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1

A study of the background corona near solar minimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white light coronagraph data from Skylab is used to investigate the equatorial and polarK andF coronal components during the declining phase of the solar cycle near solar minimum. Measurements of coronal brightness and polarization brightness product between 2.5 and 5.5R? during the period of observation (May 1973 to February 1974) lead to the conclusions that: (1) the equatorial corona

Kuniji Saito; Arthur I. Poland; Richard H. Munro

1977-01-01

2

Latitudinal and Radial Variation of Solar Corona Rotation at Solar Minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotation of the solar corona at different heliolatitudes from 1.5 to 3.0 Rsolar from Sun center has been studied at solar minimum from the reconstructed intensity time series of the O VI 1032 Å and H I Ly? l216 Å spectral lines and visible light polarized brightness obtained by the observations of UVCS/SOHO instrument. The time period analyzed range from mid May 1996 to mid May 1997, when, at solar minimum, some features persist for several rotations, thus allowing to analyze the UV and visible emission as time series modulated at the period of the solar rotation. The coronal differential rotation rate significantly differs from that of the photospheric plasma. The estimated equatorial synodic rotation period of the corona at 1.5 Rsolar is 27.48+/-0.15 days. The study of the latitudinal variation shows that the UV corona decelerates towards the photospheric rates from the equator up to the poleward boundary of the mid-latitude streamers, reaching a peak of 28.16+/-0.20 days around +/-30° from the equator at 1.5 Rsolar, while a less evident peak is observed in the northern hemisphere, suggesting a real north-south rotational asymmetry, the northern hemisphere the rotation looks more solid-body-like and slower than in the southern hemisphere. The mid-latitude results are also confirmed by the visible light data available at 1.75 and 2.0 Rsolar. The study of the radial rotation profiles shows that the corona is rotating almost rigidly with height, but we find an abrupt increase by about half a days between 2.3 and 2.5 Rsolar. The larger radial and latitudinal gradients of the rotation rates are localized at the boundary between the open and closed field lines, suggesting that in these regions the differential rotation might be a source of magnetic stress and, consequently, of energy release.

Giordano, S.; Mancuso, S.; Romoli, M.

2007-09-01

3

The Effect of Proton Temperature Anisotropy on the Solar Minimum Corona and Wind  

E-print Network

A semi-empirical, axisymmetric model of the solar minimum corona is developed by solving the equations for conservation of mass and momentum with prescribed anisotropic temperature distributions. In the high-latitude regions, the proton temperature anisotropy is strong and the associated mirror force plays an important role in driving the fast solar wind; the critical point where the outflow velocity equals the parallel sound speed is reached already at 1.5 Rsun from Sun center. The slow wind arises from a region with open field lines and weak anisotropy surrounding the equatorial streamer belt. The model parameters were chosen to reproduce the observed latitudinal extent of the equatorial streamer in the corona and at large distance from the Sun. We find that the magnetic cusp of the closed-field streamer core lies at about 1.95 Rsun. The transition from fast to slow wind is due to a decrease in temperature anisotropy combined with the non-monotonic behavior of the non-radial expansion factor in flow tubes that pass near the streamer cusp. In the slow wind, the plasma beta is of order unity and the critical point lies at about 5 Rsun, well beyond the magnetic cusp. The predicted outflow velocities are consistent with OVI Doppler dimming measurements from UVCS/SOHO. We also find good agreement with polarized brightness (pB) measurements from LASCO/SOHO and HI Ly-alpha images from UVCS/SOHO.

Alberto M. Vasquez; Adriaan A. van Ballegooijen; John C. Raymond

2003-10-29

4

Venus ionopause during solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pioneer Venus ion composition measurements are used to study the Venus ionosphere during solar minimum. It is suggested that the topside electron density profile at Venus during solar minimum has two distinct regimes. One beween 140 and 180 km is dominated by O2(+) ions which are in photochemical equilibrium. The other regime is above 180 km and is dominated by O(+) ions which are disturbed by the solar wind induced plasma transport. For Pioneer Venus, Mariner 10, and Venera 9 and 10 data, it is found that Venus exhibits a photodynamical type of ionopause during solar minimum.

Mahajan, K. K.; Mayr, H. G.

1989-12-01

5

Venus ionopause during solar minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneer Venus ion composition measurements are used to study the Venus ionosphere during solar minimum. It is suggested that the topside electron density profile at Venus during solar minimum has two distinct regimes. One beween 140 and 180 km is dominated by O2(+) ions which are in photochemical equilibrium. The other regime is above 180 km and is dominated by O(+) ions which are disturbed by the solar wind induced plasma transport. For Pioneer Venus, Mariner 10, and Venera 9 and 10 data, it is found that Venus exhibits a photodynamical type of ionopause during solar minimum.

Mahajan, K. K.; Mayr, H. G.

1989-01-01

6

How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?  

PubMed Central

The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23–24 transition.

Russell, C.T.; Jian, L.K.; Luhmann, J.G.

2012-01-01

7

Solar Modulation along last solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of cosmic rays modulation on proton spectrum was studied using the HelMod - 2-D Monte Carlo code, that includes a general description of the diffusion tensor, and polar magnetic-field. The Numerical Approach used in this work is based on a set of Stochastic Differential Equations fully equivalent to the well know Parker Equation for the transport of Cosmic Rays. The model description was updated using Proton spectras measured by PAMELA during the last solar minimum.

Bobik, P.; Boschini, M. J.; Delia Torre, S.; Gervasi, M.; Grandi, D.; Kudela, K.; La Vacca, G.; Mallamaci, M.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rozza, D.; Tacconi, M.

2014-06-01

8

Coronal Rotation at Solar Minimum from UV Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observations of the UVCS SOHO instrument from 1996 May to 1997 May have been analyzed to reconstruct intensity time series of the O VI 1032 Å and H I Ly? 1216 Å spectral lines at different coronal heliolatitudes from 1.5 to 3.0 Rsolar from Sun center. At solar minimum, some features persist for several rotations, thus allowing analysis of the UV emission as time series modulated at the period of the solar rotation. We find evidence of coronal differential rotation, which significantly differs from that of the photospheric plasma. The estimated equatorial synodic rotation period of the corona at 1.5 Rsolar is 27.48+/-0.10 days. The study of the latitudinal variation shows that the UV corona decelerates toward the photospheric rates from the equator up to the poleward boundary of the midlatitude streamers, reaching a peak of 28.16+/-0.20 days around +30° from the equator at 1.5 Rsolar, while a less evident peak is observed in the northern hemisphere. This result suggests a real north-south rotational asymmetry as a consequence of different activity and weak coupling between the magnetic fields of the two hemispheres. The study of the radial rotation profiles shows that the corona is rotating almost rigidly with height, but we find an abrupt increase by about half a day between 2.3 and 2.5 Rsolar. The larger gradients of the rotation rates are localized at the boundaries between open and closed field lines, suggesting that in these regions the differential rotation might be a source of magnetic stress and, consequently, of energy release.

Giordano, S.; Mancuso, S.

2008-11-01

9

Meteor heights during the recent solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Average meteor heights have been continuously observed using a SKiYMET VHF radar at Collm (51.3° N, 13.0° E) since late summer of 2004. Initially, the daily mean meteor height was about 89.4 km. Since that time, average meteor heights have decreased. This is consistent with earlier results on middle atmosphere temperature change from the literature and from earlier results of low-frequency reflection height changes measured at Kühlungsborn and Collm. During the recent solar minimum 2008/2009 the meteor heights further decreased. Linear fitting of a trend and a solar cycle to the heights reveals a linear decrease of about -56 m year-1 and a solar cycle effect of +450 m per 100 sfu. Assuming that meteor heights, on a long-term average, approximately refer to a level of constant pressure, this decrease can be converted to a mean middle atmosphere linear temperature decrease of -0.23 K year-1 and a solar cycle effect of +1.8 K per 100 sfu during the last decade, which is in the range of observed trends reported in the literature.

Jacobi, Ch.

2014-11-01

10

An equatorial coronal hole at solar minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The large transequatorial coronal hole that was observed in the solar corona at the end of August 1996 is presented. It consists of a north polar coronal hole called the 'elephant's trunk or tusk'. The observations of this coronal hole were carried out with the coronal diagnostic spectrometer onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The magnetic field associated with the equatorial coronal hole is strongly connected to that of the active region at its base, resulting in the two features rotating at almost the same rate.

Bromage, B. J. I.; DelZanna, G.; DeForest, C.; Thompson, B.; Clegg, J. R.

1997-01-01

11

Mars ionopause during solar minimum - A lesson from Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ion densities measured by the Viking landers (Hanson et al., 1977) do not show an abrupt falloff with height, giving the false impression that Mars has no ionopause. On the basis of knowledge gained from the solar wind interaction at Venus during solar minimum, it is demonstrated that the observed O2 profile above about 160 km on Mars is a distributed photodynamical ionosphere and can produce an ionopause at around 325 km, similar to that observed on Venus during solar minimum. It is concluded that the solar wind interacts directly with the Mars ionosphere, suggesting that the planet does not have an intrinsic magnetic field of any consequence.

Mahajan, K. K.; Mayr, H. G.

1990-01-01

12

External ionospheric and thermospheric forcing during solar minimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we focus on dynamics of the ionosphere-thermosphere (I-T) system during a solar minimum interval. We compare and contrast the state of the I-T system during weakly disturbed high speed stream (HSS) intervals (Dst ~ -50 nT) with ``quiet'' days. Using GPS TEC measurements and infrared radiative power of NO and CO2 derived from SABER\\/TIMED measurements we study

O. P. Verkhoglyadova; B. Tsurutani; A. J. Mannucci; A. Komjathy; M. G. Mlynczak; L. A. Hunt

2010-01-01

13

Properties of a Polar Coronal Hole During the Solar Minimum in 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report measurements of a polar coronal hole during the recent solar minimum using the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode. Five observations are analyzed that span the polar coronal hole from the central meridian to the boundary with the quiet-Sun corona. We study the observations above the solar limb in the height range of 1.03-1.20 R sun. The electron temperature T e and emission measure (EM) are found using a geometric mean emission measure method. The EM derived from the elements Fe, Si, S, and Al are compared in order to measure relative coronal-to-photospheric abundance enhancement factors. We also studied the ion temperature T i and the non-thermal velocity v nt using the line profiles. All these measurements are compared to polar coronal hole observations from the previous (1996-1997) solar minimum and to model predictions for relative abundances. There are many similarities in the physical properties of the polar coronal holes between the two minima at these low heights. We find that the electron density, T e, and T i are comparable in both minima. T e shows a comparable gradient with height. Both minima show a decreasing T i with increasing charge-to-mass ratio q/M. A previously observed upturn of T i for ions above q/M>0.25 was not found here. We also compared relative coronal-to-photospheric elemental abundance enhancement factors for a number of elements. These ratios were ~1 for both the low first ionization potential (FIP) elements Si and Al and the marginally high FIP element S relative to the low FIP element Fe, as is expected based on earlier observations and models for a polar coronal hole. These results are consistent with no FIP effect in a polar coronal hole.

Hahn, M.; Bryans, P.; Landi, E.; Miralles, M. P.; Savin, D. W.

2010-12-01

14

Transient flows of the solar wind associated with small-scale solar activity in solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data obtained by the modern high sensitive EUV-XUV telescopes and photometers such as CORONAS-Photon/TESIS and SPHINX, STEREO/EUVI, PROBA2/SWAP, SDO/AIA provide good possibilities for studying small-scale solar activity (SSA), which is supposed to play an important role in heating of the corona and producing transient flows of the solar wind. During the recent unusually weak solar minimum, a large number of SSA events, such as week solar flares, small CMEs and CME-like flows were observed and recorded in the databases of flares (STEREO, SWAP, SPHINX) and CMEs (LASCO, CACTUS). On the other hand, the solar wind data obtained in this period by ACE, Wind, STEREO contain signatures of transient ICME-like structures which have shorter duration (<10h), weaker magnetic field strength (<10 nT) and lower proton temperature than usual ICMEs. To verify the assumption that ICME-like transients may be associated with the SSA events we investigated the number of weak flares of C-class and lower detected by SPHINX in 2009 and STEREO/EUVI in 2010. The flares were classified on temperature and emission measure using the diagnostic means of SPHINX and Hinode/EIS and were confronted with the parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density, ion composition and temperature, magnetic field, pitch angle distribution of the suprathermal electrons). The outflows of plasma associated with the flares were identified by their coronal signatures - CMEs (only in few cases) and dimmings. It was found that the mean parameters of the solar wind projected to the source surface for the times of the studied flares were typical for the ICME-like transients. The results support the suggestion that weak flares can be indicators of sources of transient plasma flows contributing to the slow solar wind at solar minimum, although these flows may be too weak to be considered as separate CMEs and ICMEs. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration under Grant Agreement “eHeroes” (project n° 284461, www.eheroes.eu).

Slemzin, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Igor; Kuzin, Sergey; Gburek, Szymon; Ulyanov, Artyom; Kirichenko, Alexey; Shugay, Yulia; Goryaev, Farid

15

SphinX Measurements of the 2009 Solar Minimum X-Ray Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 × 1047 cm-3 and 1.1 × 1048 cm-3. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Baka?a, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.

2012-06-01

16

MULTI-FLUID MODEL OF A STREAMER AT SOLAR MINIMUM AND COMPARISON WITH OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a time-dependent 2.5-dimensional three-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model of the coronal streamer belt, which is compared with the slow solar wind plasma parameters obtained in the extended corona by the UV spectroscopic data from the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on board SOHO during the past minimum of solar activity (Carrington Rotation 1913). Our previous three-fluid streamer model has been improved by considering the solar magnetic field configuration relevant for solar minimum conditions, and preferential heating for O{sup 5+} ions. The model was run until a fully self-consistent streamer solution was obtained in the quasi-steady state. The plasma parameters from the multi-fluid model were used to compute the expected UV observables from H I Ly{alpha} 1216 A and O VI 1032 A spectral lines, and the results were compared in detail with the UVCS measurements. A good agreement between the model and the data was found. The results of the study provide insight into the acceleration and heating of the multi-ion slow solar wind.

Ofman, Leon [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Abbo, Lucia; Giordano, Silvio, E-mail: Leon.Ofman@nasa.gov [INAF Astronomical Observatory of Turin (Italy)

2011-06-10

17

SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION  

SciTech Connect

The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} cm{sup -3} and 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} cm{sup -3}. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakala, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B. [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 51-622, Kopernika 11, Wroclaw (Poland); Kuzin, S. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Farnik, F. [Astronomical Institute, Ondrejov Observatory (Czech Republic); Reale, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Italy, and INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Phillips, K. J. H., E-mail: js@cbk.pan.wroc.pl [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

2012-06-01

18

Ion Temperatures in the Low Solar Corona: Polar Coronal Holes at Solar Minimum  

E-print Network

In the present work we use a deep-exposure spectrum taken by the SUMER spectrometer in a polar coronal hole in 1996 to measure the ion temperatures of a large number of ions at many different heights above the limb between 0.03 and 0.17 solar radii. We find that the measured ion temperatures are almost always larger than the electron temperatures and exhibit a non-monotonic dependence on the charge-to-mass ratio. We use these measurements to provide empirical constraints to a theoretical model of ion heating and acceleration based on gradually replenished ion-cyclotron waves. We compare the wave power required to heat the ions to the observed levels to a prediction based on a model of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We find that the empirical heating model and the turbulent cascade model agree with one another, and explain the measured ion temperatures, for charge-to-mass ratios smaller than about 0.25. However, ions with charge-to-mass ratios exceeding 0.25 disagree with the model; the wave power they require to be heated to the measured ion temperatures shows an increase with charge-to-mass ratio (i.e., with increasing frequency) that cannot be explained by a traditional cascade model. We discuss possible additional processes that might be responsible for the inferred surplus of wave power.

Enrico Landi; Steven R. Cranmer

2008-09-30

19

LANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS  

E-print Network

LANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS R. J at the electron plasma frequency) during the solar minimum and solar maximum orbits of Ulysses. At high latitudes Ulysses fast heliolatitude scan, suggests that Langmuir wave activity in magnetic holes is enhanced

California at Berkeley, University of

20

Ion-neutral Coupling During Deep Solar Minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The equatorial ionosphere under conditions of deep solar minimum exhibits structuring due to tidal forces. Data from instruments carried by the Communication Navigation Outage Forecasting System (CNOFS) which was launched in April 2008 have been analyzed for the first 2 years following launch. The Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP), Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) and Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) all detect periodic structures during the 20082010 period which appear to be tides. However when the tidal features detected by these instruments are compared, there are distinctive and significant differences between the observations. Tides in neutral densities measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite were also observed during June 2008. In addition, Broad Plasma Decreases (BPDs) appear as a deep absolute minimum in the plasma and neutral density tidal pattern. These are co-located with regions of large downward-directed ion meridional velocities and minima in the zonal drifts, all on the nightside. The region in which BPDs occur coincides with a peak in occurrence rate of dawn depletions in plasma density observed on the Defense Meterological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, as well as a minimum in radiance detected by UV imagers on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) and IMAGE satellites

Huang, Cheryl Y.; Roddy, Patrick A.; Sutton, Eric K.; Stoneback, Russell; Pfaff, Robert F.; Gentile, Louise C.; Delay, Susan H.

2013-01-01

21

Cosmic ray particles behavior during last solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presents the Heliosphere characterization during the minimum solar activity. It is possible to identify phenomena caused by the Corrotating Interaction Regions - CIRs, during this solar activity phase. CIRs can be visualized in satellite data for each 27 days, approximately, and it is frequently accompanied by the Earth crossing through the Heliospheric Current Sheath - HCS. These crossing occur in a period of time lower than a day, and it is possible to study the behavior of cosmic rays particles in two different regions with opposite magnetic field polarities. The last solar minimum was special because their long duration and it was the first that the Global Muon Detector Network - GMDN operated in its full capacity. This cosmic ray detectors network is composed by muon scintillators installed in Nagoya - Japan, Hobart - Australia, São Martinho da Serra - Brazil and Kuwait City - Kuwait. Analyzing the GMDN data together with data from SOHO and/or ACE satellites it is possible to study the behavior of the cosmic ray particles and presents a Heliosphere characterization during the minimum solar activity, giving a better understanding of the cosmic ray particles modulation.

Rockenbach, Marlos; Dal Lago, Alisson; Munakata, Kazuoki; Kato, Chihiro; Kuwabara, Takao; Bieber, John; Schuch, Nelson; Duldig, Marc; Humble, John; Jassar, Hala Al; Sharma, Madan; Sabbah, Ismail

2013-04-01

22

Estimates of galactic cosmic ray shielding requirements during solar minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimates of radiation risk from galactic cosmic rays are presented for manned interplanetary missions. The calculations use the Naval Research Laboratory cosmic ray spectrum model as input into the Langley Research Center galactic cosmic ray transport code. This transport code, which transports both heavy ions and nucleons, can be used with any number of layers of target material, consisting of up to five different arbitrary constituents per layer. Calculated galactic cosmic ray fluxes, dose and dose equivalents behind various thicknesses of aluminum, water and liquid hydrogen shielding are presented for the solar minimum period. Estimates of risk to the skin and the blood-forming organs (BFO) are made using 0-cm and 5-cm depth dose/dose equivalent values, respectively, for water. These results indicate that at least 3.5 g/sq cm (3.5 cm) of water, or 6.5 g/sq cm (2.4 cm) of aluminum, or 1.0 g/sq cm (14 cm) of liquid hydrogen shielding is required to reduce the annual exposure below the currently recommended BFO limit of 0.5 Sv. Because of large uncertainties in fragmentation parameters and the input cosmic ray spectrum, these exposure estimates may be uncertain by as much as a factor of 2 or more. The effects of these potential exposure uncertainties or shield thickness requirements are analyzed.

Townsend, Lawrence W.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

1990-01-01

23

Dose variation during solar minimum. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

In this report the authors use direct measurement of dose to show the variation in inner and outer radiation belt populations at low altitude from 1984 to 1987. This period includes the recent solar minimum that occurred in September 1986. The dose is measured behind four thicknesses of aluminum shielding and for two thresholds of energy deposition, designated HILET and LOLET. They calculate an average dose per day for each month of satellite operation. They find that the average proton (HILET) dose per day (obtained primarily in the inner belt) increased systematically from 1984 to 1987, and has a high anticorrelation with sunspot number when offset by 13 months. The average LOLET dose per day behind the thinnest shielding is produced almost entirely by outer zone electrons and varies greatly over the period of interest. If any trend can be discerned over the 4 year period it is a decreasing one. For shielding of 1.55 gm/sq. cm (227 mil) Al or more, the LOLET dose is complicated by contributions from > 100 MeV protons and bremsstrahlung.

Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G.; Brautigam, D.H.; Holeman, E.

1991-12-01

24

Lunar semidiurnal tide in the thermosphere under solar minimum conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewed interest in lunar tidal influences on the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system has emerged in connection with recent studies of possible connections between stratospheric warmings and enhanced lunar tidal perturbations of the equatorial ionosphere. By virtue of its gravitational force, the Moon produces perturbations in the temperature, density, pressure, and winds throughout Earth's atmosphere. Lunar tidal winds in the dynamo region (~100-150 km) can furthermore generate electric fields that map into the F-region and redistribute ionospheric plasma. Direct penetration (propagation) of lunar tides to F-region heights can also transport ionospheric plasma. Decades-long satellite data sets now exist that can provide a global perspective on lunar tidal oscillations, but this resource has not yet been exploited for this purpose. In this paper, we examine the global structure of the main M2 (period = 12.42 h) lunar tide through examination of temperatures measured by the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics SABER instrument at 110 km and densities at 360 and 480 km inferred from accelerometers on the CHAMP and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites, respectively. Ten year mean SABER M2 temperature amplitudes are of order 5-10 K while the corresponding density perturbations during the 2007-2010 solar minimum period approach amplitudes of order 5% at 360 km and 10% at 480 km. The observed amplitudes are large enough to impose non-negligible day-to-day variability on the IT system. Global-Scale Wave Model simulations provide a theoretical and modeling context for interpreting these data, and moreover enable estimates of E- and F-region winds.

Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Bruinsma, Sean; Oberheide, Jens

2013-04-01

25

Meridional Surface Flows and the Recent Extended Solar Minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nandy, Munoz, & Martens, have published a kinematic dynamo model that successfully reproduces the main characteristics of the recent extended solar minimum (Nature 2011, 471, 80). The model depends on the solar meridional flow and its return flow along the tachocline determining the period and character of the cycle. In particular Nandy et al. found that a meridional flow that is fast in the first half of the cycle and then slows down around solar maximum, can lead to an extended minimum with the characteristics of the recent minimum: an extended period without sunspots and weak polar fields. It has been pointed out that the observed surface meridional flows over the last cycle do not fit the pattern assumed by Nandy et al. Hathaway & Rightmire (Science 2010, 327-1350) find that the meridional speed of small magnetic surface elements observed by SoHO/MDI decreased around solar maximum and has not yet recovered. Basu & Antia (ApJ 2010, 717, 488) find surface plasma meridional flow speeds that are lower at solar maximum 23 than at the surrounding minima, which is different from both Hathaway and Nandy. While there is no physical reason that solar surface flows -- both differential rotation and meridional flow -- would vary in lockstep with flows at greater depth, as the large radial gradients near the surface clearly indicate, and while Nandy et al. have demonstrated that the deeper flows dominate the net meridional mass flow, we find that there is in effect a very satisfying agreement between the observational results of Hathaway & Rightmire, Basu & Antia, and the model assumptions of Nandy, Munoz, & Martens. We present an analytical model that reconciles the first two, followed by a hydrodynamical model that demonstrates the consistency of these observational results with the model assumptions of Nandy et al.

Martens, Petrus C.; Nandy, D.; Munoz-Jaramillo, A.

2011-05-01

26

Cosmic rays during the unusual solar minimum of 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examine the solar activity (SA) parameters during the quite long-lasting minimum epoch 23/24 shows that their values differ substantially in comparison with those measured in previous solar minimum epochs. The Sun was extremely quiet and there were nearly no sunspots (e.g. Smith, 2011). The averaged proton density was lower during this minimum (˜ 0.70) than in the three previous minimum epochs (Jian et al., 2011). The averaged strength of the interplanetary magnetic field during the last minimum was truly low (drop of ˜ 0.36) and the solar wind dynamic pressure decrease (˜ 0.22) was noticed (McComas et al., 2008). Solar polar magnetic fields were weaker (˜ 0.40) during this minimum in comparison with the last three minimum epochs of SA (Wang et al., 2009). Kirk et al. (2009) showed that EUV polar coronal holes area was less (˜ 0.15) than at the beginning of the Solar Cycle no. 23. The solar total irradiance at 1AU was lower more than 0.2Wm (-2) than in the last minimum in 1996 (Fröhlich, 2009). Values of the solar radio flux f10.7 were smaller than for the duration of the recent four minima (Jian et al., 2011). The tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet declined much slower during the recent minimum in comparison with the previous two. The values of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) intensity measured by neutron monitors were the highest ever recorded (e.g. Moraal and Stoker, 2010). In 2007 neutron monitors achieved values measured during the last negative polarity minimum, 1987, and continued to grow throughout the beginning of 2010. In the same time, the level of anomalous cosmic ray intensities was comparable with the 1987 minimum (Leske et al., 2013). The average amplitude of the 27-days recurrence of the GCR intensity was as high as during the previous minimum epoch 1996 (positive polarity), much higher than during minimum one Hale cycle back (Gil et al., 2012). Modzelewska and Alania (2013) showed that 27-days periodicity of the GCR intensity stable during 2007-2008 evolved to longer period (up to 33-36 days) during 2009. Alania et al. (2014, submitted to JGR) have reported that the 2009 growth in the GCR intensity mostly was related with drop in the solar wind velocity, the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field, and the drift during the negative polarity epoch. Frohlich (2009) argued that the recent minimum was caused by a global temperature decline of 0.2 K in the effective temperature of the Sun. Dikpati (2013) suggested that the reason of the prolonged and deep minimum was somehow different operation of solar dynamo. On the other hand, revisions of the proxies showed that the Maunder Minimum was the latest, but not the only, of the grand minimum ages of solar activity that occurred in the past (e.g. Jones et al., 2010). It might be the case that the last 23/24 solar minimum was the precursor of the end of the Modern grand maximum (e.g. Usoskin, 2013). References: 1.Alania M.V, R. Modzelewska, A. Wawrzynczak, 2014, submitted to JGR 2.Dikpati M., SSRv 176, 279-287, 2013 3.Fröhlich C., A&A 501, L27-L30, 2009 4.Gil A., R. Modzelewska, M.V Alania, AdSpR 50, 712-715, 2012 5.Jian L.K., C.T. Russell, J.G. Luhmann, SoPh 274, 321-344, 2011 6.Jones Ch.A., M.J. Thompson, S.M. Tobias, SSRv 152, 591-616, 2010 7.Kirk M. S., W.D. Pesnell, C. A. Young, S.A. Hess Webber, SoPh 257, 99-112, 2009 8.Leske R. A., A.C. Cummings, R.A. Mewaldt, E.C. Stone, SSRv 176, 253-263, 2013 9.McComas D.J., R.W. Ebert, H.A. Elliott, et al., GeoRL 35, CiteID L18103, 2008 10.Modzelewska R, M.V. Alania, SoPh 286, 593-607, 2013 11.Moraal H., P.H. Stoker, JGR 115, CiteID A12109, 2010 12.Smith E.J, JASTP 73, 277-289, 2011 13.Usoskin I.G., LRSP 10, doi 10.12942/lrsp-2013-1, 2013 14.Wang Y.-M., E. Robbrecht, N.R. Sheeley, ApJ. 707, 1372-1386, 2009

Gil, Agnieszka

27

Elemental GCR Observations during the 2009-2010 Solar Minimum Period  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using observations from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we present new measurements of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) elemental composition and energy spectra for the species B through Ni in the energy range approx. 50-550 MeV/nucleon during the record setting 2009-2010 solar minimum period. These data are compared with our observations from the 1997-1998 solar minimum period, when solar modulation in the heliosphere was somewhat higher. For these species, we find that the intensities during the 2009-2010 solar minimum were approx. 20% higher than those in the previous solar minimum, and in fact were the highest GCR intensities recorded during the space age. Relative abundances for these species during the two solar minimum periods differed by small but statistically significant amounts, which are attributed to the combination of spectral shape differences between primary and secondary GCRs in the interstellar medium and differences between the levels of solar modulation in the two solar minima. We also present the secondary-to-primary ratios B/C and (Sc+Ti+V)/Fe for both solar minimum periods, and demonstrate that these ratios are reasonably well fit by a simple "leaky-box" galactic transport model that is combined with a spherically symmetric solar modulation model.

Lave, K. A.; Israel, M. H.; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; deNolfo, G. A.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

2013-01-01

28

The Magnetic Field at the Inner Boundary of the Heliosphere Around Solar Minimum  

E-print Network

The Magnetic Field at the Inner Boundary of the Heliosphere Around Solar Minimum X. P. Zhao and J the solar wind extends and through which the Sun exerts a magnetic influence. Its outer boundary is called is located around 10 ­ 20 solar radii or 0.1 AU, and the magnetic field on the heliobase is the same

Zhao, Xuepu

29

THE TURBULENT CASCADE AND PROTON HEATING IN THE SOLAR WIND DURING SOLAR MINIMUM  

SciTech Connect

The recently protracted solar minimum provided years of interplanetary data that were largely absent in any association with observed large-scale transient behavior on the Sun. With large-scale shear at 1 AU generally isolated to corotating interaction regions, it is reasonable to ask whether the solar wind is significantly turbulent at this time. We perform a series of third-moment analyses using data from the Advanced Composition Explorer. We show that the solar wind at 1 AU is just as turbulent as at any other time in the solar cycle. Specifically, the turbulent cascade of energy scales in the same manner proportional to the product of wind speed and temperature. Energy cascade rates during solar minimum average a factor of 2-4 higher than during solar maximum, but we contend that this is likely the result of having a different admixture of high-latitude sources.

Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J. [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Stawarz, Joshua E. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CA (United States); Forman, Miriam A., E-mail: jtu46@wildcats.unh.edu, E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu, E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu, E-mail: Joshua.Stawarz@Colorado.edu, E-mail: Miriam.Forman@sunysb.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

2012-08-01

30

Little or no solar wind enters Venus' atmosphere at solar minimum.  

PubMed

Venus has no significant internal magnetic field, which allows the solar wind to interact directly with its atmosphere. A field is induced in this interaction, which partially shields the atmosphere, but we have no knowledge of how effective that shield is at solar minimum. (Our current knowledge of the solar wind interaction with Venus is derived from measurements at solar maximum.) The bow shock is close to the planet, meaning that it is possible that some solar wind could be absorbed by the atmosphere and contribute to the evolution of the atmosphere. Here we report magnetic field measurements from the Venus Express spacecraft in the plasma environment surrounding Venus. The bow shock under low solar activity conditions seems to be in the position that would be expected from a complete deflection by a magnetized ionosphere. Therefore little solar wind enters the Venus ionosphere even at solar minimum. PMID:18046399

Zhang, T L; Delva, M; Baumjohann, W; Auster, H-U; Carr, C; Russell, C T; Barabash, S; Balikhin, M; Kudela, K; Berghofer, G; Biernat, H K; Lammer, H; Lichtenegger, H; Magnes, W; Nakamura, R; Schwingenschuh, K; Volwerk, M; Vörös, Z; Zambelli, W; Fornacon, K-H; Glassmeier, K-H; Richter, I; Balogh, A; Schwarzl, H; Pope, S A; Shi, J K; Wang, C; Motschmann, U; Lebreton, J-P

2007-11-29

31

Modulation of galactic cosmic rays during the unusual solar minimum between cycles 23 and 24  

E-print Network

During the recent solar minimum between cycles 23 and 24 (solar minimum $P_{23/24}$) the intensity of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) measured at the Earth was the highest ever recorded since space age. It is known that both the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) strength and the Solar Wind (SW) speed were very low, but the tilt of Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) was not at the lowest level. This indicates that the modulation of cosmic rays is not dominated by the mechanism of particle drift through the current sheet during this $Asolar wind and heliospheric magnetic field parameters such as SW speed, distance of heliospheric boundary, magnitude of IMF at the Earth, values of parallel and perpendicular diffusion coeff...

Zhao, L -L; Zhang, M; Heber, B

2013-01-01

32

Wind Observations of Anomalous Cosmic Rays from Solar Minimum to Maximum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the first observation near Earth of the time behavior of anomalous cosmic-ray N, O, and Ne ions through the period surrounding the maximum of the solar cycle. These observations were made by the Wind spacecraft during the 1995-2002 period spanning times from solar minimum through solar maximum. Comparison of anomalous and galactic cosmic rays provides a powerful tool for the study of the physics of solar modulation throughout the solar cycle.

Reames, D. V.; McDonald, F. B.

2003-01-01

33

Isotopic Measurements of Cosmic-Ray Hydrogen and Helium During the 1997 Solar Minimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The balloon-borne BESS experiment was successfully flown from Lynn Lake, Canada during the most recent solar minimum on July 27, 1997. The instrument was reconfigured with a new Aerogel Cherenkov counter for this flight. The time-of-flight system was greatly improved, and achieved excellent time resolution of 50 picoseconds. Isotopes of cosmic-ray hydrogen and helium were well separated with rigidity up

J. Z. Wang; E. S. Seo; R. W. Alford; H. Fuke; K. Anraku; M. Fujikawa; Y. Makida; S. Matsuda; H. Matsumoto; J. W. Mitchell; H. Matsunaga; T. Mitsui; A. Moiseev; M. Motoki; J. Nishimura; Y. Shikaze; R. E. Streitmatter; J. Suzuki; T. Saeki; T. Yamagami; A. Yamamoto; K. Yoshimura; K. Tanaka; I. Ueda; Y. Yajima; T. Yoshida

2001-01-01

34

Galactic Cosmic-Ray Energy Spectra and Composition during the 2009-2010 Solar Minimum Period  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report new measurements of the elemental energy spectra and composition of galactic cosmic rays during the 2009-2010 solar minimum period using observations from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer. This period of time exhibited record-setting cosmic-ray intensities and very low levels of solar activity. Results are given for particles with nuclear charge 5 <= Z <= 28 in the energy range approx. 50-550 MeV / nucleon. Several recent improvements have been made to the earlier CRIS data analysis, and therefore updates of our previous observations for the 1997-1998 solar minimum and 2001-2003 solar maximum are also given here. For most species, the reported intensities changed by less than approx. 7%, and the relative abundances changed by less than approx. 4%. Compared with the 1997-1998 solar minimum relative abundances, the 2009-2010 abundances differ by less than 2sigma, with a trend of fewer secondary species observed in the more recent time period. The new 2009-2010 data are also compared with results of a simple "leaky-box" galactic transport model combined with a spherically symmetric solar modulation model. We demonstrate that this model is able to give reasonable fits to the energy spectra and the secondary-to-primary ratios B/C and (Sc+Ti+V)/Fe. These results are also shown to be comparable to a GALPROP numerical model that includes the effects of diffusive reacceleration in the interstellar medium.

Lave, K. A.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; deNolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H..; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; VonRosenvinge, T. T.

2013-01-01

35

Modeling and observations of the low latitude ionosphere-plasmasphere system at long deep solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of the low latitude ionosphere-plasmasphere system in American-Brazilian longitudes (30°W-120°W) in three seasons at the long deep solar minimum (2006-2010) is investigated using the theoretical model SUPIM and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC electron density and GIM-TEC data. The data and model reveal some new aspects primarily for the low solar EUV fluxes. The ionosphere develops as a thin layer in the morning though becomes nearly as strong as that at normal solar minimum at around diurnal maximum (14 LT). However, after sunset the ionosphere-plasmasphere system decays rapidly to become an extremely weak cold system prior to sunrise (05 LT) when the ionosphere contracts to about 1/3rd as strong as that at normal solar minimum, with peak density only about 1.8 × 105 cm-3, half width only about 150 km, and O+/H+ transition height as low as 475 km where the ion densities are only 104 cm-3 and ion temperatures are only 600 K. The mechanical effects of the neutral wind dominate over other processes, which causes the disappearance of the well known winter anomaly in TEC and Nmax, and lowest O+/H+ transition height (˜650 km at 14 LT and 475 km at 05 LT) occurring at around ±15° magnetic latitudes where the mechanical effects optimize. In addition, the ionosphere becomes weakest about 7 months after the solar activity dipped to the lowest level in 2008.

Nanan, B.; Chen, C. Y.; Rajesh, P. K.; Liu, J. Y.; Bailey, G. J.

2012-08-01

36

Behavior of the Ionosphere and Thermosphere at Solar Minimum: Data and Model Comparisons and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV remote sensing is the single most powerful technique for making space-based global observations of the ionosphere and thermosphere. During the descending phase of the last solar cycle and the current solar minimum we have had the opportunity to make unique observations of the behavior of the upper atmosphere. Comparisons with models are particularly important because they inform our understanding of the physics. All too often one hears that "we understand the physics": while we may be able to write down the equations and solve them numerically there are many unknowns or poorly known processes that are parameterized. In addition, the boundary conditions are arguably the least well known of the "knobs" on the upper atmosphere GCMs. Under solar minimum conditions we have an opportunity to observe the quiescent state of the upper atmosphere and its response to impulsive drivers. We will present results from our examination of the response of the upper atmosphere to the sudden stratospheric warming events of 2008 and 2009. In this paper we study isolated events against that quiescent background and compare our observations to models. IRI and MSIS show significantly different behavior from our UV remote sensing data. Is this because the models were based on data obtained from a different atmosphere - one that had lower CO2 values - or is it the unique nature of this solar minimum?

Paxton, L. J.; Zhang, Y.; Kil, H.; Schaefer, R. K.; Comberiate, J.; Christensen, A. B.

2009-12-01

37

Effect of solar activity on the cosmic-ray intensity at solar minimum  

SciTech Connect

In examining the cosmic ray intensity between successive solar minima, it has been noted that the intensity at 1 AU was slightly higher between the 19th and 20th solar cycles (i.e. 1965) and between the 21st and 22nd solar cycles (i.e. 1987) than between the 20th and 21st solar cycles (i.e. 1976). The fact that the galactic cosmic ray intensity in the mid 70's did not return to the levels observed at the other two solar minima is attributed to increased solar activity throughout the 1976 solar minimum period.

Shea, M.A.; Smart, D.F.

1990-01-01

38

Measurement of Low-Energy Cosmic-Ray Antiprotons at Solar Minimum  

E-print Network

The absolute fluxes of the cosmic-ray antiprotons at solar minimum are measured in the energy range 0.18 to 1.4 GeV, based on 43 events unambiguously detected in BESS '95 data. The resultant energy spectrum appears to be flat below 1 GeV, compatible with a possible admixture of primary antiproton component with a soft energy spectrum, while the possibility of secondary antiprotons alone explaining the data cannot be excluded with the present accuracy. Further improvement of statistical accuracy and extension of the energy range are planned in future BESS flights.

H. Matsunaga; S. Orito; H. Matsumoto; K. Yoshimura; A. Moiseev; K. Anraku; R. Golden; M. Imori; Y. Makida; J. Mitchell; M. Motoki; J. Nishimura; M. Nozaki; J. Ormes; T. Saeki; T. Sanuki; R. Streitmatter; J. Suzuki; K. Tanaka; I. Ueda; N. Yajima; T. Yamagami; A. Yamamoto; T. Yoshida

1998-09-25

39

Topside Equatorial Ionospheric Density and Composition During and After Extreme Solar Minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the recent solar minimum, solar activity reached the lowest levels observed during the space age. This extremely low solar activity has accompanied a number of unexpected observations in the Earth s ionosphere-thermosphere system when compared to previous solar minima. Among these are the fact that the ionosphere is significantly contracted beyond expectations based on empirical models. Altitude profiles of ion density and composition measurements near the magnetic dip equator are constructed from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite to characterize the shape of the topside ionosphere during the recent solar minimum and into the new solar cycle. The variation of the profiles with respect to local time, season, and solar activity are compared to the IRI-2007 model. Building on initial results reported by Heelis et al. (2009), here we describe the extent of the contracted ionosphere, which is found to persist throughout 2009. The shape of the ionosphere during 2010 is found to be consistent with observations from previous solar minima.

Klenzing, J.; Simoes, F.; Ivanov, S.; Heelis, R. A.; Bilitza, D.; Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.

2011-01-01

40

Measurement of cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra during the 1987 solar minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The differential cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra have been measured during the 1987 solar minimum using a balloon-borne superconducting magnetic spectrometer launched from Prince Albert, Canada. The changing geomagnetic cutoff along the balloon trajectory was observed in the low-energy proton data to be about 25 percent below the nominal calculated values. The absolute particle fluxes were approximately equal to the highest fluxes observed at the previous solar minimum in 1977. Above 10 GV the observed spectra are represented by a power law in rigidity with spectral indices of 2.74 + or - 0.02 for protons and 2.68 + or - 0.03 for helium. The measurements above 200 MeV per nucleon are consistent with rigidity power-law interstellar spectra modulated with the solar modulation parameter phi = 500 MV. The energy dependence of the proton-to-helium ratio is consistent with rigidity power-law injection spectra and rigidity-dependent propagation without reacceleration.

Seo, E. S.; Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Stochaj, S. J.; Jones, W. V.; Stephens, S. A.; Bowen, T.

1991-01-01

41

A Study of the Coronal Non-thermal Velocity in Polar Regions During the Rise from Solar Minimum to Solar Maximum in Cycle 24  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the changes in coronal non-thermal velocity (V nt) measurements at the poles from solar minimum to solar maximum using Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer data. We find that although the intensity in the corona at the poles does tend to increase with the cycle, there are no significant changes in the V nt values. The locations of enhanced V nt values measured do not always have a counterpart in intensity, and they are sometimes located in weak emission regions. Unipolar magnetic streams, created through diffusion of the following polarity of the decaying active regions, slowly progress towards the poles. These streams are expected to be related to magnetic nulls as locations that indicate an increased likelihood for magnetic reconnection to occur. Through global potential field source-surface modelling, we determine how the number of nulls varied during the cycle and find that those that lie at < 1.1 solar radii vary significantly. We search for a correlation between the variation of the magnetic nulls and the V nt values, as it may be expected that with an increasing number of nulls, the V nt values in the corona increase as well. There is no correlation with the V nt values, however. This indicates that the magnetic structures that create the enhanced V nt behaviour are small-scale features and hence not easily measurable at the poles. Because they do not change during the solar cycle, they are likely to be created by a local dynamo. The variation of the upper range of V nt is reduced, which highlights that strongly dynamic behaviour is reduced as the solar maximum approaches. This is likely to be due to the reduced area of the polar coronal hole, which allows fewer opportunities for reconnection to occur between open and closed magnetic fields.

Harra, L.; Baker, D.; Edwards, S. J.; Hara, H.; Howe, R.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.

2015-01-01

42

Decrease in heliospheric magnetic flux in this solar minimum: Recent Ulysses magnetic field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ulysses spacecraft has traveled from the solar equator at 1.3 and 5.3 AU to above the polar caps at 2.2 AU three times during the last 17 years and has provided measurements of the solar-heliospheric magnetic field. The open magnetic flux, i.e., the radial component, BR, multiplied by the square of the radial distance, r, is independent of latitude at both solar minimum and maximum. Measurements of r2 BR contain information about the average polar cap field strength when allowance is made for the non-radial expansion of the magnetic field and solar wind near the Sun that eliminates the latitude gradient in magnetic pressure. Recent Earth-based magnetograph observations indicate that the Sun's polar cap field strength, BP, has decreased by a factor of about two between the previous and present latitude scans. Ulysses measurements show that the average value of r2 BR has decreased from 3.6 nT (AU)2 in 1993.5 to 1995.0 to 2.3 nT (AU)2 in 2006.1 to 2007.4, a decrease by 0.64. The two Ulysses scans are not precisely at solar minimum. However, in-ecliptic BR is highly correlated with the Ulysses measurements at all latitudes and can be used to determine the open flux at the two solar minima. Averages of BR at the two solar minima are 2.82 and 2.45 nT. This decrease is contrary to the suggestion based on previous solar cycles that BR returns to the same value of ~ 3 nT at solar minimum. The ratio of BP to the expansion factor, fE, is proportional to the measured open flux and observed and assumed values of BP are used to determine the corresponding values of fE. Another property of the fast solar wind is that it is highly turbulent compared to lower latitudes. To determine if the decrease in r2 BR and BP has affected the intensity of the magnetic fluctuations, the total variances in the magnetic field fluctuations are derived and found to decrease by a factor of 0.75.

Smith, Edward J.; Balogh, Andre

2008-11-01

43

Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of the Solar Wind: During Solar Minimum Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations provide information about a vast region of the inner heliosphere. We use Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STELab) IPS velocity and g-level observations as well as IPS velocity observations from the European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT) and EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR), with our three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model to determine velocities and densities of the inner heliosphere. We present these observations using various forms of imaging from our time-dependent model that can measure changes with durations of less than a day and compare these with various spacecraft in situ measurements. We concentrate on the current solar-minimum period showing relatively-stable large-scale solar-wind structure during this time in relation to transients that are also sometimes present. Data primarily covers the 2007-2009 International Heliophysical Year (IHY) which includes the Whole Heliosphere Interval (CR2068).

Bisi, Mario; Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. P. L.; Clover, J. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.; Fallows, R. A.; Breen, A. R.

2009-05-01

44

The turbulent cascade and proton heating in the solar wind during solar minimum  

SciTech Connect

Solar wind measurements at 1 AU during the recent solar minimum and previous studies of solar maximum provide an opportunity to study the effects of the changing solar cycle on in situ heating. Our interest is to compare the levels of activity associated with turbulence and proton heating. Large-scale shears in the flow caused by transient activity are a source that drives turbulence that heats the solar wind, but as the solar cycle progresses the dynamics that drive the turbulence and heat the medium are likely to change. The application of third-moment theory to Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data gives the turbulent energy cascade rate which is not seen to vary with the solar cycle. Likewise, an empirical heating rate shows no significan changes in proton heating over the cycle.

Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J. [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire (United States); Stawarz, Joshua E. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Forman, Miriam A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

2013-06-13

45

MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION DURING THE EXTENDED SOLAR MINIMUM: ANOTHER COMPONENT OF THE TORSIONAL OSCILLATION?  

SciTech Connect

We show here a component of the meridional circulation developing at medium-high latitudes (40 deg. - 50 deg.) before the new solar cycle starts. Like the torsional oscillation of the zonal flows, this extra circulation seems to precede the onset of magnetic activity at the solar surface and moves slowly toward lower latitudes. However, the behavior of this component differs from that of the torsional oscillation regarding location and convergence toward the equator at the end of the cycle. The observation of this component before the magnetic regions appear at the solar surface has only been possible due to the prolonged solar minimum. The results could settle the discussion as to whether the extra component of the meridional circulation around the activity belts, which has been known for some time, is or is not an effect of material motions around the active regions.

Gonzalez Hernandez, I.; Howe, R.; Komm, R.; Hill, F. [National Solar Observatory 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ (United States)], E-mail: irenegh@nso.edu

2010-04-10

46

An exploration of ionospheric and thermospheric properties and morphology during extreme solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the sun's 11 year cycle, the thermosphere and ionosphere of the Earth react considerably to the changing levels of solar activity. It is commonly understood that as the solar activity increases, the ions and neutral particles in the upper levels of the atmosphere become more energized by X-rays from sunspots and flares, and are perturbed by high speed plasma streams, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) fluctuations that impinge upon the Earth's atmosphere and geomagnetic fields. Consequently, such background perturbations in the thermosphere and ionosphere are expected to affect their densities, compositions and dynamic processes. However, solar minimum conditions have never been sufficiently sampled to predict such processes arising from a more quiescent background. The Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) instruments aboard the Air Force Research Laboratory's Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite are used to measure parameters in situ at altitudes between 400 and 550 km. These include ion and neutral density, ion velocity, and temperature as functions of location and time. Two efforts stemming from unique opportunities during the recent solar minimum of 2008-2010 are presented: (1) a study of neutral thermospheric particle densities and composition and (2) an approach to mapping, classifying and explaining various types of ionospheric plasma depletion and enhancement plumes resulting from dynamic processes in the ionosphere. Observations made during these extremely quiet space weather conditions provide a number of unusual results, including uncharacteristically low neutral thermospheric particle densities, and helium presence and periodic dominance near 400 km. At the same time in the ionosphere, a significant number of large, well-formed density depletions and enhancements are observed, unveiling seasonal geomagnetic distributions that show new patterns, some of which confirm previous work and others that reveal new behaviors that require additional observations and modeling to promote full understanding.

Haaser, Robert A.

47

QUIET-TIME INTERPLANETARY {approx}2-20 keV SUPERHALO ELECTRONS AT SOLAR MINIMUM  

SciTech Connect

We present a statistical survey of {approx}2-20 keV superhalo electrons in the solar wind measured by the SupraThermal Electron instrument on board the two STEREO spacecraft during quiet-time periods from 2007 March through 2009 March at solar minimum. The observed superhalo electrons have a nearly isotropic angular distribution and a power-law spectrum, f{proportional_to}v{sup -{gamma}}, with {gamma} ranging from 5 to 8.7, with nearly half between 6.5 and 7.5, and an average index of 6.69 {+-} 0.90. The observed power-law spectrum varies significantly on a spatial scale of {approx}>0.1 AU and a temporal scale of {approx}>several days. The integrated density of quiet-time superhalo electrons at 2-20 keV ranges from {approx}10{sup -8} cm{sup -3} to 10{sup -6} cm{sup -3}, about 10{sup -9}-10{sup -6} of the solar wind density, and, as well as the power-law spectrum, shows no correlation with solar wind proton density, velocity, or temperature. The density of superhalo electrons appears to show a solar-cycle variation at solar minimum, while the power-law spectral index {gamma} has no solar-cycle variation. These quiet-time superhalo electrons are present even in the absence of any solar activity-e.g., active regions, flares or microflares, type III radio bursts, etc.-suggesting that they may be accelerated by processes such as resonant wave-particle interactions in the interplanetary medium, or possibly by nonthermal processes related to the acceleration of the solar wind such as nanoflares, or by acceleration at the CIR forward shocks.

Wang, Linghua [Department of Geophysics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Lin, Robert P.; Salem, Chadi; Pulupa, Marc; Larson, Davin E.; Luhmann, Janet G. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Yoon, Peter H., E-mail: wanglhwang@gmail.com [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01

48

Corona Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(the Northern Crown; abbrev. CrB, gen. Coronae Borealis; area 179 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Boötes and Hercules, and culminates at midnight in mid-May. It represents the crown that in Greek mythology was made by Hephaestus, god of fire, and worn by Princess Ariadne of Crete. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

49

Comparative Study of foF2 Measurements with IRI-2007 Model Predictions During Extended Solar Minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unusually deep and extended solar minimum of cycle 2324 made it very difficult to predict the solar indices 1 or 2 years into the future. Most of the predictions were proven wrong by the actual observed indices. IRI gets its solar, magnetic, and ionospheric indices from an indices file that is updated twice a year. In recent years, due to the unusual solar minimum, predictions had to be corrected downward with every new indices update. In this paper we analyse how much the uncertainties in the predictability of solar activity indices affect the IRI outcome and how the IRI values calculated with predicted and observed indices compared to the actual measurements.Monthly median values of F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) derived from the ionosonde measurements at the mid-latitude ionospheric station Juliusruh were compared with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2007) model predictions. The analysis found that IRIprovides reliable results that compare well with actual measurements, when the definite (observed and adjusted) indices of solar activityare used, while IRI values based on earlier predictions of these indices noticeably overestimated the measurements during the solar minimum.One of the principal objectives of this paper is to direct attention of IRI users to update their solar activity indices files regularly.Use of an older index file can lead to serious IRI overestimations of F-region electron density during the recent extended solar minimum.

Zakharenkova, I. E.; Krankowski, A.; Bilitza, D.; Cherniak, Iu.V.; Shagimuratov, I.I.; Sieradzki, R.

2013-01-01

50

Seasonal and longitudinal variations of the solar quiet (Sq) current system during solar minimum determined by CHAMP satellite  

E-print Network

variation that is clearly observed during geomagnetic quiet time periods. The observed regular daily. There are a number of current systems during geomagnetically quiet time periods and these are all part of the SqSeasonal and longitudinal variations of the solar quiet (Sq) current system during solar minimum

Forbes, Jeffrey

51

Comprehensive Ionospheric Polar and Auroral Observations for Solar Minimum of Cycle 23/24  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) is able to simultaneously measure full profiles of elec-tron density, ion temperature, and electron temperatures through the E-and F-layers of the terrestrial ionosphere. Historically ISR's have been operated for periods much less than a month. Hence, their measurements do not constitute a continuous sequence from which quiet, disturbed, and storm periods can reliably be discerned. This is particularly true in the auroral and polar regions. During the International Polar Year (IPY) two ISRs achieved close to 24/7 continuous observations. This presentation describes their data sets and specifically how they can provide the IRI with a fiduciary E-and F-region ionosphere descriptions for solar minimum conditions at auroral and polar cap locations. The ionospheric description being electron den-sity, ion temperature, electron temperature, and even molecular ion composition profiles from as low as 90 km extending several scale heights above the F-layer peak. The auroral location is Poker Flat in Alaska at 65.4° N, 147.5° W where the NSF's new Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) is located. During solar minimum conditions this location is in the auroral region for most of the day and is at mid-latitudes, equatorward of the cusp, for about 4 to 8 hours per day dependent upon geomagnetic activity. In contrast the polar location is Svalbard, at 78° N, 16° E where the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) is located. For most of the day the ESR is in the Northern Polar Cap often with a noon sector passage through the dayside cusp. Of unique relevance to IRI is that these extended observations have enabled the ionospheric morphology to be demarked between quiet and disturbed. During the IPY year, 1 March 2007 to 29 February 2008, a total of 50 solar wind corotating interaction regions (CIRs) impacted geospace. Each CIR has a one-to-three day geomagnetic disturbance that is observed in the ISR auroral and polar observations. Hence, this data set enables the quiet-background ionosphere to be established as a function of season and local time. This quiet-background ionosphere has the unique attribute that it has self-consistent altitude profiles of the density and the temper-ature. This we believe is a true fiduciary reference for the IRI in a high latitude region, that is otherwise particularly difficult to quantify.

Sojka, Jan J.; Nicolls, Michael; van Eyken, Anthony; Heinselman, Craig

52

Estimation of the Ionosphere and Plasmasphere Contribution to the GPS TEC under Solar Minimum Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasmaspheric electron content (PEC) was estimated by comparison GPS observations and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation (RO) measurements at the extended solar minimum of cycle 23/24. GPS observations provide information about values of vertical total electron content (TEC) up to the metricconverterProductID20,200 km20,200 km. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC now provides unprecedented global coverage of GPS RO measurements. Depending on the state of the constellation, COSMIC has been producing 1,500 -- 2,500 good soundings of the ionosphere and atmosphere per day, uniformly distributed around the globe. This number of RO is much higher than even before. In this study, COSMIC RO data for different seasons corresponded to equinoxes and solstices of 2007-2009 (March, June, September and December) were analyzed. All selected COSMIC RO electron density profiles were integrated up to the height of metricconverterProductID700 km700 km (altitude of COSMIC satellites), in that way the estimates of ionospheric electron content (IEC) were retrieved on a global scale. The final IGS combined global ionospheric maps (GIMs) were used to calculate the global maps of monthly medians of TEC values. As a result there were analyzed global distributions of GPS TEC and IEC estimates corresponded to the monthly median values for different seasons of 2007-2009. We consider the quantitative differences PEC = TEC -- IEC as a measure of the contribution of the PEC to GPS TEC. In order to analyze seasonal behaviour of PEC contribution to GPS TEC at the different regions we selected several specific points with coordinates, corresponded to the approximate positions of different, mid-latitude and low-latitude, ionospheric sounding stations. Such points were selected at Northern America, European and Asian regions, Southern America, Southern Africa and country-regionplaceAustralia. For each specific points GPS TEC, COSMIC IEC and PEC estimates were analyzed. Results of our comparative study revealed that for mid-latitude stations PEC estimates varied weakly with the time of a day and reached the value of several TECU (3-5 TECU) for the condition of solar minimum. Percentage contribution of PEC to GPS TEC indicates the clear dependence from the time and varies from a minimum of about 25-30% during day-time to the value of more than 60% at night-time. The presented results are compared with TEC, PEC and IEC estimates retrieved by Standard Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model (SPIM, http://ftp.izmiran.ru/pub/izmiran/SPIM/).

Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii; Krankowski, Andrzej; Shagimuratov, Irk; Sieradzki, Rafal

2012-07-01

53

24/7 Solar minimum polar cap and auroral ion temperature observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the International Polar Year (IPY) two Incoherent Scatter Radars (ISRs) achieved close to 24/7 continuous observations. This presentation describes their data sets and specifically how they can provide the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) a fiduciary E- and F-region ionosphere description for solar minimum conditions in both the auroral and polar cap regions. The ionospheric description being electron density, ion temperature and electron temperature profiles from as low as 90 km extending to several scale heights above the F-layer peak. The auroral location is Poker Flat in Alaska at 65.1 °N latitude, 212.5 °E longitude where the NSF's new Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) is located. This location during solar minimum conditions is in the auroral region for most of the day but is at mid-latitudes, equator ward of the cusp, for about 4-8 h per day dependent upon geomagnetic activity. In contrast the polar location is Svalbard, at 78.2 °N latitude, 16.0 °E longitude where the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) is located. For most of the day the ESR is in the Northern Polar Cap with a noon sector passage often through the dayside cusp. Of unique relevance to IRI is that these extended observations have enabled the ionospheric morphology to be distinguished between quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions. During the IPY year, 1 March 2007 - 29 February 2008, about 50 solar wind Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) impacted geospace. Each CIR has a two to five day geomagnetic disturbance that is observed in the ESR and PFISR observations. Hence, this data set also enables the quiet-background ionospheric climatology to be established as a function of season and local time. These two separate climatologies for the ion temperature at an altitude of 300 km are presented and compared with IRI ion temperatures. The IRI ion temperatures are about 200-300 K hotter than the observed values. However, the MSIS neutral temperature at 300 km compares favorably with the quiet-background in temperature, both in magnitude and climatology.

Sojka, Jan J.; Nicolls, Michael; van Eyken, Anthony; Heinselman, Craig; Bilitza, Dieter

2011-07-01

54

Comparison of Transport Codes, HZETRN, HETC and FLUKA, Using 1977 GCR Solar Minimum Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HZETRN deterministic radiation transport code is one of several tools developed to analyze the effects of harmful galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) on mission planning, astronaut shielding and instrumentation. This paper is a comparison study involving the two Monte Carlo transport codes, HETC-HEDS and FLUKA, and the deterministic transport code, HZETRN. Each code is used to transport ions from the 1977 solar minimum GCR spectrum impinging upon a 20 g/cm2 Aluminum slab followed by a 30 g/cm2 water slab. This research is part of a systematic effort of verification and validation to quantify the accuracy of HZETRN and determine areas where it can be improved. Comparisons of dose and dose equivalent values at various depths in the water slab are presented in this report. This is followed by a comparison of the proton fluxes, and the forward, backward and total neutron fluxes at various depths in the water slab. Comparisons of the secondary light ion 2H, 3H, 3He and 4He fluxes are also examined.

Heinbockel, John H.; Slaba, Tony C.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norbury, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Handler, Thomas; Gabriel, Tony A.; Pinsky, Lawrence S.; Reddell, Brandon; Aumann, Aric R.

2009-01-01

55

The impact of radiation belts region on top side ionosphere condition during last solar minimum.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wave particle interactions in radiation belts region are one of the key parameters in understanding the global physical processes which govern the near Earth environment. The populations of outer radiation belts electrons increasing in response to changes in the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field, and decreasing as a result of scattering into the loss cone and subsequent absorption by the atmosphere. The most important question in relation to understanding the physical processes in radiation belts region relates to estimate the ratio between acceleration and loss processes. This can be also very useful for construct adequate models adopted in Space Weather program. Moreover the wave particle interaction in inner radiation zone and in outer radiation zone have significant influence on the space plasma property at ionospheric altitude. The aim of this presentation is to show the manifestation of radiation belts region at the top side ionosphere during the last long solar minimum. The presentation of longitude and seasonal changes of plasma parameters affected by process occurred in radiation belts region has been performed on the base of the DEMETER and COSMIC 3 satellite registration. This research is partly supported by grant O N517 418440

Rothkaehl, Hanna; Przepiórka, Dororta; Matyjasiak, Barbara

2014-05-01

56

Low-frequency heliographic observations of the quiet Sun corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new results of heliographic observations of quiet-Sun radio emission fulfilled by the UTR-2 radio telescope. The solar corona investigations have been made close to the last solar minimum (Cycle 23) in the late August and early September of 2010 by means of the two-dimensional heliograph within 16.5-33 MHz. Moreover, the UTR-2 radio telescope was used also as an 1-D heliograph for one-dimensional scanning of the Sun at the beginning of September 2010 as well as in short-time observational campaigns in April and August of 2012. The average values of integral flux density of the undisturbed Sun continuum emission at different frequencies have been found. Using the data, we have determined the spectral index of quiet-Sun radio emission in the range 16.5-200 MHz. It is equal to -2.1±0.1. The brightness distribution maps of outer solar corona at frequencies 20.0 MHz and 26.0 MHz have been obtained. The angular sizes of radio Sun were estimated. It is found that the solar corona at these frequencies is stretched-out along equatorial direction. The coefficient of corona ellipticity varies slightly during above period. Its mean magnitudes are equal to ? 0.75 and ? 0.73 at 20.0 MHz and 26.0 MHz, respectively. The presented results for continuum emission of solar corona conform with being ones at higher frequencies.

Stanislavsky, A. A.; Koval, A. A.; Konovalenko, A. A.

2013-12-01

57

HERSCHEL Sounding Rocket Mission Observations of the Helium Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HERSCHEL (Helium Resonant Scattering in the Corona and Heliosphere) investigation successfully obtained unprecedented images of the helium and hydrogen components of the solar corona out to 3 solar radii during a suborbital flight on 14 September 2009. Preliminary analysis of these observations indicates the spatial distribution of the helium abundance and outflow velocity provides powerful diagnostics for the source and dynamics of the slow solar wind during the time of solar minimum activity. An analysis of co-temporal STEREO EUVI data to derive the temperature of low coronal structures associated with the regions of enhanced helium abundance observed by HERSCHEL provides evidence the relative first ionization potential (FIP) of helium and hydrogen may play an important role in the observed abundance distribution. NRL was supported by the Office of Naval Research and NASA under NDPRS6598G.

Newmark, Jeffrey; Moses, J.; Antonucci, E.; Fineschi, S.; Abbo, L.; Telloni, D.; Auchere, F.; Barbey, N.; Romoli, M.

2010-05-01

58

Exploring the role of ionospheric drivers during the extreme solar minimum of 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent solar minimum, solar activity reached the lowest levels observed during the space age, resulting in a contracted atmosphere. This extremely low solar activity provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the variability of the Earth's ambient ionosphere. The average E × B drifts measured by the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) on the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite during this period are found to have several differences from the expected climatology based on previous solar minima, including downward drifts in the early afternoon and a weak to non-existent pre-reversal enhancement. Using SAMI2 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere) as a computational engine, we investigate the effects of these electrodynamical changes as well as the contraction of the thermosphere and reduced EUV ionization on the ionosphere. The sensitivity of the simulations to wind models is also discussed. These modeled ionospheres are compared to the C/NOFS average topside ion density and composition and Formosa Satellite-3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate average NmF2 and hmF2. In all cases, incorporating the VEFI drift data significantly improves the model results when compared to both the C/NOFS density data and the F3/C GOX data. Changing the MSIS and EUVAC models produced changes in magnitude, but not morphology with respect to local time. The choice of wind model modulates the resulting topside density and composition, but only the use of the VEFI E × B drifts produces the observed post-sunset drop in the F peak.

Klenzing, J.; Burrell, A. G.; Heelis, R. A.; Huba, J. D.; Pfaff, R.; Simões, F.

2013-12-01

59

Polar cap convection/precipitation states during Earth passage of two ICMEs at solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report important new aspects of polar cap convection and precipitation (dawn-dusk and inter-hemisphere asymmetries) associated with the different levels of forcing of the magnetosphere by two interplanetary (IP) magnetic clouds on 20 November 2007 and 17 December 2008 during solar minimum. Focus is placed on two intervals of southward magnetic cloud field with large negative By components (Bx=-5 versus 0 nT) and with high and low plasma densities, respectively, as detected by spacecraft Wind. The convection/precipitation states are documented by DMSP spacecraft (Southern Hemisphere) and SuperDARN radars (Northern Hemisphere). The (negative) By component of the cloud field is accompanied by a newly-discovered flow channel (called here FC 2) threaded by old open field lines (in polar rain precipitation) at the dusk and dawn sides of the polar cap in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively, and a corresponding Svalgaard-Mansurov (S-M) effect in ground magnetic deflections. On 20 November 2007 the latter S-M effect in the Northern winter Hemisphere appears in the form of a sequence of six 5-10 min long magnetic deflection events in the 71-74° MLAT/14:30-16:00 MLT sector. The X-deflections are consistent with the flow direction in FC 2 (i.e. caused by Hall currents) in both IP cloud cases. The presence of a lobe cell and associated polar arcs in the Southern (summer) Hemisphere in the low density (1-2 cm-3) and Bx=0 ICME case is accompanied by the dropout of polar rain precipitation in the dusk-side regime of sunward polar cap convection and inward-directed Birkeland current. The low-altitude observations are discussed in terms of momentum transfer via dynamo processes in the high- and low-latitude boundary layers and Birkeland currents located poleward of the traditional R1-R2 system.

Sandholt, P. E.; Andalsvik, Y.; Farrugia, C. J.

2010-04-01

60

Peculiar features of ionospheric F3 layer during prolonged solar minimum (2007-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the seasonal and local time occurrence of ionospheric F3 layer over Tirunelveli (geographic longitude 77.8°E, geographic latitude 8.7°N, dip 0.7°) during extremely low and prolonged solar activity period (2007-2009). Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde observations from this station are used in the present study. We find that the occurrence of F3 layer is nearly 3 times higher during 2009 (˜ 48%) as compared to that during 2007 (˜16%). The increase of this order just within the low solar activity period is unusual. In earlier studies similar increase in F3 occurrence has been reported when solar activity changes from high (F10.7=182) to low (F10.7=72). The other important feature is the presence of postnoon F3 layers which are observed dominantly during summer solstice of 2009. Such occurrence of postnoon F3 layers was nearly absent during summer solstice of the previous solar minimum (1996) over nearby dip equatorial station Trivandrum. We take equatorial electrojet (EEJ) as a proxy for eastward electric field. It is noticed that the EEJ strength and the maximum rate of change of EEJ are higher for F3 days as compared to those on non-F3 days. We find that the peak occurrence of prenoon F3 layer closely coincides with the time of maximum rate of change of EEJ. It is in general accordance with the theory proposed by Balan et al. (1998) that suggests the formation of F3 through vertically upward E × B drift in presence of equatorward neutral wind. The present study reveals that the rate of change of eastward electric field (dE/dt) as well plays an important role in the formation of F3 layer.

Nayak, C. K.; Yadav, V.; Kakad, B.; Sripathi, S.; Emperumal, K.; Pant, T. K.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Jin, Shuanggen

2014-10-01

61

Statistics of counter-streaming solar wind suprathermal electrons at solar minimum: STEREO observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has shown that solar wind suprathermal electrons can display a number of features in terms of their anisotropy. Of importance is the occurrence of counter-streaming electron patterns, i.e., with "beams" both parallel and anti-parallel to the local magnetic field, which is believed to shed light on the heliospheric magnetic field topology. In the present study, we use STEREO data to obtain the statistical properties of counter-streaming suprathermal electrons (CSEs) in the vicinity of corotating interaction regions (CIRs) during the period March-December 2007. Because this period corresponds to a minimum of solar activity, the results are unrelated to the sampling of large-scale coronal mass ejections, which can lead to CSE owing to their closed magnetic field topology. The present study statistically confirms that CSEs are primarily the result of suprathermal electron leakage from the compressed CIR into the upstream regions with the combined occurrence of halo depletion at 90° pitch angle. The occurrence rate of CSE is found to be about 15-20% on average during the period analyzed (depending on the criteria used), but superposed epoch analysis demonstrates that CSEs are preferentially observed both before and after the passage of the stream interface (with peak occurrence rate >35% in the trailing high speed stream), as well as both inside and outside CIRs. The results quantitatively show that CSEs are common in the solar wind during solar minimum, but yet they suggest that such distributions would be much more common if pitch angle scattering were absent. We further argue that (1) the formation of shocks contributes to the occurrence of enhanced counter-streaming sunward-directed fluxes, but does not appear to be a necessary condition, and (2) that the presence of small-scale transients with closed-field topologies likely also contributes to the occurrence of counter-streaming patterns, but only in the slow solar wind prior to CIRs.

Lavraud, B.; Opitz, A.; Gosling, J. T.; Rouillard, A. P.; Meziane, K.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Fedorov, A.; Dandouras, I.; Génot, V.; Jacquey, C.; Louarn, P.; Mazelle, C.; Penou, E.; Larson, D. E.; Luhmann, J. G.; Schroeder, P.; Jian, L.; Russell, C. T.; Foullon, C.; Skoug, R. M.; Steinberg, J. T.; Simunac, K. D.; Galvin, A. B.

2010-01-01

62

The Equatorial Ionosphere During Solar Minimum -- C/NOFS Observations of Deep Plasma Depletions at Sunrise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Communication/Navigation Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite was launched in April 2008 into an equatorial orbit at an altitude between 400 and 850 km, to study the equatorial ionosphere as well as irregularities within it. The satellite sensors measure the following parameters: ambient and fluctuating ion densities; ion and electron temperatures; neutral winds, AC and DC electric and magnetic fields. C/NOFS is circling the Earth at a time when the solar cycle is the lowest it has been since the beginning of the space age. In this talk, we stress the findings that are unique to solar minimum conditions. The plasma density is the smallest seen in the past half century. The pre-reversal enhancement in the upward plasma drift, which is responsible for early evening irregularities, is rarely seen. Instead, plasma irregularities form mostly after midnight. An unexpected feature in the data concerns deep plasma depletions observed at sunrise. They are seen at all satellite altitudes and associated with ionospheric irregularities. Dawn depletions are more frequent in the America-Africa sector and in the Indonesia sector. Dawn depletions are also observed in other data sets, in particular in data from DMSP morning passes, and the CHAMP satellite. This fact confirms that they are real and not an artifact of the plasma instrument. It also allows measuring the N-S extent of the dawn depletions - we find that they are typically 50 x 14 degrees in the N-S and E-W directions respectively, but they can be much wider in longitude. We postulate that they are caused by upward plasma drifts, which are seen in the C/NOFS and ground-based data.

de La Beaujardiere, O.; Roddy, P.; Retterer, J.; Su, Y.; Hunton, D.; Kelley, M.; Pfaff, R.

2009-05-01

63

Quiet-time variations of F2-layer parameters at Jicamarca and comparison with IRI2001 during solar minimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze Jicamarca ionograms to study the quiet-condition variations in the peak electron density (NmF2), its height (hmF2), and F2-layer thickness parameter (B0) of the equatorial F2 layer during solar minimum. The sunrise peak is found in hmF2 and B0 for all months. During daytime and nighttime, the variation in the hmF2 value is mainly responsible for that in NmF2

C. C. Lee; B. W. Reinisch; S.-Y. Su; W. S. Chen

2008-01-01

64

Polar\\/Toroidal Imaging Mass-Angle Spectrograph observations of suprathermal ion outflow during solar minimum conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present observations of the magnitude and variability of escaping suprathermal ions in the energy per charge range of 15 eV\\/e to 33 keV\\/e. The data were obtained from the Toroidal Imaging Mass-Angle Spectrograph (TIMAS) on the Polar spacecraft from April 1996 to September 1998 over the Earth's southern Polar cap during solar minimum conditions. The net outflow rates of

W. K. Peterson; H. L. Collin; A. W. Yau; O. W. Lennartsson

2001-01-01

65

The Humanities, Unraveled  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graduate education in the humanities is in crisis. Every aspect, from the most specific details of the curriculum to the broadest questions about its purpose, is in crisis. It is a seamless garment of crisis: If one pulls on any one thread, the entire thing unravels. It is therefore exceptionally difficult to discuss any one aspect of graduate…

Berube, Michael

2013-01-01

66

Atmospheric effect of repeated high-energy electron precipitation at high latitude during solar minimum time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today it is a well established concept how high-energy auroral electrons and solar protons, when precipitating into the atmosphere, may cause significant variations of minor neutral gas concentrations. The excess ionization events initiate production of odd hydrogen and odd nitrogen, the latter even being long-lived in the absence of sunlight, so that the chemistry effects which finally may affect even the upper atmospheric ozone concentration, are transported even to lower altitudes and latitudes. Whereas the solar proton events, including experimental verification of the effects, are well studied in recent literature, very few experimental findings are published about the actual contribution of the high-energy electron precipitation events. After reviewing shortly the recent advance in understanding the effects of excess ionisation events on neutral atmospheric composition, we present an analysis of a unique data set of electron precipitation effects at high latitudes during solar minimum time: The one year long IPY data set of incoherent scatter radar measurements in Longyearbyen by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR). ESR was operated in a continuous mode from 1 March 2007 to 29 February 2008, and backscattered power measurements, with 3 km range resolution and 2.25 km range steps, start from the altitude of 45 km. Data is subject to sea and/or tropospheric clutter, which is variable with season/day up to 65 km. However, normally data is usable for altitudes higher than 70 km. This unique set of electron density data from a high-latitude station reveals repeated occurence of short lasting low-altitude ionisation enhancements and thus high-energy electron precipitation events, in spite of the generally geomagnetically quiet conditions. We perform analysis of the atmospheric effects of these ionisation events by using the detailed Sodankyla Ion Chemistry model of D region throughout the 1-year long IPY period, and point out possibilities to observe these variations in other sets of data, as well as the significance of improving continuous monitoring of D region ionisation by the existing and proposed new incohorent scatter facilities, such as the EISCAT 3D volumetric imaging incoherent scatter radar in Northern Scandinavia.

Turunen, Esa; Haggstrom, Ingemar; Enell, Carl-Fredrik

2012-07-01

67

Space weather effects on the low latitude D-region ionosphere during solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the solar flares and the geomagnetic storms (disturbance storm time ( Dst) < -50 nT) during December 2006 to 2008, a period during the unprecedented solar minimum of solar cycles 23 and 24, have been examined on sub-ionospheric very low frequency (VLF) signals from NWC (19.8 kHz), NPM (21.4 kHz), VTX (18.2 kHz), and NLK (24.8 kHz) transmitters monitored at Suva (18.2° S, 178.4° E), Fiji. Apart from the higher class solar flares (C to X), a solar flare of class B8.5 also produced enhancements both on the amplitude and phase. The amplitude enhancements in NLK, NPM, and NWC signals as a function of peak solar flare X-ray flux in decibel (dB; relative to 1 ?W/m2) shows that the relationship curve is steeper and quite linear between the flare power levels of 0 to 15 dB; below 0 dB, the curve gets less steep and flattens towards -5 dB flare power level, while it also gets less steep above 15 dB and almost flattens above 20 dB. In general, the level of amplitude enhancement for NLK signal is higher than that for NPM and NWC signals for all solar flares. The enhancement in the amplitude and phase of VLF signals by solar flares is due to the increase in the D-region electron density by the solar flare-produced extra ionization. The modeling of VLF perturbations produced by B8.5 and C1.5 classes of solar flares on 29 January 2007 using LWPC (Long Wave Propagation Capability) V2.1 codes show that reflection height ( H') was reduced by 0.6 and 1.2 km and the exponential sharpness factor ( ?) was raised by 0.010 and 0.005 km-1, respectively. Out of seven storms with Dst < -50 nT, only the intense storm of 14 to 16 December 2006 with a minimum Dst of -145 nT has shown a clear reduction in the signal strength of NWC and NPM sub-ionospheric signals due to storm-induced reduction in the D-region electron density.

Kumar, Abhikesh; Kumar, Sushil

2014-12-01

68

Ionospheric VTEC and thermospheric infrared emission dynamics during corotating interaction region and high-speed stream intervals at solar minimum: 25 March to 26 April 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermospheric infrared emission shows strong response to HSS drivingVTEC data show fast, continuous, and global response to external forcing by HSSsHeliospheric-magnetospheric-ionospheric-thermospheric coupling at solar minimum

O. P. Verkhoglyadova; B. T. Tsurutani; A. J. Mannucci; M. G. Mlynczak; L. A. Hunt; A. Komjathy; T. Runge

2011-01-01

69

Influence of projection effects on the observed differential rotation rate in the UV corona  

PubMed Central

Following previous investigations by Giordano and Mancuso [1] and Mancuso and Giordano [2,3] on the differential rotation of the solar corona as obtained through the analysis of the intensity time series of the O VI 1032 Å spectral line observed by the UVCS/SOHO telescope during solar cycle 23, we analysed the possible influence of projection effects of extended coronal structures on the observed differential rotation rate in the ultraviolet corona. Through a simple geometrical model, we found that, especially at higher latitudes, the differential rotation may be less rigid than observed, since features at higher latitudes could be actually linked to much lower coronal structures due to projection effects. At solar maximum, the latitudinal rigidity of the UV corona, with respect to the differential rotating photosphere, has thus to be considered as an upper limit of the possible rigidity. At solar minimum and near the equatorial region throughout the solar cycle, projection effects are negligible.

Mancuso, Salvatore; Giordano, Silvio

2012-01-01

70

The Peculiar Solar Minimum 23/24 Revealed by the Microwave Butterfly Diagram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diminished polar magnetic field strength during the minimum between cycles 23 and 24 is also reflected in the thermal radio emission originating from the polar chromosphere. During solar minima, the polar corona has extended coronal holes containing intense unipolar flux. In microwave images, the coronal holes appear bright, with a brightness enhancement of 500 to 2000 K with respect to the quiet Sun. The brightness enhancement corresponds to the upper chromosphere, where the plasma temperature is approx.10000 K. We constructed a microwave butterfly diagram using the synoptic images obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph (NoRH) showing the evolution of the polar and low latitude brightness temperature. While the polar brightness reveals the chromospheric conditions, the low latitude brightness is attributed to active regions in the corona. When we compared the microwave butterfly diagram with the magnetic butterfly diagram, we found a good correlation between the microwave brightness enhancement and the polar field strength. The microwave butterfly diagram covers part of solar cycle 22, whole of cycle 23, and part of cycle 24, thus enabling comparison between the cycle 23/24 and cycle 22/23 minima. The microwave brightness during the cycle 23/24 minimum was found to be lower than that during the cycle 22/23 minimum by approx.250 K. The reduced brightness temperature is consistent with the reduced polar field strength during the cycle 23/24 minimum seen in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We suggest that the microwave brightness at the solar poles is a good indicator of the speed of the solar wind sampled by Ulysses at high latitudes..

Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Yashiro, Seiji; Makela, Pertti; Shibasaki, Kiyoto; Hathaway, David

2010-01-01

71

Measurement of the Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Spectrum at Solar Minimum with a Long-Duration Balloon Flight over Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons (p-bar's) from 0.17 to 3.5 GeV has been measured using 7886 p-bar's detected by BESS-Polar II during a long-duration flight over Antarctica near solar minimum in December 2007 and January 2008. This shows good consistency with secondary p-bar calculations. Cosmologically primary p-bar's have been investigated by comparing measured and calculated p-bar spectra. BESS-Polar II data.show no evidence of primary p-bar's from the evaporation of primordial black holes.

Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E. S.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.

2012-01-01

72

Measurement of Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Spectrum at Solar Minimum with a Long-Duration Balloon Flight in Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons (p(raised bar)'s) collected by the BESS-Polar II instrument during a long-duration flight over Antarctica in the solar minimum period of December 2007 through January 2008. The p(raised bar) spectrum measured by BESS-Polar II shows good consistency with secondary p(raised bar) calculations. Cosmologically primary p(raised bar)'s have been searched for by comparing the observed and calculated p(raised bar) spectra. The BESSPolar II result shows no evidence of primary p(raised bar)'s originating from the evaporation of PBH.

Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E. S.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.

2011-01-01

73

Performance of the IRI-2007 Model for Topside Ion Density and Composition Profiles During the 23/24 Solar Minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent solar minimum between cycles 23 and 24 was unusually extended and deep, resulting in an ionosphere that is significantly different from that expected based on previous solar minima. The ion density and composition estimates from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite are used to evaluate the performance of the IRI-2007 model between 400 and 850 kIn altitude in equatorial regions. The current model is shown to typically overestimate the expected topside density of 0+ and underestimate the density of H+ during 2008 and 2009. The overestimation of ion density by IRI-2007 is found to vary with local time and longitude.

Klenzing, J. H.; Simoes, F.; Ivanov, S.; Pfaff, R. F.; Rowland, D. E.; Bilitza, D.; Heelis, R. A.

2011-01-01

74

Validation of IRI-2012 TEC model over Ethiopia during solar minimum (2009) and solar maximum (2013) phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the capacity of the latest version of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model in predicting the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) over Ethiopian regions during solar minimum (2009) and solar maximum (2013) phases. This has been carried out by comparing the IRI-2012 modeled and experimental vTEC inferred from eight ground based dual frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers installed recently at different regions of the country. In this work, the diurnal, monthly and seasonal variation in the measured vTEC have been analyzed and compared with the IRI-2012 modeled vTEC. During the solar minimum phase, the lowest and highest diurnal peak of the experimental vTEC are observed in July and October, respectively. In general, the diurnal variability of vTEC has shown minimum values around 0300 UT (0600 LT) and maximum values between around 1000 and 1300 UT (1300 and 1600 LT) during both solar activity phases. Moreover, the maximum and minimum monthly and seasonal mean hourly vTEC values are observed in October and July and in the March equinox and June solstice, respectively. It is also shown that the IRI-2012-model better predicts the diurnal vTEC in the time interval of about 0000-0300 UT (0300-0600 LT) during the solar minimum phase. However, the model generally overestimates the diurnal vTEC except in the time interval of about 0900-1500 UT (1200-1800 LT) during the solar maximum phase. The overall result of this work shows that the diurnal vTEC prediction performance of the model is generally better during the solar minimum phase than during solar maximum phase. Regarding the monthly and seasonal prediction capacity of the model, there is a good agreement between the modeled and measured monthly and seasonal mean hourly vTEC values in January and December solstice, respectively. Another result of the work depicts that unlike the GPS-TEC the IRI-2012 TEC does not respond to the effect resulted from geomagnetic storms.

Asmare, Yekoye; Kassa, Tsegaye; Nigussie, Melessew

2014-06-01

75

Ultrasonic corona sensor study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objective of this program is to determine the feasibility of using ultrasonic (above 20 kHz) corona detection techniques to detect low order (non-arcing) coronas in varying degrees of vacuum within large high vacuum test chambers, and to design, fabricate, and deliver a prototype ultrasonic corona sensor.

Harrold, R. T.

1976-01-01

76

Structure and Dynamics of the 2009 July 22 Eclipse White-light Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The white-light corona (WLC) during the total solar eclipse of 2009 July 22 was observed by several teams in the Moon's shadow stretching from India and China across the Pacific Ocean with its many isolated islands. We present a comparison of the WLC as observed by eclipse teams located in China (Shanghai region) and on the Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, with observations taken 112 minutes apart, combined with near-simultaneous space observations. The eclipse was observed at the beginning of solar cycle 24, during a deep solar minimum (officially estimated as 2008 December according to the smoothed sunspot number, but very extended). The solar corona shows several different types of features (coronal holes, polar rays, helmet streamers, faint loops, voids, etc.), though it was extremely sparse in streamers as shown from Large-Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph data. No large-scale dynamical phenomena were seen when comparing the observations from the two sites, confirming that the corona was quiescent. We measure a Ludendorff flattening coefficient of 0.238, typical of solar minimum.

Pasachoff, J. M.; Rušin, V.; Saniga, M.; Druckmüllerová, H.; Babcock, B. A.

2011-11-01

77

DECLINE AND RECOVERY OF THE INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD DURING THE PROTRACTED SOLAR MINIMUM  

SciTech Connect

The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is determined by the amount of solar magnetic flux that passes through the top of the solar corona into the heliosphere, and by the dynamical evolution of that flux. Recently, it has been argued that the total flux of the IMF evolves over the solar cycle due to a combination of flux that extends well outside of 1 AU and is associated with the solar wind, and additionally, transient flux associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In addition to the CME eruption rate, there are three fundamental processes involving conversion of magnetic flux (from transient to wind-associated), disconnection, and interchange reconnection that control the levels of each form of magnetic flux in the interplanetary medium. This is distinct from some earlier models in which the wind-associated component remains steady across the solar cycle. We apply the model of Schwadron et al. that quantifies the sources, interchange, and losses of magnetic flux to 50 yr of interplanetary data as represented by the Omni2 data set using the sunspot number as a proxy for the CME eruption rate. We do justify the use of that proxy substitution. We find very good agreement between the predicted and observed interplanetary magnetic flux. In the absence of sufficient CME eruptions, the IMF falls on the timescale of ?6 yr. A key result is that rising toroidal flux resulting from CME eruption predates the increase in wind-associated IMF.

Smith, Charles W.; Schwadron, Nathan A. [Physics Department, Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire (United States); DeForest, Craig E., E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu, E-mail: N.Schwadron@unh.edu, E-mail: DeForest@Boulder.SwRI.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, Colorado (United States)

2013-09-20

78

Chromospheric Signatures of the Subdued Cycle 23/24 Solar Minimum in Microwaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coronal holes appear brighter than the quiet Sun in microwave images, with a brightness enhancement of 500 to 2000 K. The brightness enhancement corresponds to the upper chromosphere, where the plasma temperature is about 10000 K. We constructed a microwave butterfly diagram using the synoptic images obtained by the Nobeyama radio-heliograph (NoRH) showing the evolution of the polar and low latitude brightness temperature. While the polar brightness reveals the chromospheric conditions, the low latitude brightness is attributed to active regions in the corona. When we compared the microwave butterfly diagram with the magnetic butterfly diagram, we found a good correlation between the microwave brightness enhancement and the polar field strength. The microwave butterfly diagram covers part of solar cycle 22, whole of cycle 23, and part of cycle 24, thus enabling comparison between the cycle 23/24 and cycle 22/23 minima. The microwave brightness during the cycle 23/24 minimum was found to be lower than that during the cycle 22/23 minimum by approx.250 K. The reduced brightness temperature is consistent with the reduced polar field strength during the cycle 23/24 minimum seen in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We suggest that the microwave brightness at the solar poles is a good indicator of the speed of the solar wind sampled by Ulysses at high latitudes.

Yashiro, S.; Makela, P.; Shibasaki, K.; Hathaway, D.

2011-01-01

79

Polar Chromospheric Signatures of the Subdued Cycle 23/24 Solar Minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coronal holes appear brighter than the quiet Sun in microwave images, with a brightness enhancement of 500 to 2000 K. The brightness enhancement corresponds to the upper chromosphere, where the plasma temperature is about 10000 K. We constructed a microwave butterfly diagram using the synoptic images obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph (NoRH) showing the evolution of the polar and low latitude brightness temperature. While the polar brightness reveals the chromospheric conditions, the low latitude brightness is attributed to active regions in the corona. When we compared the microwave butterfly diagram with the magnetic butterfly diagram, we found a good correlation between the microwave brightness enhancement and the polar field strength. The microwave butterfly diagram covers part of solar cycle 22, whole of cycle 23, and part of cycle 24, thus enabling comparison between the cycle 23/24 and cycle 22/23 minima. The microwave brightness during the cycle 23/24 minimum was found to be lower than that during the cycle 22/23 minimum by approximately 250 K. The reduced brightness temperature is consistent with the reduced polar field strength during the cycle 23/24 minimum seen in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We suggest that the microwave brightness at the solar poles is a good indicator of the speed of the solar wind sampled by Ulysses at high latitudes.

Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.; Makela, P.; Shibasaki, K.; Hathaway, D.

2010-01-01

80

Observation of F region irregularities near a northern equatorial anomaly crest during solar minimum using ionosonde, GPS receiver, and satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For solar minimum, the spread F, GPS phase fluctuations, and plasma bubbles near the crest of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) are simultaneously analyzed to investigate F region irregularities for the first time. The data were observed using the Chungli ionosonde, YMSM GPS receiver, and DMSP satellites during 1996. It is found that in the observed ionograms, the frequency spread F (FSF) usually comes after the range spread F (RSF) in a series of nighttime spread F events. This results in that the maximum occurrence of RSF appears before that of FSF in the nighttime variations in occurrence probabilities. Moreover, the seasonal variation for RSF is close to that for FSF. Both have a board maximum in the J-months and a secondary maximum in December. These indicate that RSF and FSF should be regarded as one type of spread F, which is the all spread F (ASF) in this study. Because the equatorial plasma bubbles occur infrequently during solar minimum, the F region irregularities forming ASF are not related to the equatorial spread F. On the other hand, the similarity in seasonal occurrence between ASF and medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) demonstrates that the F region irregularities near the EIA crest are mainly generated by the gradient drift instability driven by MSTIDs. The irregularities, generated by MSTIDs, mostly occur in the bottom side of the F region. Consequently, the events of significant GPS phase fluctuations and plasma bubble near the EIA crest are rare during 1996.

Lee, C.-C.; Chen, W. S.; Chu, F. D.

2013-06-01

81

Temperature structure of the quiet Sun X ray corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We characterize the soft X ray solar corona in terms of the physical parameters of density and temperature derived from the Soft X ray Telescope on board the Yohkoh satellite for the period of solar minimum covered by the Whole Sun Month coordinated campaign. In particular, we concentrate on August 18, 1996, a day with no major active regions on the solar disk, to provide data for comparison with other instruments taking part in this campaign. The density is found to decrease with height along all radial lines in the solar corona. These radial lines span a number of distinct structures, including a well-defined helmet streamer in the northwest quadrant. The radial variation of the temperature is far more complex, displaying a variety of forms. To provide a theoretical context for these observations, we investigate two distinctly different heating models. For regions of the corona in which the temperature increases with height we apply an inward heat flux model to describe the heating. A mechanical energy flux model is assumed to heat the coronal regions in which the temperature displays a maximum at a given height. For each of the models discussed, the results are consistent with those found in previous studies of a similar nature.

Alexander, David

1999-05-01

82

Quiet-time variations of F2-layer parameters at Jicamarca and comparison with IRI-2001 during solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze Jicamarca ionograms to study the quiet-condition variations in the peak electron density (NmF2), its height (hmF2), and F2-layer thickness parameter (B0) of the equatorial F2 layer during solar minimum. The sunrise peak is found in hmF2 and B0 for all months. During daytime and nighttime, the variation in the hmF2 value is mainly responsible for that in NmF2 and B0. The sunset peaks of hmF2 and B0 exist in the equinoctial months, but not in the winter months. Moreover, the observed values of hmF2, NmF2, and B0 are generally similar to the modeled values of IRI-2001.

Lee, C. C.; Reinisch, B. W.; Su, S.-Y.; Chen, W. S.

2008-01-01

83

Westward traveling planetary wave events in the lower thermosphere during solar minimum conditions simulated by SD-WACCM-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present numerical simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, eXtended version (WACCM-X), whose dynamics is constrained by atmospheric specifications during recent and historical solar minimum conditions. The focus of this study is to describe how various dynamical conditions of boreal winter affect the dynamical behavior of the lower thermosphere (90-150 km). The model simulations are carried out during solar minimum conditions and the results shown here discuss the period January 1-March 30 for five years (1995, 1996, 2008, 2009, and 2010). These years were selected because they include boreal winters without stratospheric warming (1995 and 1996), with modest or normal stratospheric warming (2008 and 2010), and with a large and persistent stratospheric warming (2009). The ultimate goal of this study is to encapsulate the statistically significant dynamical behavior due to westward propagating, planetary-scale waves (wavenumber 1 and wavenumber 2) in the lower thermosphere that are associated with different stratospheric conditions. To this end we show that the westward zonal acceleration above about 80 km is by and large described by traveling waves with periods between 2 and 10 days. We show that the momentum carried by these waves is unlikely to affect directly the momentum budget of the extra-tropical lower thermosphere, where instead gravity-wave drag figures prominently. However, at the times leading to and following large stratospheric disturbances, we show prominent meridional propagation of wave activity from the mid-latitudes toward the tropics. In combination with strong eastward meridional wind shear, our results provide further evidence that such equatorward propagation of momentum in the lower thermosphere might influence the amplitude of equatorially trapped tides.

Sassi, Fabrizio; Liu, Han-Li

2014-11-01

84

Exospheric hydrogen density distributions for equinox and summer solstice observed with TWINS1/2 during solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lyman-? Detectors (LAD) on board the two TWINS 1/2-satellites allow for the simultaneous stereo imaging of the resonant emission glow of the H-geocorona from very different orbital positions. Terrestrial exospheric atomic hydrogen (H) resonantly scatters solar Lyman-? (121.567 nm) radiation. During the past solar minimum, relevant solar parameters that influence these emissions were quite stable. Here, we use simultaneous LAD1/2-observations from TWINS1 and TWINS2 between June 2008 and June 2010 to study seasonal variations in the H-geocorona. Data are combined to produce two datasets containing (summer) solstice and (combined spring and fall) equinox emissions. In the range from 3 to 10 Earth radii (RE), a three-dimensional (3-D) mathematical model is used that allows for density asymmetries in longitude and latitude. At lower geocentric distances (< 3 RE), a best fitting r-dependent (Chamberlain, 1963)-like model is adapted to enable extrapolation of our information to lower heights. We find that dawn and dusk H-geocoronal densities differ by up to a factor of 1.3 with higher densities on the dawn side. Also, noon densities are greater by up to a factor of 2 compared to the dawn and dusk densities. The density profiles are aligned well with the Earth-Sun line and there are clear density depletions over both poles that show additional seasonal effects. These solstice and equinox empirical fits can be used to determine H-geocoronal densities for any day of the year for solar minimum conditions.

Zoennchen, J. H.; Nass, U.; Fahr, H. J.

2013-03-01

85

Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery  

MedlinePLUS

... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery Preface Over the past ...

86

Polar cap ionosphere and thermosphere during the solar minimum period: EISCAT Svalbard radar observations and GCM simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IPY long-run data were obtained from the European Incoherent Scatter Svalbard radar (ESR) observations during March 2007 and February 2008. Since the solar and geomagnetic activities were quite low during the period, this data set is extremely helpful for describing the basic states (ground states) of the thermosphere and ionosphere in the polar cap region. The monthly-averaged ion temperatures for 12 months show similar local time (or UT) variations to each other. The ion temperatures also show significant seasonal variations. The amplitudes of the local time and seasonal variations observed are much larger than the ones predicted by the IRI-2007 model. In addition, we performed numerical simulations with a general circulation model (GCM), which covers all the atmospheric regions, to investigate variations of the neutrals in the polar thermosphere. The GCM simulations show significant variations of the neutral temperature in the polar region in comparison with the NRLMSISE-00 empirical model. These results indicate that both the ions and neutrals would show larger variations than those described by the empirical models, suggesting significant heat sources in the polar cap region even under solar minimum and geomagnetically quiet conditions.

Fujiwara, H.; Nozawa, S.; Maeda, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Jin, H.; Shinagawa, H.; Terada, K.

2012-06-01

87

Wind in the Solar Corona: Dynamics and Composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the solar corona as observed during solar minimum with the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer, UVCS, on SOHO is discussed. The large quiescent coronal streamers existing during this phase of the solar cycle are very likely composed by sub-streamers, formed by closed loops and separated by open field lines that are channelling a slow plasma that flows close to the heliospheric current sheet. The polar coronal holes, with magnetic topology significantly varying from their core to their edges, emit fast wind in their central region and slow wind close to the streamer boundary. The transition from fast to slow wind then appears to be gradual in the corona, in contrast with the sharp transition between the two wind regimes observed in the heliosphere. It is suggested that speed, abundance and kinetic energy of the wind are modulated by the topology of the coronal magnetic field. Energy deposition occurs both in the slow and fast wind but its effect on the kinetic temperature and expansion rate is different for the slow and fast wind.

Antonucci, Ester

2006-06-01

88

Solar origins of solar wind properties during the cycle 23 solar minimum and rising phase of cycle 24  

PubMed Central

The solar wind was originally envisioned using a simple dipolar corona/polar coronal hole sources picture, but modern observations and models, together with the recent unusual solar cycle minimum, have demonstrated the limitations of this picture. The solar surface fields in both polar and low-to-mid-latitude active region zones routinely produce coronal magnetic fields and related solar wind sources much more complex than a dipole. This makes low-to-mid latitude coronal holes and their associated streamer boundaries major contributors to what is observed in the ecliptic and affects the Earth. In this paper we use magnetogram-based coronal field models to describe the conditions that prevailed in the corona from the decline of cycle 23 into the rising phase of cycle 24. The results emphasize the need for adopting new views of what is ‘typical’ solar wind, even when the Sun is relatively inactive.

Luhmann, Janet G.; Petrie, Gordon; Riley, Pete

2012-01-01

89

Current Sheets in the Corona and the Complexity of Slow Wind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of the slow solar wind has long been one of the most important problems in solar/heliospheric physics. Two observational constraints make this problem especially challenging. First, the slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, unlike the fast wind that originates on open field lines. Second, the slow wind has substantial angular extent, of order 30 degrees, which is much larger than the widths observed for streamer stalks or the widths expected theoretically for a dynamic heliospheric current sheet. We propose that the slow wind originates from an intricate network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that emanate from the polar coronal hole regions. Using topological arguments, we show that these corridors must be ubiquitous in the solar corona. The total solar eclipse in August 2008, near the lowest point of cycle 23 affords an ideal opportunity to test this theory by using the ultra-high resolution Predictive Science's (PSI) eclipse model for the corona and wind. Analysis of the PSI eclipse model demonstrates that the extent and scales of the open-field corridors can account for both the angular width of the slow wind and its closed-field composition. We discuss the implications of our slow wind theory for the structure of the corona and heliosphere at solar minimum and describe further observational and theoretical tests.

Antiochos, Spiro

2010-01-01

90

Thermal structure and dynamics of the Martian upper atmosphere at solar minimum from global circulation model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of the Martian upper atmosphere have been produced from a self-consistent three-dimensional numerical model of the Martian thermosphere and ionosphere, called MarTIM. It covers an altitude range of 60 km to the upper thermosphere, usually at least 250 km altitude. A radiation scheme is included that allows the main sources of energy input, EUV/UV and IR absorption by CO2 and CO, to be calculated. CO2, N2 and O are treated as the major gases in MarTIM, and are mutually diffused (though neutral chemistry is ignored). The densities of other species (the minor gases), CO, Ar, O2 and NO, are based on diffusive equilibrium above the turbopause. The ionosphere is calculated from a simple photoionisation and charge exchange routine though in this paper we will only consider the thermal and dynamic structure of the neutral atmosphere at solar minimum conditions. The semi-diurnal (2,2) migrating tide, introduced at MarTIM's lower boundary, affects the dynamics up to 130 km. The Mars Climate Database (Lewis et al., 2001) can be used as a lower boundary in MarTIM. The effect of this is to increase wind speeds in the thermosphere and to produce small-scale structures throughout the thermosphere. Temperature profiles are in good agreement with Pathfinder results. Wind velocities are slightly lower compared to analysis of MGS accelerometer data (Withers, 2003). The novel step-by-step approach of adding in new features to MarTIM has resulted in further understanding of the drivers of the Martian thermosphere.

Moffat-Griffin, T.; Aylward, A. D.; Nicholson, W.

2007-11-01

91

Variation of the Schwabe Cycle Length During the Grand Solar Minimum in the 4th Century BC Deduced from Radiocarbon Content in Tree Rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar activity alternates between active and quiet phases with an average period of 11 years, and this is known as the Schwabe cycle. Additionally, solar activity occasionally falls into a prolonged quiet phase (grand solar minimum), as represented by the Maunder Minimum in the 17th century, when sunspots were almost absent for 70 years and the length of the Schwabe cycle increased to 14 years. To examine the consistency of the cycle length characteristics during the grand solar minima, the carbon-14 contents in single-year tree rings were measured using an accelerator mass spectrometer as an index of the solar variability during the grand solar minimum of the 4th century BC. The signal of the Schwabe cycle was detected with a statistical confidence level of higher than 95 % by wavelet analysis. This is the oldest evidence for the Schwabe cycle at the present time, and the cycle length is considered to have increased to approximately 16 years during the grand solar minimum of the 4th century BC. This result confirms the association between the increase of the Schwabe cycle length and the weakening of solar activity, and indicates the possible prolonged absence of sunspots in the 4th century BC as during the Maunder Minimum. Theoretical implications from solar dynamo theory are discussed in order to identify the trigger of prolonged sunspot absence. A possible association between the long-term solar variation around the 4th century BC and terrestrial cooling in this period is also discussed.

Nagaya, K.; Kitazawa, K.; Miyake, F.; Masuda, K.; Muraki, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Miyahara, H.; Matsuzaki, H.

2012-09-01

92

Corotating interaction regions and the 27 day variation of galactic cosmic rays intensity at 1 AU during the cycle 23/24 solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the formation and evolution of corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in the solar wind and their effects on galactic cosmic rays (GCR) during the recent solar cycle 23/24 solar minimum. The output from a three-dimensional MHD model serves as background for kinetic time-dependent simulations of GCR transport based on the Parker equation. The results show that the CIR forward/reverse shock pairs or compression/rarefaction regions play important roles in the transport of GCR particles and directly control the observed 27 day periodic intensity variations. We find that stream interfaces (SIs) in CIRs and the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) are both closely associated with the GCR depression onset, in agreement with the observations at 1 AU. The HCS is more important when its tilt angle becomes small during the declining phase of the solar minimum, while the passages of SIs control the onset of GCR depressions for larger HCS tilt angles. The mechanism of GCR intensity variation near 1 AU can be explained through an interplay between the effects of particle drift and diffusion. The simulated plasma background and GCR intensity are compared with the observations from spacecraft and a neutron monitor on the ground, to find good qualitative agreement. Evidently, CIRs had a substantial modulational effect on GCR during the recent solar minimum.

Guo, X.; Florinski, V.

2014-04-01

93

Corona in switching power supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design literature for dealing with corona in switching power supplies for aircraft or in lamp ballasts does not contain the effects of the switching frequency on corona inception or extinguish voltages. Test data is presented showing these effects. Design techniques for corona are also discussed

A. Brockschmidt

1997-01-01

94

Line transients with corona  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the effect of corona on the electromagnetic transients along high voltage overhead lines. A method is presented to simulate the line by dividing it into a number of sections connected in cascade. For {ital n} line sections, the number of the unknown variables is 2{ital n} + 1. The method allows any waveform of the exciting voltage function, as well as any impedance loading condition. The corona is represented by voltage-dependent shunt current sources. A systematic way for writing a sufficient number of differential equations is shown. For their solution, a digital computer subroutine based on the Runge--Kutta--Verner method was used. An artificial frequency-dependent damping by means of linear resistors was used to suppress the Gibb's oscillations in the solution. The proposed method is applied to study the transients on a 40 km high voltage line with 30-ft flat phase spacing and a single 1.4 inch ACSR conductor per phase. The exciting voltage has a double-exponential impulse waveform. Solutions are given for three values of resistive loads Z{sub {ital c}}2Z{sub {ital c}} and Z{sub {ital c}}/2, where Z{sub {ital c}} is the line surge impedance. The results of two interesting cases of inductive and capacitive loads are also given. Physical interpretations for the different solutions are given. Also, the current-voltage duality between inductive and capacitive loads is recognized. The corona was found to attenuate and distort the travelling waves. For example, during one wave excursion, the reduction of the current wave peaks can reach values as high as 8.5%. The effect is more noticeable in the current than in the voltage waves. As expected, it increases also with the line corona losses. The effect of the increase of the line effective capacitance due to the corona discharge is also demonstrated.

Saied, M.M.; Safar, Y.A.; Salama, M.H. (Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait))

1987-01-01

95

Magnetic Clouds at/near the 2007 - 2009 Solar Minimum: Frequency of Occurrence and Some Unusual Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic clouds (MCs) have been identified for the period 2007 - 2009 (at/near the recent solar minimum) from Wind data, then confirmed through MC parameter fitting using a force-free model. A dramatic increase in the frequency of occurrence of these events took place from the two early years of 2007 (with five MCs) and 2008 (one MC) compared to 2009 (12 MCs). This pattern approximately mirrors the occurrence-frequency profile that was observed over a three-year interval 12 years earlier, with eight events in 1995, four in 1996, and 17 in 1997, but decreased overall by a factor of 0.62 in number. However, the average estimated axial field strength [<| B O|>] taken over all of the 18 events of 2007 - 2009 (called the “recent period” here) was only 11.0 nT, whereas <| B O|> for the 29 events of 1995 - 1997 (called the “earlier period”) was 16.5 nT. This 33% average drop in <| B O|> is more or less consistent with the decreased three-year average interplanetary magnetic field intensity between these two periods, which shows a 23% drop. In the earlier period, the MCs were clearly of mixed types but predominantly of the South-to-North type, whereas those in the recent period are almost exclusively the North-to-South type; this change is consistent with global solar field changes predicted by Bothmer and Rust ( Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 99, 139, 1997). As we have argued in earlier work (Lepping and Wu, J. Geophys. Res. 112, A10103, 2007), this change should make it possible to carry out (accurate short-term) magnetic storm forecasting by predicting the latter part of an MC from the earlier part, using a good MC parameter-fitting model with real-time data from a spacecraft at L1, for example. The recent set’s average duration is 15.2 hours, which is a 27% decrease compared to that of the earlier set, which had an average duration of 20.9 hours. In fact, all physical aspects of the recent MC set are shown to drop with respect to the earlier set; e.g., as well as the average internal magnetic field drop, the recent set had a somewhat low average speed of 379 km s-1 (5% drop), and the average diameter had a 24% drop. Hence, compared to the earlier set, the recent set consists of events that are smaller, slightly slower, and weaker in every respect (and fewer in number), but in a relative sense the two three-year sets have similar frequency-of-occurrence profiles. It is also interesting that the two sets have almost the same average axial inclinations, i.e., axial latitude ?31° (in GSE). These MC characteristics are compared to relevant solar features and their changes. A preliminary assessment of the statistics on possible shocks and pressure pulses upstream of these recent MCs yields the following: About 28% of the MCs, at most, had shocks, and 33% had shocks and/or pressure pulses. These are low values, since typically the percentage of cases with shocks is about 50%, and the percentage with shocks and/or pressure pulses is usually about 75%.

Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.-C.; Berdichevsky, D. B.; Szabo, A.

2011-12-01

96

Diurnal tide in the low-latitude troposphere and stratosphere: Long-term trends and role of the extended solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, long-term trends in the diurnal tide in the troposphere and stratosphere over a tropical station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) are investigated using ERA-Interim wind and temperature products available since 1979. Suitability of the ERA-Interim data for the present study is ascertained using simultaneous radiosonde and MST radar observations over Gadanki and good consistency was found between the two. In general, diurnal tide amplitudes are found to increase from troposphere to stratosphere, as expected. Amplitude of the diurnal tide shows a long-term linear increasing trend, which becomes prominent in the stratosphere. Interestingly, convection over Gadanki also exhibits an increasing trend suggesting that they are related. Role of solar cycle on the diurnal tide is investigated by separating the tidal amplitudes during minimum and maximum of solar cycles 21, 22 and 23. Significantly higher amplitudes in the recent extended solar minimum are noticed though no consistent relation is found between solar activity and tides, in general. These results are discussed in the light of role of convection on the generation of the diurnal tide and their propagation to the higher altitudes, coupling lower and middle atmospheres. Special emphasis is made on the observed large amplitudes of the diurnal tide in the extended solar minimum while relating the observed changes to the background circulation.

Ratnam, M. Venkat; Rao, N. Venkateswara; Vedavathi, C.; Murthy, B. V. Krishna; Bhaskara Rao, S. Vijaya

2014-12-01

97

Corona chemistry in Titan.  

PubMed

The atmosphere of Titan is constantly bombarded by galactic cosmic rays and Saturnian magnetospheric electrons causing the formation of free electrons and primary ions, which are then stabilized by ion cluster formation and charging of aerosols. These charged particles accumulate in drops in cloud regions of the troposphere. Their abundance can substantially increase by friction, fragmentation or collisions during convective activity. Charge separation occurs with help of convection and gravitational settling leading to development of electric fields within the cloud and between the cloud and the ground. Neutralization of these charged particles leads to corona discharges which are characterized by low current densities. We have therefore, experimentally studied the corona discharge of a simulated Titan's atmosphere (10% methane and 2% argon in nitrogen) at 500 Torr and 298 K by GC-FTIR-MS techniques. The main products have been identified as hydrocarbons (ethane, ethyne, ethene, propane, propene+propyne, cyclopropane, butane, 2-methylpropane, 2-methylpropene, n-butane, 2-butene, 2,2-dimethylpropane, 2-methylbutane, 2-methylbutene, n-pentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, n-hexane, 2,2-dimethylhexane, 2,2-dimethylpentane, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, 2,3-dimethylpentane and n-heptane), nitriles (hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen, ethanenitrile, propanenitrile, 2-methylpropanenitrile and butanenitrile) and a highly branched hydrocarbon deposit. We present the trends of hydrocarbons and nitriles formation as a function of discharge time in an ample interval and have derived their initial yields of formation. The results clearly demonstrate that a complex organic chemistry can be initiated by corona processes in the lower atmosphere. Although photochemistry and charged particle chemistry occurring in the stratosphere can account for many of the observed hydrocarbon species in Titan, the predicted abundance of ethene is too low by a factor of 10 to 40. While some ethene will be produced by charged-particle chemistry, the production of ethene by corona processes and its subsequent diffusion into the stratosphere appears to be an adequate source. Because little UV penetrates to the lower atmosphere to destroy the molecules formed there, the corona-produced species may be long-lived and contribute significantly to the composition of the lower atmosphere and surface. PMID:11541887

Navarro-Gonzalez, R; Ramirez, S I; Matrajt, G; Basiuk, V; Basiuk, E

1998-06-01

98

Post-midnight low-latitude ionospheric irregularities during solar minimum observed simultaneously with probes on the C/NOFS satellite and the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the launch of Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, post-midnight plasma density irregularities have frequently been detected in the low-latitude region during the present solar minimum period. Using the 47-MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) in West Sumatra, Indonesia (10.36oS dip latitude), it is shown that the post-midnight irregularities observed with the EAR are different from standard irregularities typically observed near the magnetic equator but instead, are quite similar to those observed with the MU radar in midlatitude (29.3oN dip latitude). Utilizing rapid beam-steering capability of the EAR, it is found that their tilted spatial structures are the same as medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) which are frequently observed in midlatitude, and they usually propagate westward as opposed to typical plasma depletions that propagate eastward observed in the post-sunset period, for example during solar maximum. The zonal and meridional E × B drift velocities measured by C/NOFS are consistent with the westward propagation of backscatter echoes and the line-of-sight Doppler velocities observed with the EAR, respectively. The density structures and EAR echo intensity do not show a clear correlation, but some echoes are observed at the edge of density depletions, which may be a manifestation of a secondary E × B instability to produce 3-m scale irregularities. During solar minimum, the nighttime zonal drift could be reversed from eastward to westward with increasing altitude because of very low Pedersen conductivity in the F region, which could explain the high occurrence of midlatitude-type irregularities in the low-latitude region which is connected with the topside equatorial ionosphere.

Yokoyama, T.; Pfaff, R. F.; Roddy, P. A.; Yamamoto, M.; Otsuka, Y.

2010-12-01

99

Ultraviolet corona detection sensor study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of detecting electrical corona discharge phenomena in a space simulation chamber via emission of ultraviolet light was evaluated. A corona simulator, with a hemispherically capped point to plane electrode geometry, was used to generate corona glows over a wide range of pressure, voltage, current, electrode gap length and electrode point radius. Several ultraviolet detectors, including a copper cathode gas discharge tube and a UV enhanced silicon photodiode detector, were evaluated in the course of the spectral intensity measurements. The performance of both silicon target vidicons and silicon intensified target vidicons was evaluated analytically using the data generated by the spectroradiometer scans and the performance data supplied by the manufacturers.

Schmitt, R. J.; MATHERN

1976-01-01

100

MESSENGER Observations of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in the Solar Corona from Faraday Rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the declining phase of the longest solar minimum in a century, the arrival of the MESSENGER spacecraft at superior conjunction allowed the measurement of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the solar corona with its 8 GHz radio frequency signal. MHD waves crossing the line of sight were measured via Faraday rotation fluctuations (FRFs) in the plane of polarization (PP) of MESSENGER's signal. FRFs in previous observations of the solar corona (at greater offset distances) consisted of a turbulent spectrum that decreased in power with increasing frequency and distance from the Sun. Occasionally a spectral line, a distinct peak in the power spectral density spectrum around 4 to 8 mHz, was also observed in these early data sets at offset distances of about 5 to 10 solar radii. The MESSENGER FRF data set shows a spectral line at an offset distance between 1.55 to 1.85 solar radii with a frequency of 0.6±0.2 mHz. Other possible spectral lines may be at 1.2, 1.7, and 4.5 mHz; MHD waves with these same frequencies have been observed in X-ray data traveling along closed coronal loops at lower offset distances. An initial analysis of the MESSENGER spectral line(s) shows behavior similar to turbulent spectra: decreasing power with increasing frequency and distance from the Sun. Here we detail the steps taken to process the MESSENGER change in PP data set for the MHD wave investigation.

Jensen, E. A.; Nolan, M.; Bisi, M. M.; Chashei, I.; Vilas, F.

2013-07-01

101

Photometry of R Coronae Borealis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visual and photoelectric observations of R Coronae Borealis are presented, including a number of observations surrounding the 1974 minimum. The recent visual history of the variable is examined and the discrete cloud obscuration model is considered.

Dawson, D. W.; Tedesco, E. F.

1976-01-01

102

Topographic Corona Gravity Survey Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present estimates for elastic and crustal thickness obtained from a gravity survey of Venusian topographic coronae, and characterize advantages and disadvantages for generating spectral admittance. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Comstock, R. L.; Smrekar, S. E.; Anderson, F. S.

2001-01-01

103

Corona Discharge Influence on Moulds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the electric discharge has bacteriocid effect. We are interesting on influence of corona discharge on moulds and searching for it's fungicide effect. In this work we study the mould penicillium digitatum by using an easy apparatus, where may be situated two measured samples. One in the burning corona discharge and one in the area with ozone generated by this corona only. We expose the spores of penicillium digitatum on a metal plate and on a cultivating medium on cca 0.01mA, 5kV corona discharge and on generated ozone only for time cca two days. It is the time needed for sprouting of spores and growing of they to a visible size. The pilot results show, that the ozone generated by the corona discharge has none or very low influence on the sprouting and growing of the spores. Direct corona discharge inhibit the sprouting only, but does not kill the spores. In next experiments we will try to find some minimum inhibit and killing concentration of ozone and try to expose the sprout inhibition.

Scholtz, Vladimir

2004-09-01

104

Survey of the spectral properties of turbulence in the solar wind, the magnetospheres of Venus and Earth, at solar minimum and maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the European FP7 project STORM ("Solar system plasma Turbulence: Observations, inteRmittency and Multifractals") we analyze the properties of turbulence in various regions of the solar system, for the minimum and respectively maximum of the solar activity. The main scientific objective of STORM is to advance the understanding of the turbulent energy transfer, intermittency and multifractals in space plasmas. Specific analysis methods are applied on magnetic field and plasma data provided by Ulysses, Venus Express and Cluster, as well as other solar system missions (e.g. Giotto, Cassini). In this paper we provide an overview of the spectral properties of turbulence derived from Power Spectral Densities (PSD) computed in the solar wind (from Ulysses, Cluster, Venus Express) and at the interface of planetary magnetospheres with the solar wind (from Venus Express, Cluster). Ulysses provides data in the solar wind between 1992 and 2008, out of the ecliptic, at radial distances ranging between 1.3 and 5.4 AU. We selected only those Ulysses data that satisfy a consolidated set of selection criteria able to identify "pure" fast and slow wind. We analyzed Venus Express data close to the orbital apogee, in the solar wind, at 0.72 AU, and in the Venus magnetosheath. We investigated Cluster data in the solar wind (for time intervals not affected by planetary ions effects), the magnetosheath and few crossings of other key magnetospheric regions (cusp, plasma sheet). We organize our PSD results in three solar wind data bases (one for the solar maximum, 1999-2001, two for the solar minimum, 1997-1998 and respectively, 2007-2008), and two planetary databases (one for the solar maximum, 2000-2001, that includes PSD obtained in the terrestrial magnetosphere, and one for the solar minimum, 2007-2008, that includes PSD obtained in the terrestrial and Venus magnetospheres and magnetosheaths). In addition to investigating the properties of turbulence for the minimum and maximum of the solar cycle we also analyze the spectral similarities and differences between fast and slow wind turbulence. We emphasize the importance of our data survey and analysis in the context of understanding the solar wind turbulence, the exploitation of data bases and as a first step towards developing a (virtual) laboratory for studying solar system plasma turbulence. Research supported by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 313038/STORM, and a grant of the Romanian Ministry of National Education, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-ID-PCE-2012-4-0418.

Echim, Marius M.

2014-05-01

105

Spectroscopic investigation of protein corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology has revolutionalized the landscape of modern science and technology, including materials, electronics, therapeutics, bioimaging, sensing, and the environment. Research in the past decade has examined the fate of nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo, as well as the interactions between nanoparticles and biological and ecosystems using primarily toxicological and ecotoxicological approaches. However, due to the versatility in the physical and physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, and due to the vast complexity of their hosting systems, the solubility, transformation, and biocompatibility of nanomaterials are still poorly understood. Nanotechnology has been undergoing tremendous development in recent decades, driven by realized perceived applications of nanomaterials in electronics, therapeutics, imaging, sensing, environmental remediation, and consumer products. Nanoparticles on entering the blood stream undergo an identity change, they become coated with proteins. There are different kind of proteins present in blood. Proteins compete for getting coated over the surface of nanoparticle and this whole entity of proteins coated over nanoparticle surface is called Protein Corona. Proteins tightly bound to the surface of nanoparticle form hard corona and the ones loosely bound on the outer surface form soft corona. This dissertation is aimed at spectroscopic investigation of Protein Corona. Chapter I of this dissertation offers a comprehensive review of the literature based on nanomaterials with the focus on carbon based nanomaterilas and introduction to Protein Corona. Chapter II is based different methods used for Graphene Synthesis,different types of defects and doping. In Chapter III influence of defects on Graphene Protein Corona was investigated. Chapter IV is based on the study of Apoptosis induced cell death by Gold and silver nanoparticles. In vitro study of effect of Protein Corona on toxicity of cells was done.

Choudhary, Poonam

106

Estimation of Galactic Cosmic Ray exposure inside and outside the Earth's magnetosphere during the recent solar minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evidently low solar activity observed between solar cycles 23 and 24 during the years 2008-2010 led to a substantial increase in the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) intensity in comparison with preceding solar minima. As the GCRs consist of highly-ionizing charged particles having the potential to cause biological damage, they are a subject of concern for manned missions to space. With the enhanced particle fluxes observed between 2008 and 2010, it is reasonable to assume that the radiation exposure from GCR must have also increased to unusually high levels. In this paper, the GCR exposure outside and inside the Earth's magnetosphere is numerically calculated for time periods starting from 1970 to the end of 2011 in order to investigate the increase in dose levels during the years 2008-2010 in comparison with the last three solar minima. The dose rates were calculated in a water sphere, used as a surrogate for the human body, either unshielded or surrounded by aluminium shielding of 0.3, 10 or 40 g/cm2. By performing such a long-term analysis, it was estimated that the GCR exposure during the recent solar minimum was indeed the largest in comparison with previous minima and that the increase was more pronounced for locations outside the magnetosphere.

Mrigakshi, Alankrita Isha; Matthiä, Daniel; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Günther; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

2013-09-01

107

Variations of the Levels of the Vlf/lf Radio Signals on the Middle-Latitude Traces during the Deep Solar Minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical characteristics of the levels of the VLF/LF radio signals from the different European radio stations are presented. The regular observations were been carried out by the test receiver Rohde & Shwarz ESH-3 on the geophysical observatory of IDG RAS Michnevo (54.94°N, 37.73°E) during the period of the deep solar minimum (2007-2009). The radio signals from the radio stations Le Blanc (France, 18.3 kHz), GBZ (Great Britain, 19.6 kHz), HBG (Switzerland, 75 kHz), DCF-77 (Germany, 77.5 kHz) and RBU (Russia, 66.6 kHz) have been chosen for the analysis. In the amplitudes of observable signals the diurnal variations, the seasonal and secular trends were observed. In spite of the absence of the external drivers from above the variations of the radio signal amplitude can obtain 5 - 20 dB and have duration of 2-3 hours. The obtained data can testify that processes from below can make independent strong impact on the ionosphere condition.

Zetzer, J. I.; Lyakhov, A.

2010-12-01

108

Variation of Solar ``11-year cycle'' during the grand solar minimum in the 4th century BC by measurement of 14C content in tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sunspot numbers, which reflect solar activity, have presented clear 11-year periodicity since the early 18th century. However in the period around 1645 to 1715 AD sunspots were almost absent, and this period is called the Maunder Minimum, one of grand solar minima implying weak solar activity. Variation of solar activity in grand solar minima can be investigated by determining the concentration of cosmogenic isotope 14C in annual tree rings. We obtained the 14C records of 1413 to 1745 AD including the Spoerer Minimum and the Maunder Minimum with annual time resolution. As a result of frequency analysis of these 14C records, we found that the cycle length of the "11-year cycle" during the Maunder Minimum was around 14 years while that during the Spoerer Minimum was around 11 years. This suggests that a pattern of the "11-year" cycle length variation depends on a type of minima classified by their duration of 14C increase. In order to verify this hypothesis, we have measured 14C content in Japanese camphor tree rings during a possible grand solar minimum in the 4th century BC. Preliminary result shows the solar cycle length was several years longer than 11 years, as in the Maunder Minimum.

Nagaya, K.; Kitazawa, K.; Masuda, K.; et al.

109

Quiet-time properties of low-energy (less than 10 MeV per nucleon) interplanetary ions during solar maximum and solar minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The abundances and spectra of 1-10 MeV per nucleon protons, He-3, He-4, C, O, and Fe have been exmained during solar quiet periods from 1978 to 1987 in an effort to investigate the recent suggestion by Wenzel et al. (1990) that the ions may be of solar origin. It is found that the intensities of the ions, other than O, fall by an order of magnitude between solar maximum and solar minimum, and that the greater than 1 MeV per nucleon ions exhibit weak streaming away from the sun. More significantly, the quiet-time ions during solar maximum have He-3-rich and Fe-rich abundances which are established characteristics of small impulsive solar flares. Thus, it is suggested that small unresolved impulsive flares make a substantial contribution to the 'quiet-time' fluxes. He-4 from these flares may also contribute strongly to the ion spectra that were reported for the 35-1600 keV energy range by Wenzel et al.

Richardson, I. G.; Reames, D. V.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.

1990-01-01

110

Insights into corona formation through statistical analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical analysis of an expanded database of coronae on Venus indicates that the populations of Type 1 (with fracture annuli) and 2 (without fracture annuli) corona diameters are statistically indistinguishable, and therefore we have no basis for assuming different formation mechanisms. Analysis of the topography and diameters of coronae shows that coronae that are depressions, rimmed depressions, and domes tend to be significantly smaller than those that are plateaus, rimmed plateaus, or domes with surrounding rims. This is consistent with the model of Smrekar and Stofan [1997] and inconsistent with predictions of the spreading drop model of Koch and Manga [1996]. The diameter range for domes, the initial stage of corona formation, provides a broad constraint on the buoyancy of corona-forming plumes. Coronae are only slightly more likely to be topographically raised than depressions, with Type 1 coronae most frequently occurring as rimmed depressions and Type 2 coronae most frequently occurring with flat interiors and raised rims. Most Type 1 coronae are located along chasmata systems or fracture belts, while Type 2 coronae are found predominantly as isolated features in the plains. Coronae at hot spot rises tend to be significantly larger than coronae in other settings, consistent with a hotter upper mantle at hot spot rises and their active state.

Glaze, L. S.; Stofan, E. R.; Smrekar, S. E.; Baloga, S. M.

2002-12-01

111

Insights into Corona Formation through Statistical Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical analysis of an expanded database of coronae on Venus indicates that the populations of Type 1 (with fracture annuli) and 2 (without fracture annuli) corona diameters are statistically indistinguishable, and therefore we have no basis for assuming different formation mechanisms. Analysis of the topography and diameters of coronae shows that coronae that are depressions, rimmed depressions, and domes tend to be significantly smaller than those that are plateaus, rimmed plateaus, or domes with surrounding rims. This is consistent with the model of Smrekar and Stofan and inconsistent with predictions of the spreading drop model of Koch and Manga. The diameter range for domes, the initial stage of corona formation, provides a broad constraint on the buoyancy of corona-forming plumes. Coronae are only slightly more likely to be topographically raised than depressions, with Type 1 coronae most frequently occurring as rimmed depressions and Type 2 coronae most frequently occuring with flat interiors and raised rims. Most Type 1 coronae are located along chasmata systems or fracture belts, while Type 2 coronas are found predominantly as isolated features in the plains. Coronae at hotspot rises tend to be significantly larger than coronae in other settings, consistent with a hotter upper mantle at hotspot rises and their active state.

Glaze, L. S.; Stofan, E. R.; Smrekar, S. E.; Baloga, S. M.

2002-01-01

112

Insights into Corona Formation Through Statistical Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical analysis of an expanded database of coronae on Venus indicates that the populations of Type 1 (with fracture annuli) and 2 (without fracture annuli) corona diameters are statistically indistinguishable, and therefore we have no basis for assuming different formation mechanisms. Analysis of the topography and diameters of coronae shows that coronae that are depressions, rimmed depressions, and domes tend to be significantly smaller than those that are plateaus, rimmed plateaus, or domes with surrounding rims. This is consistent with the model of Smrekar and Stofan and inconsistent with predictions of the spreading drop model of Koch and Munga. The diameter range for domes, the initial stage of corona formation, provides a broad constraint on the buoyancy of corona-forming plumes. Coronae are only slightly more likely to be topographically raised than depressions, with Type 1 coronae most frequently occurring as rimmed depressions and Type 2 coronae most frequently occurring with flat interiors and raised rims. Most Type 1 coronae are located along chasmata systems or fracture belts, while Type 2 coronae are found predominantly as isolated features in the plains. Coronae at hot spot rises tend to be significantly lager than coronae in other settings, consistent with a hotter upper mantle at hot spot rises and their active state.

Glaze, L. S.; Stofan, E. R.; Smrekar, S. E.; Baloga, S. M.

2002-01-01

113

Energy release in the solar corona from spatially resolved magnetic braids.  

PubMed

It is now apparent that there are at least two heating mechanisms in the Sun's outer atmosphere, or corona. Wave heating may be the prevalent mechanism in quiet solar periods and may contribute to heating the corona to 1,500,000?K (refs 1-3). The active corona needs additional heating to reach 2,000,000-4,000,000?K; this heat has been theoretically proposed to come from the reconnection and unravelling of magnetic 'braids'. Evidence favouring that process has been inferred, but has not been generally accepted because observations are sparse and, in general, the braided magnetic strands that are thought to have an angular width of about 0.2?arc seconds have not been resolved. Fine-scale braiding has been seen in the chromosphere but not, until now, in the corona. Here we report observations, at a resolution of 0.2?arc seconds, of magnetic braids in a coronal active region that are reconnecting, relaxing and dissipating sufficient energy to heat the structures to about 4,000,000?K. Although our 5-minute observations cannot unambiguously identify the field reconnection and subsequent relaxation as the dominant heating mechanism throughout active regions, the energy available from the observed field relaxation in our example is ample for the observed heating. PMID:23344359

Cirtain, J W; Golub, L; Winebarger, A R; De Pontieu, B; Kobayashi, K; Moore, R L; Walsh, R W; Korreck, K E; Weber, M; McCauley, P; Title, A; Kuzin, S; DeForest, C E

2013-01-24

114

WINDS IN CORONAE BOREALIS STARS Geoffrey Clayton,  

E-print Network

WINDS IN CORONAE BOREALIS STARS Geoffrey Clayton, 1 Geballe, Luciana Bianchi Received February accepted 2003 ABSTRACT present spectroscopic observations the i #10830 line Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars small group of hydrogen­deficient, carbon­rich supergiants

Bianchi, Luciana

115

Wave Form and Amplification of Corona Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corona forms on a round wire or cable when the voltage is raised to such a point that the voltage gradient near the wire is sufficiently high to break down the insulating properties of the air. The larger the wire the higher the voltage to cause corona. The corona is luminous and ionizes the air, giving it electrical conductiuity; thus

J. B. Whitehead; N. Inouye

1922-01-01

116

Some crucial corona and prominence observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of theories and hypotheses are currently being developed to explain the often complex behavior of corona and prominence plasmas. In order to test the theories and hypotheses certain crucial observations are necessary. Some of these observations are examined and a few conclusions are drawn. Corona mass balance, corona and prominence classifications, prominence formation and stability, and coronal mass ejection are dicussed.

Tandberg-Hanssen, E. A.

1986-01-01

117

Evolution of equatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles and formation of broad plasma depletions measured by the C/NOFS satellite during deep solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unexpected feature revealed by the measurements of the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite is the presence of broad plasma depletions in the midnight-dawn sector during deep solar minimum. It has not been well understood what causes the broad plasma depletions and how equatorial plasma bubbles are related to the broad depletions. In this paper we present the C/NOFS measurements of equatorial plasma bubbles and broad depletions in a few cases. The ion density perturbations and enhanced ion vertical velocity are first identified in the topside F region at ˜2200 LT, suggesting that the plasma bubbles start to form earlier at lower altitudes. The observations show that the plasma bubbles observed in the midnight-dawn sector may originate in the evening sector. The plasma bubbles continue growing for more than 3.3 h, and the decay time of the bubbles is also longer than 3.3 h. The continuous growth of the plasma bubbles in the evening sector and the slow decay after midnight determine that most plasma bubbles become fully developed and are easily detected in the midnight-dawn sector. The plasma flow inside the bubbles remains strongly upward throughout the entire nighttime. We propose the following mechanism for the generation of wide plasma bubbles and broad depletions. A series of plasma bubbles is generated through the Rayleigh-Taylor instability process over a large longitudinal range. These plasma bubbles grow and merge to form a wide bubble (width of ˜700 km as observed), and multiple regular and/or wide bubbles can further merge to form broad plasma depletions (thousands of kilometers in longitude). The ion vertical drift inside each plasma bubble is driven by the polarization electric field and remains large after the bubbles have merged. This mechanism provides a reasonable interpretation of the large upward ion drift velocity inside the broad depletion region.

Huang, Chao-Song; de La Beaujardiere, O.; Roddy, P. A.; Hunton, D. E.; Pfaff, R. F.; Valladares, C. E.; Ballenthin, J. O.

2011-03-01

118

Impact of tropospheric tides on the nitric oxide 5.3 ?m infrared cooling of the low-latitude thermosphere during solar minimum conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the impact of diurnal tides that begin near the surface as heat is released by evaporation and condensation on Earth's upper atmosphere natural thermostat: the nitric oxide (NO) infrared cooling of the thermosphere at 5.3 ?m. Equatorial NO volume emission rate measurements from 100 to 180 km made by Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on TIMED during the solar minimum year 2008 are analyzed on two important nonmigrating tides, the DE2 and DE3 components. DE3 (DE2) amplitudes maximize around 125 km altitude and, depending on season, are on the order of 0.18 (0.16) nW/m3. This represents a substantial modulation of the mean NO emission that maximizes in the same altitude range with a value of about 0.8 nW/m3. Tropospheric tides are therefore important not only for the dynamics and electrodynamics of the ionosphere-thermosphere system but also for modulating the thermospheric energy budget. Supporting photochemical tidal modeling indicates that the main tidal coupling mechanism is the temperature dependence of the collisional excitation of the NO (?=1) vibrational state. However, the response to vertical tidal advection is also important. It is in-phase with the response to temperature and contributes as much as 50% to the NO tides at and above the emission maximum. Neutral density tidal variations contribute about 25% but with a 9 h phase offset resulting in a net damping. These results imply that NO 5.3 ?m emissions are a suitable proxy for studying tidal dynamics in the thermosphere where no global temperature measurements are available.

Oberheide, J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Mosso, C. N.; Schroeder, B. M.; Funke, B.; Maute, A.

2013-11-01

119

Coronae of Mnemosyne Regio - Morphology and origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mnemosine Regio area of Venus contains seven of the circular-to-elliptical structures, characterized by an annulus of concentric ridges, that are known as 'coronae'. Several corona-origin models are presently considered, and it is found that the processes associated with diapirism or hot-spots, and the gravitational relaxation of high topography, are most consistent with the topography and morphology of these coronae. The sequence of the formation and evolution of the coronae proceeds from regional volcanic and tectonic activity, through localized uplift and volcanism, to annulus and trough formation related to gravitational relaxation, and finally local volcanic flooding of the corona, annulus, and trough.

Stofan, E. R.; Head, J. W.

1990-01-01

120

Interferometry of the e corona.  

PubMed

Descriptions are given of Fabry-Perot spectrometer systems used in the total eclipses of 1965, 1966, and 1970 to observe the emission lines 5303 A, Fe XIV and 6374 A, Fe x at different points in the solar corona. Some results of coronal temperature measurements for the 12 November 1966 eclipse are presented. PMID:20094331

Henderson, G

1970-12-01

121

LABORATORY ANALYSES OF CORONA DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses an experimental research program to characterize corona generation from different electrode geometries in a range of conditions comparable to those found in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A wire-parallel plate device and a wire-cylinder device were used t...

122

EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR CORONA DURING THE MINIMUM BETWEEN SOLAR CYCLES 23 AND 24  

SciTech Connect

The combination of differential emission measure tomography with extrapolation of the photospheric magnetic field allows determination of the electron density and electron temperature along individual magnetic field lines. This is especially useful in quiet-Sun (QS) plasmas where individual loops cannot otherwise be identified. In Paper I, this approach was applied to study QS plasmas during Carrington rotation (CR) 2077 at the minimum between solar cycles (SCs) 23 and 24. In that work, two types of QS coronal loops were identified: ''up'' loops in which the temperature increases with height, and ''down'' loops in which the temperature decreases with height. While the first ones were expected, the latter ones were a surprise and, furthermore, were found to be ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. In the present work, we extend the analysis to 11 CRs around the last solar minimum. We found that the ''down'' population, always located at low latitudes, was maximum at the time when the sunspot number was minimum, and the number of down loops systematically increased during the declining phase of SC-23 and diminished during the rising phase of SC-24. ''Down'' loops are found to have systematically larger values of {beta} than do ''up'' loops. These discoveries are interpreted in terms of excitation of Alfven waves in the photosphere, and mode conversion and damping in the low corona.

Nuevo, Federico A.; Vasquez, Alberto M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA) and FCEN (UBA), CC 67-Suc 28, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Jin Meng [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2013-08-10

123

Spectral emission of corona discharges.  

PubMed

Corona-discharge devices are commonly used in a variety of research and development applications. They are known to produce a considerable amount of electromagnetic radiation, mainly in the uv region of the spectrum. The mechanism involved is presumed to be the ionization and radiative recombination of the gases surrounding the high-voltage terminal of the device. A series of high-resolution emission spectra of corona discharge has been measured in atmospheres of nitrogen, helium, and air. (The nitrogen and helium are Air Products 99.995% purity, total hydrocarbons less than 0.5 ppm.) These data are presented here and are compared with published spectroscopic reference data. All the emission lines reported in the spectroscopic reference literature were detected, as well as other lines, which may conceivably be due to impurities. PMID:20155187

Grum, F; Costa, L F

1976-01-01

124

Nebula around R Corona Borealis  

E-print Network

The star R Corona Borealis (R CrB) shows forbidden lines of [O II], [N II], and [S II] during the deep minimum when the star is fainter by about 8 to 9 magnitudes from normal brightness, suggesting the presence of nebular material around it. We present low and high spectral resolution observations of these lines during the ongoing deep minimum of R CrB, which started in July 2007. These emission lines show double peaks with a separation of about 170 km/s. The line ratios of [S II] and [O II] suggest an electron density of about 100 cm$^{-3}$. We discuss the physical conditions and possible origins of this low density gas. These forbidden lines have also been seen in other R Coronae Borealis stars during their deep light minima and this is a general characteristic of these stars, which might have some relevance to their origins.

Rao, N Kameswara

2011-01-01

125

Artemis Corona (C2-MIDR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This spectacular Magellan image is centered on 30 degrees south latitude, 135 degrees east longitude, spans 3500 kilometers (2170 miles) from east to west (left to right), and shows the near-circular trough of Artemis Chasma. Its circular shape and size (2100 km or 1302 miles in diameter) make Artemis the largest corona identified to date on the surface of Venus. Artemis could encompass most of the U.S. from the Front Range of the Rockies (near Denver) to the West Coast and is approximately twice the diameter of the next-smaller corona Heng-O. Coronae are characterized by a ring of concentric features surrounding an interior which typically contains fractures of varying orientations and volcanic features ranging from individual flows and small ( 100 kilometers [62 mile]) shield volcanoes. Artemis contains complex systems of fractures, numerous flows and small volcanoes, and at least two impact craters, the larger of which is located in the lower left (southwest) quadrant of the feature. The ring of fractures that defines Artemis forms a steep trough with raised rims approximately 120 kilometers (74 miles) wide and with as much as 2.5 kilometers (1.6 miles) of relief from the rim crest to the bottom of the trough. Most coronae are thought to be related to upwelling of hot material from the interior of Venus in the form of plumes or diapirs, and Artemis may be an extensional trough related to such an upwelling event. Raised-rim troughs are most commonly found to be extensional features (those formed by forces which tend to pull apart the crust and lithosphere of a planet) but the unusual size and circularity of Artemis have led to the alternate suggestion that it may be a zone of intense compression and underthrusting, similar to oceanic subduction zones on Earth. Magellan scientists are currently examining this feature in detail to determine which, if either, of these hypotheses is correct.

1991-01-01

126

Corona Discharge Influences Ozone Concentrations Near Rats  

SciTech Connect

Ozone is produced by corona discharge in air. Its production is enhanced near grounded water. Whether grounded animals behave like grounded water, producing more ozone was investigated. Rats were exposed to corona discharge in a plastic cage. The concentration of ozone in the gas phase was monitored. The ozone concentration exceeded ambient levels only in the presence of corona discharge and either rats or water. When water or rats were exposed to corona discharge, ozone levels were more than 10 times higher than controls. Ozone levels increased rapidly with applied voltage. There was also a correlation between the distance of the corona needle to the rats and the amount of ozone produced. As the distance increased, ozone production decreased. These results are discussed in relation to the potential exposure of mammals to ozone in the vicinity of corona discharge and electric fields.

Goheen, Steven C.; Gaither, Kari A.; Anantatmula, Shantha M.; Mong, Gary M.; Sasser, Lyle B.; Lessor, Delbert L.

2004-02-26

127

Gravity over coronae and chasmata on Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global spherical harmonic model of Venus' gravity field MGNP60FSAAP, with horizontal resolution of about 600 km, shows that most coronae have little or no signature in the gravity field. Nevertheless, some coronae and some segments of chasmata are associated with distinct positive gravity anomalies. No corona has been found to have a negative gravity anomaly. The spatial coincidence of the gravity highs over four closely spaced 300- to 400-km-diameter coronae in Eastern Eistla Regio with the structures themselves is remarkable and argues for a near-surface or lithospheric origin of the gravity signals over such relatively small features. Apparent depths of compensation (ADCs) of the prominent gravity anomalies at Artemis, Latona, and Heng-o Coronae are about 150 to 200 km. The geoid/topography ratios (GTRs) at Artemis, Latona, and Heng-o Coronae lie in the range 32 to 35 m/km. The large ADCs and GTRs of Artemis, Latona, and Heng-o Coronae are consistent with topographically related gravity and a thick Venus lithosphere or shallowly compensated topography and deep positive mass anomalies due to subduction of underthrusting at these coronae. At arcuate segments of Hecate and Parga Chasmata ADCs are about 125 to 150 km, while those at Fauta Corona, four coronae in Eastern Eistla Regio, and an arcuate segment of Wester Parga Chasmata are about 75 km. The GTRs at Fauta Corona, the four coronae in eastern Eistla Regio, and the accurate segments of Hecate, Parga, and Western Parga Chasmata are about 12 to 21 m/km. By analogy with gravity anomalies of similar horizontal scale (600 km-several thousand kilometers) on the concave sides of terrestrial subduction zone arcs, which are due in large part to subducted lithosphere, it is inferred that the gravity anomalies on Venus are consistent with retrograde subduction at Artemis Chasma, along the northern and southern margins of Latona Coronam, and elsewhere along Parga and Hecate Chasmata.

Schubert, Gerald; Moore, William B.; Sandwell, David T.

1994-01-01

128

Corona discharge of Titan's troposphere.  

PubMed

The atmosphere of Titan is constantly bombarded by galactic cosmic rays and Saturnian magnetospheric electrons causing the formation of free electrons and primary ions, which are then stabilized by ion cluster formation and charging of aerosols. These charged particles accumulate in drops in cloud regions of the troposphere. Their abundance can substantially increase by friction, fragmentation or collisions during convective activity. Charge separation occurs with help of convection and gravitational settling leading to development of electric fields within the cloud and between the cloud and the ground. Neutralization of these charge particles leads to corona discharges which are characterized by low current densities. These electric discharges could induce a number of chemical reactions in the troposphere and hence it is of interest to explore such effects. We have therefore, experimentally studied the corona discharge of a simulated Titan's atmosphere (10% methane and 2% argon in nitrogen) at 500 Torr and 298 K by GC-FTIR-MS techniques. The main products have been identified as hydrocarbons (ethane, ethyne, ethene, propane, propene + propyne, cyclopropane, butane, 2-methylpropane, 2-methylpropene, n-butene, 2-butene, 2,2-dimethylpropane, 2-methylbutane, 2-methylbutene, n-pentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, n-hexane, 2,2-dimethylhexane, 2,2-dimethylpentane, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, 2,3-dimethylpentane and n-heptane), nitriles (hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen, ethanenitrile, propanenitrile, 2-methylpropanenitrile and butanenitrile) and an uncharacterized film deposit. We present their trends of formation as a function of discharge time in an ample interval and have derived their initial yields of formation. These results clearly demonstrate that a complex organic chemistry can be initiated by corona processes in the lower atmosphere. Although photochemistry and charged particle chemistry occurring in the stratosphere can account for many of the observed hydrocarbon species in Titan, the predicted abundance of ethene is to low by a factor of 10 to 40. While some ethene will be produced by charged-particle chemistry, its production by corona processes and subsequent diffusion into the stratosphere appears to be an adequate source. Because little UV penetrates to the lower atmosphere to destroy the molecules formed there, the corona-produced species may be long-lived and contribute significantly to the composition of the lower atmosphere and surface. PMID:11541341

Navarro-Gonzalez, R; Ramirez, S I

1997-01-01

129

Development of a linear corona torch discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anomalous kind of the positive corona—a linear corona torch discharge—is investigated. The discharge is nearly steady-state\\u000a and operates with various electrode configurations, e.g., wire-plane, needle-plane, wire-cylinder, and two or more wires placed\\u000a in parallel. It is found that the discharge exists in the form of a pulsed corona or an ordinary positive corona, which alternatively\\u000a change each other under

G. V. Ashmarin; V. M. Lelevkin; A. V. Tokarev

2002-01-01

130

Science Nation: Unraveling the Mysteries of Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To better understand tornadoes, scientists, with the help of the National Science Foundation, are embarking on a quest to unravel the mysteries of tornadoes. The project is called VORTEX2, but it could also be called the amazing chase. For five weeks in the spring of 2009, and again in spring 2010, 100 researchers and scientists from 16 universities will deploy about 40 vehicles armed with high tech equipment to measure and probe tornadoes and tornado development. The researchers will span across the Midwest in search of tornadoes--all to better understand how, when and why they form.

131

Interplanetary Fast Shocks and Associated Drivers Observed through the Twenty-Third Solar Minimum by WIND Over its First 2.5 Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A list of the interplanetary (IP) shocks observed by WIND from its launch (in November 1994) to May 1997 is presented. Forty two shocks were identified. The magnetohydrodynamic nature of the shocks is investigated, and the associated shock parameters and their uncertainties are accurately computed using a practical scheme which combines two techniques. These techniques are a combination of the "pre-averaged" magnetic-coplanarity, velocity-coplanarity, and the Abraham-Schrauner-mixed methods, on the one hand, and the Vinas and Scudder [1986] technique for solving the non-linear least-squares Rankine-Hugoniot shock equations, on the other. Within acceptable limits these two techniques generally gave the same results, with some exceptions. The reasons for the exceptions are discussed. It is found that the mean strength and rate of occurrence of the shocks appears to correlated with the solar cycle. Both showed a decrease in 1996 coincident with the time of the lowest ultraviolet solar radiance, indicative of solar minimum and start of solar cycle 23, which began around June 1996. Eighteen shocks appeared to be associated with corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The distribution of their shock normals showed a mean direction peaking in the ecliptic plane and with a longitude (phi(sub n)) in that plane between perpendicular to the Parker spiral and radial from the Sun. When grouped according to the sense of the direction of propagation of the shocks the mean azimuthal (longitude) angle in GSE coordinates was approximately 194 deg for the fast-forward and approximately 20 deg for the fast-reverse shocks. Another 16 shocks were determined to be driven by solar transients, including magnetic clouds. These shocks had a broader distribution of normal directions than those of the CIR cases with a mean direction close to the Sun-Earth line. Eight shocks of unknown origin had normal orientation well off the ecliptic plane. No shock propagated with longitude phi(sub n) >= 220 +/- 10 deg, this would suggest strong hindrance to the propagation of shocks contra a rather tightly winding Parker spiral. Examination of the obliquity angle theta(sub Bn) (that between the shock normal and the upstream interplanetary magnetic field) for the full set of shocks revealed that about 58% was quasi-perpendicular, and some were very nearly perpendicular. About 32% of the shocks were oblique, and the rest (only 10%) were quasi-parallel, with one on Dec. 9, 1996 that showed field pulsations. Small uncertainty in the estimated angle theta(sub Bn) was obtained for about 10 shocks with magnetosonic Mach numbers between 1 and 2, hopefully significantly contributing to studies researching particle acceleration mechanisms at IP shocks, and to investigations where accurate values of theta(sub Bn) are crucial.

Mariani, F.; Berdichevsky, D.; Szabo, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Vinas, A. F.

1999-01-01

132

Multiwavelength Aspects of Stellar Coronae  

E-print Network

Coronae express different facets of their energy release processes in different wavelength regions. While soft X-ray and EUV emission dominates the radiative losses of the thermal plasma, hard X-ray emission (>10 keV) can be produced from non-thermal high-energy particles accelerated as a consequence of flare processes, and radio emission is often emitted from mildly relativistic electrons trapped in magnetic fields. Combined measurements of all emissions are important to understand the ultimate mechanisms responsible for coronal energy release and heating. This presentation will summarize a number of aspects for which multi-wavelength studies are important, both for quiescent and flare emission.

Manuel Guedel

2001-09-17

133

Pulsed Corona in Air for Water PROEFSCHRIFT  

E-print Network

Pulsed Corona in Air for Water Treatment PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan. Pulsed corona in air for water treatment / by Lukasz Radoslaw Grabowski . - Eindhoven : Technische / waste water treatment / advanced oxidation processes / ozone / phenol / oxidation This research has been

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

134

Parga Chasma: Coronae and Rifting on Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The majority of coronae (quasicircular volcano-tectonic features) are found along rifts or fracture belts, and the majority of rifts have coronae [e.g. 1,2]. However, the relationship between coronae and rifts remains unclear [3-6]. There is evidence that coronae can form before, after, or synchronously with rifts [3,4]. The extensional fractures in the rift zones have been proposed to be a result of broad scale upwelling and traction on the lower lithosphere [7]. However, not all rift systems have a significant positive geoid anomaly, as would be expected for an upwelling site [8]. This could be explained if the rifts lacking anomalies are no longer active. Coronae are generally accepted to be sites of local upwelling [e.g. 1], but the observed rifting is frequently not radial to the coronae and extends well beyond the coronae into the surrounding plains. Thus the question remains as to whether the rifts represent regional extension, perhaps driven by mantle tractions, or if the coronae themselves create local thinning and extension of the lithosphere. In the first case, a regional extension model should be consistent with the observed characteristics of the rifts. In the latter case, a model of lithospheric loading and fracturing would be more appropriate. A good analogy may be the propagation of oceanic intraplate volcanoes [9].

Smrekar, S. E.; Stofan, E. R.; Buck, W. R.; Martin, P.

2005-01-01

135

System reliability analysis through corona testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A corona vacuum test facility for nondestructive testing of power system components was built in the Reliability and Quality Engineering Test Laboratories at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The facility was developed to simulate operating temperature and vacuum while monitoring corona discharges with residual gases. The facility is being used to test various high-voltage power system components.

Lalli, V. R.; Mueller, L. A.; Koutnik, E. A.

1975-01-01

136

Topography of Small Coronae on Venus: Preliminary Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We surveyed topography of small coronae on Venus and created a data set of quantitative description of coronae topographic patterns. We failed to arrange all coronae profiles into an evolutionary sequences. We have not found prominent dependences between parameters of corona topography except an obvious trend the smaller corona, the simplier its topographic pattern. There is weak correlation of widths of all ring-like topographic features against corona diameter. The facts evidence that wide diversity of topographic patterns are due to individual peculiarities of corona-forming sources rather than variations of geological settings and ages.

Kreslavsky, M.; Vdovichenko, R.

1996-03-01

137

Propagating shocks in the corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution observations performed with the Decimeter spectrograph and the multichannel receiver at Nancay were analyzed in the range of 25-75 MHz. Sixty Type II bursts were selected. In this frequency range, type II events are generally associated with other radio emissions (such as storms of type III-U-I bursts); they are preceeded or followed by groups of U-bursts. One third of type II events show a nonuniform frequency drift, usually a steep decrease followed by an abrupt increase. This phenomenon can be explained by the propagation of an extended disturbance through the ambient corona when the density gradient is enhanced. An empirical coronal model is proposed to interpret these observations. The observations at fixed frequency of Type II bursts including fundamental and harmonic components are analyzed. It is shown that the spectrum of the intensity fluctuations differs with the fundamental and the harmonic components. The origin of these differences is discussed.

Leblanc, Yolanda

1987-09-01

138

Tectonic patterns and regional stresses near Venusian coronae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stress analysis of tectonic patterns near Venusian coronae is reported. Combined local corona stresses and uniform regional stresses are used to predict patterns of surface tectonic features. The patterns are compared to those of coronae on Magellan images to determine the regional stress and elastic lithospheric thickness about the coronae. Regional stresses of 0.1-0.6 kbar and elastic lithospheric thicknesses of 10 +/- 5 km are estimated for three specific coronae.

Cyr, K. E.; Melosh, H. J.

1993-04-01

139

Olivines and olivine coronas in mesosiderites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a study of olivines and their surrounding coronas in mesosiderites texturally and compositionally using optical and microprobe methods. Olivine composition ranges from Fo(58-92) and shows no consistent pattern of distribution within and between mesosiderites; olivine occurs as large single crystals or as partially recrystallized mineral clasts, except for two lithic clasts. These are Emery and Vaca Muerta, and both are shock-modified olivine orthopyroxenites. Fine-grained coronas surround olivine, except for those in impact-melt group mesosiderites and those without tridymite in their matrices. Coronas consist largely of orthopyroxene, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, chromite, merillite, and ilmenite, and are similar to the matrix, but lack metal and tridymite. Texturally the innermost parts of the corona can be divided into three stages of development: (1) radiating acicular, (2) intermediate, and (3) granular.

Nehru, C. E.; Zucker, S. M.; Harlow, G. E.; Prinz, M.

1980-01-01

140

The Corona Factorization Property and Refinement Monoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Corona Factorization Property of a C*-algebra, originally defined to study extensions of C*-algebras, has turned out to say something important about intrinsic structural properties of the C*-algebra. We show in this paper that a \\\\sigma-unital C*-algebra A of real rank zero has the Corona Factorization roperty if and only if its monoid V(A) of Murray-von Neumann equivalence classes of

Eduard Ortega; Francesc Perera; Mikael Rordam

2009-01-01

141

Corona-A Brief Status Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relevant to many practical applications [1] including xerography [2]-[9], the various forms of gas discharge which can occur in asymmetrical gaps (for example, needle-to-plane geometry) have been briefly summarized in this status report. Due to its engineering importance, emphasis have been placed upon corona in atmospheric air, particularly l) the positive glow corona, especially the emerging controversy concerning the role

C. F. Gallo

1977-01-01

142

Global Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coronal magnetic field defines the structure of the solar corona, the position of the heliospheric current sheet, the regions of fast and slow solar wind, and the most likely sites of coronal mass ejections. There are few measurements of the magnetic fields in the corona, but the line-of-sight component of the global magnetic fields in the photosphere have been routinely measured for many years (for example, at Stanford's Wilcox Solar Observatory, and at the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak). The SOI/MDI instrument is now providing high-resolution full-disk magnetograms several times a day. Understanding the large-scale structure of the solar corona and inner heliosphere requires accurately mapping the measured photospheric magnetic field into the corona and outward. Ideally, a model should not only extrapolate the magnetic field, but should self-consistently reconstruct both the plasma and magnetic fields in the corona and solar wind. Support from our NASA SR&T contract has allowed us to develop three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) computations of the solar corona that incorporate observed photospheric magnetic fields into the boundary conditions. These calculations not only describe the magnetic field in the corona and interplanetary spice, but also predict the plasma properties as well. Our computations thus far have been successful in reproducing many aspects of both coronal and interplanetary data, including the structure of the streamer belt, the location of coronal hole boundaries, and the position and shape of the heliospheric current sheet. The most widely used technique for extrapolating the photospheric magnetic field into the corona and heliosphere are potential field models, such as the potential field source-surface model (PFSS),and the potential field current-sheet (PFCS) model

Linker, Jon A.

1998-01-01

143

Pulsed corona for gas and water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful introduction of pulsed corona for industrial processes very much depends on the reliability of high-voltage and pulsed power technology and on the efficiency of energy transfer. In addition, it is crucial that adequate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is achieved between the high-voltage pulse source and surrounding equipment. Pulsed corona (1.5 kW) is generated in a pilot unit that produces

E. J. M. van Heesch; H. W. M. Smulders; S. V. B. van Paasen; P. P. M. Blom; F. M. van Gompel; A. J. P. M. Staring; K. J. Ptasinski

1997-01-01

144

Solar cycle variations in F-region Te in the vicinity of the midlatitude trough based on AE-C measurements at solar minimum and DE-2 measurements at solar maximum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetospheric energy deposited in the plasmasphere produces large enhancements in the electron temperature in the nightside ionosphere at the foot of the geomagnetic L shell that traverses the plasmapause. This temperature peak, which is associated with the midlatitude trough in electron density, often has a great enough amplitude to produce 630 nm emission known as a Sar-arc. The Atmosphere Explorer-C measurements made at solar minimum and the Dynamics Explorer-2 measurements made at solar maximum are used to illustrate how this signature of F-region electron heating changes with solar activity. Global empirical models of the electron temperature and density have not been able to resolve these features thus far because of their large movements with geomagnetic activity and because of the large bin sizes used in the models. It is not yet clear how this major feature of the F-region temperature structure could be included easily in the IRI model.

Brace, Larry H.

1990-01-01

145

Mapping the Solar Wind from its Source Region into the Outer Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar wind not only forms the space environment of Earth and other planets, but is also the cause of many phenomena observed in the Earth's atmosphere, such as aurorae. The expansion of the coronal plasma of the Sun is characteristic to many main sequence stars, and thus provides an example for understanding stellar winds as well. In spite of its importance for both space science and stellar physics, basic solar wind properties remain essentially unresolved. Since its discovery about 50 years ago, the complexity of the Sun corona - solar wind system has complicated the interpretation of observations. Recent progress in remote sensing observations as provided for example by YOHKOH, SOHO, SPARTAN and ULYSSES as well as some ground based techniques such as Interplanetary Scintillation observations, offer a compelling opportunity to unravel the 50 year old puzzle regarding the heat source or sources that cause the expansion of the solar corona. The new era of solar wind observations initiated by SOHO and ULYSSES, have also led to a wealth of new theoretical approaches. The goal of the proposed research was to carry out an integrated study of the coronal and solar wind plasma making use of the opportunities provided by the above spacecraft, as well as plasma emission calculations and new ideas on solar wind expansion theory.

Esser, Ruth; Wagner, William J. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

146

Expressing stochastic unravellings using random evolution operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove how the form of the most general invariant stochastic unravelling for Markovian (recently given in the literature by Wiseman and Diósi) and non-Markovian but Lindblad-type open quantum systems can be attained by imposing a single mathematical condition upon the random evolution operator of the system, namely a.s. trace preservation (a.s. stands for almost surely). The use of random operators ensures the complete positivity of the density operator evolution and characterizes the linear/non-linear character of the evolution in a straightforward way. It is also shown how three quantum stochastic evolution models - continuous spontaneous localization, quantum state diffusion and quantum mechanics with universal position localization - appear as concrete choices for the noise term of the evolution random operators are assumed. We finally conjecture how these operators may in the future be used in two different directions: both to connect quantum stochastic evolution models with random properties of space-time and to handle noisy quantum logical gates.

Salgado, D.; Sánchez-Gómez, J. L.

2002-08-01

147

HighEnergy Aspects of Stellar Coronae 1 HighEnergy Aspects of Stellar Coronae  

E-print Network

, 1997; Accepted ... 1997 Abstract Sun­like stars are the sites of various high­energy processes, many well established) solar flare model, a considerable portion of the solar flare energy is releasedHigh­Energy Aspects of Stellar Coronae 1 High­Energy Aspects of Stellar Coronae M. G¨udel 1 1 Paul

Guedel, Manuel

148

Coronae of Parga Chasma, Venus: Implications for Chasma and Corona Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parga Chasma is a 10,000 km long fracture and trough system in the southern hemisphere of Venus. We analyze 128 coronae in the Parga region, including coronae along the chasma and those up to 900 km from the rifts.

Stofan, Ellen R.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Martin, Paula

2000-01-01

149

A Statistical Analysis of Corona Topography: New Insights into Corona Formation and Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive mapping of the surface of Venus and continued analysis of Magellan data have allowed a more comprehensive survey of coronae to be conducted. Our updated corona database contains 514 features, an increase from the 326 coronae of the previous survey. We include a new set of 106 Type 2 or stealth coronae, which have a topographic rather than a fracture annulus. The large increase in the number of coronae over the 1992 survey results from several factors, including the use of the full Magellan data set and the addition of features identified as part of the systematic geologic mapping of Venus. Parameters of the population that we have analyzed to date include size and topography.

Stofan, E. R.; Glaze, L. S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Baloga, S. M.

2003-01-01

150

Complementary analysis of the hard and soft protein corona: sample preparation critically effects corona composition.  

PubMed

Here we demonstrate how a complementary analysis of nanocapsule-protein interactions with and without application media allows gaining insights into the so called hard and soft protein corona. We have investigated how both human plasma and individual proteins (human serum albumin (HSA), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I)) adsorb and interact with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) nanocapsules possessing different functionalities. To analyse the hard protein corona we used sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and a protein quantitation assay. No significant differences were observed with regards to the hard protein corona. For analysis of the soft protein corona we characterized the nanocapsule-protein interaction with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). DLS and ITC measurements revealed that a high amount of plasma proteins were adsorbed onto the capsules' surface. Although HSA was not detected in the hard protein corona, ITC measurements indicated the adsorption of an HSA amount similar to plasma with a low binding affinity and reaction heat. In contrast, only small amounts of ApoA-I protein adsorb to the capsules with high binding affinities. Through a comparison of these methods we have identified ApoA-I to be a component of the hard protein corona and HSA as a component of the soft corona. We demonstrate a pronounced difference in the protein corona observed depending on the type of characterization technique applied. As the biological identity of a particle is given by the protein corona it is crucial to use complementary characterization techniques to analyse different aspects of the protein corona. PMID:25599336

Winzen, S; Schoettler, S; Baier, G; Rosenauer, C; Mailaender, V; Landfester, K; Mohr, K

2015-02-01

151

Dynamics of the coronas of open star clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for distinguishing coronas in models of open star clusters is proposed. The method uses trajectories of stars that do not leave the coronas over time intervals t comparable to the mean lifetime ? of the clusters. Corona models are constructed for six numerical cluster models, and the direction and character of the dynamical evolution of the coronas are determined. Retrograde stellar motions are dominant in the coronas. In spite of some signs of dynamical instability of the coronas (small densities compared to the critical density and accelerated expansion of the coronas), the formation of close-toequilibrium density and phase-density distributions at distances from one to three cluster tidal radii from the cluster center can be seen. Approximations are constructed for the corona and cluster phase density using distributions that depend on three parameters (the parameters of the stellar motion in the Lindblad rotating coordinate system). This temporary equilibrium of the corona is due to balance in the number of starsmoving from the central areas of the cluster to the corona, and from the corona to the corona periphery or beyond. Evidence that corona stars can be gravitationally bound at distances out to four tidal radii from the cluster center is found: the presence of nearly periodic retrograde mean motions of a large number of corona stars in the Galactic plane; 91-99% of corona stars satisfy the gravitational binding criterion of Ross, Mennim and Heggie over time intervals that are close to the mean cluster lifetime. The escape rate from the corona is estimated for t ? ?, and found to be from 0.03 to 0.23 of the number of corona stars per violent relaxation time.

Danilov, V. M.; Putkov, S. I.; Seleznev, A. F.

2014-12-01

152

Unravelling the chemical characteristics of YSOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of stars is accompanied by orders of magnitude changes in the physical conditions, with densities in the envelopes and disks increasing from 104 cm-3 to > 1013 cm-3 and temperatures from ~ 10 K in the cold quiescent gas to 10,000 K in shocked regions. The abundances and excitation of the various molecules respond to these changes, and are therefore excellent probes of the physical evolution of YSOs. Moreover, a comprehensive inventory of the chemical composition of envelopes and disks at different evolutionary stages is essential to study the chemistry of matter as it is incorporated into new solar systems. Recent observations of the envelopes of YSOs using single-dish telescopes and millimeter interferometers clearly reveal the potential of submillimeter lines to probe these physical and chemical changes. However, the existing data generally lack the spatial resolution to separate the different physical components, such as the warm inner envelope or `hot core', the region of interaction of the outflow with the envelope and any possible circumstellar disk. ALMA will be essential to provide an `unblurred' view of the YSO environment and unravel the chemical evolution during star formation. In this talk, an overview will be given of recent single-dish and interferometer results of the chemistry in the envelopes and disks around low- and high-mass young stellar objects. Together with ISO data on solid-state material, these observations lead to a chemical scenario in which both gas-phase and gas-grain chemistry (in particular freeze-out and evaporation) play an important role. The evaporated molecules drive a rich chemistry in the warm gas, which can result in complex organic molecules. The potential of ALMA to test chemical theories and determine the composition of gas and dust as it enters forming planetary systems will be illustrated.

van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

1999-10-01

153

TRIANGLE-SHAPED DC CORONA DISCHARGE DEVICE FOR MOLECULAR DECOMPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the evaluation of electrostatic DC corona discharge devices for the application of molecular decomposition. A point-to-plane geometry corona device with a rectangular cross section demonstrated low decomposition efficiencies in earlier experimental work. The n...

154

Stratigraphy and Tectonic Evolution of Nefertiti Corona on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study of corona Nefertiti stratigraphy and deformation structures lead to suggestion a scenario of its multistage evolution, including rejuvenation. Part of corona annulus is interpreted to be a landslide.

Krassilnikov, A. S.

1999-03-01

155

Development of the system disk - corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accretion is quantitatively and qualitatively more efficient in the presence of a magnetic field. MHD models of non-stationary accretion disc showed appeared more quickly and develop more diverse type instabilities. We investigate the interaction between stream and magnetic field. We are studying the structure of the accretion flow in the system disk - corona. Here we will present treatment theoretical magneto-hydrodynamic model on accretion disc. We obtained solution for the 2D- and the 3D-structure of disc. The results: 2D-evolution enable us to see the appear on the global structures like as spiral and corona. Behavior of the condition from distribution sound and magneto-sound velocities in 3D and velocity vector field in disk showed independent of tendency the disk to generating of corona. Discussion over results.

Yankova, Krasimira

156

Stellar Coronae: The First Twenty - Five Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hot X-ray emitting coronae were detected on stars other than the Sun about twenty-five years ago. Within only a few years of the first detections, the Einstein Observatory had mapped out coronal activity across the HR diagram. These observations provided the foundations for a coarse theoretical understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for hot coronae on stars that has changed relatively little in the intervening years: plasma trapped in magnetic structures generated by dynamo processes somewhere beneath the photosphere is heated by as yet unidentified mechanisms that appear to transfer kinetic energy from underlying convective regions of the stellar envelope into the outer atmosphere. This review will describe the observational advances that have lead to some further theoretical understanding of stellar coronae, including the first results from high resolution X-ray spectroscopy obtained by Chandra and XMM-Newton, and will highlight the observational directions needed to make further progress.

Drake, Jeremy

2000-01-01

157

Abundances of Elements in Stellar Coronae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interest in stellar coronal abundances was piqued several years ago by the launch of satellites that were able to study the compositions of coronae on stars other than the sun. Motivated by the possibility that other stellar coronae might share the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect solar abundance anomaly, we have in recent years been attempting to determine coronal element abundances in other stars. I will review these results, together with similar results reported in the literature, from a critical perspective of understanding the true uncertainties involved in the measurements. The importance of element abundances for coronal physics will be highlighted, and it will be shown that the differences in the chemical compositions of active stars allow us to draw new conclusions regarding the nature of stellar coronae and coronal heating.

Drake, Jeremy

1998-01-01

158

Double streamer phenomena in atmospheric pressure low frequency corona plasma  

SciTech Connect

Time-resolved images of an atmospheric pressure corona discharge, generated at 50 kHz in a single pin electrode source, show unique positive and negative corona discharge features: a streamer for the positive period and a glow for the negative period. However, unlike in previous reports of dc pulse and low frequency corona discharges, multistreamers were observed at the initial time stage of the positive corona. A possible physical mechanism for the multistreamers is suggested.

Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-07-15

159

Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge  

DOEpatents

The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being used in the presence of conductive liquid droplets. The method and system can be used, for example, in different devices for cleaning of gaseous or liquid media using pulsed corona discharge. Specially designed electrodes and an inductor increase the efficiency of the system, permit the plasma chemical oxidation of detrimental impurities, and increase the range of stable discharge operations in the presence of droplets of water or other conductive liquids in the discharge chamber.

Gutsol, Alexander F. (San Ramon, CA); Fridman, Alexander (Marlton, NJ); Blank, Kenneth (Philadelphia, PA); Korobtsev, Sergey (Moscow, RU); Shiryaevsky, Valery (Moscow, RU); Medvedev, Dmitry (Moscow, RU)

2012-05-08

160

System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils  

DOEpatents

The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

Rohwein, G.J.

1998-05-19

161

Petrovay: Solar physics Chromosphere and corona THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE  

E-print Network

Petrovay: Solar physics Chromosphere and corona THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE Visible in eclipses as red brightness temperature at 10.7 cm: Tb 10 000 K. #12;Petrovay: Solar physics Chromosphere and corona Mean temperature profile: VAL model atmosphere, based on lines #12;Petrovay: Solar physics Chromosphere and corona

Petrovay, Kristóf

162

Model of Ozone Production in the DC Corona Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive numerical model of ozone production in clean, dry air by DC corona discharges is presented. This model combines a first-principle corona plasma model with a chemistry and 2-D transport model to obtain the distributions of ozone and other gaseous products in the neighborhood of a corona discharge wire. Electron number density distribution is obtained by solving the continuity

Junhong Chen; Jane Davidson

2002-01-01

163

Corona Considerations in Submarine Cable Communications Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater repeatered telephone cable systems are series powered by high-voltage dc. Each repeater and equalizer contains a power separation filter (PSF) for extracting the dc current from the center conductor of the coaxial cable while allowing signal transmission. Corona discharges occurring across the high-voltage components are coupled through reactive components to the repeater's terminals. Each of the experimentally observed pulse

Earnest Franke

1974-01-01

164

Recycling of the Solar Corona's Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields play a dominant role in the atmospheres of the Sun and other Sun-like stars. Outside sunspot regions, the photosphere of the so-called quiet Sun contains myriads of small-scale magnetic concentrations, with strengths ranging from the detection limit of ~1016 Mx up to ~3×1020 Mx. The tireless motion of these magnetic flux concentrations, along with the continual appearance and disappearance of opposite-polarity pairs of fluxes, releases a substantial amount of energy that may be associated with a whole host of physical processes in the solar corona, not least the enigma of coronal heating. We find here that the timescale for magnetic flux to be remapped in the quiet-Sun corona is, surprisingly, only 1.4 hr (around 1/10 of the photospheric flux recycling time), implying that the quiet-Sun corona is far more dynamic than previously thought. Besides leading to a fuller understanding of the origins of magnetically driven phenomena in our Sun's corona, such a process may also be crucial for the understanding of stellar atmospheres in general.

Close, R. M.; Parnell, C. E.; Longcope, D. W.; Priest, E. R.

2004-09-01

165

Black hole accretion disks with coronae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations suggest the existence of both hot and cold dark matter in the centers of active galactic nuclei. Recent spectral models require a major fraction of power to be dissipated in the hot matter. We study the case when the hot matter forms a corona around a standard cold alpha-disk. In particular, we investigate the case when a major fraction, f, of the power released when the cold matter accretes is transported to and dissipated in the corona. This has major effects on the cold disk, making it colder, more geometrically thin, denser, and having larger optical depths. One important consequence is the disappearance of the effectively optically thin zone as well as of the radiation pressure dominated zone for values of f sufficiently closed to unity. The disappearance of the radiation pressure dominated zone will result in a cold disk with only a gas pressure dominated zone that is stable against thermal and viscous instabilities. We also show that the pressure ( and the radiation) from the corona will only affect the surface layers of the cold disk. Our results disagree with those of other recent work on accretion disks with coronae. We find those works to be based on unphysical assumptions.

Svensson, Roland; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

1994-01-01

166

R Coronae Borealis in 1992 and 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

203 nights of UBV automatic photoelectric telescope (APT) data are reported for R Coronae Borealis in the years 1992 and 1993. An additional 21 nights of photometry from this observatory are also presented, and previously reported visual estimates are included to sketch the early stages of a deep decline at the end of the 1993 season. Through most of these

J. D. Fernie; S. Seager

1994-01-01

167

LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF BACK-CORONA DISCHARGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses an experimental research program to characterize back-corona generation and behavior in a range of environments and geometries common to electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A wire-parallel plate device was used to monitor the intensity and distribution of back...

168

Lifetime of conventional and corona resistant enamels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twisted pair samples of enameled wires are often considered as representative of real insulating systems and are used to validate a new process, changes in the quality of one of the enamel components... and influence of new voltage waveforms. In this paper two kinds of enameled wires are studied. One is supposed to be corona resistant and the other is

J. P. Bellomo; S. Dinculescu; T. Lebey

1998-01-01

169

Locating current sheets in the solar corona  

E-print Network

Current sheets are essential for energy dissipation in the solar corona, in particular by enabling magnetic reconnection. Unfortunately, sufficiently thin current sheets cannot be resolved observationally and the theory of their formation is an unresolved issue as well. We consider two predictors of coronal current concentrations, both based on geometrical or even topological properties of a force free coronal magnetic field. First, there are separatrices related to magnetic nulls. Through separatrices the magnetic connectivity changes discontinuously. Coronal magnetic nulls are, however, very rare. At second, inspired by the concept of generalized magnetic reconnection without nulls, quasi-separatrix layers (QSL) were suggested. Through QSL the magnetic connectivity changes continuously, though strongly. The strength of the connectivity change can be quantified by measuring the squashing of the flux tubes which connect the magnetically conjugated photospheres. We verify the QSL and separatrix concepts by comparing the sites of magnetic nulls and enhanced squashing with the location of current concentrations in the corona. Due to the known difficulties of their direct observation we simulated the coronal current sheets by numerically calculating the response of the corona to energy input from the photosphere heating a simultaneously observed EUV Bright Point. We did not find coronal current sheets not at the separatrices but at several QSL locations. The reason is that although the geometrical properties of force free extrapolated magnetic fields can indeed, hint at possible current concentrations, a necessary condition for current sheet formation is the local energy input into the corona.

Joerg Buechner

2007-02-18

170

Meteoroids in solar corona and planetary atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulate the meteoroid entry into the solar corona with a model similar to the one-dimensional ablation model developed by Campbell-Brown and Koschny (2004) for the Earth's atmosphere and by McAuliffe and Christou (2005) for the case of the atmosphere of Venus. We present the results of mass deposition profiles for a wide range of masses for objects falling into the Sun. Several representative chemical compositions of these objects are also considered in-cluding refractory and volatile materials. Our main focus is in the bigger objects (mass ¿ 1 Kg) for which most of the mass is deposited in the lower layers of the solar corona. The interaction of sungrazing comets with the solar corona is studied with a two-dimensional generalization of the model. The cumulative profile of mass deposition is calculated and we look for the actual effects on the coronal heavy ions composition. In particular we discuss possible implications for the FIP (First Ionization Potential) effect and for the formation of pick-up ions that are measured in the solar wind. We consider the similarities and differences of the entry process in the Solar corona and in planetary atmospheres and we shortly address the survival probability of molecular species.

Lamy, Herve; Mann, Ingrid; Lemaire, Emeritus Joseph

171

PEGylated nanoparticles: protein corona and secondary structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles have important biological and biomedical applications ranging from drug and gene delivery to biosensing. In the presence of extracellular proteins, a "corona" of proteins adsorbs on the surface of the nanoparticles, altering their interaction with cells, including immune cells. Nanoparticles are often functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to reduce this non-specific adsorption of proteins. To understand the change in protein corona that occurs following PEGylation, we first quantified the adsorption of blood serum proteins on bare and PEGylated gold nanoparticles using gel electrophoresis. We find a threefold decrease in the amount of protein adsorbed on PEGylated gold nanoparticles compared to the bare gold nanoparticles, showing that PEG reduces, but does not prevent, corona formation. To determine if the secondary structure of corona proteins was altered upon adsorption onto the bare and PEGylated gold nanoparticles, we use CD spectroscopy to characterize the secondary structure of bovine serum albumin following incubation with the nanoparticles. Our results show no significant change in protein secondary structure following incubation with bare or PEGylated nanoparticles. Further examination of the secondary structure of bovine serum albumin, ?2-macroglobulin, and transferrin in the presence of free PEG showed similar results. These findings provide important insights for the use of PEGylated gold nanoparticles under physiological conditions.

Runa, Sabiha; Hill, Alexandra; Cochran, Victoria L.; Payne, Christine K.

2014-09-01

172

Solar Corona Explorer: A mission for the physical diagnosis of the solar corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission objectives and spacecraft requirements for the Solar Corona Explorer (SCE), a proposed free flying, unmanned solar research craft to be tenatively launched in 1987, were defined. The SCE's purpose is to investigate structure, dynamics and evolution of the corona, globally and in the required physical detail, to study the close coupling between the inner corona and the heliosphere. Investigative objectives are: (1) to understand the corona as the source of varying interplanetary plasma and of varying solar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet fluxes; (2) to develop the capabilities to model the corona with sufficient precision to forecast the Earth's variable environment in space, on the scales from weeks to years; (3) to develop an understanding of the physical processes that determine the dynamics and physical state of the coronal plasma, particularly acceleration processes; and (4) to develop insight and test theory on the Sun applicable to stellar coronae and winds, and in particular, to understand why cool stars put such a large fraction of their energy into X-rays. Considered related factors are: (1) duration of the mission; (2) onboard measuring instrumentation; (3) ground support equipment and procedures; and (4) programs of interpretation and modeling.

1981-01-01

173

Surfactant titration of nanoparticle-protein corona.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles (NP), when exposed to biological fluids, are coated by specific proteins that form the so-called protein corona. While some adsorbing proteins exchange with the surroundings on a short time scale, described as a "dynamic" corona, others with higher affinity and long-lived interaction with the NP surface form a "hard" corona (HC), which is believed to mediate NP interaction with cellular machineries. In-depth NP protein corona characterization is therefore a necessary step in understanding the relationship between surface layer structure and biological outcomes. In the present work, we evaluate the protein composition and stability over time and we systematically challenge the formed complexes with surfactants. Each challenge is characterized through different physicochemical measurements (dynamic light scattering, ?-potential, and differential centrifugal sedimentation) alongside proteomic evaluation in titration type experiments (surfactant titration). 100 nm silicon oxide (Si) and 100 nm carboxylated polystyrene (PS-COOH) NPs cloaked by human plasma HC were titrated with 3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS, zwitterionic), Triton X-100 (nonionic), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, anionic), and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB, cationic) surfactants. Composition and density of HC together with size and ?-potential of NP-HC complexes were tracked at each step after surfactant titration. Results on Si NP-HC complexes showed that SDS removes most of the HC, while DTAB induces NP agglomeration. Analogous results were obtained for PS NP-HC complexes. Interestingly, CHAPS and Triton X-100, thanks to similar surface binding preferences, enable selective extraction of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI) from Si NP hard coronas, leaving unaltered the dispersion physicochemical properties. These findings indicate that surfactant titration can enable the study of NP-HC stability through surfactant variation and also selective separation of certain proteins from the HC. This approach thus has an immediate analytical value as well as potential applications in HC engineering. PMID:25350777

Maiolo, Daniele; Bergese, Paolo; Mahon, Eugene; Dawson, Kenneth A; Monopoli, Marco P

2014-12-16

174

Unraveling "Braid": Puzzle Games and Storytelling in the Imperative Mood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Unraveling Braid" analyzes how unconventional, non-linear narrative fiction can help explain the ways in which video games signify. Specifically, this essay looks at the links between the semiotic features of Jonathan Blow's 2008 puzzle-platform video game Braid and similar elements in Georges Perec's 1978 novel "Life A User's Manual," as well as…

Arnott, Luke

2012-01-01

175

Stratigraphy and Tectonic Evolution of Nefertiti Corona on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with some aspects of the formation and development of coronae, specific large circular structures on Venus. The origin of coronae is commonly associated with the effect of rising and subsequently relaxing hot mantle plumes (diapirs) on the surface layers of the lithosphere. A detailed photogeologic study of one of such structures, Nefertiti corona, which is undertaken in this paper, is based on an analysis of Magellan radar images. A sequence of geologic formations revealed in the territory under investigation made it possible, in combination with an analysis of tectonic structures, to develop a step-by-step scenario of the evolution of this structure. It was established that Nefertiti has gone the entire cycle of corona evolution-from the formation of a radially fractured rising dome (``nova'') to the mature corona. At the final stage of evolution of this corona, traces of its rejuvenation and the origin of a new system of radial fracturing in the central part of the corona are observed. Our observations of Nefertiti corona are compared to theoretical (numerically solved) and tectonophysical models of corona formation, which were described by some other researchers. The inferred evolution of Nefertiti agrees with commonly accepted geologic models of corona evolution.

Krassilnikov, A. S.

2002-05-01

176

Harmonic wave analysis of conductor corona current based on wide frequency band measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corona current is one of important corona characteristic research contents. In order to analyze conductor corona current harmonic wave characteristic, a corona current measurement system is developed. The synchronous collect of the voltage and current signal is realized by the GPS technology. The corona current signal is transmitted to the lower computer through the wireless network. And the current signal

Fangcheng Lu; Shaohua You; Yunpeng Liu; Lei Zhu

2011-01-01

177

Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced computational techniques were used to study solar coronal heating and coronal mass ejections. A three dimensional, time dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic code was used to study the dynamic response of a model corona to continuous, slow, random magnetic footpoint displacements in the photosphere. Three dimensional numerical simulations of the response of the corona to simple smooth braiding flows in the photosphere were calculated to illustrate and understand the spontaneous formation of current filaments. Two dimensional steady state helmet streamer configurations were obtained by determining the time asymptotic state of the interaction of an initially one dimensinal transponic solar wind with a spherical potential dipole field. The disruption of the steady state helmet streamer configuration was studied as a response to shearing of the magnetic footpoints of the closed field lines under the helmet.

Schnack, D. D.

1994-01-01

178

Electromagnetic transients on compensated lines under corona  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a digital computational method for the determination of the fast electromagnetic transients propagating on compensated overhead power lines, evoked by internal or external overvoltages, as effected by corona discharges. This approach enables the consideration of series capacitor and shunt reactor compensation. The line model is based on time-domain solution using the Runge-Kutta-Vertner numerical technique to solve a set of simultaneous differential equations. The simulation of the corona discharge uses a model derived from an experimentally measurable voltage-charge hysteresis loop relationship of a line test length. The model can consider any voltage-time function. The validity of the model is checked by comparing its results to corresponding measurements.

Saied, M.M.; Safar, Y.A. (Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait).)

1989-01-01

179

Nanoflare Heating of Solar and Stellar Coronae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combination of observational and theoretical evidence suggests that much, and perhaps most, of the Sun's corona is heated by small unresolved bursts of energy called nanoflares. It seems likely that stellar coronae are heated in a similar fashion. Kanoflares are here taken to mean any impulsive heating that occurs within a magnetic flux strand. Many mechanisms have this property, including waves, but we prefer Parker's picture of tangled magnetic fields. The tangling is caused by turbulent convection at the stellar surface, and magnetic energy is released when the stresses reach a critical level. We suggest that the mechanism of energy release is the "secondary instability" of electric current sheets that are present at the boundaries between misaligned strands. I will discuss the collective evidence for solar and stellar nanoflares and hopefully present new results from the Solar Dynamics Observatory that was just launched.

Klimchuk, James A.

2010-01-01

180

Helium corona-assisted air discharge  

SciTech Connect

Operation of atmospheric discharge of electronegative gases including air at low voltages yet without consuming any inert gas will enormously promote the application of non-thermal plasmas. By taking advantage of the low onset voltage for helium corona, air discharge was successfully launched at much reduced voltages with a needle-plate system partly contained in a helium-filled glass bulb--for a needle-plate distance of 12 mm, 1.0 kV suffices. Ultraviolet emission from helium corona facilitates the discharging of air, and the discharge current manifests distinct features such as relatively broad Trichel pulses in both half periods. This design allows safe and economic implementation of atmospheric discharge of electronegative gases, which will find a broad palette of applications in surface modification, plasma medicine and gas treatment, etc.

Jiang Nan; Gao Lei; Ji Ailing; Cao Zexian [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2011-10-15

181

Deep solar minimum and global climate changes  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Hady, Ahmed A.

2013-01-01

182

Deep solar minimum and global Climate Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its likely impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 100 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activities are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Abdel Hady, Ahmed

2012-07-01

183

Deep solar minimum and global climate changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Hady, Ahmed A.

2013-05-01

184

The origin of interplanetary sectors. [solar corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coronal magnetic models of Altschuler and Newkirk (1969), Schatten, Wilcox, and Ness (1969), and Schatten (1971), that allowed calculation of the coronal magnetic field from the observed photometric magnetic field, are reviewed with reference to coronal holes and the origin of interplanetary magnetic field sectors. Some misconceptions about interplanetary magnetic field sectors are examined. It is suggested that interplanetary sector structure should be confined to studies of the outer corona, interplanetary space, and objects therein, but not the sun itself.

Schatten, K. H.

1980-01-01

185

Fluorine in R Coronae Borealis Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutral fluorine (F I) lines are identified in the optical spectra of several\\u000aR Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) at maximum light. These lines provide the first\\u000ameasurement of the fluorine abundance in these stars. Fluorine is enriched in\\u000asome RCBs by factors of 800 to 8000 relative to its likely initial abundance.\\u000aThe overabundances of fluorine are evidence for the

Gajendra Pandey; David L. Lambert; N. Kameswara Rao

2007-01-01

186

Winds in R Coronae Borealis Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new spectroscopic observations of the He I $\\\\lambda$10830 line in\\u000aR Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars which provide the first strong evidence that\\u000amost, if not all, RCB stars have winds. It has long been suggested that when\\u000adust forms around an RCB star, radiation pressure accelerates the dust away\\u000afrom the star, dragging the gas along with it.

Geoffrey C. Clayton; T. R. Geballe; Luciana Bianchi

2003-01-01

187

The quiescent corona and slow solar wind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observations of the ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer (UVCS), operating onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, are discussed. The purpose of the UVCS is the study of the quiescent coronal streamer and the slow solar wind. The observations started in January 1996. Polarized radiance data in the visible continuum were obtained. Some characteristics of the coronal streamer from the UVCS recorded data are discussed. A model for the source of the slow solar wind in the inner corona is proposed.

Noci, G.; Kohl, J. L.; Antonucci, E.; Tondello, G.; Huber, M. C. E.; Fineschi, S.; Gardner, L. D.; Korendyke, C. M.; Nicolosi, P.; Romoli, M.; Spadaro, D.; Maccari, L.; Raymond, J. C.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Benna, C.; Ciaravella, A.; Giordano, S.; Michels, J.; Modigliani, A.; Naletto, G.

1997-01-01

188

Helium corona-assisted air discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation of atmospheric discharge of electronegative gases including air at low voltages yet without consuming any inert gas will enormously promote the application of non-thermal plasmas. By taking advantage of the low onset voltage for helium corona, air discharge was successfully launched at much reduced voltages with a needle-plate system partly contained in a helium-filled glass bulb—for a needle-plate distance

Nan Jiang; Lei Gao; Ailing Ji; Zexian Cao

2011-01-01

189

Modeling of a corona discharge microphone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic pressure sensor described in this paper uses a small volume of ionized gas (plasma) as sensing element to receive energy from surrounding gas (air) set into oscillations by an acoustic disturbance. The generation of the ionized gas is performed by negative point-to-plane corona discharges. The passage of a pressure disturbance through this gas disturbs the flow of the charged particles between the electrodes, and provokes a current variation of the electrical system. This current variation is directly related to the acoustic pressure. An electroacoustic model of this plasma microphone is proposed. From the current-voltage relation associated with corona discharges, this model is based on the variations of the threshold voltage and the mobility of ions with pressure and temperature of the surrounding gas. An experimental setup is developed, it simultaneously allows one to compare the acoustic pressure deduced from the corona discharge sensor with that resulting from the two-microphone method in a standing wave tube. This paper also proposes a parametric study to quantify the influence of the electrical and geometrical parameters of the discharge on the sensitivity of the plasma microphone.

Béquin, Ph; Joly, V.; Herzog, Ph

2013-05-01

190

Positive Point-to-Plane Corona Studies in Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formative time lags for the development of the positive point-to-plane corona in dry air were measured oscillographically at pressures ranging from atmospheric to a few centimeters of Hg. Studies with a photomultiplier tube show that the observed formative lags are associated with a filamentary streamer type of corona. These corona formative lags are of the order of 10-7 sec even

M. Menes; L. H. Fisher

1954-01-01

191

Phylogeography and evolution of the Florida crown conch (Melongena corona).  

E-print Network

??Melongena corona and closely related congeners are a conspicuous part of the marine intertidal benthic communities of Florida and southeastern Alabama. Significant genetic differentiation among… (more)

Hayes, Kenneth A.

2003-01-01

192

Thermal Degradation In Composite Insulation Due To Corona Discharges.  

E-print Network

??Composite insulators on overhead lines are frequently subjected to corona discharges due to increased electric field intensities under various conditions. These discharges can cause localized… (more)

Sangaraju Venkateshwara, Pradeep Varma

2010-01-01

193

Jumplike unravelings for non-Markovian open quantum systems  

SciTech Connect

Non-Markovian evolution of an open quantum system can be 'unraveled' into pure state trajectories generated by a non-Markovian stochastic (diffusive) Schroedinger equation, as introduced by Diosi, Gisin, and Strunz. Recently we have shown that such equations can be derived using the modal (hidden variable) interpretation of quantum mechanics. In this paper we generalize this theory to treat jumplike unravelings. To illustrate the jumplike behavior we consider a simple system: a classically driven (at Rabi frequency {omega}) two-level atom coupled linearly to a three mode optical bath, with a central frequency equal to the frequency of the atom, {omega}{sub 0}, and the two side bands have frequencies {omega}{sub 0}{+-}{omega}. In the large {omega} limit we observed that the jumplike behavior is similar to that observed in this system with a Markovian (broad band) bath. This is expected as in the Markovian limit the fluorescence spectrum for a strongly driven two level atom takes the form of a Mollow triplet. However, the length of time for which the Markovian-like behavior persists depends upon which jumplike unraveling is used.

Gambetta, Jay; Askerud, T.; Wiseman, H.M. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, School of Science, Griffith University, Brisbane 4111 (Australia)

2004-05-01

194

Jumplike unravelings for non-Markovian open quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-Markovian evolution of an open quantum system can be “unraveled” into pure state trajectories generated by a non-Markovian stochastic (diffusive) Schrödinger equation, as introduced by Diósi, Gisin, and Strunz. Recently we have shown that such equations can be derived using the modal (hidden variable) interpretation of quantum mechanics. In this paper we generalize this theory to treat jumplike unravelings. To illustrate the jumplike behavior we consider a simple system: a classically driven (at Rabi frequency ? ) two-level atom coupled linearly to a three mode optical bath, with a central frequency equal to the frequency of the atom, ?0 , and the two side bands have frequencies ?0 ±? . In the large ? limit we observed that the jumplike behavior is similar to that observed in this system with a Markovian (broad band) bath. This is expected as in the Markovian limit the fluorescence spectrum for a strongly driven two level atom takes the form of a Mollow triplet. However, the length of time for which the Markovian-like behavior persists depends upon which jumplike unraveling is used.

Gambetta, Jay; Askerud, T.; Wiseman, H. M.

2004-05-01

195

A Method to Determine the Heating Mechanisms of the Solar Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the paradigms about coronal heating has been the belief that the mean or summit temperature of a coronal loop is completely insensitive to the nature of the heating mechanisms. However, we point out that the temperature profile along a coronal loop is highly sensitive to the form of the heating. For example, when a steady state heating is balanced by thermal conduction, a uniform heating function makes the heat flux a linear function of distance along the loop, while T7/2 increases quadratically from the coronal footpoints; when the heating is concentrated near the coronal base, the heat flux is small and the T7/2 profile is flat above the base; when the heat is focused near the summit of a loop, the heat flux is constant and T7/2 is a linear function of distance below the summit. It is therefore important to determine how the heat deposition from particular heating mechanisms varies spatially within coronal structures such as loops or arcades and to compare it to high-quality measurements of the temperature profiles. We propose a new two-part approach to try and solve the coronal heating problem, namely, first of all to use observed temperature profiles to deduce the form of the heating, and second to use that heating form to deduce the likely heating mechanism. In particular, we apply this philosophy to a preliminary analysis of Yohkoh observations of the large-scale solar corona. This gives strong evidence against heating concentrated near the loop base for such loops and suggests that heating uniformly distributed along the loop is slightly more likely than heating concentrated at the summit. The implication is that large-scale loops are heated in situ throughout their length, rather than being a steady response to low-lying heating near their feet or at their summits. Unless waves can be shown to produce a heating close enough to uniform, the evidence is therefore at present for these large loops more in favor of turbulent reconnection at many small randomly distributed current sheets, which is likely to be able to do so. In addition, we suggest that the decline in coronal intensity by a factor of 100 from solar maximum to solar minimum is a natural consequence of the observed ratio of magnetic field strength in active regions and the quiet Sun; the altitude of the maximum temperature in coronal holes may represent the dissipation height of Alfvén waves by turbulent phase mixing; and the difference in maximum temperature in closed and open regimes may be understood in terms of the roles of the conductive flux there.

Priest, E. R.; Foley, C. R.; Heyvaerts, J.; Arber, T. D.; Mackay, D.; Culhane, J. L.; Acton, L. W.

2000-08-01

196

High Voltage DC Bipolar Corona via Particle-In - Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the existing methods for calculating dc ionized fields of monopolar and bipolar corona have ignored the ionization regions and excluded the transient phenomena of corona discharges. In this dissertation, the high voltage dc (HVdc) bipolar corona problem was studied with a two -dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, which allowed us to model the time dependent nonlinear behavior and microscopic phenomena involved in the corona discharge (impact ionization, attachment, mobility, conduction current, displacement current, etc.). The technique follows simulation particles that represent electrons, positive ions, and negative ions, and self-consistently calculates the associated electric field that determines the particle motion. Finite element and charge simulation methods were used to solve Poisson's equation while a finite difference scheme was applied to move simulation particles. Multi-scale techniques (nonuniform triangle mesh and variable time step) were employed to reduce numerical noise and increase simulation efficiency. The particle-in-cell simulation was successfully applied to a cylindrical bipolar corona cage problem. Simulation results included one primitive streamer, multi-electrode induced currents, conductor temperature effects, memory effects, approach to a stationary state, corona saturation on a transient basis, and electric parameters that characterize the dc corona environment (electric field intensity, ion current density, space charge density). Characteristics of the corona current were also obtained through measurements in the laboratory corona cage. Digitizing oscilloscopes have been used to view the anode and cathode corona current at +/- 60kV and +/- 64kV. Cathode current appeared as a nearly quiescent dc current with electron current pulses located at time intervals on the order of 15mu s. Anode current also appeared as a nearly quiescent dc current with electron current pulses located at time intervals on the order of 800mu s. Anode pulses were observed to be about 30 times larger than cathode pulses. Both the laboratory experiment and the particle-in-cell simulation were used to study the influence of load current on corona.

Qin, Bai-Lin

197

Coronae on Venus: Relationship of Geology to Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the gravity signatures of coronae can provide insight into their formation, as well as information on lithospheric properties. Previous studies have shown a lack of correlation between elastic thickness and corona diameter, and that all topographic morphologies are represented in the group of isostatically compensated coronae, including morphologies believed to reflect active plumes (Smrekar et al., 2003; Smrekar and Stofan, 2003; Hoogenboom et al., 2004). In addition, Johnson and Richards (2003) found that uncompensated coronae are preferentially located in the Beta-Atla-Themis region, suggesting it is younger. However, only coronae that are well resolved in the gravity data and have well behaved admittance signatures can be analyzed (135 out of 513 coronae), which does not provide an adequate size population to ensure that results are statistically significant (i.e., Glaze et al., 2002). In order to determine how the 135 features examined in gravity data relate to the total corona population, we are examining the local/regional stratigraphic position, amount of associated volcanism, and geologic complexity (e.g., evolution of the annulus and interior) for the135 features analyzed in the gravity data (Smrekar et al., 2003; Smrekar and Stofan, 2003; Hoogenboom et al., 2004). Initial results suggest a general lack of correlation between the corona parameters studied in these populations: for example, compensated corona range from stratigraphically old features with relatively low topography and low amounts of associated volcanism to stratigraphically young features with high topography and high amounts of associated volcanism. However, coronae in specific regions, such as parts of Hecate Chasma, show a correlation between apparent stratigraphic position and elastic thickness (Smrekar et al., this meeting). We are assessing these results in comparison to the population as a whole in order to better understand the relationship of coronae to the geologic evolution of Venus.

Stofan, E. R.; Smrekar, S. E.; Martin, P.

2007-12-01

198

Plasma Heating of Titan's Exobase and Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini data have shown that the dominant heating process for Titan's atmospheric corona and exobase region is as yet uncertain (DeLaHaye et al. 2007). We have speculated that the incident plasma, both the slowed and deflected ambient ions and the pick-up ions, may be responsible for all or a significant fraction of the non-thermal component of Titan's corona (De La Haye et al. 2007). Our earlier models of the net incident plasma heating (Michael et al. 2004; 2005) fall short in describing the coronal structure seen by INMS on Ta, Tb and T5. Since heating of the corona and exobase affects atmospheric escape, it is critical for describing the evolution of Titan's atmosphere (Johnson 2004). Here we describe an empirical approach to this problem. INMS data and the preliminary CAPS flux data clearly indicate, not surprisingly, that the heating is spatially non-uniform and is variable, but there is as yet no correlation with the plasma flow models. Therefore, we haev analyzed INMS data for the atmospheric structure near the exobase for a large number of Cassini passes through the exobase region and we have analyzed certain CAPS data for the plasma flow near the exobase. The goal is to develop a model for the spatial variations in the plasma heating near the exobase with the goal of improving our knowledge of atmospheric escape. De La Haye, V.. et al., JGR 112, A07309, doi:10.1029/2006JA012222, 2007 Johnson, R.E. ApJ 609, L99, 2004 Michael, M., and R. E. Johnson. PSS 53, 1510, 2005. Michael, M., et al. Icarus, 175, 263, 2005.

Karn, M.; Smith, H. T.; Tucker, O. J.; Johnson, R. E.; de La Haye, V.; Waite, J. H.; Young, D. A.

2007-12-01

199

Thermally Damped Waves in the Solar Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waves observed by high resolution telescopes in the solar corona are subject to a rapid damping which could be due to non-ideal effects and/or transversal inhomogeneities. The attenuation of modes is currently used to determine, e.g. the value and structure of coronal magnetic field, a fundamental parameter which cannot be measured directly. Here we study the damping of linear MHD modes propagating in a stratified plasma in the presence of thermal conduction. For the chosen particular equilibrium we show the importance of the transversal motion in the process of wave damping.

Marcu, A.; Ballai, I.

2007-09-01

200

Fluorine in R Coronae Borealis Stars  

E-print Network

Neutral fluorine (F I) lines are identified in the optical spectra of several R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) at maximum light. These lines provide the first measurement of the fluorine abundance in these stars. Fluorine is enriched in some RCBs by factors of 800 to 8000 relative to its likely initial abundance. The overabundances of fluorine are evidence for the synthesis of fluorine. These results are discussed in the light of the scenario that RCBs are formed by accretion of an He white dwarf by a C-O white dwarf. Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr), a final He-shell flash product, shows no detectable F I lines.

Gajendra Pandey; David L. Lambert; N. Kameswara Rao

2007-11-15

201

Fluorine in R Coronae Borealis Stars  

E-print Network

Neutral fluorine (F I) lines are identified in the optical spectra of several R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) at maximum light. These lines provide the first measurement of the fluorine abundance in these stars. Fluorine is enriched in some RCBs by factors of 800 to 8000 relative to its likely initial abundance. The overabundances of fluorine are evidence for the synthesis of fluorine. These results are discussed in the light of the scenario that RCBs are formed by accretion of an He white dwarf by a C-O white dwarf. Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr), a final He-shell flash product, shows no detectable F I lines.

Pandey, Gajendra; Rao, N Kameswara

2007-01-01

202

CORONAS-F satellite: Tasks for study of particle acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low altitude satellite with polar orbit, namely CORONAS-F has been launched on July 31, 2001. We briefly list the possibilities of a complex instrument SKL, and on the basis of similar measurements by CORONAS-I we illustrate the possible tasks for magnetospheric studies. Such orbit allows to sample with relatively high time resolution the projection series of various magnetospheric regions

S. N. Kuznetsov; K. Kudela; S. P. Ryumin; Y. V. Gotselyuk

2002-01-01

203

Chaotic characteristics of corona discharges in atmospheric air  

SciTech Connect

A point-plane electrode system in atmospheric air is established to investigate the mechanism of the corona discharge. By using this system, the current pulses of the corona discharges under the 50 Hz ac voltage are measured using partial discharge (PD) measurement instrument and constitute the point-plane voltage-current (V-I) characteristic equation together with the voltage. Then, this paper constructs the nonlinear circuit model and differential equations of the system in an attempt to give the underlying dynamic mechanism based on the nonlinear V-I characteristics of the point-plane corona discharges. The results show that the chaotic phenomenon is found in the corona circuit by the experimental study and nonlinear dynamic analysis. The basic dynamic characteristics, including the Lyapunov exponent, the existence of the strange attractors, and the equilibrium points, are also found and analyzed in the development process of the corona circuit. Moreover, the time series of the corona current pulses obtained in the experiment is used to demonstrate the chaotic characteristics of the corona current based on the nonlinear dynamic circuit theory and the experimental basis. It is pointed out that the corona phenomenon is not a purely stochastic phenomenon but a short term deterministic chaotic activity.

Tan Xiangyu; Zhang Qiaogen; Wang Xiuhuan; Sun Fu; Zha Wei; Jia Zhijie [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 28 West Xianning Road, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2008-11-15

204

Turbulent heating of the corona and solar wind: the heliospheric  

E-print Network

Turbulent heating of the corona and solar wind: the heliospheric dark energy problem Stuart D. Bale that the gas is highly ionized, i.e. a magnetized collisionless plasma ( solar wind model A `solar wind' is accelerated from the corona - Hydrostatic solution (similar to Bondi accretion

205

RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOLAR CORONA DURING AN ECLIPSE  

SciTech Connect

We carried out radio observations of the solar corona at 170 MHz during the eclipse of 2008 August 1, from the Gauribidanur observatory located about 100 km north of Bangalore in India. The results indicate the presence of a discrete radio source of very small angular dimension ({approx}15'') in the corona from where the observed radiation originated.

Kathiravan, C.; Ramesh, R.; Barve, Indrajit V.; Rajalingam, M., E-mail: kathir@iiap.res.in, E-mail: ramesh@iiap.res.in, E-mail: indrajit@iiap.res.in, E-mail: rajalingam@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India)

2011-04-01

206

Icy wave-cloud lunar corona and cirrus iridescence  

E-print Network

Icy wave-cloud lunar corona and cirrus iridescence Joseph A. Shaw* and Nathan J. Pust Electrical to determine that iridescence in cirrus and a lunar corona in a thin wave cloud were caused by tiny ice conventional ice crystals. The iridescent cloud was located at the tropopause [11­13:6 km above mean sea level

Shaw, Joseph A.

207

Slip corona surrounding bilayer graphene nanopore Yunwei Maob  

E-print Network

Slip corona surrounding bilayer graphene nanopore Liang Qi,a Yunwei Maob and Ju Li*abc Received 5th structure of ``slip corona'' on BLG, which is a transition region between A­A stacking close to a nanopore composed of bilayer edges (BLEs) and A­ B stacking far away. For an extremely small nanopore (diameter

Chen, Sow-Hsin

208

Admittance survey of type 1 coronae on Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we analyze Magellan gravity and topography data for Type 1 coronae on Venus to estimate crustal thickness (Zc), elastic thickness (Te), and apparent depth of compensation (ZL). We examine the free-air admittance for all 103 Type 1 coronae (defined as having greater than 50% complete fracture annuli) that are resolved in the gravity data. A spatio-spectral method

Trudi Hoogenboom; Suzanne E. Smrekar; F. Scott Anderson; Greg Houseman

2004-01-01

209

Origin of Corona-Dominated Topographic Rises on Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both large-scale mantel upwellings, comparable to terrestrial hotspots on Earth, and smaller scale mantel upwellings, known as coronae, occur on Venus. Corona-dominated rises have many of the characteristics of large scale mantle upwellings, or hotspots, such as broad topographic rises greater than 1000km in diameter and large positive gravity anomalies.

Smrekar, S.; Stofan, E.

1999-01-01

210

Pulsed power corona discharges for air pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful introduction of pulsed corona for industrial purposes very much depends on the reliability of high-voltage and pulsed power technology and on the efficiency of energy transfer. In addition, it is of the utmost importance that adequate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is achieved between the high-voltage pulse source and the surrounding equipment. Pulsed corona is generated in a pilot unit that

Erwin H. W. M. Smulders; Bert E. J. M. van Heesch; Sander S. V. B. van Paasen

1998-01-01

211

Magnetic Relaxation in the Solar Corona Kenneth Miller1  

E-print Network

Magnetic Relaxation in the Solar Corona Kenneth Miller1 , Bengt Fornberg2 , Natasha Flyer3 , & B. C- duced in the tenuous solar corona by the turbulent, resistive relaxation of a magnetic field under to a rigid, perfectly conducting base, and, (ii) that em- beds a force-free magnetic field in the form

Fornberg, Bengt

212

Rings Around the Sun and Moon: Coronae and Diffraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Atmospheric optical effects can teach much about physics and especially optics. Coronae--coloured rings around the sun or moon--are large-scale consequences of diffraction, which is often thought of as only a small effect confined to the laboratory. We describe coronae, how they are formed and experiments that can be conducted on ones in the sky.…

Cowley, Les; Laven, Philip; Vollmer, Michael

2005-01-01

213

Rapid formation of plasma protein corona critically affects nanoparticle pathophysiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In biological fluids, proteins bind to the surface of nanoparticles to form a coating known as the protein corona, which can critically affect the interaction of the nanoparticles with living systems. As physiological systems are highly dynamic, it is important to obtain a time-resolved knowledge of protein-corona formation, development and biological relevancy. Here we show that label-free snapshot proteomics can be used to obtain quantitative time-resolved profiles of human plasma coronas formed on silica and polystyrene nanoparticles of various size and surface functionalization. Complex time- and nanoparticle-specific coronas, which comprise almost 300 different proteins, were found to form rapidly (<0.5 minutes) and, over time, to change significantly in terms of the amount of bound protein, but not in composition. Rapid corona formation is found to affect haemolysis, thrombocyte activation, nanoparticle uptake and endothelial cell death at an early exposure time.

Tenzer, Stefan; Docter, Dominic; Kuharev, Jörg; Musyanovych, Anna; Fetz, Verena; Hecht, Rouven; Schlenk, Florian; Fischer, Dagmar; Kiouptsi, Klytaimnistra; Reinhardt, Christoph; Landfester, Katharina; Schild, Hansjörg; Maskos, Michael; Knauer, Shirley K.; Stauber, Roland H.

2013-10-01

214

Development of ac corona discharge modes at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corona discharges in gases exist under several distinctive forms. In this paper, a survey study has been made of ac corona discharge modes generated in some different gases fed in a wire-duct reactor with a constant rate of flowing at atmospheric pressure. The properties of different corona modes are analyzed under some condition transitions from Trichel pulses to a steady glow. In the course of the presented experimental work, numerous apparent contradictions with earlier observations necessitated further study and are given to provide more information on the physical mechanisms of the ac corona discharges. Furthermore, we have gained insight into some new technologies and applications of the environmentally friendly corona and plasma discharges.

El-Koramy, Reda Ahmed; Yehia, Ashraf; Omer, Mohamed

2011-02-01

215

On the SORS project of CORONAS I and F  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific experiment SOLAR RADIO SPECTROMETER (abbreviated: SORS) of the CORONAS-I satellite project is described and prospects to the planned mission of CORONAS-F are given. The astrophysical goal of these experiments is the investigation of solar radio emission in a wide frequency band detecting low-frequency solar flare emission outside the terrestrial radio window. The principal capacity of SORS could be demonstrated by observation of dynamic spectra of type III bursts during a relatively short operational period aboard CORONAS-I restricted by low solar activity. Using the experience of CORONAS-I it can be anticipated that a new SORS equipment on CORONAS-F will deliver a broader material for the exploration of coronal and heliospheric plasma processes.

Fomichev, V. V.; Oraevsky, V. N.; Kruger, A.

216

Development of ac corona discharge modes at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

Corona discharges in gases exist under several distinctive forms. In this paper, a survey study has been made of ac corona discharge modes generated in some different gases fed in a wire-duct reactor with a constant rate of flowing at atmospheric pressure. The properties of different corona modes are analyzed under some condition transitions from Trichel pulses to a steady glow. In the course of the presented experimental work, numerous apparent contradictions with earlier observations necessitated further study and are given to provide more information on the physical mechanisms of the ac corona discharges. Furthermore, we have gained insight into some new technologies and applications of the environmentally friendly corona and plasma discharges.

El-Koramy, Reda Ahmed; Yehia, Ashraf; Omer, Mohamed [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, 71516 Assiut (Egypt)

2011-02-15

217

RADIATIVE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CORONA  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effect of solar visible and infrared radiation on electrons in the Sun's atmosphere using a Monte Carlo simulation of the wave-particle interaction and conclude that sunlight provides at least 40% and possibly all of the power required to heat the corona, with the exception of dense magnetic flux loops. The simulation uses a radiation waveform comprising 100 frequency components spanning the solar blackbody spectrum. Coronal electrons are heated in a stochastic manner by low coherence solar electromagnetic radiation. The wave 'coherence time' and 'coherence volume' for each component is determined from optical theory. The low coherence of solar radiation allows moving electrons to gain energy from the chaotic wave field which imparts multiple random velocity 'kicks' to these particles causing their velocity distribution to broaden or heat. Monte Carlo simulations of broadband solar radiative heating on ensembles of 1000 electrons show heating at per particle levels of 4.0 x 10{sup -21} to 4.0 x 10{sup -20} W, as compared with non-loop radiative loss rates of {approx}1 x 10{sup -20} W per electron. Since radiative losses comprise nearly all of the power losses in the corona, sunlight alone can explain the elevated temperatures in this region. The volume electron heating rate is proportional to density, and protons are assumed to be heated either by plasma waves or through collisions with electrons.

Moran, Thomas G., E-mail: moran@grace.nascom.nasa.gov [Physics Department, Catholic University of America, 200 Hannan Hall, Washington, DC 20064 (United States) and NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2011-10-20

218

Unraveling the Genetic Basis of Asthma and Allergic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Asthma and allergic diseases are believed to be complex genetic diseases which may result from the interaction of multiple genetic factors and environmental stimuli. In past decades, great efforts have been exerted in unraveling their genetic basis. The strategies in discovering genes and genetic variants, confirming their importance in pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, as well as their strengths and limitations are summarized comprehensively and concisely. The current consensus about the genetic basis of asthma and allergic diseases is briefly described as well. PMID:20885906

Meng, Jian-Feng

2010-01-01

219

Coronae as a result of giant magma intrusions in the lithosphere of Venus: insights from laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronae on the surface of Venus are unique volcano-tectonic structures in the solar systems. Their circular morphology is associated with various topographic signatures, from bell-shape domes, flat-topped plateaus, to uplifted rings surrounding a subsided centre similar to caldera. Their extensive size and associated lava flows erupting from their periphery, indicate that they result from deep processes in the Venus mantle. Understanding their origin is thus essential for unraveling the dynamics of Venus through time. There are several scenarios explaining the formation of coronae, the most popular being the interaction between an upwelling mantle plume and the lithosphere, creating dynamic topography. In this contribution, we propose that coronae can result from the emplacement of giant magma intrusions below the Venus' lithosphere, on the basis of laboratory experiments. The experimental apparatus consists of a square box filled with compacted fine-grained silica flour (model crust), in which a low viscosity vegetable oil (model magma) is injected at constant flow rate. The initial conditions are such that magma initially flows horizontally, forming a sill-like body, to simulate magmatic underplating. During the experiments, oil injection triggers deformation of the model surface, which is monitored periodically using a moiré projection device, producing time series topographic maps of the model surface. Our results show that the surface evolution of the models follows three stages: (1) initial bell-shaped doming occurs above the injection inlet, producing radial open fractures at the model surfaces; (2) the bell-shape dome evolves to a flat-topped plateau, at the rim of which the oil erupts; (3) after the injection stops, the centre of the plateau subsides, and a positive topographic ring surrounding a depression, like a caldera, remains. The collapse of the plateau also generates concentric extensional fractures at the rims of the caldera. After the dynamic experiment, the oil solidifies and we extracted the intrusion, which exhibits a sill-shape, feeding outward circular inclined sheets at its external edges (i.e. a saucer-shaped sill). From a series of experiments in which the depth of injection h was varied, we show that the diameter of the intrusion and its associated topographic structure correlates linearly with h. The three evolutionary stages simulated in the experiments reproduce remarkably well (1) the three main corona morphologies observed on Venus, and (2) their established succession through time. In addition, the relationships between the structures and the oil flow in our experiments are also similar to those observed on Venus. Therefore, our experimental results suggest that corona structures are the result of giant magma intrusions in the lithosphere of Venus. In addition, our experiments suggest that the diameters of coronae are related to the depth of emplacement of the underlying intrusions, which might be controlled by the rheological architecture of the Venus' lithosphere. Therefore, the analysis of the dimensions and morphologies of coronae are likely to provide crucial information of the structure of the lithosphere of Venus.

Galland, Olivier; Polteau, Stephane; Werner, Stephanie C.

2013-04-01

220

R Coronae Australis: A Cosmic Watercolour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This magnificent view of the region around the star R Coronae Australis was created from images taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. R Coronae Australis lies at the heart of a nearby star-forming region and is surrounded by a delicate bluish reflection nebula embedded in a huge dust cloud. The image reveals surprising new details in this dramatic area of sky. The star R Coronae Australis lies in one of the nearest and most spectacular star-forming regions. This portrait was taken by the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. The image is a combination of twelve separate pictures taken through red, green and blue filters. This image shows a section of sky that spans roughly the width of the full Moon. This is equivalent to about four light-years at the distance of the nebula, which is located some 420 light-years away in the small constellation of Corona Australis (the Southern Crown). The complex is named after the star R Coronae Australis, which lies at the centre of the image. It is one of several stars in this region that belong to the class of very young stars that vary in brightness and are still surrounded by the clouds of gas and dust from which they formed. The intense radiation given off by these hot young stars interacts with the gas surrounding them and is either reflected or re-emitted at a different wavelength. These complex processes, determined by the physics of the interstellar medium and the properties of the stars, are responsible for the magnificent colours of nebulae. The light blue nebulosity seen in this picture is mostly due to the reflection of starlight off small dust particles. The young stars in the R Coronae Australis complex are similar in mass to the Sun and do not emit enough ultraviolet light to ionise a substantial fraction of the surrounding hydrogen. This means that the cloud does not glow with the characteristic red colour seen in many star-forming regions. The huge dust cloud in which the reflection nebula is embedded is here shown in impressively fine detail. The subtle colours and varied textures of the dust clouds make this image resemble an impressionist painting. A prominent dark lane crosses the image from the centre to the bottom left. Here the visible light emitted by the stars that are forming inside the cloud is completely absorbed by the dust. These objects could only be detected by observing at longer wavelengths, by using a camera that can detect infrared radiation. R Coronae Australis itself is not visible to the unaided eye, but the tiny, tiara-shaped constellation in which it lies is easily spotted from dark sites due to its proximity on the sky to the larger constellation of Sagittarius and the rich star clouds towards the centre of our own galaxy, the Milky Way. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

2010-06-01

221

Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide by Direct-Current Corona Discharges in Dry Air  

E-print Network

in indoor air, the gas-phase processes limit the rate of deposition. KEY WORDS: Corona plasma; corona. 3 To whom all correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jhd@me.umn.edu Plasma Chemistry and Plasma the outer boundary of the non-equilibrium corona plasma. However, interest in the corona plasma region

Chen, Junhong

222

Charging of moving surfaces by corona discharges sustained in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure corona discharges are used in electrophotographic (EP) printing technologies for charging imaging surfaces such as photoconductors. A typical corona discharge consists of a wire (or wire array) biased with a few hundred volts of dc plus a few kV of ac voltage. An electric discharge is produced around the corona wire from which electrons drift towards and charge the underlying dielectric surface. The surface charging reduces the voltage drop across the gap between the corona wire and the dielectric surface, which then terminates the discharge, as in a dielectric barrier discharge. In printing applications, this underlying surface is continuously moving throughout the charging process. For example, previously charged surfaces, which had reduced the local electric field and terminated the local discharge, are translated out of the field of view and are replaced with uncharged surface. The uncharged surface produces a rebound in the electric field in the vicinity of the corona wire which in turn results in re-ignition of the discharge. The discharge, so reignited, is then asymmetric. We found that in the idealized corona charging system we investigated, a negatively dc biased corona blade with a dielectric covered ground electrode, the discharge is initially sustained by electron impact ionization from the bulk plasma and then dominated by ionization from sheath accelerated secondary electrons. Depending on the speed of the underlying surface, the periodic re-ignition of the discharge can produce an oscillatory charging pattern on the moving surface.

Wang, Jun-Chieh; Zhang, Daihua; Leoni, Napoleon; Birecki, Henryk; Gila, Omer; Kushner, Mark J.

2014-07-01

223

Formation of Coronae Structures on Venus by Thermochemical Diapirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most prominent features on the surface of Venus are the coronae. They are large scale volcano-tectonic structures, which are approximately circular with a mean diameter of 200 - 300 km [Dombard et al., 2007], with extrema ranging from 60 km to about 2000 km diameter. A total of 515 coronae were found on Venus in the Magellan data [Stofan et al., 2001]. The intruiging point about corona is that there is no counterpart on the other terrestrial planets for these structures. Nine different groups of coronae have been observed on Venus [Smrekar and Stofan, 1997]. Smrekar and Stofan [1997] suggested that these different groups can stand for different steps in the time evolution of coronae. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain their formation: Dombard et al. [2007] suggested that coronae form in response to magmatic loading of the crust over zones of partial melting above thermally buoyant heads of transient mantle plumes that impinge on the base of the thermal lithosphere. On the other side, the potential importance of crust delamination induced by mantle upwellings as formation mechanisms for coronae was pointed out by Smrekar and Stofan [1997]. Here, we present results on coronae formation using the recently developed 2D finite element code MILAMIN_VEP, which employs MILAMIN technology [Dabrowski et al., 2008]. We apply a temperature and stress-dependent visco-elasto-plastic rheology in a rectangular box, which includes a rising thermochemical diapir beneath the Venusian crust and lithosphere. The rheological parameters are taken from results inferred for Venusian materials [Mackwell et al., 1998]. A free surface is used in our calculations, which allows for the self-consistent computation of topography induced by the buoyant diapir. A hybrid particle-in-cell approach allows remeshing of strongly deformed grid cells. A systematic investigation of the physical conditions under which coronae can form is being performed in 2D. Initial results confirm the delamination hypothesis due to the impinging thermo-chemical diapir. The flattening of the diapir allows for the formation of coronae with radii several times larger than the initial diapir radii. Our calculations strengthen the hypothesis that coronae pass several stages of topographical appearance. They however also indicate that the formation of coronae might happen on much shorter timescales than suggested by previous studies.

Golabek, G. J.; Kaus, B. J. P.; Tackley, P. J.

2009-04-01

224

Corona-discharge-initiated mine explosions  

SciTech Connect

Strong circumstantial evidence suggests that lightning has initiated methane explosions in abandoned and sealed areas of underground coal mines. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) investigated several of these occurrences within recent years. The investigated explosions occurred at significant depths, ranging from 700 to 1200 ft. Data from the National Lightning Detection Network indicated a strong correlation between the times and locations of the explosions with those of specific lightning strikes. This paper proposes that corona discharge from a steel borehole casing is the most likely mechanism responsible for these ignitions. A recently investigated mine explosion and fire at a depth greater than 1000 ft was selected for this study. Computer simulations were performed, using data collected at the mine site. CDEGS software from Safe Engineering Services & Technologies, Ltd. and MaxwellSV from Ansoft Corporation were used for the simulations.

Sacks, H.K.; Novak, T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mining & Minerals Engineering

2005-10-01

225

Doping of polyaniline by corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that conductive polyaniline (PANI) films are usually doped by immersing dedoped PANI films in HCl solution. This paper shows that a corona discharge can be successfully employed to dope thin films of polyaniline coated on poly (ethylene terephthalate) films. Similarly to the conventional doping with aqueous HCl the process is accompanied by a color change from blue to green and the conductivity can be tuned in the range from 10{sup {minus}10} up to 0.3 Scm{sup {minus}1}. Such new doping method presents several advantages over the conventional one namely, dry process, use of no chemicals, rapidity and no dopant migration. Measurements also showed that the conductivity persists for a long time as observed for films prepared in chemical solution doping. It is believed that this novel technique could be employed in a continuous doping process aiming to produce films with large area for anti electrostatic packing applications.

Job, A.E.; Giacometti, J.A.; Mattoso, L.H.C.

1998-07-01

226

Solar wind acceleration in the solar corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intensity ratio of the O VI doublet in the extended area is analyzed. The O VI intensity data were obtained with the ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer (UVCS) during the SOHO campaign 'whole sun month'. The long term observations above the north pole of the sun were used for the polar coronal data. Using these measurements, the solar wind outflow velocity in the extended corona was determined. The 100 km/s level is running along the streamer borders. The acceleration of the solar wind is found to be high in regions between streamers. In the central part of streamers, the outflow velocity of the coronal plasma remains below 100 km/s at least within 3.8 solar radii. The regions at the north and south poles, characterized by a more rapid acceleration of the solar wind, correspond to regions where the UVCS observes enhanced O VI line broadenings.

Giordano, S.; Antonucci, E.; Benna, C.; Kohl, J. L.; Noci, G.; Michels, J.; Fineschi, S.

1997-01-01

227

R Coronae Borealis stars and planetary nebulae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IRAS observations of R Coronae Borealis type stars (R CrB's) suggests that a subset of these is inside planetary nebulae (PNs). In most cases, the PN is confirmed by the finding of a visible nebula around the star. These nebular R CrB's are identified as being the results of a final helium shell flash on the central star of old PNs. The majority of the R CrB's formed after the coalescence of a binary consisting of CO and He white dwarfs. Also presented in this paper are the results of a survey of 52 R CrB's. The normal R CrB's have power-law spectra which imply that the grain absorption coefficient varies linearly with frequency. It is estimated that R CrB's eject about 300 clouds per year, each of which subtend an angle of about 30 sq deg.

Schaefer, B. E.

1986-01-01

228

High Energy Particles in the Solar Corona  

E-print Network

Collective Ampere law interactions producing magnetic flux tubes piercing through sunspots into and then out of the solar corona allow for low energy nuclear reactions in a steady state and high energy particle reactions if a magnetic flux tube explodes in a violent event such as a solar flare. Filamentous flux tubes themselves are vortices of Ampere currents circulating around in a tornado fashion in a roughly cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field lines are parallel to and largely confined within the core of the vortex. The vortices may thereby be viewed as long current carrying coils surrounding magnetic flux and subject to inductive Faraday and Ampere laws. These laws set the energy scales of (i) low energy solar nuclear reactions which may regularly occur and (ii) high energy electro-weak interactions which occur when magnetic flux coils explode into violent episodic events such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections.

A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

2008-04-16

229

Locating current sheets in the solar corona  

E-print Network

Current sheets are essential for energy dissipation in the solar corona, in particular by enabling magnetic reconnection. Unfortunately, sufficiently thin current sheets cannot be resolved observationally and the theory of their formation is an unresolved issue as well. We consider two predictors of coronal current concentrations, both based on geometrical or even topological properties of a force free coronal magnetic field. First, there are separatrices related to magnetic nulls. Through separatrices the magnetic connectivity changes discontinuously. Coronal magnetic nulls are, however, very rare. At second, inspired by the concept of generalized magnetic reconnection without nulls, quasi-separatrix layers (QSL) were suggested. Through QSL the magnetic connectivity changes continuously, though strongly. The strength of the connectivity change can be quantified by measuring the squashing of the flux tubes which connect the magnetically conjugated photospheres. We verify the QSL and separatrix concepts by com...

Buechner, J

2006-01-01

230

Chemical Compositions and Anomalies in Stellar Coronae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In summary, as the papers cited here and in earlier reports demonstrate, this award has enabled us to obtain a fairly good picture of the abundance anomalies in stellar coronae. The "inverse FIP" effect in very active stars has now been fleshed out as a more complex anomaly depending on FIP, whereas before it appeared only in terms of a general metal paucity, the recent solar abundance assessment of Asplund et a1 will, if correct, challenge some of the older interpretations of coronal abundance anomalies since they imply quite different relative abundances of CNO compared with Fe, Mg and Si. Further investigations have been in into the possibility of modeling some of the recent coronal abundance anomaly results in terms of Alfven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. This work still remains in the seed stage, and future funding from a different program will be requested to pursue it further.

Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

231

Conjugate Shear Fractures at 'Ki Corona,' Southeast Parga Chasma, Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brittle tensile failure of Venus' surface is evident in many tectonic regimes, including as extension fractures associated with caldera collapse, radial and concentric fractures of coronae, fractures normal to folds, and fracture belts. However, evidence of brittle shear failure has been described at only two localities_intersecting fractures oblique to wrinkle ridges in Lavinia Planitia were interpreted as conjugate shear fractures by Watters, and en echelon fractures in Guinevere Planitia record dominant extension. but with a component of shear. We confirm these earlier interpretations, and recognize the widespread nature of conjugate shear fractures across the Venus surface, identifying examples at over 100 locations in varied tectonic regimes, including coronae, wrinkle-ridged plains, and fracture belts. However, we focus here on fracture and fold relations at "Ki Corona" (46.8 degrees S, 302.5 degrees E), and their implications toward corona evolution.

Willis, J. J.; Hansen, V. L.

1996-03-01

232

A Data-Driven Evolution Model for the Global Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we have developed a new time-dependent global corona model for the study of dynamic evolution of the global corona that can respond continuously to the changing of the photospheric magnetogram. A surface flux transport (SFT) model is employed to produce the time-varying and self-consistent magnetogram with synoptic map as input. The global corona model is established with our newly-developed numerical code AMR-CESE-MHD on an overset grid of Yin-Yang overlapping structure. The SFT model and the three-dimensional global corona model is coupled through the boundary condition of projected-characteristic method. Numerical study of the coronal evolution from Carrington rotation 1913 to 1915 presents results comparable with multi-observed coronal images.

Feng, X. S.; Jiang, C.; Xiang, C. Q.; Wu, S.

2011-12-01

233

Nanoparticles formation and deposition in the trichel pulse corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cathode erosion in the negative corona discharge has been studied in the point-to-plane electrode configuration with Cu cathodes in the Trichel pulse regime. Redeposition of erosion products has been found on the cathode surface in form of agglomerates of 10-nm nanoparticles. Nanocraters and nanoparticles formation in the negative corona discharge has been considered in frames of electro-explosive mechanism of cathode erosion. According to this mechanism the cathode erosion is performed as a consequence of elementary erosion events each of which is caused by a Trichel pulse. A 1-dimentional model of corona-produced nanoparticles dynamics in the gap was elaborated. According to results of the simulation, the redeposition is explained by charging of the nanoparticles due to positive ions adsorption and thermionic emission. The size, temperature and initial velocity of the aerosol nanoparticles have the decisive action on redeposition in the negative corona discharge.

Amirov, R. H.; Petrov, A. A.; Samoylov, I. S.

2013-03-01

234

Viscoelastic Relaxation of Topographic Highs on Venus to Produce Coronae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coronae on Venus are believed to result from the gravitationally driven relaxation of topography that was originally raised by mantle diapirs. We examine this relaxation using a viscoelastic finite element code, and show that an initially plateau shaped load will evolve to the characteristic corona topography of central raised bowl, annular rim, and surrounding moat. Stresses induced by the relaxation are consistent with the development of concentric extensional fracturing common on the outer margins of corona moats. However, relaxation is not expected to produce the concentric faulting often observed on the annular rim. The relaxation timescale is shorter than the diapir cooling timescale, so loss of thermal support controls the rate at which topography is reduced. The final corona shape is supported by buoyancy and flexural stresses and will persist through geologic time. Development of lower, flatter central bowls and narrower and more pronounced annular rims and moats enhanced by thicker crusts, higher thermal gradients, and crustal thinning over the diapir.

Janes, Daniel M.; Squyres, Steven W.

1995-01-01

235

Transmission line corona losses under hoar frost conditions  

SciTech Connect

Transmission line corona losses under hoar frost conditions were studied in the climate room of the high voltage laboratory of Tampere University of Technology. The measurements were performed using a coaxial measurement arrangement with different bundle and conductor types. The effects of conductor and bundle type, temperature, applied voltage and hoar frost thickness on corona losses were investigated. A two-conductor bundle had corona losses about 2.5--5 times higher than a three-conductor bundle. Relatively thin hoar frosts were used in the tests. Even the thinnest hoar frost resulted in remarkable corona losses and the losses were very sensitive to changes in the hoar frost thickness. The ambient temperature had a strong influence on the measured losses.

Lahti, K.; Nousiainen, K. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Power Engineering Group] [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Power Engineering Group; Lahtinen, M.

1997-04-01

236

Experimental Tools to Study Molecular Recognition within the Nanoparticle Corona  

PubMed Central

Advancements in optical nanosensor development have enabled the design of sensors using syntheticmolecular recognition elements through a recently developed method called Corona Phase MolecularRecognition (CoPhMoRe). The synthetic sensors resulting from these design principles are highly selective for specific analytes, and demonstrate remarkable stability for use under a variety of conditions. An essential element of nanosensor development hinges on the ability to understand the interface between nanoparticles and the associated corona phase surrounding the nanosensor, an environment outside of the range of traditional characterization tools, such as NMR. This review discusses the need for new strategies and instrumentation to study the nanoparticle corona, operating in both in vitro and in vivo environments. Approaches to instrumentation must have the capacity to concurrently monitor nanosensor operation and the molecular changes in the corona phase. A detailed overview of new tools for the understanding of CoPhMoRe mechanisms is provided for future applications. PMID:25184487

Landry, Markita P.; Kruss, Sebastian; Nelson, Justin T.; Bisker, Gili; Iverson, Nicole M.; Reuel, Nigel F.; Strano, Michael S.

2014-01-01

237

Study of the solar corona using radio and space observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physics of coronal transients, the characteristics of radiation and accelerated particles at the time of flares, and the density/temperature structure of the transition region and corona and the coronal magnetic field are investigated.

Dulk, G. A.

1984-01-01

238

Synthesis of Superabsorbent Copolymers by Pulsed Corona Discharges in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed corona discharges have been utilized for plasma polymerization in aqueous solution for the first time. Superabsorbent copolymers, i.e., poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels, were synthesized by aqueous solution polymerization using free radicals produced by pulsed corona discharges as initiator and N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide as cross-linking agent. Acrylic acid contents in the monomers varied from 0% to 50%. The copolymers thus formed adsorbed 30–1100

Muhammad Arif Malik; Munir Ahmed; Ejaz-ur-Rehman; Riffat Naheed; Abdul Ghaffar

2003-01-01

239

Spicules, mass transfer, oscillations, and the heating of the corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass moving in chromospheric spicules is enough to replace the corona in a brief time, so understanding the dynamics of spicules is important for understanding the support and heating of the solar corona. We have undertaken a program involving simultaneous high-resolution observations in various chromospheric visible lines (H-alpha, Ca II H, and G-band, as well as Dopplergrams) using the

J. M. Pasachoff; K. A. Kozarev; D. L. Butts; J. W. Gangestad; D. B. Seaton; B. de Pontieu; L. Golub; E. Deluca; K. Wilhelm; I. Dammasch

2005-01-01

240

New Results From Chandra: Abundances in Stellar Coronae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is considerable evidence, both solar and stellar, that the chemical compositions of stellar coronae differ from their underlying 1)hotospheres. The differences for solar-type stars appear to be related to FIP, whereas the differences for active stars are more mysterious and perhaps suggest metal depletion. Results to-date will be reviewed and new results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory based on calibration and Emission Line Project observations of late-type stellar coronae, will be presented.

Drake, Jeremy

1999-01-01

241

Unraveling the Atomic Structure of Ultrafine Iron Clusters  

PubMed Central

Unraveling the atomic structures of ultrafine iron clusters is critical to understanding their size-dependent catalytic effects and electronic properties. Here, we describe the stable close-packed structure of ultrafine Fe clusters for the first time, thanks to the superior properties of graphene, including the monolayer thickness, chemical inertness, mechanical strength, electrical and thermal conductivity. These clusters prefer to take regular planar shapes with morphology changes by local atomic shuffling, as suggested by the early hypothesis of solid-solid transformation. Our observations differ from observations from earlier experimental study and theoretical model, such as icosahedron, decahedron or cuboctahedron. No interaction was observed between Fe atoms or clusters and pristine graphene. However, preferential carving, as observed by other research groups, can be realized only when Fe clusters are embedded in graphene. The techniques introduced here will be of use in investigations of other clusters or even single atoms or molecules. PMID:23251781

Wang, Hongtao; Li, Kun; Yao, Yingbang; Wang, Qingxiao; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlögl, Udo; Zhang, Xi Xiang; Yang, Wei

2012-01-01

242

Systems biology unravels interferon responses to respiratory virus infections  

PubMed Central

Interferon production is an important defence against viral replication and its activation is an attractive therapeutic target. However, it has long been known that viruses perpetually evolve a multitude of strategies to evade these host immune responses. In recent years there has been an explosion of information on virus-induced alterations of the host immune response that have resulted from data-rich omics technologies. Unravelling how these systems interact and determining the overall outcome of the host response to viral infection will play an important role in future treatment and vaccine development. In this review we focus primarily on the interferon pathway and its regulation as well as mechanisms by which respiratory RNA viruses interfere with its signalling capacity. PMID:24600511

Kroeker, Andrea L; Coombs, Kevin M

2014-01-01

243

Unraveling the Atomic Structure of Ultrafine Iron Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unraveling the atomic structures of ultrafine iron clusters is critical to understanding their size-dependent catalytic effects and electronic properties. Here, we describe the stable close-packed structure of ultrafine Fe clusters for the first time, thanks to the superior properties of graphene, including the monolayer thickness, chemical inertness, mechanical strength, electrical and thermal conductivity. These clusters prefer to take regular planar shapes with morphology changes by local atomic shuffling, as suggested by the early hypothesis of solid-solid transformation. Our observations differ from observations from earlier experimental study and theoretical model, such as icosahedron, decahedron or cuboctahedron. No interaction was observed between Fe atoms or clusters and pristine graphene. However, preferential carving, as observed by other research groups, can be realized only when Fe clusters are embedded in graphene. The techniques introduced here will be of use in investigations of other clusters or even single atoms or molecules.

Wang, Hongtao; Li, Kun; Yao, Yingbang; Wang, Qingxiao; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlögl, Udo; Zhang, Xi Xiang; Yang, Wei

2012-12-01

244

Unraveling heavy oil desulfurization chemistry: targeting clean fuels.  

PubMed

The sulfur removal chemistry of heavy oils has been unraveled by systematically investigating several heavy oils with an extremely wide range of properties. The heavy oil feed and product properties have been characterized by advanced analytical methods, and these properties have been related to the sulfur conversion data observed in pilot hydrotreating units. These studies coupled with kinetic treatment of the data have revealed that the desulfurization chemistry of heavy oils is essentially controlled by the strongly inhibiting three and larger ring aromatic hydrocarbon content and surprisingly not by the content of the "hard-to-remove" sulfur compounds. Such enhanced understanding of the heavy oil sulfur removal is expected to open new avenues for catalyst/process optimization for heavy oil desulfurization and thereby assist the efficent production of clean transporation fuels. PMID:18409618

Choudhary, Tushar V; Parrott, Stephen; Johnson, Byron

2008-03-15

245

Shock Acceleration in the Solar Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis acceleration of energetic particles at collisionless shock waves in space plasmas is studied using numerical simulations, with an emphasis on physical conditions applicable to the solar corona. The thesis consists of four research articles and an introductory part that summarises the main findings reached in the articles and discusses them with respect to theory of diffusive shock acceleration and observations. This thesis gives a brief review of observational properties of solar energetic particles and discusses a few open questions that are currently under active research. For example, in a few large gradual solar energetic particle events the heavy ion abundance ratios and average charge states show characteristics at high energies that are typically associated with flare-accelerated particles, i.e. impulsive events. The role of flare-accelerated particles in these and other gradual events has been discussed a lot in the scientific community, and it has been questioned if and how the observed features can be explained in terms of diffusive shock acceleration at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections. The most extreme solar energetic particle events are the so-called ground level enhancements where particle receive so high energies that they can penetrate all the way through Earth's atmosphere and increase radiation levels at the surface. It is not known what conditions are required for acceleration into GeV/nuc energies, and the presence of both very fast coronal mass ejections and X-class solar flares makes it difficult to determine what is the role of these two accelerators in ground level enhancements. The theory of diffusive shock acceleration is reviewed and its predictions discussed with respect to the observed particle characteristics. We discuss how shock waves can be modeled and describe in detail the numerical model developed by the author. The main part of this thesis consists of the four scientific articles that are based on results of the numerical shock acceleration model developed by the author. The novel feature of this model is that it can handle complex magnetic geometries which are found, for example, near active regions in the solar corona. We show that, according to our simulations, diffusive shock acceleration can explain the observed variations in abundance ratios and average charge states, provided that suitable seed particles and magnetic geometry are available for the acceleration process in the solar corona. We also derive an injection threshold for diffusive shock acceleration that agrees with our simulation results very well, and which is valid under weakly turbulent conditions. Finally, we show that diffusive shock acceleration can produce GeV/nuc energies under suitable coronal conditions, which include the presence of energetic seed particles, a favourable magnetic geometry, and an enhanced level of ambient turbulence.

Sandroos, Arto

2010-03-01

246

The theory of positive glow corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theory for the current and light pulses of positive glow corona from a point in air is presented; this phenomenon was first observed as an apparently continuous glow by Michael Faraday. Results are obtained, in concentric sphere geometry, for air at atmospheric pressure, by solving the continuity equations for electrons, positive ions, negative ions and metastable oxygen molecules, coupled with Poisson's equation. A series of `saw-toothed' current pulses of period about 0022-3727/30/22/008/img1 is predicted with a DC current level. Accompanying the current peaks are discrete pulses of light 30 ns wide. Successive `shells' of positive ions, from successive current pulses, carry 96% of the mean current. The mean current - voltage relationship has the classic square-law form. The seed electrons required for successive pulses are detached from negative ions by metastable oxygen molecules. Photo-ionization is crucial for the discharge at the anode and for the formation of negative ions throughout the gap. The pulse frequency varies with applied voltage and is found to be approximately proportional to the positive-ion mobility. The surface electric field at the central electrode remains close to Peek's onset field. The origin of onset streamers is explained and sub-microsecond voltage pulses are found to produce streamers. The results for concentric-cylinder electrodes are described briefly.

Morrow, R.

1997-11-01

247

Studies on the corona of open clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality proper motions on an extended area of a selection of Open Clusters (OCs) will let us study their coronas with unprecedented accuracy. We are in the process of obtaining astrometry with the Meridian Circles of San Fernando CMASF at El Leoncito (Argentina) and the CTA at La Palma of an area few times the known radius (from Webda) of a selection of OCs. We will make use of Strömgren wide-field photometry to complement their characterization. We have already analysed the old open cluster M67, deriving properties for 2738 stars fainter and, in a wider area, than any previous precise survey in the cluster region. With new data from the CMASF we have covered an area of about 2°×1.4° and down to 17 magnitude in r^'. Proper motions are then used to determine the membership probabilities of stars in the region, applying parametric and non-parametric approaches to cluster/field segregation. Adding photometric criteria, we obtained a preliminary list of 665 probable member stars, up to a distance 0.96° from the cluster centre. These are preliminary results on our work that will lead us to the most complete study of its structure, dynamics and mass segregation up to date. We have already obtained proper motions for NGC 1817, NGC 2264 and NGC 2509 that are now being processed.

Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jordi, C.; Muiños, J. L.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Masana, E.

2013-05-01

248

What Are the R Coronae Borealis Stars?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich, supergiants, best known for their spectacular declines in brightness at irregular intervals. Efforts to discover more RCB stars have more than doubled the number known in the last few years and they appear to be members of an old, bulge population. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested for producing an RCB star, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs, or a final helium shell flash in a planetary nebula central star. The evidence pointing toward one or the other is somewhat contradictory, but the discovery that RCB stars have large amounts of 18O has tilted the scales towards the merger scenario. If the RCB stars are the product of white dwarf mergers, this would be a very exciting result since RCB stars would then be low-mass analogs of type Ia supernovae. The predicted number of RCB stars in the Galaxy is consistent with the predicted number of He/CO WD mergers. But, so far, only about sixty-five of the predicted 5,000 RCB stars in the Galaxy have been discovered. The mystery has yet to be solved.

Clayton, G. C.

2012-06-01

249

The dynamics of the Corona Borealis supercluster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of the Corona Borealis (Cor Bor) supercluster was studied on a sample of 1555 galaxies in the vicinity of the six Abell clusters (A2061, A2065, A2067, A2079, A2089, and A2092) which comprise the supercluster. For all galaxies in this sample, photographic R photometry and accurate positional data are available. New R photometry and/or new redshifts were obtained for 97 galaxies, bringing the number of galaxies in this system for which the redshifts are available to 182. The central cluster R band luminosity, X-ray luminosity, and surface density were correlated with the cluster velocity dispersion and virial mass. The amount of matter in the supercluster, estimated to be about 8.2 x 10 to the 15th solar masses, is considered to be sufficient to bind the six Cor Bor clusters, which are contained within a volume of about 13 Mpc in radius. Dynamical time scales are comparable with the Hubble time, making it unlikely that the system is virialized.

Postman, M.; Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.

1988-01-01

250

What are the R Coronae Borealis Stars?  

E-print Network

The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich, supergiants, best known for their spectacular declines in brightness at irregular intervals. Efforts to discover more RCB stars have more than doubled the number known in the last few years and they appear to be members of an old, bulge population. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested for producing an RCB star, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs, or a final helium shell flash in a planetary nebula central star. The evidence pointing toward one or the other is somewhat contradictory, but the discovery that RCB stars have large amounts of 18O has tilted the scales towards the merger scenario. If the RCB stars are the product of white dwarf mergers, this would be a very exciting result since RCB stars would then be low-mass analogs of type Ia supernovae. The predicted number of RCB stars in the Galaxy is consistent with the predicted number of He/CO WD mergers. But, so far, only about 65 of the predicted 5000 RCB s...

Clayton, Geoffrey C

2012-01-01

251

Development of Efficient Models of Corona Discharges Around Tall Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work concerns with numerical modeling of glow corona and sreamer corona discharges that occur near tall ground structures under thunderstorm conditions. Glow corona can occur when ambient electric field reaches modest values on the order of 0.2 kV/cm and when the electric field near sharp points of ground structure rises above a geometry dependent critical field required for ionization of air. Air is continuously ionized in a small region close to the surface of the structure and ions diffuse out into the surrounding air forming a corona. A downward leader approaching from a thundercloud causes a further increase in the electric field at the ground level. If the electric field rises to the point where it can support formation of streamers in air surrounding the tall structure, a streamer corona flash, or series of streamer corona flashes can be formed significantly affecting the space charge configuration formed by the preceding glow corona. The streamer corona can heat the surrounding air enough to form a self-propagating thermalized leader that is launched upward from the tall structure. This leader travels upward towards the thundercloud and connects with the downward approaching leader thus causing a lightning flash. Accurate time-dependent modeling of charge configuration created by the glow and streamer corona discharges around tall structure is an important component for understanding of the sequence of events leading to lightning attachment to the tall structure. The present work builds on principal modeling ideas developed previously in [Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005; Bazelyan et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 17, 024015, 2008; Kowalski, E. J., Honors Thesis, Penn State Univ., University Park, PA, May 2008; Tucker and Pasko, NSF EE REU Penn State Annual Res. J., 10, 13, 2012]. The non-stationary glow and streamer coronas are modeled in spherical geometry up to the point of initiation of the upward leader. The model uses an implicit numerical scheme for time integration and employs effective non-uniform grid system allowing very accurate description of non-stationary coronas emitted by sharp points with sub-millimeter dimensions and expanding hundreds of meters in surrounding air. In the talk we will present principal components of the model and its performance under different time dynamics of the applied electric field closely resembling scenarios under thunderstorm conditions, including, in particular, extended periods of time (tens of seconds) when only glow corona is produced, followed by a fast rise in the field (tens of microseconds) describing approach of the downward leader. We will also present comparisons of the numerical model results on time dependent corona radius and current with an analytical corona theory summarized recently by Bazelyan et al. [2008].

Tucker, J.; Pasko, V. P.

2012-12-01

252

Magnetic Structure of Rapidly Rotating FK Comae-type Coronae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a three-dimensional simulation of the corona of an FK Com-type rapidly rotating G giant using a magnetohydrodynamic model that was originally developed for the solar corona in order to capture the more realistic, non-potential coronal structure. We drive the simulation with surface maps for the radial magnetic field obtained from a stellar dynamo model of the FK Com system. This enables us to obtain the coronal structure for different field topologies representing different periods of time. We find that the corona of such an FK Com-like star, including the large-scale coronal loops, is dominated by a strong toroidal component of the magnetic field. This is a result of part of the field being dragged by the radial outflow, while the other part remains attached to the rapidly rotating stellar surface. This tangling of the magnetic field, in addition to a reduction in the radial flow component, leads to a flattening of the gas density profile with distance in the inner part of the corona. The three-dimensional simulation provides a global view of the coronal structure. Some aspects of the results, such as the toroidal wrapping of the magnetic field, should also be applicable to coronae on fast rotators in general, which our study shows can be considerably different from the well-studied and well-observed solar corona. Studying the global structure of such coronae should also lead to a better understanding of their related stellar processes, such as flares and coronal mass ejections, and in particular should lead to an improved understanding of mass and angular momentum loss from such systems.

Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Kashyap, V. L.; Korhonen, H.; Elstner, D.; Gombosi, T. I.

2010-08-01

253

High-resolution spectroscopy of the R Coronae Borealis Star V Coronae Australis  

E-print Network

Optical high-resolution spectra of the R Coronae Borealis star V CrA at light maximum and during minimum light arediscussed. Abundance analysis confirms previous results showing that V CrA has the composition of the small subclass of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars know as `minority' RCBs, i.e., the Si/Fe and S/Fe ratios are 100 times their solar values. A notable novel result for RCBs is the detection of the 1-0 Swan system $^{12}$C$^{13}$C bandhead indicating that $^{13}$C is abundant: spectrum synthesis shows that $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C is about 3 to 4. Absorption line profiles are variable at maximum light with some lines showing evidence of splitting by about 10 km s$^{-1}$. A spectrum obtained as the star was recovering from a deep minimum shows the presence of cool C$_2$ molecules with a rotational temperature of about 1200K, a temperature suggestive of gas in which carbon is condensing into soot. The presence of rapidly outflowing gas is shown by blue-shifted absorption components of the Na {\\sc i} D and K ...

Rao, N Kameswara

2007-01-01

254

High-resolution spectroscopy of the R Coronae Borealis Star V Coronae Australis  

E-print Network

Optical high-resolution spectra of the R Coronae Borealis star V CrA at light maximum and during minimum light arediscussed. Abundance analysis confirms previous results showing that V CrA has the composition of the small subclass of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars know as `minority' RCBs, i.e., the Si/Fe and S/Fe ratios are 100 times their solar values. A notable novel result for RCBs is the detection of the 1-0 Swan system $^{12}$C$^{13}$C bandhead indicating that $^{13}$C is abundant: spectrum synthesis shows that $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C is about 3 to 4. Absorption line profiles are variable at maximum light with some lines showing evidence of splitting by about 10 km s$^{-1}$. A spectrum obtained as the star was recovering from a deep minimum shows the presence of cool C$_2$ molecules with a rotational temperature of about 1200K, a temperature suggestive of gas in which carbon is condensing into soot. The presence of rapidly outflowing gas is shown by blue-shifted absorption components of the Na {\\sc i} D and K {\\sc i} 7698 \\AA resonance lines.

N. Kameswara Rao; David L. Lambert

2007-10-26

255

Protein corona formation for nanomaterials and proteins of a similar size: hard or soft corona?  

PubMed

Nanoparticles (NPs) entering a biological fluid undergo surface modification due to dynamic, physicochemical interactions with biological components, especially proteins. In this work we used complementary bio-physico-chemical approaches to characterize the effects of interactions between CeO(2) NPs, immunoglobulins (IgGs) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) of a similar size on protein structural evolution as well as formation of (hetero-) aggregates. Using circular dichroism we showed that IgGs and BSA underwent significant structural changes after interaction with NPs. The NPs and protein-NPs were observed after size exclusion chromatography, highlighting the fact that few aggregates were stable enough to pass this mild separation step. X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggested that the surface chemistry of NPs was not affected by these proteins, also implying weak interactions. Competitive experiments revealed that, while the serum was more concentrated for BSA, IgG-NP aggregates were more stable. Altogether, our results indicate that, under our experimental conditions, the formation of a "protein corona" is an unstable and reversible mechanism. This indicates that, when NPs and proteins are similar in size, the adsorption concept (i.e. protein corona concept) cannot be applied to model the NP-protein interaction, and a heteroaggregation model is more appropriate. PMID:23334428

Liu, Wei; Rose, Jérôme; Plantevin, Sophie; Auffan, Mélanie; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Vidaud, Claude

2013-02-21

256

Spontaneous unraveling of hagfish slime thread skeins is mediated by a seawater-soluble protein adhesive.  

PubMed

Hagfishes are known for their ability to rapidly produce vast quantities of slime when provoked. The slime is formed via the interaction between seawater and two components released by the slime glands: mucin vesicles from gland mucous cells, which swell and rupture in seawater to form a network of mucus strands, and intermediate filament-rich threads, which are produced within gland thread cells as tightly coiled bundles called skeins. A previous study showed that the unraveling of skeins from Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) requires both the presence of mucins and hydrodynamic mixing. In contrast, skeins from Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) unravel in the absence of both mucins and mixing. We tested the hypothesis that spontaneous unraveling of E. stoutii skeins is triggered by the dissolution of a seawater-soluble protein adhesive and the release of stored strain energy within the coiled thread. Here we show that, as predicted by this hypothesis, unraveling can be initiated by a protease under conditions in which unraveling does not normally occur. We also demonstrate, using high resolution scanning electron microscopy, that the treatment of skeins with solutions that cause unraveling also leads to the disappearance of surface and inter-thread features that remain when skeins are washed with stabilizing solutions. Our study provides a mechanism for the deployment of thread skeins in Pacific hagfish slime, and raises the possibility of producing novel biomimetic protein adhesives that are salt, temperature and kosmotrope sensitive. PMID:24744422

Bernards, Mark A; Oke, Isdin; Heyland, Andreas; Fudge, Douglas S

2014-04-15

257

Can slow solar shock waves heat the corona?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the solution to a generalized Riemann-Kotchine problem, the appearance of dissipative slow shock waves in the plasma of the solar corona, which occur when rotational discontinuities are refracted at a contact discontinuity in the transition region between the chromosphere and corona, is studied. The oblique interaction between a solar rotational discontinuity A and stationary contact discontinuity C in the transition region is considered in the scope of the magnetohydrodynamic model. Here, due to the presence of a large number of nonlinear Alfvén waves, there is a real possibility of the appearance of a rotational discontinuity moving to the solar corona in the chromosphere. The appearance of dissipative slow MHD shock waves with an insignificant change in the magnetic field as a result of refraction of nondissipative rotational discontinuities at a contact discontinuity in the transition region is proved. It is supposed that a wave source of plasma heating can exist in upper layers of the corona because of the motion of slow shock waves undergoing the Landau damping. Thus, a new model of heat transfer from the chromosphere to the solar corona is proposed.

Grib, S. A.; Pushkar', E. A.

2014-12-01

258

INTERCHANGE RECONNECTION IN A TURBULENT CORONA  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, the so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. The interchange process is often thought to develop at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y- and X-type neutral points, but slow streams with loop composition have been recently observed along fanlike open field lines adjacent to closed regions, far from the apex. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points: photospheric motions induce a magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade in the coronal field that creates the necessary small scales, where a sheared magnetic field component orthogonal to the strong axial field is created locally and can reconnect. We propose that a similar mechanism operates near and around boundaries between open and closed regions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified interface region between open and closed corona threaded by a strong unipolar magnetic field. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along loop-coronal-hole boundary regions and can account naturally and simply for outflows at and adjacent to such boundaries and for the observed diffusion of slow wind around the heliospheric current sheet.

Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Ruffolo, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Servidio, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy); Velli, M., E-mail: rappazzo@udel.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2012-10-10

259

Winds in R Coronae Borealis Stars  

E-print Network

We present new spectroscopic observations of the He I $\\lambda$10830 line in R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars which provide the first strong evidence that most, if not all, RCB stars have winds. It has long been suggested that when dust forms around an RCB star, radiation pressure accelerates the dust away from the star, dragging the gas along with it. The new spectra show that nine of the ten stars observed have P-Cygni or asymmetric blue-shifted profiles in the He I $\\lambda$10830 line. In all cases, the He I line indicates a mass outflow - with a range of intensity and velocity. Around the RCB stars, it is likely that this state is populated by collisional excitation rather than photoionization/recombination. The line profiles have been modeled with an SEI code to derive the optical depth and the velocity field of the helium gas. The results show that the typical RCB wind has a steep acceleration with a terminal velocity of \\Vinf = 200-350 \\kms and a column density of N $\\sim10^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$ in the He I $\\lambda$10830 line. There is a possible relationship between the lightcurve of an RCB star and its He I $\\lambda$10830 profile. Stars which have gone hundreds of days with no dust-formation episodes tend to have weaker He I features. The unusual RCB star, V854 Cen, does not follow this trend, showing little or no He I absorption despite high mass-loss activity. The He I $\\lambda$10830 line in R CrB itself, which has been observed at four epochs between 1978 and 2001, seems to show a P-Cygni or asymmetric blue-shifted profile at all times whether it is in decline or at maximum light.

Geoffrey C. Clayton; T. R. Geballe; Luciana Bianchi

2003-06-04

260

Admittance Survey of Type 1 Coronae on Venus: Implications for Elastic Thickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coronae are volcano-tectonic features on Venus which range from 60km to 2600km and are defined by their nearly circular patterns of fractures. Type 1 (regular) coronae are classified as having >50% complete fracture annuli. Previous work has examined the factors controlling the morphology, size, and fracture pattern of coronae, using lithospheric properties, loading signature and geologic characteristics. However, these studies have been limited to Type 2 (topographic) coronae (e.g. coronaes with <50% fracture annuli), and the factors controlling the formation of Type 1 coronae remain poorly understood. In this study, we apply the methodology of to survey the admittance signature for Type 1 coronae to determine the controlling parameters which govern Type 1 coronae formation.

Hoogenboom, T.; Smrekar, S. E.; Anderson, F. S.; Houseman, G.

2003-01-01

261

Experimental Investigation of the Induced Airflow of Corona Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the acceleration effect of corona discharge acting on air, we present an experimental study on the induced airflow produced by corona discharge between two parallel electrodes. The parameters investigated are the type of electrodes, actuation voltage and the distance in the absence of free airflow. The induced flow velocity is measured directly in the accelerated region using the particle image velocimetry technology. The results show that if corona discharge is not developed into arc discharge, the induced airflow velocity increases nearly linearly with the applied voltage and the maximum induced airflow velocity near the needle electrode reaches 36 m/s. It is expected that in the future, the result can be referred to in the research about effect of active flow control to reach much higher induced airflow speed.

Huang, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Xun-Nian; Wang, Wan-Bo; Huang, Zong-Bo; Li, Hua-Xing

2013-09-01

262

Corona discharge in charge reduction electrospray mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Corona discharge is applied to charge reduction electrospray mass spectrometry for the analysis of complex mixtures of biological molecules. Recent work has described a method of charge reduction (reducing the charge states of analyte ions generated by the electrospray process) employing the radioactive isotope 210Po to produce neutralizing species. A variation to this approach is presented, in which charge neutralization is mediated by ions produced in a corona discharge. Varying the corona discharge voltage controls the current and the degree of charge reduction, providing predominantly singly charged ions that are detected by a commercial electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This technique provides charge reduction for the simplification of ESI spectra, without need for any radioactive material. PMID:11080858

Ebeling, D D; Westphall, M S; Scalf, M; Smith, L M

2000-11-01

263

Probing the solar corona with very long baseline interferometry  

PubMed Central

Understanding and monitoring the solar corona and solar wind is important for many applications like telecommunications or geomagnetic studies. Coronal electron density models have been derived by various techniques over the last 45 years, principally by analysing the effect of the corona on spacecraft tracking. Here we show that recent observational data from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), a radio technique crucial for astrophysics and geodesy, could be used to develop electron density models of the Sun’s corona. The VLBI results agree well with previous models from spacecraft measurements. They also show that the simple spherical electron density model is violated by regional density variations and that on average the electron density in active regions is about three times that of low-density regions. Unlike spacecraft tracking, a VLBI campaign would be possible on a regular basis and would provide highly resolved spatial–temporal samplings over a complete solar cycle. PMID:24946791

Soja, B.; Heinkelmann, R.; Schuh, H.

2014-01-01

264

HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA  

SciTech Connect

Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2013-08-01

265

Probing the solar corona with very long baseline interferometry.  

PubMed

Understanding and monitoring the solar corona and solar wind is important for many applications like telecommunications or geomagnetic studies. Coronal electron density models have been derived by various techniques over the last 45 years, principally by analysing the effect of the corona on spacecraft tracking. Here we show that recent observational data from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), a radio technique crucial for astrophysics and geodesy, could be used to develop electron density models of the Sun's corona. The VLBI results agree well with previous models from spacecraft measurements. They also show that the simple spherical electron density model is violated by regional density variations and that on average the electron density in active regions is about three times that of low-density regions. Unlike spacecraft tracking, a VLBI campaign would be possible on a regular basis and would provide highly resolved spatial-temporal samplings over a complete solar cycle. PMID:24946791

Soja, B; Heinkelmann, R; Schuh, H

2014-01-01

266

Natural Light Harvesting Systems: Unraveling the quantum puzzles  

E-print Network

In natural light harvesting systems, the sequential quantum events of photon absorption by specialized biological antenna complexes, charge separation, exciton formation and energy transfer to localized reaction centers culminates in the conversion of solar to chemical energy. A notable feature in these processes is the exceptionally high efficiencies ($>$ 95\\%) at which excitation is transferred from the illuminated protein complex site to the reaction centers. The high speeds of excitation propagation within a system of interwoven biomolecular network structures, is yet to be replicated in artificial light harvesting complexes. A clue to unraveling the quantum puzzles of nature may lie in the observations of long lived coherences lasting several picoseconds in the electronic spectra of photosynthetic complexes which occurs even in noisy environmental baths. The exact nature of the association between the high energy propagation rates and strength of quantum coherences remains largely unsolved. This review presents recent developments in quantum theories, and links information-theoretic aspects with photosynthetic light-harvesting processes in biomolecular systems. There is examination of various attempts to pinpoint the processes that underpin coherence features arising from the light harvesting activities of biomolecular systems, with particular emphasis on the effects that factors such non-Markovianity, zeno mechanisms, teleportation, quantum predictability and the role of multipartite states have on the quantum dynamics of biomolecular systems. A discussion of how quantum thermodynamical principles and agent-based modeling and simulation approaches can improve our understanding of natural photosynthetic systems is included.

A. Thilagam

2014-11-23

267

Unraveling shock-induced chemistry using ultrafast lasers  

SciTech Connect

The exquisite time synchronicity between shock and diagnostics needed to unravel chemical events occurring in picoseconds has been achieved using a shaped ultrafast laser pulse to both drive the shocks and interrogate the sample via a multiplicity of optical diagnostics. The shaped laser drive pulse can produce well-controlled shock states of sub-ns duration with sub-10 ps risetimes, sufficient for investigation of fast reactions or phase transformations in a thin layer with picosecond time resolution. The shock state is characterized using ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) in either planar or Gaussian spatial geometries, the latter allowing measurements of the equation of state of materials at a range of stresses in a single laser pulse. Time-resolved processes in materials are being interrogated using UDE, ultrafast infrared absorption, ultrafast UV/visible absorption, and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy. Using these tools we showed that chemistry in an energetic thin film starts only after an induction time of a few tens of ps, an observation that allows differentiation between proposed shock-induced reaction mechanisms. These tools are presently being applied to a variety of energetic and reactive sample systems, from nitromethane and carbon disulfide, to micro-engineered interfaces in tunable energetic mixtures.

Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

268

Unraveling shock-induced chemistry using ultrafast lasers  

SciTech Connect

The exquisite time synchronicity between shock and diagnostics needed to unravel chemical events occurring in picoseconds has been achieved using a shaped ultrafast laser pulse to both drive the shocks and interrogate the sample via a multiplicity of optical diagnostics. The shaped laser drive pulse can produce well-controlled shock states of sub-ns duration with sub-10 ps risetimes, sufficient for investigation offast reactions or phase transformations in a thin layer with picosecond time resolution. The shock state is characterized using ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) in either planar or Gaussian spatial geometries, the latter allowing measurements of the equation of state of materials at a range of stresses in a single laser pulse. Time-resolved processes in materials are being interrogated using UDE, ultrafast infrared absorption, ultrafast UV/visible absorption, and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy. Using these tools we showed that chemistry in an energetic thin film starts only after an induction time of a few tens of ps, an observation that allows differentiation between proposed shock-induced reaction mechanisms. These tools are presently being applied to a variety of energetic and reactive sample systems, from nitromethane and carbon disulfide, to microengineered interfaces in tunable energetic mixtures. Recent results will be presented, and future trends outlined.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-06

269

Unraveling the resistance of microbial biofilms: has proteomics been helpful?  

PubMed

Biofilms are surface-attached, matrix-encased, structured microbial communities which display phenotypic features that are dramatically different from those of their free-floating, or planktonic, counterparts. Biofilms seem to be the preferred mode of growth of microorganisms in nature, and at least 65% of all human infections are associated with biofilms. The most notable and clinically relevant property of biofilms is their greater resistance to antimicrobials compared with their planktonic counterparts. Although both bacterial and fungal biofilms display this phenotypic feature, the exact mechanisms underlying their increased drug resistance are yet to be determined. Advances in proteomics techniques during the past decade have facilitated in-depth analysis of the possible mechanisms underpinning increased drug resistance in biofilms. These studies have demonstrated the ability of proteomics techniques to unravel new targets for combating microbial biofilms. In this review, we discuss the putative drug resistance mechanisms of microbial biofilms that have been uncovered by proteomics and critically evaluate the possible contribution of the new knowledge to future development in the field. We also summarize strategic uses of novel proteomics technologies in studies related to drug resistance mechanisms of microbial biofilms. PMID:22246638

Seneviratne, C Jayampath; Wang, Yu; Jin, Lijian; Wong, Sarah S W; Herath, Thanuja D K; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

2012-02-01

270

Semi-analytical radiative transfer in plane-parallel geometry: application to accretion disk coronae  

E-print Network

A simplified frequency-integrated radiative transfer equation is solved to study Compton scatterings in the corona of the disk by using numerical iterating method. We find that the vertical thickness of the corona cannot be used as the typical length to measure the optical depth of the corona. A semi-analytical approach is proposed to calculate the energy dissipations in the corona of the disk. We demonstrate that our approach can reproduce the numerical solutions to an accuracy of <2 %.

Xinwu Cao; D. R. Jiang; J. H. You; J. L. Zhao

1997-11-09

271

Radio Remote Sensing of the Corona and the Solar Wind  

E-print Network

Modern radio telescopes are extremely sensitive to plasma on the line of sight from a radio source to the antenna. Plasmas in the corona and solar wind produce measurable changes in the radio wave amplitude and phase, and the phase difference between wave fields of opposite circular polarization. Such measurements can be made of radio waves from spacecraft transmitters and extragalactic radio sources, using radio telescopes and spacecraft tracking antennas. Data have been taken at frequencies from about 80 MHz to 8000 MHz. Lower frequencies probe plasma at greater heliocentric distances. Analysis of these data yields information on the plasma density, density fluctuations, and plasma flow speeds in the corona and solar wind, and on the magnetic field in the solar corona. This paper will concentrate on the information that can be obtained from measurements of Faraday rotation through the corona and inner solar wind. The magnitude of Faraday rotation is proportional to the line of sight integral of the plasma density and the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field. Faraday rotation provides an almost unique means of estimating the magnetic field in this part of space. This technique has contributed to measurement of the large scale coronal magnetic field, the properties of electromagnetic turbulence in the corona, possible detection of electrical currents in the corona, and probing of the internal structure of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This paper concentrates on the search for small-scale coronal turbulence and remote sensing of the structure of CMEs. Future investigations with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) or Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) could provide unique observational input on the astrophysics of CMEs.

Steven R. Spangler; Catherine A. Whiting

2008-09-26

272

The Structure and Dynamics of the Corona—Heliosphere Connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining how the heliospheric magnetic field and plasma connect to the Sun's corona and photosphere is, perhaps, the central problem in solar and heliospheric physics. For much of the heliosphere, this connection appears to be well understood. It is now generally accepted that so-called coronal holes, which appear dark in X-rays and are predominantly unipolar at the photosphere, are the sources of quasi-steady wind that is generally fast, >500 km/s, but can sometimes be slow. However, the connection to the Sun of the slow, non-steady wind is far from understood and remains a major mystery. We review the existing theories for the sources of the non-steady wind and demonstrate that they have difficulty accounting for both the observed composition of the wind and its large angular extent. A new theory is described in which this wind originates from the continuous opening and closing of narrow open field corridors in the corona, which give rise to a web of separatrices (the S-Web) in the heliosphere. Note that in this theory the corona—heliosphere connection is intrinsically dynamic, at least for this type of wind. Support for the S-Web model is derived from MHD solutions for the corona and wind during the time of the August 1, 2008 eclipse. Additionally, we perform fully dynamic numerical simulations of the corona and heliosphere in order to test the S-Web model as well as the interchange model proposed by Fisk and co-workers. We discuss the implications of our simulations for the competing theories and for understanding the corona—heliosphere connection, in general.

Antiochos, Spiro K.; Linker, Jon A.; Lionello, Roberto; Miki?, Zoran; Titov, Viacheslav; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

2012-11-01

273

Protein corona formation for nanomaterials and proteins of a similar size: hard or soft corona?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles (NPs) entering a biological fluid undergo surface modification due to dynamic, physicochemical interactions with biological components, especially proteins. In this work we used complementary bio-physico-chemical approaches to characterize the effects of interactions between CeO2 NPs, immunoglobulins (IgGs) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) of a similar size on protein structural evolution as well as formation of (hetero-) aggregates. Using circular dichroism we showed that IgGs and BSA underwent significant structural changes after interaction with NPs. The NPs and protein-NPs were observed after size exclusion chromatography, highlighting the fact that few aggregates were stable enough to pass this mild separation step. X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggested that the surface chemistry of NPs was not affected by these proteins, also implying weak interactions. Competitive experiments revealed that, while the serum was more concentrated for BSA, IgG-NP aggregates were more stable. Altogether, our results indicate that, under our experimental conditions, the formation of a ``protein corona'' is an unstable and reversible mechanism. This indicates that, when NPs and proteins are similar in size, the adsorption concept (i.e. protein corona concept) cannot be applied to model the NP-protein interaction, and a heteroaggregation model is more appropriate.Nanoparticles (NPs) entering a biological fluid undergo surface modification due to dynamic, physicochemical interactions with biological components, especially proteins. In this work we used complementary bio-physico-chemical approaches to characterize the effects of interactions between CeO2 NPs, immunoglobulins (IgGs) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) of a similar size on protein structural evolution as well as formation of (hetero-) aggregates. Using circular dichroism we showed that IgGs and BSA underwent significant structural changes after interaction with NPs. The NPs and protein-NPs were observed after size exclusion chromatography, highlighting the fact that few aggregates were stable enough to pass this mild separation step. X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggested that the surface chemistry of NPs was not affected by these proteins, also implying weak interactions. Competitive experiments revealed that, while the serum was more concentrated for BSA, IgG-NP aggregates were more stable. Altogether, our results indicate that, under our experimental conditions, the formation of a ``protein corona'' is an unstable and reversible mechanism. This indicates that, when NPs and proteins are similar in size, the adsorption concept (i.e. protein corona concept) cannot be applied to model the NP-protein interaction, and a heteroaggregation model is more appropriate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of control of sterile CeO2 NP suspension preparation by DLS; the fluorescence measurement data from fractional analysis of chromatographic elution; EXAFS spectra analysis of the structure of CeO2 in contact with BSA and IgG; the zeta potential measurement of NPs in different experimental media. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33611a

Liu, Wei; Rose, Jérôme; Plantevin, Sophie; Auffan, Mélanie; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Vidaud, Claude

2013-01-01

274

An XMM-Newton Study of the Coronae of $?^2$ Coronae Borealis  

E-print Network

(Abridged) We present results of XMM-Newton observations of the RS CVn binary $\\sigma^2$ Coronae Borealis. The RGS and EPIC MOS2 spectra were simultaneously fitted with collisional ionization equilibrium plasma models to determine coronal abundances of various elements. Contrary to the solar first ionization potential (FIP) effect in which elements with a low FIP are overabundant in the corona compared to the solar photosphere, and contrary to the ``inverse'' FIP effect observed in several active RS CVn binaries, coronal abundance ratios in $\\sigma^2$ CrB show a complex pattern as supported by similar findings in the Chandra HETGS analysis of $\\sigma^2$ CrB with a different methodology (Osten et al. 2003). Low-FIP elements ($<10$ eV) have their abundance ratios relative to Fe consistent with the solar photospheric ratios, whereas high-FIP elements have their abundance ratios increase with increasing FIP. We find that the coronal Fe abundance is consistent with the stellar photospheric value, indicating that there is no metal depletion in $\\sigma^2$ CrB. However, we obtain a higher Fe absolute abundance than in Osten et al. (2003). Except for Ar and S, our absolute abundances are about 1.5 times larger than those reported by Osten et al. (2003). However, a comparison of their model with our XMM-Newton data (and vice versa) shows that both models work adequately in general. We find, therefore, no preference for one methodology over the other to derive coronal abundances. Despite the systematic discrepancy in absolute abundances, our abundance ratios are very close to those obtained by Osten et al. (2003). Finally, we confirm the measurement of a low density in \\ion{O}{7} ($< 4 \\times 10^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$), but could not confirm the higher densities measured in spectral lines formed at higher temperatures.

J. A. Suh; M. Audard; M. Guedel; F. B. S. Paerels

2005-06-10

275

Observational studies of reconnection in the solar corona  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, observational studies of the corona have shifted focus. Where they were once purely qualitative morphological explorations seeking to support the presence of reconnection, more investigations are providing empirical estimates of the physical conditions in the reconnecting corona. These studies are enabled and enhanced by orbiting telescopes with high angular and temporal resolution. In this article, some recent findings about the empirical quantities are reviewed, including recent estimates of the flux transferred in individual patchy reconnection episodes, the size distribution of post-reconnection flux tubes, and the energy released by the flux tubes as they shrink.

McKenzie, David E. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, Montana 59717-3840 (United States)

2011-11-15

276

An assessment of the harmonic pollution due to line corona  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with the phenomenon of corona on high voltage overhead transmission lines as a possible source of harmonic pollution. Starting with a validated method for simulating corona by means of distributed nonlinear shunt resistors, the distorted current waveforms for different locations on a long line could be determined. The location-dependent frequency spectrum of the line longitudinal current could be obtained through numerical Fourier analysis. It is shown, that under some operating and weather conditions, the harmonic content of the line current can attain technically unacceptable values.

Saied, M.M.; Oufi, E.A. (Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait))

1993-01-25

277

Fabrication of Corona-Free Nanoparticles with Tunable Hydrophobicity  

PubMed Central

A protein corona is formed at the surface of nanoparticles in the presence of biological fluids, masking the surface properties of the particle and complicating the relationship between chemical functionality and biological effects. We present here a series of zwitterionic NPs of variable hydrophobicity that do not adsorb proteins at moderate levels of serum protein and do not form hard coronas at physiological serum concentrations. These particles provide platforms to evaluate nanobiological behavior such as cell uptake and hemolysis dictated directly by chemical motifs at the nanoparticle surface. PMID:24971670

2014-01-01

278

Observations and evolution of hot coronae around early type galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review describes obervations of hot coronae around early-type galaxies. The observations show that early-type galaxies have 0.5-4.5 keV luminosities up to nearly 10 to the 43rd ergs/sec dominated by thermal emission from 10 to the 10th solar masses of hot (about 10 to the 7th K) gas. Calculations which model the evolution of the coronae are presented. These models can explain the present epoch observations as well as predict the coronal properties at large redshift.

Forman, W.; Jones, C.; David, L.; Tucker, W.

1990-01-01

279

A study of the lightning channel corona sheath Grzegorz Maslowski1,2  

E-print Network

A study of the lightning channel corona sheath Grzegorz Maslowski1,2 and Vladimir A. Rakov1] Dynamics of lightning channel corona sheath surrounding thin channel core is examined on the basis of three vicinity of the lightning channel and measured channel base current. The corona sheath radius, velocity

Florida, University of

280

Effect of relative humidity on electron distribution and ozone production by DC coronas in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of relative humidity on the electron distribution and the ozone production in the direct current (dc) corona discharge from a thin wire is evaluated with a numerical model. The model is based on the prior models of ozone production by dc coronas in dry air, with modifications to incorporate the effect of water vapor on the corona plasma

Junhong Chen; Pengxiang Wang

2005-01-01

281

Ozone Production in the Negative DC Corona: The Dependence of Discharge Polarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of production and the spatial distribution of ozone in the negative DC corona discharge are predicted with a numerical model. The results are compared to prior experimental data and to results previously presented by the authors for the positive corona discharge. In agreement with experimental data, ozone production rate in the negative corona is an order of magnitude

Junhong Chen; Jane H. Davidson

2003-01-01

282

ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF MICROEVENTS IN THE QUIET SOLAR CORONA Arnold O. Benz  

E-print Network

ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF MICROEVENTS IN THE QUIET SOLAR CORONA Arnold O. Benz Institute of Astronomy of the pixels in quiet regions of the solar corona. The changes in coronal emission measure indicate impulsive can only come from observations of the corona. Of particular interest are time variations in coronal

283

Patchy reconnection in the solar corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection in plasmas, a process characterized by a change in connectivity of field lines that are broken and connected to other ones with different topology, owes its usefulness to its ability to unify a wide range of phenomena within a single universal principle. There are newly observed phenomena in the solar corona that cannot be reconciled with two-dimensional or steady-state standard models of magnetic reconnection. Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) and supra-arcade downflowing loops (SADLs) descending from reconnection regions toward solar post-flare arcades seem to be two different observational signatures of retracting, isolated reconnected flux tubes with irreducible three-dimensional geometries. This dissertation describes work in refining and improving a novel model of patchy reconnection, where only a small bundle of field lines is reconnected across a current sheet (magnetic discontinuity) and forms a reconnected thin flux tube. Traditional models have not been able to explain why some of the observed SADs appear to be hot and relatively devoid of plasma. The present work shows that plasma depletion naturally occurs in flux tubes that are reconnected across nonuniform current sheets and slide trough regions of decreasing magnetic field magnitude. Moreover, through a detailed theoretical analysis of generalized thin flux tube equations, we show that the addition to the model of pressure-driven parallel dynamics, as well as temperature-dependent, anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity is essential for self-consistently producing gas-dynamic shocks inside reconnected tubes that heat and compress plasma to observed temperatures and densities. The shock thickness can be as long as the entire tube and heat can be conducted along tube's legs, possibly driving chromospheric evaporation. We developed a computer program that solves numerically the thin flux tube equations that govern the retraction of reconnected tubes. Simulations carried out with this program corroborate our theoretical predictions. A comparison of these simulations with fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations is presented to assess the validity of the thin flux tube model. We also present an observational method based on total emission measure and mean temperature to determine where in the current sheet a tube was reconnected.

Guidoni, Silvina Esther

2011-05-01

284

Unravelling genetics at the top: mountain islands or isolated belts?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In mountain plant populations, local adaptation has been described as one of the main responses to climate warming, allowing plants to persist under stressful conditions. This is especially the case for marginal populations at their lowest elevation, as they are highly vulnerable. Adequate levels of genetic diversity are required for selection to take place, while high levels of altitudinal gene flow are seen as a major limiting factor potentially precluding local adaptation processes. Thus, a compromise between genetic diversity and gene flow seems necessary to guarantee persistence under oncoming conditions. It is therefore critical to determine if gene flow occurs preferentially between mountains at similar altitudinal belts, promoting local adaptation at the lowest populations, or conversely along altitude within each mountain. Methods Microsatellite markers were used to unravel genetic diversity and population structure, inbreeding and gene flow of populations at two nearby altitudinal gradients of Silene ciliata, a Mediterranean high-mountain cushion plant. Key Results Genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients were similar in all populations. Substantial gene flow was found both along altitudinal gradients and horizontally within each elevation belt, although greater values were obtained along altitudinal gradients. Gene flow may be responsible for the homogeneous levels of genetic diversity found among populations. Bayesian cluster analyses also suggested that shifts along altitudinal gradients are the most plausible scenario. Conclusions Past population shifts associated with glaciations and interglacial periods in temperate mountains may partially explain current distributions of genetic diversity and population structure. In spite of the predominance of gene flow along the altitudinal gradients, local genetic differentiation of one of the lower populations together with the detection of one outlier locus might support the existence of different selection forces at low altitudes. PMID:23002271

García-Fernández, Alfredo; Segarra-Moragues, Jose Gabriel; Widmer, Alex; Escudero, Adrian; Iriondo, José María

2012-01-01

285

Unraveling hidden regulatory sites in structurally homologous metalloproteases.  

PubMed

Monitoring enzymatic activity in vivo of individual homologous enzymes such as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by antagonist molecules is highly desired for defining physiological and pathophysiological pathways. However, the rational design of antagonists targeting enzyme catalytic moieties specific to one of the homologous enzymes often appears to be an extremely difficult task. This is mainly due to the high structural homology at the enzyme active sites shared by members of the protein family. Accordingly, controlling enzymatic activity via alternative allosteric sites has become an attractive proposition for drug design targeting individual homologous enzymes. Yet, the challenge remains to identify such regulatory alternative sites that are often hidden and scattered over different locations on the protein's surface. We have designed branched amphiphilic molecules exhibiting specific inhibitory activity towards individual members of the MMP family. These amphiphilic isomers share the same chemical nature, providing versatile nonspecific binding reactivity that allows to probe hidden regulatory residues on a given protein surface. Using the advantage provided by amphiphilic ligands, here we explore a new approach for determining hidden regulatory sites. This approach includes diverse experimental analysis, such as structural spectroscopic analyses, NMR, and protein crystallography combined with computational prediction of effector binding sites. We demonstrate how our approach works by analyzing members of the MMP family that possess a unique set of such sites. Our work provides a proof of principle for using ligand effectors to unravel hidden regulatory sites specific to members of the structurally homologous MMP family. This approach may be exploited for the design of novel molecular effectors and therapeutic agents affecting protein catalytic function via interactions with structure-specific regulatory sites. PMID:23583775

Udi, Yael; Fragai, Marco; Grossman, Moran; Mitternacht, Simon; Arad-Yellin, Rina; Calderone, Vito; Melikian, Maxime; Toccafondi, Mirco; Berezovsky, Igor N; Luchinat, Claudio; Sagi, Irit

2013-07-10

286

Rotation of Solar Corona from Tracking of Coronal Bright Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated procedure for identification of coronal bright points is applied to selected EIT images observed at various phases of the solar cycle. The procedure finds about 400 bright points on a single EIT image observed at 195 Å. The positions of the bright points are tracked to study the profile of solar rotation in the solar corona. It is

Nina Karachik; Alexei A. Pevtsov; Isroil Sattarov

2006-01-01

287

Asymptotic analysis of corona discharge from thin electrodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The steady discharge of a high-voltage corona is analyzed as a singular perturbation problem. The small parameter is the ratio of the length of the ionization region to the total gap length. By this method, current versus voltage characteristics can be calculated analytically.

Durbin, P. A.

1986-01-01

288

A Technique for Measuring Electrical Currents in the Solar Corona  

E-print Network

A technique is described for measuring electrical currents in the solar corona. It uses radioastronomical polarization measurements of a spatially-extended radio source viewed through the corona. The observations yield the difference in the Faraday rotation measure between two closely-spaced lines of sight through the corona, a measurement referred to as {\\em differential Faraday rotation}. It is shown that the expression for differential Faraday rotation is proportional to the path integral $\\oint n \\vec{B}\\cdot \\vec{ds}$ where $n$ is the plasma density and $\\vec{B}$ is the coronal magnetic field. The integral is around a closed loop (Amperian Loop) in the corona. If the plasma density is assumed roughly constant, the differential Faraday rotation is proportional to the current within the loop, via Ampere's Law. The validity of the constant density approximation is discussed, and two test cases are presented in which the associated error in the inferred current is small, of order tens of percent or less. The method is illustrated with observations of the radio source 3C228 with the Very Large Array (VLA) in August, 2003. A measurement of a differential Faraday rotation ``event'' on August 16, 2003, yields an estimate of $2.5 \\times 10^9$ Amperes in the Amperian Loop. A smaller event on August 18 yields an enclosed current of $2.3 \\times 10^8$ Amperes. The implications of these currents for coronal heating are briefly discussed.

Steven R. Spangler

2007-09-11

289

Transverse structures in corona of nonuniformly irradiated solid targets  

E-print Network

-on shadowgraphy. The experimental results were successfully interpreted using a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code. A special methodol- ogy based on two-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations is introduced for modeling the three-dimensional experimen- tal configuration.The density structures in expanding plasma corona

Limpouch, Jiri

290

An acceleration mechanism for loop transients in the outer corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heliocentrifugal motion of coronal loop transients is likely driven largely by the buoyant force exerted by the ambient medium. In the outer corona where the solar wind is well formed, the buoyant force results mainly from the rapid outward decrease in the ambient pressure of the solar wind. The contribution from magnetic buoyancy is not so significant as in

Tyan Yeh; Murray Dryer

1981-01-01

291

ES Aquilae Is an R Coronae Borealis Star  

Microsoft Academic Search

ES Aql, initially classified as a semiregular variable, is now believed to be a member of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) class of stars, a small group of carbon-rich supergiants that undergo dramatic declines in brightness at irregular intervals. We present photometry of ES Aql going back as far as 1893 using plates from the Harvard College Observatory as well

Geoffrey C. Clayton; D. Hammond; J. Lawless; D. Kilkenny; T. Lloyd Evans; J. Mattei; A. U. Landolt

2002-01-01

292

Chemical composition of R Coronae Borealis and XX Camelopardalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three R Coronae Borealis stars (R CrB, XX Cam, and RY Sgr) have been examined using extensive, high resolution, high signal-to-noise Reticon data. From He- and C-rich models and an appropriate model atmosphere code, the following atmospheric parameters were derived

P. L. Cottrell; D. L. Lambert

1982-01-01

293

Properties of Flammable Gaseous Mixtures Optimized by Corona Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are important applications of discharges occurring in gaseous hydrocarbons. This paper focuses on experimental work on corona discharges aimed at optimizing the electronegative properties of hydrocarbon binary media. Discharges were studied in a needle-plane system with a small electrode gap under controlled pressure, temperature, and homogeneity of the sample. Various highly flammable hydrocarbon mixtures of cyclopentane, 1-pentene, and pentane

Adrian Ieta; Zden Kucerovsky; William D. Greason

2008-01-01

294

Numerical modeling of ozone production in direct current corona discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone has many industrial uses, including treatment of municipal water, wastewater, cooling towers, industrial process water, effluent water treatment, food processing, through to water fit for consumption and marine life. In this paper, we study the ozone production by negative electric corona discharge, witch involves passing the feed of gas, air rich, through an electrical discharge. This is done by

K. Yanallah; S. Hadj Ziane; A. Belasri; Y. Meslem

2006-01-01

295

37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA DISCHARGE IN THE COTTRELL ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS. THE SYSTEM WAS CAPABLE OF PROVIDING 88,000 VOLTS TO THE ELECTRODES WITHIN THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER THE UNIT WAS LOCATED TO THE REAR OF BOILER 904 IN AN ENCLOSED ROOM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

296

Extended Solar Corona Rotation from SOHO/UVCS Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UVCS instrument aboard SOHO provides almost regular long time series of data for the UV and visible light extended corona covering, with nearly daily observations, a complete solar activity cycle starting from April 1996. The two UV channels data allow the reconstruction of high spatial resolution intensity synoptic maps from 1.5 to 3.0 solar radii for the main spectral lines observed (H I Lyman alpha at 121.6 nm and O VI doublet and at 103.2/103.7 nm), moreover the White Light Channel (WLC), designed to measure the linearly polarized radiance (pB) in the wavelength band from 450 nm to 600 nm, allows to plot the time evolution of the visible corona throughout the solar cycle at 8 different polar angles from 1.75 to 3.0 solar radii. The analysis of the maps shows that some features persist for several solar rotations and so it is possible to analyze the data as a time-series modulated at the period of the solar rotation. Therefore the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and autocorrelation methods are used to extract the most significant frequency components from UVCS data time-series and to investigate the rotation rate of the solar corona at different latitudes, heights and phases of the solar cycle. We find a not rigid latitudinal coronal rotation rate and little evidence of more differential rotation at lower distance from sun center. In general the larger gradients of the rotation rates, both in latitudinal and radial direction, are localized at the boundary between the open and closed magnetic field lines. Moreover the study of the rotation rate as a function of time in the solar cycle shows also that the extended corona rotation is only slightly affected by the slower rotation of the inner corona at the solar maximum.

Giordano, Silvio; Mancuso, Salvatore

297

The Optical Diagnosis of Underwater Positive Sparks and Corona Discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, two types of underwater discharges, spark discharge and corona discharge, are investigated by optical diagnosis using a high speed framing camera (HSFC) with the framing time within nanoseconds under the same experimental conditions. In order to capture the photographs of streamer propagation, the influence of the randomicity of the pre-breakdown duration is taken into consideration. By increasing the conductivity of water, the randomicity reduces effectively. Experimental results show that, for a spark discharge, the process can be separated into three stages: the generation and propagation of a streamer, the generation and expansion of the discharge channel, and the development and annihilation of the plasma. The streamers do not directly move to the opposite electrode, but form a bush-like figure. With the increase of the number of branches, the velocity of streamer propagation slows down. The trajectory of the initial channel between electrodes is not straight. However, with the channel expanding, its shape transforms into a straight column. For a corona discharge, there are two stages: the generation and propagation of a streamer, and the stagnation and annihilation of the streamer. The initial streamer in a corona discharge is generated later than in a spark discharge. The forms of streamers for both kinds of discharge are similar; however, streamers generated by a corona discharge propagate with a slower velocity and the number of branches is less compared with a spark discharge. When the energy injection stops, the luminescence of plasma inside the discharge channel (spark discharge) or streamers (corona discharge) becomes weaker and weaker, and finally disappears.

Chen, Dan; Zeng, Xinwu; Wang, Yibo

2014-12-01

298

Release timescales of solar energetic particles in the low corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We present a systematic study of the timing and duration of the release processes of near-relativistic (NR; >50 keV) electrons in the low corona. Methods: We analyze seven well-observed events using in situ measurements by both the ACE and Wind spacecraft and context electromagnetic observations in soft X-rays, radio, hard X-rays and white light. We make use of velocity dispersion analysis to estimate the release time of the first arriving electrons and compare with the results obtained by using a simulation-based approach, taking interplanetary transport effects into account to unfold the NR electron release time history from in situ measurements. Results: The NR electrons observed in interplanetary space appear to be released during either short (<30 min) or long (>2 h) periods. The observation of NR electron events showing beamed pitch-angle distributions (PADs) during several hours is the clearest observational signature of sustained release in the corona. On the other hand, the in situ observation of PADs isotropizing in less than a couple of hours is a clear signature of a prompt release of electrons in the low corona. Short release episodes appear to originate in solar flares, in coincidence with the timing of the observed type III radio bursts. Magnetic connectivity plays an important role. Only type III radio bursts reaching the local plasma line measured at 1 AU are found to be related with an associated release episode in the low corona. Other type III bursts may also have a release of NR electrons associated with them, but these electrons do not reach L1. Long release episodes appear associated with signatures of long acceleration processes in the low corona (long decay of the soft X-ray emission, type IV radio bursts, and time-extended microwave emission). Type II radio bursts are reported for most of the events and do not provide a clear discrimination between short and long release timescales.

Agueda, N.; Klein, K.-L.; Vilmer, N.; Rodríguez-Gasén, R.; Malandraki, O. E.; Papaioannou, A.; Subirà, M.; Sanahuja, B.; Valtonen, E.; Dröge, W.; Nindos, A.; Heber, B.; Braune, S.; Usoskin, I. G.; Heynderickx, D.; Talew, E.; Vainio, R.

2014-10-01

299

An XMM-Newton Study of the Coronae of ?2 Coronae Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of XMM-Newton Guaranteed Time observations of the RS CVn binary ?2 Coronae Borealis. The spectra obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometers and the European Photon Imaging Camera MOS2 were simultaneously fitted with collisional ionization equilibrium plasma models to determine coronal abundances of various elements. Contrary to the solar first ionization potential (FIP) effect, in which elements with a low FIP are overabundant in the corona compared to the solar photosphere, and contrary to the ``inverse'' FIP effect observed in several active RS CVn binaries, coronal abundance ratios in ?2 CrB show a complex pattern, as supported by similar findings in the Chandra HETGS analysis of ?2 CrB with a different methodology by Osten and coworkers in 2003. Low-FIP elements (<10 eV) have abundance ratios relative to Fe that are consistent with the solar photospheric ratios, whereas high-FIP elements have abundance ratios that increase with increasing FIP. We find that the coronal Fe abundance is consistent with the stellar photospheric value, indicating that there is no metal depletion in ?2 CrB. However, we obtain a higher Fe absolute abundance than Osten and coworkers did. Except for Ar and S, our absolute abundances are about 1.5 times larger than those reported by Osten and coworkers. However, a comparison of their model with our XMM-Newton data (and vice versa) shows that both models work adequately in general. We find, therefore, no preference for one methodology over the other for deriving coronal abundances. Despite the systematic discrepancy in absolute abundances, our abundance ratios are very close to those obtained by Osten and coworkers. Finally, we confirm the measurement of a low density in O VII (<4×1010 cm-3) but could not confirm the higher densities measured in spectral lines formed at higher temperatures that were derived by other studies of ?2 CrB due to the lower spectral resolution of the XMM-Newton grating spectrometers.

Suh, Jin A.; Audard, Marc; Güdel, Manuel; Paerels, Frederik B. S.

2005-09-01

300

Diagnosing the Prominence-Cavity Connection in the Solar Corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energetic equilibrium of the corona is described by a balance of heating, thermal conduction, and radiative cooling. Prominences can be described by the thermal instability of coronal energy balance which leads to the formation of cool condensations. Observationally, the prominence is surrounded by a density depleted elliptical structure known as a cavity. In this dissertation, we use extreme ultraviolet remote sensing observations of the prominence-cavity system to diagnose the static and dynamic properties of these structures. The observations are compared with numerical models for the time-dependent coronal condensation process and the time-independent corona-prominence magnetic field. To diagnose the density of the cavity, we construct a three-dimensional structural model of the corona. This structural model allows us to synthesize extreme ultraviolet emission in the corona in a way that incorporates the projection effects which arise from the optically thin plasma. This forward model technique is used to constrain a radial density profile simultaneously in the cavity and the streamer. We use a ?2 minimization to find the density model which best matches a density sensitive line ratio (observed with Hinode/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer) and the white light scattered intensity (observed with Mauna Loa Solar Observatory MK4 coronagraph). We use extreme ultraviolet spectra and spectral images to diagnose the dynamics of the prominence and the surrounding corona. Based on the doppler shift of extreme ultraviolet coronal emission lines, we find that there are large regions of flowing plasma which appear to occur within cavities. These line of sight flows have speeds of 10 km/s-1 and projected spatial scales of 100 Mm. Using the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) dataset, we observe dynamic emission from the prominence-cavity system. The SDO/AIA dataset observes multiple spectral bandpasses with different temperature sensitivities. Time-dependent changes in the observed emission in these bandpass images represent changes in the thermodynamic properties of the emitting plasma. We find that the coronal region surrounding the prominence exhibits larger intensity variations (over tens of hours of observations) as compared to the streamer region. This variability is particularly strong in the cool coronal emission of the 171Å bandpass. We identify the source of this variability as strong brightening events that resemble concave-up loop segments and extend from the cool prominence plasma. Magnetic field lines are the basic structural building block of the corona. Energy and pressure balance in the corona occur along magnetic field lines. The large-scale extreme ultraviolet emission we observe in the corona is a conglomerate of many coronal loops projected along a line of sight. In order to calculate the plasma properties at a particular point in the corona, we use one-dimensional models for energy and pressure balance along field lines. In order to predict the extreme ultraviolet emission along a particular line of sight, we project these one-dimensional models onto the three-dimensional magnetic configuration provided by a MHD model for the coronal magnetic field. These results have allowed us to the establish the first comprehensive picture on the magnetic and energetic interaction of the prominence and the cavity. While the originally hypothesis that the cavity supplies mass to the prominence proved inaccurate, we cannot simply say that these structures are not related. Rather our findings suggest that the prominence and the cavity are distinct magnetic substructures that are complementary regions of a larger whole, specifically a magnetic flux rope. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Schmit, D. J.

301

Characterization of a solid state air corona charging device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new solid state devices which produced an atmospheric air corona discharge for generating and depositing a layer of static charge for Xerographic imaging have been fabricated and characterized. One type had a parallel plate capacitive structure and the other had an interdigitated capacitive structure. It was determined that the interdigitated capacitive structure performed better than the parallel plate capacitive structure in terms of reduced power consumption, charging current stability and device reliability. Several metal electrode material alternatives were investigated and gold electrodes performed the best. The air corona's light emission peaks were measured to be in the 350 nm to 400 nm range. Ozone gas by-product generation to ~ 13 ppm was detected for an active surface area of 5 cm^2. Charge deposition on to an imaging drum surface with a significant charging current density of 1.6E-4 A/cm^2 has been successfully demonstrated.

Young, Michael; Xu, Baomin; Buhler, Steve; Littau, Karl

2013-02-01

302

Molecular delivery to cells facilitated by corona ion deposition.  

PubMed

A novel method of inducing the delivery of nonpermeant molecules to the cytosol of cells is presented in this paper. Corona discharge in air was utilized to produce ions that in turn were deposited onto the liquid surface of media containing cultured cells. Murine B16 melanoma cells were used to demonstrate the molecular delivery of fluorescent dye calcein, the drug bleomycin, and a nucleic acid stain SYTOX-green. None of these molecules penetrate cells with intact membranes. Following the corona treatment, cells were observed to admit significant quantities of these molecules from the culture media, relative to control samples. Further, greater than 95% viability of treated cells was observed by Trypan Blue assay. This method may provide an attractive alternative to electroporation where a physical contact between electrodes and cells is needed to deliver molecules to the cytosol. PMID:18779104

Ramachandran, Niraj; Jaroszeski, Mark; Hoff, Andrew M

2008-09-01

303

The Effect of a Corona Discharge on a Lightning Attachment  

SciTech Connect

The interaction between the lightning leader and the space charge accumulated near the top of a ground object in the atmospheric electric field is considered using analytical and numerical models developed earlier to describe spark discharges in long laboratory gaps. The specific features of a nonstationary corona discharge that develops in the electric field of a thundercloud and a downward lightning leader are analyzed. Conditions for the development of an upward lightning discharge from a ground object and for the propagation of an upward-connecting leader from the object toward a downward lightning leader (the process determining the point of strike to the ground) are investigated. Possible mechanisms for the interaction of the corona space charge with an upward leader and prospects of using it to control downward lightning discharges are analyzed.

Aleksandrov, N.L. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii pr. 9, Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow oblast, 141700 (Russian Federation); Bazelyan, E.M. [Krzhizhanovskii Rower Engineering Institute, Leninskii pr. 19, Moscow, 117927 (Russian Federation); Raizer, Yu.P. [Institute for Problems of Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Vernadskogo 101, Moscow, 117526 (Russian Federation)

2005-01-15

304

Investigation of the corona current in a vacuum bulb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependence of the negative corona current on the gas pressure was studied experimentally and theoretically in view of designing a gas-pressure sensor to be applied in the production of light bulbs. The gas pressure was varied in the range 1×10-2 Torr - 7.4×102 Torr. The dependence of the current on the gas pressure is characterized by a strong heterogeneity. This allowed the implementation of a prototype of a high-speed sensor for a wide range of gas pressures. A mathematical model was developed of the negative corona current behavior by taking into account the ionization of the gas molecules, the attachment and detachment of electrons, the charge drift and the surface ion-electron emission. The results of the numerical simulations describe satisfactorily the experimental dependences.

Chyhin, Vasyl

2014-05-01

305

Heating of the Solar Corona and its Loops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At several million degrees, the solar corona is more than two orders of magnitude hotter than the underlying solar surface. The reason for these extreme conditions has been a puzzle for decades and is considered one of the fundamental problems in astrophysics. Much of the coronal plasma is organized by the magnetic field into arch-like structures called loops. Recent observational and theoretical advances have led to great progress in understanding the nature of these loops. In particular, we now believe they are bundles of unresolved magnetic strands that are heated by storms of impulsive energy bursts called nanoflares. Turbulent convection at the solar surface shuffles the footpoints of the strands and causes them to become tangled. A nanoflare occurs when the magnetic stresses reach a critical threshold, probably by way of a mechanism called the secondary instability. I will describe our current state of knowledge concerning the corona, its loops, and how they are heated.

Klimchuk, James A.

2009-01-01

306

Air trichloroethylene oxidation in a corona plasma-catalytic reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidative decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE; 300 ppm) by non-thermal corona plasma was investigated in dry air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, both in the absence and presence of catalysts including MnOx, CoOx. The catalysts were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The morphology and structure of the catalysts were characterized by BET surface area measurement and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) methods. Decomposition of TCE and distribution of products were evaluated by a gas chromatograph (GC) and an FTIR. In the absence of the catalyst, TCE removal is increased with increases in the applied voltage and current intensity. Higher TCE removal and CO2 selectivity is observed in presence of the corona and catalysts, as compared to those with the plasma alone. The results show that MnOx and CoOx catalysts can dissociate the in-plasma produced ozone to oxygen radicals, which enhances the TCE decomposition.

Masoomi-Godarzi, S.; Ranji-Burachaloo, H.; Khodadadi, A. A.; Vesali-Naseh, M.; Mortazavi, Y.

2014-08-01

307

Corona method and apparatus for altering carbon containing compounds  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is a method and apparatus for altering a carbon containing compound in an aqueous mixture. According to a first aspect of the present invention, it has been discovered that for an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound with an ozone reaction rate less than the ozone reaction rate of pentachlorophenol, use of corona discharge in a low or non-oxidizing atmosphere increases the rate of destruction of the carbon containing compound compared to corona discharge an oxidizing atmosphere. For an aqueous mixture containing pentachlorophenol, there was essentially no difference in destruction between atmospheres. According to a second aspect of the present invention, it has been further discovered that an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound in the presence of a catalyst and oxygen resulted in an increased destruction rate of the carbon containing compound compared to no catalyst.

Sharma, A.K.; Camaioni, D.M.; Josephson, G.B.

1999-11-09

308

The Newly Active R Coronae Borealis Star, V2552 Oph  

E-print Network

In 2001, V2552 Oph (CD -22 12017, HadV98) quickly faded by several magnitudes in a manner typical of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. Photometry of V2552 Oph obtained over 70 years previous to 2001 shows no indication of variability. Optical spectra of this star subsequently confirmed that V2552 Oph is a member of the hydrogen deficient, carbon-rich RCB class of variables. It resembles the warm (T$_{eff}\\sim$ 7000 K) RCB stars such as R Coronae Borealis itself. Other RCB stars, such as XX Cam and Y Mus, have experienced similar periods of inactivity, going decades without significant dust formation. Further observations of V2552 Oph will be of great interest since there is an opportunity to monitor an RCB star that may be moving from prolonged inactivity into an active phase of dust production.

E. Hesselbach; Geoffrey C. Clayton; Paul S. Smith

2003-09-11

309

THE CONNECTION OF TYPE II SPICULES TO THE CORONA  

SciTech Connect

We examine the hypothesis that plasma associated with 'Type II' spicules is heated to coronal temperatures, and that the upward moving hot plasma constitutes a significant mass supply to the solar corona. One-dimensional hydrodynamical models including time-dependent ionization are brought to bear on the problem. These calculations indicate that heating of field-aligned spicule flows should produce significant differential Doppler shifts between emission lines formed in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. At present, observational evidence for the computed 60-90 km s{sup -1} differential shifts is weak, but the data are limited by difficulties in comparing the proper motion of Type II spicules with spectral and kinematic properties of an associated transition region and coronal emission lines. Future observations with the upcoming infrared interferometer spectrometer instrument should clarify if Doppler shifts are consistent with the dynamics modeled here.

Judge, Philip G.; McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Org. A021S, Building 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Olluri, Kosovare [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

2012-02-20

310

New Views of the Solar Corona from STEREO and SDO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, we have been treated to an unusual visual feast of solar observations of the corona in EUV wavelengths. The observations from the two vantage points of STEREO/SECCHI are now capturing the entire solar atmosphere simultaneously in four wavelengths. The SDO/AIA images provide us with arcsecond resolution images of the full visible disk in ten wavelengths. All these data are captured with cadences of a few seconds to a few minutes. In this talk, I review some intriguing results from our first attempts to deal with these observations which touch upon the problems of coronal mass ejection initiation and solar wind generation. I will also discuss data processing techniques that may help us recover even more information from the images. The talk will contain a generous portion of beautiful EUV images and movies of the solar corona.

Vourlidas, A.

2012-01-01

311

Corona method and apparatus for altering carbon containing compounds  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method and apparatus for altering a carbon containing compound in an aqueous mixture. According to a first aspect of the present invention, it has been discovered that for an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound with an ozone reaction rate less than the ozone reaction rate of pentachlorophenol, use of corona discharge in a low or non-oxidizing atmosphere increases the rate of destruction of the carbon containing compound compared to corona discharge an oxidizing atmosphere. For an aqueous mixture containing pentachlorphenol, there was essentially no difference in destruction between atmospheres. According to a second aspect of the present invention, it has been further discovered that an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound in the presence of a catalyst and oxygen resulted in an increased destruction rate of the carbon containing compound compared to no catalyst.

Sharma, Amit K. (Richland, WA); Camaioni, Donald M. (Richland, WA); Josephson, Gary B. (Richland, WA)

1999-01-01

312

Corona Method And Apparatus For Altering Carbon Containing Compounds  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method and apparatus for altering a carbon-containing compound in an aqueous mixture. According to a first aspect of the present invention, it has been discovered that for an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound with an ozone reaction rate less than the ozone reaction rate of pentachlorophenol, use of corona discharge in a low or non-oxidizing atmosphere increases the rate of destruction of the carbon containing compound compared to corona discharge an oxidizing atmosphere. For an aqueous mixture containing pentachlorphenol, there was essentially no difference in destruction between atmospheres. According to a second aspect of the present invention, it has been further discovered that an aqueous mixture having a carbon-containing compound in the presence of a catalyst and oxygen resulted in an increased destruction rate of the carbon containing compound compared to no catalyst.

Sharma, Amit K. (Plainsboro, NJ); Camaioni, Donald M. (Richland, WA); Josephson; Gary B. (Richland, WA)

2004-05-04

313

Coupling from the photosphere to the chromosphere and the corona  

E-print Network

The atmosphere of the Sun is characterized by a complex interplay of competing physical processes: convection, radiation, conduction, and magnetic fields. The most obvious imprint of the solar convection and its overshooting in the low atmosphere is the granulation pattern. Beside this dominating scale there is a more or less smooth distribution of spatial scales, both towards smaller and larger scales, making the Sun essentially a multi-scale object. Convection and overshooting give the photosphere its face but also act as drivers for the layers above, namely the chromosphere and corona. The magnetic field configuration effectively couples the atmospheric layers on a multitude of spatial scales, for instance in the form of loops that are anchored in the convection zone and continue through the atmosphere up into the chromosphere and corona. The magnetic field is also an important structuring agent for the small, granulation-size scales, although (hydrodynamic) shock waves also play an important role -- espec...

Wedemeyer-Böhm, S; Nordlund, Å

2008-01-01

314

The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers technical progress during the third year of the NASA Space Physics Theory contract "The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona," between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation, and covers the period June 16, 1998 to August 15, 1999. This is also the final report for this contract. Under this contract SAIC, the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model. During the three-year duration of this contract we have published 49 articles in the scientific literature. These publications are listed in Section 3 of this report. In the Appendix we have attached reprints of selected articles. We summarize our progress during the third year of the contract. Full descriptions of our work can be found in the cited publications, a few of which are attached to this report.

Mikic, Zoran

2000-01-01

315

Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge  

DOEpatents

The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

1999-06-22

316

Magnetic fields and the structure of the solar corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several different mathematical methods are described which use the observed line-of-sight component of the photospheric magnetic field to determine the magnetic field of the solar corona in the current-free (or potential-field) approximation. Discussed are (1) a monopole method, (2) a Legendre polynomial expansion assuming knowledge of the radial photospheric magnetic field, (3) a Legendre polynomial expansion obtained from the line-of-sight

Martin D. Altschuler; Gordon Newkirk

1969-01-01

317

The R Coronae Borealis stars — A few mere facts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents a selection of recent highlights of observations of R Coronae Borealis variables. Emphasis is placed\\u000a on an abundance analysis of a complete sample (18 stars) of the warm galactic RCBs. It is shown that 14 of the 18 have very\\u000a similar compositions: the iron mass fraction ranges about a factor of 3 around the solar value (assuming

David L. Lambert; N. Kameswara Rao

1994-01-01

318

The Newly Active R Coronae Borealis Star, V2552 Oph  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, V2552 Oph (CD -22 12017, HadV98) quickly faded by several magnitudes\\u000ain a manner typical of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. Photometry of V2552\\u000aOph obtained over 70 years previous to 2001 shows no indication of variability.\\u000aOptical spectra of this star subsequently confirmed that V2552 Oph is a member\\u000aof the hydrogen deficient, carbon-rich RCB class

E. Hesselbach

2003-01-01

319

The R Coronae Borealis stars - atmospheres and abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abundance analysis of the H-deficient and He- and C-rich R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) stars has been under- taken to examine the ancestry of the stars. The investigation is based on high-resolution spectra and line-blanketed H-deficient model atmospheres. The models successfully reproduce the flux distributions and all spectral features, both molecular bands and high-excitation transitions, with one important exception,

M. Asplund; B. Gustafsson; D. L. Lambert; N. K. Rao

2000-01-01

320

The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under this contract SAIC, the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model. During the period covered by this report we have published 17 articles in the scientific literature. These publications are listed in Section 4 of this report. In the Appendix we have attached reprints of selected articles.

Mikic, Zoran

1998-01-01

321

Electrical Auxiliary Power Unit (EAPU) Corona Design Guideline. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is the result of a collaborative effort between NASA's Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Glenn Research Center, and the United States Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright Patterson AFB in support of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Upgrades Program, specifically the Electric Auxiliary Power Unit Program. This document is intended as a guideline for design applications for corona and partial discharge avoidance and is not a requirements specification instrument.

Hall, David K.; Kirkici, Hulya; Schweickart, Dan L.; Dunbar, William; Hillard, Barry

2000-01-01

322

Corona and Breakdown Voltage in HeliumOxygen Atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helium-oxygen mixtures are being considered for use in low-pressure (3.5 to 7.5 psia) compartments of manned spacecraft. Electrical wires, cabling, and components will be required to operate in these low-pressure compartments. During extra-vehicular maneuvers the pressure could decrease to that of space vacuum. During the depressurization and pressurization periods, corona and voltage breakdown will be a significant problem. This paper

W. G. Dunbar

1970-01-01

323

DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF MAGNETIC TWIST IN THE SOLAR CORONA  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, we study the evolution of magnetic helicity in the solar corona. We compare the rate of change of a quantity related to the magnetic helicity in the corona to the flux of magnetic helicity through the photosphere and find that the two rates are similar. This gives observational evidence that helicity flux across the photosphere is indeed what drives helicity changes in the solar corona during emergence. For the purposes of estimating coronal helicity, we neither assume a strictly linear force-free field nor attempt to construct a nonlinear force-free field. For each coronal loop evident in extreme ultraviolet, we find a best-matching line of a linear force-free field and allow the twist parameter {alpha} to be different for each line. This method was introduced and its applicability discussed in Malanushenko et al. The object of this study is emerging and rapidly rotating AR 9004 over about 80 hr. As a proxy for coronal helicity, we use the quantity ({alpha}{sub i} L{sub i} /2) averaged over many reconstructed lines of magnetic field. We argue that it is approximately proportional to the 'flux-normalized' helicity H/{Phi}{sup 2}, where H is the helicity and {Phi} is the total enclosed magnetic flux of the active region. The time rate of change of such a quantity in the corona is found to be about 0.021 rad hr{sup -1}, which is comparable with the estimates for the same region obtained using other methods, which estimated the flux of normalized helicity to be about 0.016 rad hr{sup -1}.

Malanushenko, A.; Longcope, D. W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Yusuf, M. H. [Berea College, Berea, KY 40404 (United States)

2011-08-01

324

OBSERVATION OF ULTRAFINE CHANNELS OF SOLAR CORONA HEATING  

SciTech Connect

We report the first direct observations of dynamical events originating in the Sun's photosphere and subsequently lighting up the corona. Continuous small-scale, impulsive events have been tracked from their origin in the photosphere on through to their brightening of the local corona. We achieve this by combining high-resolution ground-based data from the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), and satellite data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The NST imaging observations in helium I 10830 A reveal unexpected complexes of ultrafine, hot magnetic loops seen to be reaching from the photosphere to the base of the corona. Most of these ultrafine loops are characterized by an apparently constant, but surprisingly narrow diameter of about 100 km all along each loop, and the loops originate on the solar surface from intense, compact magnetic field elements. The NST observations detect the signature of upward injections of hot plasma that excite the ultrafine loops from the photosphere to the base of the corona. The ejecta have their individual footpoints in the intergranular lanes between the Sun's ubiquitous, convectively driven granules. In many cases, AIA/SDO detects cospatial and cotemporal brightenings in the overlying, million degree coronal loops in conjunction with the upward injections along the ultrafine loops. Segments of some of the more intense upward injections are seen as rapid blueshifted events in simultaneous H{alpha} blue wing images observed at BBSO. In sum, the observations unambiguously show impulsive coronal heating events from upward energy flows originating from intergranular lanes on the solar surface accompanied by cospatial mass flows.

Ji, Haisheng [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

2012-05-01

325

Proposed Studentship The Origin of Coal: unravelling the effects of climate, sea-level  

E-print Network

of the palaeontology, sedimentary facies and sequence stratigraphy of the UK Pennsylvanian. This will allow the effects stratigraphy, coal geology, and science communication. The project would suit applicants interested in buildingProposed Studentship The Origin of Coal: unravelling the effects of climate, sea

Royal Holloway, University of London

326

Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions Unraveling Relaxor Phase Transitions by  

E-print Network

Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions Unraveling Relaxor 2009 WILLIAMSBURG WORKSHOP ON FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS OF FERROELECTRICS #12;Introduction Strontium Barium ferroelectrics Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions SBN ­ SrxBa1-xNb2O6

Osnabrück, Universität

327

Unraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect pest  

E-print Network

Unraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect GilleN #12;What are compost teas? · Watery extracts (teas) made from placing compost in a mesh bag and soaking in water · Plant vs. animal (manure

328

Unraveling the early steps of prokaryotic replication Erin L Cunningham and James M Berger  

E-print Network

Unraveling the early steps of prokaryotic replication Erin L Cunningham and James M Berger In prokaryotes, many of the physical mechanisms governing the process of initiating DNA replication are now studies have shown that prokaryotic initiator structures are both modular and conserved, and have begun

Berger, James M.

329

Unraveling the chemical dynamics of bimolecular reactions of ground state boron atoms, B(2  

E-print Network

Unraveling the chemical dynamics of bimolecular reactions of ground state boron atoms, B(2 PjArticle on the web 8th March 2004 The reaction dynamics of atomic boron, B(2 P), with acetylene, C2H2(X 1 Sg þ molecular beams technique. Only the atomic boron versus hydrogen atom exchange pathway was observed. Forward

Kaiser, Ralf I.

330

Doing Class Analysis in Singapore's Elite Education: Unravelling the Smokescreen of "Meritocratic Talk"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the specificity of the education-class nexus in an elite independent school in Singapore. It seeks to unravel the puzzle that meritocracy is dogmatically believed in Singapore in spite of evidences that point to the contrary. The paper draws on discursive (analysis of media materials) and institutional (analysis of interview…

Koh, Aaron

2014-01-01

331

Mechanistic Studies Unravel the Complexity Inherent in Tau Aggregation Leading to Alzheimer's Disease and the Tauopathies  

E-print Network

tauopathies and the progression of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. This review surveys the mechanism was first discovered as a protein present in association with tubulin in porcine brains.1 Named for itsMechanistic Studies Unravel the Complexity Inherent in Tau Aggregation Leading to Alzheimer

332

Unravelling the Sources of Adolescent Substance Use: A Test of Rival Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among any cohort of American youths, some will use drugs and alcohol whereas others will not. Further, some youngsters will not only use these illegal substances but also abuse them, at times wreaking havoc with their lives and ruining their futures. The purpose of this study is to attempt to unravel this heterogeneity of substance abuse; that is,…

Jonson, Cheryl Lero; McArthur, Rachel; Cullen, Francis T.; Wilcox, Pamela

2012-01-01

333

Unraveling Single-Stranded DNA in a Solid-State Nanopore  

E-print Network

Unraveling Single-Stranded DNA in a Solid-State Nanopore Stefan W. Kowalczyk, Maarten W. Tuijtel, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands ABSTRACT Solid-state nanopores are an emerging class of single of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is of great interest as well, for example to employ such a nanopore device

Dekker, Cees

334

Oxygen Isotopes Unravel the Role of Microorganisms in Phosphate Cycling in Soils  

E-print Network

fluctuations in weather conditions such as wetting/drying events.7 Analyzing and quantifying the P contentOxygen Isotopes Unravel the Role of Microorganisms in Phosphate Cycling in Soils Federica Tamburini cycling but its contribution in building up the pool of plant-available P during soil development is still

Gilli, Adrian

335

Changes in clinical practice with the unravelling of diseases: Connective-tissue disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unravelling of diseases is achieved in steps by sequentially describing their phenotype, natural course, aetiology and pathogenesis. Through succinct clinical observation, conglomerates of heterogeneous connective-tissue disorders, such as various forms of disproportionate dwarfism, have been split into well-defined entities. They have often been confirmed by biochemical and molecular analysis. On the other hand, seemingly disparate disorders have been shown to

J. Spranger; Gregor Mendel; Circle Greenwood

2001-01-01

336

Large-scale structure of the solar corona magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The configuration of the solar corona magnetic field has been studied. Data on the position of the K-corona emission polarization plane during the solar eclipses of September 21, 1941; February 25, 1952; and August 1, 2008, were used as an indicator of the magnetic field line orientation. Based on an analysis of these data, a conclusion has been made that the studied configuration has a large-scale organization in the form of a cellular structure with an alternating field reversal. The estimated cell size was 61° ± 6° (or 36° ± 2°) in longitude with a latitudinal extension of 40°-50° in the range of visible distances 1.3-2.0 R Sun . A comparison of the detected cellular structure of the coronal magnetic field with synoptic {ie908-1} maps indicated that the structure latitudinal boundaries vary insignificantly within 1.1-2.0 R Sun . The possible causes of the formation of the magnetic field large-scale cellular configuration in the corona and the conditions for the transformation of this configuration into a two-sector structure are discussed.

Merzlyakov, V. L.; Starkova, L. I.

2012-12-01

337

Pair-density transitions in accretion disk coronae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal and e(+)e(-)-pair equilibrium structure of two-temperature disk coronae above a cool (about 10 exp 6 K) disk around a black hole of 10 solar masses are investigated. Soft photons are assumed to be amply supplied from the cool disk. Two-pair thermal equilibrium points are found for a given proton column density: the low state with very small pair density and the high state dominated by pairs. Both states are thermally unstable, while for perturbations in pair density the high state is unstable and the low state is stable. Two possible scenarios are discussed for the fate of a two-temperature corona. When the proton optical depth is relatively small (e.g., less than 1) and the temperature of input soft photons is low (e.g., less than 10 exp 6 K), the corona will undergo a limit cycle between the high state and the low state on a time scale of milliseconds. As a consequence of Compton scattering of the soft photons, the emergent spectrum in the high state is rather flat with a big Wien bump at about 100 keV, whereas it is composed of a power-law component in the low state. Some observational consequences are briefly discussed in connection with the high-low spectral transition in Cyg X-1.

Kusunose, Masaaki; Mineshige, Shin

1991-01-01

338

Joule Heating and Anomalous Resistivity in the Solar Corona  

E-print Network

Recent radioastronomical observations of Faraday rotation in the solar corona can be interpreted as evidence for coronal currents, with values as large as $2.5 \\times 10^9$ Amperes (Spangler 2007). These estimates of currents are used to develop a model for Joule heating in the corona. It is assumed that the currents are concentrated in thin current sheets, as suggested by theories of two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The Spitzer result for the resistivity is adopted as a lower limit to the true resistivity. The calculated volumetric heating rate is compared with an independent theoretical estimate by Cranmer et al (2007). This latter estimate accounts for the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the corona at a heliocentric distance of several solar radii. Our calculated Joule heating rate is less than the Cranmer et al estimate by at least a factor of $3 \\times 10^5$. The currents inferred from the observations of Spangler (2007) are not relevant to coronal heating unless the true resistivity is enormously increased relative to the Spitzer value. However, the same model for turbulent current sheets used to calculate the heating rate also gives an electron drift speed which can be comparable to the electron thermal speed, and larger than the ion acoustic speed. It is therefore possible that the coronal current sheets are unstable to current-driven instabilities which produce high levels of waves, enhance the resistivity and thus the heating rate.

Steven R. Spangler

2008-12-22

339

The Magnetic Field of the Solar Corona from Pulsar Observations  

E-print Network

We present a novel experiment with the capacity to independently measure both the electron density and the magnetic field of the solar corona. We achieve this through measurement of the excess Faraday rotation due to propagation of the polarised emission from a number of pulsars through the magnetic field of the solar corona. This method yields independent measures of the integrated electron density, via dispersion of the pulsed signal and the magnetic field, via the amount of Faraday rotation. In principle this allows the determination of the integrated magnetic field through the solar corona along many lines of sight without any assumptions regarding the electron density distribution. We present a detection of an increase in the rotation measure of the pulsar J1801$-$2304 of approximately 160 \\rad at an elongation of 0.95$^\\circ$ from the centre of the solar disk. This corresponds to a lower limit of the magnetic field strength along this line of sight of $> 393\\mu\\mathrm{G}$. The lack of precision in the integrated electron density measurement restricts this result to a limit, but application of coronal plasma models can further constrain this to approximately 20mG, along a path passing 2.5 solar radii from the solar limb. Which is consistent with predictions obtained using extensions to the Source Surface models published by Wilcox Solar Observatory

S. M. Ord; S. Johnston; J. Sarkissian

2007-05-14

340

Soot oxidation in a corona plasma-catalytic reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidation of soot by corona plasma was investigated at conditions of exhaust gases from diesel engines, both in the absence and presence of CoOx as a catalyst. The CoOx catalyst nanoparticles were synthesized by a precipitation method. The BET surface area of the catalyst was 50 m2/g, corresponding to 23 nm particles. An aluminum grid was sequentially dip-coated for several times by suspensions of the soot in toluene and/or fine catalyst powder in DI water. The grid was used as the plate of a pin-to-plate corona reactor. Air at 180 °C was passed through the corona reactor to oxidize the soot, oxidation products of which were analyzed by both gas chromatograph and FTIR with a gas cell. Soot oxidation rate linearly increased with an increase of input energy. When the soot was deposited on a layer of the CoOx catalyst, the soot oxidation rate increased up to 2 times. The only product of the plasma (catalytic) oxidation of soot was CO2 determined by FTIR. O produced in the plasma discharge oxidized the soot and the active surface oxygen enhanced its rate.

Ranji-Burachaloo, H.; Masoomi-Godarzi, S.; Khodadadi, A. A.; Vesali-Naseh, M.; Mortazavi, Y.

2014-08-01

341

Complete high-density lipoproteins in nanoparticle corona.  

PubMed

In a biological environment, nanoparticles immediately become covered by an evolving corona of biomolecules, which gives a biological identity to the nanoparticle and determines its biological impact and fate. Previous efforts at describing the corona have concerned only its protein content. Here, for the first time, we show, using size exclusion chromatography, NMR, and pull-down experiments, that copolymer nanoparticles bind cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from human plasma, and that the binding reaches saturation. The lipid and protein binding patterns correspond closely with the composition of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). By using fractionated lipoproteins, we show that HDL binds to copolymer nanoparticles with much higher specificity than other lipoproteins, probably mediated by apolipoprotein A-I. Together with the previously identified protein binding patterns in the corona, our results imply that copolymer nanoparticles bind complete HDL complexes, and may be recognized by living systems as HDL complexes, opening up these transport pathways to nanoparticles. Apolipoproteins have been identified as binding to many other nanoparticles, suggesting that lipid and lipoprotein binding is a general feature of nanoparticles under physiological conditions. PMID:19438706

Hellstrand, Erik; Lynch, Iseult; Andersson, Astra; Drakenberg, Torbjörn; Dahlbäck, Björn; Dawson, Kenneth A; Linse, Sara; Cedervall, Tommy

2009-06-01

342

Corona inception voltage in statorettes with various gas-solid dielectric systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corona inception voltage was calculated and measured for three statorettes in several gases and gas mixtures at pressures from 50.8 to 1270 torr. In helium the corona inception voltage was lowest, and in air it was highest. In argon and mixtures of helium and xenon the corona inception voltage was between that of air and helium. Correlation between experimental and calculated data was good.

Bollenbacher, G.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

1972-01-01

343

Coronas in olivine gabbros and iron ores from Susimäki and Riuttamaa, Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronas have been studied by petrographie and microprobe techniques in metamorphosed olivine gabbros and associated iron ores\\u000a from Susimäki and Riuttamaa in Southwest Finland. Three types of coronas are distinguished occurring between the following\\u000a primary minerals: (1) olivine-plagioclase, (2) opaque oxides-plagioclase, (3) opaque oxides-clinopy-roxene. Secondary corona\\u000a minerals are, in order of decreasing abundance, hornblende, orthopyroxene, spinel, olivine, ilmenite, and magnetite.

Hans van Lamoen

1979-01-01

344

On the sizes of stellar X-ray coronae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial information from stellar X-ray coronae cannot be assessed directly, but scaling laws from the solar corona make it possible to estimate sizes of stellar coronae from the physical parameters temperature and density. While coronal plasma temperatures have long been available, we concentrate on the newly available density measurements from line fluxes of X-ray lines measured for a large sample of stellar coronae with the Chandra and XMM-Newton gratings. We compiled a set of 64 grating spectra of 42 stellar coronae. Line counts of strong H-like and He-like ions and Fe XXI lines were measured with the CORA single-purpose line fitting tool by \\cite{newi02}. Densities are estimated from He-like f/i flux ratios of O VII and Ne IX representing the cooler (1-6 MK) plasma components. The densities scatter between log ne ? 9.5-11 from the O VII triplet and between log ne ? 10.5-12 from the Ne IX triplet, but we caution that the latter triplet may be biased by contamination from Fe XIX and Fe XXI lines. We find that low-activity stars (as parameterized by the characteristic temperature derived from H- and He-like line flux ratios) tend to show densities derived from O VII of no more than a few times 1010 cm-3, whereas no definitive trend is found for the more active stars. Investigating the densities of the hotter plasma with various Fe XXI line ratios, we found that none of the spectra consistently indicates the presence of very high densities. We argue that our measurements are compatible with the low-density limit for the respective ratios (? 5× 1012 cm-3). These upper limits are in line with constant pressure in the emitting active regions. We focus on the commonly used \\cite{rtv} scaling law to derive loop lengths from temperatures and densities assuming loop-like structures as identical building blocks. We derive the emitting volumes from direct measurements of ion-specific emission measures and densities. Available volumes are calculated from the loop-lengths and stellar radii, and are compared with the emitting volumes to infer filling factors. For all stages of activity we find similar filling factors up to 0.1. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Ness, J.-U.; Güdel, M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Audard, M.; Telleschi, A.

2004-11-01

345

Dynamics of Nanoparticle-Protein Corona Complex Formation: Analytical Results from Population Balance Equations  

PubMed Central

Background Nanoparticle-protein corona complex formation involves absorption of protein molecules onto nanoparticle surfaces in a physiological environment. Understanding the corona formation process is crucial in predicting nanoparticle behavior in biological systems, including applications of nanotoxicology and development of nano drug delivery platforms. Method This paper extends the modeling work in to derive a mathematical model describing the dynamics of nanoparticle corona complex formation from population balance equations. We apply nonlinear dynamics techniques to derive analytical results for the composition of nanoparticle-protein corona complex, and validate our results through numerical simulations. Results The model presented in this paper exhibits two phases of corona complex dynamics. In the first phase, proteins rapidly bind to the free surface of nanoparticles, leading to a metastable composition. During the second phase, continuous association and dissociation of protein molecules with nanoparticles slowly changes the composition of the corona complex. Given sufficient time, composition of the corona complex reaches an equilibrium state of stable composition. We find analytical approximate formulae for metastable and stable compositions of corona complex. Our formulae are very well-structured to clearly identify important parameters determining corona composition. Conclusion The dynamics of biocorona formation constitute vital aspect of interactions between nanoparticles and living organisms. Our results further understanding of these dynamics through quantitation of experimental conditions, modeling results for in vitro systems to better predict behavior for in vivo systems. One potential application would involve a single cell culture medium related to a complex protein medium, such as blood or tissue fluid. PMID:23741371

Darabi Sahneh, Faryad; Scoglio, Caterina; Riviere, Jim

2013-01-01

346

Unveiling the nature of coronae in active galactic nuclei through submillimeter observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heating mechanism of a corona above an accretion disk in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is still unknown. One possible mechanism is magnetic reconnection heating requiring energy equipartition between magnetic energy and gas energy in the disk. Here, we investigate the expected observed properties in the radio band from such a magnetized corona. A magnetized corona can generate synchrotron radiation since a huge amount of electrons exists. Although most of the radiation would be absorbed by synchrotron self-absorption, high-frequency end of synchrotron emission can escape from a corona and appear at the submillimeter range. If only thermal electrons exist in a corona, the expected flux from nearby Seyferts is below the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) sensitivity. However, if non-thermal electrons coexist in a corona, ALMA can measure the non-thermal tail of the synchrotron radiation from a corona. Such a non-thermal population is naturally expected to exist if the corona is heated by magnetic reconnections. Future ALMA observations will directly probe the coronal magnetic field strength and the existence of non-thermal electrons in coronae of AGNs.

Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Doi, Akihiro

2014-12-01

347

NASA's Great Observatories May Unravel 400-Year Old Supernova Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of observations is needed to help us understand the complex relationship that exists among the various components," Blair said. The explosion of a star is a catastrophic event. The blast rips the star apart and unleashes a roughly spherical shock wave that expands outward at more than 22 million mph like an interstellar tsunami. The shock wave spreads out into surrounding space, sweeping up any tenuous interstellar gas and dust into an expanding shell. The stellar ejecta from the explosion initially trail behind the shock wave. It eventually catches up with the inner edge of the shell and is heated to X-ray temperatures. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Hubble Optical Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Visible-light images from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps that form behind the shock wave. Sankrit and Blair compared their HST observations with those taken with ground-based telescopes to obtain a more accurate distance to the supernova remnant of about 13,000 light-years. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Spitzer Infrared Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant The astronomers used the SST to probe for material that radiates in infrared light, which shows heated microscopic dust particles that have been swept up by the supernova shock wave. SST is sensitive enough to detect both the densest regions seen by HST and the entire expanding shock wave, a spherical cloud of material. Instruments on SST also reveal information about the chemical composition and physical environment of the expanding clouds of gas and dust ejected into space. This dust is similar to dust which was part of the cloud of dust and gas that formed the sun and planets in our solar system. Interview with Dr. William Blair Interview with Dr. William Blair The Chandra X-ray data show regions of very hot gas. The hottest gas, higher-energy X-rays, is located primarily in the regions directly behind the shock front. These regions also show up

2004-10-01

348

The VLT Unravels the Nature of the Fastest Binary Star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Hot White Dwarfs Perform a Tight Dance Summary Observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile and the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) on the Canary Islands during the past two years have enabled an international group of astronomers [1] to unravel the true nature of an exceptional binary stellar system. This system, designated RX J0806.3+1527 , was first discovered as an X-ray source of variable brightness - once every five minutes, it "switches off" for a short moment. The new observations have shown beyond doubt that this period reflects the orbital motion of two "white dwarf" stars that revolve around each other at a distance of only 80,000 km . Each of the stars is about as large as the Earth and this is the shortest orbital period known for any binary stellar system. The VLT spectrum displays lines of ionized helium, indicating that the presence of an exceedingly hot area on one of the stars - a "hot spot" with a temperature of approx. 250,000 degrees. The system is currently in a rarely seen, transitory evolutionary state . PR Photo 10a/02 : U- and R-band images of RX J0806.3+1527. PR Photo 10b/02 : Spectrum of RX J0806.3+1527 An amazing stellar binary system ESO PR Photo 10a/02 ESO PR Photo 10a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 400 pix - 440k] [Normal - JPEG: 1600 x 800 pix - 1.1M] Caption : PR Photo 10a/02 shows U and R filter images of the sky field around RX J0806.3+1527 (at centre of circle), obtained with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument on VLT KUEYEN. The object is brightest at the shorter wavelength (U-band) - reflecting its very high temperature. Technical information about the photo is available below. One year is the time it takes the Earth to move once around the Sun, our central star. This may seem quite fast when measured on the scale of the Universe, but this is a snail's motion compared to the the speed of two recently discovered stars. They revolve around each other 100,000 times faster; one full revolution takes only 321 seconds , or a little more than 5 minutes! It is the shortest period ever observed in a binary stellar system . This is the surprising conclusion reached by an international team of astronomers led by GianLuca Israel of the Astronomical Observatory of Rome [1], and based on detailed observations of the faint light from these two stars with some of the world's most advanced telescopes. The record-holding binary stellar system bears the prosaic name RX J0806.3+1527 and it is located north of the celestial equator in the constellation Cancer (The Crab). The scientists also find that the two partners in this hectic dance are most likely a dying white dwarf star , trapped in the strong gravitational grip of another, somewhat heavier star of the same exotic type. The two Earth-size stars are separated by only 80,000 kilometers , a little more than twice the altitude of the TV-broadcasting satellites in orbit around the Earth, or just one fifth of the distance to the Moon. The orbital motion is very fast indeed - over 1,000 km/sec, and the lighter star apparently always turns the same hemisphere towards its companion, just as the Moon in its orbit around Earth. Thus, that star also makes one full turn around its axis in only 5 minutes, i.e. its "day" is exactly as long as its "year". The discovery of RX J0806.3+1527 The visible light emitted by this unusual system is very faint, but it radiates comparatively strong X-rays. It was due to this emission that it was first detected as a celestial X-ray source of unknown origin by the German ROSAT space observatory in 1994. Later it was found to be a periodically variable source [2]. Once every 5 minutes, the X-ray radiation disappears for a couple of minutes. It was recently studied in greater detail by the NASA Chandra observatory. The position of the X-ray source in the sky was localised with sufficient accuracy to reveal a very faint visible-light emitting object in the same direction, over one million times weaker than the faintest star that can be seen by unaided eye (V

2002-03-01

349

Vortex focusing of ions produced in corona discharge.  

PubMed

Completeness of the ion transportation into an analytical path defines the efficiency of ionization analysis techniques. This is of particular importance for atmospheric pressure ionization sources like corona discharge, electrospray, ionization with radioactive ((3)H, (63)Ni) isotopes that produce nonuniform spatial distribution of sample ions. The available methods of sample ion focusing are either efficient at reduced pressure (~1Torr) or feature high sample losses. This paper deals with experimental research into atmospheric pressure focusing of unipolar (positive) ions using a highly swirled air stream with a well-defined vortex core. Effects of electrical fields from corona needle and inlet capillary of mass spectrometer on collection efficiency is considered. We used a corona discharge to produce an ionized unipolar sample. It is shown experimentally that with an electrical field barrier efficient transportation and focusing of an ionized sample are possible only when a metal plate restricting the stream and provided with an opening covered with a grid is used. This gives a five-fold increase of the transportation efficiency. It is shown that the electric field barrier in the vortex sampling region reduces the efficiency of remote ionized sample transportation two times. The difference in the efficiency of light ion focusing observed may be explained by a high mobility and a significant effect of the electric field barrier upon them. It is possible to conclude based on the experimental data that the presence of the field barrier narrows considerably (more than by one and half) the region of the vortex sample ion focusing. PMID:23618173

Kolomiets, Yuri N; Pervukhin, Viktor V

2013-06-15

350

Radio Remote Sensing of the Solar Corona with the EVLA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of studies have used the VLA to measure Faraday rotation due to the solar corona, and thus remotely sense the coronal plasma structure (e.g. ApJ 668, 5202, 2007). However, these studies have been limited to a closest angular approach of about 5 solar radii from the Sun (1.25 degrees). At closer heliocentric distances, the system temperature at the 1.4 GHz observing frequency is unacceptably enhanced due to the Sun in the distant sidelobes. In future studies we would like to use the EVLA to probe the inner corona, from 2-5 solar radii. Observations at 5 GHz will be less affected by solar system temperature increase because of smaller antenna beams. We performed test measurements with EVLA antennas to determine the solar contribution to the system temperature as a function of angular distance from the sun at 5 GHz. We report our results in three regions of interest: at 2-3 solar radii (32-48') the system temperature varies from 100-350 K, at 3-5 solar radii (48-80') the system temperature is 50-100 K, and for separations greater than 5 solar radii (80') the system temperature levels off to the cold-sky EVLA Tsys value of 39 K. We also present a model for the system temperature due to the quiet sun in the sidelobes, which adequately reproduces the measured Tsys values. These results demonstrate the feasibility of future EVLA Faraday rotation, and other propagation measurements in the inner corona. This research was supported at the University of Iowa by grant ATM-0354782 from the National Science Foundation.

Whiting, Catherine; Spangler, S. R.

2010-01-01

351

Meteoroid ablation during entry into the solar corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deposition of dust material in the close vicinity of the sun has been discussed before in the context of pick up ion production near the sun and in the context of the FIP (First Ionization Potential) effect. Pick-up ions are ions that are carried with the solar wind but have distinctly different charge states and velocities than the solar wind ions. The FIP effect describes an abundance anomaly observed in the slow speed wind, where elements with FIP below about 10 eV are enhanced in abundance. In order to estimate the possible contribution of dust and meteoroids to these two phenomena, we study the mass deposition during entry of dust and meteoroids into the solar corona. The first-order model that we apply is similar to the one-dimensional ablation models previously developed by other groups for the Earth's atmosphere and for the atmosphere of Venus. We present the results of mass deposition profiles for a wide range of masses and velocities of objects falling into the Sun. Our main focus is in the bigger objects (masses greater than 1 Kg) for which most of the mass is deposited in the lower layers of the solar corona. As a first step, we consider only the ecliptic plane and extrapolate the mass flux from empirical models of the dust and meteoroid flux near Earth orbit. We calculate the mass deposition and estimate its effects on the coronal heavy ion composition. With a simple two-dimensional generalization of the model we can also include the interaction of sungrazing comets with the solar corona. We finally discuss the effect of different material compositions of these objects taking into account refractory and volatile materials.

Lamy, Hervé; Mann, Ingrid; Lemaire, Joseph

2010-05-01

352

High Resolution Imaging of the Sun with CORONAS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We applied several image restoration and enhancement techniques, to CORONAS-I images. We carried out the characterization of the Point Spread Function (PSF) using the unique capability of the Blind Iterative Deconvolution (BID) technique, which recovers the real PSF at a given location and time of observation, when limited a priori information is available on its characteristics. We also applied image enhancement technique to extract the small scale structure imbeded in bright large scale structures on the disk and on the limb. The results demonstrate the capability of the image post-processing to substantially increase the yield from the space observations by improving the resolution and reducing noise in the images.

Karovska, Margarita

1998-01-01

353

Optical Spectroscopy at Deep Light Minimum of R Coronae Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present optical spectroscopy late in a deep minimum for the quintessential hydrogen-deficient carbon star R Coronae Borealis. Starting 3.5 years into the current deep and long minimum, we have secured observations that reveal some of the oddest optical spectra ever obtained for any astronomical object. Helium emission lines from triplet transitions, strong Ca II H and K emission, and forbidden lines of oxygen and nitrogen are the only spectral features observed. The spectra can be interpreted as coming from a chromospheric-like region lying above a carbon shell ejection front combined with a large-scale nebular-like region surrounding the star.

Howell, Steve B.; Rector, Travis A.; Walter, Donald

2013-08-01

354

Fluorine in R Coronae Borealis and Extreme Helium Stars  

E-print Network

Neutral fluorine lines are identified in the optical spectra of several R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) at maximum light. These lines provide the first measurement of the fluorine abundance in these stars. Fluorine is enriched in some RCBs by factors of 800 to 8000 relative to its likely initial abundance. The overabundances of fluorine are evidence for the synthesis of fluorine. These results are discussed in the light of the scenario that RCBs are formed by accretion of an He white dwarf by a C-O white dwarf. Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr), a final He-shell flash product, shows no detectable neutral fluorine lines.

Gajendra Pandey; David L. Lambert; N. Kameswara Rao

2007-12-24

355

R Coronae Borealis dust ejections - A preferred plane?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectropolarimetric observations of R Coronae Borealis obtained during the brightness minimum of 1986 are presented. When combined with previous polarization observations of brightness minima, the distribution of observations in the Q-U plane suggests that ejections of dust clouds occur in a preferred plane about the star, in contrast to the standard model for the R CrB-type stars, which holds that clouds are ejected from all parts of the stellar surface. The possibility of an ejection mechanism connected with nonradial pulsations is discussed as the most likely explanation of the preferred plane.

Stanford, S. A.; Clayton, G. C.; Meade, M. R.; Nordsieck, K. H.; Whitney, B. A.

1988-01-01

356

Fluorine in R Coronae Borealis and Extreme Helium Stars  

E-print Network

Neutral fluorine lines are identified in the optical spectra of several R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) at maximum light. These lines provide the first measurement of the fluorine abundance in these stars. Fluorine is enriched in some RCBs by factors of 800 to 8000 relative to its likely initial abundance. The overabundances of fluorine are evidence for the synthesis of fluorine. These results are discussed in the light of the scenario that RCBs are formed by accretion of an He white dwarf by a C-O white dwarf. Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr), a final He-shell flash product, shows no detectable neutral fluorine lines.

Pandey, Gajendra; Rao, N Kameswara

2007-01-01

357

On the Abundance of Lithium in T Coronae Borealis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have obtained high resolution echelle spectroscopy of the recurrent nova T CrB (T Coronae Borealis). We find that the surface lithium abundance in T CrB is significantly enhanced compared to field M giants, where it is not detectable. We offer possible explanations for this in terms of either a delay in the onset of convection in the giant star, enhanced coronal activity due to star-spots or the enhancement of Li resulting from the nova explosion(s).

Shahbaz, T.; Hauschildt, P.H.; Naylor, T.; Ringwald, F.

1999-01-01

358

Study of a dual frequency atmospheric pressure corona plasma  

SciTech Connect

Radio frequency mixing of 2 and 13.56 MHz was investigated by performing experimental measurements on the atmospheric pressure corona plasma. As a result of the dual frequency, length, current density, and electron excitation temperature of the plasma were increased, while the gas temperature was maintained at roughly the same level when compared to the respective single frequency plasmas. Moreover, observation of time-resolved images revealed that the dual frequency plasma has a discharge mode of 2 MHz positive streamer, 2 MHz negative glow, and 13.56 MHz continuous glow.

Kim, Dan Bee; Moon, S. Y.; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

359

The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers technical progress during the first year of the NASA Space Physics Theory contract between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation. Under this contract SAIC, the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model. During the period covered by this report we have published 26 articles in the scientific literature. These publications are listed in Section 4 of this report. In the Appendix we have attached reprints of selected articles.

Mikic, Zoran

1998-01-01

360

Helium corona-assisted air discharge Nan Jiang, Lei Gao, Ailing Ji, and Zexian Caoa)  

E-print Network

- cially on the behavior of atmospheric pressure plasma jet of helium,8­10 we realized that inert gases of non-thermal plasmas. By taking advantage of the low onset voltage for helium corona, air discharge discharge or corona discharge.6,7 However, to generate and sustain a plasma at atmospheric pressure

Zexian, Cao

361

The effect of corona discharge on free convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free convection heat transfer from an isothermal horizontal cylinder in the presence of DC positive corona discharge with a blade edge emitter electrode has been studied experimentally and numerically. A Mach–Zehnder interferometer was used to determine the local Nusselt numbers. The effect of corona discharge on heat transfer from the cylinder was investigated at Rayleigh numbers in the range between

Seyed Reza Mahmoudi; Kazimierz Adamiak; Peter Castle; Mehdi Ashjaee

2010-01-01

362

Multidimensional modeling of Trichel pulses in negative point-to-plane corona in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that an electric current in a negative corona for pin-to-plane configuration in a wide range of parameters has a form of periodic pulses, which are called Trichel pulses. In this paper results of comprehensive numerical simulations of pulses evolution for a corona with axial symmetry are reported for a cathode in a form of a needle with

Yuri Akishev; Igor Kochetov; Alexander Loboiko; Anatoly Napartovich

2002-01-01

363

The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium M. Jariyaboon a,1  

E-print Network

The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium M. Jariyaboon a,1 , P. Møller a , R t The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AA1050 aluminium surface was investigated using electro, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after the 15 min air

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

364

The Norris Survey of the Corona Borealis Supercluster. III. Structure and Mass of the Supercluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of the structure and dynamics of the Corona Borealis supercluster (z ~ 0.07) based on the redshifts of 528 galaxies in the supercluster. The galaxy distribution within Corona Borealis is clumpy and appears overall to be far from relaxed. Approximately one-third of the supercluster galaxies lie outside of the Abell clusters in the supercluster. A background

Todd A. Small; Chung-Pei Ma; Wallace L. W. Sargent; Donald Hamilton

1998-01-01

365

Effect of relative humidity on electron distribution and ozone production by DC coronas in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A numerical model of electron distribution and ozone production in clean and humid air by DC corona discharges from a thin wire is presented. The model is based on the prior models of ozone production by DC coronas in dry air, with modifications to incorporate the effect of water vapor on the electrical characteristics and the

Junhong Chen; Pengxiang Wang

2004-01-01

366

Bull. Astr. Soc. India (2013) 00, 1?? The Solar Corona: What Are The Remaining Fundamental  

E-print Network

of beautiful plasma columns our instruments observe in EUV and soft X-rays outline the coronal magnetic field The solar corona has been observed in detail in soft X-rays and EUV for over half a century (Golub tenuous that coronal plasma is almost exclusively optical thin. The magnetic field in the corona typically

Martens, Petrus C.

367

Fluid-absent diffusion kinetics of Al inferred from retrograde metamorphic coronas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ansrnacr Estimates are obtained for diffusion coefficients of Al through polycrystalline hornblende layers during retrograde metamorphism using petrological studies of two types of coronas, with geologically based estimates of time scale. The observations indicate a combination of fluid-absent grain-boundary diffusion and intracrystalline diffusion in the presence of composition gradients whose magnitude for Al is constrained by mineral analyses. Corona growth

JonN R. Asnwonrn

1993-01-01

368

Subduction on the margins of coronae on Venus: Evidence from radiothermal emissivity measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Retrograde subduction has been suggested to occur at three coronae on Venus: Latona, Artemis, and Eithinoha. Using the mineralogical arguments of Klose to explain surface emissivity, a study of radio thermal emissivity of Venus coronae showed that emissivity changes associated with Latona, Artemis, and Ceres imply the same crustal movements predicted by the subduction model of Sandwell and Schubert.

Robinson, C. A.

1993-01-01

369

Heating of the solar corona by the resonant absorption of Alfven waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method for calculating the resonance absorption heating rate is discussed and the results are compared with observations in the solar corona. The primary conclusion to be drawn from these calculations is that to the level of the approximation adopted, the observations of the heating rate and nonthermal line broadening in the solar corona are consistent with heating by the resonance absorption mechanism.

Davila, Joseph M.

1986-01-01

370

MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. II. FIELD-PLASMA INTERACTION B. Fornberg,2  

E-print Network

MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. II. FIELD-PLASMA INTERACTION N. Flyer,1 B. Fornberg) attrib- uted to the failure of the confinement of a magnetic flux rope in the solar corona (see, e study of axisymmetric force-free magnetic fields in the unbounded space outside a unit sphere, presented

Fornberg, Bengt

371

Impact Crater Densities on Volcanoes and Coronae on Venus: Implications for Volcanic Resurfacing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density of impact craters on large volcanoes on Venus is half the average crater density for the planet. The crater density on some classes of coronae is not significantly different from the global average density, but coronae with extensive associated volcanic deposits have lower crater densities. These results are inconsistent with both single-age and steady-state models for global resurfacing

Noriyuki Namiki; Sean C. Solomon

1994-01-01

372

Jump-diffusion unravelling of a non-Markovian generalized Lindblad master equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "correlated-projection technique" has been successfully applied to derive a large class of highly non-Markovian dynamics, the so called non-Markovian generalized Lindblad-type equations or Lindblad rate equations. In this article, general unravelings are presented for these equations, described in terms of jump-diffusion stochastic differential equations for wave functions. We show also that the proposed unraveling can be interpreted in terms of measurements continuous in time but with some conceptual restrictions. The main point in the measurement interpretation is that the structure itself of the underlying mathematical theory poses restrictions on what can be considered as observable and what is not; such restrictions can be seen as the effect of some kind of superselection rule. Finally, we develop a concrete example and discuss possible effects on the heterodyne spectrum of a two-level system due to a structured thermal-like bath with memory.

Barchielli, A.; Pellegrini, C.

2010-11-01

373

Jump-diffusion unravelling of a non-Markovian generalized Lindblad master equation  

SciTech Connect

The ''correlated-projection technique'' has been successfully applied to derive a large class of highly non-Markovian dynamics, the so called non-Markovian generalized Lindblad-type equations or Lindblad rate equations. In this article, general unravelings are presented for these equations, described in terms of jump-diffusion stochastic differential equations for wave functions. We show also that the proposed unraveling can be interpreted in terms of measurements continuous in time but with some conceptual restrictions. The main point in the measurement interpretation is that the structure itself of the underlying mathematical theory poses restrictions on what can be considered as observable and what is not; such restrictions can be seen as the effect of some kind of superselection rule. Finally, we develop a concrete example and discuss possible effects on the heterodyne spectrum of a two-level system due to a structured thermal-like bath with memory.

Barchielli, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Milano (Italy); Pellegrini, C. [Laboratoire de Statistique et Probabilites, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

2010-11-15

374

Climatology of GPS scintillations over Antarctica under solar minimum conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse GNSS ionospheric scintillation data recorded in Antarctica to investigate the conditions of the near-Earth environment leading to scintillation scenarios, producing a "scintillation climatology" over a large geomagnetic quiet period. Within this scope we realize maps of scintillation occurrence as a function of the magnetic local time (MLT) and of the altitude adjusted corrected geomagnetic coordinates (AACGM). The maps are realized merging observations of two GISTMs (GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitor) located at Mario Zucchelli Station (74.7°S, 164.1°E) and Concordia Station (75.1°S, 123.2°E) in Antarctica during 2008. The results highlight the possibility to investigate the impact of ionospheric irregularities on the phase and amplitude of GNSS signals, evidencing the cusp/cap and auroral contributions. This works aims to contribute to the development of nowcasting and forecasting tools for GNSS ionospheric scintillation.

Spogli, Luca; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Romano, Vincenzo; de Franceschi, Giorgiana; Mitchell, Cathryn N.

2010-05-01

375

ISS and Space Shuttle Radiation Measurements at Solar Minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of 2008-2011 ISS and Space Shuttle radiation dosimetry results for inside vehicle radiation monitoring in low-Earth orbit will be presented. Results include new data from ISS Expedition 22-25/20A radiation area monitors (RAM) and Shuttle Missions STS127-STS133 passive radiation dosimeters (PRD). ISS 20A radiation measurement locations included three Node 2 crew quarters locations at NOD2S5_CQ, NOD2P5_CQ and CQ-3 (Deck), as well as ESA Columbus, and JAXA Kibo locations. ISS 20A and STS127-STS133 missions were flown at 51.6 inclination with an altitude range of 330-350 km. The passive radiation results will be presented in terms of measured daily dose obtained using luminescence detectors (i.e., Al2O3:C, LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF2:Tm). In addition, preliminary results from the DOSIS 2 Project, in collaboration with the German Space Agency (DLR) will be presented. SRAG s participation to the DOSIS 2 exposure on ISS (11/16/2009-05/26/2010) involved passive radiation measurements at 10 different shielding locations inside the ESA Columbus Module.

Gaza, Ramona; Welton, Andrew; Dunegan, Audrey; Lee, Kerry

2011-01-01

376

Ex situ evaluation of the composition of protein corona of intravenously injected superparamagnetic nanoparticles in rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now well recognized that the surfaces of nanoparticles (NPs) are coated with biomolecules (e.g., proteins) in a biological medium. Although extensive reports have been published on the protein corona at the surface of NPs in vitro, there are very few on the in vivo protein corona. The main reason for having very poor information regarding the protein corona in vivo is that separation of NPs from the in vivo environment has not been possible by using available techniques. Knowledge of the in vivo protein corona could lead to better understanding and prediction of the fate of NPs in vivo. Here, by using the unique magnetic properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs), NPs were extracted from rat sera after in vivo interaction with the rat's physiological system. More specifically, the in vivo protein coronas of polyvinyl-alcohol-coated SPIONs with various surface charges are defined. The compositions of the corona at the surface of various SPIONs and their effects on the biodistribution of SPIONs were examined and compared with the corona composition of particles incubated for the same time in rat serum.It is now well recognized that the surfaces of nanoparticles (NPs) are coated with biomolecules (e.g., proteins) in a biological medium. Although extensive reports have been published on the protein corona at the surface of NPs in vitro, there are very few on the in vivo protein corona. The main reason for having very poor information regarding the protein corona in vivo is that separation of NPs from the in vivo environment has not been possible by using available techniques. Knowledge of the in vivo protein corona could lead to better understanding and prediction of the fate of NPs in vivo. Here, by using the unique magnetic properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs), NPs were extracted from rat sera after in vivo interaction with the rat's physiological system. More specifically, the in vivo protein coronas of polyvinyl-alcohol-coated SPIONs with various surface charges are defined. The compositions of the corona at the surface of various SPIONs and their effects on the biodistribution of SPIONs were examined and compared with the corona composition of particles incubated for the same time in rat serum. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Summary table of identified proteins. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02793k

Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Maurizi, Lionel; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Motazacker, Mahdi; Vries, Marcel; Gramoun, Azza; Ollivier Beuzelin, Marie-Gabrielle; Vallée, Jean-Paul; Rezaee, Farhad; Hofmann, Heinrich

2014-09-01

377

Numerical modelling of ozone production in a wire-cylinder corona discharge and comparison with a wire-plate corona discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of electrode configuration on ozone production in the direct-current corona discharge of dry and humid air is studied by a numerical model that combines the electron distribution in the corona plasma, plasma chemistry and transport phenomena. Two electrode configurations are considered: wire-cylinder discharge with air flowing along the wire axis and wire-plate discharge with air flowing transverse to

Pengxiang Wang; Junhong Chen

2009-01-01

378

A Method for Obtaining the Tesseract by Unraveling the 4D Hypercube  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a method for unraveling the hypercube a nd ob taining the 3D-cross (tesseract) that corresponds to the hyper-flattening of its boundary. The hypercube can be raveled back using the method in an inverse way. Also a method for visualizing the processes is presented. The transformations to apply include rotations around a plane (characteristic of the 4D space).

Antonio Aguilera Ramírez; Ricardo Pérez-aguila

2002-01-01

379

Unraveling the commercial market for medicinal plants and plant parts on the witwatersrand, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

To unravel the market for commercial medicinal plants on the Witwatersrand in South Africa, a semiquantitative approach was\\u000a taken. A stratified random sample of 50 herb-traders was surveyed, and an inventory of all plants and parts sold was compiled.\\u000a Research participants were questioned on the scarcity and popularity of the plants traded, as well as suppliers and origins.\\u000a The rarefaction

Vivienne L. Williams; Kevin Balkwill; Edward T. F. Witkowski

2000-01-01

380

Jet magnetically accelerated from disk-corona around a rotating black hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A jet acceleration model for extracting energy from disk-corona surrounding a rotating black hole (BH) is proposed. In the disk-corona scenario, we obtain the ratio of the power dissipated in the corona to the total for such disk-corona system by solving the disk dynamics equations. The analytical expression of the jet power is derived based on the electronic circuit theory of the magnetosphere. It is shown that jet power increases with the increasing BH spin, and concentrates in the inner region of the disk-corona. In addition, we use a sample consisting of 37 radio loud quasars to explore their jet production mechanism, and show that our jet formation mechanism can simulate almost all sources with high power jet, which fails to be explained by the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) process.

Gong, XiaoLong; Li, LiXin

2012-05-01

381

Measurement of positive direct current corona pulse in coaxial wire-cylinder gap  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a system is designed and developed to measure the positive corona current in coaxial wire-cylinder gaps. The characteristic parameters of corona current pulses, such as the amplitude, rise time, half-wave time, and repetition frequency, are statistically analyzed and a new set of empirical formulas are derived by numerical fitting. The influence of space charges on corona currents is tested by using three corona cages with different radii. A numerical method is used to solve a simplified ion-flow model to explain the influence of space charges. Based on the statistical results, a stochastic model is developed to simulate the corona pulse trains. And this model is verified by comparing the simulated frequency-domain responses with the measured ones.

Yin, Han, E-mail: hanyin1986@gmail.com; Zhang, Bo, E-mail: shizbcn@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; He, Jinliang, E-mail: hejl@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, Wenzhuo, E-mail: wwzhuo1990@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2014-03-15

382

Development of a positive corona from a long grounded wire in a growing thunderstorm field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of a non-stationary corona initiated from a long grounded wire suspended horizontally above the ground and coronating in a slowly varying thundercloud electric field are studied. A two-dimensional (2D) model of the corona is developed. On the basis of this model, characteristics of the corona produced by a lightning protection wire are calculated under thunderstorm conditions. The corona characteristics are also found by using approximate analytical and quasi-one-dimensional numerical models. The results of these models agree reasonably well with those obtained from the 2D simulation. This allows one to estimate the corona parameters without recourse to the cumbersome simulation. This work was performed with a view to study the efficiency of lightning protection wires later on.

Mokrov, M. S.; Raizer, Yu P.; Bazelyan, E. M.

2013-11-01

383

Diffusion coronas around quartz xenocrysts in andesite and basalt from Tertiary volcanic region in northeastern Shikoku, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronas around quartz xenocrysts in andesite and basalt from Tertiary volcanics in northeastern Shikoku, Japan, have been described. The coronas are composed mainly of Ca-rich clinopyroxene and glass. Compositional profiles across the corona glass show monotonous variation of major elements except for alkalis. Preliminary experiment on the reaction between basaltic melt and quartz has shown that alkalis diffused against their

Hiroaki Sato

1975-01-01

384

Confirmed Assignments of Isomeric Dimethylbenzyl Radicals Generated by Corona Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymethylbenzyl radicals, multi-methyl-substituted benzyl radicals, have been believed to be an ideal model for understanding the torsional effect of methyl group and substitution effect on electronic transition. These radicals are mainly generated from polymethylbenzenes by electric discharge for spectroscopic observation. However, the existence of several methyl groups on the benzene ring may produce several isomeric polymethylbenzyl radicals by removing one of the C-H bonds of each methyl group at different substitution position, which makes the assignment of spectrum ambiguous. In this work, the controversial vibronic assignments of isomeric dimethylbenzyl radicals were clearly resolved by using different precursors. By using corresponding dimethylbenzyl chlorides as precursors, we identified the origins of the vibronic bands of the dimethylbenzyl radicals generated by corona discharge of precursors 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzenes. From the analysis of the spectra observed from the dimethylbenzyl chlorides in a corona excited supersonic expansion using a pinhole-type glass nozzle, we revised previous assignments of the 2,6- and 2,3-dimethylbenzyl radicals as well as the 3,4-, 2,4-, and 2,5-dimethylbenzyl radicals. In addition, spectroscopic data of electronic transition and vibrational mode frequencies in the ground electronic state of each isomer were accurately determined by comparing them with those obtained by an ab initio calculation and with the known vibrational data of precursors.

Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

2012-06-01

385

Digital surface model generation from CORONA satellite images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital surface models (DSMs) are used for various analyses in environmental science, e.g. for erosion and water studies. Aerial photos and maps, which are necessary for the extraction of DSMs, often do not exist due to financial or political reasons. This situation can be also encountered in Morocco and, in particular, a test area of the international research project IMPETUS was used in this study. Therefore, stereo satellite images of CORONA have been used, as they allow DSM generation, have a ground resolution of 1.83 m, reasonable price (US$12-18 per filmstrip of 188×14 km) and large coverage (especially of Asia and eastern Europe). The software program ERDAS IMAGINE OrthoBASE Pro was used to generate DSMs automatically from CORONA satellite images with best vertical accuracy of about 10 m and planimetric accuracy of about 3 m. These DSMs could afterwards be used to generate orthoimages, e.g. for mapping change detection and generating thematic maps or land use classifications.

Altmaier, Angela; Kany, Christoph

386

Ultraviolet radiation from the pulsed corona discharge in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative analysis of ultraviolet radiation from the pulsed corona discharge in water with needle-plate electrode geometry (~1-3 J pulse-1) was performed using the potassium ferrioxalate actinometry. Photon flux J190-280 and radiant energy Q190-280 of the UV light emitted from the discharge at spectral region 190-280 nm was determined in dependence on the applied voltage (17-29 kV, positive polarity) and the solution conductivity (100-500 µS cm-1). The intensity of the UV radiation strongly increased with increasing water conductivity and applied voltage. Depending on the applied voltage the determined photon flux varied by more than two orders of magnitude within the range of solution conductivities 100-500 µS cm-1. It was found that photon flux from the discharge may be directly related to the discharge pulse mean power Pp as J190-280 = 44.33 P_p^{2.11} (quanta pulse-1). A significant role of UV radiation in the production of hydrogen peroxide and bacterial inactivation by the corona discharge in water has been identified. As the solution conductivity increased the yield of H2O2 produced by the discharge decreased due to increasing photolysis of H2O2 accounting for up to 14% of the total decomposition rate of H2O2. As regards bactericidal effects, it was estimated that the UV radiation contributes about 30% to the overall inactivation of Escherichia coli.

Lukes, Petr; Clupek, Martin; Babicky, Vaclav; Sunka, Pavel

2008-05-01

387

The EUV Emission in Comet-Solar Corona Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AlA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) viewed a comet as it passed through the solar corona on 2011 July 5. This was the first sighting of a comet by a EUV telescope. For 20 minutes, enhanced emission in several of the AlA wavelength bands marked the path of the comet. We explain this EUV emission by considering the evolution of the cometary atmosphere as it interacts with the ambient solar atmosphere. Water ice in the comet rapidly sublimates as it approaches the Sun. This water vapor is then photodissociated, primarily by Ly-alpha, by the solar radiation field to create atomic Hand O. Other molecules present in the comet also evaporate and dissociate to give atomic Fe and other metals. Subsequent ionization of these atoms can be achieved by a number of means, including photoionization, electron impact, and charge exchange with coronal protons and other highly-charged species. Finally, particles from the cometary atmosphere are thermalized to the background temperature of the corona. Each step could cause emission in the AlA bandpasses. We will report here on their relative contribution to the emission seen in the AlA telescopes.

Bryans, Paul; Pesnell, William Dean; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Brown, John C.; Battams, Karl; Saint-Hilaire, Pasal; Liu, Wei; Hudson, Hugh S.

2011-01-01

388

Corongraphic Observations and Analyses of The Ultraviolet Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activities supported under NASA Grant NAG5-613 included the following: 1) reduction and scientific analysis of data from three sounding rocket flights of the Rocket Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer, 2) development of ultraviolet spectroscopic diagnostic techniques to provide a detailed empirical description of the extended solar corona, 3) extensive upgrade of the rocket instrument to become the Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) for Spartan 201,4) instrument scientific calibration and characterization, 5) observation planning and mission support for a series of five Spartan 201 missions (fully successful except for STS 87 where the Spartan spacecraft was not successfully deployed and the instruments were not activated), and 6) reduction and scientific analysis of the UVCS/Spartan 201 observational data. The Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer for Spartan 201 was one unit of a joint payload and the other unit was a White Light Coronagraph (WLC) provided by the High Altitude Observatory and the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two instruments were used in concert to determine plasma parameters describing structures in the extended solar corona. They provided data that could be used individually or jointly in scientific analyses. The WLC provided electron column densities in high spatial resolution and high time resolution. UVCS/Spartan provided hydrogen velocity distributions, and line of sight hydrogen velocities. The hydrogen intensities from UVCS together with the electron densities from WLC were used to determine hydrogen outflow velocities. The UVCS also provided O VI intensities which were used to develop diagnostics for velocity distributions and outflow velocities of minor ions.

Kohl, John L.

2000-01-01

389

Magnetic tornadoes as energy channels into the solar corona.  

PubMed

Heating the outer layers of the magnetically quiet solar atmosphere to more than one million kelvin and accelerating the solar wind requires an energy flux of approximately 100 to 300?watts per square metre, but how this energy is transferred and dissipated there is a puzzle and several alternative solutions have been proposed. Braiding and twisting of magnetic field structures, which is caused by the convective flows at the solar surface, was suggested as an efficient mechanism for atmospheric heating. Convectively driven vortex flows that harbour magnetic fields are observed to be abundant in the photosphere (the visible surface of the Sun). Recently, corresponding swirling motions have been discovered in the chromosphere, the atmospheric layer sandwiched between the photosphere and the corona. Here we report the imprints of these chromospheric swirls in the transition region and low corona, and identify them as observational signatures of rapidly rotating magnetic structures. These ubiquitous structures, which resemble super-tornadoes under solar conditions, reach from the convection zone into the upper solar atmosphere and provide an alternative mechanism for channelling energy from the lower into the upper solar atmosphere. PMID:22739314

Wedemeyer-Böhm, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Steiner, Oskar; van der Voort, Luc Rouppe; de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime; Fedun, Viktor; Erdélyi, Robert

2012-06-28

390

Decontamination of 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide by Pulsed Corona Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES, CH3CH2SCH2CH2Cl) by pulsed corona plasma was investigated. The results show that 212.6 mg/m3 of 2-CEES, with the gas flow rate of 2 m3/h, can be decontaminated to 0.09 mg/m3. According to the variation of the inlet and outlet concentration of 2-CEES vapor with retention time, it is found that the reaction of 2-CEES in a pulsed corona plasma system follows the first order reaction, with the reaction rate constant of 0.463 s?1. The decontamination mechanism is discussed based on an analysis of the dissociation energy of chemical bonds and decontamination products. The C–S bond adjacent to the Cl atom will be destroyed firstly to form CH3CH2S· and ·CH2CH2Cl radicals. CH3CH2S· can be decomposed to ·C2H5 and ·S. ·S can be oxidized to SO2, while ·C2H5 can be finally oxidized to CO2 and H2O. The C–Cl bond in the ·CH2CH2Cl radical can be destroyed to form ·CH2CH2. and ·Cl, which can be mineralized to CO2, H2O and HCl. The H atom in the ·CH2CH2Cl radical can also be substituted by ·Cl to form CHCl2–CHCl2.

Li, Zhanguo; Hu, Zhen; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Hongjie

2014-11-01

391

A nanoflare heating model for the quiet solar corona  

E-print Network

The energy input into the lower solar corona by flare evaporation events has been modeled according to the available observations for quiet regions. The question is addressed whether such heating events can provide the observed average level of the coronal emission measure and thus of the observed flux of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray emission without contradicting the observed average power spectrum of the emission measure, the typical emission measure variations observed for individual pixels and the observed flare energy distribution. As the assumed flare height influences the derived flare energy, the mathematical foundations of nanoflare distributions and their conversion to different height assumptions are studied first. This also allows a comparison with various published energy distributions differing in height assumptions and to relate the observations to the input parameters of the heating model. An analytic evaluation of the power spectrum yields the relationship between the average time profile of nanoflares (or microflares), assumed to be self-similar in energy, and the power spectrum. We find that the power spectrum is very sensitive to the chosen time profile of the flares. Models are found by numerical simulation that fit all available observations. They are not unique but severely constrained. We concentrate on a model with a flare height proportional to the square root of the flare area. The existence of a fitting model demonstrates that nanoflare heating of the corona is a viable and attractive mechanism.

U. Mitra-Kraev; A. O. Benz

2004-10-26

392

Coupling from the photosphere to the chromosphere and the corona  

E-print Network

The atmosphere of the Sun is characterized by a complex interplay of competing physical processes: convection, radiation, conduction, and magnetic fields. The most obvious imprint of the solar convection and its overshooting in the low atmosphere is the granulation pattern. Beside this dominating scale there is a more or less smooth distribution of spatial scales, both towards smaller and larger scales, making the Sun essentially a multi-scale object. Convection and overshooting give the photosphere its face but also act as drivers for the layers above, namely the chromosphere and corona. The magnetic field configuration effectively couples the atmospheric layers on a multitude of spatial scales, for instance in the form of loops that are anchored in the convection zone and continue through the atmosphere up into the chromosphere and corona. The magnetic field is also an important structuring agent for the small, granulation-size scales, although (hydrodynamic) shock waves also play an important role -- especially in the internetwork atmosphere where mostly weak fields prevail. Based on recent results from observations and numerical simulations, we attempt to present a comprehensive picture of the atmosphere of the quiet Sun as a highly intermittent and dynamic system.

S. Wedemeyer-Böhm; A. Lagg; Å. Nordlund

2008-09-15

393

Observational tests for nonequilibrium ionization in the solar corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonequilibrium ionization may be produced by a variety of processes in the solar corona, for example, by mass flows through the large temperature gradients of the transition region or by impulsive heating and cooling. Any deviation from equilibrium ionization would have a strong effect on the radiation from the corona and on the interpretation of solar observations; hence, it is important to determine observational signatures of nonequilibrium. The temperature-sensitive line ratios can be used as such signatures. We examine the line ratios: C IV I(1548.2 A)/I(312.4 A), O IV I(789.4 A)/I(554.4 A), O V I(629.7 A)/I(172.2 A), O VI I(1031.9 A)/I(173.0 A) and O VI I(1031.9 A)/I(150.1 A). These line ratios are calculated for four coronal loop models that have a steady flow and that are known to have significant departures from equilibrium ionization. Our results indicate that, in general, nonequilibrium causes a considerable reduction in the line ratios, more than an order of magnitude in the downflowing leg of the loop model with the largest mass flows. We find that the C IV line ratio is the most sensitive to nonequilibrium. We discuss the implications of our results for observations, specifically, the observations expected from the upcoming SOHO mission.

Spadaro, D.; Leto, P.; Antiochos, S. K.

1994-05-01

394

Chemical Compositions and Abundance Anomalies in Stellar Coronae ADP 99  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New atomic data for tackling some of our spectra have been investigated by co-I Laming (NRL), including the effects of recombination on spectral line fluxes that are not included in, for example, the CHIANTI database models. Promising new progress has been made with modelling some of the recent abundance anomaly results in terms of Alven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. The problems that existing models have is that they cannot simultaneously explain the low-FIP enhanced solar-like coronae and the high-FIP rich active coronae of RS CVn-like stars. The Alven wave model shows promise with both of these scenarios, with the fractionation or suppression of low-FIP ions depending on the characteristics of the chromosphere. This work is currently in the writing up stage. In summary, the work to-date is making good progress in mapping abundance anomalies as a function of spectral type and activity level. We are also making good progress with modelling that we will be able to test with our observational results. With one more year of effort, we'anticipate that the bulk of the work described above can be published, together with outstanding key studies on anomalies among the different active binaries.

Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Drake, Jeremy

2004-01-01

395

Self Organization in the Solar Corona and Interstellar Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-organization can be defined as the process by which a physical system, in the course of its evolution, changes its spatial structure, the form of its equations of motions, or key coefficients in those equations. Paradigmatic examples are chemical reactions of the reaction-diffusion type, and biological systems. I discuss astrophysical processes where similar sorts of dynamics may be occurring. The first example is Joule heating of the solar corona. A major problem in astrophysics is the physical mechanism or mechanisms responsible for heating the solar corona to 1-2 million K. Coronal heating by turbulent current sheets is negligible if a standard expression for the resistivity of a plasma is used, but as the current sheets evolve, they develop progressively higher current densities. These high current densities can enhance the resistivity via plasma instabilities, and make Joule heating a more effective process. The second example is from the interstellar medium. The formation of massive stars leads to processes which compress the nearby interstellar medium, making star formation a more efficient process. Similarities and differences with better studied systems exhibiting self organization will be discussed.

Spangler, Steven

2009-11-01

396

A Corona Discharge Initiated Electrochemical Electrospray Ionization Technique  

PubMed Central

We report here the development of a corona discharge (CD) initiated electrochemical (EC) electrospray ionization (ESI) technique using a standard electrospray ion source. This is a new ionization technique distinct from ESI, electrochemistry inherent to ESI, APCI, and techniques using hydroxyl radicals produced under atmospheric pressure conditions. By maximizing the observable CD at the tip of a stainless steel ESI capillary, efficient electrochemical oxidation of electrochemically active compounds is observed. For electrochemical oxidation to be observed, the ionization potential of the analyte must be lower than Fe. Ferrocene labeled compounds were chosen as the electrochemically active moiety. The electrochemical cell in the ESI source was robust and generated ions with selectivity according to the ionization potential of the analytes and up to zeptomolar sensitivity. Our results indicate that CD initiated electrochemical ionization has the potential to become a powerful technique to increase the dynamic range, sensitivity and selectivity of ESI experiments. Synopsis Using a standard ESI source a corona discharge initiated electrochemical ionization technique was established resulting from the electrochemistry occurring at the CD electrode surface. PMID:19747843

Lloyd, John R.; Hess, Sonja

2009-01-01

397

Spatial and temporal relations between coronae and extensional belts, northern Lada Terra, Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary studies of the distribution of coronae and volcanic rises on Venus show that many of these features tend to cluster along zones of rifting and extension. The plains north of Lada Terra are crossed by two such extensional belts. Each belt is composed of grabens, ridges, faults, volcanic flows, coronae and coronalike features. The longer and more prominent belt is the NW trending Alpha-Lada extensional belt, which is over 6000 km long and 50-200 km wide, and includes the coronae Eve, Tamfana, Carpo, Selu, Derceto, Otygen, and an unnamed corona south of Otygen. The second belt is the NNE trending Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt, which is about 2000 km long and in places over 300 km wide, and includes the coronae Sarpanitum, Eithinoha, and Quetzalpetlatl. The two belts intersect at the 1600 x 600 km wide Derceto volcanic plateau. It is apparent that deformation along the two belts overlapped in time, though deformation along the Alpha-Lada extensional belt probably continued after the deformation along the Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt terminated. In certain areas, volcanism originated in grabens within the extensional belts, whereas in other areas, such as in Eve, Selu, Derceto, and Quetzalpetlatl, volcanism originated in the coronae and flowed into the lower parts of the extensional belts. Regional extension has affected the evolution of all the coronae at some stage of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha and after the initiation of Carpo, Tamfana, Otygen, and Sarpanitum. It is thus unlikely that coronae formation along the belts is solely a consequence of the regional extension, and it is also unlikely that regional extension has been caused solely by the coronae. No corona along the belts was formed subsequent to the cessation of the regional extension. We therefore suggest that the regional extension and the coronae are interrelated. Some of the coronae may have determined the location of the surface expression of the regional extension, whereas the locations of other coronae may have been influenced by the concentration of regional extensional stresses.

Baer, G.; Schubert, G.; Bindschadler, D. L.; Stofan, E. R.

1994-04-01

398

Thermal Degradation In Composite Insulation Due To Corona Discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite insulators on overhead lines are frequently subjected to corona discharges due to increased electric field intensities under various conditions. These discharges can cause localized heating on the surface and affect the hydrophobicity of the insulator. A study has been undertaken to quantify and evaluate the thermal degradation that composite insulation is subjected to from corona discharges. This has been conducted primarily at the power frequency (60 Hz) and at the low frequency range (37 kHz). Point to plane corona discharge experiments have been performed in the laboratory at both the frequencies and varying levels of thermal degradation has been observed. The amplitude and the frequency of current spikes have been recorded at different voltage levels. A temperature model based on the amplitude and the frequency of current data has been formulated to calculate the maximum temperature attained due to these discharges. Visual thermal degradation has been found to set in at a low frequency range while there is no visual degradation observed at power frequency even when exposed to discharges for relatively much longer periods of time. However, microscopic experiments have been conducted which revealed degradation on the surface at 60 Hz. It has also been found that temperatures in excess of 300 Celsius have been obtained at 37 kHz. This corroborates the thermo gravimetric analysis data that proves thermal degradation in silicone rubber samples at temperatures greater than 300 Celsius. Using the above model, the maximum temperature rise can be evaluated due to discharges occurring on high voltage insulation. This model has also been used to calculate the temperature rise on medium voltage distribution equipment such as composite bushings and stand-off plugs. The samples were subjected to standard partial discharge tests and the corresponding discharge magnitudes have been recorded. The samples passed the tests and the corresponding temperatures plotted have been found to be within thermal limits of the respective insulation used on the samples. The experimental results concur with the theoretical model. A knowledge of the maximum temperatures attained due to these discharges can help in design of insulation with better thermal properties.

Sangaraju Venkateshwara, Pradeep Varma

2010-09-01

399

Ex situ evaluation of the composition of protein corona of intravenously injected superparamagnetic nanoparticles in rats.  

PubMed

It is now well recognized that the surfaces of nanoparticles (NPs) are coated with biomolecules (e.g., proteins) in a biological medium. Although extensive reports have been published on the protein corona at the surface of NPs in vitro, there are very few on the in vivo protein corona. The main reason for having very poor information regarding the protein corona in vivo is that separation of NPs from the in vivo environment has not been possible by using available techniques. Knowledge of the in vivo protein corona could lead to better understanding and prediction of the fate of NPs in vivo. Here, by using the unique magnetic properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs), NPs were extracted from rat sera after in vivo interaction with the rat's physiological system. More specifically, the in vivo protein coronas of polyvinyl-alcohol-coated SPIONs with various surface charges are defined. The compositions of the corona at the surface of various SPIONs and their effects on the biodistribution of SPIONs were examined and compared with the corona composition of particles incubated for the same time in rat serum. PMID:25154771

Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Maurizi, Lionel; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Motazacker, Mahdi; Vries, Marcel; Gramoun, Azza; Ollivier Beuzelin, Marie-Gabrielle; Vallée, Jean-Paul; Rezaee, Farhad; Hofmann, Heinrich

2014-10-01

400

The eclipse corona: reality and possible research during the 1999 eclipse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar eclipses provide a unique opportunity to observe the solar corona and to solve many open questions in solar coronal physics, e.g., heating of the corona, small-scale structures, dust particles, formation and distribution of coronal structures around the solar surface with respect to the photospheric activity centers, polarization, dust vaporization near the Sun, formation and spatial orientation of solar wind streamers, etc. The forthcoming 1999 eclipse will pass across many countries in Europe, the Middle East and Asia. This event will provide a good opportunity to perform observations of the corona with 'bigger' equipment to obtain high-resolution. We propose to focus scientific experiments on the following targets: THE WHITE-LIGHT AND EMISSION CORONA: exact photometry of the corona with telescopes of focal length 1-3 m; in detail, photometry around the poles and/or above active regions with a minimum focal length of 5 m; photoelectric detection of oscillations; co-ordinated observations with `smaller' telescopes, of 1 m focal length, along the umbral path (dynamics and large-scale structure), polarization in emission corona, etc. SPECTRAL OBSERVATIONS: detection of short-term oscillations (less than 0.1 s) in individual spectral emission coronal lines or in the white-light corona; polarization in emission coronal lines (the Hanle effect - direction of coronal magnetic field lines); spectral observations with small-scale resolution: colour of the solar corona, large-scale resolution: profiles of emission lines; depth of absorption lines (F-corona), etc. Moreover, high-precision timing of eclipse contacts can help us to obtain more accurate parameters of the Moon's orbit around the Earth and to measure the diameter of the Sun. Comets, if any, should be studied in the close vicinity of the Sun. We are of the opinion that the most important problems in solar coronal research during the 1999 eclipse will be supported by coordinated ground-based and satellite observations.

Rusin, V.; Rybansky, M.

1999-03-01

401

The Post-nova Modification of the Venusian Corona-novae.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronae and novae are two examples of the unique Venusian volcano-tectonic structure types. Besides their origin, these two are associated by the fact that half of the novae are located within coronae [1]. Previously the novae have been interpreted to represent the initial stage of the corona evolution [2] and therefore were hypothesized to predate the corona rim structure [3]. However, the recent studies show that the majority of those novae located in the inner part of the coronae actually postdate the corona formation [4]. The corona structures with nova inside them have been called as corona-novae [5]. As the nova formation usually postdates the coronae annulus in the corona-nova joint structures, the most recent phases of activity are the nova related features, i.e. the radial structures and the lava flows produced by the nova. However, there are some examples where very young arcuate graben post-date other features of the corona-novae. These arch-like systems are located on the flanks of the structures and they seem to bend away from the nova center unlike the fractures of the annulae. Therefore they probably are of different origin. The most presumable explanation for the formation of these graben sets, is the deformation mechanism of the lava flows by activity similar to landslide processes, such as slope failures (slumping and/or sliding) which produce arcuate scars or depressions on the slope. As shown in the studies of volcanoes on Earth such as the Izu-Oshima volcano in Japan [9], the lava flows are modified by movement of material and scoria failures after their emplacement [6,7]. Considering the relative age and shape of these studied graben and their locations on the slopes of the corona-novae, we conclude them to be representations of lava flow modification rather than produced by endogenic extension of the region. References: [1] Aittola, M. and J. Raitala (1999) LPSC 30, Abstract#1102. [2] Janes, D.M. et al. (1992) JGR, Vol. 97, No. E10, pp. 16055--16069. [3] Hansen, V.L. et al. (1997) Venus II, The Univ. of Arizona Press, pp. 797--844. [4] Aittola, M. (2001) LPSC 32, Abstract#1503. [5] Aittola, M. and V.-P. Kostama (2002) JGR, Vol. 107, No. E11. [6] Sumner, J.M. (1998) Bull. Of Volcanology, Vol. 60, pp. 195--212. [7] Záruba, Q. and V. Mencl (1969) Elsevier, Prague, 205 pp.

Kostama, V.-P.; Aittola, M.

2003-04-01

402

Effect of configuration and dimensions of reactor electrodes on electrical and optical corona discharge characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental parametric study is made to investigate how the electrical corona discharge characteristics are influenced by the geometrical configuration and dimensions of the reactor and the electrode polarity of the applied voltage. Furthermore, features of the corona discharge plasma formed around the stressed electrode in some different gases are recorded photographically to provide more information on the physical mechanisms of the corona discharge in the investigated gases. The obtained results have been discussed in the light of gas discharge physics and its applications.

El-Koramy, Reda Ahmed; Yehia, Ashraf; Omer, Mohamed

2010-05-01

403

Research on characteristics of electromagnetic radiation of corona discharges from high voltage transmission lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development and application of ultra high voltage electric power transmitting technology, harmful effects of corona discharges to the safe and stable operation of the ultra high voltage (UHV) transmission lines should be considered. In this paper, the radiation law of corona discharges was studied by theoretical analysis and laboratory simulation. Correlated conclusions include that the waveform of corona discharges is in attenuated oscillation mode, the signal of the radiation field increases with increasing charging voltage, whereas the signal amplitude the antenna receives is attenuated with the distance from 3 m to 24 m.

Wang, Lei; Liu, Shang-he; Wei, Ming; Hu, Xiao-feng

2013-03-01

404

Characteristics of corona impulses from insulated wires subjected to high ac voltages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corona discharges arise due to ionization of air or gas subject to high electric fields. The free electrons and ions contained in these discharges interact with molecules of insulating materials, resulting in chemical changes and destroying the electrical insulating properties. The paper describes some results of measurements aimed at determining corona pulse waveforms, their repetition rate, and amplitude distribution during various randomly-sampled identical time periods of a 60-Hz high-voltage wave. Described are properties of positive and negative corona impulses generated from typical conductors at various test high voltages. A possible method for calculating the energies, densities, and electromagnetic interferences by making use of these results is suggested.

Doreswamy, C. V.; Crowell, C. S.

1976-01-01

405

On the nature of the transition region between the solar corona and chromosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have calculated an equilibrium temperature distribution over the column depth of plasma in the transition region between the solar corona and chromosphere by assuming the plasma in the transition region and the chromosphere to be heated by the heat flux from the corona and the energy fluxes from the convective zone, respectively. The corona-chromosphere transition region is shown to be actually a stable, very thin layer in which, however, the standard collision approximation is well applicable for describing the heat flux. The solution we found explains well the currently available results of satellite observations of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from the transition region.

Ptitsyna, O. V.; Somov, B. V.

2012-12-01

406

Corona Formation and Heat Loss on Venus by Coupled Upwelling and Delamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coronae are volcanotectonic features that are unique to Venus and are interpreted to be small-scale upwellings. A model in which upwelling causes delamination at the edge of the plume head, along with deformation of a pre-existing depleted mantel Layer, can produce the full range of topographic forms of coronae. If half of the coronae are active, delamination of the lower lithosphere could account for about 10% of venus's heat loss, with another 15% due to upwelling. Delamination may occur in other geologic enviroment and could help account for 'Venus' heat loss 'deficit'.

Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Stofan, Ellen R.

1997-01-01

407

Corona discharge ionization of paracetamol molecule: Peak assignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionization of paracetamol was investigated using ion mobility spectrometry equipped with a corona discharge ionization source. The measurements were performed in the positive ion mode and three peaks were observed in the ion mobility spectrum. Experimental evidence and theoretical calculations were used to correlate the peaks to related ionic species of paracetamol. Two peaks were attributed to protonated isomers of paracetamol and the other peak was attributed to paracetamol fragment ions formed by dissociation of the N-C bond after protonation of the nitrogen atom. It was observed that three sites of paracetamol compete for protonation and their relative intensities, depending on the sample concentration. The ratio of ion products could be predicted from the internal proton affinity of the protonation sites at each concentration.

Bahrami, H.; Farrokhpour, H.

2015-01-01

408

Partial oxidation of methane by pulsed corona discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed corona-induced partial oxidation of methane in humid oxygen or carbon dioxide atmospheres has been investigated for future fuel synthesis applications. The obtained product spectrum is wide, i.e. saturated, unsaturated and oxygen-functional hydrocarbons. The generally observed methane conversion levels are 6-20% at a conversion efficiency of about 100-250 nmol J-1. The main products are ethane, ethylene and acetylene. Higher saturated hydrocarbons up to C6 have been detected. The observed oxygen-functional hydrocarbons are methanol, ethanol and lower concentrations of aldehydes, ketones, dimethylether and methylformate. Methanol seems to be exclusively produced with CH4/O2 mixtures at a maximum production efficiency of 0.35 nmol J-1. CH4/CO2 mixtures appear to yield higher hydrocarbons. Carboxylic acids appear to be mainly present in the aqueous reactor phase, possibly together with higher molecular weight species.

Hoeben, W. F. L. M.; Boekhoven, W.; Beckers, F. J. C. M.; van Heesch, E. J. M.; Pemen, A. J. M.

2014-09-01

409

NPOI Observations of the Exoplanet Host Kappa Coronae Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kappa Coronae Borealis is a "retired A star", otherwise known as a former A-type dwarf that is now a K-type subgiant. It is a particularly fascinating target because of its unusual configuration of companions and dust rings. It hosts at least one exoplanet and perhaps two, and features a single wide dust ring or two narrow ones. We observed the star interferometrically in order to characterize the main star and the environment in which the planet(s) and dust ring(s) reside. We determined a variety of fundamental parameters for kappa CrB: the limb-darkened angular diameter, physical size, effective temperature, luminosity, mass, age, and the extent of the habitable zone range. We combined our mass with the orbital parameters from four sources from the literature to calculate the planet's mass as well.

Baines, Ellyn K.; Armstrong, J. T.; van Belle, G.

2014-01-01

410

Clementine Observes the Moon, Solar Corona, and Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1994, during its flight, the Clementine spacecraft returned images of the Moon. In addition to the geologic mapping cameras, the Clementine spacecraft also carried two Star Tracker cameras for navigation. These lightweight (0.3 kg) cameras kept the spacecraft on track by constantly observing the positions of stars, reminiscent of the age-old seafaring tradition of sextant/star navigation. These navigation cameras were also to take some spectacular wide angle images of the Moon.

In this picture the Moon is seen illuminated solely by light reflected from the Earth--Earthshine! The bright glow on the lunar horizon is caused by light from the solar corona; the sun is just behind the lunar limb. Caught in this image is the planet Venus at the top of the frame.

1997-01-01

411

Mid-Infrared Variations of R Coronae Borealis Stars  

E-print Network

Mid-infrared photometry of R Coronae Borealis stars obtained from various satellites from IRAS to WISE has been utilized in studying the variations of the circumstellar dust's contributions to the spectral energy distribution of these stars. The variation of the fractional coverage (R) of dust clouds and their blackbody temperatures (T$_d$) have been used in trying to understand the dust cloud evolution over the three decades spanned by the satellite observations. In particular, it is shown that a prediction R $ \\propto T_d^4$ developed in this paper is satisfied, especially by those stars for which a single collection of cloud dominates the IR fluxes. Correlations of R with photospheric abundance and luminosity of the stars are explored.

Rao, N Kameswara

2014-01-01

412

A Dynamical Analysis of the Corona Borealis Supercluster  

E-print Network

Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey we assess the current dynamical state of the Corona Borealis Supercluster (CSC), a highly dense and compact supercluster at z = 0.07. The Fundamental Plane relation is used to determine redshift independent distances to six clusters in the densest region of the supercluster, with mean accuracy in the relative distance estimates of 4 per cent. Peculiar velocities determined from these distance estimates indicate that the clusters have broken from the Hubble Flow, suggesting that the CSC likely contains two regions that have reached turnaround and are currently undergoing gravitational collapse. These results provide the strongest observational evidence to date that the CSC is a bound system similar to the much more extensive Shapley Supercluster, which is the most extensive confirmed bound supercluster yet identified in the Universe. When compared with simulations of the CSC our results require substantially more mass than is contained within the clusters, possibly ...

Batiste, Merida

2013-01-01

413

Variable Winds and Dust Formation in R Coronae Borealis Stars  

E-print Network

We have observed P-Cygni and asymmetric, blue-shifted absorption profiles in the He I 10830 lines of twelve R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars over short (1 month) and long (3 year) timescales to look for variations linked to their dust-formation episodes. In almost all cases, the strengths and terminal velocities of the line vary significantly and are correlated with dust formation events. Strong absorption features with blue-shifted velocities ~400 km/s appear during declines in visible brightness and persist for about 100 days after recovery to maximum brightness. Small residual winds of somewhat lower velocity are present outside of the decline and recovery periods. The correlations support models in which recently formed dust near the star is propelled outward at high speed by radiation pressure and drags the gas along with it.

Clayton, Geoffrey C; Zhang, Wanshu

2013-01-01

414

Variable Winds and Dust Formation in R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed P-Cygni and asymmetric, blue-shifted absorption profiles in the He I ?10830 lines of 12 R Coronae Borealis stars over short (1 month) and long (3 yr) timescales to look for variations linked to their dust-formation episodes. In almost all cases, the strengths and terminal velocities of the line vary significantly and are correlated with dust formation events. Strong absorption features with blue-shifted velocities ~400 km s-1 appear during declines in visible brightness and persist for about 100 days after recovery to maximum brightness. Small residual winds of somewhat lower velocity are present outside of the decline and recovery periods. The correlations support models in which recently formed dust near the star is propelled outward at high speed by radiation pressure and drags the gas along with it.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Geballe, T. R.; Zhang, Wanshu

2013-08-01

415

Coronagraphic observations and analyses of the ultraviolet solar corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This status report for the period 1 October 1992 to 30 September 1994 covers the final preparation and first observations with the Spartan Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer on Spartan 201-1, and the preparation and second flight for Spartan 201-2. Both flights were fully successful and resulted in high quality spectroscopic observations of the extended solar corona out to 3.5 solar radii from Sun-center. The primary focus of this report is the results from Spartan 201-1. There is also a brief description of the evaluation of the quick look data from the second flight. Highlights from the first flight include a discovery that the proton velocity distribution in coronal holes is complex and consists of a central core with elevated high velocity wings compared to a Gaussian shape.

Kohl, John L.

1994-01-01

416

R Coronae Borealis Stars at Minimum Light -- UW Cen  

E-print Network

Two high-resolution optical spectra of the R Coronae Borealis star UW Cen in decline are discussed. A spectrum from mid-1992 when the star had faded by three magnitudes shows just a few differences with the spectrum at maximum light. The ubiquitous sharp emission lines seen in R CrB at a similar drop below maximum light are absent. In contrast, a spectrum from mid-2002 when the star was five magnitudes below maximum light shows an array of sharp emission lines and a collection of broad emission lines. Comparisons are made with spectra of R CrB obtained during the deep 1995-1996 minimum. The many common features are discussed in terms of a torus-jet geometry.

N. Kameswara Rao; B. E. Reddy; D. L. Lambert

2004-09-09

417

Creation of current filaments in the solar corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been suggested that the solar corona is heated by the dissipation of electric currents. The low value of the resistivity requires the magnetic field to have structure at very small length scales if this mechanism is to work. In this paper it is demonstrated that the coronal magnetic field acquires small-scale structure through the braiding produced by smooth, randomly phased, photospheric flows. The current density develops a filamentary structure and grows exponentially in time. Nonlinear processes in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations produce a cascade effect, in which the structure introduced by the flow at large length scales is transferred to smaller scales. If this process continues down to the resistive dissipation length scale, it would provide an effective mechanism for coronal heating.

Mikic, Z.; Schnack, D. D.; Van Hoven, G.

1989-01-01

418

Corona discharge ionization of paracetamol molecule: peak assignment.  

PubMed

Ionization of paracetamol was investigated using ion mobility spectrometry equipped with a corona discharge ionization source. The measurements were performed in the positive ion mode and three peaks were observed in the ion mobility spectrum. Experimental evidence and theoretical calculations were used to correlate the peaks to related ionic species of paracetamol. Two peaks were attributed to protonated isomers of paracetamol and the other peak was attributed to paracetamol fragment ions formed by dissociation of the N-C bond after protonation of the nitrogen atom. It was observed that three sites of paracetamol compete for protonation and their relative intensities, depending on the sample concentration. The ratio of ion products could be predicted from the internal proton affinity of the protonation sites at each concentration. PMID:25128677

Bahrami, H; Farrokhpour, H

2015-01-25

419

Modelling the Corona of HD 189733 in 3D  

E-print Network

The braking of main sequence stars originates mainly from their stellar wind. The efficiency of this angular momentum extraction depends on the rotation rate of the star, the acceleration profile of the wind and the coronal magnetic field. The derivation of scaling laws parametrizing the stellar wind torque is important for our understanding of gyro-chronology and the evolution of the rotation rates of stars. In order to understand the impact of complex magnetic topologies on the stellar wind torque, we present three- dimensional, dynamical simulations of the corona of HD 189733. Using the observed complex topology of the magnetic field, we estimate how the torque associated with the wind scales with model parameters and compare those trends to previously published scaling laws.

Strugarek, Antoine; Matt, Sean P; Réville, Victor; Donati, Jean-François; Moutou, Claire; Fares, Rim

2014-01-01

420

A nanoflare heating model for the quiet solar corona  

E-print Network

The energy input into the lower solar corona by flare evaporation events has been modeled according to the available observations for quiet regions. The question is addressed whether such heating events can provide the observed average level of the coronal emission measure and thus of the observed flux of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray emission without contradicting the observed average power spectrum of the emission measure, the typical emission measure variations observed for individual pixels and the observed flare energy distribution. As the assumed flare height influences the derived flare energy, the mathematical foundations of nanoflare distributions and their conversion to different height assumptions are studied first. This also allows a comparison with various published energy distributions differing in height assumptions and to relate the observations to the input parameters of the heating model. An analytic evaluation of the power spectrum yields the relationship between the average time prof...

Kraev, U M

2001-01-01

421

VARIABLE WINDS AND DUST FORMATION IN R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS  

SciTech Connect

We have observed P-Cygni and asymmetric, blue-shifted absorption profiles in the He I {lambda}10830 lines of 12 R Coronae Borealis stars over short (1 month) and long (3 yr) timescales to look for variations linked to their dust-formation episodes. In almost all cases, the strengths and terminal velocities of the line vary significantly and are correlated with dust formation events. Strong absorption features with blue-shifted velocities {approx}400 km s{sup -1} appear during declines in visible brightness and persist for about 100 days after recovery to maximum brightness. Small residual winds of somewhat lower velocity are present outside of the decline and recovery periods. The correlations support models in which recently formed dust near the star is propelled outward at high speed by radiation pressure and drags the gas along with it.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Zhang Wanshu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Geballe, T. R., E-mail: gclayton@fenway.phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: wzhan21@lsu.edu, E-mail: tgeballe@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

2013-08-01

422

Multiphysics simulation of corona discharge induced ionic wind  

SciTech Connect

Ionic wind devices or electrostatic fluid accelerators are becoming of increasing interest as tools for thermal management, in particular for semiconductor devices. In this work, we present a numerical model for predicting the performance of such devices; its main benefit is the ability to accurately predict the amount of charge injected from the corona electrode. Our multiphysics numerical model consists of a highly nonlinear, strongly coupled set of partial differential equations including the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow, Poisson's equation for electrostatic potential, charge continuity, and heat transfer equations. To solve this system we employ a staggered solution algorithm that generalizes Gummel's algorithm for charge transport in semiconductors. Predictions of our simulations are verified and validated by comparison with experimental measurements of integral physical quantities, which are shown to closely match.

Cagnoni, Davide [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, CH-5405 Baden-Dättwil (Switzerland) [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, CH-5405 Baden-Dättwil (Switzerland); MOX - Dipartimento di Matematica “F. Brioschi,” Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy); Agostini, Francesco; Christen, Thomas [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, CH-5405 Baden-Dättwil (Switzerland)] [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, CH-5405 Baden-Dättwil (Switzerland); Parolini, Nicola [MOX - Dipartimento di Matematica “F. Brioschi,” Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [MOX - Dipartimento di Matematica “F. Brioschi,” Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy); Stevanovi?, Ivica [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, CH-5405 Baden-Dättwil (Switzerland) [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, CH-5405 Baden-Dättwil (Switzerland); Laboratory of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Falco, Carlo de [MOX - Dipartimento di Matematica “F. Brioschi,” Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy) [MOX - Dipartimento di Matematica “F. Brioschi,” Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy); CEN - Centro Europeo di Nanomedicina, 20133 Milano (Italy)

2013-12-21

423

Multiphysics simulation of corona discharge induced ionic wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic wind devices or electrostatic fluid accelerators are becoming of increasing interest as tools for thermal management, in particular for semiconductor devices. In this work, we present a numerical model for predicting the performance of such devices; its main benefit is the ability to accurately predict the amount of charge injected from the corona electrode. Our multiphysics numerical model consists of a highly nonlinear, strongly coupled set of partial differential equations including the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow, Poisson's equation for electrostatic potential, charge continuity, and heat transfer equations. To solve this system we employ a staggered solution algorithm that generalizes Gummel's algorithm for charge transport in semiconductors. Predictions of our simulations are verified and validated by comparison with experimental measurements of integral physical quantities, which are shown to closely match.

Cagnoni, Davide; Agostini, Francesco; Christen, Thomas; Parolini, Nicola; Stevanovi?, Ivica; de Falco, Carlo

2013-12-01

424

MHD modeling of the solar corona: Progress and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun and its activity is the ultimate driver of space weather at Earth. This influence occurs not only via eruptive phenomena such as coronal mass ejections, but also through the structure of the corona itself, which forms the genesis of fast solar wind streams that trigger recurrent geomagnetic activity. Coronal structure also determines the connection of the ambient interplanetary magnetic field to CME-related shocks and impulsive solar flares, and thus controls where solar energetic particles propagate. In this talk we describe both the present state of the art and new directions in coronal modeling for both dynamic and slowly varying phenomena. We discuss the challenges to incorporating these capabilities into future space weather forecasting and specification models. Supported by NASA through the HTP, LWS, and SR&T programs, by NSF through the FESD and CISM programs, and by the AFOSR Space Science program.

Linker, Jon; Mikic, Zoran; Lionello, Roberto; Riley, Pete; Titov, Viacheslav; Torok, Tibor

2012-07-01

425

RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF WEAK ENERGY RELEASES IN THE SOLAR CORONA  

SciTech Connect

We report observations of weak, circularly polarized, structureless type III bursts from the solar corona in the absence of H{alpha}/X-ray flares and other related activity, during the minimum between the sunspot cycles 23 and 24. The spectral information about the event obtained with the CALLISTO spectrograph at Mauritius revealed that the drift rate of the burst is {approx}-30 MHz s{sup -1} is in the range 50-120 MHz. Two-dimensional imaging observations of the burst at 77 MHz obtained with the Gauribidanur radioheliograph indicate that the emission region was located at a radial distance of {approx}1.5 R{sub sun} in the solar atmosphere. The estimated peak brightness temperature of the burst at 77 MHz is {approx}10{sup 8} K. We derived the average magnetic field at the aforementioned location of the burst using the one-dimensional (east-west) Gauribidanur radio polarimeter at 77 MHz, and the value is {approx}2.5 {+-} 0.2 G. We also estimated the total energy of the non-thermal electrons responsible for the observed burst as {approx}1.1 x 10{sup 24} erg. This is low compared to the energy of the weakest hard X-ray microflares reported in the literature, which is about {approx}10{sup 26} erg. The present result shows that non-thermal energy releases that correspond to the nanoflare category (energy {approx}10{sup 24} erg) are taking place in the solar corona, and the nature of such small-scale energy releases has not yet been explored.

Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Barve, Indrajit V. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Beeharry, G. K.; Rajasekara, G. N., E-mail: ramesh@iiap.res.i [University of Mauritius, Reduit (Mauritius)

2010-08-10

426

Remote-sensing Observations of the Corona and Solar Wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On June 25, 1908, George Ellery Hale used the 60-foot Tower Telescope on Mount Wilson to make the first measurements of magnetic fields in sunspots. This began a series of studies that led to Hale's Law of sunspot polarities and established the Mount Wilson Observatory as a leading center of solar magnetic field research. The magnetic aura was still present in 1962 when I began solar research there as a Caltech graduate student. Mount Wilson astronomer Horace Babcock and his father had invented the solar magnetograph, discovered the polar fields of the Sun, and observed their reversal near the 1958 sunspot maximum. Caltech physicist Robert Leighton had added new instrumentation to the Mount Wilson spectroheliograph and obtained high-resolution maps of the magnetic field. Babcock had just published his classic paper on the topology of the field and its 22-year cycle. The paper contained a sketch, illustrating the coronal field-line reconnection, which he thought must occur in response to changes of the photospheric field. Some loops flew away in the yet-to-be-discovered solar wind and other loops collapsed back to the Sun. In this talk, I will present new observations from the SOHO and STEREO spacecraft, which show such coronal changes. Loops stretch out in the expanding corona and tear away from the Sun like drops from a leaky faucet. Simultaneous observations with different perspectives show that the detached loops are really helices in 3-D. Off-pointed heliospheric imagers allow us to track these ejections outward past planets (including Earth) and comets, and to observe their compression into a heliospheric spiral, as a consequence of longitudinal speed gradients on the rotating Sun. And XUV observations of the solar disk show brightness changes associated with reconnections high in the corona, like auroral displays in the magnetosphere.

Sheeley, Neil R., Jr.

2009-05-01

427

THE EXPANSION OF ACTIVE REGIONS INTO THE EXTENDED SOLAR CORONA  

SciTech Connect

Advanced image processing of Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO) C2 observations reveals the expansion of the active region closed field into the extended corona. The nested closed-loop systems are large, with an apparent latitudinal extent of 50 Degree-Sign , and expanding to heights of at least 12 R{sub Sun }. The expansion speeds are {approx}10 km s{sup -1} in the AIA/SDO field of view, below {approx}20 km s{sup -1} at 2.3 R{sub Sun }, and accelerate linearly to {approx}60 km s{sup -1} at 5 R{sub Sun }. They appear with a frequency of one every {approx}3 hr over a time period of around three days. They are not coronal mass ejections (CMEs) since their gradual expansion is continuous and steady. They are also faint, with an upper limit of 3% of the brightness of background streamers. Extreme ultraviolet images reveal continuous birth and expansion of hot, bright loops from a new active region at the base of the system. The LASCO images show that the loops span a radial fan-like system of streamers, suggesting that they are not propagating within the main coronal streamer structure. The expanding loops brighten at low heights a few hours prior to a CME eruption, and the expansion process is temporarily halted as the closed field system is swept away. Closed magnetic structures from some active regions are not isolated from the extended corona and solar wind, but can expand to large heights in the form of quiescent expanding loops.

Morgan, Huw; Jeska, Lauren; Leonard, Drew, E-mail: hmorgan@aber.ac.uk [Sefydliad Mathemateg a Ffiseg, Prifysgol Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

2013-06-01

428

The interaction of antibodies with lipid membranes unraveled by fluorescence methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interest and investment in antibody therapies has reached an overwhelming scale in the last decade. Yet, little concern has been noticed among the scientific community to unravel important interactions of antibodies with biological structures other than their respective epitopes. Lipid membranes are particularly relevant in this regard as they set the stage for protein-protein recognition, a concept potentially inclusive of antibody-antigen recognition. Fluorescence techniques allow experimental monitoring of protein partition between aqueous and lipid phases, deciphering events of adsorption, insertion and diffusion. This review focuses on the available fluorescence spectroscopy methodologies directed to the study of antibody-membrane interactions.

Figueira, Tiago N.; Veiga, Ana Salomé; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.

2014-12-01

429

Effect of the protein corona on nanoparticles for modulating cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Although the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) is greatly influenced by their interactions with blood proteins, toxic effects resulting from blood interactions are often ignored in the development and use of nanostructured biomaterials for in vivo applications. Protein coronas created during the initial reaction with NPs can determine the subsequent immunological cascade, and protein coronas formed on NPs can either stimulate or mitigate the immune response. Along these lines, the understanding of NP-protein corona formation in terms of physiochemical surface properties of the NPs and NP interactions with the immune system components in blood is an essential step for evaluating NP toxicity for in vivo therapeutics. This article reviews the most recent developments in NP-based protein coronas through the modification of NP surface properties and discusses the associated immune responses. PMID:25565807

Lee, Yeon Kyung; Choi, Eun-Ju; Webster, Thomas J; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Khang, Dongwoo

2015-01-01

430

HEATING IN AN EXTENDED ACCRETION DISK CORONA ALONG THE Z-PATTERN IN CYG X-2  

E-print Network

We observed at very high spectral resolution the prototype Z-source Cyg X-2 twice along its entire X-ray spectral variation pattern. In this preliminary analysis, we find an extended accretion disk corona (ADC) exhibiting ...

Schulz, Norbert S.

431

Sterilisation of Hydroponic Culture Solution Contaminated by Fungi using an Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydroponic culture solution contaminated by fungi is sterilised by a DC corona discharge, and the sterilisation characteristics are investigated in this work. A DC streamer corona discharge is generated at atmospheric pressure in air between needle clusters and a water bath containing contaminated solution by fungus such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae or Fusarium sp.. It is found that the fungi are killed by the exposure of the corona discharge, and that the death rates of the fungi chiefly depend on the concentration of the hydroponic culture solutions. It is also found that the number densities of the fungi decrease exponentially with the energy expenditure of the corona discharge, and that damping coefficients of the fungi densities depend on the concentration of the hydroponic culture solutions. This suggests that the fungi are chiefly inactivated by electroporation.

Mizukami, Kohji; Satoh, Kohki; Kanayama, Hiroshi; Itoh, Hidenori; Tagashira, Hiroaki; Shimozuma, Mitsuo; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Takasaki, Satoko; Kinoshita, Muneshige

432

76 FR 3655 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project...and recovery project, including new groundwater wells and a 28- mile water pipeline...available capacity in the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin and the Chino Basin....

2011-01-20

433

75 FR 8395 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project...recovery project. The project will install new groundwater wells at the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin in San Bernardino County with...

2010-02-24