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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Our Solar System. Our Solar System Topic Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the planets and other objects in space that make up the solar system. It also shows how technology helps students learn about our neighbors in space. The suggested age range for this book is 3-8 with a guided reading level of Q-R. The Fry level is 3.2.

Phelan, Glen

2006-01-01

2

Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma

M PATHAK

1982-01-01

3

Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation  

SciTech Connect

This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction.

Pathak, M.A.

1982-09-01

4

Using Solar System Topics to Teach the Scientific Method in an Age of Science Denial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of excellent opportunities to remind students of the scientific method and how the process of science works come about during coverage of common topics in a Solar System “unit” in an introductory college astronomy course. With the tremendous amount of misinformation about science that students are exposed to through the Internet and other forms of media, this is now more important than ever. If non-science majors can leave introductory astronomy, often the only science course they will take, with a decent appreciation of, or at least an exposure to, how science works, they will then be better able to judge the validity of what they hear about science in the media throughout their lives.

Lo Presto, M. C.

2013-04-01

5

Conventional topical delivery systems.  

PubMed

Effective dermatologic therapy depends on both the active drug and the properties of the delivery system. A topical delivery system, or vehicle, is defined as the substance that carries a specific drug into contact with and through the skin. The challenge to topical drug delivery is the transport across the skin barrier. Depending on the delivery system, penetration of the active drug can be quite variable and this is largely due to the physiochemical properties of the constituent components of that vehicle. Selection of the appropriate drug delivery system will depend on the active, anatomic site of disease and patient preferences. PMID:22353153

Weiss, Stefan C

2011-01-01

6

Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

7

Solar-parabolic dish-Stirling-engine-system module. Task 1: Topical report, market assessment/conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The major activities reported are: a market study to identify an early market for a dish-Stirling module and assess its commercial potential; preparation of a conceptual system and subsystem design to address this market; and preparation of an early sales implementation plan. A study of the reliability of protection from the effects of walk-off, wherein the sun's image leaves the receiver if the dish is not tracking, is appended, along with an optical analysis and structural analysis. Also appended are the relationship between PURPA and solar thermal energy development and electric utility pricing rationale. (LEW)

Not Available

1982-11-30

8

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the end of this project, you will be able to explain the components of the Solar System and know the order of the planets starting from the Sun. Objective Question: What is the Solar System? First, listen and read about the Solar System 1. How many planets make up our Solar System? 2. What is at the center of the Solar System? Next,listen and read about the Planets. 1. Can you name all of the planets? Finally, listen and watch The Solar System Movie. 1. Can you list the ...

Ms.west

2009-07-07

9

Topical and systemic photoprotection.  

PubMed

Sunscreens are a valuable method of sun protection. Several new compounds are now available. It is important to remember, however, that photoprotection includes more than the use of sunscreens. There are a number of sun-protective behaviors that people can use to decrease their exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Dermatologists and other health professionals can work toward changing public policy, greatly increasing the ability of people to access shade. In addition, there is growing evidence about the effectiveness of other sun-protective agents. The only systemic medication for sun protection is beta-carotene, which is effective in erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). PMID:12919121

Rosen, Cheryl F

2003-01-01

10

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to to the solar system. How to distinguish between the different planets. Activities to play while getting to know the solar system. Cosmic Cookies Solar System Scavenger Hunt Edible Earth Strawkets and Control Strawkets and Thrust Strawkets and Weight ...

Wright, Ms.

2009-10-09

11

Meteorites and the early solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work discusses topics in the source regions for meteorites, their secondary processing, irradiation effects on meteorites, solar system chronology, the early solar system, the chemistry of chondrites and the early solar system, magnetic fields in the early solar system, the nature of chondrules, micrometeorites, inhomogeneity of the nebula, the survival of presolar material in meteorites, nucleosynthesis, and the

J. F. Kerridge; M. S. Matthews

1988-01-01

12

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA is charting a bold new course into the cosmos, a journey that will take humans back to the Moon, and eventually to Mars and beyond. Exploration of the solar system and beyond will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance. NASA exploration programs will seek profound answers to questions about the origins of our solar system, whether life exists beyond Earth, and how we could live on other worlds. The NASA Vision for space exploration calls for a combination of human and robotic missions to achieve new exploration goals. Robotic missions to the Moon will be followed by an extended human expedition as early as 2015. Lunar exploration will lay the groundwork for future exploration of Mars and other destinations. A new spacecraft to support these journeys--the Crew Exploration Vehicle--will be tested before the end of this decade. Space exploration holds a special place in the human imagination. Youth are especially drawn to Mars rovers, astronauts, and telescopes. If used effectively and creatively, space can inspire children to seek careers in math, science, and engineering. Exploration and discovery are key agents of growth in society--technologically, economically, socially, internationally, and intellectually. This module is a first step in engaging today's youth in space exploration and serves as an invitation to participate in the excitement of discovery.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

13

Topic in Depth - Embedded Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Embedded systems are dedicated computers designed to perform a specific task. They are usually fairly simple devices that are used in areas where powerful, customizable computers are unnecessary; however, they can also be quite complex on occasion. Embedded systems can be found almost anywhere, including automobiles and cellular phones, and their importance is reflected in their near omnipresence.

2010-09-09

14

Selected topics in integrable systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we investigate several integrable systems in 1 + 1 dimensions. We construct a standard Lax description for the polytropic gas dynamics, using Lucas polynomials and show how all the conserved charges can be obtained from residues of the Lax function at p = infinity. We show that the nonlinear sigma model is a bi-Hamiltonian system and construct a Lax description for this system as well. Next, we propose a modified Benney lattice, construct its Lax pair and show how it is related to a modified Chaplygin gas, for which we construct a bi-Hamiltonian structure. We also study the dispersionless limit of several fermionic extensions of the KdV equation and construct Lax descriptions for them. Finally, we propose a manifestly covariant version of the Painleve test in superspace.

Constandache, Alin-Alexandru

15

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify basic components of our solar system, including the sun, planets, and Earth's moon. We have just learned about the Solar System. Click here to watch an informational overview of the Solar System: Overview of the Solar System.. The planets in our Solar System are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. Every planet in our Solar System revolves around the sun. The sun provides the energy ...

Smithson, Ms.

2009-07-07

16

External Resource: Starchild: The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource allows learners/students to explore the Sun and everything that travels around it. Topics: asteroids, comets, meteoroids, satellites, galaxies, mass, astronomers, gravitational pull, solar system, the Moon, planets, dwarf planets

1900-01-01

17

External Resource: Build a Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource allows students to choose a diameter of the sun to calculate scaled dimensions of the Solar System and learn the REAL definition of "space." Topics: orbit, radius, diameter, distance.

1900-01-01

18

Water: Life's Elixir in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the possible occurrence of water in our solar system. Topics include the necessity of liquid water for life, distribution of water throughout the solar system, and the possibility that there may be liquid water on Mars or on some of Jupiter's moons.

19

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

1984-01-01

20

The outer solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outer solar system extends beyond a heliocentric distance of 5 AU. It contains the giant planets and their systems (rings and satellites), the Kuiper belt, the comets (except those which approach episodically the inner solar system) and, at its outer edge, the Oort cloud. The outer solar system physically corresponds to the region located outside the « snow line

T. Encrenaz

2009-01-01

21

Solar array drive system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar array drive system consisting of a solar array drive mechanism and the corresponding solar array drive electronics is being developed. The principal feature of the solar array drive mechanism is its bidirectional capability which enables its use in mechanical redundancy. The solar array drive system is of a widely applicable design. This configuration will be tested to determine its acceptability for generic mission sets. Foremost of the testing to be performed is the testing for extended duration.

Berkopec, F. D.; Sturman, J. C.; Stanhouse, R. W.

1976-01-01

22

Solar electric systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subjects discussed in connection with solar electricity are related to solar radiation fundamentals, wind electric conversion and utilization, the basic theory of solar cells, photovoltaic materials, photovoltaic technology, components of solar thermal electric systems, solar thermal power plants, and integrated solar thermal electric complexes. The solar technology development in the Arab world is also examined, taking into account the horizon of solar energy in the Arab countries, solar energy activities at the Scientific Research Council in Iraq, solar energy activities at the Royal Scientific Society in Jordan, the solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, application of solar energy in Libya, prospects of solar energy for Egypt, solar energy programs in Qatar, performance characteristics of a 350 kW photovoltaic power system for Saudi Arabian villages, nonconventional energy in Syria, wind and solar energies in Sudan, solar electric research and development program in Tunisia, and solar energy research and utilization in Yemen Arab Republic. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

Warfield, G.

23

Astronomy 161-The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Astronomy 161-The Solar System online course is maintained by the Department of Physics & Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. The twenty two chapters cover everything from time and scale in the universe, development of modern astronomy, the planets, asteroids, meteors, and everything in between. Text, photographs, illustrations, and movies, help users understand the topics along with a handy back and next link on each page to let you navigate through each chapter.

1969-12-31

24

Solar system positioning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

2006-01-01

25

Development of a Solar System Concept Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concept inventories can provide useful insight into students’ understanding of key physical concepts. Knowing what your students have learned during a course is a valuable tool for improving your own teaching. Unfortunately, current astronomy concept inventories are not suitable for an introductory solar system course because they either cover too broad of a range of topics (e.g. Astronomy Diagnostic Test) or are too narrowly focused (e.g. Greenhouse Effect Concept Inventory, Lunar Phase Concept Inventory). We have developed the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) to cover those topics commonly taught in an introductory solar system course. The topics included on the SSCI were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system. SSCI topics include formation mechanisms, planetary interiors, atmospheric effects, and small solar system bodies. Student interviews were conducted to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. Preliminary development of the SSCI was completed at the University of Colorado and involved over 400 students. A larger, national, multi-institutional field test is planned for Spring 2009 as a Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) research project. We present here the results from the preliminary development and proposed changes for the next stage of research. We would like to thank the NSF for funding under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

Hornstein, Seth D.; Duncan, D.; S, C. A. T.

2009-01-01

26

Development of the Solar System Concept Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concept inventories can provide useful insight into students’ understanding of key physical concepts. Knowing what your students have learned during a course is a valuable tool for improving your own teaching. Unfortunately, current astronomy concept inventories are not suitable for an introductory solar system course because they either cover too broad of a range of topics (e.g. Astronomy Diagnostic Test) or are too narrowly focused (e.g. Greenhouse Effect Concept Inventory, Lunar Phase Concept Inventory). We have developed the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) to cover those topics commonly taught in an introductory solar system course. The topics included on the SSCI were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system. SSCI topics include formation mechanisms, planetary interiors, atmospheric effects, and small solar system bodies. Student interviews were conducted to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. The SSCI has been through two semesters of national, multi-institutional field-testing, involving over 1500 students. After the first semester of testing, question statistics were used to flag ineffective questions and flagged questions were revised or eliminated. We will present an overall outline of the SSCI development as well as our question-flagging criteria and question analyses from the latest round of field-testing. We would like to thank the NSF for funding under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

Hornstein, S.; Prather, E.

2009-12-01

27

Meteorites and the early solar system  

SciTech Connect

The present work discusses topics in the source regions for meteorites, their secondary processing, irradiation effects on meteorites, solar system chronology, the early solar system, the chemistry of chondrites and the early solar system, magnetic fields in the early solar system, the nature of chondrules, micrometeorites, inhomogeneity of the nebula, the survival of presolar material in meteorites, nucleosynthesis, and the relationship between extinct radionuclides and nucleocosmochronology. Attention is given to igneous activity in the early solar system, principles of radiometric aging, the cosmochemical classification of the elements, highly labile elements, the potential significance of pristine material, the astrophysical implications of presolar grains, boundary conditions for the origin of the solar system, and iodine-xenon dating.

Kerridge, J.F.; Matthews, M.S.

1988-01-01

28

Solar water heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar water heating system is described in which piping arrangements and solenoid operated valves are combined with a water storage heater and solar heater or collectors in a manner to protect the system against over temperature and against freezing without the use of antifreeze or auxiliary heat exchanger systems.

Cook

1978-01-01

29

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an overview of objects in the solar system. The user can click on different links to learn about objects such as the inner and outer planets and minor bodies. It also includes a link to explorations and activities. This is the on-line version of the printed "StarDate: the solar system" guide.

Observatory, Mcdonald

2008-10-05

30

Solar System Magnetospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a short review of our present knowledge of solar system magnetospheres, with the purpose of placing the study of Saturn’s magnetosphere in the context of a comparative approach. We describe the diversity of solar system magnetospheres and the underlying causes of this diversity: nature and magnetization state of the planetary obstacle, presence or not of a dense

M. Blanc; R. Kallenbach; N. V. Erkaev

2005-01-01

31

Homemade Solar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the use of NASA Tech Briefs, Peter Kask, was able to build a solarized domestic hot water system. Also by applying NASA's solar energy design information, he was able to build a swimming pool heating system with minimal outlay for materials.

1981-01-01

32

Our Solar System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides: (1) background information on how the solar system began and the objects that make up the solar system; (2) seven activities; and (3) ready-to-copy student materials. Activities include objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

Nature Scope, 1986

1986-01-01

33

Solar System: Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the stability of the SOLAR SYSTEM was raised with the discovery of Newton's law of gravitation, published in 1687. Since then, for 300 yr mathematicians and astronomers have searched for evidence for the stability of the planetary motions, and this quest led to many mathematical developments, and several successive `proofs' of stability for the solar system: first

J. Laskar

2000-01-01

34

Build A Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a scale model of the solar system using a tape measure or a very long roll of paper. A calculation tool is provided to determine the correct scaled distances and planet sizes. A brief discussion of the concept of the vast distances of space is included, along with links to other solar system resources.

35

Inner solar system concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

After many discussions with colleagues, I realized that I was presenting facts and concepts in a disjointed way. Now I teach the inner solar system to nonscience majors by using a system of overarching concepts instead of talking about Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars one after the other. Hopefully, these concepts will transfer directly to the newly discovered extra-solar planetary

Tim Slater

2000-01-01

36

Solar System Controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In designing a control for Bethany College's solar heating and cooling system, Apollo Energy Control, Inc. used Marshall Space Flight Center's doe solar and heating and cooling technology. The technology helped the company design a highly reliable, simply operated system with substantial savings in engineering time.

1981-01-01

37

Solar System Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website Solar System Live includes applets showing the positions of the planets. One can see all of the planets in the solar system or just the inner planets. Visitors are encouraged to compare the view of the inner planets with what can be seen in the night sky.

Walker, John

2011-05-27

38

Solar System Collisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This program simulates the collision of an asteroid or a comet with any planet in Solar System. Users can pick one of the nine planets in the Solar System or the Earth's Moon, choose the composition and diameter (size) of the projectile, and choose the speed of the projectile. Approximate results are returned.

39

Planetary Aeronomy of the Outer Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will give a historical tour of the highlights of my research on atmospheres in the outer solar system and their interaction with the magnetospheric plasma. Topics include atmospheric photochemistry, the Io plasma torus, the Galilean satellites, and the nitrogen atmospheres on Titan, Triton, and Pluto. The important role of observations combined with theory will be emphasized. The talk will finish with current research on the role that atmospheric escape plays on atmospheric structure in the outer solar system.

Strobel, Darrell

2012-10-01

40

Solar experiment alignment system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor system determines absolute alignment of optical axis of experiment package relative to solar vector and provides control information to permit pointing experiment anywhere on solar disc to absolute accuracy of the order of two arc seconds in center and five arc seconds on limb.

Fain, D. L.

1972-01-01

41

Residential Solar Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

Fulkerson, Dan

42

Solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1977-01-01

43

The solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main concern of this introductory textbook on the solar system is with the present state of knowledge of the solar system. The main features of the solar system are examined, taking into account the semimajor axes of the planets' orbits and the Titius-Bode law, orbits, the center of mass, and axial spins. The earth's interior is considered along with the earth's atmosphere and surface volatiles, Mars, Venus, the acquisition of volatiles by the terrestrial planets, the moon, Mercury, impact cratering of the terrestrial planets, the Jovian system, the Saturnian system, planetary rings, the system of Uranus, the system of Neptune, Pluto, comets, asteroids, meteoroids, and questions regarding the origin and the end of planetary systems. Attention is given to molecular clouds, star formation, cosmogenic theories, the death of stars and of planetary systems, and the possibility of the existence of civilizations on other planetary systems.

Jones, B. W.

44

A System Utilizing Solar Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibilities of using solar energy as a future energy source are discussed. A system utilizing solar energy is described and discussed. The factors necessary for a solar energy system are listed. (Author)

1974-01-01

45

Solar system fault detection  

DOEpatents

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, Robert B. (Wheatridge, CO); Pruett, Jr., James C. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01

46

Solar System: Lethal billiards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A huge collision in the asteroid belt 160 million years ago sent fragments bagatelling around the inner Solar System. One piece might have caused the mass extinction that wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

Claeys, Philippe; Goderis, Steven

2007-09-01

47

Solar System Magnetospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a short review of our present knowledge of solar system magnetospheres, with the purpose of placing\\u000a the study of Saturn’s magnetosphere in the context of a comparative approach. We describe the diversity of solar system magnetospheres\\u000a and the underlying causes of this diversity: nature and magnetization state of the planetary obstacle, presence or not of\\u000a a dense

M. Blanc; R. Kallenbach; N. V. Erkaev

48

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fourth grade students will explore the solar system and write a one page paper about their journey through space. Hold on tight! 3... 2... 1... Blast off! We're on our way to outer space. We are going to explore our solar system. We will go to this website Kids Astronomy to begin our exploration. While on our trip, we will follow these steps: 1. Go to website Kids Astronomy 2. Click on Outer ...

Gardner, Miss

2009-09-15

49

Fragmentary Solar System History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research is an improved understanding of the early solar system environment and of the processes involved in the nebula and in the evolution of solid bodies. We present results of our studies on the isotopic signatures in selected primitive solar system objects and on the evaluation of the cosmic ray records and of inferred collisional events. Furthermore, we report data of trapped martian atmospheric gases in meteorites and the inferred early evolution of Mars' atmosphere.

Marti, Kurt

1997-01-01

50

Solar System Lithograph Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This color Solar System Lithograph Set contains lithographs of: Our Solar System, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Jupiter, Moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Charon, and Comets. Suitable for formal education, informal education, and the general public. This is part of a collection of resources provided by the Space Science Education Resource Directory, and has passed a SSERD Panel Review.

Sohus, Anita

2010-09-03

51

The Origin of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article relates two topics of central importance in modern astronomy - the discovery some fifteen years ago of the first planets around other stars (exoplanets), and the centuries-old problem of understanding the origin of our own solar system, with its planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, and comets. The surprising diversity of exoplanets, of which more than 500 have already been

Michael Perryman

2011-01-01

52

First Solar System Observations with Herschel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HssO (Herschel solar system Observations) program aims at determining the distribution, the evolution and the origin of water in Mars, the Outer Planets, Titan, Enceladus and comets, using the three Herschel instruments HIFI, PACS and SPIRE. It addresses the broad topic of water and its isotopologues in planetary and cometary atmospheres. The nature of cometary activity and the thermodynamics

Paul Hartogh; J. Crovisier; E. Lellouch; D. C. Lis

2010-01-01

53

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating system including a flat plate solar collector having a heat absorber woven basket fashion across a riser grid system containing suitable flow medium for being heated by the solar radiation. A heat exchange column is coupled to the riser grid system for extracting the heat from the flow medium to provide it to heating, hot water, and the like. The heat exchange column includes a number of continuous coils placed within a tank and having a circulating loop pass a liquid from the bottom of the tank to the top of the tank where it will flow over all of the coils transferring heat from one coil to the other. The flow is controlled by means of the load demand and the available supply of heat. Excess heat is stored in a heat storage system having a plurality of blocks of Glauber salt containing matrix material through which pass pipes containing the heated liquid. One of the riser grid systems can be utilized as part of an absorption cycle air conditioning system by passing the heated fluid medium into a regenerator placed adjacent to the collector to effectively form a distillation process. In place of the liquid solar collector, an air heating solar collector is also provided.

Steinberg, A.

1984-02-07

54

Liposomes and Niosomes as Topical Drug Delivery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin acts as a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical\\/transdermal (TT) drug delivery. The stratum corneum plays a crucial role in barrier function for TT drug delivery. Despite major research and development efforts in TT systems and the advantages of these routes, low stratum corneum permeability limits the usefulness of topical drug delivery. To overcome

M. J. Choi; H. I. Maibach

2005-01-01

55

Solar System Exploration: Fast Lesson Finder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does one get around the solar system? Well, that's a tricky question unless you have a lot of time on your hands, but it's certainly easy to learn about the solar system with these useful lessons provided courtesy of NASA. Their Solar System Exploration website includes hundreds of lessons designed for grades K-12, which visitors can navigate by using the helpful tab menus to look for specific types of materials. The tabs include Grade Level, Solar System Body, Mission, and Topic. Visitors looking for high school materials will do well to look at the Globe Visualization Student Activities, which include close examinations of the Earth hydrology, including aspects of air temperature, ozone, salinity, and so on. Additionally, visitors can use the Education section on the left-hand side of the site to learn about scientists' work in the "Through the Eyes of Scientists" features.

2012-11-26

56

Solar system sputtering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sites and materials involved in solar system sputtering of planetary surfaces are reviewed, together with existing models for the processes of sputtering. Attention is given to the interaction of the solar wind with planetary atmospheres in terms of the role played by the solar wind in affecting the He-4 budget in the Venus atmosphere, and the erosion and differentiation of the Mars atmosphere by solar wind sputtering. The study is extended to the production of isotopic fractionation and anomalies in interplanetary grains by irradiation, and to erosion effects on planetary satellites with frozen volatile surfaces, such as with Io, Europa, and Ganymede. Further measurements are recommended of the molecular form of the ejected material, the yields and energy spectra of the sputtered products, the iosotopic fractionation sputtering causes, and the possibility of electronic sputtering enhancement with materials such as silicates.

Tombrello, T. A.

1982-01-01

57

Baby Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

2012-01-01

58

Solar air conditioning system  

SciTech Connect

An absorption type air conditioning system is disclosed in which a solar collector is used integrally to heat and strip refrigerant from the mixture of absorbent and refrigerant to eliminate a separated hot water or other heat transfer medium cycle as normally employed between the solar collector and the stripper generator. Also, the present invention includes an absorber which is integrally located within the confines of a deep water well used to extract heat from the entire system, together with a condenser coil or tube also located within the deep water well. The integral location of absorber and condenser within the confines of the heat sinking medium, such as a deep water well raises the overall cooling efficiency since a separated cooling cycle and heat exchanger are eliminated. The invention is particularly suited to brine type absorption systems, such as lithium bromide and water solutions where stripper generator action may take place at temperatures easily obtainable with the solar collector process included. The invention is also suited to ammonia water systems, providing a highly efficient heat removal process with the energy required supplied by solar means. The system uses a minimum amount of electrical energy. The electrical energy is used primarily for pumping and control purposes, as well as operation of a fan for circulation of air. The conventional compressor used in freon systems is eliminated together with the major requirement of electrical energy in such prior art systems.

Dimon, D.F.

1982-05-04

59

Solar System Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solar System Exploration, a NASA Office of Space Science site, is dedicated to information about the exploration of our solar system. Press releases, latest images, and late breaking astronomy news discuss the most up-to-date knowledge. The planets section has facts about all nine planets, as well as a comparative data table (for mass, orbit, volume, density, rotation, etc.). Each planet is described in detail, and links to additional information are given. The missions section highlights the dates, objectives, and general overview about each spacecraft. There is also a technology and research section, as well as a timeline illustrating the history of space exploration.

60

Solar System Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In these 18 years, the research has touched every major dynamical problem in the solar system, including: the effect of chaotic zones on the distribution of asteroids, the delivery of meteorites along chaotic pathways, the chaotic motion of Pluto, the chaotic motion of the outer planets and that of the whole solar system, the delivery of short period comets from the Kuiper belt, the tidal evolution of the Uranian arid Galilean satellites, the chaotic tumbling of Hyperion and other irregular satellites, the large chaotic variations of the obliquity of Mars, the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, and the resonant core- mantle dynamics of Earth and Venus. It has introduced new analytical and numerical tools that are in widespread use. Today, nearly every long-term integration of our solar system, its subsystems, and other solar systems uses algorithms that was invented. This research has all been primarily Supported by this sequence of PGG NASA grants. During this period published major investigations of tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system and of the passage of the Earth and Venus through non-linear core-mantle resonances were completed. It has published a major innovation in symplectic algorithms: the symplectic corrector. A paper was completed on non-perturbative hydrostatic equilibrium.

Wisdom, Jack

2002-01-01

61

Integrated voice and visual systems research topics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of studies was performed to investigate factors of helicopter speech and visual system design and measure the effects of these factors on human performance, both for pilots and non-pilots. The findings and conclusions of these studies were applied by the U.S. Army to the design of the Army's next generation threat warning system for helicopters and to the linguistic functional requirements for a joint Army/NASA flightworthy, experimental speech generation and recognition system.

Williams, Douglas H.; Simpson, Carol A.

1986-01-01

62

Advanced Topic: Quasi-Hermitian Quantum Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far, the discussion has limited itself to hermitian operators and systems. However, superficially non-hermitian Hamiltonian quantum systems are also of considerable current interest, especially in the context of PT symmetric models [Ben07, Mos05], although many of the main ideas appeared earlier [SGH92, XA96]. For such systems, the Hilbert space structure is at first sight very different from that for hermitian Hamiltonian systems, inasmuch as the dual wavefunctions are not just the complex conjugates of the wavefunctions, or, equivalently, the Hilbert space metric is not the usual one. While it is possible to keep most of the compact Dirac notation in analyzing such systems, here we work with explicit functions and avoid abstract notation, in the hope to fully expose all the structure, rather than to hide it...

Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

2014-11-01

63

Solar energy collector system  

SciTech Connect

Simple flat plate reflectors, preferably compound of a panel with a reflector surface layer laminated thereto, are pivoted to move with the position of the sun and concentrate additional energy on a solar energy collector panel. The array can take a tented or triangular end view shape for closing to protect reflective surfaces from hail or sandstorm, etc. Also the surfaces are provided with a periodically operable surface cleaner to assure long term efficiency even when remotely positioned as on roof top. Low cost present day computers are programmed to track the sun over its seasonal variations by means of simple mechanisms pivoting the reflector plates. The system is self-energizing by means of batteries charged by solar panels accompanying the system. Solar energy is storable in a self-contained water tank for use at night, etc. And efficient energy conversion is attained by means of a stainless steel pipe length extending into the stored water and thermally coupled outside the tank to a solar heated higher than 100* C. Silicon oil circulated through the solar collector. Thus, vaporization is avoided and an effective lowcost simplified thermal energy conversion is effected.

Dumbeck, R.F.

1982-04-13

64

Origin of solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the main problems in the theory of the origin and evolution of the solar system are discussed. Consideration is given to the formation and evolution of interstellar clouds; the collapse of certain types of such clouds into protostars; the formation of planets around some of these stars; the formation of satellites around some of the planets; and the

H. Alfvén

1981-01-01

65

Solar System Dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information related to all known bodies in orbit around the Sun. The resource has five divisions: general information, planets, natural satellites, comets and asteroids, and other Solar System bodies. Each division offers multiple links for more information such as outer planet gravity fields, physical parameters, mean orbital parameters, and a current ephemeris list.

66

Solar System Beyond Neptune.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This proposal supported deep and wide-field optical imaging of the trans-Neptunian Solar System capitalizing on our broad access to state-of-the-art facilities on Mauna Kea. Key quantities determined include the size distribution of Kuiper Belt objects (a...

D. Jewitt

2002-01-01

67

Solar System Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the symposium on Solar System Remote Sensing, September 20-21, 2002, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Departments at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

2002-01-01

68

Integrated Voice and Visual Systems Research Topics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of studies was performed to investigate factors of helicopter speech and visual system design and measure the effects of these factors on human performance, both for pilots and non-pilots. The findings and conclusions of these studies were applie...

D. H. Williams, C. A. Simpson

1986-01-01

69

Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12  

SciTech Connect

The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

Bauman, L.E.

1995-04-01

70

Views of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a

1995-01-01

71

Topical and systemic therapy for recurrent aphthous stomatitis.  

PubMed

The cause of recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAU), the lesions of recurrent aphthous stomatitis, is incompletely understood but appears to involve immune system dysfunction. Treatment options include no treatment, treatment of associated systemic diseases or conditions (eg, celiac sprue, vitamin deficiencies), systemic medications, topical medications, conversion of the aphthous ulcer to a wound, and palliative treatments. The most effective treatments (systemic or topical corticosteroids, thalidomide) involve agents that suppress or modulate immune system function. In general, topical agents are preferred because they have fewer associated side effects; however, inability to obtain adequate contact time may limit their effectiveness. Adjunct pain control is sometimes necessary, either with pain medications or with adherent agents that coat the ulcers. PMID:9421222

MacPhail, L

1997-12-01

72

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the temperature on differnt planets in our solar system. Learners will explore the planetary temperature system. They explore how each aspect (e.g., mass, temperature and gravity) influences the system and the consequences of disrupting that system. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 8 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

73

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating system comprises a heat accumulating structure for heating both air and water in which both the heated air and water are directed to an object to be heated such as a commercial building or private residence. The heat accumulating structure is below ground and includes a magnifying glass forming the roof thereof and protruding above ground, the magnifying glass concentrating the rays of the sun into the heat accumulating structure which includes a lower portion containing water and an air space thereabove. The solar heating system includes a piping arrangement whereby heated water can be directed to the object to be heated and piped away. Likewise a heat trunk line and return air line is included for utilizing the heated air formed in the air space of the heat accumulating structure.

Hall, R.L.

1982-03-16

74

Overview paper for the topical review meeting of solar cooling technologies  

SciTech Connect

A review of the current technology and achievements in the research and development of solar cooling systems is presented. Brief discussions on Rankine cycle engines, absorption refrigeration cycles, and open-cycle absorption systems are included.

Goldsmith, J.; Anand, D.K.; Wahlig, M.; Heitz, A.

1983-07-01

75

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between a Terrestrial Planet and a Gas Giant? 1. Let's find out What is the solar system? 2. We live on planet Earth. Scroll to the bottom of this page: Earth. Tell me how many moons Earth has? What is Earth's moons name? 3. This video will tell you which planets are Terrestrial and which planets are Gas Giants. It will also tell you the ...

Brennan, Miss

2012-04-10

76

The Scale of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can read about how distances are measured in the solar system. Attempts by early astronomers to estimate distances and ongoing work to establish and refine the astronomical unit (the mean distance from the Earth to the Sun) are described. This is part of NASA's online book entitled "From Stargazers to Starships" and links to other parts of the site and to related topics are provided.

77

Digital solar system geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All available synoptic maps of the solid-surface bodies of the Solar System were digitized for presentation in the planned Atlas of the Solar System by Greeley and Batson. Since the last report (Batson et al., 1990), preliminary Uranian satellite maps were replaced with improved versions, Galilean satellite geology was simplified and digitized, structure was added to many maps, and the maps were converted to a standard format, with corresponding standing colors for the mapped units. Following these changes, the maps were re-reviewed by their authors and are now undergoing final editing before preparation for publication. In some cases (for Mercury, Venus, and Mars), more detailed maps were digitized and then simplified for the Atlas. Other detailed maps are planned to be digitized in the coming year for the Moon and the Galilean satellites. For most of the remaining bodies such as the Uranian satellites, the current digitized versions contain virtually all the detail that can be mapped given the available data; those versions will be unchanged for the Atlas. These digital geologic maps are archived at the digital scale of 1/16 degree/ pixel, in sinusoidal format. The availability of geology of the Solar System in a digital database will facilitate comparisons and integration with other data: digitized lunar geologic maps have already been used in a comparison with Galileo SSI observations of the Moon.

Batson, R. M.; Kozak, R. C.; Isbell, Nancy K.

1991-01-01

78

Solar System Trading Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will collect solar system trading cards by playing an interactive card game. They will identify the sun, planets, comets, and asteroids by answering questions about them. By playing the game, students will gain knowledge about the solar system and they will view pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and other NASA missions. Students will view an image accompanied by a question with three responses. By using the computer mouse, they will chose an answer. When the response is correct, additional information about the image is provided. If an incorrect answer is chosen, students are provided with additional information before they chose a new response. A glossary of terms can be found. At the end of the game, students are assessed with a list of correctly identified solar system objects. This site includes an overview, teacher lesson plans, links to the National Science Education Standards, science background for the teacher, downloadable cards, and links to other sites. The lesson plan includes the goal/purpose, desired outcomes, prerequisites, new vocabulary, general misconceptions, preparation time, execution time, needed materials, engagement activities, step-by-step instructions, evaluation/assessment, and follow-up activities. Suggestions are given for one computer classrooms, those without computers, and home schoolers.

Storr, Alex; Space, Amazing; Mccue, Betty; Flowers, Connie; Institute, Space T.

2007-12-12

79

The space-age solar system  

SciTech Connect

This book is a description of the sun, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets in the solar system. Discussion is based heavily on results obtained from recent space probes to Mercury, Venus, Mars Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Offers detailed descriptions of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and the results of the recent probes of Halley's comet. A discussion of meteorites leads to a description of the current models of the solar system. Introductory chapters present theories of the solar system from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Other topics covered include the sun, its structure, and how it generates energy; the surfaces, internal structures, and histories of the planets, from innermost Mercury to farthest Pluto, and their moons.

Baugher, J.F.

1988-01-01

80

Terrestrial solar thermionic energy conversion systems concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results obtained from studies of a (1) solar concentrator, (2) solar energy receiver - thermionic converter system, and (3) solar thermionic topping system are described. Peripheral subsystems, which are required for any solar energy conversion system, are also discussed.

Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

1975-01-01

81

Solar Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K.; Bergeron, David J., III

2002-09-01

82

Solar Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

2002-01-01

83

Solar system exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (editor)

1989-01-01

84

Advanced solar power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

1984-01-01

85

Virtual Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic website provides data and images of objects within the solar system. The Sun, the nine planets, comets, asteroids and meteors are all covered. Sun data includes details about solar winds, sunspots and the corona. Mercury data discusses the Caloris Basin, craters, ridges and faults. Venus data discusses volcanoes, mountains and clouds. Earth data covers water, the Moon, surface features and plate tectonics. Mars data covers polar ice caps, Olympus Mons volcano and the Mars Pathfinder project. Jupiter data discusses moons and rings, surface spots and the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact. Saturn details include rings, storms and moons. Uranus data covers its orbit, rings and moons. Neptune data includes surface storms and clouds. Pluto data discusses its odd orbit and satellite. There are links provided for more information.

Newcott, William

86

Solar system plasma waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

Gurnett, Donald A.

1995-01-01

87

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Task 3 -- System selection; Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Solar Turbines Incorporated has elected to pursue an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine system to exceed the goals of the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program, which are to develop and commercialize an industrial gas turbine system that operates at thermal efficiencies at least 15% higher than 1991 products, and with emissions not exceeding eight ppmv NOx and 20 ppmv CO and UHC. Solar`s goal is to develop a commercially viable industrial system (3--20 MW) driven by a gas turbine engine with a thermal efficiency of 50% (ATS50), with the flexibility to meet the differing operational requirements of various markets. Dispersed power generation is currently considered to be the primary future target market for the ICR in the 5--15 MW size class. The ICR integrated system approach provides an ideal candidate for the assumed dispersed power market, with its small footprint, easy transportability, and environmental friendliness. In comparison with other systems that use water or toxic chemicals such as ammonia for NOx control, the ICR has no consumables other than fuel and air. The low pressure ratio of the gas turbine engine also is favorable in that less parasitic power is needed to pump the natural gas into the combustor than for simple-cycle machines. Solar has narrowed the ICR configuration to two basic approaches, a 1-spool, and a 2-spool version of the ATS50. The 1-spool engine will have a lower first-cost but lower part-power efficiencies. The 2-spool ATS may not only have better part-power efficiency, its efficiency will also be less sensitive to reduced turbine rotor inlet temperature levels. Thus hot-end parts life can be increased with only small sacrifices in efficiency. The flexibility of the 2-spool arrangement in meeting customer needs is its major advantage over the 1-spool. This Task 3 Topical Report is intended to present Solar`s preliminary system selection based upon the initial trade-off studies performed to date.

White, D.J.

1994-07-01

88

Solar liquid heating system  

SciTech Connect

A solar liquid heating system has a collector receiving solar energy and heating a liquid. A liquid transfer pump moves the heated liquid to a heat transfer tank which heats water. The collector has a plate assembly mounted on a frame. Heat insulated bottoms, sides, and ends surrounded by the frame form an elongated chamber accommodating the plate assembly. The plate assembly has a plurality of side-by-side longitudinal plates. Adjacent plates have generally c-shaped sections that are located about a longitudinal tube for carrying liquid. Adjacent plates have lip and hook inter-connecting structures that cooperate with each other to clamp the tube between the c-shaped sections of the plates. The opposite ends of the tubes are connected to transverse tubular headers. The headers project through resilient grommets mounted on the sides of the frame. The top sides of the plate assembly are coated with black solar energy absorbing material. A light transparent cover encloses the plate assembly within the chamber of the collector.

Harder, W.J.; Pickett, J.M.

1982-07-13

89

Social network driven indexing system for instantly clustering people with concurrent focus on same topic into on-topic chat rooms and/or for generating on-topic search results tailored to user preferences regarding topic  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A machine-implemented social networking system includes a hierarchy tree containing topic nodes. New nodes are added as new topics emerge in online public forums. Each topic node can link to an on-topic real time chat room whose occupants are currently discussing the topic of the node. A node-seeking automated process operates in the background and seeks out nodes that currently have topics appearing to be the same as or similar to what topics the user appears to have in mind. Content browsing experience of the user is enhanced by addition of an invitations displaying subsystem that automatically invites him or her to co-compatible chat rooms currently discussing the topic(s) the user appears to have in mind.

2013-09-17

90

Solar heating system  

DOEpatents

An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

1982-01-01

91

Improved solar heating systems  

DOEpatents

An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

1980-05-16

92

WISE Solar System Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early January, 2010, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) began imaging the entire sky with sensitivities in the mid-IR hundreds of times greater than previous surveys. WISE consists of a 40 cm cryogenically-cooled telescope taking simultaneous images at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns. WISE has recently completed its first full survey of the sky and is expected to continue flight operations through November. Although WISE itself is an astrophysics mission, NASA's Planetary Science Mission Directorate has funded an enhancement to the WISE project, called "NEOWISE", that is dedicated to serving the individual exposures and extracted source lists, providing an interface for small bodies based on orbital elements, and discovering new moving objects. The WISE bandpasses sample the flux from most inner-Solar System bodies near the peak of their thermal emission, making the survey extremely efficient at detecting and discovering solar system objects. Infrared observations are sensitive to the low albedo objects that are preferentially missed by optical surveys. By the time the cryogen is depleted, NEOWISE will observe 700 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), 200,000 Main Belt Asteroids, 200 comets, and 1500 Trojan asteroids. The NEOWISE dataset represents a treasure trove of new information on small bodies in our Solar System that will leave a legacy for decades to come. We will present preliminary results of the NEOWISE survey from the first six months of flight operations and will offer an introduction to the community on how to access the data when they become available next year. This research was funded in part by the NASA (ROSES) NEOO program. This work makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA.

Mainzer, Amanda K.; Wright, E. L.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R.; Dailey, J.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; McMillan, R. S.; Tholen, D.; Walker, R.

2010-10-01

93

Solar simulator for solar dynamic space power system testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planned vacuum tank testing of a solar dynamic space power system requires a solar simulator. Several solar simulators were previously built and used for vacuum tank testing of various space systems. However, the apparent solar subtense angle, i.e., the angular size of the apparent sun as viewed from the experiment, of these solar simulators is too large to enable testing

Kent S. Jefferies

1993-01-01

94

A look at emerging delivery systems for topical drug products.  

PubMed

The introduction of new topical drugs based on new chemical entities has become a rare event. Instead, pharmaceutical companies have been focused on reformulating existing drugs resulting in an ever-growing number of topical drug products for every approved drug substance. In light of this trend, soon reformulations may not be as rewarding to their sponsors as they are today unless they offer a substantial improvement over other formulations of the same drug substance and the same indication, namely improved efficacy over existing drugs, reduced side effects, unique drug combinations, or applicability for new indications. This article reviews and compares topical drug delivery systems currently under active research that are designed to offer such advantages in the coming years. The reviewed delivery systems are: liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes, ethosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, cyclodextrin, and sol-gel microcapsules. Among all the topical drug delivery systems currently undergoing active research, only the sol-gel microencapsulation is at clinical stages. PMID:22353154

Fireman, Sharon; Toledano, Ofer; Neimann, Karine; Loboda, Natalia; Dayan, Nava

2011-01-01

95

Views of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Views of the Solar System presents a vivid multimedia adventure unfolding the splendor of the Sun, planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and more. Discover the latest scientific information, or study the history of space exploration, rocketry, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft through a vast archive of photographs, scientific facts, text, graphics and videos. Views of the Solar System offers enhanced exploration and educational enjoyment of the solar system and beyond.

Hamilton, Calvin J.

96

Our Solar System's Cousin?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept illustrates two planetary systems -- 55 Cancri (top) and our own. Blue lines show the orbits of planets, including the dwarf planet Pluto in our solar system. The 55 Cancri system is currently the closest known analogue to our solar system, yet there are some fundamental differences.

The similarities begin with the stars themselves, which are about the same mass and age. Both stars also host big families of planets. Our solar system has eight planets, while 55 Cancri has five, making it the record-holder for having the most known exoplanets. In fact, 55 Cancri could have additional planets, possibly even rocky ones that are too small to be seen with current technologies. All of the planets in the two systems have nearly circular orbits.

In addition, both planetary systems have giant planets in their outer regions. The giant located far away from 55 Cancri is four times the mass of our Jupiter, and completes one orbit every 14 years at a distance of five times that between Earth and the sun (about 868 million kilometers or 539 million miles). Our Jupiter completes one orbit around the sun every 11.9 years, also at about five times the Earth-sun distance (778 million kilometers or 483 million miles). Fifty-five Cancri is still the only known star besides ours with a planet in a distant Jupiter-like orbit. Both systems also contain inner planets that are less massive than their outer planets.

The differences begin with the planets' masses. The planets orbiting 55 Cancri are all larger than Earth, and represent a 'souped-up' version of our own solar system. In fact, this is the first star that boasts more giant planets than our sun!

The arrangement of the planetary systems is also different. The inner four planets of 55 Cancri are all closer to the star than Earth is to the sun. The closest, about the mass of Uranus, whips around the star in just under three days at a distance of approximately 5.6 million kilometers (3.5 million miles). The second planet out from the star is a little smaller than Jupiter and completes one orbit every 14.7 days at a distance of approximately 17.9 million kilometers (11.2 million miles). The third planet out from the star is similar in mass to Saturn and completes one orbit every 44 days at a distance of approximately 35.9 million kilometers (22.3 million miles). The fourth planet is about half the mass of Saturn, orbits every 260 days and is approximately 116.7 million kilometers (72.5 million miles) away from the star.

2007-01-01

97

Primordial Solar System Ices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) may harbor the least thermally-altered material in the solar system and are thought to be remnants of the planet-forming era. Thus, study of their surfaces may lead to insights into the composition and formation process of planets in our solar system. We propose to continue the first KBO photometric survey sensitive to volatile ices using a set of custom bandpass filters. In the past, JHK broadband colors of KBOs have been collected by many researchers with inconclusive results because such filters are tuned to avoid telluric features and bear only weak correlations to absorption features found on the brightest KBOs. We have designed custom bandpass filters that allow the classification of KBOs into water, methane and featureless surface types. These filters were installed and commissioned in 2008B for use at Gemini with NIRI and at Magellan with PANIC. We continue our survey in this proposal. The survey is the first of its kind and will identify many more KBOs with volatiles than any previous spectral or photometric work.

Trujillo, Chadwick; Sheppard, Scott; Schaller, Emily

2009-08-01

98

Solar System Visualizations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar System Visualization products enable scientists to compare models and measurements in new ways that enhance the scientific discovery process, enhance the information content and understanding of the science results for both science colleagues and the public, and create.visually appealing and intellectually stimulating visualization products. Missions supported include MER, MRO, and Cassini. Image products produced include pan and zoom animations of large mosaics to reveal the details of surface features and topography, animations into registered multi-resolution mosaics to provide context for microscopic images, 3D anaglyphs from left and right stereo pairs, and screen captures from video footage. Specific products include a three-part context animation of the Cassini Enceladus encounter highlighting images from 350 to 4 meter per pixel resolution; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter screen captures illustrating various instruments during assembly and testing at the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at Kennedy Space Center; and an animation of Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' panorama where the rover was stuck in the deep fine sand for more than a month. This task creates new visualization products that enable new science results and enhance the public's understanding of the Solar System and NASA's missions of exploration.

Brown, Alison M.

2005-01-01

99

Solar System Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site renders images of celestial bodies within our solar system. The simulator software looks up the positions of the Sun, planets and satellites from ephemeris files developed at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), as well as star positions and colors from a variety of stellar databases, and uses special-purpose renderers to draw a color scene. Texture maps for each of the planets and physical models for planetary rings have been derived (in most cases) from scientific data collected by various JPL spacecraft. Users can then request a rendered image of any celestial body from any other celestial body on the date of your choice (1600 to 2300). Users specify date and time, field of view, and whether orbits and constellation lines are to be depicted. Archived images (both rendered and actual) are available, as are simulated views from Cassini and Galilleo, and locations of current comets. The following named bodies can be rendered: Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Phobos, Deimos, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganeymede, Callisto, Saturn, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Titan, Lapetus, Uranus, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Miranda, Neptune, Triton, Pluto, Charon, Solar system, Cassini trajectory, Galileo trajectory, Comet Wild-2 trajectory, and the Voyager trajector.

Seal, David

2000-07-30

100

Next generation solar bimodal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the principal advantages of a solar thermal propulsion system as compared to a conventional chemical propulsion one is high specific impulse which is proportional to the square root of a propellant temperature. Obviously, next generation solar propulsion and bimodal systems must take advantage of high and ultra-high temperatures. This requires use of an appropriate energy conversion system capable

V. I. Babanin; A. Ya. Ender; I. N. Kolyshkin; V. I. Kuznetsov; V. I. Sitnov; D. V. Paramonov

1997-01-01

101

Social-topical adaptive networking (STAN) system allowing for group based contextual transaction offers and acceptances and hot topic watchdogging  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed is a Social-Topical Adaptive Networking (STAN) system that can inform users of cross-correlations between currently focused-upon topic or other nodes in a corresponding topic or other data-objects organizing space maintained by the system and various social entities monitored by the system. More specifically, one of the cross-correlations may be as between the top N now-hottest topics being focused-upon by a first social entity and the amounts of focus `heat` that other social entities (e.g., friends and family) are casting on the same topics (or other subregions of other cognitive attention receiving spaces) in a relevant time period.

2014-03-18

102

Economic Evaluation of Observatory Solar-Energy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Topics covered are system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization.

1982-01-01

103

The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and images about the solar system including detailed information about formation, planets, asteroids, comets, and the Sun. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

104

Our Solar System 2013: Solar System Lithograph Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lithograph set about the solar system. It contains images of the planets, the sun, asteroids, comets, meteors and meteorites, the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud, and moons of the solar system. General information, significant dates, interesting facts and brief descriptions of the images are included.

105

Solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus are disclosed for use of solar energy. The method and apparatus have the advantage and benefit of providing for use of all collected solar energy, whether or not there is an immediate need in the home for heating. Solar energy is also used for cooling a home or existing building structure via utilization of a heat

Schoenfelder

1978-01-01

106

Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

1983-01-01

107

Space: Modeling the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students compare and contrast the diameters of the other planets in the solar system to that of the Earth, create a scale factor based on a reasonable size for the Earth's model and build a scale model of the solar system.

2010-01-01

108

Wind in the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short "TPT" articles on frost and precipitation. The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might motivate…

McIntosh, Gordon

2010-01-01

109

Solar hot water heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar hot water heating system is provided with solar collectors connected to a hot water storage tank with a recirculating pump to circulate the cooler water in the storage tank through the collector to absorb heat therefrom and to be returned to the storage tank. A plurality of temperature sensors are placed throughout the system to monitor various temperatures

J. V. Budzynski; D. A. James

1981-01-01

110

Solar Power Systems Web Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

All over the world the peak demand load is increasing and the load factor is decreasing year-by-year. The fossil fuel is considered insufficient thus solar energy systems are becoming more and more useful, not only in terms of installation but monitoring of these systems is very crucial. Monitoring becomes very important when there are a large number of solar panels.

Bimal Aklesh Kumar

2011-01-01

111

Geologic exploration of solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes that must have operated on the early Earth have been deduced from evidence from ancient surfaces of the Moon and planets. In particular, such comparative studies have demonstrated that only two geologic processes have been widespread throughout the history of the solar system: impact cratering and volcanism. Impact craters have formed throughout solar system history, indeed the planets

Wood

1987-01-01

112

Collapsing ring model of the origin of the solar system  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the following topics on the origin of the solar systems: derivation of candidate angular momentum transfer equations; dust ring identified; classic accretional problems in planetary formation; formation of the outer planets; outer solar system satellites; rock rings; comets; the asteroids; formation of the inner planets; meteoric formation processes; formation of the inner planetary satellites; the moon facilitated life on earth; origin of the sun; and residual evidence of the collapsing ring configuration.

Schlenker, L.D.

1988-12-01

113

Introduction - The sun, the solar nebula, and the planetary system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the solar system is given placing the subsequent subjects in context. Asteroids, comets, planets and assorted moons make up 0.13 percent of the mass of the solar system. Pluto's status as a planet is called into question by the fact that its mass is only one-fifth that of the moon. Other topics include: elliptical orbits, the origin of the planets, the HR diagram, star formation, planet formation and composition of the inner planets.

Wasson, J. T.; Kivelson, M. G.

114

Overview of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource covers the size and scale of Solar System objects, such as the masses, densities, and relative radii of the sun and planets; revolution and rotation of the planets; conservation of angular momentum; theories on the origin of the solar system, such as the nebular hypothesis, which includes collapsing clouds of gas and dust, a spinning nebula that flattens, and condensation of the protosun and protoplanets; star formation, planets of other stars, and the creation of new solar systems; and comparison of binary star systems and planetary systems. An astrophysical calculator is provided in the size and scale subsection.

2007-05-19

115

Systemic vs. Topical Therapy for the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that 75% of all women will experience at least 1 episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) during their lifetimes. Most patients with acute VVC can be treated with short-term regimens that optimize compliance. Since current topical and oral antifungals have shown comparably high efficacy rates, other issues should be considered in determining the most appropriate therapy. It is possible that the use of short-duration narrow-spectrum agents may increase selection of more resistant organisms which will result in an increase of recurrent VVC (RVVC). Women who are known or suspected to be pregnant and women of childbearing age who are not using a reliable means of contraception should receive topical therapy, as should those who are breast-feeding or receiving drugs that can interact with an oral azole and those who have previously experienced adverse effects during azole therapy. Because of the potential risks associated with systemic treatment, topical therapy with a broad-spectrum agent should be the method of choice for VVC, whereas systemic therapy should be reserved for either RVVC or cases where the benefits outweigh any possible adverse reactions.

1994-01-01

116

Solar System Analog; WMO Statement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists searching for extra-solar planets have discovered the closest known analog to our own Solar System. A planet with a mass about twice that of Jupiter is in a near-circular orbit of the star HD70642, a team of astronomers from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States announced on 3 July at a conference in Paris on extra-solar planets.The

Randy Showstack

2003-01-01

117

The database management system: A topic and a tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data structures and data base management systems are common tools employed to deal with the administrative information of a university. An understanding of these topics is needed by a much wider audience, ranging from those interested in computer aided design and manufacturing to those using microcomputers. These tools are becoming increasingly valuable to academic programs as they develop comprehensive computer support systems. The wide use of these tools relies upon the relational data model as a foundation. Experience with the use of the IPAD RIM5.0 program is described.

Plummer, O. R.

1984-01-01

118

Solar Power System Design for the Solar Probe+ Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar Probe+ is an ambitious mission proposed to the solar corona, designed to make a perihelion approach of 9 solar radii from the surface of the sun. The high temperature, high solar flux environment makes this mission a significant challenge for power system design. This paper summarizes the power system conceptual design for the solar probe mission. Power supplies considered included nuclear, solar thermoelectric generation, solar dynamic generation using Stirling engines, and solar photovoltaic generation. The solar probe mission ranges from a starting distance from the sun of 1 AU, to a minimum distance of about 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU, from the center of the sun. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 510 times AM0. This requires power systems that can operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Kinnison, James; Fraeman, Martin; Roufberg, Lew; Vernon, Steve; Wirzburger, Melissa

2008-01-01

119

Solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating system for a structure in which a matrix of beverage containers of the convenient opening variety is mounted on a generally flat support member. The beverage containers extend through holes in the support member formed from alternating polygons of a generally checkerboard surface design. A resilient plug seals the opening at one end of each container and a pair of collector tubes extend through the plug into the interior of each container. The collector tubes of adjacent containers are connected together such that all containers are connected in a series relationship. Those surface areas of the support member not occupied by the containers are contoured and have an outer surface appropriate to reflect heat and light toward the containers which themselves have a coating of a heat and light conductive substance. Fluid is pumped from a reservoir and through the containers under sunny conditions or may be diverted from the matrix during cloudy conditions or at night. In the latter events, an insulated canopy may be extended to cover the matrix. The amount of heat taken from the system to heat the structure may also be appropriately controlled.

Root, E.J.

1980-03-11

120

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

1981-01-01

121

Solar energy applications in the tropics  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a seminar on the use of solar energy in tropical regions. Topics considered at the seminar included solar decision making, solar radiation measurement, solar air conditioning, solar refrigeration, solar collectors, solar water heaters, photovoltaics, solar architecture, solar heating systems, research programs, solar drying, and performance testing.

Lim, B.B.

1983-01-01

122

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

M. F. Smith Associates is a single-family residence in Jamestown, Rhode Island. The home has approximately 1752 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a gross area of 512 square feet. The array faces 15 degrees

1979-01-01

123

Formation of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall evolution of the solar system is discussed in terms of what is called the Kyoto model. Starting from the formation of the solar nebula, a multistep process is followed in detail, including growth and sedimentation of dust grains in the nebula, formation of planetesimals due to fragmentation of a dust layer, radial migration and accumulation of planetesimals to

C. Hayashi; K. Nakazawa; Y. Nakagawa

1985-01-01

124

Outer Solar System Nomenclature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant has supported work by T. Owen and B. A. Smith on planetary and satellite nomenclature, carried out under the general auspices of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The IAU maintains a Working Group on Planetary and Satellite Nomenclature (WGPSN) whose current chair is Prof.Kaare Aksnes of the Rosseland Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics in Oslo, Norway. Both Owen and Smith are members of the WGPSN; Owen as chair of the Outer Solar System Task Group, and Smith as chair of the Mars Task Group. The major activity during the last grant period (2002) was the approval of several new names for features on Mars by Smith's group and features on Jovian satellites plus new names for satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus by Owen's group. Much of this work was accomplished by e-mail exchanges, but the new nomenclature was formally discussed and approved at a meeting of the WGPSN held in conjunction with the Division for Planetary Sciences meeting in Birmingham, Alabama in October 2002.

Owen, Tobias C.; Grant, John (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

125

The invariable plane of the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invariable plane of the solar system is defined as the plane perpendicular to the total angular momentum of the system and passing through its centre of mass. The idea of using the invariable plane as a reference plane in the study of the dynamics of solar system bodies goes back at least to Laplace [3]. The latest study on this plane dates back to Burkhardt [2]. The aim of this work is to determine at best the orientation of the invariable plane with respect to both the ICRS and the equinox-ecliptic of J2000.0, and to evaluate the accuracy of its determination. Such a determination is of fundamental interest in the topic of solar system studies, as suggested by the WGCCRE 2009 [1] for the determination of planet's and satellites' rotational elements. Using the long-term numerical ephemerides DE405, DE406 [6] and INPOP10a[4] over their entire available time span, we compute the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the individual contribution of each planet. We then deduce the orientation of the invariable plane for each ephemeris, and establish their relative differences. Preliminary results can be found in [5]. Here we update them with more accurate data, and a more complete analysis of the problem, taking into account the effect of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres as well as two of the biggest asteroids, (4) Vesta and (2) Pallas. Moreover, we give the orbital elements (inclination, longitude of the ascending node) with respect to the invariable plane. As given its accuracy of determination, and its fundamental dynamical meaning, the invariable plane provides a permanent natural reference plane that should be used when studying solar system dynamics, instead of the ecliptic. Thus, we recommend referring to it when working on long-term dynamics.

Souami, D.; Souchay, J.

2012-04-01

126

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Early Solar System Chronology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics were presented in this report: Iron Isotopic Fractionation During Vacuum Evaporation of Molten W?stite and Solar Compositions; Mg Isotope Ratio Zonation in CAIs - New Constraints on CAI Evolution; Sm-Nd Systematics of Chondrites; AMS Measurement of Mg-24(He-3,p)Al-26 Cross Section, Implications for the Al-26 Production in the Early Solar System; On Early Solar System Chronology: Implications of an Initially Heterogeneous Distribution of Short-lived Radionuclides; Revisiting Extraterrestrial U Isotope Ratios; Helium-Shell Nucleosynthesis and Extinct Radioactivities; High Spatial Resolution Ion Microprobe Measurements Refine Chronology of Orgueil Carbonate Formation; and Calibration of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Flux.

2004-01-01

127

Solar Thermal Electric Power Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of research to identify cost effective solar thermal electric power systems are given. Parametric performance and cost models were developed for concentrating collector, heat transport, and heat storage subsystems. Dynamic programming methods to s...

1974-01-01

128

Formation of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter from an online astronomy course briefly describes the formation of the solar system from an accretionary disk. Links to additional resources, a homework assignment, and a quiz are included.

Barnes, Joshua

129

Introduction to the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers basic information on the planets in our solar system, comets, asteroids, and satellites. An in depth look at each planet's atmosphere, surface features, missions, and planetary geology is provided.

2005-05-23

130

Exobiology in Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A symposium, 'Exobiology in Solar System Exploration,' was held on 24-26 Aug. 1988. The symposium provided an in-depth investigation of the role of Exobiology in solar system exploration. It is expected that the symposium will provide direction for future participation of the Exobiology community in solar system exploration and alert the Planetary community to the continued importance of an Exobiology Flight Program. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily on Exobiology in solar system exploration missions, several ground based and Earth-orbital projects such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Gas Grain Facility, and Cosmic Dust Collection Facility represent upcoming research opportunities planned to accommodate the goals and objectives of the Exobiology community as well. This report contains papers for all but one of the presentations given at the symposium.

Carle, Glenn C. (editor); Schwartz, Deborah E. (editor); Huntington, Judith L. (editor)

1992-01-01

131

Views of the solar system  

SciTech Connect

Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

Hamilton, C.

1995-02-01

132

Evolution of the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin and evolution of the solar system are analyzed. Physical processes are first discussed, followed by experimental studies of plasma-solid reactions and chemical and mineralogical analyses of meteorites and lunar and terrestrial samples.

Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.

1976-01-01

133

Voriconazole Concentration in Human Aqueous Humor and Plasma during Topical or Combined Topical and Systemic Administration for Fungal Keratitis?  

PubMed Central

Voriconazole (VRC) is an antifungal drug that effectively treats keratitis caused by yeasts and molds when administered orally. We retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes and plasma and aqueous humor drug concentrations in five patients with fungal keratitis and one patient with posttraumatic endophthalmitis who were treated with VRC. VRC was administered either topically (1% eye drops every hour) or orally (400 mg twice a day). Plasma and aqueous humor samples from affected eyes were taken 12 h after oral administration or 1 h after eye drop application. The drug concentration was measured by liquid chromatography with UV or mass spectrometric detection. All six patients responded well to VRC treatment. The VRC concentration ranged from 2.93 to 3.40 mg/liter in the aqueous humor and from 3.20 to 4.20 mg/liter in the plasma after combined oral and topical treatment. Topical administration alone resulted in highly variable trough VRC concentrations of 0.61 to 3.30 mg/liter in the aqueous humor. VRC concentrations were above the MIC for Candida albicans Aspergillus fumigatus and clinical improvement was seen in all four patients with C. albicans and A. fumigatus keratitis. Combined orally and topically administered VRC resulted in aqueous humor drug concentrations of ?2.93 mg/liter, which is above the VRC MIC for most fungi. Topical VRC treatment resulted in an aqueous humor drug concentration >0.61 mg/liter, which is above the MIC for most Candida species. The results from this small series of patients suggest that both topical and combined systemic and topical VRC therapy can be effective in treating fungal keratitis. Furthermore, the data provide preliminary support for initiation of VRC treatment with a combined topical and systemic administration until the causative fungus and its MIC are identified.

Thiel, Michael A.; Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Burhenne, Jurgen; Kaufmann, Claude; Haefeli, Walter E.

2007-01-01

134

Solar System binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of binaries in each of the major populations of minor bodies in the solar system is propelling a rapid growth of heretofore unattainable physical information. The availability of mass and density constraints for minor bodies opens the door to studies of internal structure, comparisons with meteorite samples, and correlations between bulk-physical and surface-spectral properties. The number of known binaries is now more than 70 and is growing rapidly. A smaller number have had the extensive followup observations needed to derive mass and albedo information, but this list is growing as well. It will soon be the case that we will know more about the physical parameters of objects in the Kuiper Belt than has been known about asteroids in the Main Belt for the last 200 years. Another important aspect of binaries is understanding the mechanisms that lead to their formation and survival. The relative sizes and separations of binaries in the different minor body populations point to more than one mechanism for forming bound pairs. Collisions appear to play a major role in the Main Belt. Rotational and/or tidal fission may be important in the Near Earth population. For the Kuiper Belt, capture in multi-body interactions may be the preferred formation mechanism. However, all of these conclusions remain tentative and limited by observational and theoretical incompleteness. Observational techniques for identifying binaries are equally varied. High angular resolution observations from space and from the ground are critical for detection of the relatively distant binaries in the Main Belt and the Kuiper Belt. Radar has been the most productive method for detection of Near Earth binaries. Lightcurve analysis is an independent technique that is capable of exploring phase space inaccessible to direct observations. Finally, spacecraft flybys have played a crucial paradigm-changing role with discoveries that unlocked this now-burgeoning field.

Noll, Keith S.

135

Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

136

Topics in Interoperability: System-of-Systems Evolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines how interoperable systems of systems evolve. It first considers several ways in which interoperability can be defined and then examines the notion of software evolution itself. Next, it considers how evolution occurs in interoperable ...

D. Carney D. Fisher P. Place

2005-01-01

137

Control of solar energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two approaches to the control of large solar energy systems, i.e., programmed control and control systems relying on the use of orientation transducers and feedback, are briefly reviewed, with particular attention given to problems associated with these control systems. A new control system for large solar power plants is then proposed which is based on a combination of these approaches. The general design of the control system is shown and its principle of operation described. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of the approach proposed here are demonstrated.

Sizov, Iu. M.; Zakhidov, R. A.; Baranov, V. G.

138

Design data brochure for CSI series V solar heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generalized information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout is presented to assist the architect or designer in preparing construction drawings and specifications for the installation of the CSI integrated solar heating systems. Efficiency in space utilization of a full length collector and the importance of proper sizing of the collector array are among the topics discussed. Details of storage and transport subsystems are provided along with drawings and specifications of all components of the CSI system.

1978-01-01

139

Photobiology, photodermatology and sunscreens: a comprehensive overview. Part 2: topical and systemic photoprotection.  

PubMed

Sun exposure of the skin triggers several inflammatory pathways via a multitude of photochemical and photobiological effects. Furthermore, local and systemic immune suppression develops. The main clinical effects of UV exposure can be classified schematically into immediate, including sunburn, tanning, vitamin D production and exacerbation of inherited and acquired photosensitive skin disorders and long-term, including solar ageing and skin cancer. The protection against solar radiation is afforded by a healthy behavior of reasonable sun avoidance and the use of topical sunscreens as well as topical and oral antioxidants. However, users of sunscreen products should be able to choose correctly the most convenient product according to their needs. In Europe, the sun protection factor (SPF) and the UVA-protection factor (UVA-PF) are labeled to indicate the degree of protection against UVB and UVA, respectively. However, dermatologists must be aware that the present knowledge of UV effects on human skin needs to be clarified and several regulatory issues of photo-protection remain to be clarified and standardized. Finally, much work is needed to improve water resistance, spreadability, transparency and homogeneity of the sunscreen agents. PMID:23407082

Celleno, L; Calzavara-Pinton, P; Sala, R; Arisi, M C; Bussoletti, C

2013-02-01

140

Installation Guidelines for Solar DHW Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are some of the better techniques for installing solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems. By using these guidelines, along with the manufacturer's manual, professional installation contractors and skilled homeowners should be able to install and fill a solar DHW system. Among the topics considered are system layouts, siting, mounting…

Hollander, Peter; And Others

141

Universal solar energy desalination system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover water at a ratio of 90%. The power system comprises a parabolic trough solar thermal system with an organic Rankine cycle generator, rock-oil thermal storage, and 200 kW wind turbines. Analysis of the complementarity of the solar and wind subsystems indicates that at any site one system will supplement the other. Energy storage, e.g., battery banks, would increase system costs to unacceptable levels. Climatic conditions will significantly influence the sizing of each segment of the total power system.

Fusco, V. S.

142

Solar energy system performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stewart-Teele-Mitchell site is a single-family residence in Malta, New York. The home has approximately 1900 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a gross area of 432 square feet. The array faces south at an

1979-01-01

143

Pharmacogenetics of topical and systemic treatment of psoriasis.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. The cause of psoriasis is unknown, although genetics may play a key role in its development. Treatment of the disease varies with severity. Topical drugs, such as corticosteroids, coal tar, retinoids and vitamin D analogs, are commonly used to treat mild psoriasis. Phototherapy and systemic drugs, such as calcineurin inhibitors, methotrexate, acitretin and biological drugs, are usually used to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Not all patients respond well to treatment, and some can develop severe adverse effects. Interindividual differences in several genes may explain this variation in response to treatment. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics can facilitate more personalized medicine and prevent the adverse effects associated with treatment. PMID:24088133

Prieto-Pérez, Rocío; Cabaleiro, Teresa; Daudén, Esteban; Ochoa, Dolores; Román, Manuel; Abad-Santos, Francisco

2013-10-01

144

Advances in topical drug delivery system: micro to nanofibrous structures.  

PubMed

This paper is a review of the latest developments in the field of topical drug delivery via which the drug is directly applied onto the skin with high selectivity and efficiency. Advances in microfiber-based medical textiles such as sutures and wound dressings, especially those containing a drug or an antimicrobial agent, have been covered briefly. A special focus is on recent developments in the area of nanofibrous drug delivery systems, which have several advantages due to their large surface area to volume ratio, high porosity and flexibility. The electrospinning technique to produce nanofibers has also been discussed with reference to latest advances such as multiple needles, needleless and coaxial forms of electrospinning. The applications of nanofibers in different areas such as wound dressing, periodontal and anticancer treatment have also been discussed. PMID:24730303

Joshi, Mangala; Butola, B S; Saha, Kasturi

2014-01-01

145

Chaos in the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical basis of chaos in the solar system is now better understood: In all cases investigated so far, chaotic orbits result from overlapping resonances. Perhaps the clearest examples are found in the asteroid belt. Overlapping resonances account for its kirkwood gaps and were used to predict and find evidence for very narrow gaps in the outer belt. Further afield, about one new "short-peroid" comet is discovered each year. They are believed to come from the "Kuiper Belt" (at 40 AU or more) via chaotic orbits produced by mean-motion and secular resonances with Neptune. Finally, the planetary system itself is not immune from chaos. In the inner solar system, overlapping secular resonances have been identified as the possible source of chaos. For example, Mercury in 1012 years, may suffer a close encounter with Venus or plunge into the Sun. In the outer solar system, three-body resonances have been identified as a source of chaos, but on an even longer time scale of 109 times the age of the solar system. On the human time scale, the planets do follow their orbits in a stately procession, and we can predict their trajectories for hundreds of thousands of years. That is because the mavericks, with shorter instability times, have long since been ejected. The solar system is not stable; it is just old!

Lecar, Myron; Franklin, Fred A.; Holman, Matthew J.; Murray, Norman J.

2001-01-01

146

Solar-Energy-System Performance Evaluation: Honeywell Ots 44, Ocmulgee, Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The operation and technical performance of the solar operational test site (OTS 44) are described, based on data collected between April, 1981 and August, 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating ener...

A. K. Mathur S. Pederson

1982-01-01

147

Bring NASA's Year of the Solar System into Your Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Year of the Solar System ( http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss) is a celebration of our exploration of the solar system, which began in October 2010 and continues for one Martian year (687 Earth days) ending in late summer 2012. The diverse planetary missions in this period create a rare opportunity to engage students and the public, using NASA missions to reveal new worlds and new discoveries. Each month focuses on a particular topic, such as the scale of the solar system, its formation, water in the solar system, volcanism, atmospheres, and more! All educators are invited to join the celebration; indeed, the EPO community is needed in order for this event to be successful! Participants at the 2011 ASP Conference surveyed a variety of thematic activities, received resources and implementation ideas, and were invited to share their own experiences and upcoming events!

Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; LaConte, K.; Dalton, H.; Buxner, S.; Boonstra, D.; Ristvey, J.; Wessen, A.; Zimmerman-Brachman, R.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.

2012-08-01

148

Integrated solar energy system optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

Young, S. K.

1982-11-01

149

Solar-powered cooling system  

DOEpatents

A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-12-24

150

Stability of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

AT the end of the eighteenth century, the French astronomer Laplace proved that a system of planets moving around the sun in definite orbits might suffer many serious disturbances, but still would always hold together. Laplace's statement involved certain approximations which, though legitimate at the time, can now no longer be accepted. Geologists place the birth of our solar system

Ernest W. Brown

1932-01-01

151

Simple solar water heating systems: The SWAP program in Florida  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the development of a solar water heating system appropriate for low-income Florida residents and the appliances developed in conjunction with it that may appeal to a wider market. Among the topics discussed are size and design of the system including passive preheaters and affordable active systems. Electric water heaters with 40 and 50 gallon capacity were found to be the most cost effective. The feed-back from customers is also discussed. 3 figs.

Harrison, J. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

1997-11-01

152

Solar System Science with JWST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JWST will enable breakthroughs in our understanding of the physical characteristics of cold bodies in the outer reaches of the Solar System. These objects include Pluto and other Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), the icy moons of the giant planets, and distant cometary nuclei. Recent discoveries of large objects in the Kuiper belt, along with many smaller members, make it clear that this region represents a major constituent of our Solar System, one that was hidden until recently because it is so remote and challenging to observe. The near-IR and mid-IR performance of JWST will be unique in its power to probe this region. This poster describes the science drivers for JWST observations of Solar System objects and plans for implementing this capability.

Sonneborn, G.; Lunine, J.; Hammel, H.; Long, K.; Hutchings, J.; Rieke, G.

2007-01-01

153

Universal solar energy desalination system  

SciTech Connect

The design which has been developed for a solar-powered water desalination plant is a highly flexible one; and thus, suitable for worldwide application. The system is modular in nature, utilizing a combination of solar thermal and wind energy to operate the reverse osmosis desalination unit. The system's flexibility lies in the fact that the configuration of the plant can be altered so that it is suitable for any given site. Plant capacity and the size of the solar thermal and wind energy systems are dependent upon a variety of site-specific characteristics. Furthermore, the design of each of the subsystems is also highly interdependent. Examination of the site characteristics and their interactions will allow a design which is optimal for the site.

Fusco, V.S.

1982-08-01

154

Origin of Outer Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

155

Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

Ward, Dan S.

1976-01-01

156

Solar energy system and solar powered tracking apparatus therefor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar tracking apparatus for a solar energy system comprises at least one chamber containing a volatile fluid, a shading arrangement for controlling the degree to which the at least one chamber is exposed to the sun in dependence on the position of the sun so as to control the extent to which the fluid is vaporized due to solar heating

1981-01-01

157

Discovery of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of NASA's website "From Stargazers to Starships". It discusses the evolution of scientific thought concerning the nature of the solar system, beginning with the earth-centered solar system advocated by Hipparchus and Ptolemy. Ptolemy's idea that the sun and planets moved around the Earth persisted for nearly a thousand years until Copernicus and Galileo, using his newly-invented telescope, began to understand that the Earth and its companion planets all orbited in around the sun. The site features text, pictures, a scientific illustration showing retrograde motion, and links to other relevant sites.

158

Continued Development of the Solar System Concept Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed in order to provide a pre-/post-instruction assessment instrument suitable for use in an introductory solar system course. The topics included on the SSCI focus on formation mechanisms, planetary interiors, atmospheric and surface effects, and small solar system bodies. These topics were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system. Student interviews were then conducted to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. As of December 2009, the SSCI has been through four semesters of both pre- and post-instruction classroom testing, involving over 2000 students and 11 institutions (ranging from two-year colleges to doctoral/research universities). After each semester of testing, item analysis statistics such as point biserial, percentage correct on pre- or post-testing, and frequently-chosen distracters (incorrect answers) were used to flag ineffective questions. Flagged questions were revised or eliminated. We present an overall outline of the SSCI development as well as our question-flagging criteria and question analyses from the latest round of field-testing. We would like to thank the NSF for funding under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

Hornstein, Seth D.; Prather, E. E.; English, T. R.; Desch, S. M.; Keller, J. M.; CATS

2010-01-01

159

Solar energy decision support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy plays a prominent role in human society. As a result of technological and industrial development, the demand for energy is rapidly increasing. Existing power sources that are mainly fossil fuel based are leaving an unacceptable legacy of waste and pollution apart from diminishing stock of fuels. Hence, the focus is now shifted to large-scale propagation of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies. Solar energy is one such renewable energy. Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Estimation of solar energy potential of a region requires detailed solar radiation climatology, and it is necessary to collect extensive radiation data of high accuracy covering all climatic zones of the region. In this regard, a decision support system (DSS) would help in estimating solar energy potential considering the region's energy requirement. This article explains the design and implementation of DSS for assessment of solar energy. The DSS with executive information systems and reporting tools helps to tap vast data resources and deliver information. The main hypothesis is that this tool can be used to form a core of practical methodology that will result in more resilient in time and can be used by decision-making bodies to assess various scenarios. It also offers means of entering, accessing, and interpreting the information for the purpose of sound decision making.

Ramachandra, T. V.; Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Vamsee Krishna, S.; Shruthi, B. V.

2005-12-01

160

Solar energy decision support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy plays a prominent role in human society. As a result of technological and industrial developments, the demand for energy is rapidly increasing. Existing power sources that are mainly fossil fuel based are leaving an unacceptable legacy of waste and pollution apart from diminishing stock of fuels. Hence, the focus is now shifted to large-scale propagation of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies. Solar energy is one such renewable energy. Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Estimation of solar energy potential of a region requires detailed solar radiation climatology, and it is necessary to collect extensive radiation data of high accuracy covering all climatic zones of the region. In this regard, a decision support system (DSS) would help to estimate solar energy potential considering the regions’ energy requirement. This article explains the design and implementation of DSS for assessment of solar energy. The DSS with executive information systems and reporting tools helps to tap vast data resources and deliver information. The main hypothesis is that this tool can be used to form a core of practical methodology that is resilient and can be used by decision-making bodies to assess various scenarios. It also offers means of entering, accessing and interpreting the information for the purpose of sound decision-making.

Ramachandra, T. V.; Rajeev Kumar, J.; Vamsee Krishna, S.; Shruthi, B. V.

2006-03-01

161

Solar simulator for solar dynamic space power system testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planned vacuum tank testing of a solar dynamic space power system requires a solar simulator. Several solar simulators were previously built and used for vacuum tank testing of various space systems. However, the apparent solar subtense angle, i.e., the angular size of the apparent sun as viewed from the experiment, of these solar simulators is too large to enable testing of solar dynamic systems. A new design was developed to satisfy the requirements of the solar dynamic testing. This design provides 1.8 kW/m(sup 2) onto a 4.5M diameter test area from a source that subtends only 1 deg, full cone angle. Key features that enable this improved performance are (1) elimination of the collimating mirror commonly used in solar simulators to transform the diverging beam into a parallel beam; (2) a redesigned lamp module that has increased efficiency; and (3) the use of a segmented reflective surface to combine beams from several individual lamp modules at the pseudosun. Each segment of this reflective surface has complex curvature to control the distribution of light. By developing a new solar simulator design for testing of the solar dynamic system instead of modifying current designs, the initial cost was cut in half, the efficiency was increased by 50 percent reducing the operating costs by one-third, and the volume occupied by the solar simulator was reduced by a factor of 10.

Jefferies, Kent S.

1993-01-01

162

Chaos in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical basis of chaos in the solar system is now better understood: In all cases investigated so far, chaotic orbits result from overlapping resonances. Perhaps the clearest examples are found in the asteroid belt. Overlapping resonances account for its Kirkwood gaps and were used to predict and find evidence for very narrow gaps in the outer belt. Further afield,

Myron Lecar; Fred A. Franklin; Matthew J. Holman; Norman J. Murray

2001-01-01

163

Decentralized solar photovoltaic energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emphasis was placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ utilizing a unique solar cell array roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5 percent efficiency at 28 C and 100 mW/sq cm insolation are used to generate 10 kW (peak). An all electric home is considered with lead acid battery storage, DC AC inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

Krupka, M. C.

1980-09-01

164

Atmosphere and the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on the Earth's atmosphere and our solar system includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

165

Solar heating\\/cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating and cooling system comprising a multi-tiered collector and heat exchanger is described that is mounted on a roof or installed in a vertical wall. Each tier of the exchanger includes a plurality of longitudinal channels with upper and lower manifolds communicating with all of the channels. A duct extends from each manifold into the premises being heated

Worthington

1977-01-01

166

Planet discovered outside solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronomers have reported the discovery of a planet orbiting a star outside our solar system, which, if verified, would be the first time that a direct observation has been made. Using a relatively new technique called speckle interferometry, astronomers from the University of Arizona and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) have identified what they believe to be a planet

David W. Robb

1984-01-01

167

Q in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secular changes brought about by tidal friction in the solar system are reviewed. The presence or absence of specific changes is used to bound the values of Q (the specific dissipation function) appropriate for the planets and satellites. It is shown that the values of Q separate sharply into two groups. Values in the range from 10 to 500 are

PETER GOLDREICH; STEVEN SOTER

1966-01-01

168

Solar System Scale and Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about planetary distances. Learners will create a model of the solar system using beads and string, and compare planetary sizes using common types of fruit and seeds. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

169

Solar hot water heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar hot water heating system, utilizing preferably a gas-liquid, phase change medium in the collector, employs one heating and storage tank above the collector and a preheating and storage tank below the first tank and preferably also below the collector. A cold water source feeds the inlet of the preheating tank which has its outlet connected to the inlet

1981-01-01

170

Sizing up the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS 1993) states that by the end of fifth grade, students should understand that a model, such as those depicting the solar system, is a smaller version of the real product, making it easier to physically work with and therefore learn from. However, for students and even adults,…

Wiebke, Heidi; Rogers, Meredith Park; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri

2011-01-01

171

Spacefarer Solar Kites for Solar System Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar kite is a small rigid solar sail with an area of a few square metres, capable of carrying a payload of a few hundred grams. In contrast to more ambitious solar sails, a kite can be deployed from its canister by a simple spring-driven mechanism. Because of its very small moment of inertia, a kite can be steered by quasi-passive means. This paper summaries the findings of an ESA-funded research project examining the design, construction and deployment of solar kites, together with the missions they are capable of undertaking and the science data that could be obtained through their use. It focuses in particular on the high performance `Spacefarer' kite capable of progressing from GTO to near-Earth targets including the Moon, Lagrange points and asteroids.

Jack, C.; Wall, R.; Welch, C. S.

172

Solafern solar system design brochure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complete residential solar space heating and hot water system is described. Low maintenance, durable, and efficient air heating collectors are used. The collectors have a selective absorber and a tempered glass cover nearly one-quarter of an inch thick with an aluminum frame. The solar energy can be delivered directly to the living area when there is a demand; otherwise, it is stored in the form of hot water. Hot water storage is accomplished through the use of an air-to-water exchanger. The hot water storage is used simultaneously to preheat the domestic hot water, as well as to store energy for space heating.

1977-01-01

173

Solar heating and cooling system design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application surveys and performance studies were conducted to determine a solar heating and hot water configuration that could be used in a variety of applications, and to identify subsystem modules that could be utilized in a building block fashion to adapt hardware items to single and multi-family residential and commercial systems. Topics discussed include: subsystem development for the solar collectors, controls, other components, energy management module, and the heating system configuration test. Operational tests conducted at an Illinois farmhouse, and a YWCA in Spokane, Washington are discussed.

1978-01-01

174

Online Short Course: The Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eager to learn beyond your Earthly boundaries? Join us for the new NSTA Online Short Course: The Solar System . The focus of this course will be how the solar system and its bodies are formed. During this course, particular emp

1900-01-01

175

Corrosion and Scaling in Solar Heating Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Corrosion, as experienced in solar heating systems, is described in simplistic terms to familiarize designers and installers with potential problems and their solutions. The role of a heat transfer fluid in a solar system is briefly discussed, and the cho...

R. J. Foresti

1981-01-01

176

Scope on the Skies: Solar system update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our knowledge of the solar system and of orbital dynamics has undergone some changes as telescope technology improved. This month's Scope on the skies discusses the newest developments within the solar system and redefines the meaning of the word "planet."

Riddle, Bob

2006-04-01

177

Design Data Handbook for Flexible Solar Array Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Solar array component design data(Solar array structure; Solar array substrate assembly; Solar array drive systems; Power and signal transfer devices; Lubrication); Solar array system design and sizing criteria; Physical constants and conversion...

D. J. Parquet

1973-01-01

178

How big is our solar system?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will get a better understanding of the size of our solar system by putting it into a scale model using New York State. How Big is our Solar System? Govenour Cuomo wants to place the planets of the solar system along the New York State Thruway at the correct distances from the Sun but to scale. He has commissioned your company to set up this representation of our Solar System. Use the ...

Smith, Miss

2007-11-24

179

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

NONE

1995-05-01

180

Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems a technical guide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station.

1980-11-01

181

Solar System Analog; WMO Statement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists searching for extra-solar planets have discovered the closest known analog to our own Solar System. A planet with a mass about twice that of Jupiter is in a near-circular orbit of the star HD70642, a team of astronomers from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States announced on 3 July at a conference in Paris on extra-solar planets.The planet measures about three-fifths the size of Jupiter, circles its star about every six years, and is in an orbit equivalent to being about halfway between Mars and Jupiter if it were located in our Solar System, according to the astronomers. The star is about 90 light years away from Earth in the constellation Puppis.Public concern about a spate of well-publicized, extreme weather events around the world this year has prompted the World Meteorological Organization to issue a statement that, as global temperatures continues to rise due to climate change, the number and intensity of extreme events might increase. The July 2 statement is based on scientific assessments by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and others, rather than on any new studies, according to Ken Davidson, director orf WMO's World Climate Program Department. The statement cites record high termperatures so far this summer in southern France and in Switzerland, an abnormally high number of tornadoes in the U.S. in May, and particularly heavy rains from tropical cyclones in Sri Lanka.

Showstack, Randy

182

High performance solar Stirling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A full-scale Dish-Stirling system experiment, at a power level of 25 kWe, has been tested during 1981 on the Test Bed Concentrator No. 2 at the Parabolic Dish Test Site, Edwards, CA. Test components, designed and developed primarily by industrial contractors for the Department of Energy, include an advanced Stirling engine driving an induction alternator, a directly-coupled solar receiver with a natural gas combustor for hybrid operation and a breadboard control system based on a programmable controller and standard utility substation components. The experiment demonstrated practicality of the solar Stirling application and high system performance into a utility grid. This paper describes the design and its functions, and the test results obtained.

Stearns, J. W.; Haglund, R.

1981-01-01

183

The solar system's invariable plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The dynamics of solar system objects, such as dwarf planets and asteroids, has become a well-established field of celestial mechanics in the past thirty years, owing to the improvements that have been made in observational techniques and numerical studies. In general, the ecliptic is taken as the reference plane in these studies, although there is no dynamical reason for doing so. In contrast, the invariable plane as originally defined by Laplace, seems to be a far more natural choice. In this context, the latest study of this plane dates back to Burkhardt. Aims: We define and determine the orientation of the invariable plane of the solar system with respect to both the ICRF and the equinox-ecliptic of J2000.0, and evaluate the accuracy of our determination. Methods: Using the long-term numerical ephemerides DE405, DE406, and INPOP10a over their entire available time span, we computed the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the individual contribution to it made by each of the planets, the dwarf planets Pluto and Ceres, and the two asteroids Pallas and Vesta. We then deduced the orientation of the invariable plane from these ephemerides. Results: We update the previous results on the determination of the orientation of the invariable plane with more accurate data, and a more complete analysis of the problem, taking into account the effect of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres as well as two of the biggest asteroids, (4) Vesta and (2) Pallas. We show that the inclusion of these last three bodies significantly improves the accuracy of determination of the invariable plane, whose orientation over a 100 y interval does not vary more than 0.1 mas in inclination, and 0.3 mas in longitude of the ascending node. Moreover, we determine the individual contributions of each body to the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the inclination and longitude of the node with respect to this latter plane. Conclusions: Owing to the high accuracy of its determination and its fundamental dynamical meaning, the invariable plane provides a permanent natural reference plane that should be used when studying solar system dynamics, instead of the ecliptic. Since it is fixed in an isolated solar system, whereas the ecliptic alters with time, we recommend referring to it when working on long-term dynamics.

Souami, D.; Souchay, J.

2012-07-01

184

Solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for generating electrical power from sunlight, comprises a focussing diffraction grating or other focussing, spectrally dispersive means and a photocell array. The diffraction grating focuses sunlight into a spectrally dispersed band. The photocell array is composed of cells with different spectral sensitivities, located in positions in the dispersed band corresponding to the cell spectral sensitivities so that the

Mcgrew

1980-01-01

185

My Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, learners build their own system of heavenly bodies and watch the gravitational ballet. With this orbit simulator, learners can set initial positions, velocities, and masses of 2, 3, or 4 bodies, and then see them orbit each other. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, teaching ideas, and translations in over 30 languages.

Dubson, Michael; Gratny, Mindy; Harlow, Danielle

2011-01-01

186

New solar systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A team of astronomers from UCLA, Cornell University, and the University of Hawaii have discovered what may be two new planetary systems aborning around young stars in the constellations Taurus and Monoceros. The team's ground-based infrared observations of HL Tau and R Mon reveal features similar to those seen around Vega and Fomalhaut last year by NASA's Infrared Astronomical Satellite

Tony Reichhardt

1984-01-01

187

My Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can build their own system of heavenly bodies and watch the gravitational ballet. With this orbit simulator, users can set initial positions, velocities, and masses of 2, 3, or 4 bodies, and then see them orbit each other. The site includes ideas for using this animation in the classroom.

Dubson, Michael; Colorado, University O.

188

Steamy Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

This diagram illustrates the earliest journeys of water in a young, forming star system. Stars are born out of icy cocoons of gas and dust. As the cocoon collapses under its own weight in an inside-out fashion, a stellar embryo forms at the center surrounded by a dense, dusty disk. The stellar embryo 'feeds' from the disk for a few million years, while material in the disk begins to clump together to form planets.

NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was able to probe a crucial phase of this stellar evolution - a time when the cocoon is vigorously falling onto the pre-planetary disk. The infrared telescope detected water vapor as it smacks down on a disk circling a forming star called NGC 1333-IRAS 4B. This vapor started out as ice in the outer envelope, but vaporized upon its arrival at the disk.

By analyzing the water in the system, astronomers were also able learn about other characteristics of the disk, such as its size, density and temperature.

How did Spitzer see the water vapor deep in the NGC 1333-IRAS 4B system? This is most likely because the system is oriented in just the right way, such that its thicker disk is seen face-on from our Earthly perspective. In this 'face-on' orientation, Spitzer can peer through a window carved by an outflow of material from the embryonic star. This system in this drawing is shown in the opposite 'edge-on' configuration.

2007-01-01

189

Active heat pipe solar water heating system  

SciTech Connect

An ''active heat pipe'' solar water heating system is described. In its primary mode it transfers solar radiation energy from a high temperature solar evaporator to a low temperature water storage tank. For this mode to work properly, refrigerant must be circulated by a variable speed pump/compressor. It is expected that this system will offer better efficiency than conventional solar water systems and heat pump water heaters. This paper summarizes the benefits of active refrigeration cycle control and presents some simulation results comparing active heat pipe solar water heating systems to conventional systems.

Yoshino, H.; Kasayi, H.; Otsuka, N.; Thompson, P.

1983-08-01

190

Inhabiting the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new field of space architecture is introduced. Defined as the "theory and practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space," the field synthesizes human space flight systems engineering subjects with the long tradition of making environments that support human living, work, and aspiration. The scope of the field is outlined, and its three principal domains differentiated. The current state of the art is described in terms of executed projects. Foreseeable options for 21st century developments in human space flight provide a framework to tease out potential space architecture opportunities for the next century.

Sherwood, Brent

2011-03-01

191

Analysis of hybrid solar systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TRNSYS simulation program was used to evaluate the performance of active charge/passive discharge solar systems with water as the working fluid. TRNSYS simulations are used to evaluate the heating performance and cooling augmentation provided by systems in several climates. The results of the simulations are used to develop a simplified analysis tool similar to the F-chart and Phi-bar procedures used for active systems. This tool, currently in a preliminary stage, should provide the designer with quantitative performance estimates for comparison with other passive, active, and nonsolar heating and cooling designs.

Swisher, J.

1980-10-01

192

Solar System Bodies and “Primitiveness”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planets and small bodies. Besides the Sun, which represents about 99.85% of its mass, the present day solar system include large bodies, i.e., the\\u000a four terrestrial planets, the four giant planets, and Pluto, which is probably not a planet, but rather an object from the\\u000a Edgeworth–Kuiper belt of comets captured by Neptune; more than 130 satellites of the planets. Jupiter,

Michel Maurette

2006-01-01

193

Chaos in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical basis of chaos in the solar system is now better understood: in\\u000aall cases investigated so far, chaotic orbits result from overlapping\\u000aresonances. Perhaps the clearest examples are found in the asteroid belt.\\u000aOverlapping resonances account for its Kirkwood gaps and were used to predict\\u000aand find evidence for very narrow gaps in the outer belt. Further afield,

Myron Lecar; Fred A. Franklin; Matthew J. Holman; Norman W. Murray

2001-01-01

194

The solar system beyond Neptune  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a deep optical survey for distant solar system objects. An area of 1.2 sq deg of the ecliptic has been imaged to apparent red magnitude 25, resulting in the detection of seven trans-Neptunian objects. These are the first detected members of a trans-Neptunian disk that compries about 35 000 objects larger than 100 km in

David C. Jewitt; Jane X. Luu

1995-01-01

195

Topic Essentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of TOPIC is provided, a knowledge-based text information system for the analysis of German-language texts. TOPIC supplies text condensates (summaries) on variable degrees of generality and makes available facts acquired from the texts. The presentation focuses on the major methodological principles underlying the design of TOPIC: a frame representation model that incorporates various integrity constraints, text parsing with

Udo Hahn; Ulrich Reimer

1986-01-01

196

Air leakage in residential solar heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble

J. G. Shingleton; D. E. Cassel; R. L. Overton

1981-01-01

197

Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components  

DOEpatents

A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN) [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN) [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN) [Lenoir City, TN

2011-07-05

198

Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

199

Solar-powered hot-water system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hot-water system requires no external power except solar energy. System is completely self-controlling. It includes solar-powered pump, solar-thermally and hydrothermally operated valves, and storage tank filled with open-celled foam, to maintain thermal stratification in stored water.

Collins, E. R.

1979-01-01

200

Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

Hassani, V.

2000-06-18

201

Storage systems for solar thermal power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major constraint to the evolution of solar thermal power systems is the need to provide continuous operation during periods of solar outage. A number of high temperature thermal energy storage technologies which have the potential to meet this need are currently under development. The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

1978-01-01

202

Solar-Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K.; Bergeron, David J., III

2002-10-01

203

Solar-Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

2002-01-01

204

Solar-Powered Refrigeration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure. and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

2001-01-01

205

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluation and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Project status report, August--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report describes activities of the Colorado State University program on solar heating and cooling systems for the months of August and September 1993. The topics include: rating and certification of domestic water heating systems, unique solar system components, advanced residential solar domestic hot water systems, and desiccant cooling of buildings.

Not Available

1993-09-01

206

Solar Max: Storm Warning - Effects on the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a promotional folder for Sun-Earth Days 2013, containing images and illustrations of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System. Also included is information about the period known as solar maximum, as well as links to Sun-Earth Day resources and the Space Weather Action Center.

207

Jupiter: Giant of the solar system. [its solar orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jupiter, its relationship to the other planets in the solar system, its twelve natural satellites, solar orbit and the appearance of Jupiter in the sky, and the sightings and motions of Jupiter in 1973 are discussed. Educational study projects for students are also included.

1975-01-01

208

Best of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to planetary research. Using some of the most famous and interesting images of the Solar System, students learn to focus on details by studying uncaptioned images. They increase their knowledge of the planets and their features by comparing their observations to those of real researchers. Students organize their findings to infer a key difference between inner and outer planets. They will be able: to understand that planetary images contain valuable information, but require interpretation, which is somewhat uncertain; to recognize each planet or moon by its unique and identifiable features; and understand that scientists summarize findings in order to look for patterns in groups like planets and moons.

209

Solar System in My Neighborhood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will shrink the scale of the solar system to the size of their neighborhood and compare the relative sizes of scale models of the planets, two dwarf planets, and a comet as represented by fruits and other foods. This activity requires access to a large indoor or outdoor space (measuring at least 190 feet wide) where the children can model the orbit of Mercury around the Sun. It is part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

210

The solar system beyond Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of a deep optical survey for distant solar system objects. An area of 1.2 sq deg of the ecliptic has been imaged to apparent red magnitude 25, resulting in the detection of seven trans-Neptunian objects. These are the first detected members of a trans-Neptunian disk that compries about 35 000 objects larger than 100 km in the 30-50 AU heliocentric distance range. We interpret the new measurements using a set of Monte Carlo models in which the effects of observational bias in the data are taken into account.

Jewitt, David C.; Luu, Jane X.

1995-01-01

211

Tracking system for solar collectors  

DOEpatents

A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

Butler, Barry L. (Golden, CO)

1984-01-01

212

Solar System Science with LSST  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide a unique tool to study moving objects throughout the solar system,\\u000a creating massive catalogs of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), asteroids, Trojans, TransNeptunian Objects (TNOs), comets and planetary\\u000a satellites with well-measured orbits and high quality, multi-color photometry accurate to 0.005 magnitudes for the brightest\\u000a objects. In the baseline LSST observing plan, back-to-back 15-second

R. L. Jones; S. R. Chesley; A. J. Connolly; A. W. Harris; Z. Ivezic; Z. Knezevic; J. Kubica; A. Milani; D. E. Trilling

2009-01-01

213

Topical Retinoic Acid Enhances, and a Dark Tan Protects, from Subedemal Solar-Simulated Photocarcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies into the effects of topical retinoic acid on photocarcinogenesis have yielded ambiguous findings. This may be due to different Experimental protocols and ultraviolet spectra. Retinoic acid is commonly used for a range of dermatologic conditions, and therefore it is important to resolve whether it affects skin tumor formation. To address this issue we used a protocol to mimic as

Gary M. Halliday; Bryan O. Robertson; Ross S. T. C. Barnetson

2000-01-01

214

Topical delivery system for antiaging and skin whitening agents  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to certain hydroxyaryl alkanols, alkyl amines, alkyl amino acids, alkyl amino esters, and alkyl amino alkanols ("Hydroxyaryl compounds") of formula (I). A method of topical application of said hydroxyaryl compounds is also disclosed. The treatment of certain enzyme dysfunctions that cause skin or hair condition such as darkened skin including age spots, dark circles around the eyes, and discoloration of skin from stretch marks; skin conditions related to acne including excess facial oil and facial pore size; premature hair aging including hair loss and graying; inflammation including intra-cellular and extra-cellular inflammation; skin aging including wrinkles and fine lines; loss of collagen including thinning skin and loss of skin pliability; malfunction of tyrosinase group of enzymes; and malfunction of matrix metalloprotease group of enzymes with said hydroxyaryl compounds is also disclosed: ##STR00001##

2010-08-17

215

Storage systems for solar thermal power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

1978-01-01

216

Topical clindamycin versus systemic tetracycline in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Antibiotics are often used to treat hidradenitis, but only topical clindamycin has been shown to be effective in a randomized controlled trial. The paucity of these trials may be the result of difficulties in disease assessment. Objective: We compare topical clindamycin with systemic tetracycline in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa, and study clinical disease assessment. Methods: A total of

Gregor B. E. Jemec; Peter Wendelboe

1998-01-01

217

Biotechnology for Solar System Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of a new era of astrobiology missions in the exploration of the solar system and the search for evidence of life elsewhere, we present a new approach to this goal, the integration of biotechnology. We have reviewed the current list of biotechnology techniques, which are applicable to miniaturization, automatization and integration into a combined flight platform. Amongst the techniques reviewed are- The uses of antibodies- Fluorescent detection strategies- Protein and DNA chip technology- Surface plasmon resonance and its relation to other techniques- Micro electronic machining (MEMS where applicable to biologicalsystems)- nanotechnology (e.g. molecular motors)- Lab-on-a-chip technology (including PCR)- Mass spectrometry (i.e. MALDI-TOF)- Fluid handling and extraction technologies- Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)- Raman Spectroscopy We have begun to integrate this knowledge into a single flight instrument approach for the sole purpose of combining several mutually confirming tests for life, organic and/or microbial contamination, as well as prebiotic and abiotic organic chemicals. We will present several innovative designs for new instrumentation including pro- engineering design drawings of a protein chip reader for space flight and fluid handling strategies. We will also review the use of suitable extraction methodologies for use on different solar system bodies.

Steele, A.; Maule, J.; Toporski, J.; Parro-Garcia, V.; Briones, C.; Schweitzer, M.; McKay, D.

218

Intelligence in the solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Could extraterrestrial intelligence have already reached our solar system--in the form of an interstellar probe, for instance? If any other civilizations exist in our galaxy, they are likely thousands of years older than us. With such advanced science and technology, interstellar exploration is likely easy and attractive for them. If they launched interstellar probes thousands of years ago, at least one may have already reached our solar system. What scientific strategies might detect evidence of such probes? Two strategies are especially promising. (1) Astronomy and space missions could, with very little additional expense, look for evidence of ETI in addition to the observations already scheduled. They could search for derelict probes, exhaust or heat from active probes, ancient mining, monuments, or other artifacts. (2) If a super-smart probe has reached our planet, it is likely monitoring our radio broadcasts, television broadcasts, and World Wide Web. Consequently we could use these media to invite contact. A group of eighty scientists already uses the Web to issue an invitation to ETI.

Tough, A.

219

Origins of Solar Systems Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chondrites are aggregates of components (e.g. chondrules, chondrule rims and matrix) that formed in the nebula but, at present, there is no consensus on how any of these components formed or whether their formation produced or post dated the chemical fractionations between the chondrites. Chondrites are, at present, the most primitive Solar System objects available for laboratory study and the conditions under which their principle components formed would provide the most direct constraints for models of nebula formation and evolution. The conditions under which chondrules formed is of particular importance because, if their relative abundance in chondrites approximates that in the nebula, they are the products of one of the most energetic and pervasive processes that operated in the early Solar System. The goal of this proposal was to combine theoretical modeling with a comprehensive study of the elemental and isotopic compositions of the major components in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs), with the aim of determining the conditions in the nebula at the time of their formation. The isotopes of volatile and moderately volatile elements should be particularly revealing of conditions during chondrule formation, as evaporation under most conditions would lead to isotopic mass fractionation. Modeling of chondrule and matrix formation requires the development of a kinetic model of evaporation and condensation, and calibration of this model against experiments.

O'D. Alexander, Conel

2002-01-01

220

Evaluating Performances of Solar-Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CONC11 computer program calculates performances of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. Solar thermal power system consists of one or more collectors, power-conversion subsystems, and powerprocessing subsystems. CONC11 intended to aid system designer in comparing performance of various design alternatives. Written in Athena FORTRAN and Assembler.

Jaffe, L. D.

1987-01-01

221

Economic Evaluation of Townhouse Solar Energy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-energy site in Columbia, South Carolina, is comprised of four townhouse apartments. Report summarizes economic evaluation of solar--energy system and projected performance of similar systems in four other selected cities. System is designed to supply 65 percent of heating and 75 percent of hot water.

1982-01-01

222

Energy analysis of a passive solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims at presenting the numerical solution to a natural convection problem concerning the use of a passive solar system for building heating purpose. The system consists of a modification of the well-known Trombe-Michel passive system. The main differences consist of thermal insulation on the southern wall surface, the presence of two solar ducts separated by a thin metallic

Luca Buzzoni; Roberto Dall'Olio; Marco Spiga

1998-01-01

223

Is Solar System Stable? A Remark  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not yet known (1994) whether the Solar System is stable or not. Common belief is that the Solar System is stable if and only if it is not a resonant system, i.e., whenever its orbital frequencies !i satisfy an inequality j P ni!ij • \\

Vladik Kreinovich; Andrew Bernat

1997-01-01

224

Compact integrated solar energy generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy generation systems, or any renewable systems, usually include energy storages, local dc loads and grid-tied dc-ac inversion stages. Almost always, these entities have their own power converters for processing the intermediate solar energy transferred through the systems. Having individual converters does have some advantages like more flexible individual control and easier design, but it does not provide opportunities

Poh Chiang Loh; Lei Zhang; Shun He; Feng Gao

2010-01-01

225

Analysis of a solar total energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar system to provide the electrical, thermal, and hot water requirements of a hypothetical 1000-home community was analyzed. The community is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and real 1962 solar and weather data were used. The system is composed of parabolic cylindrical collectors, high and low temperature storage systems, a turbogenerator, cooling towers, auxiliary fossil fuel furnaces, a thermal

B. W. Marshall

1975-01-01

226

Effect of topical application of Hypericum perforatum extract (St. John's wort) on skin sensitivity to solar simulated radiation.  

PubMed

St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a tradional folk remedy that is used for the topical treatment of superficial wounds, scars and burns. A characteristic metabolite of St. John's wort is the photodynamic active plant pigment hypericin. It is known that hypericin may cause a severe photodermatitis called hypericism when higher amounts of St. John's wort are ingested orally. To date, no reports on the photosensitizing capacity of topical application of St. John's wort are available. Here, we investigated the effects of Hypericum oil (hypericin 110 microg/mL) and Hypericum ointment (hypericin 30 microg/mL) on skin sensitivity to solar simulated radiation. Sixteen volunteers of the skin types II and III were tested on their volar forearms with solar simulated radiation for photosensitizing effects of Hypericum oil (n=8) and Hypericum ointment (n=8). The minimal erythema dose (MED) was determined by visual assessment, and skin erythema was evaluated photometrically. With the visual erythema score, no change of the MED could be detected after application of either Hypericum oil or Hypericum ointment (P>0.05). With the more sensitive photometric measurement, an increase of the erythema-index after treatment with the Hypericum oil could be detected (P< or =0.01). The results do not provide evidence for a severe phototoxic potential of Hypericum oil and Hypericum ointment, detectable by the clinically relevant visual erythema score. However, the trend towards increased photosensitivity detected with the more sensitive photometric measurement could become relevant in fair-skinned individuals, in diseased skin or after extended solar irradiation. PMID:10885442

Schempp, C M; Lüdtke, R; Winghofer, B; Simon, J C

2000-06-01

227

TOPICAL REVIEW: On the relationship between ELM filaments and solar flares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both solar flares and edge localized modes (ELMs) involve magnetized plasma eruptions which sporadically eject field-aligned filamentary structures into the surrounding, low density envelope: the far scrape-off layer (SOL) in the case of the tokamak and interplanetary space in the case of the sun. The erupting filamentary structures display many similarities and have been occasionally compared in the popular and

W. Fundamenski; V. Naulin; T. Neukirch; O. E. Garcia; J. Juul Rasmussen

2007-01-01

228

Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph System in New Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004, Big Bear Solar Observatory in California, USA launched a project for construction of the world's largest aperture solar telescope (D = 1.6m) called New Solar Telescope(NST). University of Hawaii (UH) and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute(KASI) partly collaborate on the project. NST is a designed off-axis parabolic Gregorian reflector with very high spatial resolution(0.07 arcsec at 5000A) and is equipped with several scientific instruments such as Visible Imaging Magnetograph (VIM), InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph IRIM), and so on. Since these scientific instruments are focused on studies of the solar photosphere, we need a post-focus instrument for the NST to study the fine structures and dynamic patterns of the solar chromosphere and low Transition Region (TR) layer, including filaments/prominences, spicules, jets, micro flares, etc. For this reason, we developed and installed a fast imaging solar spectrograph(FISS) system on the NST withadvantages of achieving compact design with high spectral resolution and small aberration as well as recording many solar spectral lines in a single and/or dual band mode. FISS was installed in May, 2010 and now we carry out a test observation. In this talk, we introduce the FISS system and the results of the test observation after FISS installation.

Park, Y.-D.; Kim, Y. H.; Chae, J.; Goode, P. R.; Cho, K. S.; Park, H. M.; Nah, J. K.; Jang, B. H.

2010-12-01

229

Economic Evaluation of Ceramic Recuperator Systems. Topical Report November 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study has been performed on the economics of ceramic heat exchangers for high-temperature flue gas recuperation. Parametric designs were developed for recuperator systems for a matrix of operating conditions. Four recuperator systems were studied; three...

H. J. Strumpf

1985-01-01

230

Solar thermionic power systems for terrestrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a feasibility study which showed that a low-temperature, high-efficient thermionic power system can efficiently convert solar energy to electrical energy without heat transport, as required by most solar thermal systems are described. A 3-dimensional (2-axis tracking) 93 sq m parabolic solar concentrator, consisting of mirrors on a foam glass substrate and designed to a concentration ratio (mirror

K. Shimada; M. Swerdling

1977-01-01

231

Knowledge Based Systems (KBS) Verification, Validation, Evaluation, and Testing (VVE&T) Bibliography: Topical Categorization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains a topical categorization of the bibliography of the literature about verification, validation, evaluation and test of knowledge- based systems. This bibliography contains 800 entries. This categorization identifies more than 50 differ...

A. J. Gonzalez R. Knauf S. Y. Harmon

2003-01-01

232

An overview: Component development for solar thermal systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, I review the significant issues and the development of solar concentrators and thermal receivers for central-receiver power plants and dish/engine systems. Due to the breadth of the topic area, I have arbitrarily narrowed the content of this paper by choosing not to discuss line-focus (trough) systems and energy storage. I will focus my discussion on the development of heliostats, dishes, and receivers since the 1970s with an emphasis on describing the technologies and their evolution, identifying some key observations and lessons learned, and suggesting what the future in component development may be.

Mancini, T.R.

1994-10-01

233

Volcanism in the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The myriad bodies that occur in the Solar System have a wide range of properties, from giant gaseous planets such as Jupiter to small, solid, rocky satellites such as our Moon. Exploration by spacecraft during the past four decades has shown that volcanism - an important mechanism by which internal heat is transported to the surface - is common on many of these bodies. There are many common traits; for example, relatively quiet eruptions of molten rock occur on such diverse bodies as the Earth, Mars and Jupiter's moon Io. The volcanic constructs produced, however, vary strikingly, and range from Olympus Mons on Mars, at over 20 km high, to relatively tiny cones on Earth no more than a few tens of metres high. The recognition of icy volcanoes spewing water or organic liquids on some of Saturn's moons constitutes one of the most exciting results to emerge from recent space missions.

Wilson, Lionel

2009-06-01

234

The Solar System Beyond Neptune  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This proposal supported deep and wide-field optical imaging of the trans-Neptunian Solar System capitalizing on our broad access to state-of-the-art facilities on Mauna Kea. Key quantities determined include the size distribution of Kuiper Belt objects (a differential power law with an index -4), and the inclination and radial distance distributions. We identified an outer edge to the classical Kuiper Belt that has since been confirmed by independent workers. We also obtained an assessment of the population densities in the mean-motion resonances with Neptune and discovered the Scattered Kuiper Belt Object dynamical class. Scientific issues on which these measurements have direct bearing include the collisional environment of the Kuiper Belt, the origin of the short-period comets, and the origin by capture into resonance of Pluto and other Kuiper Belt objects.

Jewitt, David; Nava, David (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

235

The dynamical evolution of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lectures cover orbital evolution, radiation forces, tides, the past solar system, the three body problem, and rotational dynamics in the solar system. A geometric description is given of an orbit, and it is illustrated how an orbit can change under the action of tiny perturbing forces. Attention is also given to some of the processes that cause orbits to

J. A. Burns

1982-01-01

236

Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

1982-01-01

237

Solar System Trading Cards Jr. Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of thirteen cards depicts Solar System objects such as planets, comets, asteroids, and the Sun. The front of each card displays a color image of a Solar System object; the back provides facts about the object. The Hubble Space Telescope card contains the directions for the game.

2005-01-01

238

Geophysics and cosmogony of solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attention to primary importance of geophysics in formation of modern representations about planets of Solar system is inverted. [ Kuzjmenko G.I. Deep Processes in the Earth's Interior. Geophys. J. 2001. Vol. 20, pp 813 -831; Kuzjmenko G.I., Smirnov V.A. Minor Bodys and Cosmogony of a Solar System. CAMMAC 2002. Intern. Conf. September 23 - 29, Vinnitsia, 2002, pp 35

G. I. Kuzjmenko; V. A. Smirnov

2003-01-01

239

Chaotic behaviour in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several physical situations in the solar system where chaotic behavior plays an important role. Saturn's satellite Hyperion is currently tumbling chaotically. Many of the other irregularly-shaped satellites in the solar system had chaotic rotations in the past. There are also examples of chaotic orbital evolution. Meteorites are most probably transported to earth from the asteroid belt by way

J. Wisdom

1987-01-01

240

Design procedure for solar heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the design of solar space and water heating systems for residences. A simulation model capable of estimating the long-term thermal performance of solar heating systems is described. The amount of meteorological data required by the simulation in order to estimate long-term performance is investigated. The information gained from many simulations is used to develop a

S. A. Klein; W. A. Beckman; J. A. Duffie

1976-01-01

241

Symplectic integrators for solar system dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain symplectic integrators relevant to solar system dynamics are defined here. It is shown that the dominant long-term error arises from a constant error in the mean motion, and special starting procedure which can eliminate this error are described. The resulting improvement make these integrators easily the best available for a wide range of solar system problems.

Prasenjit Saha; Scott Tremaine

1992-01-01

242

Solar assisted heat pump heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar assisted heat pump fluid heating system capable of reliable operation at higher than normal ambient temperatures is disclosed. The system includes a collection of solar panels and primary fluid storage tanks having integral coiled heat exchangers interconnected and charged with heat transfer fluid to produce heat. Temperature sensors positioned at the panels and storage tanks transmit temperature signals

Pendergrass

1984-01-01

243

Physics Flashlets: The Outer Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the orbits of the outer planets in the Solar System. This model of the outer solar system includes Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The paths of the planets are plotted and traced, and the user can see their relative speeds and periods to complete a full revolution.

Fowler, Michael; Welch, Heather

2008-09-24

244

Multi-color pyrometer temperature measurement system. Topical report 10  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Color Pyrometer System is one of the advanced optical diagnostic instruments developed at DIAL to measure temperatures in the coal combustion environments of large scale facilities. The principles of operation, a description of the system and its capabilities, and the operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

Green, R.A.; Philip, T.

1995-04-01

245

Alternate Central Receiver Power System. Phase II. Midterm Topical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Phase II program is to prove the feasibility of the molten salt central receiver power system by conducting a series of experiments and using results to update the commercial system developed during Phase I. The experiments are (1) Re...

1980-01-01

246

System and method for classifying legal concepts using legal topic scheme  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An economic, scalable machine learning system and process perform document (concept) classification with high accuracy using large topic schemes, including large hierarchical topic schemes. One or more highly relevant classification topics is suggested for a-given document (concept) to be classified. The invention includes training and concept classification processes. The invention also provides methods that may be used as part of the training and/or concept classification processes, including: a method of scoring the relevance of features in training concepts, a method of ranking concepts based on relevance score, and a method of voting on topics associated with an input concept. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is applied to the legal (case law) domain, classifying legal concepts (rules of law) according to a proprietary legal topic classification scheme (a hierarchical scheme of areas of law).

2002-12-31

247

Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation. Seasonal report for IBM System 1B, Carlsbad, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The IBM-Carlsbad Solar Energy System is located in a single family residence at Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. This hot air solar heating and hot water system consists of 408 square feet of SEPCO, flat plate air collectors, a rock storage bin containing 12 tons of 3/4'' to 2 1/2'' diameter rocks, an energy transport system, air-to-water heat exchanger, controls and a hot water preheat tank which supplies preheated water to a 52 gallon electric hot water tank. An oil hot-air furnace supplies necessary energy when solar energy is insufficient to supply the space heating load. The system has five different modes of operation and became operational in March, 1978. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, maintenance, summary and conclusions.

None

1980-07-01

248

Distant Comets in the Early Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main goal of this project is to physically characterize the small outer solar system bodies. An understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of the outer solar system small bodies is currently one of planetary science's highest priorities. The measurement of the size distributions of these bodies will help constrain the early mass of the outer solar system as well as lead to an understanding of the collisional and accretional processes. A study of the physical properties of the small outer solar system bodies in comparison with comets in the inner solar system and in the Kuiper Belt will give us information about the nebular volatile distribution and small body surface processing. We will increase the database of comet nucleus sizes making it statistically meaningful (for both Short-Period and Centaur comets) to compare with those of the Trans-Neptunian Objects. In addition, we are proposing to do active ground-based observations in preparation for several upcoming space missions.

Meech, Karen J.

2000-01-01

249

Mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery. Topical report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of an evaluation of mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several surfactant combinations have been studied. These include alkyl aryl sulfonates as primary surfactants and carboxymethylated ethoxylated (CME) surfact...

F. M. Llave B. L. Gall L. A. Noll

1990-01-01

250

Spiking Neural P Systems. Recent Results, Research Topics  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a quick introduction of spiking neural P systems (a class of P systems inspired from the way neurons communicate by\\u000a means of spikes, electrical impulses of identical shape), and presentation of typical results (in general equivalence with\\u000a Turing machines as number computing devices, but also other issues, such as the possibility of handling strings or infinite\\u000a sequences), we present

Gheorghe Paun; Mario J. Pérez-Jiménez

2009-01-01

251

Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

Qader, S. A. (inventor)

1981-01-01

252

The Solar System and Its Origin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a brief explanation of the solar system, including planets, asteroids, satellites, comets, planetary orbits, as well as, old and recent cosmogonic theories. Indicates that man is nearer a solution to the origin of the planetary system than ever before.

Dormand, J. R.

1973-01-01

253

Occultation Studies of the Solar System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Occultations of stars by planets, satellites, planetary ring systems, asteroids, and comets provide valuable opportunities to probe the Solar System in ways otherwise impossible from the surface of the earth. For example, one can precisely measure the siz...

R. L. Millis

1988-01-01

254

Is the Outer Solar System Really Chaotic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of chaos among the system of Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) is not yet firmly established. Although Laskar originally found no chaos in the outer Solar System, his \\

Wayne B. Hayes

2006-01-01

255

Nitrogen isotopes in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotopic composition of nitrogen in the solar system is measured, and it is shown that the 30% change during the last 3-4 billion years of N-15\\/N-14 in solar-wind-bearing lunar soils and breccias probably does not reflect changes in the ratio at the solar surface. It is argued that accretion of interstellar matter does not work as a cause for

J. Geiss; P. Bochsler

1982-01-01

256

Modeling of an integrated solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using low-cost solar collection and storage technology to provide energy for residential units is investigated. Different construction strategies were compared including traditional housing practice against newly innovative ideas such as low radiant heating system, desiccant dehumidification, integrated low-cost solar collection, and phase-change material (PCM) storage. The selected building, located in Blacksburg, VA, integrated a solar thermal roof

Marwa M. Hassan; Yvan Beliveau

2008-01-01

257

Air leakage in residential solar heating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble bed storage unit. The effects of heat transfer and mass transfer between the solar equipment room and the heated building were investigated. The effect of reduced air infiltration into the building due to pressurized by the solar air heating system were determined. A simple method of estimating the effect of collector array air leakage on system thermal performance was evaluated, using the f CHART method.

Shingleton, J. G.; Cassel, D. E.; Overton, R. L.

1981-02-01

258

Solar heating system installed at Stamford, Connecticut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The system components are described. Appended data includes: the system design acceptance test, the operation and maintenance manual, and as-built drawings and photographs.

1979-01-01

259

Topics in the Physics of Two-Phase Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is essentially divided into two parts. In the first part, we have developed a density -functional theory for the two-phase system -, the body-centered-cubic (bcc) solid-liquid interface, within the Ginzburg-Landau formalism. The principal order parameter is the amplitude of the density wave at the smallest nonzero reciprocal-lattice vector of the solid. The parameters entering the theory are fitted

Xiao Cheng Zeng

1989-01-01

260

[Expert system to support the decision in topical therapy for venous ulcers].  

PubMed

Although the treatment of venous ulcers requires a set of specific knowledge, non-specialist nurses are unaware of the appropriate therapy, which is a concern in the topical therapy for these skin lesions. This paper aims to present an expert system to support the nursing decision making process in the topical therapy of venous ulcers. It is a development research implemented in five stages: system modeling, knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation from production rules, and system implementation and evaluation. The production rules are presented as well as some cases to simulate the expert system behavior, demonstrating the viability of its usage in nurse's practice. The system may support the decision making about the topical therapy of venous ulcers. However, ulcer evaluation should be correctly made, so that the system provides appropriate suggestions, allowing better organization and planning assistance. PMID:24015475

Sellmer, Danielle; Carvalho, Carina Maris Gaspar; Carvalho, Deborah Ribeiro; Malucelli, Andreia

2013-06-01

261

TOPICAL REVIEW: Prosthetic interfaces with the visual system: biological issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of effective visual prostheses for the blind represents a challenge for biomedical engineers and neuroscientists. Significant progress has been made in the miniaturization and processing power of prosthesis electronics; however development lags in the design and construction of effective machine brain interfaces with visual system neurons. This review summarizes what has been learned about stimulating neurons in the human and primate retina, lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex. Each level of the visual system presents unique challenges for neural interface design. Blind patients with the retinal degenerative disease retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are a common population in clinical trials of visual prostheses. The visual performance abilities of normals and RP patients are compared. To generate pattern vision in blind patients, the visual prosthetic interface must effectively stimulate the retinotopically organized neurons in the central visual field to elicit patterned visual percepts. The development of more biologically compatible methods of stimulating visual system neurons is critical to the development of finer spatial percepts. Prosthesis electrode arrays need to adapt to different optimal stimulus locations, stimulus patterns, and patient disease states.

Cohen, Ethan D.

2007-06-01

262

Topics in the mechanics of self-organizing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-organization, in one of its accepted definitions, is the appearance of non-random structures in a system without explicit constraints from forces outside the system. In this thesis two self-organizing systems are studied from the viewpoint of mechanics. In the first system---semiconductor crystal surfaces---the internal constraints that lead to self-assembly of nanoscale structures on silicon-germanium (SiGe) films are studied. In the second system---actin cytoskeleton---a consequence of dynamic self-organization of actin filaments in the form of motion of micron-sized beads through a cytoplasmic medium is studied. When Ge film is deposited on Si(001) substrate, nanoscale features form on the surface and self-organize by minimizing energy contributions from the surface and the strain resulting from difference in lattice constants of the film and the substrate. Clean Si(001) and Ge(001) surfaces are very similar, but experiments to date have shown that atomic scale defects such as dimer-vacancies self-organize into vacancy lines only on Si(001). Through atomic simulations, we show that the observed difference originate from the magnitude of compressive surface strain which reduces formation energy of the dimer-vacancies. During initial stages of the film deposition, the surface is composed of steps and vacancy lines organized in periodic patterns. Using theory of elasticity and atomic simulations we show that these line defects self-organize due to monopolar nature of steps and dipolar nature of the vacancy lines. This self-organized pattern further develops to form pyramidal islands bounded with (105) facets and high Ge content. Mismatch strain of the island is then reduced by incorporation of Si from the substrate surrounding the island leaving behind trenches whose depth is proportional to the basewidth of the island. Using finite element simulations we show that such a relationship is an outcome of competition between elastic energy and surface energy. Some experimental studies also report observation of steeper (103) and (104) facets on pyramidal islands. Using numerical simulations we derive a phase diagram which shows that the steeper facets are stabilized because they provide better relaxation of mismatch strain with only slight increase in surface energy. In the second system, the actin cytoskeleton is a key structural and propulsion element of eukaryotic cells. Micron-sized "cargoes", which under pathological conditions include bacteria, are propelled by dynamic self-organization of the actin filaments. Recently it is shown that the trajectories of a bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, propelled by actin filaments are periodic; implying that the organization of actin filaments impart an effective force that spins about the axis of the bacterium. We show that the motion of spherical beads is also non-random; the effective force has an additional degree of freedom due to the spherical symmetry of the bead. Agreement of the theoretical trajectories with experimental observations suggest that the actin-based motility can be generally described using deterministic equations. We also propose microscopic basis for the effective force model which can guide development of microscopic theory to predict the long term trajectories of actin propelled objects.

Tambe, Dhananjay

263

Solar System Science with LSST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide a unique tool to study moving objects throughout the solar system, creating massive catalogs of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), asteroids, Trojans, TransNeptunian Objects (TNOs), comets and planetary satellites with well-measured orbits and high quality, multi-color photometry accurate to 0.005 magnitudes for the brightest objects. In the baseline LSST observing plan, back-to-back 15-second images will reach a limiting magnitude as faint as r=24.7 in each 9.6 square degree image, twice per night; a total of approximately 15,000 square degrees of the sky will be imaged in multiple filters every 3 nights. This time sampling will continue throughout each lunation, creating a huge database of observations. Fig. 1 Sky coverage of LSST over 10 years; separate panels for each of the 6 LSST filters. Color bars indicate number of observations in filter. The catalogs will include more than 80% of the potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 140m in diameter within the first 10 years of LSST operation, millions of main-belt asteroids and perhaps 20,000 Trans-Neptunian Objects. Objects with diameters as small as 100m in the Main Belt and <100km in the Kuiper Belt can be detected in individual images. Specialized `deep drilling' observing sequences will detect KBOs down to 10s of kilometers in diameter. Long period comets will be detected at larger distances than previously possible, constrainting models of the Oort cloud. With the large number of objects expected in the catalogs, it may be possible to observe a pristine comet start outgassing on its first journey into the inner solar system. By observing fields over a wide range of ecliptic longitudes and latitudes, including large separations from the ecliptic plane, not only will these catalogs greatly increase the numbers of known objects, the characterization of the inclination distributions of these populations will be much improved. Derivation of proper elements for main belt and Trojan asteroids will allow ever more resolution of asteroid families and their size-frequency distribution, as well as the study of the long-term dynamics of the individual asteroids and the asteroid belt as a whole. Fig. 2 Orbital parameters of Main Belt Asteroids, color-coded according to ugriz colors measured by SDSS. The figure to the left shows osculating elements, the figure to the right shows proper elements - note the asteroid families visible as clumps in parameter space [1]. By obtaining multi-color ugrizy data for a substantial fraction of objects, relationships between color and dynamical history can be established. This will also enable taxonomic classification of asteroids, provide further links between diverse populations such as irregular satellites and TNOs or planetary Trojans, and enable estimates of asteroid diameter with rms uncertainty of 30%. With the addition of light-curve information, rotation periods and phase curves can be measured for large fractions of each population, leading to new insight on physical characteristics. Photometric variability information, together with sparse lightcurve inversion, will allow spin state and shape estimation for up to two orders of magnitude more objects than presently known. This will leverage physical studies of asteroids by constraining the size-strength relationship, which has important implications for the internal structure (solid, fractured, rubble pile) and in turn the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt. Similar information can be gained for other solar system bodies. [1] Parker, A., Ivezic

Jones, R. L.; Chesley, S. R.; Connolly, A. J.; Harris, A. W.; Ivezic, Z.; Knezevic, Z.; Kubica, J.; Milani, A.; Trilling, D. E.

2008-09-01

264

Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Stewart-Teele-Mitchell site is a single-family residence in Malta, New York. The home has approximately 1900 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy sy...

J. E. Hughes

1979-01-01

265

Exposure of Mice to Topical Bovine Thrombin Induces Systemic Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Bovine thrombin is used as an aid to hemostasis in medical and surgical procedures. At least 500,000 Americans are exposed to this therapeutic annually and reports suggest that exposure is associated with the development of autoreactive antibodies. To determine whether bovine thrombin can induce pathological autoimmunity we exposed nonautoimmune-prone galactose-?1-3-galactose-deficient mice to the two bovine thrombin preparations currently approved for use in the United States. We found that, like humans exposed to bovine thrombin, mice developed an immune response against the therapeutic and the xenogeneic carbohydrate galactose-?1-3-galactose, and some mice developed autoantibodies against clotting factors. Further, unexpectedly, a single exposure to this therapeutic also induced autoimmunity with features characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus including antibodies against nuclear antigens, native DNA, double-stranded DNA, and cardiolipin. High levels of these autoantibodies correlated with glomerulonephritis in all mice evaluated. This autoimmune syndrome was detected in mice 15 weeks after a secondary exposure to bovine thrombin and female mice were found to develop the syndrome at a significantly greater frequency than males. Thus, these studies indicate that exposure to bovine thrombin preparations can induce a pathological systemic autoimmune syndrome with lupus-like serology.

Schoenecker, Jonathan G.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Lesher, Aaron P.; Day, Jarrod D.; Love, Stephanie D.; Hoffman, Maureane R.; Ortel, Thomas L.; Parker, William; Lawson, Jeffrey H.

2001-01-01

266

Diclofenac systemic exposure is not increased when topical diclofenac is applied to ultraviolet-induced erythema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for a variety of painful and inflammatory conditions. A new low-dose, topical-gel form of diclofenac sodium (diclofenac-Na) has been developed for pain relief and redness reduction after sunburn. The objective was to compare exposure to oral diclofenac-Na with the systemic exposure to diclofenac after application of the new topical diclofenac-Na 0.1% Emulgel

J.-L. Magnette; J.-L. Kienzler; D. Sallin; C. Ménart; F. Nollevaux; A. Knops

2004-01-01

267

Solar radiation for Mars power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed information about the solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally and daily variation of the global, direct (or beam), and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated, are presented. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the Viking Lander cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1991-01-01

268

The solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system  

PubMed

The solar wind, magnetosphere, and ionosphere form a single system driven by the transfer of energy and momentum from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Variations in the solar wind can lead to disruptions of space- and ground-based systems caused by enhanced currents flowing into the ionosphere and increased radiation in the near-Earth environment. The coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere is mediated and controlled by the magnetic field in the solar wind through the process of magnetic reconnection. Understanding of the global behavior of this system has improved markedly in the recent past from coordinated observations with a constellation of satellite and ground instruments. PMID:10856203

Lyon

2000-06-16

269

A web-based melanoma image diagnosis support system using topic map and AJAX technologies.  

PubMed

The design and implementation of a web-based diagnostic support tool for melanoma dermatological images and related diagnostic data is presented. The proposed system is semantic web-based and is driven by exploiting the combination of AJAX framework and topic map technology. A novel client/server architecture was developed that enables several clients to interact online with the topic map-based system. Users have the ability to access the system anywhere and anytime via a simple Internet browser. Additionally, an ABCD application has been developed for automated calculation of ABCD parameters and consequently embedded in the proposed TM-based system. PMID:18604754

Papastergiou, A; Tzekis, P; Hatzigaidas, A; Tryfon, G; Ioannidis, D; Zaharis, Z; Kampitaki, D; Lazaridis, P

2008-06-01

270

Village power plants versus solar home systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Figures on rural energy consumption is presented along with past experience in rural electrification projects which show clearly the limits of any rural electrification policy. Three alternatives are compared using a network for electricity distribution, i.e. connection to the national grid, village networks with diesel and solar power stations, and the solar home system.

B. Schmidt-Kuentzel; G. Schaefer

1993-01-01

271

Economics of solar heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar heating and cooling for a private residence are discussed in terms of amortization time for a house with a 30 year mortgage at 8.5%. Different collector systems (tubular, flat, concentrating) and sizes are compared, with reference to their initial and life cycle costs. National energy savings are calculated for widespread use of solar power, which could reach the Quad

W. L. Corcoran

1978-01-01

272

Condensation and Evaporation of Solar System Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that the materials making up the solar system were derived from a nebular gas and dust cloud that went through an early high-temperature stage during which virtually all of the material was in the gas phase. At one time, it was thought that the entire inner solar nebula was hot, but it is now believed that

A. M. Davis; F. M. Richter

2003-01-01

273

Storage Systems for Solar Thermal Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major constraint to the evolution of solar thermal power systems is the need to provide continuous operation during periods of solar outage. A number of high temperature thermal energy storage technologies which have the potential to meet this need are ...

J. E. Calogeras L. H. Gordon

1978-01-01

274

Non-tracking solar energy collector system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy collector system characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel vacuum-jacketed receivers or absorbers is described. Numerous individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration are supported for independent reorientation. Asymmetric vee-trough concentrators are defined.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1978-01-01

275

Chips Off the Old Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telescopic observing provides a wealth of information about solar system objects, but even more can be gleaned from sample-return missions. The Genesis mission, launched in August 2001, spent two years collecting particles of the solar wind and returned them to scientists at the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Office, NASA's vault for extraterrestrial materials. More samples of the Comet

Damond Benningfieled

2004-01-01

276

Early chemical history of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extreme antiquity and lack of evidence for sigrificant chemical ; processing of the chondritic meteorites since they were formed suggest the ; possibility that their chemistry and mineralogy may have been established during ; the condensation of the solar system. By using equilibrium thermodynamics, the ; sequence of condensation of mineral phases from a cooling nebula of solar ;

Lawrence Grossman; J. W. Larimer

1974-01-01

277

Solar power satellite system definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synopsis of the study plan for the solar power satellite system is presented. Descriptions of early task progress is reported for the following areas: (1) laser annealing, (2) solid state power amplifiers, (3) rectenna option, (4) construction of an independent electric orbit transfer vehicle, and (5) construction of a 2.5 GW solar power satellite.

1978-01-01

278

Solar Total Energy Systems. Technical Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Solar Total Energy System (STES) is characterized by the use of solar energy for on-site generation of electricity, with recovery and reuse of turbine waste heat to meet thermal demands such as process heat, space heating and cooling, and water heating....

L. R. Bush

1977-01-01

279

Combined solar collector and energy storage system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

Jensen, R. N. (inventor)

1980-01-01

280

Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using

Adam Faiers; Charles Neame

2006-01-01

281

Novel drug delivery systems: potential in improving topical delivery of antiacne agents.  

PubMed

Acne is the most common cutaneous disorder of multifactorial origin with a prevalence of 70-85% in adolescents. The majority of the acne sufferers exhibit mild to moderate acne initially, which progresses to the severe form in certain cases. Topical therapy is employed as first-line treatment in mild acne, whereas for moderate and severe acne, systemic therapy is required in addition to topical therapy. Currently, several topical agents are available that affect at least one of the main pathogenetic factors responsible for the development of acne. Although topical therapy has an important position in acne treatment, side effects associated with various topical antiacne agents and the undesirable physicochemical characteristics of certain important agents like tretinoin and benzoyl peroxide affect their utility and patient compliance. Novel drug delivery strategies can play a pivotal role in improving the topical delivery of antiacne agents by enhancing their dermal localization with a concomitant reduction in their side effects. The current review emphasizes the potential of various novel drug delivery strategies like liposomes, niosomes, aspasomes, microsponges, microemulsions, hydrogels and solid lipid nanoparticles in optimizing and enhancing the topical delivery of antiacne agents. PMID:16247244

Date, A A; Naik, B; Nagarsenker, M S

2006-01-01

282

The Solar System primordial lead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the primordial isotope composition of Pb in the Solar System is critical to the understanding of the early evolution of Earth and other planetary bodies. Here we present new Pb isotopic data on troilite (FeS) nodules from a number of different iron meteorites: Canyon Diablo, Mundrabilla, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Toluca (IAB-IIICD), Cape York (IIIA), Mt Edith (IIIB), and Seymchan (pallasite). Lead abundances and isotopic compositions typically vary from one troilite inclusion to another, even within the same meteorite. The most primitive Pb was found in three leach fractions of two exceptionally Pb-rich Nantan troilite nodules. Its 204Pb/ 206Pb is identical to that of Canyon Diablo troilite as measured by Tatsumoto et al. [M. Tatsumoto, R.J. Knight, C.J. Allègre, Time differences in the formation of meteorites as determined from the ratio of lead-207 to lead-206, Science 180(1973) 1279-1283]. However, our measurements of 207Pb/ 206Pb and 208Pb/ 206Pb are significantly higher than theirs, as well as other older literature data obtained by TIMS, while consistent with the recent data of Connelly et al. [J.N. Connelly, M. Bizzarro, K. Thrane, J.A. Baker, The Pb-Pb age of Angrite SAH99555 revisited, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72(2008) 4813-4824], a result we ascribe to instrumental mass fractionation having biased the older data. Our current best estimate of the Solar System primordial Pb is that of Nantan troilite, which has the following isotopic composition: 204Pb/ 206Pb = 0.107459(16), 207Pb/ 206Pb = 1.10759(10), and 208Pb/ 206Pb = 3.17347(28). This is slightly less radiogenic than the intercept of the bundle of isotopic arrays formed in 207Pb/ 206Pb- 204Pb/ 206Pb space by our measurements of Canyon Diablo, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Cape York, and Mundrabilla, as well as literature data, which, in spite of rather large uncertainties, suggests a common primordial Pb component for all of these meteorites. The radiogenic Pb present in most of these irons is dominantly asteroidal and indicates evolution in a high-U/Pb environment. The apparent age of the radiogenic Pb component is consistent with the 39Ar- 40Ar ages of silicate inclusions found in the same meteorites. We propose that the radiogenic Pb was introduced more recently into troilite, from the surface rubble of the parent asteroid, possibly during the impacts that generated the IAB iron meteorites. The excellent correlation between 208Pb/ 206Pb and 204Pb/ 206Pb translates into a Th/U ratio of 3.876 ± 0.016 for the asteroid, which is the most precise estimate for the solar nebula to date.

Blichert-Toft, Janne; Zanda, Brigitte; Ebel, Denton S.; Albarède, Francis

2010-11-01

283

Image stabilization system on SOLAR-B Solar Optical Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely stable pointing of the telescope is required for images on the CCD cameras to accurately measure the nature of magnetic field on the sun. An image stabilization system is installed to the Solar Optical Telescope onboard SOLAR-B, which stabilizes images on the focal plane CCD detectors in the frequency range lower than about 20Hz. The system consists of a correlation tracker and a piezo-based tip-tilt mirror with servo control electronics. The correlation tracker is a high speed CCD camera with a correlation algorithm on the flight computer, producing a pointing error from series of solar granule images. Servo control electronics drives three piezo actuators in the tip-tilt mirror. A unique function in the servo control electronics can put sine wave form signals in the servo loop, allowing us to diagnose the transfer function of the servo loop even on orbit. The image stabilization system has been jointly developed by collaboration of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan/Mitsubishi Electronic Corp. and Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory. Flight model was fabricated in summer 2003, and we measured the system performance of the flight model on a laboratory environment in September 2003, confirming that the servo stability within 0-20 Hz bandwidth is 0.001-0.002 arcsec rms level on the sun.

Shimizu, Toshifumi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Edwards, Chris; Tarbell, Theodore; Kashiwagi, Yasuhiro; Kodeki, Kazuhide; Ito, Osamu; Miyagawa, Hiroyuki; Nagase, Masayuki; Inoue, Syunsaku; Kaneko, Kazumasa; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Tsuneta, Saku; Miki, Shiro; Endo, Makoto; Tabata, Masaki; Nakaoji, Toshitaka; Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Ken; Otsubo, Masashi; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Noguchi, Motokazu; Tamura, Tomonori; Nakagiri, Masao

2004-10-01

284

Pocket Solar System: Make a Scale Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun and simple hands-on astronomy activity lets learners build a scale model of the universe with little more than adding machine tape. Learners are often surprised to find how empty the outer solar system is (there is a reason they call it space!) and how close, relatively speaking, the orbits of the planets of the inner solar system are. The pdf contains step-by-step instructions, photos, presentation tips, common misconceptions about our solar system, and links to background information.

Pacific, Astronomical S.

2008-01-01

285

Prototype solar domestic hot water systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of a double wall heat exchanger using soft copper tube coiled around a hot water storage tank was completed and preliminary tests were conducted. Solar transport water to tank potable water heat exchange tests were performed with a specially constructed test stand. Work was done to improve the component hardware and system design for the solar water heater. The installation of both a direct feed system and a double wall heat exchanger system provided experience and site data to enable informative decisions to be made as the solar market expands into areas where freeze protection is required.

1978-01-01

286

Solar-System Ephemeris Toolbox  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) generates planetary and lunar ephemeris data and FORTRAN routines that allow users to obtain state data for the Sun, the moon, and the planets. The JPL Solar System Ephemeris Toolbox, developed at Kennedy Space Center, is a set of functions that provides the same functionality in the MATLAB computing environment along with some additional capabilities. The toolbox can be used interactively via a graphical user interface (GUI), or individual functions can be called from the MATLAB command prompt or other MATLAB scripts and functions. The toolbox also includes utility functions to define and perform coordinate transformation (e.g., mean-of-date, true-of-date, J2000) that are common in the use of these ephemerides. An attached README file guides the user through the process of constructing binary ephemeris files, verifying correct installation, and using functions to extract state data. This process also can be performed using the GUI. Help from each toolbox function is available through MATLAB s "help" function. Many of the functions in the toolbox are MATLAB equivalents of the JPL-written FORTRAN programs and subroutines used for the same purposes. A novice can use the GUI to extract state data, while a more experienced user can use the functions directly, as needed, in his/her applications. The toolbox has been tested using MATLAB Releases 13 an

Walker, Charles F.

2005-01-01

287

Solar Dynamic Power System Development for Space Station Freedom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a solar dynamic electric power generation system as part of the Space Station Freedom Program is documented. The solar dynamic power system includes a solar concentrator, which collects sunlight; a receiver, which accepts and stores the...

1993-01-01

288

Topics in viscous potential flow of two-phase systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-phase flows are ubiquitous, from natural and domestic environments to industrial settings. However, due to their complexity, modeling these fluid systems remains a challenge from both the perspective of fundamental questions on the dynamics of an individual, smooth interface, and the perspective of integral analyses, which involve averaging of the conservation laws over large domains, thereby missing local details of the flow. In this work, we consider a set of five problems concerning the linear and non-linear dynamics of an interface or free surface and the study of cavitation inception. Analyses are carried out by assuming the fluid motion to be irrotational, that is, with zero vorticity, and the fluids to be viscous, although results from rotational analyses are presented for the purpose of comparison. The problems considered here are the following: First, we analyze the non-linear deformation and break-up of a bubble or drop immersed in a uniaxial extensional flow of an incompressible viscous fluid. The method of viscous potential flow, in which the flow field is irrotational and viscosity enters through the balance of normal stresses at the interface, is used in the analysis. The governing equations are solved numerically to track the motion of the interface by coupling a boundary element method with a time-integration routine. When break-up occurs, the break-up time computed here is compared with results obtained elsewhere from numerical simulations of the Navier.Stokes equations, which thus keeps vorticity in the analysis, for several combinations of the relevant dimensionless parameters of the problem. For the bubble, for Weber numbers 3 ? We ? 6, predictions from viscous potential flow shows good agreement with the results from the Navier.Stokes equations for the bubble break-up time, whereas for larger We, the former underpredicts the results given by the latter. Including viscosity increases the break-up time with respect to the inviscid case. For the drop, as expected, increasing the viscous effects of the irrotational motion produces large, elongated drops that take longer to break up in comparison with results for inviscid fluids. In the second problem, we compute the force acting on a spherical bubble of variable radius moving within a liquid with an outer spherical boundary. Viscous potential flow and the dissipation method, which is another purely irrotational approach stemming from the mechanical energy equation, are both systematically implemented. This exposes the role of the choice of the outer boundary condition for the stress on the drag, an issue not explained in the literature known to us. By means of the well-known "cell-model" analysis, the results for the drag are then applied to the case of a swarm of rising bubbles having a certain void fraction. Computations from the dissipation method for the drag coefficient and rise velocity for a bubble swarm agree with numerical solutions; evaluation against experimental data for high Reynolds and low Weber numbers shows that all the models considered, including those given in the literature, overpredict the bubble swarm rise velocity. In the next two problems, we apply the analysis of viscous potential flow and the dissipation method to study the linear dynamics of waves of "small" amplitude acting either on a plane or on a spherical interface separating a liquid from a dynamically inactive fluid. It is shown that the viscous irrational theories exhibit the features of the wave dynamics by comparing with the exact solution. The range of parameters for which good agreement with the exact solution exists is presented. The general trend shows that for long waves the dissipation method results in the best approximation, whereas for short waves, even for very viscous liquids, viscous potential flow demonstrates better agreement. Finally, the problem of cavitation inception for the flow of a viscous liquid past a stationary sphere is studied by means of the theory of stress-induced cavitation. The flow field for a single phase n

Padrino Inciarte, Juan Carlos

289

Small hybrid solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel concept of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio-)Diesel engine. The Organic Rankine Cycles include hermetic scroll expander-generators11The word expander is often used to characterize units recovering the expansion energy of a gas, in particular when based on a volumetric machine. The word

M. Kane; D. Larrain; D. Favrat; Y. Allani

2003-01-01

290

Solar PV-thermoelectric generator hybrid system: case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar photovoltaic (PV) thermoelectric generator (TEG) hybrid system combines the economics of a solar photovoltaic system with the reliability and heating capability of a thermoelectric generator system. The solar system provides power during seasons with abundant sunshine while the thermoelectric generator system provides power and heat as required during seasons with insufficient solar insolation or during extended periods of

G. Moore; W. Peterson

1988-01-01

291

Cascade Helps JPL Explore the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we are involved with the unmanned exploration of the solar system. Unmanned probes observe the planet surfaces using radar and optical cameras to take a variety of measurements.

Burke, G. R.

1996-01-01

292

Solar Heating System at a Racquetball Club  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed 93-page report describes Arlington, Virginia racquetball club which obtains heat and hot water for its support area from solar collectors. Report explains modes of operation of system and details of acceptance-test plan.

1982-01-01

293

External Resource: Our Solar System Lithograph Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph set features images of the planets, the sun, asteroids, comets, meteors and meteorites, the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud, and moons of the solar system. General information, significant dates, interesting facts and brief descriptions of the

1900-01-01

294

Solar Observation System. Program Document Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Metsahovi Radio Research Station of the Helsinki University of Technology operates with a 14 m diameter Cassegrain radio telescope system at Kirkkonummi. Solar research at Metsahovi includes the microwave radiation of the quiet sun, slowly varying act...

V. Waeyrynen

1989-01-01

295

Long Periodic Terms in the Solar System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long period variations of the first eight planets in the solar system are studied. First, the Lagrangian solution is calculated and then the long period terms with fourth order eccentricities and inclinations are introduced into the perturbation funct...

P. Bretagnon

1982-01-01

296

Solar Energy Systems - Standards for Rubber Seals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was performed to develop standards for rubber seals used in solar energy systems. Thirty preformed and liquid applied seals were evaluated in the laboratory using modified ASTM standard test methods to obtain data needed to prepare the standards. ...

R. D. Stiehler A. Hockman E. J. Embree L. W. Masters

1978-01-01

297

Solar system: Blink from a remote world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of stellar occultations to disclose unknown aspects of our Solar System is not new. But the latest such event to be reported involves an object that lies beyond the orbit of Neptune - and is a first.

Sicardy, Bruno

2010-06-01

298

Design data brochure: Solar hot water system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

1978-01-01

299

Solar System Lithograph Set for Space Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set contains images with information about: Our Solar System, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Jupiter, Moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Charon, and Comets.

2010-10-27

300

Shape of small solar system bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphometric parameters are examined for the shape of fragments of ordinary chondrites, iron meteorites, S- and C-class stony asteroids, metallic asteroids, and icy small bodies of the Solar System. All small Solar System bodies are shown to have, depending on their composition and, hence, physical and mechanical properties, a specific shape that is unique to a given composition. C-class asteroids, the strength of which is almost three times less than that of S asteroids, differ from the latter in their less elongated shape. No systematic change is observed in the morphometric parameters (increased roundness or sphericity) of small bodies of differing compositions depending on their mass, which suggests that the hypothesis of creep in small Solar System bodies is unlikely to be true. The absence of creep confirms that, regardless of their composition, all small Solar System bodies are solid elastic bodies having an ultimate strength (tensile strength and compressive strength) and a yield strength.

Slyuta, E. N.

2014-05-01

301

International solar system exploration - Opportunities and obstacles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is conducted of the exploration of the solar system carried out with the aid of various types of spacecraft during the past two decades, taking into account also space missions planned for thy next few years. A wealth of information has been obtained regarding the planets and their satellites. However, there remain many important questions concerning the solar system, and a continuation of space exploration for the solution of these questions appears highly desirable, particularly when the comparatively little cost of these missions is taken into account. However, major fiscal limitations within the U.S. economy have led to pressure to postpone any new solar system exploration projects unless there can be major reductions in their cost. A special committee has been studying the options for future low-cost solar system exploration missions, giving attention also to some options for international implementation. Various aspects of joint space projects are examined.

Moore, J. W.; Parks, R. J.

1982-01-01

302

Prototype solar heating and hot water systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in the development of a solar hot water and space heating system is described in four quarterly reports. The program schedules, technical status and other program activities from 6 October 1976 through 30 September 1977 are provided.

1978-01-01

303

The NASA atlas of the solar system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Describes every planet, moon, and body that has been the subject of a NASA mission, including images of 30 solar system objects and maps of 26 objects. The presentation includes geologic history, geologic and reference maps, and shaded relief maps.

Greeley, Ronald; Batson, Raymond M.

1997-01-01

304

Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

Luckett, Rickey D.

305

Performance analysis of solar thermal power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of analyzing and predicting the performance of solar thermal power plants for electric applications are discussed, and insight provided into the major energy loss mechanisms for solar thermal systems. The efficiency of each component in a solar thermal plant is discussed as are the plant parasitic losses and plant availability. This is followed by a discussion of the computer simulation which is needed to derive reasonable projections of component annual efficiencies and parasitic losses. Finally, plant design considerations and annual system performance estimates are made.

Williams, T. A.; Dirks, J. A.

1987-04-01

306

Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

Currie, J. R. (inventor)

1981-01-01

307

Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report  

SciTech Connect

The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

Rosenthal, A. [Southwest Technology Development Inst., Las Cruces, NM (US)

1993-05-01

308

Origin of Elements in the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar system is chemically and isotopically heterogeneous. The earth contains only 0.0003% of the mass of the solar system,\\u000a but the abundance pattern of non-radiogenic isotopes for each terrestrial element has been defined as “normal”.\\u000a \\u000a The outer planets consist mostly of light elements like H, He and C. The inner planets are rich in heavy elements like Fe\\u000a and

O. Manuel

2000-01-01

309

Meteoroids: The Smallest Solar System Bodies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume is a compilation of articles reflecting the current state of knowledge on the physics, chemistry, astronomy, and aeronomy of small bodies in the solar system. The articles included here represent the most recent results in meteor, meteoroid, and related research fields and were presented May 24-28, 2010, in Breckenridge, Colorado, USA at Meteoroids 2010: An International Conference on Minor Bodies in the Solar System.

Moser, Danille E. (Compiler); Hardin, B. F. (Compiler); Janches, Diego (Compiler)

2011-01-01

310

The Solar System: Recent Exploration Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar system has been visited by space probes, ranging from the Mariner Mercury-Venus mission exploring inward toward the sun, and continuing through the Voyager probes out into interstellar space and (on its way now) the New Horizons probe to Pluto and the Kuiper belt. This talk examines what we know of the planets of the solar system from probes, and talks about where we will go from here.

Landis, Geoffrey A.

2006-01-01

311

Solar electric propulsion systems - A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS) currently under development in the United States offers several advantages as a third-stage power system for interplanetary and inter-earth-orbit flights. Its electric propulsion motors (EPM), with the relatively large specific impulse of 30,000 m\\/sec each, consume less propellant than do chemical rocket motors or compressed-gas engines, and constitute, with the solar batteries, 50% of

V. A. Grilikhes; G. M. Zavialova; L. B. Popov

1980-01-01

312

Chaos and stability of the solar system  

PubMed Central

Over the last two decades, there has come about a recognition that chaotic dynamics is pervasive in the solar system. We now understand that the orbits of small members of the solar system—asteroids, comets, and interplanetary dust—are chaotic and undergo large changes on geological time scales. Are the major planets' orbits also chaotic? The answer is not straightforward, and the subtleties have prompted new questions.

Malhotra, Renu; Holman, Matthew; Ito, Takashi

2001-01-01

313

Carbonaceous chondritic material in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonaceous chondritic matrix material (CCMM) appears to be an important planet-forming unit in the mid-solar system, from the orbit of Mars to that of Uranus. The type specimen for CCMM is the lowtemperature (400–500 K) assemblage of clay minerals, organic polymer, magnetite, and Ni-rich iron sulfides which constitutes the black, fine-grained matrix of primitive carbonaceous chondrites. Solar-system objects which appear

Laurel L. Wilkening

1978-01-01

314

Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

Anderson, John D.

2009-05-01

315

Paleomagnetism of the Solar System.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to the paleomagnetic record from Earth, we have paleomagnetic results from samples from the Moon, Mars, and from a variety of meteorites. The record from the Moon involves numerous samples and appears to define a strong field interval from about 3.85 to 3.65 Ga. Subsequently the field may have turned off rapidly as some have advocated, or decayed over a period of billions of years as advocated by others. The record from Mars comes to us via the Martian meteorites, which include only one ancient rock ALH84001, a cataclastic pyroxenite. It has a crystallization age of 4.5 Ga. However, it was severely shocked at 4.0 Ga, from which time much of the magnetization probably originated. Estimates of the strength of the field in which it was magnetized vary, but it was probably at least a few microteslas. Younger volcanic rocks from Mars have given more reliable, but weaker field estimates. The paleomagnetic record from meteorites other than those from the Moon and Mars is probably the hardest of all records to interpret, but at least the achondrites may carry a record of fields on parent bodies. Besides the intrinsic interest in the paleomagnetism of samples from the solar system, the results provide some "groundtruth" to aid in the interpretation of the magnetic fields of the parent bodies. Such interpretations immediately encounter the role of shock on the magnetization of the recovered samples. Both on the Moon and Mars the effects of impacts and shock are pervasive on all scales. Indeed the least improbable model of lunar magnetism is related to giant impacts and on Mars the large impact basins play a key role.

Fuller, M.

2005-12-01

316

Basics of a Solar Electric System: Better Buildings Series Solar Electric Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

Today's solar technologies are more efficient and versatile than ever before, adding to the appeal of an already desirable energy source. This fact sheet provides information on the basics of a solar electric system, including components of a system, how to choose solar modules, and how to choose a solar system.

Not Available

2002-07-01

317

Polymeric nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems for the treatment of dermatological diseases  

PubMed Central

Human skin not only functions as a permeation barrier (mainly due to the stratum corneum layer), but also provides a unique delivery pathway for therapeutic and other active agents. These compounds penetrate via intercellular, intracellular and transappendageal routes, resulting in topical delivery (into skin strata) and transdermal delivery (to subcutaneous tissues and into the systemic circulation). Passive and active permeation enhancement methods have been widely applied to increase the cutaneous penetration. The pathology, pathogenesis and topical treatment approaches of dermatological diseases, such as psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and skin cancer, are then discussed. Recent literature has demonstrated that nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems can be successful in treating these skin conditions. The studies are reviewed starting with the nanoparticles based on natural polymers specially chitosan, followed by those made of synthetic, degradable (aliphatic polyesters) and non-degradable (polyarylates) polymers; emphasis is given to nanospheres made of polymers derived from naturally occurring metabolites, the tyrosine-derived nanospheres (TyroSpheres™). In summary, the nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems combine the advantages of both the nano-sized drug carriers and the topical approach, and are promising for the treatment of skin diseases. For the perspectives, the penetration of ultra-small nanoparticles (size smaller than 40 nm) into skin strata, the targeted delivery of the encapsulated drugs to hair follicle stem cells, and the combination of nanoparticles and microneedle array technologies for special applications such as vaccine delivery are discussed.

Zhang, Zheng; Tsai, Pei-Chin; Ramezanli, Tannaz; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

2013-01-01

318

Polymeric nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems for the treatment of dermatological diseases.  

PubMed

Human skin not only functions as a permeation barrier (mainly because of the stratum corneum layer) but also provides a unique delivery pathway for therapeutic and other active agents. These compounds penetrate via intercellular, intracellular, and transappendageal routes, resulting in topical delivery (into skin strata) and transdermal delivery (to subcutaneous tissues and into the systemic circulation). Passive and active permeation enhancement methods have been widely applied to increase the cutaneous penetration. The pathology, pathogenesis, and topical treatment approaches of dermatological diseases, such as psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and skin cancer, are then discussed. Recent literature has demonstrated that nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems can be successful in treating these skin conditions. The studies are reviewed starting with the nanoparticles based on natural polymers especially chitosan, followed by those made of synthetic, degradable (aliphatic polyesters), and nondegradable (polyacrylates) polymers; emphasis is given to nanospheres made of polymers derived from naturally occurring metabolites, the tyrosine-derived nanospheres (TyroSpheres™). In summary, the nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems combine the advantages of both the nanosized drug carriers and the topical approach, and are promising for the treatment of skin diseases. For the perspectives, the penetration of ultra-small nanoparticles (size smaller than 40 nm) into skin strata, the targeted delivery of the encapsulated drugs to hair follicle stem cells, and the combination of nanoparticles and microneedle array technologies for special applications such as vaccine delivery are discussed. PMID:23386536

Zhang, Zheng; Tsai, Pei-Chin; Ramezanli, Tannaz; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

2013-01-01

319

Star Witness News: Icy Visitor Makes First Appearance to Inner Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news story highlights Comet ISON's travels through our region of the solar system. This science content reading identifies and defines vocabulary that may be new to students. Discussion questions help to focus student attention on important information and to challenge students to more deeply explore the topic of comets.

320

Water and related chemistry in the solar system. A guaranteed time key programme for Herschel  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Water and related chemistry in the Solar System” is a Herschel Space Observatory Guaranteed-Time Key Programme. This project, approved by the European Space Agency, aims at determining the distribution, the evolution and the origin of water in Mars, the outer planets, Titan, Enceladus and the comets. It addresses the broad topic of water and its isotopologues in planetary and cometary

Paul Hartogh; E. Lellouch; J. Crovisier; M. Banaszkiewicz; F. Bensch; E. A. Bergin; F. Billebaud; N. Biver; G. A. Blake; M. I. Blecka; J. Blommaert; D. Bockelée-Morvan; T. Cavalié; J. Cernicharo; R. Courtin; G. Davis; L. Decin; P. Encrenaz; T. Encrenaz; A. González; T. de Graauw; D. Hutsemékers; C. Jarchow; E. Jehin; M. Kidger; M. Küppers; A. de Lange; L.-M. Lara; D. C. Lis; R. Lorente; J. Manfroid; A. S. Medvedev; R. Moreno; D. A. Naylor; G. Orton; G. Portyankina; M. Rengel; H. Sagawa; M. Sánchez-Portal; R. Schieder; S. Sidher; D. Stam; B. Swinyard; S. Szutowicz; N. Thomas; G. Thornhill; B. Vandenbussche; E. Verdugo; C. Waelkens; H. Walker

2009-01-01

321

Final solar-systems monitoring report, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The Active Solar Monitoring Project was conducted by the Ministry of Energy of the Province of Ontario, Canada, between November, 1982, and October, 1985. The objective of the project was to instrument, monitor, assess, and report on the energy performance and reliability of the solar energy demonstration projects sponsored by the Ministry. The monitoring project was an essential part of Ontario's Solar Energy Program, which included over 190 solar-heating demonstration projects, and 2 photovoltaic demonstration projects. These were located on government buildings, and on commercial, industrial, municipal, institutional, and religious buildings. The solar energy systems on some of these buildings, and their monitoring activities, were sponsored jointly by the Ministry of Energy, and Energy Mines, and Resources Canada.

Not Available

1985-01-01

322

Concentrators Enhance Solar Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Right now, solar electric propulsion is being looked at very seriously," says Michael Piszczor, chief of the photovoltaic and power technologies branch at Glen Research Center. The reason, he explains, originates with a unique NASA mission from the late 1990s. In 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft launched from Kennedy Space Center to test a dozen different space technologies, including SCARLET, or the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology. As a solar array that focused sunlight on a smaller solar cell to generate electric power, SCARLET not only powered Deep Space 1 s instruments but also powered its ion engine, which propelled the spacecraft throughout its journey. Deep Space 1 was the first spacecraft powered by a refractive concentrator design like SCARLET, and also utilized multi-junction solar cells, or cells made of multiple layers of different materials. For the duration of its 38-month mission, SCARLET performed flawlessly, even as Deep Space 1 flew by Comet Borrelly and Asteroid Braille. "Everyone remembers the ion engine on Deep Space 1, but they tend to forget that the SCARLET array powered it," says Piszczor. "Not only did both technologies work as designed, but the synergy between the two, solar power and propulsion together, is really the important aspect of this technology demonstration mission. It was the first successful use of solar electric propulsion for primary propulsion." More than a decade later, NASA is keenly interested in using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for future space missions. A key issue is cost, and SEP has the potential to substantially reduce cost compared to conventional chemical propulsion technology. "SEP allows you to use spacecraft that are smaller, lighter, and less costly," says Piszczor. "Even though it might take longer to get somewhere using SEP, if you are willing to trade time for cost and smaller vehicles, it s a good trade." Potentially, SEP could be used on future science missions in orbit around the Earth or Moon, to planets or asteroids, on deep space science missions, and even on exploration missions. In fact, electric propulsion is already being used on Earth-orbiting satellites for positioning.

2013-01-01

323

Solar System Exploration, 1995-2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goals for planetary exploration during the next decade include: (1) determine how our solar system formed, and understand whether planetary systems are a common phenomenon through out the cosmos; (2) explore the diverse changes that planets have undergone throughout their history and that take place at present, including those that distinguish Earth as a planet; (3) understand how life might have formed on Earth, whether life began anywhere else in the solar system, and whether life (including intelligent beings) might be a common cosmic phenomenon; (4) discover and investigate natural phenomena that occur under conditions not realizable in laboratories; (5) discover and inventory resources in the solar system that could be used by human civilizations in the future; and (6) make the solar system a part of the human experience in the same way that Earth is, and hence lay the groundwork for human expansion into the solar system in the coming century. The plan for solar system exploration is motivated by these goals as well as the following principle: The solar system exploration program will conduct flight programs and supporting data analysis and scientific research commensurate with United States leadership in space exploration. These programs and research must be of the highest scientific merit, they must be responsive to public excitement regarding planetary exploration, and they must contribute to larger national goals in technology and education. The result will be new information, which is accessible to the public, creates new knowledge, and stimulates programs of education to increase the base of scientific knowledge in the general public.

Squyres, S.; Varsi, G.; Veverka, J.; Soderblom, L.; Black, D.; Stern, A.; Stetson, D.; Brown, R. A.; Niehoff, J.; Squibb, G.

1994-01-01

324

Artificial and solar lighting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sunlight collector, containing a fresnel lens, is mounted on the roof of a building and tracks the sun during daylight hours. A concentrated beam of sunlight is directed through a light transmission channel to locations within the building where the light is distributed. The transmission channel utilizes a focusing lens for further concentrating the solar beam, refocusing lenses for

Latter

1981-01-01

325

Universal solar energy desalination system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design considerations to allow site-dependent flexibility in the choice of solar\\/wind powered desalinization plant configurations are discussed. A prototype design was developed for construction of 6300 cu m per day brackish water treatment in Brownsville, TX. The water is treated to reduce the amount of suspended solids and prevent scaling. A reverse osmosis unit processes the treated liquid to recover

V. S. Fusco

1982-01-01

326

Photovoltaics: solar electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

The operation and uses of solar cells and the National Photovoltaic Program are briefly described. Eleven DOE photovoltaic application projects are described including forest lookout towers; Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Hawaii; WBNO daytime AM radio station; Schuchuli Indian Village; Meade, Nebraska, agricultural experiment; Mt. Laguna Air Force Station; public schools and colleges; residential applications; and Sea World of Florida. (WHK)

None

1980-02-01

327

Tracking system for solar power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a sun tracking system is presented. The main component of this system is a solar sensor. It is a light source position sensor. The sensor is made using MEMS technology to increase the sensitivity of the sensor and reduce manufacture cost. An algorithm is also designed to implement the control system considering all the different meteorological conditions.

C. Aracil; J. M. Quero; L. Castaner; R. Osuna; L. G. Franquelo

2006-01-01

328

Occultation studies of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occultations of stars by planets, satellites, planetary ring systems, asteroids, and comets provide valuable opportunities to probe the Solar System in ways otherwise impossible from the surface of the earth. For example, one can precisely measure the size and shape of objects which are much too small to be resolved directly, accurately map the structure and transparency of ring systems,

Robert L. Millis

1988-01-01

329

Solar Thermal Power Systems parabolic dish project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Project for FY 1980 is summarized. Included is: a discussion of the project's goals, program structure, and progress in parabolic dish technology. Analyses and test results of concentrators, receivers, and power converters are discussed. Progress toward the objectives of technology feasibility, technology readiness, system feasibility, and system readiness are covered.

Truscello, V. C.

1981-01-01

330

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of monthly status reports on the development of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3, 25, and 75 ton size units.

1978-01-01

331

Prototype residential solar-energy system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complete solar-energy domestic-hot-water system for single-family residences is described in brochure. It contains data on procurement, installation, operation, and maintainance of system in residential or light commercial buildings. Appendix includes vendor brochures for major system components. Drawings, tables, and graphs complement text.

1978-01-01

332

An orientable solar panel system for nanospacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An orientable deployed solar array system for 1-5 kg weight nanospacecraft is described, enhancing the achievable performance of these typically power-limited systems. The system is based on a deployable solar panel system, previously developed with cooperation between Laboratorio di Sistemi Aerospaziali of University of Roma “la Sapienza” and the company IMT (Ingegneria Marketing Tecnologia). The system proposed is a modular one, and suitable in principle for the 1U, 2U and 3U standard Cubesat bus, even if the need for three axis attitude stabilization makes it typically preferred for 3U Cubesats. The size of each solar panel is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. A single degree of freedom maneuvering capability is given to the deployed solar array, in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun as close as possible, given the mission requirements on the spacecraft attitude. Considerable effort has been devoted to design the system compatible with the Cubesat standard, being mounted outside on the external spacecraft structure, without requiring modifications on the standard prescriptions. The small available volume is the major constraint, which forces to use miniaturized electric motor technology. The system design trade-off is discussed, leading to the selection of an architecture based on two independently steerable solar array wings.

Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Candini, Gian Paolo; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

2014-08-01

333

Theory and Simulations of Solar System Plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Theory and simulations of solar system plasmas" aims to highlight results from microscopic to global scales, achieved by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations of the plasma dynamics in the solar system. The theoretical approach must allow evidencing the universality of the phenomena being considered, whatever the region is where their role is studied; at the Sun, in the solar corona, in the interplanetary space or in planetary magnetospheres. All possible theoretical issues concerning plasma dynamics are welcome, especially those using numerical models and simulations, since these tools are mandatory whenever analytical treatments fail, in particular when complex nonlinear phenomena are at work. Comparative studies for ongoing missions like Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Stereo, Wind, SDO, Hinode, as well as those preparing future missions and proposals, like, e.g., MMS and Solar Orbiter, are especially encouraged.

Goldstein, Melvyn L.

2011-01-01

334

Adaptive optics system application for solar telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of applying adaptive correction to ground-based solar astronomy is considered. Several experimental systems for image stabilization are described along with the results of their tests. Using our work along several years and world experience in solar adaptive optics (AO) we are assuming to obtain first light to the end of 2008 for the first Russian low order ANGARA solar AO system on the Big Solar Vacuum Telescope (BSVT) with 37 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based of our modified correlation tracker algorithm, DALSTAR video camera, 37 elements deformable bimorph mirror, home made fast tip-tip mirror with separate correlation tracker. Too strong daytime turbulence is on the BSVT site and we are planning to obtain a partial correction for part of Sun surface image.

Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Krivolutskiy, N. P.; Lavrionova, L. N.; Skomorovski, V. I.

2008-07-01

335

Early History of the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most likely the solar system was born in a stellar group containing at least a few 1000 members. This cluster environment probably influenced various properties of the solar system such as its chemical composition, size, and the orbital parameters of some of its constituting bodies. As in the Milky Way, clusters with more than 2000 stars only form in two types -\\ starburst clusters and leaky clusters - each following a unique temporal development in the mass-radius plane, the Sun must have formed in one of these two environments. We model the dynamics in these two cluster types from the embedded phase until the end of the gas expulsion phase using N-body methods. The effect of gravitational interactions between cluster members on young solar-type stars surrounded by discs is investigated in detail. Here we go beyond the usual approach of just considering encounters with other solar mass stars but cover the full spectrum of mass ratios such clusters provide.

Vincke, Kirsten; Pfalzner, Susanne

2013-07-01

336

Opening frontiers in solar research; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission E (Meetings E6 and E9) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25July 6, 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present topical meeting on opening frontiers in solar research discusses scientific coordination of solar physics missions in the 1990s, cooperative projects related to solar activity, and high-resolution solar physics from space and the ground. Attention is given to the energy budget in active regions and flares, the solar activity-oriented Japanese program, imaging capabilities of the Soft X-ray Telescope for

R. Falciani; M. E. Machado; W. Mattig; G. W. Simon

1991-01-01

337

Topical ofloxacin versus systemic amoxicillin\\/clavulanate in purulent otorrhea in children with tympanostomy tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute otitis media (AOM) in children with tympanostomy tubes in place typically presents with otorrhea (draining ear). Because therapy is not standardized, various topical and systemic antibiotics of unproven efficacy and safety have been used in this indication. This study compared the safety and efficacy of ofloxacin otic solution, 0.3% (OFLX) with that of Augmentin® oral suspension (AUG) in pediatric

Edward L Goldblatt; Joseph Dohar; Robert J Nozza; Richard W Nielsen; Trevor Goldberg; James D Sidman; Mindell Seidlin

1998-01-01

338

Topics on Test Methods for Space Systems and Operations Safety: Applicability of Experimental Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews topics on test methods for space systems and operations safety through experimentation and analysis. The contents include: 1) Perception of reality through experimentation and analysis; 2) Measurements, methods, and correlations with real life; and 3) Correlating laboratory aerospace materials flammability data with data in spacecraft environments.

Hirsch, David B.

2009-01-01

339

Beyond Topical Relevance: Document Selection Behavior of Real Users of IR Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of users' document selection behavior that was conducted to build a tentative cognitive model of document selection behavior to be used in designing intelligent information retrieval systems. Topics addressed include studies of relevance and of decision making; value judgments; and document information elements considered during…

Wang, Peiling; Soergel, Dagobert

1993-01-01

340

Development and Testing of the Solar System Concept Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trying to assess if our students really understand the ideas we present in class can be difficult. Concept inventories are research-validated assessment tools that can provide us with data to better understand whether we are successful in the classroom. The idea for the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) was born after realizing that no concept inventory currently available covered details regarding the formation and evolution of our solar system. Topics were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system and interviewing students in order to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. Beginning in fall of 2008, a national multi-institutional field test began which would eventually involve nearly 2500 students and 17 instructors from 10 different institutions. After each round of testing, a group of instructors from multiple institutions around the country worked together to analyze the data and revise or eliminate underperforming questions. Each question was examined using a combination of point biserial, percent correct on the pre-test, and item difficulty to determine if the question was properly differentiating student understanding while also ensuring the question was not too easy or too hard. In this talk, I will present an overall outline of the development of the SSCI as well as the final testing results. The final version of the SSCI can be found at http://casa.colorado.edu/ hornstei/ssci/. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any findings expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.

Hornstein, Seth D.; Prather, E. E.; English, T. R.; Desch, S. M.; Keller, J. M.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

2011-01-01

341

Solar gas turbine systems: Design, cost and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of high solar shares with high conversion efficiencies is one of the major advantages of solar gas turbine systems compared to other solar-fossil hybrid power plants. Pressurized air receivers are used in solar tower plants to heat the compressed air in the gas turbine to temperatures up to 1000°C. Therefore solar shares in the design case of 40%

Peter Schwarzbözl; Reiner Buck; Chemi Sugarmen; Arik Ring; M Marcos Crespo; Peter Altwegg; Juan Enrile

2006-01-01

342

Nanoparticles in the inner solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss different scenarios for the formation and dynamics of nanoparticles in the inner solar system. Particles up to a few tens of nanometer size, if formed at a distance larger than several 0.1AU from the Sun, are picked up by the solar wind and therefore do not reach the regions closer to the sun. At distances ?0.1AU particles of

Ingrid Mann; Edmond Murad; Andrzej Czechowski

2007-01-01

343

Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

Ringel, Robert F.

344

Solar thermionic power systems for terrestrial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a feasibility study which showed that a low-temperature, high-efficient thermionic power system can efficiently convert solar energy to electrical energy without heat transport, as required by most solar thermal systems are described. A 3-dimensional (2-axis tracking) 93 sq m parabolic solar concentrator, consisting of mirrors on a foam glass substrate and designed to a concentration ratio (mirror area/aperture area) of 2000 is considered for producing a design temperature of 1100 C at an efficiency of 74%. A tracking subsystem must track the sun at an accuracy of a nominal plus or minus 1.0 degree for maximum use of the sun's energy. Each complete solar thermionic power system unit rated at about 20 kWe peak can generate approximately 48,000 kWh/yr. In addition, a thermal energy conversion system can be cascaded within the thermionic power system so that the high quality waste heat can be further utilized to increase the net electrical output. Potential applications of a solar thermionic power generation system are remote sites, apartment house complexes, heating and cooling, hydrogen production and large power stations.

Shimada, K.; Swerdling, M.

1977-01-01

345

Discovering the 50 Years of Solar System Exploration: Sharing Your Science with the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Year of the Solar System (YSS) offers ways for scientists to bring NASA’s science discoveries to their audiences! YSS and the continuing salute to the 50-year history of solar system exploration provide an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system for educators and the general public. During the last five decades, NASA has launched a variety of robotic spacecraft to study our solar system. Over that time, our understanding of planets has been revolutionized, as has the technology that has made these discoveries possible.Looking forward, the numerous ongoing and future robotic missions are returning new discoveries of our solar system at an unprecedented rate. YSS combines the discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of the ongoing missions and connects them to related topics based on the big questions of planetary science, including solar system formation, volcanism, ice, and possible life elsewhere. Planetary scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS in a variety of ways: - Give a talk at a local museum, planetarium, library, or school to share YSS and your research - Partner with a local educational institution to organize a night sky viewing or mission milestone community event - Work with a classroom teacher to explore one of the topics with students - Connect with a planetary science E/PO professional to identify ways to participate, like creating podcasts,vodcasts, or contributing to monthly topics - Share your ideas for events and activities with the planetaryE/PO community to identify partners and pathways for distribution - And more! Promotional and educational materials, updates, a calendar of activities, and a space to share experiences are available at NASA’s Solar System website: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. This is an exciting time in planetary sciences as we learn about New Worlds and make New Discoveries!

Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; Shupla, C.; Halligan, E.; Boonstra, D.; Wessen, A.; Baerg, G.; Davis, P.; Burdick, A.; Zimmerman Brachman, R.

2012-10-01

346

Solar dynamic space power system heat rejection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiator system concept is described that meets the heat rejection requirements of the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. The heat pipe radiator is a high-reliability, high-performance approach that is capable of erection in space and is maintainable on orbit. Results are present of trade studies that compare the radiator system area and weight estimates for candidate advanced high performance heat pipes. The results indicate the advantages of the dual-slot heat pipe radiator for high temperature applications as well as its weight-reduction potential over the range of temperatures to be encountered in the solar dynamic heat rejection systems.

Carlson, A. W.; Gustafson, E.; Mclallin, K. L.

1986-01-01

347

Solar Assisted Adsorptive Desiccant Cooling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desiccant cooling processes can supply dry air by using lower temperature heat energy such as waste heat or solar heat. Especially, solar heat is useful heat source for the desiccant cooling since solar heat in summer tends to be surplus. This paper discusses the hourly cooling performance of the solar assisted desiccant cooling system, which consists of a desiccant wheel, a thermal wheel, two evaporative coolers, a cooling coil and flat plate solar water heater, assuming that the cooling system is applied to an office room of 250m3 in volume. The estimation indicated that the surface area needed to satisfy the dehumidifying performance in a sunny day was at least 30m2. Furthermore, surface area of 40m2 or larger provided a surplus dehumidifying performance causing a sensible cooling effect in evaporative cooler. Surface area of 30 m2 did not satisfy the dehumidifying performance required for high humidity condition, over 18.0g/kg(DA). The cooling demand of the cooling coil increased in such humidity condition due to the decrease in the sensible cooling effect of evaporative cooler. Auxiliary heater was required in a cloudy day since the temperature of water supplied from solar water heater of 40m2 did not reach sufficient level.

Ohkura, Masashi; Kodama, Akio

348

A solar-energy system in Pennsylvania  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes development of solar-heating system for single-family residence at site in Pennsylvania. 143 page document, containing detailed drawings, performance specifications, cost tradeoff studies, and other material, can assist those planning similar systems in areas of similar climate.

1980-01-01

349

Economy of a retrofit solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The The use of 8 flate plate collectors each 10 sq ft for the solar water system retrofitted on a 20 year old house is presented. A 50\\/50 glycol\\/water fluid was circulated through the collector circuit. A 120 gal galvanized water tank was used for storage. An economic analysis of the hot-water system is presented.

J. M. Schreyer

1979-01-01

350

Chaotic evolution of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the entire planetary system for nearly 100 million years was studied using a computer with an integration technique. This calculation confirms that the evolution of the solar system as a whole is chaotic, with a remarkably short timescale of exponential divergence of about 4 million years. Additional numerical experiments indicate that the dynamical evolution of the Jovian

Gerald J. Sussman; Jack Wisdom

1992-01-01

351

Self-supporting active solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses a self-supporting active solar energy system with attention to heat collection, power generation, forced circulation subsystems, and distribution. The system is described in terms of four possible states: (1) sun available and heated fluid in demand, (2) sun available and heated fluid not in demand, (3) sun not available and heated fluid not in demand, and (4)

R. Zakhariya

1977-01-01

352

Solar Dynamic Power System Definition Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Stat...

W. E. Wallin J. M. Friefeld

1988-01-01

353

Pump efficiency in solar-energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study investigates characteristics of typical off-the-shelf pumping systems that might be used in solar systems. Report includes discussion of difficulties in predicting pump efficiency from manufacturers' data. Sample calculations are given. Peak efficiencies, flow-rate control, and noise levels are investigated. Review or theory of pumps types and operating characteristics is presented.

1978-01-01

354

The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. Changing Views and Fundamental Concepts: 1. Evolving perspectives: a historical prologue; 2. The new, close-up view from space; 3. The invisible buffer zone with space: atmospheres, magnetospheres and the solar wind; Part II. The Inner System - Rocky Worlds: 4. Third rock from the Sun: restless Earth; 5. The Moon: stepping stone to the planets; 6. Mercury: a dense battered world; 7. Venus: the veiled planet; 8. Mars: the red planet; Part III. The Giant Planets, Their Satellites and Their Rings - Worlds of Liquid, Ice and Gas: 9. Jupiter: a giant primitive planet; 10. Saturn: lord of the rings; 11. Uranus and Neptune; Part IV. Remnants of Creation - Small Worlds in the Solar System: 12. Asteroids and meteorites; 13. Colliding worlds; 14. Comets; 15. Beyond Neptune; Part V. Origin of the Solar System and Extrasolar Planets: 16. Brave new worlds; Index.

Lang, Kenneth R.

2011-03-01

355

Origin of the Outer Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; (2) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; (5) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

Holman, Matthew J. (Principal Investigator); Boyce, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

356

Star Formation and the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have seen that studies of nearby star-forming regions are beginning to reveal the first signs of protoplanetary disks. Studies of interstellar and interplanetary grains are starting to provide clues about the processing and incorporation of matter into the Solar System. Studies of meteorites have yielded isotopic anomalies which indicate that some of the grains and inclusions in these bodies are very primitive. Although we have not yet detected a true interstellar grain, some of these materials have not been extensively modified since their removal from the ISM. We are indeed close to seeing our interstellar heritage. The overlap between astronomical and Solar System studies is in its infancy. What future experiments, observations, and missions can be performed in the near future that will greatly enhance our understanding of star formation and the formation of the Solar System?

Bally, John; Boss, Alan; Papanastassiou, Dimitri; Sandford, Scott; Sargent, Anneila

1988-01-01

357

Redox storage systems for solar applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Redox energy storage system is described. The system is based on soluble aqueous iron and chromium chloride redox couples. The needed technology advances in the two elements (electrodes and membranes) that are key to its technological feasibility have been achieved and system development has begun. The design, construction, and test of a 1 kilowatt system integrated with a solar photovoltaic array is discussed.

Hagedorn, N. H.; Thaller, L. H.

1980-01-01

358

The chaotic "sculpting" of the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orbits of the large celestial bodies in our Solar System are stable for very long times, as can be shown by numerical simulation. This gives the erroneous impression of perpetual stability of the system. It is only when we study the orbital distribution of the numerous minor bodies in the Solar System that we discover the rich variety of complex dynamical processes that have in fact shaped our system. During the last decade, enormous progress has been made, in understanding the evolution of the system over the last ~3.9 Gy. However, it also became clear that, in order to unveil its behaviour during the first ~700 million years of its lifetime, we have to find convincing explanations for observations that appear as details of its dynamical architecture. In the following we are going to show how the two best known - and up to now unexplained - observations in the Solar System, namely (i) the heavily cratered surface of the Moon and (ii) the elliptic (and not circular) motion of the planets, lead us to the discovery of the chaotic sculpting of the Solar System [1]-[3].

Tsiganis, K.

2006-01-01

359

A heat receiver design for solar dynamic space power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced heat pipe receiver designed for a solar dynamic space power system is described. The power system consists of a solar concentrator, solar heat receiver, Stirling heat engine, linear alternator and waste heat radiator. The solar concentrator focuses the sun's energy into a heat receiver. The engine and alternator convert a portion of this energy to electric power and

K. W. Baker; M. O. Dustin; ROGER. Crane

1990-01-01

360

Testing relativity with solar system dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major breakthrough is described in the accuracy of Solar System dynamical tests of relativistic gravity. The breakthrough was achieved by factoring in ranging data from Viking Landers 1 and 2 from the surface of Mars. Other key data sources included optical transit circle observations, lunar laser ranging, planetary radar, and spacecraft (Mariner 9 to Mars and Mariner 10 to Mercury). The Solar System model which is used to fit the data and the process by which such fits are performed are explained and results are discussed. The results are fully consistent with the predictions of General Relativity.

Hellings, R. W.

1984-01-01

361

Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research is aimed at testing gravitational theory, primarily on an interplanetary scale and using mainly observations of objects in the solar system. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to support this model by placing tighter bounds on any departure from it. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, as well as pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

2005-01-01

362

Vesta and Ceres: Crossing the History of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the Solar System can be schematically divided into three different phases: the Solar Nebula, the Primordial\\u000a Solar System and the Modern Solar System. These three periods were characterized by very different conditions, both from the\\u000a point of view of the physical conditions and from that of the processes there were acting through them. Across the Solar Nebula

A. Coradini; D. Turrini; C. Federico; G. Magni

2011-01-01

363

Water pumping system using solar power from photovoltaic source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various configurations of solar pumping systems are studied, including: (1) batteryless systems, (2) systems with a sun-tracking solar generator, (3) systems using solar generators with variable characteristics, and (4) systems using electronic impedance matchers. Combinations of these configurations are also studied. Experimental results are presented along with photographs of some of the configurations. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format

R. Prido

1978-01-01

364

Reliability analysis of solar photovoltaic system using hourly mean solar radiation data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the hourly mean solar radiation and standard deviation as inputs to simulate the solar radiation over a year. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) technique is applied and MATLAB program is developed for reliability analysis of small isolated power system using solar photovoltaic (SPV). This paper is distributed in two parts. Firstly various solar radiation prediction methods along with

Ravindra M. Moharil; Prakash S. Kulkarni

2010-01-01

365

Solar dynamic power system definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

1988-01-01

366

Growth of solar in Wisconsin. [Includes glossary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are discussed: solar energy use in Wisconsin, climate and residential energy use, the Wisconsin alternative energy system tax credit program, and a catalog of solar installations in Wisconsin. Included in appendices are: solar energy terminology, sources of solar information, and solar professionals in Wisconsin. (MHR)

Albright

1978-01-01

367

The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

Long, R.C.

1996-12-31

368

Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The completed system was composed of three basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3,264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which included a 5,000 gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which included piping, pumping and heat transfer components as well as the solemoid activated valves and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and was, therefore, a retrofit system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

1980-01-01

369

BMY 30047: A novel topically active retinoid with low local and systemic toxicity  

SciTech Connect

In the treatment of various dermatological disorders, topically applied retinoids have potential therapeutic use with the advantage of improved localized activity and lower toxicity over systemically administered retinoids. However, most retinoids cause a significant degree of local irritation. In the present study, the ability to produce local activity with low local irritation potential was evaluated with a novel retinoic acid derivative. BMY 30047 (11-cis, 13-cis-12-hydroxymethylretinoic acid delta-lactone) is one of a series of retinoic acid derivatives in which the carboxyl function of the polar end was modified with the aim of achieving reduced local irritation and systemic toxicity while retaining the local therapeutic effect. BMY 30047 was evaluated and compared with all-trans retinoic acid for topical retinoid activity in several preclinical assay systems, including the utricle reduction assay in rhino mice, 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate ester-stimulated ornithine decarboxylase induction in hairless mice and the UV light-induced photodamaged skin model in hairless mice. BMY 30047 was assessed for retinoid-type side effects by evaluating the skin irritation potential in rabbits after repeated topical application, and hypervitaminosis A-inducing potential in mice after i.p. injection. BMY 30047 demonstrated significant topical retinoid activity in several in vivo models with less skin irritation potential relative to the most used clinical concentrations of all-trans retinoic acid. BMY 30047 also showed very little systemic activity and did not produce any evidence of hypervitaminosis A syndrome at systemic doses 20 times greater than the no-effect dose of all-trans retinoic acid.

Nair, X.; Quigley, J.; Tramposch, K.M.; Carroll, F.I.; Lewin, A.H.; Kiss, I. (Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Buffalo, NY (USA))

1991-01-01

370

Solar internal lighting system with an automated solar tracker for daylight harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports the design and realization of a solar internal lighting system equipped with a solar tracking system. Full visible spectrum solar light has been focussed using a solar concentrator and guided inside the building through optical fiber whose other end is coupled to a fiber texture for lighting in building during day hours. The developed system is found to be an efficient system for interior lighting during daytime.

Kumar, Upkar; Raj, Retheesh; Aaryan, Animesh; Gopalan, Kavitha K.; Nampoori, Vadakedathu P. N.

2013-09-01

371

Exploring the Trans-Neptunian Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A profound question for scientists, philosophers and, indeed, all humans concerns how the solar system originated and subsequently evolved. To understand the solar system's formation, it is necessary to document fully the chemical and physical makeup of its components today, particularly those parts thought to retain clues about primordial conditions and processes.] In the past decade, our knowledge of the outermost, or trans-neptunian, region of the solar system has been transformed as a result of Earth-based observations of the Pluto-Charon system, Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune and its satellite Triton, and recent discoveries of dozens of bodies near to or beyond the orbit of Neptune. As a class, these newly detected objects, along with Pluto, Charon, and Triton, occupy the inner region of a hitherto unexplored component of the solar system, the Kuiper Belt. The Kuiper Belt is believed to be a reservoir of primordial objects of the type that formed in the solar nebula and eventually accreted to form the major planets. The Kuiper Belt is also thought to be the source of short-period comets and a population of icy bodies, the Centaurs, with orbits among the giant planets. Additional components of the distant outer solar system, such as dust and the Oort comet cloud, as well as the planet Neptune itself, are not discussed in this report. Our increasing knowledge of the trans-neptunian solar system has been matched by a corresponding increase in our capabilities for remote and in situ observation of these distant regions. Over the next 10 to 15 years, a new generation of ground- and space-based instruments, including the Keck and Gemini telescopes and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, will greatly expand our ability to search for and conduct physical and chemical studies on these distant bodies. Over the same time span, a new generation of lightweight spacecraft should become available and enable the first missions designed specifically to explore the icy bodies that orbit 30 astronomical units (AU) or more from the Sun. The combination of new knowledge, plus the technological capability to greatly expand this knowledge over the next decade or so, makes this a particularly opportune time to review current understanding of the trans-neptunian solar system and to begin planning for the future exploration of this distant realm. Based on current knowledge, studies of trans-neptunian objects are important for a variety of reasons that can be summarized under five themes: (1) Exploration of new territory; (2) reservoirs of primitive materials; (3) Processes that reveal the solar system's origin and evolution; (4) Links to extrasolar planets; and (5) prebiotic chemistry. These five themes are not on an equal footing. The first three are well-established areas of scientific investigation and are backed up by a substantial body of observational and theoretical understanding. The last two, however are more speculative. They are included here because they raise a number of interesting possibilities that seem particularly suited to an interdisciplinary approach uniting planetary scientists with their colleagues in the astrophysical and life science communities. Although not considered in any detail in this report, the distant outer solar system also has direct relevance to Earth and the other terrestrial planets because it is the source of comets that bring volatiles into the inner solar system. The resulting inevitable impacts between comets and other planetary bodies can play major roles in the evolution of life as suggested by, for example, the Cretaceous-tertiary boundary bolide and the extinction of the dinosaurs.

1998-01-01

372

Observation System of Solar Flare Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SOFT(Solar Flare Telescope) installed at BOAO(Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory) is purposed for observing solar active regions using four refractors on a single mount with a 400" x 300" field of view: Two refractors with a diameter of 15cm(f15) observe the white light and H?, and the other two refractors with a diameter of 20cm(f8) observe the magnetic field distribution and Doppler shifts at the solar chromosphere. Three Lyot filters, one of the most important observational instruments, are installed on the optical rails for VMG, LMG, and H? that possible to very narrow pass band observation under high precision stability of temperature. From the combination of KD*P and quarter wave plate in the Lyot filter possible observe the magnetic fields strength and doppler shifts by using the characteristics of polarization components. In this paper, we introduce the basic characteristics, optical system, and monitor system of the SOFT.

Park, Young Deuk; Moon, Yong-Jae; Jang, Be-Ho; Sim, Kyung Jin

1997-12-01

373

Carbonaceous chondritic material in the solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonaceous chondritic matrix material (CCMM) appears to be an important planet-forming unit in the mid-solar system, from the orbits of Mars to that of Uranus. The type specimen for CCMM is the low-temperature (400-500 K) assemblage of clay minerals, organic polymer, magnetite, and Ni-rich iron sulfides which constitutes the black, fine-grained matrix of primitive carbonaceous chondrites. Solar-system objects which appear to be partly or wholly made of CCMM are the satellites of Mars, most asteroids, interplanetary dust, and, perhaps, comets, satellites of the outer planets and the rings of Uranus. CCMM constituents probably formed by low-temperature reactions of higher-temperature condensates with the ambient solar composition gas, or in the case of the organic polymer, by reactions of gaseous species catalyzed by solids.

Wilkening, L. L.

1978-01-01

374

Solar absorption system for air conditioning  

SciTech Connect

Among the various types of clean energy a special attention has been given to the solar energy, because it is free available in hot regions of the globe. The utilization of solar energy is particularly important in developed countries where the electric energy is very expensive as well as in developing countries where the energy production is generally to low as compared to actual requirements. One of the main energy requirements in hot climate regions is air conditioning which needs energy to drive the system throughout the whole year, and the day and night as well. As the most expensive part of each solar system is the collector, to make it competitive to other systems, the solar collector must be as cheap as possible. This demand results in use of an ordinary flat collector, made of cheap materials and utilizing very simple technologies to manufacture. Accepting 50% as the lowest collectors efficiency value, we get the highest operation temperature as high as 70/sup 0/C. The search for the system fulfilling all the conditions mentioned above resulted in a dessicant-absorption system of continous operation, described below.

Gutkowski, K.M.; Ryduchowski, K.W.

1983-12-01

375

Solar dynamic power systems for space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

1986-01-01

376

Passive vapor transport solar heating systems  

SciTech Connect

In the systems under consideration, refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector and condensed in thermal storage for space or water heating located within the building at a level below that of the collector. Condensed liquid is lifted to an accumulator above the collector by the vapor pressure generated in the collector. Tests of two systems are described, and it is concluded that one of these systems offers distinct advantages.

Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

1985-01-01

377

Solar system installation at Louisville, Kentucky  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The installation of a solar space heating and domestic hot water system is described. The overall philosophy used was to install both a liquid and a hot air system retrofitted to existing office and combined warehouse building. The 1080 sq. ft. office space is heated first and excess heat is dumped into the warehouse. The two systems offer a unique opportunity to measure the performance and compare results of both air and liquid at one site.

1978-01-01

378

Commerical solar water heating systems operational test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of six commercially available solar water heaters is evaluated. The six systems are installed side-by-side on a typical roof structure and provide two examples each of silicone oil, antifreeze, and drain-back freeze protection. Each system is instrumented with Btu and KWH meters to assess performance under an imposed load profile. The systems, the instrumentation, operational results acquired over

G. R. Guinn; B. J. Novell; L. L. Hummer

1981-01-01

379

Commercial solar water heating systems operational test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The features, systems, and instrumentation of the Alabama Solar Energy Center, which is monitoring the long term performance of six commercially available flat plate collector systems, are described. The flat plates are installed in parallel on the same sloping south-facing roof, and all are fed a constant 3.79 l\\/min flow water. The systems are outfitted with either silicone, oil, drain-back

G. R. Guinn; B. J. Novell; L. Hummer

1981-01-01

380

Viability of topical endoscopic imaging system for vitreous surgery in rabbit eyes.  

PubMed

Vitreous surgery was performed in four rabbit eyes to investigate the viability of a topical endoscopic imaging system. This technique was evaluated during core vitrectomy, artificial posterior vitreous detachment, peripheral vitrectomy, production of intentional retinal breaks, and endophotocoagulation. To observe the posterior fundus during the surgeries, the endoscope was fixed in place. In addition, by tilting the endoscope toward the ciliary body, it was possible to clearly observe the trocar ports. The endoscope was easy to use and obtained good resolution. In addition, all procedures could be performed accurately when using the technique. The current study demonstrated that the topical endoscopic imaging system is a convenient method for obtaining both wide-field viewing and panfocal imaging during vitrectomy. This method may prove to be a new observational tool that can be employed during intraocular surgeries in the clinical setting. PMID:22785602

Hirata, Akira; Okinami, Satoshi

2012-01-01

381

Novel Drug Delivery Systems: Potential in Improving Topical Delivery of Antiacne Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acne is the most common cutaneous disorder of multifactorial origin with a prevalence of 70–85% in adolescents. The majority of the acne sufferers exhibit mild to moderate acne initially, which progresses to the severe form in certain cases. Topical therapy is employed as first-line treatment in mild acne, whereas for moderate and severe acne, systemic therapy is required in addition

A. A. Date; B. Naik; M. S. Nagarsenker

2006-01-01

382

Reversal Effects of Topical Retinoic Acid on the Skin of Kidney Transplant Recipients Under Systemic Corticotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systemic long-term corticosteroid treatment administered to kidney graft recipients (KGR) within the framework of the required immunosuppressive therapy induces an atrophy of the skin, from the sixth month onwards. We studied the effect of topical all-trans retinoic acid (0.05%; Galderma Labs.) applied to the forearms of 27 KGR (14 men, 13 women) over a 6-month period. Twenty-four subjects completed

Olivier de Lacharriére; Catherine Escoffier; Anne-Marie Gracia; Dominique Teillac; Didier Saint Léger; Claudine Berrebi; Alain Debure; Jean-Luc Lévêque; Henri Kreis; Yves de Prost

1990-01-01

383

Solar Thermal Power System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the development of a solar thermal power system for oxygen production from lunar regolith. In this solar thermal system, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator array which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the optical waveguide (OW) transmission line made of low loss optical fibers. The OW transmission line directs the solar radiation to the thermal receiver for thermochemical processing of lunar regolith for oxygen production on the lunar surface. We report the results pertaining to: (1) component development status; (2) regolith melting capability; (3) system efficiency; and (4) system weight. Conceptual designs of the solar thermal system for two lunar oxygen production processes are presented.

Nakamura, Takashi; van Pelt, Aaron D.; Gustafson, Robert J.; Clark, Larry

2008-01-01

384

Development of a simple intermittent absorption solar refrigeration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple solar energy powered intermittent absorption refrigeration system was designed, fabricated and tested. The system uses a generator charged with ammonia and water. The heat source is a solar radiation collector that collects and radiates solar thermal energy onto a black body generator. The generator drives the refrigerant around the system through a condenser and an evaporator. The system

J. K. Tangka; N. E. Kamnang

2006-01-01

385

Design of Photovoltaic automatic Tracking System for solar energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gave a particular description of a tracking and concentration system for solar energy utilization. A multi-glasses concentration and tracking photovoltaic system is designed. A research on the racking and concentration system for solar energy utilization was made. A tracking system based on the theory that solar can be gathered depending on plane mirror reflecting was set up. And

Zhou Haifeng; Huang Yuanqing; Ling Gang; Wang Rongjie; Lin Zhonghua; Zheng Tianyi

2009-01-01

386

Solar energy system performance evaluation - final report for Honeywell OTS 45, Salt River Project, Phoenix, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 45) at Salt River Project in Phoenix, Arizona, based on the analysis of data collected between April 1981 and March 31, 1982. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 45 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 8208 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 2500-gallon thermal storage tank; two 25-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted water chillers; a forced-draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 8 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 1143 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 3440 MMBtu and provided 241 MMBtu for cooling and 64 MMBtu for heating. The projected net annual electrical energy savings due to the solar system was approximately 40,000 kWh(e).

Mathur, A K

1983-09-01

387

External Resource: Solar System Exploration: Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our galaxy - the Milky Way - is a spiral galaxy with arms extending from the center like a pinwheel. Our solar system is in the Orion arm of the Milky Way. Our Sun is one of about 100 billion stars in the Milky Way. And our galaxy is just one of roughly 1

1900-01-01

388

Solar-system abundances of the elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental analyses of the Ogueil Cl meteorite and all previous Cl chondrite analyses were employed to develop a new solar system abundance table, including the standard deviation and number of analyses for each element. The table also comprises the abundances of radioactive and radiogenic nuclides at the present and 4.55 AE ago, as well as abundances by weight in a

E. Anders; M. Ebihara

1982-01-01

389

Inner Solar System dynamical analogs of plutinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

By studying orbits of asteroids potentially in 3:2 exterior mean motion resonance with Earth, Venus, and Mars, we have found plutino analogs. We identify at least 27 objects in the inner Solar System dynamically protected from encounter through this resonance. These are four objects associated with Venus, six with Earth, and seventeen with Mars. Bodies in the 3:2 exterior resonance

Martin Connors; R. Greg Stacey; Paul Wiegert; Ramon Brasser

2008-01-01

390

JPL Solar System Dynamics WWW Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new JPL solar system dynamics WWW site is being made available to the public at ``http:\\/\\/ssd.jpl.nasa.gov\\/''. The site includes, but is not limited to, the following features: * simple ephemeris generation for planets, satellites, asteroids and comets * physical and orbital parameters for the planets and their satellites * asteroid and comet observer tools for object identification and listing

A. B. Chamberlin; D. K. Yeomans; P. W. Chodas; J. D. Giorgini; R. A. Jacobson; M. S. Keesey; J. H. Lieske; S. J. Ostro; E. M. Standish; R. N. Wimberly

1997-01-01

391

Inner Solar System Dynamical Analogues for Plutinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neptune and Pluto share a remarkable 3:2 mean motion resonance. Neptune orbits the Sun three times for each two circuits by Pluto, and Pluto in its eccentric orbit is never at perihelion when Neptune is close. In recent years many plutinos, which share the 3:2 resonance in the outer solar system, have been discovered. We now find Earth, Venus, and

M. Connors; R. Brasser; R. G. Stacey; P. Wiegert

2004-01-01

392

Future exploration of the outer solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Missions to the frigid outer reaches of our solar system present significant technological challenges, but there remains a breathtaking scope for new and exciting discoveries. Leigh Fletcher reports on an RAS meeting that demonstrated a host of innovative ideas to explore the giant planets.

Fletcher, Leigh

2013-04-01

393

The Dimensions of the Solar System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A few new wrinkles have been added to the popular activity of building a scale model of the solar system. Students can learn about maps and scaling using easily accessible online resources that include satellite images. This is accomplished by taking advantage of some of the special features of Google Earth. This activity gives students a much…

Schneider, Stephen E.; Davis, Kathleen S.

2007-01-01

394

MOND effects in the inner Solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

I pinpoint a previously unrecognized MOND effect that may act in the inner Solar system, and is due to the galactic acceleration gg = etaa0: a byproduct of the MOND external-field effect. Predictions of the effect are not generic to the MOND paradigm, but depend on the particular MOND formulation at hand. However, the modified Poisson formulation, on which I

Mordehai Milgrom

2009-01-01

395

Advanced instrumentation for Solar System gravitational physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar System is a complex laboratory for testing gravitational physics. Indeed, its scale and hierarchical structure make possible a wide range of tests for gravitational theories, studying the motion of both natural and artificial objects. The usual methodology makes use of tracking information related to the bodies, fitted by a suitable dynamical model. Different equations of motion are provided

Roberto Peron; G. Bellettini; S. Berardi; A. Boni; C. Cantone; A. Coradini; D. G. Currie; S. Dell'Agnello; G. O. Delle Monache; E. Fiorenza; M. Garattini; V. Iafolla; N. Intaglietta; C. Lefevre; C. Lops; R. March; M. Martini; S. Nozzoli; G. Patrizi; L. Porcelli; A. Reale; F. Santoli; R. Tauraso; R. Vittori

2010-01-01

396

To the Outer Solar System and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Age is nearly 50 years old but exploration of the outer planets and beyond has only just begun. Deep-Space Probes Second Edition draws on the latest research to explain why we should explore beyond the edge of the Solar System and how we can build highly sophisticated robot spacecraft to make the journey. Many technical problems remain to

Gregory L. Matloff

2005-01-01

397

Solar/Gas Systems Impact Analysis Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impacts of solar/gas technologies on gas consumers and on gas utilities was measured separately and compared against the impacts of competing gas and electric systems in four climatic regions of the U.S. A methodology was developed for measuring the b...

E. F. Hahn B. Preble C. P. Neill J. C. Loose T. E. Poe

1984-01-01

398

Gravity fields of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most frequently used formulations of the gravitational field are discussed and a standard set of models for the gravity fields of the earth, moon, sun, and other massive bodies in the solar system are defined. The formulas are presented in standard forms, some with instructions for conversion. A point-source or inverse-square model, which represents the external potential of a

A. Zendell; R. D. Brown; S. Vincent

1975-01-01

399

An Introduction to the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compiled by a team of experts, this textbook has been designed for introductory university courses in planetary science. It starts with a tour of the Solar System and an overview of its formation. The composition, internal structure, surface morphology and atmospheres of the terrestrial planets are then described. This leads naturally to a discussion of the giant planets and why

Neil McBride; Iain Gilmour

2004-01-01

400

The Origin of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory here outlined attempts to relate the problem of the origin of the solar system to the general problem of star formation. Reasons are given for concluding that interstellar material in which stars are about to be formed consists of fragments (`floccules') moving at random amongst themselves and probably composed mainly of molecular hydrogen, the temperature being about 50

W. H. McCrea

1960-01-01

401

Control system for a solar steam generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A once-through solar steam generator assembly is controlled by a control system wherein the outlet temperature of superheated steam from two independent boiler flow paths is independently controlled to a common set point by a combination of water spray attemperation at the primary superheater outlet of each flow path and the control of feedwater flow through the independent flow paths.

Zadiraka

1981-01-01

402

Assessment of a Solar System Walk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of sending students and the general public on a walk through a scale model of the solar system in an attempt to instill an appreciation of the relative scales of the sizes of the objects compared to the immense distances between them is certainly not new. A good number of such models exist, including one on the National Mall in…

LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.; Kirchner, Brian

2010-01-01

403

Solar-thermodynamic power systems in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical characteristics of a dynamic solar system with the organic Rankine cycle are presented. It is shown that dynamic power generation can satisfy the high energy requirements of future space applications. A theoretical diagram and physical equations for efficiency are presented as well as a functional scheme of the device. Toluene is shown to be the optimal working fluid.

Klein, Marian

404

Solar energy systems: Standards for rubber hose  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of commercial rubber hose was made to develop standards for hoses used in solar energy systems. Twelve hoses were evaluated by cycling between temperatures of about 100 C and temperatures as low as -40 C during a period of about seven months. Laboratory tests for bursting strength, compatibility with metals, compression set, ozone resistance, and water vapor transmission

R. D. Stiehler; J. L. Michalak

1979-01-01

405

The Formation of the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About 4.6 billion years ago, a cloud of interstellar dust, ice crystals, and gas collapsed to form a rapidly rotating disk with a young sun at its center: our solar system. This comic strip, a supplement to the Hall of Meteorites Educator's Guide, explains the processes that led to the creation of the planets and the asteroid belt.

406

Solar PV design aid expert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design aid expert system for solar photovoltaic (PV) power supplies corresponding to Indian region is developed. The knowledge base is evolved from the climatological data of 14 stations in Indian region. The approach involves combining both the site and array characteristics in a single parameter referred to as equivalent unit array output and expressing the composite parameter as a

N. D. Kaushika; Anil K. Rai

2006-01-01

407

Space exploration of the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the current situation of space exploration of the solar system is presented. Particular attention is given to the meaning, object, scheme and achievements in the exploration of the Moon, Mars, asteroids and outer planets. The future space missions of NASA, ESA, Russia and Japan are also outlined.

Daohan Chen

1999-01-01

408

High-temperature solar-cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The favorable aspects and the constraints on increasing the design point energy input temperature of solar cooling systems are identified. The study is primarily concerned with heat engines used to drive vapor compression chillers. Using existing technology, a 500/sup 0/C solar Rankine chiller could be expected to have a design point COP about 1.3 to 1.4 times as large as the design point COP of 150/sup 0/C chillers. In order to maximize the COP, water cooling is preferable to air cooling. Concentrating collectors are required to obtain acceptable efficiency at high output temperatures, and solar tracking is required. The value of heat storage in water, organic or inorganic fluids or phase change materials is discussed. Building codes and standards are considered that may limit operating temperatures and pressures, selection for working fluids, or require stationary engineers. Intermediate and large capacity mature high-temperature solar cooling systems may be expected to have somewhat lower first cost than lower temperature systems. The space heating function could best be provided in a high-temperature system by arranging the vapor compressor component as a heat pump. (LEW)

Curran, H.M.

1981-03-01

409

Planetary accretion in the inner Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike gas-giant planets, we lack examples of terrestrial planets orbiting other Sun-like stars to help us understand how they formed. We can draw hints from elsewhere though. Astronomical observations of young stars; the chemical and isotopic compositions of Earth, Mars and meteorites; and the structure of the Solar System all provide clues to how the inner rocky planets formed. These

John E. Chambers

2004-01-01

410

Solar-thermodynamic power systems in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical characteristics of a dynamic solar system with the organic Rankine cycle are presented. It is shown that dynamic power generation can satisfy the high energy requirements of future space applications. A theoretical diagram and physical equations for efficiency are presented as well as a functional scheme of the device. Toluene is shown to be the optimal working fluid.

Marian Klein

1987-01-01

411

Exploring the solar system — A current overview —  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the history of robotic exploration of the solar system from the initial flights to present day. Analysis demonstrates how flight rate and spacecraft mass have varied in the programs of the major space faring countries. The paper also demonstrates how the faster, better, cheaper approach has significantly increased scientific productivity and program resiliency to failures.

Huckins, Earle K.; Elachi, Charles; Woods, Dan V.

2000-07-01

412

Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar tracking control system, Sun Chaser, a method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions is described. The Sun Chaser follows the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and resets itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise.

Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

1978-01-01

413

Solar-powered hot-air system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

1979-01-01

414

Meteorites from the Outer Solar System?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the possibility that a small fraction of meteorites originate from the outer solar system, i.e., from the Kuiper belt, the Oort cloud, or from the Jupiter-family comet reservoir. Dynamical studies and meteor observations show that it is possible for cometary solid fragments to reach Earth with a velocity not unlike that of asteroidal meteorites. Cosmochemical data and orbital

Matthieu Gounelle; Alessandro Morbidelli; P. A. Bland; P. Spurny; E. D. Young; Mark Sephton

2008-01-01

415

Ten mysteries of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus: Ten mysteries of the Solar System: (1) Is there life on Titan? (2) How many asteroids are there? (3) What is the great wall of Iapetus? (4) How did Saturn's rings form? (5) Is there a tenth planet? (6) Are there giant volcanoes on Mercury? (7) Is Pluto a planet? (8) Why is Uranus so cold? (9) What triggers

David Hawksett; Alan Longstaff; Keith Cooper; Stuart Clark

2005-01-01

416

Planetary Habitability of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitability is a qualitative concept generally defined as the suitability of an environment to support life. Although there are many works related to planetary habitability, there is no practical quantitative definition of habitability. The search for habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond requires a method to quantify and compare their significance. Therefore, this study presents a quantitative approach

Abel Mendez

2009-01-01

417

Northwest Solar Home Book.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wind power is one of the subjects briefly discussed. The main topic of the book is solar energy, or more specifically passive solar energy systems. Several house plans and designs are presented to show the various configurations of passive solar homes. Gr...

S. Fugate J. Raabe

1985-01-01

418

Solar recharging system for hearing aid cells.  

PubMed

We present a solar recharging system for nickel-cadmium cells of interest in areas where batteries for hearing aids are difficult to obtain. The charger has sun cells at the top. Luminous energy is converted into electrical energy, during the day and also at night if there is moonlight. The cost of the charger and hearing aid is very low at 35 US$. The use of solar recharging for hearing aids would be useful in alleviating the problems of deafness in parts of developing countries where there is no electricity. PMID:7964140

Gòmez Estancona, N; Tena, A G; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, L; Muñiz, L; Aristimuño, D; Unanue, J M; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, A

1994-09-01

419

The First Rock in the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My colleagues Andrew Davis, Lawrence Grossman (both of University of Chicago), Kevin McKeegan (UCLA), and I have discovered an exceptionally refractory inclusion in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. It is an aggregate of corundum, hibonite, and perovskite, the three minerals expected to condense first in a hot, cooling gas of solar composition. This inclusion was one of the first rocks to form in the solar system 4.5 billion years ago. It was preserved by being sequestered rapidly from the gas and enclosed in a growing carbonaceous chondrite asteroid.

Simon, S. B.

2002-10-01

420

Deuterium in the early solar system.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt is made to construct a self-consistent picture of the deuterium abundance in the early solar system based on the assumption of chemical equilibrium in the solar nebula. A recent determination of the D/H ratio for the atmosphere of Jupiter is consistent with a previous estimate of the D/H ratio for the protosun. The high (greater than .00015) D/H ratios determined from analyses of carbonaceous meteorites imply an equilibrium temperature less than 270 K, in marked disagreement with the equilibrium temperature determined for the same material by oxygen isotope cosmothermometry.

Black, D. C.

1973-01-01

421

Design and Analysis of Hybrid Solar Lighting and Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a systems-level design and analysis of a new approach for improving the energy efficiency and affordability of solar energy in buildings, namely, hybrid solar lighting and full-spectrum solar energy systems. By using different portions of the solar spectrum simultaneously for multiple end-use applications in buildings, the proposed system offers unique advantages over other alternatives for using sunlight

Muhs

2001-01-01

422

Exploration missions with a solar bimodal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the results of an examination of planetary missions performed using a solar bimodal power and propulsion system. The Air force Phillips Laboratory has initiated an Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) technology demonstration program intended to mature solar bimodal technology to flight demonstration. The ISUS development program has focused on decreasing the cost of placing military satellites in high Earth orbits. This is accomplished by providing high specific impulse thrust for orbital transfer of spacecraft launched from smaller and less expensive boosters. This paper, however, reviews the applications of the ISUS technology to NASA solar system exploration missions. Mission analysis is presented showing the capability of the ISUS to deliver payloads from LEO to orbit around the Moon, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Both direct and gravity assisted trajectories are included, as are mission plans including both staged and unstaged strategies for Earth escape. A minimum mass spacecraft system for solar system exploration is presented, and used as a baseline to develop estimates of potential science payload deliverable to each planetary destination of interest as a function of launch booster capability. Booster fairing packaging considerations are examined. Earth escape time using a variety of perigee-kick orbit transfer strategies is also calculated, as is the communication capability of the ISUS as a function of planetary destination. It is shown that the ISUS offers significant potential as a propulsion system supporting interplanetary exploration. In general, it is found that the optimal trajectories for maximum science return require staging the spacecraft off the ISUS shortly before escape from the Earth. Providing other supporting technologies are developed, such a strategy would also allow the ISUS to be returned to LEO for reuse after each mission.

Zubrin, Robert; Chew, Gilbert; Lowther, Scott

1997-01-01

423

Solar power satellite system definition study, volume 7  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Guidelines and assumptions used in the design of a system of geosynchronous satellites for transmitting solar power to earth were discussed as well as the design evolutions of the principle types of solar power satellites and space support systems.

1977-01-01

424

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar heating and heating/cooling systems were designed for single family, multifamily, and commercial applications. Subsystems considered included solar collectors, heat storage systems, auxiliary energy sources, working fluids, and supplementary controls, piping, and pumps.

1976-01-01

425

Solar Heating System Installed at Jackson, Tennessee. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The solar energy heating system installed at the Coca-Cola Bottling Works in Jackson, Tennessee is described. The system consists of 9480 square feet of Owens-Illinois evacuated tubular solar collectors with attached specular cylindrical reflectors and wi...

1980-01-01

426

Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Space Explorations Part 2: Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews what is currently known about the solar system and the objects that make up the solar system. Information about the individual planets, comets, asteroids and moons is reviewed.

Chau, Savio

2005-01-01

427

Solar heat utilized air-conditioning system  

SciTech Connect

A solar heat utilized air-conditioning system is described. A solar heat collecting unit produces warm water by heating a circulating heating medium water by solar heat obtained by collector plates disposed in parallel with each other. An absorption type refrigerating machine produces cold water by provoking a refrigerating cycle, using the warm water produced by said solar heat collecting unit as the heat source for a generator. A main heat exchanger indirectly heat-exchanges an intake fresh-air for a circulating cold or warm water in an air-conditioning unit disposed on the way of a fresh-air intake path to a space to be air-conditioned, thereby to produce cooling or heating air. An air-cooling and heating apparatus selectively supplies the circulating cold or warm water to said main heat exchanger. An auxiliary heat exchanger selectively flows either warm water produced by said solar heat collecting unit or cold water produced by said absorption type refrigerating machine, said main heat exchanger and said auxiliary heat exchanger being disposed in parallel with and adjacent to each other in said air-conditioning unit with said auxiliary heat exchanger disposed at the fresh-air intake side thereof.

Inoue, J.; Minamino, K.; Tanaka, S.; Yukimachi, K.

1981-06-16

428

Similarity Rules for Scaling Solar Sail Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future science missions will require solar sails on the order of 200 square meters (or larger). However, ground demonstrations and flight demonstrations must be conducted at significantly smaller sizes, due to limitations of ground-based facilities and cost and availability of flight opportunities. For this reason, the ability to understand the process of scalability, as it applies to solar sail system models and test data, is crucial to the advancement of this technology. This paper will approach the problem of scaling in solar sail models by developing a set of scaling laws or similarity criteria that will provide constraints in the sail design process. These scaling laws establish functional relationships between design parameters of a prototype and model sail that are created at different geometric sizes. This work is applied to a specific solar sail configuration and results in three (four) similarity criteria for static (dynamic) sail models. Further, it is demonstrated that even in the context of unique sail material requirements and gravitational load of earth-bound experiments, it is possible to develop appropriate scaled sail experiments. In the longer term, these scaling laws can be used in the design of scaled experimental tests for solar sails and in analyzing the results from such tests.

Canfield, Stephen L.; Peddieson, John; Garbe, Gregory

2010-01-01

429

Solar-powered environmental data collection system  

SciTech Connect

A solar-powered system consisting of a multipurpose remote data collector, a radio data link, and a data receiving station has been designed to acquire data from various remote areas at the Savannah River Plant. A prototype system has been built to monitor gamma radiation at the plant perimeter. It is operating satisfactorily and will be installed to monitor gamma radiation or other environmental parameters at many remote locations on the plant.

Randolph, H.W.

1980-02-01

430

Chronology of the Solar System's Oldest Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the origins of our solar system and, by proxy, other planetary systems, depends on knowing accurately and precisely the timing and tempo of the transformation of the disk of gas and dust to the solids that formed the planets. Relative ages based on the short-lived nuclide 26Al indicate that high-temperature calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs) formed before lower temperature chondrules but

James N. Connelly; Yuri Amelin; Alexander N. Krot; Martin Bizzarro

2008-01-01

431

Chaotic evolution of the solar system.  

PubMed

The evolution of the entire planetary system has been numerically integrated for a time span of nearly 100 million years. This calculation confirms that the evolution of the solar system as a whole is chaotic, with a time scale of exponential divergence of about 4 million years. Additional numerical experiments indicate that the Jovian planet subsystem is chaotic, although some small variations in the model can yield quasiperiodic motion. The motion of Pluto is independently and robustly chaotic. PMID:17800710

Sussman, G J; Wisdom, J

1992-07-01

432

New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

2007-10-01

433

Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

2010-01-01

434

Opening frontiers in solar research; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission E (Meetings E6 and E9) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present topical meeting on opening frontiers in solar research discusses scientific coordination of solar physics missions in the 1990s, cooperative projects related to solar activity, and high-resolution solar physics from space and the ground. Attention is given to the energy budget in active regions and flares, the solar activity-oriented Japanese program, imaging capabilities of the Soft X-ray Telescope for the Solar-A satellite, and plasma diagnostics with the Solar-A Bragg crystal spectrometer. Also discussed are high spatial resolution observations of solar flares at 3.3-mm wavelength, an investigation of turbulent kernels in solar flares, and needs and constraints for ground-based cooperative programs on solar flares and for solar-flare space-borne cooperative programs. Topics addressed include the German solar telescopes on Tenerife, the NASA Orbiting Solar Laboratory, high-resolution solar physics from rockets, high-resolution sunspot observations, and multiple flow velocities in the transition region.

Falciani, R.; Machado, M. E.; Mattig, W.; Simon, G. W.

435

A management strategy for solar panel — battery — super capacitor hybrid energy system in solar car  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of solar energy - battery - super-capacitor hybrid energy storage system in solar electric vehicles. The key point is the proposed energy management control algorithm. The entire system consists of a solar panel, a boost converter, a battery, a super capacitor, a bi-directional DC\\/DC converter, and a brushless DC motor. This paper gives the details

Bin Wu; Fang Zhuo; Fei Long; Weiwei Gu; Yang Qing; YanQin Liu

2011-01-01

436

Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 2, Togus, Maine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic analysis of the solar energy system, is developed for Torgus and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-chart design procedure with inputs taken on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

1980-01-01

437

Conversion efficiency in solar thermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The viability of solar thermal power systems depends on how effectively they convert sunlight into a useful form of energy. Relative to many human needs, the solar power reaching the earth per unit area is small. Large collector surfaces are needed; in addition, for many utilization schemes, it is desirable to increase the intensity of the radiant flux incident on active absorbers by using concentrators. When the collected sunlight is reflected or refracted onto an absorber surface which is smaller than the collector surface, radiative and convective losses are lowered and the system has the potential to produce more work. This potential depends on the ability of the designer to lower the resistance to heat transfer between the absorbing surface and the working fluid. Low thermal resistance may be even more important for high temperature applications: those applications may be simply not feasible if the resistance is not low enough. This thesis discusses the thermal performance of several systems, and the dependence of this performance on concentration, thermal resistance, and coolant flow rates. Various realistic solar plant configurations have been evaluated, where different optical systems reflect light upon absorbers cooled by a variety of means. Results are obtained in terms of the operating temperatures at which collected solar energy can be most efficiently converted to work. The dependence of the optimum operating temperature on the resistance to thermal heat transfer between the surface temperature and the working fluid at a given concentration is also analyzed. The improvements in the overall system performance achieved using enhanced heat removal schemes by nonconventional means (direct absorption in solid particles or liquids, heat pipes, etc.) from the absorber surface are shown to be necessary for the attainment of very high temperatures. A self-consistent thermodynamic and heat-transfer treatment is used as the tool in the identification of systems which may work, and in the elimination of systems which will not work because of thermal or materials limitations.

Soubassakis, Efstratios Nicholas

1992-10-01

438

Solar-energy-system performance evaluation: Honeywell OTS 44, Ocmulgee, Georgia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation and technical performance of the solar operational test site (OTS 44) are described, based on data collected between April, 1981 and August, 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 44 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 5040 square feet of liquid cooled flat plate collectors; a 4000 gallon thermal storage tank; one 25 ton capacity organic Rankine cycle engine assisted water chillers; a forced draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes for providing space conditioning and hot water to the building. Data monitored during the 4 months of the operational test period found that the solar system collected 285 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 1040 MMBtu and provided 210 MMBtu for cooling and 10 MMBtu for heating and hot water. The net electrical energy saving due to the solar system was approximately 2600 kWh(e), and fossil energy saving was about 20 million Btu (MMBtu).

Mathur, A. K.; Pederson, S.

1982-01-01

439

Solar-energy-system performance evaluation: Honeywell OTS 44, Ocmulgee, Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operation and technical performance of the solar operational test site (OTS 44) are described, based on data collected between April, 1981 and August, 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 44 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 5040 square feet of liquid cooled flat plate collectors; a 4000 gallon thermal storage tank; one 25 ton capacity organic Rankine cycle engine assisted water chillers; a forced draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes for providing space conditioning and hot water to the building. Data monitored during the 4 months of the operational test period found that the solar system collected 285 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 1040 MMBtu and provided 210 MMBtu for cooling and 10 MMBtu for heating and hot water. The net electrical energy saving due to the solar system was approximately 2600 kWh(e), and fossil energy saving was about 20 million Btu (MMBtu).

Mathur, A. K.; Pederson, S.

1982-08-01

440

Community Use of SIRTF III: Solar System Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIRTF will be a valuable tool for addressing a number of contemporary Solar System questions. Important advances in the study of debris disks, with or without entrained planets, around other stars will also be possible. The Solar System Working Group (SSWG) has identified three programs that appear suitable for Legacy Science surveys. 1. Core sample through the Solar System -

D. P. Cruikshank; M. S. Hanner

1996-01-01

441

Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

1980-01-01

442

Kerava Solar Village - A Solar Assisted Heat Pump System with Long-Term Heat Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kerava solar village is the first regional building complex in Finland with a combined solar heating and heat pump system using seasonal storage. Besides the operational principles, we present the findings of a cost, performance and sensitivity analys...

R. Maekinen P. D. Lund

1983-01-01

443

Resonances in the Solar System and in planetary systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on resonant motion in the Solar System and in planetary systems is presented in a unified way. The physical models used and the underlying mathematical theory are also presented. The relation between resonance and instability is studied and the mechanism of generation of instability is discussed and is related to the various parameters of the system.

J. D. Hadjidemetriou

1987-01-01

444

Resonances in the solar system and in planetary systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on resonant motion in the solar system and in the planetary system is presented in a unified way. The physical models used, and the underlying mathematical theory are also presented. The relation between resonance and instability is studied, and the mechanism of generation of instability is discussed and is related to the various parameters of the system.

John D. Hadjidemetriou

1987-01-01

445

Itsy Bitsy Solar System (Artist's Concept)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's conception compares a hypothetical solar system centered around a tiny 'sun' (top) to a known solar system centered around a star, called 55 Cancri, which is about the same size as our sun. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, in combination with other ground-based and orbiting telescopes, discovered the beginnings of such a miniature solar system 500 light-years away in the Chamaeleon constellation.

The tiny system consists of an unusually small 'failed' star, or brown dwarf called Cha 110913-773444, and a surrounding disk of gas and dust that might one day form planets. At a mass of only eight times that of Jupiter, the brown dwarf is actually smaller than several known extrasolar planets. The largest planet in the 55 Cancri system is about four Jupiter masses.

Astronomers speculate that the disk around Cha 110913-773444 might have enough mass to make a small gas giant and a few Earth-sized rocky planets, as depicted here around the little brown dwarf.

2005-01-01

446

Residential/commercial energy systems: 1982-1983 research status report. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

This 1982-1983 status report discusses ongoing and planned activities in GRI's Residential/Commercial Energy Systems Subprogram which is part of the Efficient Utilization Program. The program's objective is to develop efficient gas-using equipment that meets environmental standard at a cost and quality competitive with alternative-energy forms. Twelve project areas are reviewed: residential heating systems, commercial heating systems, residential heat pumps and prime movers, commercial heat pumps and prime movers, residential appliances, commercial appliances, cooling system, building/system performance, phosphoric acid fuel cells, advanced fuel-cell concepts, energy cogeneration systems, and gas/solar integrated systems. Presented are objectives and goals, accomplishments, strategy and basis for each project area, and a status review sheet for projects within the project area.

Not Available

1984-01-01

447

Triggering the Formation of the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most amazing discoveries in space science is the unambiguous evidence from meteorites that the solar nebula (the cloud of gas and dust in which the Sun and planets formed) contained radioactive isotopes with half-lives so short that they no longer exist. These include isotopes with very short half-lives, such as calcium-41 (100,000 years) and aluminum-26 (740,000 years), and those with longer half-lives such as plutonium-244 (81 million years). The short-lived isotopes are particularly interesting. If they formed in an exploding star, that explosion might have triggered the collapse of the huge interstellar cloud in which the Sun formed. On the other hand, if they formed in the solar nebula by intense radiation close to the Sun, then it would prove some hypotheses about the young Sun and jets of radiation from it. As synthesized and lucidly explained by Ernst Zinner (Washington University in St. Louis), recent data from ancient objects in meteorites point strongly to the supernova trigger idea. K. K. Marhas and J. N. Goswami (Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India), and A. M. Davis (University of Chicago) found clear evidence in meteorites that beryllium-10, the one isotope that everybody agrees can be produced by solar radiation, is not accompanied by other short-lived isotopes as it would be if they were all produced by radiation flowing from the young Sun. (Beryllium-10 can also be made by galactic cosmic rays in the interstellar molecular cloud from which the solar system formed.) Two other research groups reported at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (March, 2003) that unmetamorphosed ordinary chondrites contained iron-60, an extinct isotope with a half-life of 1.5 million years. Iron-60 cannot be produced by intense, energetic solar radiation, so it must have been made before the Solar System began to form. The best bet is that much of it was made during the supernova explosion that triggered the formation of the Solar System.

Taylor, G. J.

2003-05-01

448

External Resource: My Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A University of Colorado at Boulder simulation where students can build their own system of heavenly bodies and watch the gravitational ballet. With this orbit simulator, students can set initial positions, velocities, and masses of 2, 3, or 4 bodies, and

1900-01-01

449

Prototype solar-heating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complete air-collector system to meet needs of single-family dwelling is designed to operate in any region of United States except extreme north and south. Design can be scaled up or down to accomodate wide range of heating and hot-water requirements for single-family, multi-family, or commercial buildings without significantly changing design concept.

1978-01-01

450

Solar System Processes Underlying Planetary Formation, Geodynamics, and the Georeactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only three processes, operant during the formation of the Solar System, are responsible for the diversity of matter in the\\u000a Solar System and are directly responsible for planetary internal-structures, including planetocentric nuclear fission reactors,\\u000a and for dynamical processes, including and especially, geodynamics. These processes are: (i) Low-pressure, low-temperature\\u000a condensation from solar matter in the remote reaches of the Solar System

J. Marvin Herndon

2006-01-01

451

Solar System Processes Underlying Planetary Formation, Geodynamics, and the Georeactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only three processes, operant during the formation of the Solar System, are responsible for the diversity of matter in the Solar System and are directly responsible for planetary internal-structures, including planetocentric nuclear fission reactors, and for dynamical processes, including and especially, geodynamics. These processes are: (i) Low-pressure, low-temperature condensation from solar matter in the remote reaches of the Solar System

J. Marvin Herndon

2006-01-01

452

Solar System Processes Underlying Planetary Formation, Geodynamics, and the Georeactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only three processes, operant during the formation of the Solar System, are\\u000aresponsible for the diversity of matter in the Solar System and are directly\\u000aresponsible for planetary internal-structures, including planetocentric nuclear\\u000afission reactors, and for dynamical processes, including and especially,\\u000ageodynamics. These processes are: (i) Low-pressure, low-temperature\\u000acondensation from solar matter in the remote reaches of the Solar System

J. Marvin Herndon

2006-01-01

453

Topics in SCHISMA dialogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important part of dialogue management in a dialogue system is topic management. The system has to keep track of topic aspects (current topic, context, obligations, ...) in order to be able to resolve ambiguities and to respond in a cooperative and sensible way. In the Schisma project, we are developing a system that takes part in a conversation about

Joris Hulstijn; Ren'e Steetskamp; Doest ter Hugo; Burgt van de Stan; Anton Nijholt; Susann LuperFoy; Gert Veldhuijzen van Zanten

1996-01-01

454

Creating the Solar System step by step  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this lesson is to encourage the clarification and understanding of the processes involved in the creation of our solar system. The lesson is part of a larger unit of astronomy which addresses the MA Science Curriculum Framework Standard concerning gravity and its' role in the formation of the planets, stars, and the solar system. The lesson is a springboard to other standards including; describing the layers of the earth lithosphere, mantle, and core, and differentiating among radiation, convection, and conduction- heat transfer in the earth's system. The lesson begins with a lecture describing the complex process of creation from molecular cloud to planetesimals to planets to organized solar system. The lecture is followed up with a draw/write activity in which the students are required to put in pictures or writing their interpretation of the series of steps that have been presented. The activity involves the students, working in pairs to create a visual model of one of the steps in the series. Their phase in the process will be assigned and the class as a whole will be creating a timeline in entirety. It is important to make clear that this process is not linear but certain steps overlap. In addition, this process is ongoing and is occurring in many places in the universe even today.

Curtin, Karen

455

Spacecraft Radio Scintillation and Solar System Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a wave propagates through a turbulent medium, scattering by the random refractive index inhomogeneities can lead to a wide variety of phenomena that have been the subject of extensive study. The observed scattering effects include amplitude or intensity scintillation, phase scintillation, angular broadening, and spectral broadening, among others. In this paper, I will refer to these scattering effects collectively as scintillation. Although the most familiar example is probably the twinkling of stars (light wave intensity scintillation by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere), scintillation has been encountered and investigated in such diverse fields as ionospheric physics, oceanography, radio astronomy, and radio and optical communications. Ever since planetary spacecraft began exploring the solar system, scintillation has appeared during the propagation of spacecraft radio signals through planetary atmospheres, planetary ionospheres, and the solar wind. Early studies of these phenomena were motivated by the potential adverse effects on communications and navigation, and on experiments that use the radio link to conduct scientific investigations. Examples of the latter are radio occultation measurements (described below) of planetary atmospheres to deduce temperature profiles, and the search for gravitational waves. However,these concerns soon gave way to the emergence of spacecraft radio scintillation as a new scientific tool for exploring small-scale dynamics in planetary atmospheres and structure in the solar wind, complementing in situ and other remote sensing spacecraft measurements, as well as scintillation measurements using natural (celestial) radio sources. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and review the solar system spacecraft radio scintillation observations, to summarize the salient features of wave propagation analyses employed in interpreting them, to underscore the unique remote sensing capabilities and scientific relevance of the scintillation measurements, and to highlight some of the scientific results obtained to date. Special emphasis is placed on comparing the remote sensing features of planetary and terrestrial scintillation measurements, and on contrasting spacecraft and natural radio source scintillation measurements. I will first discuss planetary atmospheres and ionospheres, and then the solar wind.

Woo, Richard

1993-01-01

456

Proceedings of the Mediterranean electrotechnical conference. MELECON 1985. Volume IV. Solar energy  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference which considered solar cells, photovoltaic systems, solar thermal energy, and wind turbines. Topics covered at the conference included silicon solar cells, amorphous silicon, liquid phase epitaxy, solar cell fabrication, photovoltaic power supplies, photovoltaic power plants, solar collectors, solar concentrators, central receiver power plants, solar water heaters, solar tracking systems, wind generators, wind power plants, and solar chimney power plants.

Luque, A.; Figueiras, A.R.; Nobili, D.

1985-01-01

457

Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1". The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have successfully used adaptive optics on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1" resolution images of solar system objects in the far red and near infrared (0.7-2.5 microns), aE wavelengths which best discl"lmlnate their spectral signatures. Our efforts have been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential.

Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

1999-01-01

458

Solar electric propulsion systems - A survey  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS) currently under development in the United States offers several advantages as a third-stage power system for interplanetary and inter-earth-orbit flights. Its electric propulsion motors (EPM), with the relatively large specific impulse of 30,000 m/sec each, consume less propellant than do chemical rocket motors or compressed-gas engines, and constitute, with the solar batteries, 50% of the SEPS dry mass. Outfitted with 8-10 energy converters with attainable efficiency of 92%, SEPS is being considered for missions that range from the transport of payloads to geosynchronous orbit to an interplanetary rendezvous with Halley's Comet. The paper also presents configuration options and subsystem parameters.

Grilikhes, V.A.; Zavialova, G.M.; Popov, L.B.

1980-01-01

459

Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1 sec. The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have been using adaptive optics (AO) on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1 sec resolution images solar system objects at far red and near infrared wavelengths (0.7-2.5 micron) which best discriminate their spectral signatures. Our efforts has been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential, such as the mapping of Titan and of large asteroids, the dynamics and composition of Neptune stratospheric clouds, the infrared photometry of Pluto, Charon, and close satellites previously undetected from the ground.

Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

1997-01-01

460

Cooling and heating system utilizing solar heat  

SciTech Connect

A cooling and heating system utilizing solar heat comprises a heat collector for heating a circulating heat medium with solar heat, an absorption refrigerator operable with the heat medium heated by the heat collector and serving as a generating heat source to provide a chilled medium, and an air-conditioning unit for circulating the chilled medium or the heated medium alternatively therethrough to cool or heat the space to be airconditioned. The system further comprises a bypass line provided with an auxiliary refrigerator of the dual-effect type and connected to an intermediate portion of a line extending from the absorption refrigerator to the air-conditioning unit for supplying chilled medium or the heated medium to the unit. Change -over means is provided for passing the chilled medium or the heated medium through the bypass line.

Katayama, K.; Yukimachi, K.

1981-05-26

461

Exploring the Planets: Our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource offers information that will allow students to see just how big each planet and its major satellites are relative to each other in the scale model of the Solar System. Students will see where the planets are in relation to the Sun and to each other and learn just how big the Sun is compared to all the planets in our Solar System. Sections at this site include Planetary Physical Data, Planetary Satellites Physical Data, Relative Sizes of the Planets, Relative Planetary Distances from the Sun, and the Size of the Sun. In addition, each planet has an individual online section that gives an overview of what has been learned through imagery and data obtained from Earth-based and spacecraft exploration.

462

Our Solar System Features Eight Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our solar system features eight planets, seen in this artist's diagram. Although there is some debate within the science community as to whether Pluto should be classified as a Planet or a dwarf planet, the International Astronomical Union has decided on the term plutoid as a name for dwarf planets like Pluto.

This representation is intentionally fanciful, as the planets are depicted far closer together than they really are. Similarly, the bodies' relative sizes are inaccurate. This is done for the purpose of being able to depict the solar system and still represent the bodies with some detail. (Otherwise the Sun would be a mere speck, and the planets even the majestic Jupiter would be far too small to be seen.)

2009-01-01

463

Boston University Physics Applets: Solar System Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is an animation depicting the orbits of the inner four planets of the solar system. Each planet is labeled so that users can view positions of each planet relative to another over time. Action may be paused or viewed in steps. The animation correlates the orbits to Kepler's Third Law. This item is part of a collection of simulation-based activities for students of introductory physics.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-08-22

464

The Edge of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Solar System bodies are of many kinds. Planets and comets are certainly very different, but there may well be a link between\\u000a comets and small asteroids; it is widely believed that some small asteroids are the cores of old comets which have lost all\\u000a their volatiles, and that one of these, Phaethon, may be the parent of the Geminid meteor

Patrick Moore

465

Dynamical Evolution of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The solar system is like a large natural laboratory, where many highly structured and complex dynamical processes are simultaneously\\u000a taking place. They include: slow orbital evolution by tiny, accumulating changes due to gravitational perturbations acting\\u000a over thousands to billions of revolutions (for satellites, even thousands of billions); locking phenomena and protection mechanisms\\u000a caused by gravitational resonances; drastic and essentially unpredictable

Bruno Bertotti; Paolo Farinella; David Vokrouhlický

466

Solar System Odyssey - Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show. Learners go on a futuristic journey through our Solar System. They explore the inner and outer planets, then the moons: Titan, Europa, and Callisto as possible places to establish a human colony. A full-length preview of the show is available on the website, you need to scroll down about 3/4 of the page - under section on children's shows, direct link not available.

467

Radar Studies in the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We aid in a study of the solar system by means of ground-based radar. We have concentrated on (1) developing the ephemerides needed to acquire radar data at Arecibo Observatory and (2) analyzing the resultant data to: test fundamental laws of gravitation; determine the size, shape, topography, and spin vectors of the targets; and study the surface properties of these objects, through their scattering law and polarization characteristics.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

1996-01-01

468

Water in primitive solar system bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a dissertation on the physical properties, particularly, the water distribution in three small body populations of the solar system: (1) the Jovian Trojans, (2) the main-belt B-type asteroids and (3) the comets. Using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, I have sought diagnostic (especially water) features in the Trojans. My sample is focused on objects identified in previous measurements as being

Bin Yang

2009-01-01

469

Solar cosmic rays in the system of solar terrestrial relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this brief review, we discuss a number of geophysical effects of solar energetic particles (SEPs) or solar cosmic rays (SCR). We concentrate mainly on the observational evidence and proposed mechanisms of some expected effects and/or poor-studied phenomena discovered within the last three decades, in particular, depletion of the ozone layer, perturbations in the global electric current, effects on the winter storm vorticity, change of the atmospheric transparency and production of nitrates. Some "archaeological" data on SCR fluxes in the past and upper limit of total energy induced by SEPs are also discussed. Due attention is paid to the periodicities in the solar particle fluxes. Actually, many solar, heliospheric and terrestrial parameters changing generally in phase with the solar activity are subjected to a temporary depression close to the solar maximum ("Gnevyshev Gap"). A similar gap has been found recently in the yearly numbers of the >10 MeV proton events. All the above-mentioned findings are evidently of great importance in the studies of general proton emissivity of the Sun and long-term trends in the behaviour of solar magnetic fields. In addition, these data can be very helpful for elaborating the methods for prediction of the radiation conditions in space and for estimation of the SEPs' contribution to solar effects on the geosphere, their relative role in the formation of terrestrial weather and climate and in the problem of solar-terrestrial relations (STR) on the whole.

Miroshnichenko, Leonty I.

2008-02-01

470

Extreme Solar System in the Undergraduate Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest challenges for science educators today is to engage non-science students in the scientific process - to help them realize that science is cool, interesting, and fun. With NASA’s Year of the Solar System beginning in October 2010, a course that explores some of the most extreme places in our Solar System may be just the hook needed to improve attitudes toward science. We use three unique inquiry-based approaches in a freshman-level introductory science course to engage non-science students: 1) Emphasis on “extreme” phenomena in our Solar System, 2) Research papers and oral presentations in which “extreme experts” (students) try to convince a mock NASA panel where the next planetary mission should be, and 3) Science Portfolios in which students ask their own scientific questions, design their own scientific experiments, and evaluate their own scientific growth. The effectiveness of these approaches (as determined from pre-/post- surveys, focus groups, and other instruments) will be presented. Preliminary results show that students become less intimidated by science and feel that science has become more important in their everyday lives.

Baker, D.

2010-12-01

471

ISAS: interferometric stratospheric astrometry for solar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Interferometric Stratospheric Astrometry for Solar system (ISAS) project is designed for high precision astrometry on the brightest planets of the Solar System, with reference to many field stars, at the milli-arcsec (mas) level or better. The science goal is the improvement on our knowledge of the dynamics of the Solar System, complementing the Gaia observations of fainter objects. The technical goal is the validation of basic concepts for the proposed Gamma Astrometric Measurement Experiment (GAME) space mission, in particular, combination of Fizeau interferometry and coronagraphic techniques by means of pierced mirrors, intermediate angle dual field astrometry, smart focal plane management for increased dynamic range and pointing correction. We discuss the suitability of the stratospheric environment, close to space conditions, to the astrometric requirements. The instrument concept is a multiple field, multiple aperture Fizeau interferometer, observing simultaneously four fields, in order to improve on the available number of reference stars. Coronagraphic solutions are introduced to allow observation of internal planets (Mercury and Venus), as well as of external planets over a large fraction of their orbit, i.e. also close to conjunction with the Sun. We describe the science motivation, the proposed experiment profile and the expected performance.

Gai, M.; Fienga, A.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Riva, A.; Vecchiato, A.; Gallieni, D.; Chaillot, S.; Ligori, S.; Loreggia, D.

2012-09-01

472

Spacewatch Survey of the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Spacewatch project is to explore the various populations of small objects throughout the solar system. Statistics on all classes of small bodies are needed to infer their physical and dynamical evolution. More Earth Approachers need to be found to assess the impact hazard. (We have adopted the term "Earth Approacher", EA, to include all those asteroids, nuclei of extinct short period comets, and short period comets that can approach close to Earth. The adjective "near" carries potential confusion, as we have found in communicating with the media, that the objects are always near Earth, following it like a cloud.) Persistent and voluminous accumulation of astrometry of incidentally observed main belt asteroids MBAs will eventually permit the Minor Planet Center (MPQ to determine the orbits of large numbers (tens of thousands) of asteroids. Such a large body of information will ultimately allow better resolution of orbit classes and the determinations of luminosity functions of the various classes, Comet and asteroid recoveries are essential services to planetary astronomy. Statistics of objects in the outer solar system (Centaurs, scattered-disk objects, and Trans-Neptunian Objects; TNOs) ultimately will tell part of the story of solar system evolution. Spacewatch led the development of sky surveying by electronic means and has acted as a responsible interface to the media and general public on this discipline and on the issue of the hazard from impacts by asteroids and comets.

McMillan, Robert S.

2000-01-01

473

Combined solar and fossil fuel systems for electric power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is intended to present a parametric study for the combined solar and fossil fuel system for electric power generation. The combined system is so designed that the solar energy will be utilized to a maximum extent at the time when the solar energy is available. The balance of energy requirement is met by burning fossil fuels such as

K. W. Li; J. Cashman

1981-01-01

474

The supernova fragmentation model of solar system formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have further developed Brown's model of solar system formation. In this model, each fragment of an ejected supernova shell evolves into a separate solar system. Specifically, we have formulated the reverse-flow hypothesis that may be responsible for the inner, earthlike planets. We have written a computer program with which it is possible to calculate mass distributions within a solar

W. K. Brown; L. A. Gritzo

1986-01-01

475

Solar PV-diesel hybrid energy system for rural applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describe sizing of solar PV, DG set and battery bank for different configurations for share of solar power. Different configurations for integration of solar with diesel energy systems are explained in detail. The energy availability and reliability of the integrated energy system are highlighted The economics for implementation of different configurations are dealt with detailed discussion in this

Rajashekar P. Mandi; Udaykumar R. Yaragatti

2010-01-01

476

Design of Solar Preheating System for Boiled Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the current situation of energy and disadvantage of present solar heating water methods, a high-efficiency and secure hot water service system indirectly utilizing solar power has been introduced. The hot water preheating process is added to this system. It can make full use of solar-energy, shorten the time for heating, reduce energy consumption, cut the cost without polluting

Bing Li; Qibing Chen; Wubin Xu; Qiwei He; Shangping Li

2010-01-01

477

The most primitive objects in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chondrites, the most primitive samples of the solar system known to man, contain minerals condensed directly out of the solar nebula. When the theoretical distribution of elements among crystalline phases and gaseous species at temperatures obtained at the time of solar system formation is calculated, it agrees well with the minerals identified in chondrites by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy,

Lawrence Grossman

1975-01-01

478

Optimization of Collector Area in Solar Water Heating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic household thermosyphons are economically feasible and are used by over than 70% of houses in Palestine. Although domestic solar water heating for commercial applications has a good potential, only a few systems have been installed in Palestine. A systematic sizing approach for the solar system is presented in this paper and applied to a certain case study. The solar

Afif Hasan

2001-01-01

479

Headache Topics  

MedlinePLUS

Home » My Headache » Headache Topic Sheets Headache Topic Sheets Consumer Topics Consumer Medications Spanish Abdominal Migraine Acupuncture Alcohol and Headaches Allergy and Headaches Analgesic Rebound Anemia Arteriovenous Malformation Arthritis ...

480

A comprehensive solar energy system analysis data base in Huntsville, Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of a comprehensive solar energy system analysis data base developed by NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama is presented, along with its current status. The Marshall Information Retrieval and Data Storage (MIRADS) system was chosen for the data base, and feedback systems were arranged to cope with changes in the needs of the program management for the type of data gathered. The final structure of the data base consists of 22 files divided into 6 topical sections: summaries, climatological, utility rates, architectural, equipment, and economics. The data base offers help to the solar industry in two ways: it provides information and it serves as a model for users trying to establish the climatic and socioeconomic variables they should take into account when they examine a potential market for solar energy equipment.

Goddard, J. P.

1978-01-01