameters expressing the disturbances to elliptical orbits. When applied to hierarchical three-body subsets of the solar system and satellite systems, the criterion is observed to be well satisfied, with certain exceptions including the retrograde satellites of Jupiter.

Roy, A. E.

1981-09-01

327

Solar System Exploration: Paper Models for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA offers this website focusing on Solar System Exploration and projects for kids to build paper versions of the "super tough robots are out there exploring our solar system." Using colored, cut and folded pieces of paper, kids can construct models of Cassini, Galileo and many other spacecrafts. Along with the instructions (which need to be downloaded and printed), they provide a rating for level of difficulty as well as information on the spacecraft and its mission. A link to a website devoted to paper modeling provides some basic tips on paper model construction.

328

Earthrise: A Tour of Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthrise site is divided into five mini-sites: The Solar System, which introduces the nine planets of the solar system; The Tour, which is hosted by a planet character named Apollo, and includes brief introductions to each planet; Space Missions, with introductions to the major space missions which have greatly affected the study of astronomy; Discovery, containing a video of Earth from space and text on unusual aspects of the universe such as black holes and dark matter; and the Text Site, for students and researchers who need the facts quickly, without all the graphic hype.

329

Solar system planets observed with Suzaku  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results of solar system planets observed with the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite Suzaku are reviewed. Thanks to the low instrumental background and good energy resolution, X-ray CCDs onboard Suzaku are one of the best probes to study diffuse X-ray emission. An overview of the Suzaku data of Jupiter and Earth is presented, along with preliminary results of Mars. Firstly, diffuse hard X-ray emission is discovered in 1-5 keV at Jovian radiation belts. Its spectrum is represented by a power-law continuum with a photon index of ˜1.4. This emission could originate from inverse-Compton scattering of solar photons by tens MeV electrons. Secondly, variable diffuse soft X-rays are serendipitously found during observations in the directions of the north ecliptic pole and galactic ridge. Good time correlations with the solar wind and emission lines found in the X-ray spectra are firm evidences of a solar wind charge exchange emission with Earth’s exosphere. Thirdly, diffuse X-ray emission from Martian exosphere via the solar wind charge exchange is investigated for the first time at solar minimum. A stringent upper limit on the density of the Martian exosphere is placed from the Suzaku data.

Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ohashi, Takaya; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Terada, Naoki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Futaana, Yoshifumi

2011-02-01

330

Solar internal lighting system with an automated solar tracker for daylight harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports the design and realization of a solar internal lighting system equipped with a solar tracking system. Full visible spectrum solar light has been focussed using a solar concentrator and guided inside the building through optical fiber whose other end is coupled to a fiber texture for lighting in building during day hours. The developed system is found to be an efficient system for interior lighting during daytime.

Kumar, Upkar; Raj, Retheesh; Aaryan, Animesh; Gopalan, Kavitha K.; Nampoori, Vadakedathu P. N.

2013-09-01

331

Topics in the mechanics of self-organizing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-organization, in one of its accepted definitions, is the appearance of non-random structures in a system without explicit constraints from forces outside the system. In this thesis two self-organizing systems are studied from the viewpoint of mechanics. In the first system---semiconductor crystal surfaces---the internal constraints that lead to self-assembly of nanoscale structures on silicon-germanium (SiGe) films are studied. In the second system---actin cytoskeleton---a consequence of dynamic self-organization of actin filaments in the form of motion of micron-sized beads through a cytoplasmic medium is studied. When Ge film is deposited on Si(001) substrate, nanoscale features form on the surface and self-organize by minimizing energy contributions from the surface and the strain resulting from difference in lattice constants of the film and the substrate. Clean Si(001) and Ge(001) surfaces are very similar, but experiments to date have shown that atomic scale defects such as dimer-vacancies self-organize into vacancy lines only on Si(001). Through atomic simulations, we show that the observed difference originate from the magnitude of compressive surface strain which reduces formation energy of the dimer-vacancies. During initial stages of the film deposition, the surface is composed of steps and vacancy lines organized in periodic patterns. Using theory of elasticity and atomic simulations we show that these line defects self-organize due to monopolar nature of steps and dipolar nature of the vacancy lines. This self-organized pattern further develops to form pyramidal islands bounded with (105) facets and high Ge content. Mismatch strain of the island is then reduced by incorporation of Si from the substrate surrounding the island leaving behind trenches whose depth is proportional to the basewidth of the island. Using finite element simulations we show that such a relationship is an outcome of competition between elastic energy and surface energy. Some experimental studies also report observation of steeper (103) and (104) facets on pyramidal islands. Using numerical simulations we derive a phase diagram which shows that the steeper facets are stabilized because they provide better relaxation of mismatch strain with only slight increase in surface energy. In the second system, the actin cytoskeleton is a key structural and propulsion element of eukaryotic cells. Micron-sized "cargoes", which under pathological conditions include bacteria, are propelled by dynamic self-organization of the actin filaments. Recently it is shown that the trajectories of a bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, propelled by actin filaments are periodic; implying that the organization of actin filaments impart an effective force that spins about the axis of the bacterium. We show that the motion of spherical beads is also non-random; the effective force has an additional degree of freedom due to the spherical symmetry of the bead. Agreement of the theoretical trajectories with experimental observations suggest that the actin-based motility can be generally described using deterministic equations. We also propose microscopic basis for the effective force model which can guide development of microscopic theory to predict the long term trajectories of actin propelled objects.

Tambe, Dhananjay

332

Advanced worker protection system. Topical report, Phase I  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system, maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles.

Myers, J.

1995-07-01

333

System integration issues of residential solar photovoltaic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic effects of residential solar PV systems on the utility's revenue, capacity, and energy requirements from the electric utility's perspective are evaluated. The price that it might pay for surplus energy and what it would charge for deficits are compared. The power and energy generated by the solar PV systems reduce the capital and operating costs that would otherwise be incurred by the utility. These avoided costs suggest what the utility might pay for surplus solar PV energy. The avoided costs are evaluated under three integration hypotheses, namely: (1) the utility has no system storage; (2) the utility has system storage; and (3) the solar PV systems are supported by dedicated storage devices, the purpose of which is to minimize sales to and purchases from the utility.

Yamayee, Z. A.; Peschon, J.

1980-03-01

334

Solar Pointing Attitude Rocket Control System /SPARCS/  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SPARCS system is described and its use since Dec. 1967 is reviewed. SPARCS was developed to fulfill a requirement for a lightweight, precision, three-axis pointing control system for solar-sounding rockets. The use of sounding rockets to calibrate satellite instruments before flight for subsequent recovery and orbital flight is noted, along with the calibration of Skylab instruments with sounding rocket payloads. The gyroless SPARCS weights under 36 lb, is 6 in. in diam, and is self-contained regarding electronics, pneumatics, gas supply, electrical power, and coarse solar sensors. A two-axis sensor measures pitch and yaw error relative to the solar vector, and functions by pointing the longitudinal axis toward the radiometric center of the sun. Pointing errors cause voltages which activate pneumatic valves, allowing miniature gas jets to zero the pointing error. SPARCS has been used successfully on 100 missions.

Shigemoto, J. M.

1982-05-01

335

Economic analysis of solar thermal energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Sunshine may be abundant and free, but converting it into a usable form of energy is expensive. Investment decisions, funding of research and development, and commercial applications all rely on economic analysis. This book reviews the spectrum of economic methods that have been developed from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s to analyze the feasibility of solar systems and shows how the use of these techniques have influenced federally sponsored research, development, and demonstration programs. There is a strong emphasis on the use of methods and modeling in studying policy alternatives. The book also reviews applications analysis, net energy analysis, and cost requirements for active and passive heating and cooling, for electric-power generation, and for industrial-process heat. The change in the costs of solar systems over time is one indication of program success, and the book includes a useful summary of the cost histories of various solar programs. 34 refs.

West, R.E.; Kreith, F. (eds.)

1988-01-01

336

Solar System: A Look at the Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Solar System SciPack. It explores the similarities and differences in the planets that make up our solar system. Each planet moves around the Sun in the same direction in a nearly circular orbit, though each planet has its own unique orbital period and speed. The planets vary in size, surface and atmospheric composition, and surface features. In orbit around the planets, we find a great variety of moons, flat rings of rock and ice debris, and/or artificial satellites. Features of many of the planets and their moons show evidence of formation and evolutionary processes similar to those that occur on Earth. These processes include earthquakes, lava flows, erosion, and changes in the atmosphere.Learning Outcomes:� Describe, compare, and contrast the following basic features of the planets in our solar system: size, composition, atmosphere, periods of rotation and revolution, surface features, and ring systems.� Describe the similarities and differences between the terrestrial and Jovian planets.� Describe, compare, and contrast the characteristics of planetary moons in our solar system.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

337

Solar Thermal Power System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the development of a solar thermal power system for oxygen production from lunar regolith. In this solar thermal system, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator array which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the optical waveguide (OW) transmission line made of low loss optical fibers. The OW transmission line directs the solar radiation to the thermal receiver for thermochemical processing of lunar regolith for oxygen production on the lunar surface. We report the results pertaining to: (1) component development status; (2) regolith melting capability; (3) system efficiency; and (4) system weight. Conceptual designs of the solar thermal system for two lunar oxygen production processes are presented.

Nakamura, Takashi; van Pelt, Aaron D.; Gustafson, Robert J.; Clark, Larry

2008-01-01

338

Supernova Debris in the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorites contain clear evidence that isotopes with short half lives (as short as 100,000 years) were present in the cloud of gas and dust (the called solar nebula) from which the Sun and planets formed. Supernovae, the powerful explosions of spent stars, produce elements, including short-lived radioactive isotopes. Given the short lifetimes, these elements must have been added immediately before solids formed in the Solar System, and it is possible that a supernova triggered the collapse of the vast interstellar cloud in which the Solar System formed. However, there is some evidence that two isotopes, aluminum-26 and manganese-53, were not distributed uniformly in the solar nebula. If correct, does this mean that the supernova debris was not mixed thoroughly into the collapsing interstellar cloud? This possibility was tested by Robert H. Nichols, Frank Podosek, and Cristine Jennings (Washington University in St. Louis) and Brad Meyer (Clemson University). They evaluated how thoroughly supernova products were mixed into the solar nebula by searching for the effects on the isotopic make up of other elements. They conclude that the explosive products of a supernova would have been mixed uniformly into the nebula. Thus, either the evidence of heterogeneous distribution of short-lived isotopes is incorrect, or some isotopes were not formed in a supernova, but came from somewhere else. This research project is one of many that link studies of meteorites, astronomical observations, and astrophysical calculations.

Taylor, G. J.

2000-03-01

339

A solar\\/Stirling total energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual design of a solar-powered Stirling engine-driven total energy system (TES) is presented. Analysis results are given for a demonstration system which would supply the total energy needs of an advanced concept multi-unit residential complex. The concept also has application to commercial buildings, schools, hospitals, and shopping centers. The system is designed to make maximum use of Stirling automotive

R. L. Pons; R. J. Fox

1976-01-01

340

Passive vapor transport solar heating systems  

SciTech Connect

In the systems under consideration, refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector and condensed in thermal storage for space or water heating located within the building at a level below that of the collector. Condensed liquid is lifted to an accumulator above the collector by the vapor pressure generated in the collector. Tests of two systems are described, and it is concluded that one of these systems offers distinct advantages.

Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

1985-01-01

341

Review of solar-energy drying systems II: an overview of solar drying technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically-realised designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy

O. V Ekechukwu; B Norton

1999-01-01

342

Northwest Solar Home Book.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wind power is one of the subjects briefly discussed. The main topic of the book is solar energy, or more specifically passive solar energy systems. Several house plans and designs are presented to show the various configurations of passive solar homes. Gr...

S. Fugate J. Raabe

1985-01-01

343

Solar energy system performance evaluation - final report for Honeywell OTS 45, Salt River Project, Phoenix, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 45) at Salt River Project in Phoenix, Arizona, based on the analysis of data collected between April 1981 and March 31, 1982. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 45 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 8208 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 2500-gallon thermal storage tank; two 25-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted water chillers; a forced-draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 8 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 1143 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 3440 MMBtu and provided 241 MMBtu for cooling and 64 MMBtu for heating. The projected net annual electrical energy savings due to the solar system was approximately 40,000 kWh(e).

Mathur, A K

1983-09-01

344

The Systems Analysis and Design Course: An Educators' Assessment of the Importance and Coverage of Topics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines instructors' perceptions regarding the skills and topics that are most important in the teaching of a Systems Analysis and Design ("SAD") course and the class time devoted to each. A large number of Information Systems ("IS") educators at AACSB accredited schools across the United States were surveyed. Shannon's entropy is…

Guidry, Brandi N.; Stevens, David P.; Totaro, Michael W.

2011-01-01

345

An autonomous learning system of maritime disciplines based on topic map  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to alleviate the shortage of maritime education teachers and realize resource sharing to improve education quality, an autonomous learning system based on topic map is designed to realize the organization of heterogeneous knowledge between different maritime disciplines. The system can provide network-based personalized knowledge learning navigation and make recommendations on knowledge learning for learners according to their needs.

Qiang Ma; Yuna Miao; Guangzheng Li

2010-01-01

346

Exploratour - Volcanoes of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visit this Windows to the Universe site for a tour of volcanoes in the solar system. Each page includes a picture with a brief description of the volcano and a link to more information. The tour includes volcanoes from Earth, Mars, the moon, Venus, Io, and Mercury.

2009-07-13

347

Low Cost Solar Energy Collection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fixed, linear, ground based primary reflector was designed for use in a tracking solar energy collection system. The primary reflector was constructed at ground level by slip forming in concrete or stabilized dirt a trough with a segmented one dimension...

C. G. Miller J. B. Stephens

1978-01-01

348

Solar-system abundances of the elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental analyses of the Ogueil Cl meteorite and all previous Cl chondrite analyses were employed to develop a new solar system abundance table, including the standard deviation and number of analyses for each element. The table also comprises the abundances of radioactive and radiogenic nuclides at the present and 4.55 AE ago, as well as abundances by weight in a

E. Anders; M. Ebihara

1982-01-01

349

Solar System Observations with Spitzer Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programs of observations of Solar System bodies conducted in the first year of the operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Guaranteed Observing Time allocations are described. Initial results include the determination of the albedos of a number of Kuiper Belt objects and Centaurs from observations of their flux densities at 24 and 70 mum, and

D. P. Cruikshank; J. A. Stansberry; J. P. Emery; J. van Cleve; Y. R. Fernández; M. W. Werner; G. H. Reike; D. E. Trilling

2006-01-01

350

Environmental Impacts of the Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global energy consumption is expected to increase dramatically in the next decades, driven by rising standards of living and a growing population worldwide. The increased need for more energy will require enormous growth in energy generation capacity, more secure and diversified energy sources, and a successful strategy to tame greenhouse gas emissions. Solar energy systems provide significant environmental benefits in

K. Kaygusuz

2009-01-01

351

Advances in Solar System Magnetohydrodynamics, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the solar system exists in the plasma state (the fourth state of matter). Its subtle nonlinear interaction with the magnetic field can be described by the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Over the past few years this important and complex field of research has been actively pursued and increasingly diversely applied to the fields of geophysics, space physics, and

Eric R. Priest; Alan W. Hood

1991-01-01

352

Recent Goldstone Solar System Radar Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary radar exploration started on the ground with the detection of the Moon in 1946. In recent years, the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has for example made contributions to (i) understanding of the hazards and trafficability at various proposed Mars robotic landing sites, (ii) under-standing of polar water ice for the terrestrial planets and the surfaces of the icy

A. F. Haldemann; L. Benner; B. J. Butler; L. Harcke; R. F. Jurgens; K. W. Larsen; J. Margot; S. J. Ostro; M. A. Slade

2003-01-01

353

Control system for a solar steam generator  

SciTech Connect

A once-through solar steam generator assembly is controlled by a control system wherein the outlet temperature of superheated steam from two independent boiler flow paths is independently controlled to a common set point by a combination of water spray attemperation at the primary superheater outlet of each flow path and the control of feedwater flow through the independent flow paths.

Zadiraka, A.J.

1981-10-27

354

Control system for a solar steam generator  

SciTech Connect

A once-through solar steam generator assembly is controlled by a control system wherein the outlet temperature of superheated steam from two independent boiler flow paths is independently controlled to a common set point by a combination of water spray attemperation at the primary superheater outlet of each flow path and the control of feedwater flow through the independent flow paths.

Zadiraka, A.J.

1981-09-15

355

Integration of Solar Ponds with Agricultural Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar ponds have promise for use in many parts of the agricultural system. The pond design can be adapted for these applications in many different climates. Specific examples are given for grain drying in both temperate and humid tropical conditions, gree...

J. R. Hull

1987-01-01

356

Assessment of a Solar System Walk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The idea of sending students and the general public on a walk through a scale model of the solar system in an attempt to instill an appreciation of the relative scales of the sizes of the objects compared to the immense distances between them is certainly not new. A good number of such models exist, including one on the National Mall in…

LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.; Kirchner, Brian

2010-01-01

357

The Formation of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About 4.6 billion years ago, a cloud of interstellar dust, ice crystals, and gas collapsed to form a rapidly rotating disk with a young sun at its center: our solar system. This comic strip, a supplement to the Hall of Meteorites Educator's Guide, explains the processes that led to the creation of the planets and the asteroid belt.

358

The Dimensions of the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A few new wrinkles have been added to the popular activity of building a scale model of the solar system. Students can learn about maps and scaling using easily accessible online resources that include satellite images. This is accomplished by taking advantage of some of the special features of Google Earth. This activity gives students a much…

Schneider, Stephen E.; Davis, Kathleen S.

2007-01-01

359

Refined model of solar space cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulation was used to study the feasibility of a solar-cooled residential housing unit in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The study has progressed through a series of system models; emphasis here is placed on the development of the refined model which describes the operation of the WF 36 absorption chiller. It is noted that the results of the

R. L. Jenks; A. Kremheller; W. A. Rogers; R. W. Jones

1978-01-01

360

Sample return from small solar system bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

With plans for multiple sample return missions in the next decade, NASA requested guidance from the National Research Council's SSB on how to treat samples returned from solar system bodies such as planetary satellites, asteroids and comets. A special Task Group assessed the potential for a living entity to be included in return samples from various bodies as well as

L. Orgel; M. A'Hearn; J. Bada; J. Baross; C. Chapman; M. Drake; J. Kerridge; M. Race; M. Sogin; S. Squyres

2000-01-01

361

JPL Solar System Dynamics WWW Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new JPL solar system dynamics WWW site is being made available to the public at ``http:\\/\\/ssd.jpl.nasa.gov\\/''. The site includes, but is not limited to, the following features: * simple ephemeris generation for planets, satellites, asteroids and comets * physical and orbital parameters for the planets and their satellites * asteroid and comet observer tools for object identification and listing

A. B. Chamberlin; D. K. Yeomans; P. W. Chodas; J. D. Giorgini; R. A. Jacobson; M. S. Keesey; J. H. Lieske; S. J. Ostro; E. M. Standish; R. N. Wimberly

1997-01-01

362

Optics for future solar system exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optics technology necessary for future solar system exploration is discussed. To satisfy the various mission objectives, optical components need to be of low weight, provide adequate spatial resolution and mapping coverage, provide necessary spectral resolution, provide means to perform adaptable mapping spectrometry, operate under low light levels, provide color images of high fidelity and operate under high temperatures. Future

D. D. Norris; F. E. Vescelus; J. B. Wellman

1980-01-01

363

Advanced instrumentation for Solar System gravitational physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar System is a complex laboratory for testing gravitational physics. Indeed, its scale and hierarchical structure make possible a wide range of tests for gravitational theories, studying the motion of both natural and artificial objects. The usual methodology makes use of tracking information related to the bodies, fitted by a suitable dynamical model. Different equations of motion are provided

Roberto Peron; G. Bellettini; S. Berardi; A. Boni; C. Cantone; A. Coradini; D. G. Currie; S. Dell'Agnello; G. O. Delle Monache; E. Fiorenza; M. Garattini; V. Iafolla; N. Intaglietta; C. Lefevre; C. Lops; R. March; M. Martini; S. Nozzoli; G. Patrizi; L. Porcelli; A. Reale; F. Santoli; R. Tauraso; R. Vittori

2010-01-01

364

Dust environment in the outer Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of the first Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) object in 1992, more than 600 EKB objects have been discovered so far. Collisions among EKB objects could produce a significant amount of dust in the outer Solar System. Due to interactions with the giant planets, the EKB dust disk has non-uniform distributions in both radial and azimuthal directions. Some of

J.-C. Liou

2003-01-01

365

Accurate Astrometry in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS) has been providing highly accurate astrometry to the Solar Systems Dynamics (SSD) group at JPL since 1991, in support of numerous planetary missions and observing efforts. In 2005, NOFS began a new phase of this work by expanding the range of possible targets, investigating the magnitude variability of asteroids observed at NOFS, and

Alice K. B. Monet

2010-01-01

366

Cratering Rates in the Outer Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess the sizes and numbers of the comets, and discuss impact rates by comets and asteroids on planets and satellites throughout the outer solar system. We do some other stuff too, but you can read about that in the abstract.

Zahnle, K.; Schenk, P.; Dones, L.; Levison, H.

2003-03-01

367

Planetary accretion in the inner Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike gas-giant planets, we lack examples of terrestrial planets orbiting other Sun-like stars to help us understand how they formed. We can draw hints from elsewhere though. Astronomical observations of young stars; the chemical and isotopic compositions of Earth, Mars and meteorites; and the structure of the Solar System all provide clues to how the inner rocky planets formed. These

John E. Chambers

2004-01-01

368

Solar system events at high spatial resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until relatively recent advances in technology, astronomical observations from the ground were limited in image resolution by the blurring effects of earth's atmosphere. The blur extent, ranging typically from 0.5 to 2 seconds of arc at the best astronomical sights, precluded ground-based observations of the details of the solar system's moons, asteroids, and outermost planets. With the maturing of a

K H Baines; D T Gavel; A M Getz; S G Gibbartd; B MacIntosh; C E Max; C P McKay; E F Young; I de Pater

1999-01-01

369

Meteorites from the Outer Solar System?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the possibility that a small fraction of meteorites originate from the outer solar system, i.e., from the Kuiper belt, the Oort cloud, or from the Jupiter-family comet reservoir. Dynamical studies and meteor observations show that it is possible for cometary solid fragments to reach Earth with a velocity not unlike that of asteroidal meteorites. Cosmochemical data and orbital

Matthieu Gounelle; Alessandro Morbidelli; P. A. Bland; P. Spurny; E. D. Young; Mark Sephton

2008-01-01

370

Collisional processes in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosive growth of knowledge in the field of space exploration and, in particular the interdisciplinary character of the subject of collisions in the solar system, put the scientific interest of planetary and galactic astronomers, as well as specialists in geophysics, dynamics, and cosmochemistry in a common focus. Obvious highlights include the explosion in the rate of discoveries of Kuiper

Mikhail Ya. Marov; Hans Rickman

2001-01-01

371

The golden age of solar system exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and evolution of the NASA program of solar system exploration of the past two decades are discussed. The past and possible future roles of national prestige, vision, knowledge and applications as the motivations for the United States space exploration program are examined. The origin of the technology and scientific basis for space exploration by the United States is

N. W. Hinners

1981-01-01

372

Topics in viscous potential flow of two-phase systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-phase flows are ubiquitous, from natural and domestic environments to industrial settings. However, due to their complexity, modeling these fluid systems remains a challenge from both the perspective of fundamental questions on the dynamics of an individual, smooth interface, and the perspective of integral analyses, which involve averaging of the conservation laws over large domains, thereby missing local details of the flow. In this work, we consider a set of five problems concerning the linear and non-linear dynamics of an interface or free surface and the study of cavitation inception. Analyses are carried out by assuming the fluid motion to be irrotational, that is, with zero vorticity, and the fluids to be viscous, although results from rotational analyses are presented for the purpose of comparison. The problems considered here are the following: First, we analyze the non-linear deformation and break-up of a bubble or drop immersed in a uniaxial extensional flow of an incompressible viscous fluid. The method of viscous potential flow, in which the flow field is irrotational and viscosity enters through the balance of normal stresses at the interface, is used in the analysis. The governing equations are solved numerically to track the motion of the interface by coupling a boundary element method with a time-integration routine. When break-up occurs, the break-up time computed here is compared with results obtained elsewhere from numerical simulations of the Navier.Stokes equations, which thus keeps vorticity in the analysis, for several combinations of the relevant dimensionless parameters of the problem. For the bubble, for Weber numbers 3 ? We ? 6, predictions from viscous potential flow shows good agreement with the results from the Navier.Stokes equations for the bubble break-up time, whereas for larger We, the former underpredicts the results given by the latter. Including viscosity increases the break-up time with respect to the inviscid case. For the drop, as expected, increasing the viscous effects of the irrotational motion produces large, elongated drops that take longer to break up in comparison with results for inviscid fluids. In the second problem, we compute the force acting on a spherical bubble of variable radius moving within a liquid with an outer spherical boundary. Viscous potential flow and the dissipation method, which is another purely irrotational approach stemming from the mechanical energy equation, are both systematically implemented. This exposes the role of the choice of the outer boundary condition for the stress on the drag, an issue not explained in the literature known to us. By means of the well-known "cell-model" analysis, the results for the drag are then applied to the case of a swarm of rising bubbles having a certain void fraction. Computations from the dissipation method for the drag coefficient and rise velocity for a bubble swarm agree with numerical solutions; evaluation against experimental data for high Reynolds and low Weber numbers shows that all the models considered, including those given in the literature, overpredict the bubble swarm rise velocity. In the next two problems, we apply the analysis of viscous potential flow and the dissipation method to study the linear dynamics of waves of "small" amplitude acting either on a plane or on a spherical interface separating a liquid from a dynamically inactive fluid. It is shown that the viscous irrational theories exhibit the features of the wave dynamics by comparing with the exact solution. The range of parameters for which good agreement with the exact solution exists is presented. The general trend shows that for long waves the dissipation method results in the best approximation, whereas for short waves, even for very viscous liquids, viscous potential flow demonstrates better agreement. Finally, the problem of cavitation inception for the flow of a viscous liquid past a stationary sphere is studied by means of the theory of stress-induced cavitation. The flow field for a single phase n

Padrino Inciarte, Juan Carlos

373

An efficient method of Solar Panel Energy Measurement System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Panel has its wide use starting from a simple 5 W diode lamp to a few kW ac drives. A solar panel with a battery and a charge controller and other auxiliary devices like dc to ac converters constitute a Solar Home System (SHS). The charge controller also known as solar panel voltage regulator, which is used to monitor

G. Mostafa; F. Khan

2009-01-01

374

Solar Heating System Installed at Jackson, Tennessee. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solar energy heating system installed at the Coca-Cola Bottling Works in Jackson, Tennessee is described. The system consists of 9480 square feet of Owens-Illinois evacuated tubular solar collectors with attached specular cylindrical reflectors and wi...

1980-01-01

375

Analytical Models for Solar-Photovoltaic Energy-System Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analytical models for components used in solar photovoltaic energy systems have been incorporated into subroutines that are part of the solar energy system analysis computer program SOLSYS. Array thermal models calculate cell temperature and illumination ...

M. W. Edenburn

1981-01-01

376

Solar Thermal Power Systems Based on Optical Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technical and economic feasibility study of a solar thermal power system based upon optical transmission of collected solar energy to a central absorber and boiler unit is presented. The study includes system definition, modeling, and preliminary compon...

L. L. Vant-Hull

1974-01-01

377

Scientists Make New Discovery About Planets Outside Our Solar System  

NSF Publications Database

... New Discovery About Planets Outside Our Solar System June 9, 2005 Just within the past 10 years ... New Discovery About Planets Outside Our Solar System Who: Michael Turner, head of NSF's Directorate ...

378

Solar System Observations and Future Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims at placing infrared (IR) and submillimeter (submm) observations of the Solar Sytem in the context of future space missions. First, the information that mm, submm and IR observations bring on planets, satellites and comets is reviewed. Then, some lines of future research in this field are explored, and a number of observations that could enhance our understanding of Solar System objects are suggested. Finally, the adequacy of future space missions in this respect is discussed. The specific cases of ISO, FIRST and the proposed Edison are considered.

Lellouch, Emmanuel

1995-10-01

379

Worlds in interaction: small bodies and planets of the solar system. Proceedings. Meeting on Small Bodies in the Solar System and their Interactions with the Planets, Mariehamn (Finland), 8 - 12 Aug 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

This meeting was devoted to small bodies in the Solar System and their interactions with the planets. The contributions covered topics as near-Earth objects (NEO), cometary evolution, impact phenomena, close encouters, hazards in the NEO system, and meteoroid streams in relation to comets and minor planets.

H. Rickman; M. J. Valtonen

1996-01-01

380

Design of solar heating and cooling systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a method for making an energy and an economic cost\\/benefit analysis of solar energy systems. A graphical method is presented for evaluating the performance of solar domestic hot water systems, solar heating systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Methods for selecting the optimum collector area based on benefit-to-cost ratio and for systemtically making detailed design calculations

D. M. Joncich; D. J. Leverenz; D. C. Hittle; G. N. Walton

1978-01-01

381

Chemistry of the solar system: An elementary introduction to cosmochemistry  

SciTech Connect

An introduction is presented to the chemistry of the solar system. The qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of the solar system is reviewed, and the elemental synthesis processes that led to the formation of the solar system are discussed. The chemical processes of the primordial mixture from which the solar system formed are examined, and the resulting chemical composition of meteorites, asteroids, comets, and planets is described. 137 references.

Suess, H.E.

1987-01-01

382

Polymeric nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems for the treatment of dermatological diseases.  

PubMed

Human skin not only functions as a permeation barrier (mainly because of the stratum corneum layer) but also provides a unique delivery pathway for therapeutic and other active agents. These compounds penetrate via intercellular, intracellular, and transappendageal routes, resulting in topical delivery (into skin strata) and transdermal delivery (to subcutaneous tissues and into the systemic circulation). Passive and active permeation enhancement methods have been widely applied to increase the cutaneous penetration. The pathology, pathogenesis, and topical treatment approaches of dermatological diseases, such as psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and skin cancer, are then discussed. Recent literature has demonstrated that nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems can be successful in treating these skin conditions. The studies are reviewed starting with the nanoparticles based on natural polymers especially chitosan, followed by those made of synthetic, degradable (aliphatic polyesters), and nondegradable (polyacrylates) polymers; emphasis is given to nanospheres made of polymers derived from naturally occurring metabolites, the tyrosine-derived nanospheres (TyroSpheres™). In summary, the nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems combine the advantages of both the nanosized drug carriers and the topical approach, and are promising for the treatment of skin diseases. For the perspectives, the penetration of ultra-small nanoparticles (size smaller than 40 nm) into skin strata, the targeted delivery of the encapsulated drugs to hair follicle stem cells, and the combination of nanoparticles and microneedle array technologies for special applications such as vaccine delivery are discussed. PMID:23386536

Zhang, Zheng; Tsai, Pei-Chin; Ramezanli, Tannaz; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

2013-02-05

383

Receiver System: Lessons Learned From Solar Two  

SciTech Connect

The Boeing Company fabricated the Solar Two receiver as a subcontractor for the Solar Two project. The receiver absorbed sunlight reflected from the heliostat field. A molten-nitrate-salt heat transfer fluid was pumped from a storage tank at grade level, heated from 290 to 565 C by the receiver mounted on top of a tower, then flowed back down into another storage tank. To make electricity, the hot salt was pumped through a steam generator to produce steam that powered a conventional Rankine steam turbine/generator. This evaluation identifies the most significant Solar Two receiver system lessons learned from the Mechanical Design, Instrumentation and Control, Panel Fabrication, Site Construction, Receiver System Operation, and Management from the perspective of the receiver designer/manufacturer. The lessons learned on the receiver system described here consist of two parts: the Problem and one or more identified Solutions. The appendix summarizes an inspection of the advanced receiver panel developed by Boeing that was installed and operated in the Solar Two receiver.

LITWIN, ROBERT Z.; PACHECO, JAMES E.

2002-03-01

384

Design Considerations for Residential Solar Heating and Cooling Systems Utilizing Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As solar heating systems become a commercial reality, greater efforts are now being employed to incorporate solar cooling components in order to obtain a complete solar heating and cooling system, and thus take advantage of the cost-effectiveness of year-...

D. S. Ward J. C. Ward

1977-01-01

385

Chronology of the Solar System's Oldest Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the origins of our solar system and, by proxy, other planetary systems, depends on knowing accurately and precisely the timing and tempo of the transformation of the disk of gas and dust to the solids that formed the planets. Relative ages based on the short-lived nuclide 26Al indicate that high-temperature calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs) formed before lower temperature chondrules but

James N. Connelly; Yuri Amelin; Alexander N. Krot; Martin Bizzarro

2008-01-01

386

Solar hydrogen from photovoltaic-electrolyzer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model has been developed to determine and optimize the thermal and economical performance of large scale photovoltaic-electrolyzer systems, either with fixed or sun tracking panels using hourly solar radiation data. It has been found that the overall thermal efficiency of photovoltaic-electrolyzer systems may be as high as 10.85% with sun tracking panels and 10.33% with fixed panels. The

E. Bilgen

2001-01-01

387

Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic\\/thermal (PV\\/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV\\/Ts)

Y. Tripanagnostopoulos; M. Souliotis; Th. Makris

2010-01-01

388

Breakeven costs of storage in optimized solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of an analysis of the breakeven cost, or value, of energy storage to solar energy systems. The value of storage depends strongly both on the solar fraction of the solar energy system in which the storage is employed and on the cost of the collectors used in the system. Various strategies for dealing with this

R Leigh

1982-01-01

389

Analysis of integrated photovoltaic-thermal systems using solar concentrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated photovoltaic-thermal system using solar concentrators utilizes the solar radiation spectrum in the production of electrical and thermal energy. The electrical conversion efficiency of this system decreases with increasing solar cell temperature. Since a high operating temperature is desirable to maximize the quality of thermal output of the planned integrated system, a proper choice of the operating temperature for

Yusoff

1983-01-01

390

Simulation analysis of solar radiation about ejector refrigeration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper establish a computation program of solar ejector refrigeration system based on the EES software, analyze the influence of the solar radiation on the performance of ejector refrigeration system, research shows that: in a certain operating conditions, with the increase of the solar radiation, the system COP show the trend of first increased and then downward; the value of

Zheng Hui-fan; Fan Xiao-wei

2010-01-01

391

Voriconazole Concentration in Human Aqueous Humor and Plasma during Topical or Combined Topical and Systemic Administration for Fungal Keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voriconazole (VRC) is an antifungal drug that effectively treats keratitis caused by yeasts and molds when administered orally. We retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes and plasma and aqueous humor drug concentrations in five patients with fungal keratitis and one patient with posttraumatic endophthalmitis who were treated with VRC. VRC was administered either topically (1% eye drops every hour) or orally (400

Michael A. Thiel; Annelies S. Zinkernagel; Jurgen Burhenne; Claude Kaufmann; Walter E. Haefeli

2007-01-01

392

Development of Experienced Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Models of the Solar System and the Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper investigates the developing pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced science teachers in their first few years of teaching a new science syllabus in the Dutch secondary education system. We aimed to identify the content and structure of the PCK for a specific topic in the new syllabus, "Models of the Solar System and the…

Henze, Ineke; van Driel, Jan H.; Verloop, Nico

2008-01-01

393

Design and operation of solar thermal heat transfer systems  

SciTech Connect

The importance of heat transfer systems in the collection and use of solar energy is discussed. The success or failure of many solar energy systems has been determined by the design of the heat transfer system. This report includes a short summary of some of the DOE sponsored solar industrial process heat sites. From the design, construction, and operation of these systems many lessons were learned which will be important to designers and potential users of solar thermal systems. Also included is a discussion of solar collector foundation over-design that has increased the collector system costs.

Rush, E.E.

1985-01-01

394

Solar energy system, Baltimore County Jail, Towson, Maryland. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Baltimore County Jail solar system incorporates four independent piping systems: (1) glycol loop system; (2) solar water system; (3) chilled water system; and (4) domestic cold and hot water system. This final report includes: final system description; construction costs; as-build drawings; acceptance test; control drawings; and product information.

Not Available

1984-02-20

395

Beyond the Solar System: Expanding the Universe in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This DVD combines the latest scientific and educational research to help teachers in grades 8-12 deepen their own and their studentsâ understanding of our universe and of the nature of science. Produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in association with NASA, Beyond the Solar System is filled with video, print, and online resources. It is designed for Earth and space science educators, physical science educators, professional development providers, and classroom use. The National Science Education Standards includes the topic of origin and evolution of the universe as part of the essential content of Earth and space science understanding. Yet providing concrete, inquiry-based experiences for students to learn these concepts can be a challenge for teachers. Beyond the Solar System contains more than two hours of video, organized into two modular strands of material -- science content, and teaching and learning resources. These are intended to promote greater understanding of the scientific concepts through discussion and reflection, activities, and application of the ideas to teaching. Also included are lesson plans, student guides, assessments, content background, summaries of relevant standards, and links to further resources. These instructional materials are provided in PDF format and can be printed from a computer.

Dussault, Mary

396

Topical immune modulation (TIM): a novel approach to the immunotherapy of systemic disease.  

PubMed

In this article, we present the concept of topical immune modulation, or TIM. TIM is based on the observation that skin contact sensitizing agents such as poison ivy, poison oak and dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) are potent stimulants of the cellular immune system that combats viruses and other pathogens. We discuss the evolution of DNCB as a therapeutic modality in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and we explore the mechanism by which DNCB directs the immune response. The potential use of topical immune modulators in autoimmune disease and vaccine development is also delineated. TIM represents a novel approach to immunotherapy that should have widespread application for immunologic diseases. PMID:9419021

Stricker, R B; Goldberg, B; Epstein, W L

1997-12-01

397

Study of combined \\/photovoltaic-thermal\\/ solar energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis of a combined photovoltaic-thermal energy system for converting solar energy is presented. Optical concentration is employed to intensify the available solar energy density. The thermal energy extraction works both to cool the solar cells and to provide heat energy. Overall system efficiencies (total output energy, both thermal and electrical, divided by the available insolation) are shown to

R. C. Neville

1981-01-01

398

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition, alteration...existing or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2010-04-01

399

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition, alteration...existing or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2009-04-01

400

24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the residence due to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition, alteration...existing or new structure which is designed to utilize wind energy or solar energy either of the active type...

2013-04-01

401

Roles for solar thermal conversion systems in our energy economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NSF solar thermal conversion program, which is at a conceptual analysis and exploratory research level, is outlined with respect to mission, system, subsystem, and components and materials. Major conclusions are that solar thermal conversion electrical powerplants are most competitive with fossil fuels powerplants for intermediate or peaking power applications, and that central receiver solar thermal systems appear to offer

D. F. Spencer; A. B. Greenberg

1975-01-01

402

A hybrid solar desalination and water heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hybrid character of a solar desalination system consisting of a “greenhouse”- type conventional solar still coupled with a solar collector field and hot water storage tank was investigated. This system shows significantly higher distilled water output compared with that of an uncoupled still, and moreover has the advantage of supplying hot water from its storage tank. Through experimental data

K. Voropoulos; E. Mathioulakis; V. Belessiotis

2004-01-01

403

The human exploration of the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a detailed program plan for the human exploration of the solar system. This thrust is clearly the next step in the long history of human exploration of the unknown. The program proposed here contemplates a return to the Moon by 1995. The principal purpose of the return mission is to look for water that might be used to fuel subsequent missions to Mars and to other planets in the solar system. Alternative program plans are developed in detail for the first trip to the planet Mars in case water is found on the Moon (Case A) and in case it is not found as well (Case B). In both cases, the first trip to Mars would be made in the year 2003. The total run-out cost of the proposed program is between $90 billion (Case B) and $125 billion (Case A) for the next fourteen years.

Bell, Lisa; Bilby, Curt; Boyd, John W.; Davis, George; Korsmeyer, David; Mark, Hans; McCuster, Todd; O'Connor, Brendan; Pinon, Elfego; Frizzell, Andrew

404

Solar energy collecting and utilization system  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collecting and utilization system is provided which comprises a lens matrix formed by a plurality of lens units disposed in a generally planar array. Each unit comprises a plurality of lenses arranged in a dome-like configuration and having a common focal length. A solar heat collection surface, formed by a thin metallic (E.G. Copper) sheet, is shaped to conform to the curve defined by a line drawn through the focal points of the lenses. A viscous liquid (E.G., a vegetable oil) is circulated in contact with the heat collecting foil to extract heat therefrom. A back-up system includes a plurality of infrared lamps and associated lenses which focus the light from the lamps onto a further heat collecting surface in contact with the circulating, heat extracting liquid.

Ziemann, R.W.

1982-07-27

405

Exploring the Planets: Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers information that will allow students to see just how big each planet and its major satellites are relative to each other in the scale model of the Solar System. Students will see where the planets are in relation to the Sun and to each other and learn just how big the Sun is compared to all the planets in our Solar System. Sections at this site include Planetary Physical Data, Planetary Satellites Physical Data, Relative Sizes of the Planets, Relative Planetary Distances from the Sun, and the Size of the Sun. In addition, each planet has an individual online section that gives an overview of what has been learned through imagery and data obtained from Earth-based and spacecraft exploration.

406

The solar system abundance of tin  

SciTech Connect

The elemental abundance of tin has been determined by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique for four carbonaceous chondrites, including the Cl chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna. A solar system abundance of 3.98 (normalized to Si = 10{sup 6} atoms) can be derived from these data, which is in excellent agreement with the presently accepted value. Recently, a theoretical value of 2.82 {plus minus} 0.21 (Si = 10{sup 6} atoms) has been proposed for the abundance of tin based on an s-process nucleosynthesis model. This value is 26% lower than the presently accepted solar system abundance. The present data confirm the higher value for tin and indicate that a reexamination of the assumptions on which the nucleosynthetic value is based is required.

Loss, R.D.; Rosman, K.K.R.; De Laeter, J.R. (Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth (Australia))

1989-04-01

407

Dark matter chaos in the Solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the capture of Galactic dark matter particles in the Solar system produced by rotation of Jupiter. It is shown that the capture cross-section is much larger than the area of the Jupiter orbit being inversely diverging at small particle energy. We show that the dynamics of captured particles is chaotic and is well described by a simple symplectic dark map. This dark map description allows us to simulate the scattering and dynamics of 1014 dark matter particles during the lifetime of the Solar system and to determine the dark matter density profile as a function of distance from the Sun. The mass of captured dark matter in the radius of the Neptune orbit is estimated to be 2 × 1015g. The radial density of captured dark matter is found to be approximately constant behind the Jupiter orbit being similar to the density profile found in galaxies.

Lages, J.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

2013-03-01

408

Optical waveguide system for solar power applications in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we will discuss an innovative optical system for solar power applications in space. In this system solar radiation is collected by the concentrator array which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the optical waveguide (OW) transmission line made of low loss optical fibers. The OW transmission line directs the solar radiation to the place of solar power utilization such as: the thermochemical receiver for processing of lunar regolith for oxygen production; or the plant growth facility where the solar light is used for biomass production.

Nakamura, Takashi

2009-08-01

409

Proceedings of solar `93. Technical papers  

SciTech Connect

The American Solar Energy Society conducts the National Solar Energy Conference as an annual forum for exchange of information about advances in solar energy technologies, programs, and concepts. Included in the Solar 93 program were the following topics: photovoltaic systems; utility power generation and implementation issues; solar thermal applications; solar water heating; solar heating and cooling systems; hydrogen and solar fuels; heat and mass transfer processes; renewable resource data and applications; economics of solar energy commercialization; government and community systems of implementation; and education. A total of 97 papers were indexed separately for the data base.

Burley, S.; Arden, M.E. [eds.

1993-08-01

410

Solar simulator for concentrator photovoltaic systems.  

PubMed

A solar simulator for measuring performance of large area concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules is presented. Its illumination system is based on a Xenon flash light and a large area collimator mirror, which simulates natural sun light. Quality requirements imposed by the CPV systems have been characterized: irradiance level and uniformity at the receiver, light collimation and spectral distribution. The simulator allows indoor fast and cost-effective performance characterization and classification of CPV systems at the production line as well as module rating carried out by laboratories. PMID:18795026

Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

2008-09-15

411

Distribution of Propranolol in Periocular Tissues: A Comparison of Topical and Systemic Administration  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose Oral propranolol has become a promising treatment of capillary hemangiomas (CHs) despite concerns of side effects associated with systemic beta-blockers. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of propranolol in periocular tissues and in plasma after topical application of propranolol as compared with intravenous and oral administration of propranolol. Methods Each rabbit received propranolol as ophthalmic solution (1%) in one eye (1.5?mg dose), intravenous injection (1.5?mg dose), or commercially available propranolol oral solution (5?mg dose). The periocular tissues (e.g., eyelids and extraocular muscles) and blood were collected and assayed for propranolol. Results After topical instillation of 1.5?mg propranolol, high amounts of propranolol were rapidly delivered to the eyelids and extraocular muscles (4?32??g/g at 1?h after dosing). The drug in these tissues was slowly cleared, and significant amounts of the drug (>0.4??g/g) were still present at 24?h after the topical application. After oral administration of a clinically relevant dose of 5?mg propranolol, the drug concentrations in the periocular tissues were relatively low (<0.4??g/g) at 1?h after dosing and generally undetectable at 8?h after dosing. After an intravenous injection of 1.5?mg propranolol, the drug concentrations in the eyelids and extraocular muscles were in the range of 0.2?1??g/g at 1?h after dosing. The plasma concentration of the drug after the intravenous injection was significantly higher than that after topical application of the same dose. The higher drug concentrations in the periocular tissues of the treated eyes as compared with untreated eyes suggest direct penetration of the drug into the periocular tissues from the administration site after topical application. Conclusions Topical administration can provide increased concentrations of propranolol in the periocular tissues and, thus, is superior to systemic administration for the treatment of periocular CH.

Yang, Michael B.; Liu, Hongzhuo; Li, S. Kevin

2011-01-01

412

Integrated thin-film solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for small and lightweight modular power systems is growing rapidly as the space science community continues to move toward smaller and less costly spacecraft (e.g., nanosatellites). Thus the use of lightweight thin-film photovoltaic solar cell arrays for power generation is an attractive possibility. Thin-film lithium ion energy storage with its large power densities and long cycling lifetimes should

R. P. Raffaelle; J. D. Harris; D. Hehemann; D. Scheiman; G. Rybicki; A. F. Hepp

2000-01-01

413

Atmospheric Electrification in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric electrification is not a purely terrestrial phenomenon: all Solar System planetary atmospheres become slightly\\u000a electrified by cosmic ray ionisation. There is evidence for lightning on Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and it is possible\\u000a on Mars, Venus and Titan. Controversy surrounds the role of atmospheric electricity in physical climate processes on Earth;\\u000a here, a comparative approach is employed to

Karen L. Aplin

2006-01-01

414

Induced Magnetic Fields in Solar System Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic induction is a powerful technique to study the electrical conductivity of the interior of the Earth and other\\u000a solar system bodies. Information about the electrical conductivity structure can provide strong constraints on the associated\\u000a internal composition of planetary bodies. Here we give a review of the basic principles of the electromagnetic induction technique\\u000a and discuss its application to various

Joachim Saur; Fritz M. Neubauer; Karl-Heinz Glassmeier

2010-01-01

415

A Quick Guideto the SolarSystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar system still remains a defining part of many an amateur astronomer's interest in the universe. These days, however,\\u000a actual viewing of these subjects is being subjugated increasingly to the more indirect experience of CCD imaging. Effectively,\\u000a this has taken much of the human element, and more particularly, the ready accessibility of these subjects, out of the equation.\\u000a Some

Antony Cooke

416

Solar system planets observed with Suzaku  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent results of solar system planets observed with the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite Suzaku are reviewed. Thanks to the low instrumental background and good energy resolution, X-ray CCDs onboard Suzaku are one of the best probes to study diffuse X-ray emission. An overview of the Suzaku data of Jupiter and Earth is presented, along with preliminary results of Mars. Firstly,

Yuichiro Ezoe; Kumi Ishikawa; Takaya Ohashi; Noriko Y. Yamasaki; Kazuhisa Mitsuda; Ryuichi Fujimoto; Yoshizumi Miyoshi; Naoki Terada; Yasunobu Uchiyama; Yoshifumi Futaana

2011-01-01

417

Electron radiation belts of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address factors dictating similarities and differences between solar system radiation belts, we present comparisons between relativistic electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose observed electron spectra with the highest intensities near ?1 MeV and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP). For evaluating the

Barry Mauk; Nicola Fox

2010-01-01

418

Advanced instrumentation for Solar System gravitational physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar System is a complex laboratory for testing gravitational physics. Indeed, its scale and hierarchical structure make possible a wide range of tests for gravitational theories, studying the motion of both natural and artificial objects. The usual methodology makes use of tracking information related to the bodies, fitted by a suitable dynamical model. Different equations of motion are provided by different theories, which can be therefore tested and compared. Future exploration scenarios show the possibility of placing deep-space probes near the Sun or in outer Solar System, thereby extending the available experimental data sets. In particular, the Earth-Moon is the most accurately known gravitational three-body laboratory, which is undergoing a new, strong wave of research and exploration (both robotic and manned). In addition, the benefits of a synergetic study of planetary science and gravitational physics are of the greatest importance (as shown by the success of the Apollo program), especially in the Earth-Moon, Mars-Phobos, Jovian and Saturnian sub-suystems. This scenarios open critical issues regarding the quality of the available dynamical models, i.e. their capability of fitting data without an excessive number of empirical hypotheses. A typical case is represented by the non-gravitational phenomena, which in general are difficult to model. More generally, gravitation tests with Lunar Laser Ranging, inner or outer Solar System probes and the appearance of the so-called 'anomalies'(like the one indicated by the Pioneers), whatever their real origin (either instrumental effects or due to new physics), show the necessity of a coordinated improvement of tracking and modelization techniques. A common research path will be discussed, employing the development and use of advanced instrumentation to cope with current limitations of Solar System gravitational tests. In particular, the use of high-sensitivity accelerometers, combined with microwave and laser tracking, will be discussed.

Peron, Roberto; Bellettini, G.; Berardi, S.; Boni, A.; Cantone, C.; Coradini, A.; Currie, D. G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Fiorenza, E.; Garattini, M.; Iafolla, V.; Intaglietta, N.; Lefevre, C.; Lops, C.; March, R.; Martini, M.; Nozzoli, S.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Reale, A.; Santoli, F.; Tauraso, R.; Vittori, R.

2010-05-01

419

Animation of the Origin of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation depicts the solar system forming from an immense rotating cloud of gas and dust called the solar nebula and the planets forming by accumulating material within the swirling currents of the cloud.

Terc, Center F.

420

Optical Diagnostic System for Solar Sails: Phase 1 Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solar sail diagnostics system has a number of potential uses, including: (1) Determining whether the solar sail is configured and behaving as models predict; (2) Answering questions that cannot be confidently answered without a flight test; (3) Collecti...

R. S. Pappa J. R. Blandino D. W. Caldwell J. A. Carroll

2004-01-01

421

Survivable solar power-generating systems for use with spacecraft  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar power-generating system for use on board spacecraft. It comprises: optical means positioned to collect and concentrate solar energy flux; a flexible solar energy flux transmission line for conducting the concentrated solar energy flux towards a solar energy converter; solar energy conversion means including an array of photovoltaic cells for converting the solar energy flux to electrical power to be applied to on-board equipment of the spacecraft; a protective enclosure positioned about the photovoltaic cells for substantially shielding the photovoltaic cells from destructive radiation and particulate matter. This patent also describes the system wherein the energy conversion means further includes devices for converting solar energy flux into other forms of energy. It comprises: optical switch means for selectively distributing the gathered solar energy flux to various ones of the devices in accordance with the needs of the on-board equipment.

Nakamura, T.

1992-02-18

422

Extreme Solar System in the Undergraduate Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest challenges for science educators today is to engage non-science students in the scientific process - to help them realize that science is cool, interesting, and fun. With NASA’s Year of the Solar System beginning in October 2010, a course that explores some of the most extreme places in our Solar System may be just the hook needed to improve attitudes toward science. We use three unique inquiry-based approaches in a freshman-level introductory science course to engage non-science students: 1) Emphasis on “extreme” phenomena in our Solar System, 2) Research papers and oral presentations in which “extreme experts” (students) try to convince a mock NASA panel where the next planetary mission should be, and 3) Science Portfolios in which students ask their own scientific questions, design their own scientific experiments, and evaluate their own scientific growth. The effectiveness of these approaches (as determined from pre-/post- surveys, focus groups, and other instruments) will be presented. Preliminary results show that students become less intimidated by science and feel that science has become more important in their everyday lives.

Baker, D.

2010-12-01

423

Induced Magnetic Fields in Solar System Bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic induction is a powerful technique to study the electrical conductivity of the interior of the Earth and other solar system bodies. Information about the electrical conductivity structure can provide strong constraints on the associated internal composition of planetary bodies. Here we give a review of the basic principles of the electromagnetic induction technique and discuss its application to various bodies of our solar system. We also show that the plasma environment, in which the bodies are embedded, generates in addition to the induced magnetic fields competing plasma magnetic fields. These fields need to be treated appropriately to reliably interpret magnetic field measurements in the vicinity of solar system bodies. Induction measurements are particularly important in the search for liquid water outside of Earth. Magnetic field measurements by the Galileo spacecraft provide strong evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa and Callisto. The induction technique will provide additional important constraints on the possible subsurface water, when used on future Europa and Ganymede orbiters. It can also be applied to probe Enceladus and Titan with Cassini and future spacecraft.

Saur, Joachim; Neubauer, Fritz M.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

2010-05-01

424

Solar cooling system performance, Frenchman's Reef Hotel, Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operational and thermal performance of a variety of solar systems are described. The Solar Cooling System was installed in a hotel at St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands. The system consists of the evacuated glass tube collectors, two 2500 gallon tanks, pumps, computerized controller, a large solar optimized industrial sized lithium bromide absorption chiller, and associated plumbing. Solar heated water is pumped through the system to the designed public areas such as lobby, lounges, restaurant and hallways. Auxiliary heat is provided by steam and a heat exchanger to supplement the solar heat.

Harber, H.

1981-09-01

425

Interaction between Topically and Systemically Coadministered P-Glycoprotein Substrates/Inhibitors: Effect on Vitreal Kinetics  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of topically coadministered P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates/inhibitors on the vitreal kinetics of a systemically administered P-gp substrate. Anesthetized male rabbits were used in these studies. The concentration-time profile of quinidine in the vitreous humor, after intravenous administration, was determined alone and in the presence of topically coadministered verapamil, prednisolone sodium phosphate (PP), and erythromycin. The vitreal pharmacokinetic parameters of quinidine in the presence of verapamil [apparent elimination rate constant (?z), 0.0027 ± 0.0002 min?1; clearance (CL_F), 131 ± 21 ml/min; area under the curve (AUC0–?), 39 ± 7.0 ?g · min/ml; and mean residence time, 435 ± 20 min] were significantly different from those of the control (0.0058 ± 0.0006 min?1, 296 ± 46 ml/min, 17 ± 3 ?g · min/ml, and 232 ± 20 min, respectively). A 1.7-fold decrease in the vitreal ?z and a 1.5-fold increase in the vitreal AUC of quinidine were observed in the presence of topical PP. Statistically significant differences between the vitreal profiles of the control and erythromycin-treated group were also observed. Plasma concentration-time profiles of quinidine, alone or in the presence of the topically instilled compounds, remained unchanged, indicating uniform systemic quinidine exposure across groups. This study demonstrates an interaction between topically and systemically coadministered P-gp substrates, probably through the modulation of P-gp on the basolateral membrane of the retinal pigmented epithelium, leading to changes in the vitreal kinetics of the systemically administered agent.

Hippalgaonkar, Ketan; Srirangam, Ramesh; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A.

2010-01-01

426

Design and economics of a solar heater aquifer storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water bearing formations or aquifers provide promising, long-term storage for solar energy at the cost of two or more water wells. This study combines aquifer simulation with solar heater and short-term surface storage simulation in a parametric economic study of aquifer-solar energy systems. Aquifer storage-solar heater systems are shown to have considerable cost potential in large, space heating applications. As

S. Tostengard; W. B. Harris; R. R. Davison

1981-01-01

427

Technology development in the solar absorption air-conditioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental control system utilizing solar energy would generally be more cost-effective if it were used to provide both heating and cooling requirements in the building it serves. Various solar powered heating systems have been tested extensively, but solar powered air-conditioners have received little more than short-term demonstration attention. This paper reviews past efforts in the field of solar powered

Z. F. Li; K. Sumathy

2000-01-01

428

Solar “tower reflector” systems: A new approach for high-temperature solar plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years, considerable research efforts have been directed at the Weizmann Institute towards development of high-concentration, high-temperature solar energy systems. This included optical methods and devices, thermal receivers for solar thermal electricity generation, and thermo-chemical processes for solar energy storage and solar fuel production. Some of these efforts are now mature enough for transfer to industry, and

A. Yogev; A. Kribus; M. Epstein; A. Kogan

1998-01-01

429

Onychomycosis does not always require systemic treatment for cure: a trial using topical therapy.  

PubMed

Standard teaching dictates that systemic therapy is required for treatment of onychomycosis. It is unknown whether topical antifungal therapy is effective for pediatric nail infections. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study was conducted in the Pediatric Dermatology Research Unit at Rady Children's Hospital to determine whether topical antifungal therapy is efficacious for pediatric onychomycosis. Forty patients ages 2 to 16 years with nonmatrix onychomycosis were randomized 1:3 to ciclopirox lacquer or vehicle lacquer. Ciclopirox lacquer or vehicle was applied daily for 32 weeks, with weekly removal of the lacquer and mechanical trimming. Those with poor response were crossed over to active drug at week 12. Thirty-seven patients completed the 32-week study, and follow-up data were collected 1 year after completion of the study from 24 patients. Mycologic cure, effective treatment, and complete cure were assessed, as well as adverse events and effect on quality of life. Mycologic cure was 70% in the treated group and 20% in the vehicle arm (p = 0.03) at week 12. At end of the study (week 32), 77% of treated patients achieved mycologic cure and 71% effective treatment, compared with 22% of the control group. Ninety-two percent of those who were cured and followed for 1 year remained clear. Topical antifungal lacquer (ciclopirox) can be an effective option for children with nonmatrix onychomycosis. Pediatric onychomycosis does not always require systemic therapy and responds better to topical therapy than does adult disease. PMID:23278851

Friedlander, Shiela Fallon; Chan, Yuin C; Chan, Yiong H; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

2012-12-28

430

Beyond the Solar System: Expanding the Universe in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This DVD combines the latest scientific and educational research to help teachers in grades 8-12 deepen their own and their studentsâ understanding of our universe and of the nature of science. Produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in association with NASA, Beyond the Solar Systemthe DVD is filled with video, print, and online resources. It is designed for Earth and space science educators, physical science educators, professional development providers, and classroom use. The National Science Education Standards includes the topic of origin and evolution of the universe as part of the essential content of Earth and space science understanding. Yet providing concrete, inquiry-based experiences for students to learn these concepts can be a challenge for teachers. Beyond the Solar SystemThis DVD contains more than two hours of video, organized into two modular strands of material -- science content, and teaching and learning resources. These are intended to promote greater understanding of the scientific concepts through discussion and reflection, activities, and application of the ideas to teaching. Also included are lesson plans, student guides, assessments, content background, summaries of relevant standards, and links to further resources. These instructional materials are provided in PDF format and can be printed from a computer.

2006-03-01

431

RESEARCH TOPICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

On energy technology side, Dr. Vahidi's interests are in fuel cell power systems, hybrid electric systems and distributed energy generation. Fuel cells pose challenging problems both in modeling and identification; and while the topic is interesting from a control engineering perspective, it also opens an interdisciplinary means of collaboration with people in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, material science, chemistry and electrical

1986-01-01

432

Solar nebula chemistry - Implications for volatiles in the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current theoretical models of solar nebula chemistry which take into account the interplay between chemistry and dynamics are presented for the abundant reactive volatile elements including hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Results of these models indicate that, in the solar nebula, the dominant carbon and nitrogen gases were CO and NO, whereas, in giant planet subnebulae, the dominant carbon and nitrogen gases were CH4 and NH3; in the solar nebula, the Fe metal grains catalyzed the formation of organic compounds from CO and H2 via the Fischer-Tropsch-type reaction. It was also found that, in solar nebula, bulk FeS formation was kinetically favorable, while FeO incorporation into silicates and bulk Fe3O4 formation were kinetically inhibited. Furthermore, clathrate formation was kinetically inhibited in the solar nebula, while it was kinetically favorable in giant planet subnebulae.

Fegley, Bruce, Jr.; Prinn, Ronald G.

433

Rings in the solar system  

SciTech Connect

Saturn, Jupiter, and Uranus have rings with different structure and composition. The rings consist of tiny masses in independent orbits. Photographs and data obtained by the Voyager project have aided in the understanding of Saturn's rings. Spokes have been found in B ring and boards, knots, and twist in F ring. Particles on the order of a micrometer in size are believed to occur in F, B, and A rings. The dominant component is water ice. The rings of Uranus are narrow and separated by broad empty regions. The technique used to study them has been stellar occulation. Nothing is known of particle size. The dominant component is believed to be silicates rich in compounds that absorb sunlight. Jupiter's rings consist of 3 main parts: a bright ring, a diffuse disk, and a halo. Use of Pioneer 10 data and other techniques have indicated particle sizes on the order of several micrometers and some at least a centimeter in diameter. The architecture of the ring system results from the interplay of a number of forces. These include gravitational forces due to moons outside the rings and moonlets embedded in them, electromagnetic forces due to the planet's rotating magnetic field, and even the gentle forces exerted by the dilute gaseous medium in which the rings rotate. Each of these forces is discussed. Several alternative explanations of how the rings arose are considered. The primary difference in these hypotheses is the account of the relationship between the ring particles of today and the primordial ring material. (SC)

Pollack, J.B.; Cuzzi, J.N.

1981-11-01

434

Impact of Repeated Topical-Loaded Manganese-Enhanced MRI on the Mouse Visual System  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Optic nerve degeneration in diseases such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis evolves in months to years. The use of Mn2+-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MEMRI) in a time-course study may provide new insights into the disease progression. Previously, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a topical administration for Mn2+ delivery to the visual system. This study is to evaluate the impact of biweekly or monthly repeated Mn2+ topical administration and the pH levels of the Mn2+ solutions for MEMRI on the mouse visual pathway. Methods. Using groups of mice, the MEMRI with an acidic or pH neutralized 1 M MnCl2 solution was performed. To evaluate the feasibility of repeated MEMRIs, topical-loaded MEMRI was conducted biweekly seven times or monthly three times. The enhancement of MEMRI in the visual system was quantified. After repeated MEMRIs, the corneas were examined by optical coherence tomography. The retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerves were examined by histology. Results. All mice exhibited consistent enhancements along the visual system following repeated MEMRIs. The acidic Mn2+ solution induced a greater MEMRI enhancement as compared with a neutral pH Mn2+ solution. Significant 20% RGC loss was found after three biweekly Mn2+ inductions, but no RGC loss was found after three monthly Mn2+ treatments. The corneal thickness was found increased after seven biweekly topical-loaded MEMRI. Conclusions. Acidic Mn2+ solutions enhanced the uptake of Mn2+ observed on the MEMRI. Increasing the time intervals of repeated Mn2+ topical administration reduced the adverse effects caused by MEMRI.

Sun, Shu-Wei; Thiel, Tiffany; Liang, Hsiao-Fang

2012-01-01

435

Primitive galactic dust in the solar system  

SciTech Connect

The results of experiments with ion-induced evolution of C-rich frozen gas and organic refractory material typical of astrophysical materials present in interstellar space since the collapse and formation of the Galaxy and solar system are described. The trials featured ion beam energies in the keV-MeV range. New materials emerged when the irradiation reached 10 to the 16th/sq cm. Yellowish, fluffy material appearing at proton energies of 1.5 MeV had a density of 0.5 g/cu cm and IR signatures similar to polymers. At fluences of about 10 to the 17th protons/sq cm, an amorphous, carbon-like material evolved with a higher density. The data, considered in conjunction with estimates of the ion fluxes to which comets are exposed, indicate that galactic and solar fast protons penetrate comets to a depth of 100 m. Significant amounts of carbon-like material is built up and remains on grains which have been captured and interpreted as cometary debris. Therefore, it is unlikely that cometary dust retains any physical characteristics of the primal Galaxy and solar system. 22 references.

Strazzulla, G.

1986-07-01

436

Considerations for performance evaluation of solar heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the many factors which must be considered in performance evaluation of solar energy systems is the relative merit of a given solar energy system when compared to a standard conventional system. Although initial and operational costs will be dominant factors in the comparison of the two types of systems and will be given prime consideration in system selection,

J. W. Littles; J. C. Cody

1975-01-01

437

Energy options: Real economics and the solar-hydrogen system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book focused on energy perspectives, exhaustion of fossil fuels, fluidization of coal, fission, fusion, solar energy, energy transmission over long distances, hydrogen economy, splitting of water, and materials problems. Topics covered included oil and its recovery, world reserves of coal, heating value of fossil fuels, coal gasification to methane, safety of fission reactors, the breeding of uranium fission products,

J. Om

1980-01-01

438

TPV Systems with Solar Powered Tungsten Emitters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar TPV generator development and characterization are presented. A double stage sunlight concentrator ensures 4600x concentration ratio. TPV modules based on tungsten emitters and GaSb cells were designed, fabricated and tested at indoor and outdoor conditions. The performance of tungsten emitter under concentrated solar radiation was analyzed. Emitter temperatures in the range of 1400-2000 K were measured, depending on the emitter size. The light distribution in the module has been characterized, 1×1 cm GaSb TPV cells were fabricated with the use of the Zn-diffusion and LPE technologies. The cell efficiency of 19% under illumination by a tungsten emitter (27% under spectra cut-off at ? > 1820 nm) heated up to 1900-2000 K had been derived from experimentally measured PV parameters. The series connection of PV cells was ensured by the use of BeO ceramics. The possibilities of system performance improvement are discussed.

Vlasov, A. S.; Khvostikov, V. P.; Khvostikova, O. A.; Gazaryan, P. Y.; Sorokina, S. V.; Andreev, V. M.

2007-02-01

439

Eight Wonders of the solar system.  

PubMed

Artist Ron Miller takes us on a journey to eight of the most breathtaking views that await intrepid explorers of our solar system. The scale of these natural wonders dwarfs anything Earth has to offer. What might we see and feel if we could travel to these distant domains? The artist's eye-interpreting data from probes such as NASA's Cassini, which is now exploring the Saturnian system, and MESSENGER, which has flown by Mercury three times and goes into permanent orbit next March-allows us an early visit to these unforgettable locales. PMID:20349572

Bell, Edward

2010-04-01

440

Young Solar System's Fifth Giant Planet?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside ~15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.

Nesvorný, David

2011-12-01

441

Solar energy almanac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the topics covered in this book are: the passive solar house; the history of passive solar design; a career in solar energy; solar tax credits; solar energy's growth and potential; the underground house; the solar greenhouse; finding a solar designer or builder; solar access; solar use in the cities; storing solar heat; and solar communities. Also included are: tables

McPhillips

1983-01-01

442

Development of design charts for solar cooling systems. Part I: computer simulation for a solar cooling system and development of solar cooling design charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated transient simulation program is developed for simulating the Iraqi solar house cooling system, using TRNSYS as a design tool. The simulation is modeled for other virtual solar cooling systems similar to the Iraqi solar house. A number of computer programs were developed and used in parallel with TRNSYS for developing an integrated program for the complete simulation of

Khalid A. Joudi; Qussai J. Abdul-Ghafour

2003-01-01

443

Optimization of solar pond electrical power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the potential of using a solar pond for the generation of electricity in Jordan. A solar pond power plant model is presented to simulate and optimize such a system under the Jordanian climatic conditions. A Rankine cycle analysis is carried out using an environmentally friendly working fluid, Refrigerant 134a.It was found that using a solar pond for

R. A. Haj Khalil; B. A. Jubran; N. M. Faqir

1997-01-01

444

Unified simulation capability for solar heating and cooling system analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support current and projected government programs oriented toward demonstration of solar energy technology, IBM has developed a set of automated analysis tools for preliminary design, detailed performance prediction, and benefits analysis. This multi-level analytical capability consists of six computer programs; some representing the existing state of the art in the solar energy industry (solar energy system simulation and thermal

J. E. Irby; J. M. Nash

1976-01-01

445

77 FR 39736 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-811] Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof...Westinghouse Solar, Inc. and Andalay Solar, Inc., both of Campbell, California...importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof...

2012-07-05

446

Experimental testing of control strategies for solar-cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental control of a building is considered with respect to: the structural shell, HVAC distribution system, HVAC energy conversion equipment, HVAC control systems, and human factors. Modeling and computer simulation of solar HVAC systems is briefly discussed along with experimental testing by two methods--experimental operation of a solar HVAC system with a simulated collector, and experimental operation of a complete

Curran

1981-01-01

447

Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

448

Solar power satellite system sizing tradeoffs  

SciTech Connect

Technical and economic tradeoffs of smaller solar power satellite systems configured with larger antennas, reduced output power, and smaller rectennas, are considered. The differential costs in electricity for seven antenna/rectenna configurations operating at 2.45 GHz and five satellite systems operating at 5.8 GHz are calculated. Two 2.45 GHz configurations dependent upon the ionospheric power density limit are chosen as examples. If the ionospheric limit could be increased to 54 mW sq/cm from the present 23 mW sq/cm level, a 1.53 km antenna satellite operating at 2.45 GHz would provide 5.05 GW of output power from a 6.8 km diameter rectenna. This system gives a 54 percent reduction in rectenna area relative to the reference solar power satellite system at a modest 17 percent increase in electricity costs. At 5.8 GHz, an 0.75 km antenna providing 2.72 GW of power from a 5.8 km diameter rectenna is selected for analysis. This configuration would have a 67 percent reduction in rectenna area at a 36 percent increase in electricity costs. Ionospheric, atmospheric, and thermal limitations are discussed. Antenna patterns for three configurations to show the relative main beam and sidelobe characteristics are included.

Arndt, G.D.; Monford, L.G.

1981-02-01

449

Conversion system overview assessment. Volume 1: solar thermoelectrics  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of thermoelectrics for solar energy conversion is given. There is significant potential for solar thermoelectrics in solar technologies where collector costs are low; e.g., Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and solar ponds. Reports of two studies by manufacturers assessing the cost of thermoelectric generators in large scale production are included in the appendix and several new concepts thermoelectric systems are presented. (WHK)

Jayadev, T. S.; Henderson, J.; Finegold, J.; Benson, D.

1979-08-01

450

Research studies on magnetohydrodynamic systems and modeling solar dynamical behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research involving magnetohydrodynamic systems and solar dynamical behavior is presented. The reported research is divided into seven major sections: Section 1. Laser Beam Matter Interactions, Section 2. Ion Beam Matter Interactions, Section 3. Energy Loss of Fast Particles to an Electron Plasma, Section 4. Solar Magnetic Flux Transport, Section 5. Solar Magnetic Flux Emergence, Section 6. Coronal Bullets and Section 7. Solar Flares and Preflare Studies.

1983-11-01

451

Reversal Effects of Topical Retinoic Acid on the Skin of Kidney Transplant Recipients Under Systemic Corticotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systemic long-term corticosteroid treatment administered to kidney graft recipients (KGR) within the framework of the required immunosuppressive therapy induces an atrophy of the skin, from the sixth month onwards. We studied the effect of topical all-trans retinoic acid (0.05%; Galderma Labs.) applied to the forearms of 27 KGR (14 men, 13 women) over a 6-month period. Twenty-four subjects completed

Olivier de Lacharriére; Catherine Escoffier; Anne-Marie Gracia; Dominique Teillac; Didier Saint Léger; Claudine Berrebi; Alain Debure; Jean-Luc Lévêque; Henri Kreis; Yves de Prost

1990-01-01

452

Inner solar system sample return missions using solar electric propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of solar electric propulsion (SEP) and PowerSail solar array technology on four sample return missions. These missions, to the Moon, Mars, Mercury, and Venus, were compared against previous Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) studies. Compared to these baselines, PowerSail\\/SEP missions in general had longer trip times, though the Venus mission was of similar duration. Costs for

Ryan D. McDaniel; Swati Mohan; Jaime Juarez

2003-01-01

453

Economic penalties of problems and errors in solar energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Experience with a large number of installed solar energy systems in the HUD Solar Program has shown that a variety of problems and design/installation errors have occurred in many solar systems, sometimes resulting in substantial additional costs for repair and/or replacement. In this paper, the effect of problems and errors on the economics of solar energy systems is examined. A method is outlined for doing this in terms of selected economic indicators. The method is illustrated by a simple example of a residential solar DHW system. An example of an installed, instrumented solar energy system in the HUD Solar Program is then discussed. Detailed results are given for the effects of the problems and errors on the cash flow, cost of delivered heat, discounted payback period, and life-cycle cost of the solar energy system. Conclusions are drawn regarding the most suitable economic indicators for showing the effects of problems and errors in solar energy systems. A method is outlined for deciding on the maximum justifiable expenditure for maintenance on a solar energy system with problems or errors.

Raman, K.; Sparkes, H.R.

1983-01-01

454

Teacher's Toolkit: It's a big, busy solar system  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anyone who teaches about the solar system can't help but be impressed by the vast array of solar system objects, all of the robotic explorers, and the rapidly evolving view of each object and the systems they inhabit. Far from being a disconcerting jumble of, literally, alien places, the study of the solar system is a perfect example of how science progresses and evolves in the presence of new evidence and analysis. Here are some compelling visual activities (including mathematical computations) that give students an illustration of how empty the solar system is.

Seidel, David

2007-07-01

455

Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 4, Clinton, Mississippi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An economic analysis of the solar energy system was developed for five sites, typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. The analysis was based on the technical and economic models in the F-chart design procedure, with inputs based on the characteristic of the installed system and local conditions. The results are of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a 20 year time span: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

1980-09-01

456

Solar energy utilization and microcomputer control in the greenhouse builk curing and drying solar system  

SciTech Connect

Three agricultural applications in a specially designed greenhouse solar system functioning as a multi-purpose solar air collector for crop production and curing/drying processes are examined. An automated hydroponic crop production system is proposed for the greenhouse solar system. Design criteria of the proposed system and its utilization of solar energy for root-zone warming are presented and discussed. Based upon limited testing of the hydroponic system considered, hydroponic production of greenhouse crops is believed reasonable to complement the year-round use of the greenhouse solar system. The hardware/software design features of a microcomputer-based control system applied in the greenhouse solar barn are presented and discussed. On-line management and utilization of incident solar energy by the microcomputer system are investigated for both the greenhouse and tobacco curing/drying modes of operation. The design approach considered for the microcomputer control system is believed suitable for regulating solar energy collection and utilization for crop production applications in greenhouse systems.

Nassar, A.N.H.

1987-01-01

457

Solar Energy System Economic Evaluation: Ibm System 4, Clinton, Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An economic analysis of the solar energy system was developed for five sites, typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. The analysis was based on the technical and economic models in the F-chart des...

1980-01-01

458

Advanced solar dynamic technology program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewgraphs and discussion on Advanced Solar Dynamic Technology Program are presented. Topics covered include: advanced solar dynamic technology program; advanced concentrators; advanced heat receivers; power conversion systems; dished all metal honeycomb sandwich panels; Stirling cavity heat pipe receiver; Brayton solar receiver; and thermal energy storage technology.

Calogeras, James

459

Solar System Reveals a Whole New World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is there a tenth planet orbiting our sun? This radio broadcast reports on object 2003 UB13, which is at least as big as Pluto, has an elliptic orbit outside the plane of the other large planets, a water and methane surface like Pluto, and other properties which fit the description of a planet. But whether it is actually recognized as such may be a matter of semantic debate; the broadcast also presents the view that many asteroids and other objects of the solar system could count as planets. The clip is 3 minutes and 43 seconds in length.

460

Microarray assays for solar system exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of evidence of extinct and extant life is a key issue in astrobiological research, particularly with respect to future exploration of the solar system. Simple life forms may have evolved and developed on planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa. At this point in time, tests whether life once was or still is present can only be carried out by means of in situ experiments. Here, we discuss the potential and advantages of immunological concepts for life detection and the development of a miniaturized automated immunoassay flight device.

Steele, Andrew; Toporski, Jan; McKay, David S.; Schweitzer, Mary; Pincus, Seth; Pérez-Mercader, Juan; Parro García, Victor

2001-08-01

461

Accurate Astrometry in the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS) has been providing highly accurate astrometry to the Solar Systems Dynamics (SSD) group at JPL since 1991, in support of numerous planetary missions and observing efforts. In 2005, NOFS began a new phase of this work by expanding the range of possible targets, investigating the magnitude variability of asteroids observed at NOFS, and continuing the effort to determine other physical characteristics of these objects. This poster gives a summary of the observations made during the last three years, including the expansion of the asteroid observational database, the identification of variable asteroids for closer study, and a change in our approach to mass determination.

Monet, Alice K. B.

2010-05-01

462

What Happened in the Outer Solar System?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kuiper belt was initially envisioned as a thin disk of proto-cometary bodies slowly decreasing in number beyond the edge of the known planetary system. The first insights that the Kuiper belt was more complicated were from Malhotra, who realized that the dynamical distribution of objects in the Kuiper belt preserves the signature of an early episode of planetary migration, and by Stern, who showed that the numbers, masses, and velocities of objects currently in the Kuiper belt imply that significant mass depletion and velocity evolution must have occurred in earlier times. Increasingly detailed observations and analyses of the Kuiper belt are showing increasingly complex deviations from the original simplistic view. Using a variety of techniques, I will demonstrate that the inclination distribution of the classical Kuiper belt shows two dynamically distinct populations interspersed, that the radial distribution of Kuiper belt objects shows a sharp edge beyond about 48 AU, that the colors of classical Kuiper belt objects appear correlated with inclination, and that the spectra of Kuiper belt objects show large variability. I will attempt to synthesize a coherent picture of the outer solar system from these disparate observations and answer the question of what happened in the outer solar system.

Brown, M. E.

2001-11-01

463

Thermostatically controlled solar heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar heating and cooling system for simultaneously heating or cooling an ambient air system within a building, heating a hot water supply for domestic use within the building and heating or cooling a swimming pool adjacent the building comprising a building. This comprises a swimming pool as a primary water source, a solar connector connected to the swimming pool, a heat pump for controlling ambient air temperature within the building, an energy conservation unit connected to the heat pump and to the hot water supply for utilizing hot gases from the heat pump to heat water in the hot water supply and an air heat exchanger connected to the air system and to the heat pump for selectively heating or cooling air in the building. Also a water heat exchanger is connected to a water source for selectively transferring heat between the heat pump and the water source, a well as a secondary water source connected to the water heat exchanger.

Yovanofski, T.

1986-12-16

464

Megawatt solar power systems for lunar surface operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presented here shows that a solar power system can provide power on the order of one megawatt to a lunar base with a fairly high specific power. The main drawback to using solar power is still the high mass, and therefore, cost of supplying energy storage through the solar night. The use of cryogenic reactant storage in a fuel cell system, however, greatly reduces the total system mass over conventional energy storage schemes.

Adams, B.; Alhadeff, S.; Beard, S.; Carlile, D.; Cook, D.; Douglas, C.; Garcia, D.; Gillespie, D.; Golingo, R.; Gonzalez, D.

1990-11-01

465

Solar Power Satellite System Definition Study, Phase 2. Volume 2: Reference System Description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

System descriptions and cost estimates for the reference system of the solar power satellite program are presented. The reference system is divided into five principal elements: the solar power satellites; space construction and support; space and ground ...

1979-01-01

466

A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one. Based on the expected revenues from about 300 customers, SPoTS needs a significant contribution from public funding to be commercial viable. However, even though the system might seem to be a huge investment first, it provides a unique steppingstone for future space based wireless transfer of energy to the Earth. Also the public funding is considered as an interest free loan and is due to be paid back over de lifetime period of SPoTS. These features make the SPoTS very attractive in comparison to other space projects of the same science field.

Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.

2002-01-01

467

Potential of solar cooling systems for peak demand reduction  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the technical feasibility of solar cooling for peak demand reduction using a building energy simulation program (DOE2.1D). The system studied was an absorption cooling system with a thermal coefficient of performance of 0.8 driven by a solar collector system with an efficiency of 50% with no thermal storage. The analysis for three different climates showed that, on the day with peak cooling load, about 17% of the peak load could be met satisfactorily with the solar-assisted cooling system without any thermal storage. A performance availability analysis indicated that the solar cooling system should be designed for lower amounts of available solar resources that coincide with the hours during which peak demand reduction is required. The analysis indicated that in dry climates, direct-normal concentrating collectors work well for solar cooling; however, in humid climates, collectors that absorb diffuse radiation work better.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, J. [Neymark (Joel), Golden, CO (United States)

1994-11-01

468

Experience with solar systems for heating swimming pools in Germany  

SciTech Connect

The results of the demonstration programme [open quotes]Efficient Use of Energy in Swimming Pool Construction[close quotes] has had a positive effect on the dissipation of solar systems for swimming pools. Infrared measurements show how a homogeneous flow can be achieved in the absorber field. The fact that solar systems are acceptable can be clearly in evidence that the behaviour of visitors to purely solar-heated pools with variable water temperature does not differ in principle from conventionally-heated pools with constant temperature. Economic considerations of the operation show that swimming pool solar systems are competitive with conventional heating systems.

Croy, R.; Peuser, F.A. (Zentralstelle fuer Solartechnik, Hilden (Germany))

1994-07-01

469

Development of the 3-D MHD model of the solar corona-solar wind combining system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of integrated numerical space weather prediction, we have developed a 3-D MHD simulation model of the solar surface-solar wind system. We report the construction method of the model and its first results. By implementing a grid system with angularly unstructured and increasing radial spacing, we realized a spherical grid that has no pole singularity and realized a

A. Nakamizo; T. Tanaka; Y. Kubo; S. Kamei; H. Shimazu; H. Shinagawa

2009-01-01

470

Comparison of photovoltaic energy systems for the solar village  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are compared to determine if the electrical needs of a solar village could be supplied more economically by electricity generated by the sun than by existing utility companies. The solar village, a one square mile community of 900 homes and 50 businesses, would be located in a semi-remote area of the Arizona desert. A load survey is conducted and information on the solar PV industry is reviewed for equipment specifications, availability, and cost. Three specific PV designs, designated as Stand-Alone, Stand-Alone with interconnection, and Central Solar Plant, were created and then economically compared through present worth analysis against utility supplied electrical costs. A variety of technical issues, such as array protection, system configuration and operation, and practicability, are discussed for each design. The present worth analysis conclusively shows none of the solar PV designs could supply electricity to the solar village for less cost than utility supplied electricity, all other factors being equal. No construction on a solar village should begin until the cost of solar generated electricity is more competitive with electricity generated by coal, oil, and nuclear energy. However, research on ways to reduce solar PV equipment costs and on ways to complement solar PV energy, such as the use of solar thermal ponds for heating and cooling, should continue.

Piercefrench, Eric C.

1988-08-01

471

Health Topics  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > A-Z Health Topics A-Z Health Topics This information in Spanish ( en español ) Health information ... information on a wide range of women's health topics. Find your topic by first letter: A B ...

472

Solar `95: Proceedings of the 20. national passive solar conference. Volume 20  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of the 20th National Passive Solar Conference, 1995, of the American Solar Energy Society. The topics of the papers include historical aspects of solar energy, daylighting, examination of passive system designs, sustainability concepts, building components, building design, application of solar architecture, case studies, education, and design tools.

Campbell-Howe, R.; Wilkins-Crowder, B. [eds.

1995-11-01

473

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: University of Riyadh. Solar air conditioning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research on solar air conditioning at the University of Riyadh in Riyhadh, Saudi Arabia is presented. Topics relevant to the university's proposed solar cooling laboratory are discussed: absorption systems and various contingencies, photovoltaic solar collectors and thermoelectric elements, measuring instruments, solar radiation measurement and analysis, laboratory specifications, and decision theories. Dual cycle computations and equipment specifications are included among the appendices.

Not Available

1986-01-01

474

A solar energy system for domestic hot water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, operation, and domestic hot water heating performance of a solar energy system are described. This system is to be retrofitted and integrated into the existing conventional mechanical system at a large museum, where it is not only expected to provide substantial fuel cost savings but is also planned to serve as an exhibit of an actual working solar

T. J. McNamara

1977-01-01

475

Residential solar systems: Technology, net-metering, and financial payback  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective is to address both technical and financial aspects of a residential solar system. The impact of these two factors on financial paybacks of a resident is presented. This paper is divided to two sections. First, the impact of the technical factors such as geographical location of the solar system, proper panel installation, panel material, and system efficiency on

Kourosh Sedghisigarchi

2009-01-01

476

Design data brochure for a pyramidal optics solar system  

SciTech Connect

This Design Data Brochure provides information on a Pyramidal Optics Solar System for solar heating and domestic hot water. The system is made up of the collecting, storage, and distribution subsystems. Contained in the brochure are such items as system description, available accessories, installation arrangements, physical data, piping and wiring diagrams, and guide specifications.

Not Available

1980-09-01

477

Exergetic analysis of a solar thermal power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication presents a second law analysis based on an exergy concept for a solar thermal power system. Basic energy and exergy analysis for the system components (viz. parabolic trough collector\\/receiver and Rankine heat engine, etc.) are carried out for evaluating the respective losses as well as exergetic efficiency for typical solar thermal power systems under given operating conditions. It

Narendra Singh; S. C. Kaushik; R. D. Misra

2000-01-01

478

Absorption cold and warm water system utilizing solar heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

An absorbtion cold and warm water system utilizing solar heat is disclosed. Heat source water is obtained by heating water by the solar heat and a main heating source. The system is selectively made to function as a warm water system, a first heat pump and a second heat pump in accordance with temperature conditions associated with the heat source

Y. Hibino; K. Kamejima; Y. Nara

1985-01-01

479

Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embed- ded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of

Vijay Raghunathan; Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

2005-01-01

480

Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems; (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters; (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-01-24

481

NASA Science Mission Directorate's Year of the Solar System: An Opportunity for Scientist Involvement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between October 2010 and August 2012 - across a Martian year - a large number of Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) planetary missions will pass milestones (e.g., EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, MESSENGER, Dawn, Juno, GRAIL, and Mars Science Laboratory), with many other missions continuing to explore (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Express, Cassini, New Horizons, and Voyager). This Year of the Solar System (YSS) offers the Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) community an opportunity to collaborate with each other and the science community. Based on audience needs from formal and informal educators, YSS is structured to have monthly thematic topics that are driven by mission milestones, as well as observing opportunities. YSS will connect to ongoing and planned events nationwide. A website for YSS is in development and will be hosted off of the existing JPL Solar System website (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/index.cfm). Once live, scientists, educators, and E/PO professionals will have a place to interact and collaborate. YSS will tie to NASA's Big Questions in Planetary Science - how did the Sun's family of planets and minor bodies originate and how have they evolved? - how did life begin and evolve on Earth, is it elsewhere, and what characteristics of the solar system lead to the origins of life? The thematic topics are broad in order to encompass many missions and planetary bodies each month, as well as address the Big Questions. YSS will kick off in October with the theme "Solar System Components and Scale” and a national event involving building solar system scale models across the country. Scientists are encouraged to contact schools, museums, planetaria, etc. in their communities to give presentations, provide science content, and collaborate on educational materials and events related to YSS.

Dalton, Heather; Shipp, S.; Boonstra, D.; Shupla, C.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; LaConte, K.; Ristvey, J.; Wessen, A.; Zimmerman-Bachman, R.; Science E/PO Community, Planetary

2010-10-01

482

Integrated Photovoltaic-Thermal Solar Energy Conversion Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia's Solar Energy Systems Computer Analysis Code (SOLSYS) is being used to assess the technical and economic feasibility of combined photovoltaic systems relative to various utilization scenarios. Combined systems using concentrators and high efficien...

G. A. Samara

1975-01-01

483

Solar Thermal Energy: Design a Solar Hot Water Heater System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has students examine a collector and tank for a solar hot water heater and estimate the amount of energy and money saved by replacing the traditional hot water heater. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Bullwinkel, Matt

2013-01-08

484

PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report addresses the environmental consequences of three kinds of solar energy utilization: photovoltaic, concentrator (steam electric) and flat plate. The application of solar energy toward central power generating stations is emphasized. Discussions of combined modes and o...

485

General theme report: Working session 2, solar thermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, over 90 percent of the world's large-scale solar electric energy is generated with concentrating solar thermal power plants. Such plants have the potential to meet many of the world's future energy needs. Research efforts are generally focused on generating electricity, though a variety of other applications are being pursued. Today, the technology for using solar thermal energy is well developed, cost competitive, and in many cases, ready for widespread application. The current state of each of the solar thermal technologies and their applications is reviewed, and recommendations for increasing their use are presented. The technologies reviewed in detail are: parabolic trough systems, central tower systems, and parabolic dish systems.

Alpert, D. J.; Kolb, G. J.

1991-01-01

486

Rosacea: a review of current topical, systemic and light-based therapies.  

PubMed

Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disorder of the facial skin characterized by periods of exacerbation, remission and possible progression. The principle subtypes include erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, papulopustular rosacea, phymatous rosacea and ocular rosacea. Although the pathogenesis is unknown, rosacea is largely recognized as an inflammatory disorder. Individual subtypes are likely a result of different pathogenic factors and respond best to different therapeutic regimens. The non-pharmacologic approach to therapy is adequate skin care, trigger avoidance and photoprotection; in addition, there are several topical, herbal, systemic and light based therapies available. Standard Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatments include topical sodium sulfacetamide, metronidazole, and azelaic acid. Anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline, a controlled-release 40 mg formulation offers a non-antibiotic, anti-inflammatory treatment option. Combination of azelaic acid or topical metronidazole with anti-inflammatory doxycycline appears to have a synergistic effect. Oral isotretinoin may be effective for phymatous rosacea and treatment resistant rosacea. Light based therapies with pulsed dye laser and intense pulsed light are effective in treatment of erythema and telangiectasias. As our knowledge of rosacea and its therapeutic options expand, a multifaceted approach to treatment is warranted. PMID:19907406

Kennedy Carney, C; Cantrell, W; Elewski, B E

2009-12-01

487

Universe: The Universe Beyond our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of five Science Objects in the Universe SciPack. It explores the more unknown parts of the universe beyond our solar system and provides an understanding of where and how we fit into the universe as a whole. Astronomers have carefully measured the changing positions of stars, leading them to believe that the Sun is located about half-way out from the center of a disk-shaped galaxy of stars, part of which can be seen as a glowing band of light that spans the sky on a very clear night. Although our Sun is a single star, most stars exist in systems of two or more stars orbiting around one another and are arranged in huge star clusters. Galaxies are isolated collections of billions of gravitationally bound stars and immense clouds of gas and dust. Galaxies are, in turn, grouped into galaxy clusters and super-clusters. The universe contains many billions of galaxies separated by immense distances of mostly empty space. Some of these distant galaxies are so far away that their light takes several billion years to reach Earth. This means that here on Earth we are seeing them as they were that long ago. Learning Outcomes:� Arrange various objects in order of size and distance, ranging from space probes and moons to galaxies and galactic clusters.� Catalogue, in simple terms, the objects within a galaxy.� Generally explain "what is within what" (planetary systems, star clusters, galaxies, etc.).� Describe the location of our solar system within the Milky Way galaxy.� Describe the limitations of using parallax, radar, and brightness to measure the distance of objects from Earth, and classify objects whose distance from Earth could be accurately measured using each type of measurement strategy.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

488

Study of combined /photovoltaic-thermal/ solar energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical analysis of a combined photovoltaic-thermal energy system for converting solar energy is presented. Optical concentration is employed to intensify the available solar energy density. The thermal energy extraction works both to cool the solar cells and to provide heat energy. Overall system efficiencies (total output energy, both thermal and electrical, divided by the available insolation) are shown to reach values close to 40%, with predicted capital costs less than 0.1 cent per kWh.

Neville, R. C.

489

Service center to test solar air-conditioning system  

SciTech Connect

Field testing of an advanced solar-powered air-conditioning system developed under the joint Saudi Arabia-US Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of solar Energy (SOLERAS) will be conducted in Arizona over a three-phase 34-month perod. Participants in the program and their contribution are cited. The solar-Rankine alternative to conventional systems using electricity or fossil fuels. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-02-14

490

Early results from solar dynamic space power system testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Agovernment\\/industry team designed, built and tested a 2-kWesolar dynamic,space power system in a large thermal\\/ vacuum,facility with a simulated ,Sun at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Lewis facility provides an accurate simulation of temperatures, high vacuum and solar flux as encountered,in low-Earth orbit. The solar dynamic ,system includes a Brayton power conversion unit integrated with a solar receiver

Richard K. Shaltens; Lee S. Mason

1996-01-01

491

Modeling Relativistic Solar Protons in the Inner Solar System During the 2005 January 20 Event  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore extreme conditions in the inner solar system's radiation environment by modeling the transport of SEPs out to the orbit of Jupiter during an extreme solar event. We use state-of-the art simulations of SEP radial transport that incorporate a radial dependence of the pitch-angle scattering mean free path based on computational results regarding solar wind turbulence. We input the

A. Saiz; D. J. Ruffolo; J. W. Bieber; P. A. Evenson

2010-01-01

492

High-temperature solar cell for concentrated solar-power hybrid systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-temperature solar cell is proposed that harvests solar energy at elevated temperatures. Carrier separation is achieved by selective contacts that preferentially extract electrons or holes. The theoretical conversion efficiency of the proposed device is 38.6% at 600 K and an incident solar radiation concentration of 1000. The waste heat of this cell could be used by a secondary thermal converter boosting the total efficiency of the hybrid system above 55%.

Yang, Yang; Yang, Wenzheng; Tang, Weidong; Sun, Chuandong

2013-08-01

493