Science.gov

Sample records for solar-minimum corona unraveled

  1. THE 2008 AUGUST 1 ECLIPSE SOLAR-MINIMUM CORONA UNRAVELED

    SciTech Connect

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.; Minarovjech, M.; Druckmueller, M.; Aniol, P.

    2009-09-10

    We discuss the results stemming from observations of the white-light and [Fe XIV] emission corona during the total eclipse of the Sun of 2008 August 1, in Mongolia (Altaj region) and in Russia (Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk, Siberia). Corresponding to the current extreme solar minimum, the white-light corona, visible up to 20 solar radii, was of a transient type with well pronounced helmet streamers situated above a chain of prominences at position angles 48 deg., 130 deg., 241 deg., and 322 deg. A variety of coronal holes, filled with a number of thin polar plumes, were seen around the poles. Furthering an original method of image processing, stars up to 12 mag, a Kreutz-group comet (C/2008 O1) and a coronal mass ejection (CME) were also detected, with the smallest resolvable structures being of, and at some places even less than, 1 arcsec. Differences, presumably motions, in the corona and prominences are seen even with the 19 minutes time difference between our sites. In addition to the high-resolution coronal images, which show the continuum corona (K-corona) that results from electron scattering of photospheric light, images of the overlapping green-emission-line (530.3 nm, [Fe XIV]) corona were obtained with the help of two narrow-passband filters (centered on the line itself and for the continuum in the vicinity of 529.1 nm, respectively), each with an FWHM of 0.15 nm. Through solar observations, on whose scheduling and details we consulted, with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Hinode's XRT and SOT, Transition Region and Coronal Explorer, and STEREO, as well as Wilcox Solar Observatory and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms, we set our eclipse observations in the context of the current unusually low and prolonged solar minimum.

  2. Faraday Rotation Fluctuations of MESSENGER radio signals through the Corona during the 2009 Solar Minimum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, David; Vierinen, Juha; Coster, Anthea; Jensen, Elizabeth A.

    2015-04-01

    Faraday rotation (FR) techniques have been used to probe variations of coronal plasma velocity, density and magnetic field. The plane of polarization for an electromagnetic wave rotates in proportion to the integrated product of parallel magnetic field components and electron density along the radio signal line-of-sight as directed towards the receiving antenna. Fluctuations in FR through the corona thus represent the evolution of these line-integrated plasma parameters, providing a unique measurement of regional corona physics. The MESSENGER spacecraft radio 8 GHz radio beacon, transmitting through the corona at offsets 1.6 to 1.9 solar radii and near-equatorial heliolatitude, was recorded on the Green Bank radio telescope during the solar minimum of 2009. Here we reanalyze at higher temporal resolution the data previously published (Jensen et al 2013, Solar Physics 285:83-95). Combinations of coherent and incoherent integration were used to estimate Stokes parameters, from which the FR phase differences were obtained for serial one-second frames. Results were concatenated and corrected for phase wrap-around to produce a continuous FR phase curve. The general FR phase curve was broad and sweeping, with greatest spectral power observed in periods of hours. Also, finer wave-like fluctuations were noted with periods on the order of 100's of seconds. With the lowest-frequency components removed by detrending techniques, spectral analysis revealed a power spectrum of form P=k?? with spectral index ? = -2.25 over frequencies ? = 2-20 milliHertz (mHz), and a flat noise spectrum at higher frequencies. Imposed upon the general power spectrum were trends of enhanced spectral power around 3.5 and 6 mHz, corresponding to approximately 5- and 3-minute period waves. Temporal evolution plots demonstrated that the increased power in these spectral bands appeared intermittently and irregularly. Our results reinforce the findings of prior coronal FR studies, and now extend the description of FR fluctuations to deeper levels of the corona than previously reported. Further analysis should utilize models incorporating magnetohydrodynamic wave coherence scales estimated from independent lower corona observational data.

  3. How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?

    PubMed

    Russell, C T; Jian, L K; Luhmann, J G

    2013-05-01

    The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23-24 transition. PMID:25685425

  4. How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?

    PubMed Central

    Russell, C.T.; Jian, L.K.; Luhmann, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23–24 transition. PMID:25685425

  5. Peculiar Current Solar-Minimum Structure of the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, P. K.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, I review the results of 3-D evolution of the inner heliosphere over the solar cycle 23, based on observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) made at 327 MHz using the Ooty Radio Telescope. The large-scale features of solar wind speed and density turbulence of the current minimum are remarkably different from that of the previous cycle. The results on the solar wind density turbulence show that (1) the current solar minimum is experiencing a low level of coronal density turbulence, to a present value of ~50% lower than the previous similar phase, and (2) the scattering diameter of the corona has decreased steadily after the year 2003. The results on solar wind speed are consistent with the magnetic field strength at the poles and the warping of heliospheric current sheet.

  6. An equatorial coronal hole at solar minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromage, B. J. I.; DelZanna, G.; DeForest, C.; Thompson, B.; Clegg, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    The large transequatorial coronal hole that was observed in the solar corona at the end of August 1996 is presented. It consists of a north polar coronal hole called the 'elephant's trunk or tusk'. The observations of this coronal hole were carried out with the coronal diagnostic spectrometer onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The magnetic field associated with the equatorial coronal hole is strongly connected to that of the active region at its base, resulting in the two features rotating at almost the same rate.

  7. Recent Studies of the Behavior of the Sun's White-Light Corona Over Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SaintCyr, O. C.; Young, D. E.; Pesnell, W. D.; Lecinski, A.; Eddy, J.

    2008-01-01

    Predictions of upcoming solar cycles are often related to the nature and dynamics of the Sun's polar magnetic field and its influence on the corona. For the past 30 years we have a more-or-less continuous record of the Sun's white-light corona from groundbased and spacebased coronagraphs. Over that interval, the large scale features of the corona have varied in what we now consider a 'predictable' fashion--complex, showing multiple streamers at all latitudes during solar activity maximum; and a simple dipolar shape aligned with the rotational pole during solar minimum. Over the past three decades the white-light corona appears to be a better indicator of 'true' solar minimum than sunspot number since sunspots disappear for months (even years) at solar minimum. Since almost all predictions of the timing of the next solar maximum depend on the timing of solar minimum, the white-light corona is a potentially important observational discriminator for future predictors. In this contribution we describe recent work quantifying the large-scale appearance of the Sun's corona to correlate it with the sunspot record, especially around solar minimum. These three decades can be expanded with the HAO archive of eclipse photographs which, although sparse compared to the coronagraphic coverage, extends back to 1869. A more extensive understanding of this proxy would give researchers confidence in using the white-light corona as an indicator of solar minimum conditions.

  8. Transient flows of the solar wind associated with small-scale solar activity in solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Igor; Kuzin, Sergey; Gburek, Szymon; Ulyanov, Artyom; Kirichenko, Alexey; Shugay, Yulia; Goryaev, Farid

    The data obtained by the modern high sensitive EUV-XUV telescopes and photometers such as CORONAS-Photon/TESIS and SPHINX, STEREO/EUVI, PROBA2/SWAP, SDO/AIA provide good possibilities for studying small-scale solar activity (SSA), which is supposed to play an important role in heating of the corona and producing transient flows of the solar wind. During the recent unusually weak solar minimum, a large number of SSA events, such as week solar flares, small CMEs and CME-like flows were observed and recorded in the databases of flares (STEREO, SWAP, SPHINX) and CMEs (LASCO, CACTUS). On the other hand, the solar wind data obtained in this period by ACE, Wind, STEREO contain signatures of transient ICME-like structures which have shorter duration (<10h), weaker magnetic field strength (<10 nT) and lower proton temperature than usual ICMEs. To verify the assumption that ICME-like transients may be associated with the SSA events we investigated the number of weak flares of C-class and lower detected by SPHINX in 2009 and STEREO/EUVI in 2010. The flares were classified on temperature and emission measure using the diagnostic means of SPHINX and Hinode/EIS and were confronted with the parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density, ion composition and temperature, magnetic field, pitch angle distribution of the suprathermal electrons). The outflows of plasma associated with the flares were identified by their coronal signatures - CMEs (only in few cases) and dimmings. It was found that the mean parameters of the solar wind projected to the source surface for the times of the studied flares were typical for the ICME-like transients. The results support the suggestion that weak flares can be indicators of sources of transient plasma flows contributing to the slow solar wind at solar minimum, although these flows may be too weak to be considered as separate CMEs and ICMEs. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration under Grant Agreement “eHeroes” (project n° 284461, www.eheroes.eu).

  9. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakala, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2012-06-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} cm{sup -3} and 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} cm{sup -3}. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  10. SphinX Measurements of the 2009 Solar Minimum X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Baka?a, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.

    2012-06-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 × 1047 cm-3 and 1.1 × 1048 cm-3. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  11. Ion Temperatures in the Low Solar Corona: Polar Coronal Holes at Solar Minimum

    E-print Network

    Enrico Landi; Steven R. Cranmer

    2008-09-30

    In the present work we use a deep-exposure spectrum taken by the SUMER spectrometer in a polar coronal hole in 1996 to measure the ion temperatures of a large number of ions at many different heights above the limb between 0.03 and 0.17 solar radii. We find that the measured ion temperatures are almost always larger than the electron temperatures and exhibit a non-monotonic dependence on the charge-to-mass ratio. We use these measurements to provide empirical constraints to a theoretical model of ion heating and acceleration based on gradually replenished ion-cyclotron waves. We compare the wave power required to heat the ions to the observed levels to a prediction based on a model of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We find that the empirical heating model and the turbulent cascade model agree with one another, and explain the measured ion temperatures, for charge-to-mass ratios smaller than about 0.25. However, ions with charge-to-mass ratios exceeding 0.25 disagree with the model; the wave power they require to be heated to the measured ion temperatures shows an increase with charge-to-mass ratio (i.e., with increasing frequency) that cannot be explained by a traditional cascade model. We discuss possible additional processes that might be responsible for the inferred surplus of wave power.

  12. A NOTE ON THE TORSIONAL OSCILLATION AT SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, R.; Hill, F.; Komm, R.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Schou, J.; Thompson, M. J.

    2009-08-20

    We examine the evolution of the zonal flow pattern in the upper solar convection zone during the current extended solar minimum, and compare it with that during the previous minimum. The results suggest that a configuration matching that at the previous minimum was reached during 2008, but that the flow band corresponding to the new cycle has been moving more slowly toward the equator than was observed in the previous cycle, resulting in a gradual increase in the apparent length of the cycle during the 2007-2008 period. The current position of the lower-latitude fast-rotating belt corresponds to that seen around the onset of activity in the previous cycle.

  13. Corotating Interaction Regions in Solar Minimum 23/24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Lan; Russell, Christopher; Luhmann, Janet; MacNeice, Peter; Galvin, Antoinette; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2010-05-01

    In the solar minimum 23/24, corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are the predominant structures in the solar wind. Using a fleet of solar wind monitors, STEREO A/B, ACE and Wind, we can observe the CIRs at multiple points. Meanwhile, the heliospheric imager onboard STEREO twin spacecraft enable us to track the CIRs all the way outward to about 1.5 AU, although there is line-of-sight projection effect. In addition, the STEREO support at Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) provides the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) and ENLIL model results for the entire lifetime of STEREO. We make use of the above observation and modeling efforts to analyze the CIRs' generation near the Sun and their propagation to 1 AU by modeling a few specific CIR events. We will also study the latitudinal and longitudinal variations of CIRs, the relation between CIR and heliospheric current sheet, and how the CIRs drive forward and reverse shocks.

  14. The New Solar Minimum: How Deep does the Problem Go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, S.; New, R.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W.; Elsworth, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Although there are now some tentative signs that the start of cycle 24 has begun there is still considerable interest in the somewhat unusual behavior of the current solar minimum and the apparent delay in the true start of the next cycle. While this behavior is easily tracked by observing the change in surface activity, a question can also be asked about what is happening beneath the surface where the magnetic activity ultimately originates. In order to try to answer this question we can look at the behavior of the frequencies of the Sun's natural seismic modes of oscillation—the p modes. These seismic frequencies also respond to changes in activity and are probes of conditions in the solar interior. The Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) has made measurements of low-degree (low-l) p mode frequencies over the last three solar cycles, and so is in a unique position to explore the current unusual and extended solar minimum. We compare the frequency shifts in the low-l p-modes obtained from the BiSON data with the change in surface activity as measured by different proxies and show there are significant differences especially during the declining phase of solar cycle 23 and into the current minimum. We also observe quasi-biennial periodic behavior in the p mode frequencies over the last two cycles that, unlike in the surface measurements, seems to be present at mid- and low-activity levels. Additionally we look at the frequency shifts of individual l modes.

  15. LANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    LANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS R. J at the electron plasma frequency) during the solar minimum and solar maximum orbits of Ulysses. At high latitudes Ulysses fast heliolatitude scan, suggests that Langmuir wave activity in magnetic holes is enhanced

  16. GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR MAXIMUM (2000)

    E-print Network

    2000-01-01

    GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR, CRSPE/INPE ­ Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. ABSTRACT In this paper the interplanetary shock wave effects during solar minimum (1995-1996) and solar maximum (2000) periods are obtained. It is observed that solar

  17. Ion-neutral coupling during deep solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheryl Y.; Roddy, Patrick A.; Sutton, Eric K.; Stoneback, Russell; Pfaff, Robert F.; Gentile, Louise C.; Delay, Susan H.

    2013-10-01

    The equatorial ionosphere under conditions of deep solar minimum exhibits structuring due to tidal forces. Data from instruments carried by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) which was launched in April 2008 have been analyzed for the first 2 years following launch. The Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP), Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) and Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) all detect periodic structures during the 2008-2010 period which appear to be tides. However when the tidal features detected by these instruments are compared, there are distinctive and significant differences between the observations. Tides in neutral densities measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite were also observed during June 2008. In addition, Broad Plasma Decreases (BPDs) appear as a deep absolute minimum in the plasma and neutral density tidal pattern. These are co-located with regions of large downward-directed ion meridional velocities and minima in the zonal drifts, all on the nightside. The region in which BPDs occur coincides with a peak in occurrence rate of dawn depletions in plasma density observed on the Defense Meterological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, as well as a minimum in radiance detected by UV imagers on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) and IMAGE satellites.

  18. Ion-neutral Coupling During Deep Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Cheryl Y.; Roddy, Patrick A.; Sutton, Eric K.; Stoneback, Russell; Pfaff, Robert F.; Gentile, Louise C.; Delay, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    The equatorial ionosphere under conditions of deep solar minimum exhibits structuring due to tidal forces. Data from instruments carried by the Communication Navigation Outage Forecasting System (CNOFS) which was launched in April 2008 have been analyzed for the first 2 years following launch. The Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP), Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) and Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) all detect periodic structures during the 20082010 period which appear to be tides. However when the tidal features detected by these instruments are compared, there are distinctive and significant differences between the observations. Tides in neutral densities measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite were also observed during June 2008. In addition, Broad Plasma Decreases (BPDs) appear as a deep absolute minimum in the plasma and neutral density tidal pattern. These are co-located with regions of large downward-directed ion meridional velocities and minima in the zonal drifts, all on the nightside. The region in which BPDs occur coincides with a peak in occurrence rate of dawn depletions in plasma density observed on the Defense Meterological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, as well as a minimum in radiance detected by UV imagers on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) and IMAGE satellites

  19. Coronal Rotation at Solar Minimum from UV Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancuso, S.

    2008-01-01

    UVCS/SOHO observations have been analyzed to reconstruct intensity time series of the O VI 1032 A and H 11216 A spectral lines at different coronal heliolatitudes from 1.5 to 3.0 solar radii from Sun center. Evidence was found for coronal differential rotation that differs significantly from that of the photospheric plasma. The study of the latitudinal variation shows that the UV corona decelerates toward the photospheric rates from the equator up to the poleward boundary 2 of the midlatitude streamers, reaching a peak of 28.16+/-0.20 days around +30 from the equator at 1.5 solar radii, while a less evident peak is observed in the northern hemisphere. This result suggests a real north-south rotational asymmetry as a consequence of different activity and weak coupling between the magnetic fields of the two hemispheres. The study of the radial rotation profiles shows that the corona is rotating almost rigidly with height.

  20. 3D Global Coronal Density and Magnetic Field Structures during Solar Minimum and Maximum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramar, Maxim; Airapetian, Vladimir

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge of the coronal electron density and magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal phenomena at all scales. We employ STEREO/COR1 data obtained during minimum and maximum of solar activity (Carrington rotations, CR, 2066 and 2131) to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D) coronal electron density in the range of heights from 1.5 to 4 Rsun using the tomography method and qualitatively deduce structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in 195 A band obtained by tomography for the same CR periods. A global 3D thermodynamic MHD model of the solar corona was used to relate the reconstructed 3D density and emissivity to open/closed magnetic field structures. We show that the locations of density maximum can serve as an indicator of current sheet position, while the locations of the maximum of the density gradient can be a reliable indicator of closed-open magnetic field boundaries. We find that the magnetic field configuration during CR 2066 has a tendency to become radially open at heliocentric distances greater than 2.5 Rsun. We also find that the potential field model with a fixed source surface (PFSS) is not consistent with the positions of the boundaries between the regions with open and closed magnetic field structures. This indicates that the assumption of the potential nature of the coronal global magnetic field is not satisfied even during the deep solar minimum. Results of our 3D density reconstruction will help to constrain solar coronal field models and test the accuracy of the magnetic field approximations for coronal modeling.

  1. Meridional Surface Flows and the Recent Extended Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Petrus C.; Nandy, D.; Munoz-Jaramillo, A.

    2011-05-01

    Nandy, Munoz, & Martens, have published a kinematic dynamo model that successfully reproduces the main characteristics of the recent extended solar minimum (Nature 2011, 471, 80). The model depends on the solar meridional flow and its return flow along the tachocline determining the period and character of the cycle. In particular Nandy et al. found that a meridional flow that is fast in the first half of the cycle and then slows down around solar maximum, can lead to an extended minimum with the characteristics of the recent minimum: an extended period without sunspots and weak polar fields. It has been pointed out that the observed surface meridional flows over the last cycle do not fit the pattern assumed by Nandy et al. Hathaway & Rightmire (Science 2010, 327-1350) find that the meridional speed of small magnetic surface elements observed by SoHO/MDI decreased around solar maximum and has not yet recovered. Basu & Antia (ApJ 2010, 717, 488) find surface plasma meridional flow speeds that are lower at solar maximum 23 than at the surrounding minima, which is different from both Hathaway and Nandy. While there is no physical reason that solar surface flows -- both differential rotation and meridional flow -- would vary in lockstep with flows at greater depth, as the large radial gradients near the surface clearly indicate, and while Nandy et al. have demonstrated that the deeper flows dominate the net meridional mass flow, we find that there is in effect a very satisfying agreement between the observational results of Hathaway & Rightmire, Basu & Antia, and the model assumptions of Nandy, Munoz, & Martens. We present an analytical model that reconciles the first two, followed by a hydrodynamical model that demonstrates the consistency of these observational results with the model assumptions of Nandy et al.

  2. Quality of IRI predictions during extreme solar minimum conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo-Pradere, Eduardo; Bilitza, Dieter; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Fuller-Rowell, Dominic

    2012-07-01

    The complexity of the deep, long and flat Solar Cycle minimum 23-24, and the IRI performance for these conditions are discussed. The solar control over the ionospheric behavior is not linear, and the ionospheric consequences of the prolonged, low and complicated Solar Cycle 23-24 minimum shows a consequentially complex picture. The ionospheric vTEC parameters present a consistent decrease of the mean day values for minimum 23-24, respect to minimum 22-23. The variability of this parameter generally decreases for the latest minimum. NmF2, on the other hand, shows an inconsistent and complex behavior, with cases in which the average values were lower, and other cases where the values were similar and even higher for the 23-24 minimum. The IRI output generally shows good agreement for both parameters for night time conditions, but its performance worsened for day time conditions. The hmF2 results, on the other hand, show that IRI hmF2 values are in reasonable agreement with the observations for the earlier minimum in 1996. The exceptions are October and December in the SH, where IRI hmF2 tends to high, particularly on the dayside, and also July for which the daytime measured values tend to be larger than the IRI ones. For the recent minimum in 2008, IRI tends to over-estimate the hmF2 in most of the observations. The results support the general assertion that thermospheric temperatures were cooler during the last solar minimum as a consequence of an unusually low, and extended, minimum in solar extreme-ultraviolet flux, and in response to continually increasing long-term trend in anthropogenic carbon dioxide. The cooler temperatures not only decrease density at a fixed height, but also make the corresponding contraction of the atmosphere lower the height of the F-region peak.

  3. Cosmic rays during the unusual solar minimum of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Agnieszka

    Examine the solar activity (SA) parameters during the quite long-lasting minimum epoch 23/24 shows that their values differ substantially in comparison with those measured in previous solar minimum epochs. The Sun was extremely quiet and there were nearly no sunspots (e.g. Smith, 2011). The averaged proton density was lower during this minimum (˜ 0.70) than in the three previous minimum epochs (Jian et al., 2011). The averaged strength of the interplanetary magnetic field during the last minimum was truly low (drop of ˜ 0.36) and the solar wind dynamic pressure decrease (˜ 0.22) was noticed (McComas et al., 2008). Solar polar magnetic fields were weaker (˜ 0.40) during this minimum in comparison with the last three minimum epochs of SA (Wang et al., 2009). Kirk et al. (2009) showed that EUV polar coronal holes area was less (˜ 0.15) than at the beginning of the Solar Cycle no. 23. The solar total irradiance at 1AU was lower more than 0.2Wm (-2) than in the last minimum in 1996 (Fröhlich, 2009). Values of the solar radio flux f10.7 were smaller than for the duration of the recent four minima (Jian et al., 2011). The tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet declined much slower during the recent minimum in comparison with the previous two. The values of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) intensity measured by neutron monitors were the highest ever recorded (e.g. Moraal and Stoker, 2010). In 2007 neutron monitors achieved values measured during the last negative polarity minimum, 1987, and continued to grow throughout the beginning of 2010. In the same time, the level of anomalous cosmic ray intensities was comparable with the 1987 minimum (Leske et al., 2013). The average amplitude of the 27-days recurrence of the GCR intensity was as high as during the previous minimum epoch 1996 (positive polarity), much higher than during minimum one Hale cycle back (Gil et al., 2012). Modzelewska and Alania (2013) showed that 27-days periodicity of the GCR intensity stable during 2007-2008 evolved to longer period (up to 33-36 days) during 2009. Alania et al. (2014, submitted to JGR) have reported that the 2009 growth in the GCR intensity mostly was related with drop in the solar wind velocity, the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field, and the drift during the negative polarity epoch. Frohlich (2009) argued that the recent minimum was caused by a global temperature decline of 0.2 K in the effective temperature of the Sun. Dikpati (2013) suggested that the reason of the prolonged and deep minimum was somehow different operation of solar dynamo. On the other hand, revisions of the proxies showed that the Maunder Minimum was the latest, but not the only, of the grand minimum ages of solar activity that occurred in the past (e.g. Jones et al., 2010). It might be the case that the last 23/24 solar minimum was the precursor of the end of the Modern grand maximum (e.g. Usoskin, 2013). References: 1.Alania M.V, R. Modzelewska, A. Wawrzynczak, 2014, submitted to JGR 2.Dikpati M., SSRv 176, 279-287, 2013 3.Fröhlich C., A&A 501, L27-L30, 2009 4.Gil A., R. Modzelewska, M.V Alania, AdSpR 50, 712-715, 2012 5.Jian L.K., C.T. Russell, J.G. Luhmann, SoPh 274, 321-344, 2011 6.Jones Ch.A., M.J. Thompson, S.M. Tobias, SSRv 152, 591-616, 2010 7.Kirk M. S., W.D. Pesnell, C. A. Young, S.A. Hess Webber, SoPh 257, 99-112, 2009 8.Leske R. A., A.C. Cummings, R.A. Mewaldt, E.C. Stone, SSRv 176, 253-263, 2013 9.McComas D.J., R.W. Ebert, H.A. Elliott, et al., GeoRL 35, CiteID L18103, 2008 10.Modzelewska R, M.V. Alania, SoPh 286, 593-607, 2013 11.Moraal H., P.H. Stoker, JGR 115, CiteID A12109, 2010 12.Smith E.J, JASTP 73, 277-289, 2011 13.Usoskin I.G., LRSP 10, doi 10.12942/lrsp-2013-1, 2013 14.Wang Y.-M., E. Robbrecht, N.R. Sheeley, ApJ. 707, 1372-1386, 2009

  4. Elemental GCR Observations during the 2009-2010 Solar Minimum Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lave, K. A.; Israel, M. H.; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; deNolfo, G. A.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Using observations from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we present new measurements of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) elemental composition and energy spectra for the species B through Ni in the energy range approx. 50-550 MeV/nucleon during the record setting 2009-2010 solar minimum period. These data are compared with our observations from the 1997-1998 solar minimum period, when solar modulation in the heliosphere was somewhat higher. For these species, we find that the intensities during the 2009-2010 solar minimum were approx. 20% higher than those in the previous solar minimum, and in fact were the highest GCR intensities recorded during the space age. Relative abundances for these species during the two solar minimum periods differed by small but statistically significant amounts, which are attributed to the combination of spectral shape differences between primary and secondary GCRs in the interstellar medium and differences between the levels of solar modulation in the two solar minima. We also present the secondary-to-primary ratios B/C and (Sc+Ti+V)/Fe for both solar minimum periods, and demonstrate that these ratios are reasonably well fit by a simple "leaky-box" galactic transport model that is combined with a spherically symmetric solar modulation model.

  5. Characteristics of the global ionospheric electron density during the extreme solar minimum condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, G.

    2010-12-01

    The last solar minimum period between the cycles 23 and 24 was anomalously low and lasted long compared with previous solar minimums. The resulting solar irradiance received in the Earth’s upper atmosphere was extremely low and therefore it can readily be expected that the upper atmosphere should be greatly affected by this low solar activity. There were several studies on this effect but many of them was on the thermosphere (Solomon et al., 2010; Emmert et al., 2010). According to these studies, the thermospheric temperature was cooler and the density was lower than the previous solar minimum periods. The low solar irradiance during the last solar minimum should also affect the ionosphere, not only via the lower ion-electron production due to the lower EUV radiation but also through the interactions with the thermosphere that was already influenced by the low solar irradiance. In this study, we utilized the measurements of total electron content (TEC) from the TOPEX and JASON satellites during the periods of 1992 to 2010, which includes the last two solar minimums, in order to investigate the differences between the ionospheric behaviors during the two minimum conditions. Initially the levels of the global ionization will be examined during these minimum periods and then further discussions will be continued on the details of the ionospheric behavior such as the seasonal and storm-time variations.

  6. Field-aligned currents during the extreme solar minimum between the solar cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Simon; Ohtani, Shinichi; Johnson, Jay; Wilson, Gordon R.; Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    2014-04-01

    The solar minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24 was unusually long and deep. The upward region-1 (R1) field-aligned current (FAC) response to this extreme solar minimum was investigated using Defense Meteorological Satellite Program observations. The solar cycle responses on the dayside are different than those on the nightside. The field-aligned current density (J//) on the dayside, at 12-17 magnetic local time (MLT), peaks in the declining phase of the solar cycle, in 2003, when the solar wind speed also peaks, whereas J// on the nightside, at 18-23 MLT, appears insensitive to the solar cycle. In 1995-2010, J// at 15-17 MLT reaches the lowest value during the extreme solar minimum in 2009, when the solar wind speed also reaches the lowest value. At 12-17 MLT, R1 is located mostly on open field lines or at the boundary layer, where the current is driven mostly by the velocity shear at the magnetopause boundary. However, on the nightside, R1 is located mostly on the closed field lines where J// is not driven directly and immediately by the solar wind. The nightside current width (?) exhibits a solar cycle effect such that ? is smaller at the solar minimum and smallest in 2009. However, the dayside ? exhibits little solar cycle effect. As a result, the FAC intensity (latitudinally integrated J//) exhibits a solar cycle variation at all local times and the FAC intensity is lower during the extreme solar minimum than that of the previous solar minimum.

  7. SOHO-23: Understanding a Peculiar Solar Minimum ASP Conference Series, Vol. 428, c 2010

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    SOHO-23: Understanding a Peculiar Solar Minimum ASP Conference Series, Vol. 428, c 2010 Steven RHz band. The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) instruments flown in space since the late 1970s typically sample this band. Flare light curves at various wavelengths suggest that this band contains much of the flare power

  8. Auroral Ionosphere During Solar Minimum in Very High Time Resolution , T. Turunen1

    E-print Network

    Ulich, Thomas

    Auroral Ionosphere During Solar Minimum in Very High Time Resolution Th.Ulich1 , T. Turunen1 , E taken a new vertical ionospheric sounder into use, which was built entirely in-house. The new instrument and it has revealed many rapid changes in the ionosphere, which cannot be observed with standard operation

  9. a Study of Ionospheric Low Latitude Velocity and Density Irregularity Correlations during Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaser, R. A.; Earle, G. D.; Heelis, R. A.; Klenzing, J. H.; Coley, W. R.; Stoneback, R. A.; Burrell, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    The C/NOFS satellite has measured ionospheric plasma density irregularities at low latitudes on scales larger than 10 km over a full set of seasons. The focus of this study is on data from the Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) from Jan-Dec 2009 for pre-midnight and post-midnight times when the data are most reliable. Correlations between the normalized changes in density and velocity (dni/n and dv-horz,vert) during spread-F events (plasma bubbles through the f-peak) and localized plasma enhancements associated with those events are analyzed and compared to investigate seasonal, spatial, and temporal properties during the 2009 solar minimum conditions. The correlations presented and their relationship to the unusually quiescent background conditions in this epoch challenge our understanding and add significantly to our knowledge of ionospheric irregularity events and distribution statistics at low latitudes during solar minimum.

  10. Little or no solar wind enters Venus' atmosphere at solar minimum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T L; Delva, M; Baumjohann, W; Auster, H-U; Carr, C; Russell, C T; Barabash, S; Balikhin, M; Kudela, K; Berghofer, G; Biernat, H K; Lammer, H; Lichtenegger, H; Magnes, W; Nakamura, R; Schwingenschuh, K; Volwerk, M; Vörös, Z; Zambelli, W; Fornacon, K-H; Glassmeier, K-H; Richter, I; Balogh, A; Schwarzl, H; Pope, S A; Shi, J K; Wang, C; Motschmann, U; Lebreton, J-P

    2007-11-29

    Venus has no significant internal magnetic field, which allows the solar wind to interact directly with its atmosphere. A field is induced in this interaction, which partially shields the atmosphere, but we have no knowledge of how effective that shield is at solar minimum. (Our current knowledge of the solar wind interaction with Venus is derived from measurements at solar maximum.) The bow shock is close to the planet, meaning that it is possible that some solar wind could be absorbed by the atmosphere and contribute to the evolution of the atmosphere. Here we report magnetic field measurements from the Venus Express spacecraft in the plasma environment surrounding Venus. The bow shock under low solar activity conditions seems to be in the position that would be expected from a complete deflection by a magnetized ionosphere. Therefore little solar wind enters the Venus ionosphere even at solar minimum. PMID:18046399

  11. Analysis of daytime ionospheric equatorial vertical drifts during the extreme solar minimum of 2008/2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. M.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Stoneback, R.; Milla, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The unique solar minimum period of 2008/2009 has led to interesting observations of the equatorial ionosphere and low-latitude ionosphere made by the C/NOFS satellite. It has been found, for instance, downward equatorial vertical drifts during afternoon hours and upward drifts around local midnight, which were associated with enhanced semi-diurnal tides (Stoneback et al., 2011). To better understand the behavior of equatorial drifts, we used ground-based measurements of daytime 150-km echo drifts made by the Jicamarca Unattended Long-term studies of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere (JULIA) radar. Our analysis did not show signatures of the enhanced semi-diurnal pattern in the 150-km drifts, as seen by C/NOFS during the 2008/2009 solar minimum. We attribute the differences in the C/NOFS drifts and 150-km echo drifts to the height variability of the drifts, the abnormal F-region contraction due to the extreme solar minimum conditions, and the coupling with low-latitude semi-diurnal tides. We investigated further the height variation of the vertical drifts by comparing the Scherliess and Fejer [1999] F-region drift model with the 150-km echo drifts. We found that the model overestimates the 150-km vertical drifts in the morning, and underestimates the 150-km drifts in the afternoon. The same height variation is observed in all seasons and solar flux conditions (2001 through 2011).

  12. Galactic Cosmic-Ray Energy Spectra and Composition during the 2009-2010 Solar Minimum Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lave, K. A.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; deNolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H..; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; VonRosenvinge, T. T.

    2013-01-01

    We report new measurements of the elemental energy spectra and composition of galactic cosmic rays during the 2009-2010 solar minimum period using observations from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer. This period of time exhibited record-setting cosmic-ray intensities and very low levels of solar activity. Results are given for particles with nuclear charge 5 <= Z <= 28 in the energy range approx. 50-550 MeV / nucleon. Several recent improvements have been made to the earlier CRIS data analysis, and therefore updates of our previous observations for the 1997-1998 solar minimum and 2001-2003 solar maximum are also given here. For most species, the reported intensities changed by less than approx. 7%, and the relative abundances changed by less than approx. 4%. Compared with the 1997-1998 solar minimum relative abundances, the 2009-2010 abundances differ by less than 2sigma, with a trend of fewer secondary species observed in the more recent time period. The new 2009-2010 data are also compared with results of a simple "leaky-box" galactic transport model combined with a spherically symmetric solar modulation model. We demonstrate that this model is able to give reasonable fits to the energy spectra and the secondary-to-primary ratios B/C and (Sc+Ti+V)/Fe. These results are also shown to be comparable to a GALPROP numerical model that includes the effects of diffusive reacceleration in the interstellar medium.

  13. Corona Borealis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Northern Crown; abbrev. CrB, gen. Coronae Borealis; area 179 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Boötes and Hercules, and culminates at midnight in mid-May. It represents the crown that in Greek mythology was made by Hephaestus, god of fire, and worn by Princess Ariadne of Crete. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  14. Global Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, Jon A.

    1997-01-01

    Under this contract, we have continued our investigations of the large scale structure of the solar corona and inner heliosphere using global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. These computations have also formed the basis for studies of coronal mass ejections (CMES) using realistic coronal configurations. We have developed a technique for computing realistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) computations of the solar corona and inner heliosphere. To perform computations that can be compared with specific observations, it is necessary to incorporate solar observations into the boundary conditions. We have used the Wilcox Solar Observatory synoptic maps (collected during a solar rotation by daily measurements of the line-of-sight magnetic field at central meridian) to specify the radial magnetic field (B,) at the photosphere. For the initial condition, we use a potential magnetic field consistent with the specified distribution of B, at the lower boundary, and a wind solution consistent with the specified plasma density and temperature at the solar surface. Together this initial condition forms a (non-equilibrium) approximation of the state of the solar corona for the time-dependent MHD computation. The MHD equations are then integrated in time to steady state. Here we describe solutions relevant to a recent solar eclipse, as well as Ulysses observations. We have also developed a model configuration of solar minimum, useful for studying CME initiation and propagation.

  15. GALACTIC COSMIC-RAY ENERGY SPECTRA AND COMPOSITION DURING THE 2009-2010 SOLAR MINIMUM PERIOD

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, K. A.; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Christian, E. R.; De Nolfo, G. A.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.

    2013-06-20

    We report new measurements of the elemental energy spectra and composition of galactic cosmic rays during the 2009-2010 solar minimum period using observations from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer. This period of time exhibited record-setting cosmic-ray intensities and very low levels of solar activity. Results are given for particles with nuclear charge 5 {<=} Z {<=} 28 in the energy range {approx}50-550 MeV nucleon{sup -1}. Several recent improvements have been made to the earlier CRIS data analysis, and therefore updates of our previous observations for the 1997-1998 solar minimum and 2001-2003 solar maximum are also given here. For most species, the reported intensities changed by less than {approx}7%, and the relative abundances changed by less than {approx}4%. Compared with the 1997-1998 solar minimum relative abundances, the 2009-2010 abundances differ by less than 2{sigma}, with a trend of fewer secondary species observed in the more recent time period. The new 2009-2010 data are also compared with results of a simple ''leaky-box'' galactic transport model combined with a spherically symmetric solar modulation model. We demonstrate that this model is able to give reasonable fits to the energy spectra and the secondary-to-primary ratios B/C and (Sc+Ti+V)/Fe. These results are also shown to be comparable to a GALPROP numerical model that includes the effects of diffusive reacceleration in the interstellar medium.

  16. Performance of the IRI-2007 and SAMI2 Models during Extreme Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenzing, J.; Bilitza, D.; Burrell, A. G.; Heelis, R. A.; Huba, J.; Simoes, F.

    2012-01-01

    During the recent solar minimum, solar activity reached the lowest levels observed during the space age. This extremely low solar activity has accompanied a number of unexpected observations in the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere when compared to previous solar minima. Among these is the fact that the ionosphere is significantly contracted beyond expectations based on empirical models. Data from the CINDI instrument on board C/NOFS is used to evaluate the performance of the IRI-2007 and SAMI2 models during the deepest part of the minimum. Additionally, the inputs to SAMI2 are modified in order to estimate the contributions of a contracted thermosphere and reduced EUV on the resultant ionosphere.

  17. Auroral electrojets during deep solar minimum at the end of solar cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkinen, T. I.; Viljanen, A.; Tanskanen, E.

    2009-12-01

    The current solar minimum has continued for over two years of very low-level solar activity. The long-term quieting shows its effects also in the magnetosphere - ionosphere system: the general the level of geomagnetic activity has been very low, and consequently also the auroral electrojets have been weaker and at higher latitudes than usual. The IMAGE magnetometer chain has provided magnetic field measurements since 1982 from a latitudinal chain covering latitudes from Southern Finland to Svalbard, or from 60 to 80 degrees. Thus, the time series covers over two solar cycles of measurements that allow us to determine the electrojet location and intensity during local midnight without bias caused by station location away from the electrojet latitude. In this presentation we compare the auroral electrojet location and intensity during the current solar minimum with those recorded during the previous minimum in 1996-1997. We also investigate whether the long solar quiet period has an effect on the long-term trends in the electrojet observations. The results are used to discuss the “ground state” of the magnetosphere - ionosphere coupling.

  18. The anomalous helium component in the heliosphere - The 1965 versus the 1972-1977 solar minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Pyle, K. R.; Simpson, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The anomalous He-4 component, hereafter He(A), was first observed in the galactic cosmic-ray helium spectrum at energies below about 60 MeV per nucleon in 1972 at the beginning of the extended period of minimum solar modulation, 1972-1977, after which period it again disappeared as solar modulation increased in the new solar activity cycle. This component was not apparent during the 1965 solar minimum. It is found that the helium spectrum measured during a short interval of enhanced modulation in 1974-1975 shows the same level as the He spectrum measured during 1965. This fact demonstrates that the absence of He(A) in 1965 can be explained as the consequence of a greater level of solar modulation at low energies in 1965 than in most of the 1972-1977 solar minimum. It is concluded that He(A) may be present at all times in the outer heliosphere and be observable at successive solar minima if the residual solar modulation is sufficiently low, as in most of the 1972-1977 minimum.

  19. Topside Equatorial Ionospheric Density and Composition During and After Extreme Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenzing, J.; Simoes, F.; Ivanov, S.; Heelis, R. A.; Bilitza, D.; Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.

    2011-01-01

    During the recent solar minimum, solar activity reached the lowest levels observed during the space age. This extremely low solar activity has accompanied a number of unexpected observations in the Earth s ionosphere-thermosphere system when compared to previous solar minima. Among these are the fact that the ionosphere is significantly contracted beyond expectations based on empirical models. Altitude profiles of ion density and composition measurements near the magnetic dip equator are constructed from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite to characterize the shape of the topside ionosphere during the recent solar minimum and into the new solar cycle. The variation of the profiles with respect to local time, season, and solar activity are compared to the IRI-2007 model. Building on initial results reported by Heelis et al. (2009), here we describe the extent of the contracted ionosphere, which is found to persist throughout 2009. The shape of the ionosphere during 2010 is found to be consistent with observations from previous solar minima.

  20. Measurement of cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra during the 1987 solar minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seo, E. S.; Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Stochaj, S. J.; Jones, W. V.; Stephens, S. A.; Bowen, T.

    1991-01-01

    The differential cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra have been measured during the 1987 solar minimum using a balloon-borne superconducting magnetic spectrometer launched from Prince Albert, Canada. The changing geomagnetic cutoff along the balloon trajectory was observed in the low-energy proton data to be about 25 percent below the nominal calculated values. The absolute particle fluxes were approximately equal to the highest fluxes observed at the previous solar minimum in 1977. Above 10 GV the observed spectra are represented by a power law in rigidity with spectral indices of 2.74 + or - 0.02 for protons and 2.68 + or - 0.03 for helium. The measurements above 200 MeV per nucleon are consistent with rigidity power-law interstellar spectra modulated with the solar modulation parameter phi = 500 MV. The energy dependence of the proton-to-helium ratio is consistent with rigidity power-law injection spectra and rigidity-dependent propagation without reacceleration.

  1. A Snapshot of the Sun Near Solar Minimum: The Whole Heliosphere Interval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Schroeder, Peter C.; Webb, David F.; Arge, Charles N.; Bisi, Mario M.; de Toma, Giuliana; Emery, Barbara A.; Galvin, Antoinette B.; Haber, Deborah A.; Jackson, Bernard V.; Jensen, Elizabeth A.; Leamon, Robert J.; Lei, Jiuhou; Manoharan, Periasamy K.; Mays, M. Leila; McIntosh, Patrick S.; Petrie, Gordon J.D.; Plunkett, Simon P.; Qian, Liying

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview of the data and models collected for the Whole Heliosphere Interval, an international campaign to study the three-dimensional solar heliospheric planetary connected system near solar minimum. The data and models correspond to solar Carrington Rotation 2068 (20 March 16 April 2008) extending from below the solar photosphere, through interplanetary space, and down to Earth's mesosphere. Nearly 200 people participated in aspects of WHI studies, analyzing and interpreting data from nearly 100 instruments and models in order to elucidate the physics of fundamental heliophysical processes. The solar and inner heliospheric data showed structure consistent with the declining phase of the solar cycle. A closely spaced cluster of low-latitude active regions was responsible for an increased level of magnetic activity, while a highly warped current sheet dominated heliospheric structure. The geospace data revealed an unusually high level of activity, driven primarily by the periodic impingement of high-speed streams. The WHI studies traced the solar activity and structure into the heliosphere and geospace, and provided new insight into the nature of the interconnected heliophysical system near solar minimum.

  2. A Snapshot of the Sun Near Solar Minimum: The Whole Heliosphere Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Schroeder, Peter C.; Webb, David F.; Arge, Charles N.; Bisi, Mario M.; de Toma, Giuliana; Emery, Barbara A.; Galvin, Antoinette B.; Haber, Deborah A.; Jackson, Bernard V.; Jensen, Elizabeth A.; Leamon, Robert J.; Lei, Jiuhou; Manoharan, Periasamy K.; Mays, M. Leila; McIntosh, Patrick S.; Petrie, Gordon J. D.; Plunkett, Simon P.; Qian, Liying; Riley, Peter; Suess, Steven T.; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Welsch, Brian T.; Woods, Thomas N.

    2011-12-01

    We present an overview of the data and models collected for the Whole Heliosphere Interval, an international campaign to study the three-dimensional solar-heliospheric-planetary connected system near solar minimum. The data and models correspond to solar Carrington Rotation 2068 (20 March - 16 April 2008) extending from below the solar photosphere, through interplanetary space, and down to Earth’s mesosphere. Nearly 200 people participated in aspects of WHI studies, analyzing and interpreting data from nearly 100 instruments and models in order to elucidate the physics of fundamental heliophysical processes. The solar and inner heliospheric data showed structure consistent with the declining phase of the solar cycle. A closely spaced cluster of low-latitude active regions was responsible for an increased level of magnetic activity, while a highly warped current sheet dominated heliospheric structure. The geospace data revealed an unusually high level of activity, driven primarily by the periodic impingement of high-speed streams. The WHI studies traced the solar activity and structure into the heliosphere and geospace, and provided new insight into the nature of the interconnected heliophysical system near solar minimum.

  3. A Topside Equatorial Ionospheric Density and Composition Climatology During and After Extreme Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenzing, J. H.; Simoes, F.; Ivanov, S.; Heelis, R. A.; Bilitza, D.; Pfaff, R. F.; Rowland, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    During the recent solar minimum, solar activity reached the lowest levels observed during the space age. This extremely low solar activity has accompanied a number of unexpected observations in the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere when compared to previous solar minima. Among these are the fact that the ionosphere is significantly contracted beyond expectations based on empirical models. Climatological altitude profiles of ion density and composition measurements near the magnetic dip equator are constructed from the C/NOFS satellite to characterize the shape of the top side ionosphere during the recent solar minimum and into the new solar cycle. The variation of the profiles with respect to local time, season, and solar activity are compared to the IRI-2007 model. Building on initial results reported by Heelis et al. [2009], here we describe the extent of the contracted ionosphere, which is found to persist throughout 2009. The shape of the ionosphere during 2010 is found to be consistent with observations from previous solar minima.

  4. A Study of the Coronal Non-thermal Velocity in Polar Regions During the Rise from Solar Minimum to Solar Maximum in Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harra, L.; Baker, D.; Edwards, S. J.; Hara, H.; Howe, R.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.

    2015-11-01

    We explore the changes in coronal non-thermal velocity ( V nt) measurements at the poles from solar minimum to solar maximum using Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer data. We find that although the intensity in the corona at the poles does tend to increase with the cycle, there are no significant changes in the V nt values. The locations of enhanced V nt values measured do not always have a counterpart in intensity, and they are sometimes located in weak emission regions. Unipolar magnetic streams, created through diffusion of the following polarity of the decaying active regions, slowly progress towards the poles. These streams are expected to be related to magnetic nulls as locations that indicate an increased likelihood for magnetic reconnection to occur. Through global potential field source-surface modelling, we determine how the number of nulls varied during the cycle and find that those that lie at < 1.1 solar radii vary significantly. We search for a correlation between the variation of the magnetic nulls and the V nt values, as it may be expected that with an increasing number of nulls, the V nt values in the corona increase as well. There is no correlation with the V nt values, however. This indicates that the magnetic structures that create the enhanced V nt behaviour are small-scale features and hence not easily measurable at the poles. Because they do not change during the solar cycle, they are likely to be created by a local dynamo. The variation of the upper range of V nt is reduced, which highlights that strongly dynamic behaviour is reduced as the solar maximum approaches. This is likely to be due to the reduced area of the polar coronal hole, which allows fewer opportunities for reconnection to occur between open and closed magnetic fields.

  5. A Study of the Coronal Non-thermal Velocity in Polar Regions During the Rise from Solar Minimum to Solar Maximum in Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harra, L.; Baker, D.; Edwards, S. J.; Hara, H.; Howe, R.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the changes in coronal non-thermal velocity (V nt) measurements at the poles from solar minimum to solar maximum using Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer data. We find that although the intensity in the corona at the poles does tend to increase with the cycle, there are no significant changes in the V nt values. The locations of enhanced V nt values measured do not always have a counterpart in intensity, and they are sometimes located in weak emission regions. Unipolar magnetic streams, created through diffusion of the following polarity of the decaying active regions, slowly progress towards the poles. These streams are expected to be related to magnetic nulls as locations that indicate an increased likelihood for magnetic reconnection to occur. Through global potential field source-surface modelling, we determine how the number of nulls varied during the cycle and find that those that lie at < 1.1 solar radii vary significantly. We search for a correlation between the variation of the magnetic nulls and the V nt values, as it may be expected that with an increasing number of nulls, the V nt values in the corona increase as well. There is no correlation with the V nt values, however. This indicates that the magnetic structures that create the enhanced V nt behaviour are small-scale features and hence not easily measurable at the poles. Because they do not change during the solar cycle, they are likely to be created by a local dynamo. The variation of the upper range of V nt is reduced, which highlights that strongly dynamic behaviour is reduced as the solar maximum approaches. This is likely to be due to the reduced area of the polar coronal hole, which allows fewer opportunities for reconnection to occur between open and closed magnetic fields.

  6. The distribution of solar wind speeds during solar minimum: Calibration for numerical solar wind modeling constraints on the source of the slow solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, S. L.; Hughes, W. J.; Arge, C. N.; Owens, M. J.; Odstrcil, D.

    2011-03-01

    It took the solar polar passage of Ulysses in the early 1990s to establish the global structure of the solar wind speed during solar minimum. However, it remains unclear if the solar wind is composed of two distinct populations of solar wind from different sources (e.g., closed loops which open up to produce the slow solar wind) or if the fast and slow solar wind rely on the superradial expansion of the magnetic field to account for the observed solar wind speed variation. We investigate the solar wind in the inner corona using the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) coronal model incorporating a new empirical magnetic topology-velocity relationship calibrated for use at 0.1 AU. In this study the empirical solar wind speed relationship was determined by using Helios perihelion observations, along with results from Riley et al. (2003) and Schwadron et al. (2005) as constraints. The new relationship was tested by using it to drive the ENLIL 3-D MHD solar wind model and obtain solar wind parameters at Earth (1.0 AU) and Ulysses (1.4 AU). The improvements in speed, its variability, and the occurrence of high-speed enhancements provide confidence that the new velocity relationship better determines the solar wind speed in the outer corona (0.1 AU). An analysis of this improved velocity field within the WSA model suggests the existence of two distinct mechanisms of the solar wind generation, one for fast and one for slow solar wind, implying that a combination of present theories may be necessary to explain solar wind observations.

  7. High-cadence observations of CME initiation and plasma dynamics in the corona with TESIS on board CORONAS-Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, Sergey; Kuzin, Sergey; Zhitnik, I. A.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Goncharov, A. L.; Ignatyev, A. P.; Krutov, V. V.; Lomkova, V. M.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Nasonkina, T. P.; Oparin, S. N.; Petzov, A. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Slemzin, V. A.; Soloviev, V. A.; Suhodrev, N. K.; Shergina, T. A.

    The TESIS is an ensemble of space instruments designed in Lebedev Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences for spectroscopic and imaging investigation of the Sun in EUV and soft X-ray spectral range with high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution. From 2009 January, when TESIS was launched onboard the Coronas-Photon satellite, it provided about 200 000 new images and spectra of the Sun, obtained during one of the deepest solar minimum in last century. Because of the wide field of view (4 solar radii) and high sensitivity, TESIS provided high-quality data on the origin and dynamics of eruptive prominences and CMEs in the low and intermediate solar corona. TESIS is also the first EUV instrument which provided high-cadence observations of coronal bright points and solar spicules with temporal resolution of a few seconds. We present first results of TESIS observations and discuss them from a scientific point of view.

  8. Solar energetic proton events and coronal mass ejections near solar minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; Mcguire, R. E.; Reames, D. V.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Howard, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the association of coronal mass ejections (CME's) with solar energetic (9-23 MeV) proton (SEP) events during the 1983-1985 approach to solar minimum. Twenty-two of 25 SEP events were associated with CME's, a result comparable to that previously found for the period 1979-1982 around solar maximum. Peak SEP fluxes were correlated with CME speeds but not with CME angular sizes. In addition, many associated CME's lay well out of the ecliptic plane. In a reverse study using all west hemisphere CME's of speeds exceeding 800 km/s and covering the period 1979-1985, we found that 29 of 31 events originating on the solar disk or limb were associated with observed SEP's. However, in contrast to the previous study, we found no cases of SEP events associated with magnetically well connected flares of short duration that lacked CME's.

  9. Quiescent and Eruptive Prominences at Solar Minimum: A Statistical Study via an Automated Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, I. P.; Bogachev, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    We employ an automated detection algorithm to perform a global study of solar prominence characteristics. We process four months of TESIS observations in the He ii 304 Å line taken close to the solar minimum of 2008 - 2009 and mainly focus on quiescent and quiescent-eruptive prominences. We detect a total of 389 individual features ranging from to in size and obtain distributions of many of their spatial characteristics, such as latitudinal position, height, size, and shape. To study their dynamics, we classify prominences as either stable or eruptive and calculate their average centroid velocities, which are found to rarely exceed . In addition, we give rough estimates of mass and gravitational energy for every detected prominence and use these values to estimate the total mass and gravitational energy of all simultaneously existing prominences ( and ). Finally, we investigate the form of the gravitational energy spectrum of prominences and derive it to be a power-law of index.

  10. The turbulent cascade and proton heating in the solar wind during solar minimum

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Forman, Miriam A.

    2013-06-13

    Solar wind measurements at 1 AU during the recent solar minimum and previous studies of solar maximum provide an opportunity to study the effects of the changing solar cycle on in situ heating. Our interest is to compare the levels of activity associated with turbulence and proton heating. Large-scale shears in the flow caused by transient activity are a source that drives turbulence that heats the solar wind, but as the solar cycle progresses the dynamics that drive the turbulence and heat the medium are likely to change. The application of third-moment theory to Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data gives the turbulent energy cascade rate which is not seen to vary with the solar cycle. Likewise, an empirical heating rate shows no significan changes in proton heating over the cycle.

  11. Altitude variations in the thermosphere mass density response to geomagnetic activity during the recent solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Thayer, J. P.; Burns, A.; Wang, W.; Sutton, E.

    2014-03-01

    Accelerometer data from coplanar orbits of Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites were used to study the complex altitude and latitude variations of the thermosphere mass density response to geomagnetic activity during 1-10 December 2008 near 09 LT. Helium number densities near 500 km altitude were extracted from the CHAMP and GRACE measurements and clearly show the presence of a winter hemisphere helium bulge. This recent extreme solar minimum indicates that wintertime helium concentrations exceed NRLMSISE-00 model estimates by 30%-70% during quiet geomagnetic activity after adjusting F10.7 input into MSIS. The perturbation in mass density from quiet to active conditions is found to be less enhanced in the winter hemisphere at the higher GRACE altitudes (25%) than at the lower CHAMP altitudes (60%) and is attributed to dynamic behavior in the helium/oxygen transition. The investigation revealed the maximum storm time density perturbation to occur near the He/O transition region with a much weaker maximum near the O/N2 transition region. The altitude of maximum density perturbation occurs where the perturbation in the weighted pressure scale height is equal and opposite to the perturbation in the weighted mean molecular weight scale height. The altitude structure of density scale height perturbation is significantly influenced by the changes in the molecular weight scale height and can account for 50% of the change in mass density scale height in a region correspondingly close to the He/O transition during the 2008 solar minimum period.

  12. Unraveling Parkinson's: Three Clues

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Unraveling Parkinson's: Three Clues Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... or prevent disease progression. Studies have shown that Parkinson's patients have lost 60 to 80 percent of ...

  13. Comparative Study of foF2 Measurements with IRI-2007 Model Predictions During Extended Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakharenkova, I. E.; Krankowski, A.; Bilitza, D.; Cherniak, Iu.V.; Shagimuratov, I.I.; Sieradzki, R.

    2013-01-01

    The unusually deep and extended solar minimum of cycle 2324 made it very difficult to predict the solar indices 1 or 2 years into the future. Most of the predictions were proven wrong by the actual observed indices. IRI gets its solar, magnetic, and ionospheric indices from an indices file that is updated twice a year. In recent years, due to the unusual solar minimum, predictions had to be corrected downward with every new indices update. In this paper we analyse how much the uncertainties in the predictability of solar activity indices affect the IRI outcome and how the IRI values calculated with predicted and observed indices compared to the actual measurements.Monthly median values of F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) derived from the ionosonde measurements at the mid-latitude ionospheric station Juliusruh were compared with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2007) model predictions. The analysis found that IRIprovides reliable results that compare well with actual measurements, when the definite (observed and adjusted) indices of solar activityare used, while IRI values based on earlier predictions of these indices noticeably overestimated the measurements during the solar minimum.One of the principal objectives of this paper is to direct attention of IRI users to update their solar activity indices files regularly.Use of an older index file can lead to serious IRI overestimations of F-region electron density during the recent extended solar minimum.

  14. Comparative study of foF2 measurements with IRI-2007 model predictions during extended solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, I. E.; Krankowski, A.; Bilitza, D.; Cherniak, Iu. V.; Shagimuratov, I. I.; Sieradzki, R.

    2013-02-01

    The unusually deep and extended solar minimum of cycle 23/24 made it very difficult to predict the solar indices 1 or 2 years into the future. Most of the predictions were proven wrong by the actual observed indices. IRI gets its solar, magnetic, and ionospheric indices from an indices file that is updated twice a year. In recent years, due to the unusual solar minimum, predictions had to be corrected downward with every new indices update. In this paper we analyse how much the uncertainties in the predictability of solar activity indices affect the IRI outcome and how the IRI values calculated with predicted and observed indices compared to the actual measurements. Monthly median values of F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) derived from the ionosonde measurements at the mid-latitude ionospheric station Juliusruh were compared with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2007) model predictions. The analysis found that IRI provides reliable results that compare well with actual measurements, when the definite (observed and adjusted) indices of solar activity are used, while IRI values based on earlier predictions of these indices noticeably overestimated the measurements during the solar minimum. One of the principal objectives of this paper is to direct attention of IRI users to update their solar activity indices files regularly. Use of an older index file can lead to serious IRI overestimations of F-region electron density during the recent extended solar minimum.

  15. Survey of Quiescent Filament Channels at the Current Solar Minimum Yingna Su, Adriaan van Ballegooijen, Leon Golub

    E-print Network

    Su, Yingna

    Survey of Quiescent Filament Channels at the Current Solar Minimum Yingna Su, Adriaan van Ballegooijen, Leon Golub Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Abstract Type I Filament Channels Type II Filament Channels Summary We present preliminary results of an investigation on filament channels

  16. Solar activity and climate change during the 1750 A.D. solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Edouard; Baroni, Mélanie; Aster Team

    2015-04-01

    The number of sunspots and other characteristics have been widely used to reconstruct the solar activity beyond the last three decades of accurate satellite measurements. It has also been possible to reconstruct the long-term solar behavior by measuring the abundance on Earth of cosmogenic nuclides such as carbon 14 and beryllium 10. These isotopes are formed by the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with atmospheric molecules. Accelerator mass spectrometry is used to measure the abundance of these isotopes in natural archives such as polar ice (for 10Be), tree rings and corals (for 14C). Over the last millennium, the solar activity has been dominated by alternating active and quiet periods, such as the Maunder Minimum, which occurred between 1645 and 1715 A.D. The climate forcing of this solar variability is the subject of intense research, both because the exact scaling in terms of irradiance is still a matter of debate and because other solar variations may have played a role in amplifying the climatic response. Indeed, the past few decades of accurate solar measurements do not include conditions equivalent to an extended solar minimum. A further difficulty of the analysis lies in the presence of other climate forcings during the last millennium, which are superimposed on the solar variations. Finally, the inherent precision of paleotemperature proxies are close to the signal amplitude retrieved from various paleoclimate archives covering the last millennium. Recent model-data comparisons for the last millennium have led to the conclusion that the solar forcing during this period was minor in comparison to volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gas concentrations (e.g. Schurer et al. 2013 J. Clim., 2014 Nat. Geo.). In order to separate the different forcings, it is useful to focus on a temperature change in phase with a well-documented solar minimum so as to maximize the response to this astronomical forcing. This is the approach followed by Wagner et al. (2005 Clim. Dyn.), who focused their data-model comparison on the Dalton Minimum, which occurred between 1790 and 1830 A.D. and which, fortuitously, included several major volcanic eruptions such as the Tambora eruption in 1815. Their conclusion was that the global imprint of the volcanic forcing was significantly larger than that of contemporaneous solar forcing and the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. A different approach is to consider another recent solar minimum over a period characterized by a low volcanicity and minimal changes of greenhouse gases. Such a minimum does exist between the Maunder and the Dalton Minima and lasted for a mere two decades between 1745 and 1765 A.D. The sunspot number exhibits a clear 11-year cycle, but it only reaches a maximal value lower than 100, i.e. less than observed for the past seven 11-year cycles. Incidentally, the maximal values observed between 1745 and 1765 are similar to those observed during the maximum of the present solar cycle. The 1750 A.D. solar minimum can also be studied in other records such as counts of auroras at mid-latitudes and cosmogenic isotopes such as 14C and 10Be. In addition to reviewing published time series, we will report a new 10Be record from a well-dated ice core from Dome C in Antarctica. Sulfate concentration, a proxy for volcanic eruptions, has also been measured in the very same samples, allowing a precise comparison of both 10Be and sulfate profiles. The full record covers the last millennium and will be presented separately by Baroni, Bard and the ASTER Team. Zooming in on the century between 1700 and 1800 A.D. allows to identify an extended period of low volcanicity and to observe a clear 10Be increase corresponding to the solar minimum. We will present the new data over the 18th century as well as their first interpretation in the context of other useful records based on greenhouse gas concentrations, paleotemperature proxies and climate modeling available in the literature.

  17. The CME-ICME Connection and Interplanetary Structure During Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Lynch, B. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Kilpua, E.; Toy, V.; Vourlidas, A.; Russell, C. T.; Galvin, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    When an interplanetary transient (ICME) exhibits a large angle and smooth rotation in the IMF vector, it is classified as a magnetic cloud (MC) and commonly interpreted as the signature of a magnetic flux rope. On the average bout a third of ICME ejecta are MCs, although the fraction seems to be larger during the quiet phase of the solar cycle. Non-flux rope ICMEs are likely (1) distorted during the transit through heliosphere, (2) observed at an unfavorable crossing angle if the ICME structure has spatial variation, (3) or are simply have a more complex internal structure. Five Magnetic Clouds (MC) have been found from a total of nine ICMEs observed during 2007 January 01 to 2008 August 31, when the separation of STEREO A (STA) and B (STB) spacecraft varied between 0.05 to 70.35 degrees heliolongitude. We investigate the four best MCs using observations from three spacecraft (STA, STB and ACE). The first MC seems to have been detected by all three spacecraft (STA and STB 40.4 degrees apart), while the latter three were detected by only one of the STEREO spacecraft and sometimes by ACE. From the inferred flux rope orientation at each crossing and the spatial variation of the ICME properties, we interpret how each MC flux rope was situated relative to the spacecraft, and its connection to the Sun from corresponding coronal and heliospheric modeling results. Each of the MCs can be associated at low confidence (in contrary to expectations for solar minimum time) with a CME observed by coronagraphs on board STEREO and/or SOHO. All potential parent CMEs were very slow in the 200 km/s range (plane-of-sky), but the speeds of the MCs were between ~390 and ~480 km/s, indicating acceleration in the heliosphere. Solar disk activities are minor around the four CMEs, with no GOES x-ray flares, and two possibly associated filament eruptions. Some CME structures appear to form in the coronagraph field of view rather than rising from below. Several low/mid- latitude coronal holes and a highly warped coronal streamer arcade and source surface neutral line dominate the coronal structure during the period of the study. Previous studies have shown that the MC fluxrope orientation may be aligned with the large-scale coronal streamer arcades. Estimated MC orientations are discussed and compared with events during the previous solar minimum, which exhibited a more dipolar coronal structure. This work was supported, in part, by NASA NNG06GE51G, NNX08AJ04G, and NAS5-03131.

  18. Ultrasonic corona sensor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrold, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to determine the feasibility of using ultrasonic (above 20 kHz) corona detection techniques to detect low order (non-arcing) coronas in varying degrees of vacuum within large high vacuum test chambers, and to design, fabricate, and deliver a prototype ultrasonic corona sensor.

  19. Ionospheric Modelling at Low Latitudes Over Brazil During Summer Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. R.; Bailey, G. J.; Abdu, M. A.; Batista, I. S.

    The F-region critical frequency and peak height (foF2 and hmF2, respectively), measured simultaneously at Fortaleza (4° S, 38° W, mag. lat. = 3° S) and Cachoeira Paulista (22° S, 45° W, mag. lat. = 15° S) in Brazil, are compared with values calculated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere Ionosphere Model to determine the equatorial E×B vertical plasma drift and thermospheric meridional wind of the low-latitude ionosphere. The calculation procedure also allows us to estimate an additional ionization source, that is required to account for the observed diurnal variation of foF2 over Cachoeira Paulista. While the determination of the vertical drift is based on criteria for matching the calculated and observed F-region peak heights over the magnetic equator, the meridional winds over the Brazilian low-latitude region and over its conjugate locations are calculated by comparisons based on the observed and modelled values of hmF2 and foF2. The results presented in this paper are for summer at solar minimum

  20. Physics of the weird solar minimum: New observations of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zita, E.; Smith, C.; Ballou, C.; Friedman, B.; Showalter, C.; Rex, R.; Hurlburt, N.

    2010-10-01

    While solar physicists expected more sunspots, flares, and coronal mass ejections by now, the Sun has defied most predictions by persisting in a relatively quiet state for an unusually long time. Can we tell whether this solar minimum is likely to ease in the next decade, or if it may become a Maunder-type minimum? What evidence is there for mechanisms that might explain the observed delayed and low-amplitude magnetic activity? What effects could decreased solar activity have on Earth's climate? Evergreen undergraduates study the Sun with colleagues who built the new Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Students analyzed flow velocities with respect to magnetic field tilts; analyzed waves of UV light in active regions; developed a software suite to enable the public to engage with solar dynamics; and cataloged movies of solar events for public release. We use data from the high-resolution HINODE satellite and from the new full-disk SDO. Zita studied the solar dynamo, and found that resistivity gradients can drive magnetic advection. We summarize our work and the light it may shed on questions such as those above.

  1. Quiescent and Eruptive Prominences at Solar Minimum: A Statistical Study via an Automated Tracking System

    E-print Network

    Loboda, I P

    2015-01-01

    We employ an automated detection algorithm to perform a global study of solar prominence characteristics. We process four months of TESIS observations in the He II 304 A line taken close to the solar minimum of 2008-2009 and focus mainly on quiescent and quiescent-eruptive prominences. We detect a total of 389 individual features ranging from 25x25 to 150x500 Mm in size and obtain distributions of many their spatial characteristics, such as latitudinal position, height, size and shape. To study their dynamics, we classify prominences as either stable or eruptive and calculate their average centroid velocities, which are found to be rarely exceeding 3 km/s. Besides, we give rough estimates of mass and gravitational energy for every detected prominence and use these values to evaluate the total mass and gravitational energy of all simultaneously existing prominences (10e12-10e14 kg and 10e29-10e31 erg, respectively). Finally, we investigate the form of the gravitational energy spectrum of prominences and derive...

  2. Comparison of Transport Codes, HZETRN, HETC and FLUKA, Using 1977 GCR Solar Minimum Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Slaba, Tony C.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norbury, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Handler, Thomas; Gabriel, Tony A.; Pinsky, Lawrence S.; Reddell, Brandon; Aumann, Aric R.

    2009-01-01

    The HZETRN deterministic radiation transport code is one of several tools developed to analyze the effects of harmful galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) on mission planning, astronaut shielding and instrumentation. This paper is a comparison study involving the two Monte Carlo transport codes, HETC-HEDS and FLUKA, and the deterministic transport code, HZETRN. Each code is used to transport ions from the 1977 solar minimum GCR spectrum impinging upon a 20 g/cm2 Aluminum slab followed by a 30 g/cm2 water slab. This research is part of a systematic effort of verification and validation to quantify the accuracy of HZETRN and determine areas where it can be improved. Comparisons of dose and dose equivalent values at various depths in the water slab are presented in this report. This is followed by a comparison of the proton fluxes, and the forward, backward and total neutron fluxes at various depths in the water slab. Comparisons of the secondary light ion 2H, 3H, 3He and 4He fluxes are also examined.

  3. Influence of projection effects on the observed differential rotation rate in the UV corona

    E-print Network

    Mancuso, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Following previous investigations by Giordano and Mancuso [1] and Mancuso and Giordano [2, 3] on the differential rotation of the solar corona as obtained through the analysis of the intensity time series of the O VI 1032 Ang. spectral line observed by the UVCS/SOHO telescope during solar cycle 23, we analysed the possible influence of projection effects of extended coronal structures on the observed differential rotation rate in the ultraviolet corona. Through a simple geometrical model, we found that, especially at higher latitudes, the differential rotation may be less rigid than observed, since features at higher latitudes could be actually linked to much lower coronal structures due to projection effects. At solar maximum, the latitudinal rigidity of the UV corona, with respect to the differential rotating photosphere, has thus to be considered as an upper limit of the possible rigidity. At solar minimum and near the equatorial region throughout the solar cycle, projection effects are negligible.

  4. Peculiar Features of Ionospheric F3-Layer during Prolonged Solar Minimum (2007-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, C.; Yadav, V.; Kakad, B. A.; Sripathi, S.; Emperumal, K.; Pant, T. K.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Jin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal and local time occurrence of ionospheric F3-layer over Tirunelveli (geo. lon. 77.8° E, geo. lat. 8.7° N, dip 0.7°) during extremely low and prolonged solar activity period (2007-2009) has been presented in this paper. Almost three times increase in the occurence of the F3-layer has been observed 2009 (~ 48%) as compared to that during 2007(~ 16%). The increase of this order just within low solar activity period is unusual. In earlier studies similar increase in F3 occurrence has been reported when solar activity changes from high (F10.7=182) to low (F10.7=72). Another important feature of this study, is the presence of post-noon F3 layers that are observed predominantly during the summer solstice of 2009. Such occurrence of post-noon F3 layers was nearly absent during summer solstice of previous solar minimum (1996) over nearby dip equatorial station Trivandrum. Using the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) as a proxy for eastward electric field, we found that the EEJ strength and the maximum rate of change of EEJ are higher for F3-days as compared to that during non-F3 days. It was also observed that the peak occurrence of pre-noon F3-layer closely coincides with the time of maximum rate of change of EEJ. The present study reveals that the rate of change of eastward electric field (dE/dt) as well plays an important role in the formation of F3-layer.

  5. Peculiar features of ionospheric F3 layer during prolonged solar minimum (2007-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, C. K.; Yadav, V.; Kakad, B.; Sripathi, S.; Emperumal, K.; Pant, T. K.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Jin, Shuanggen

    2014-10-01

    We present the seasonal and local time occurrence of ionospheric F3 layer over Tirunelveli (geographic longitude 77.8°E, geographic latitude 8.7°N, dip 0.7°) during extremely low and prolonged solar activity period (2007-2009). Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde observations from this station are used in the present study. We find that the occurrence of F3 layer is nearly 3 times higher during 2009 (˜ 48%) as compared to that during 2007 (˜16%). The increase of this order just within the low solar activity period is unusual. In earlier studies similar increase in F3 occurrence has been reported when solar activity changes from high (F10.7=182) to low (F10.7=72). The other important feature is the presence of postnoon F3 layers which are observed dominantly during summer solstice of 2009. Such occurrence of postnoon F3 layers was nearly absent during summer solstice of the previous solar minimum (1996) over nearby dip equatorial station Trivandrum. We take equatorial electrojet (EEJ) as a proxy for eastward electric field. It is noticed that the EEJ strength and the maximum rate of change of EEJ are higher for F3 days as compared to those on non-F3 days. We find that the peak occurrence of prenoon F3 layer closely coincides with the time of maximum rate of change of EEJ. It is in general accordance with the theory proposed by Balan et al. (1998) that suggests the formation of F3 through vertically upward E × B drift in presence of equatorward neutral wind. The present study reveals that the rate of change of eastward electric field (dE/dt) as well plays an important role in the formation of F3 layer.

  6. Exploring the Role of Ionospheric Drivers During the Extreme Solar Minimum of 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenzing, J.; Burrell, A. G.; Heelis, R. A.; Huba, J. D.; Pfaff, R.; Simoes, F.

    2013-01-01

    During the recent solar minimum, solar activity reached the lowest levels observed during the space age, resulting in a contracted atmosphere. This extremely low solar activity provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the variability of the Earth's ambient ionosphere. The average E x B drifts measured by the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) on the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite during this period are found to have several differences from the expected climatology based on previous solar minima, including downward drifts in the early afternoon and a weak to nonexistent pre-reversal enhancement. Using SAMI2 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere) as a computational engine, we investigate the effects of these electrodynamical changes as well as the contraction of the thermosphere and reduced EUV ionization on the ionosphere. The sensitivity of the simulations to wind models is also discussed. These modeled ionospheres are compared to the C/NOFS average topside ion density and composition and Formosa Satellite-3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate average NmF2 and hmF2. In all cases, incorporating the VEFI drift data significantly improves the model results when compared to both the C/NOFS density data and the F3/C GOX data. Changing the MSIS and EUVAC models produced changes in magnitude, but not morphology with respect to local time. The choice of wind model modulates the resulting topside density and composition, but only the use of the VEFI E x B drifts produces the observed post-sunset drop in the F peak.

  7. STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE 2009 JULY 22 ECLIPSE WHITE-LIGHT CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.; Druckmuellerova, H. E-mail: bryce.a.babcock@williams.edu E-mail: msaniga@ta3.sk

    2011-11-20

    The white-light corona (WLC) during the total solar eclipse of 2009 July 22 was observed by several teams in the Moon's shadow stretching from India and China across the Pacific Ocean with its many isolated islands. We present a comparison of the WLC as observed by eclipse teams located in China (Shanghai region) and on the Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, with observations taken 112 minutes apart, combined with near-simultaneous space observations. The eclipse was observed at the beginning of solar cycle 24, during a deep solar minimum (officially estimated as 2008 December according to the smoothed sunspot number, but very extended). The solar corona shows several different types of features (coronal holes, polar rays, helmet streamers, faint loops, voids, etc.), though it was extremely sparse in streamers as shown from Large-Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph data. No large-scale dynamical phenomena were seen when comparing the observations from the two sites, confirming that the corona was quiescent. We measure a Ludendorff flattening coefficient of 0.238, typical of solar minimum.

  8. Diagnostics of the solar corona from comparison between Faraday rotation measurements and magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Le Chat, G.; Cohen, O.; Kasper, J. C.; Spangler, S. R.

    2014-07-10

    Polarized natural radio sources passing behind the Sun experience Faraday rotation as a consequence of the electron density and magnetic field strength in coronal plasma. Since Faraday rotation is proportional to the product of the density and the component of the magnetic field along the line of sight of the observer, a model is required to interpret the observations and infer coronal structures. Faraday rotation observations have been compared with relatively ad hoc models of the corona. Here for the first time we compare these observations with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the solar corona driven by measurements of the photospheric magnetic field. We use observations made with the NRAO Very Large Array of 34 polarized radio sources occulted by the solar corona between 5 and 14 solar radii. The measurements were made during 1997 May, and 2005 March and April. We compare the observed Faraday rotation values with values extracted from MHD steady-state simulations of the solar corona. We find that (1) using a synoptic map of the solar magnetic field just one Carrington rotation off produces poorer agreements, meaning that the outer corona changes in the course of one month, even in solar minimum; (2) global MHD models of the solar corona driven by photospheric magnetic field measurements are generally able to reproduce Faraday rotation observations; and (3) some sources show significant disagreement between the model and the observations, which appears to be a function of the proximity of the line of sight to the large-scale heliospheric current sheet.

  9. Possible impacts of a descent into a Grand Solar Minimum on extratropical regional surface climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maycock, A. C.; Ineson, S.; Gray, L. J.; Scaife, A. A.; Lockwood, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Sun's output varies on a number of characteristic timescales, the most well-known of which is the approximately 11-year solar cycle. It has been shown that the Sun also exhibits cycles with a period of ~200 years, so-called Grand Solar Cycles. Reconstructions indicate that levels of solar activity have been relatively high for the past ~70 years, and it has been suggested that the Sun might be expected to evolve towards a state of lower output; however, the timescale and extent of such a 'Grand Solar Minimum' event is highly uncertain. This study presents sensitivity experiments with a state-of-the-art climate model to investigate the impact of reaching very low levels of solar output, similar to those thought to have occurred during the Maunder Minimum, by the middle of the 21st century. We investigate the effect of uncertainties in spectral solar irradiance by using both the semi-empirical model of Lean et al., which gives a relatively modest change in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region and is commonly used to represent solar variability in climate models, as well as the recent measurements from the SORCE satellite, which suggest a much larger change in the UV across the solar cycle for the period 2004-07. Under the assumption of there being a large change in the UV derived from a linear extrapolation of the SORCE data, it is shown that a period of very low solar activity would be associated with a more negative North Atlantic Oscillation index. This signature in the large-scale circulation is associated with changes in regional surface climate, including cooler temperatures across the UK and western Europe. In the experiment which assumes a smaller change in UV irradiance, the extratropical circulation responses in the stratosphere and troposphere are found to be of a consistent sign but smaller in magnitude. This highlights the importance of one possible mechanism for solar-climate interactions, namely the impact of tropical upper stratospheric heating on extratropical stratospheric winds and the annular modes. As expected, changes in global-mean surface temperature are small in both sets of experiments, meaning that such a change in solar activity would have little effect on any greenhouse gas induced global warming.

  10. Protein corona of nanoparticles: distinct proteins regulate the cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Sandra; Schöttler, Susanne; Kotman, Niklas; Baier, Grit; Musyanovych, Anna; Kuharev, Jörg; Landfester, Katharina; Schild, Hansjörg; Jahn, Olaf; Tenzer, Stefan; Mailänder, Volker

    2015-04-13

    Understanding nanoparticle-protein interactions is a crucial issue in the development of targeted nanomaterial delivery. Besides unraveling the composition of the nanoparticle's protein coronas, distinct proteins thereof could control nanoparticle uptake into specific cell types. Here we differentially analyzed the protein corona composition on four polymeric differently functionalized nanoparticles by label-free quantitative mass spectrometry. Next, we correlated the relative abundance of identified proteins in the corona with enhanced or decreased cellular uptake of nanoparticles into human cancer and bone marrow stem cells to identify key candidates. Finally, we verified these candidate proteins by artificially decorating nanoparticles with individual proteins showing that nanoparticles precoated with the apolipoproteins ApoA4 or ApoC3 significantly decreased the cellular uptake, whereas precoating with ApoH increased the cellular uptake. PMID:25794196

  11. The Peculiar Solar Minimum 23/24 Revealed by the Microwave Butterfly Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Yashiro, Seiji; Makela, Pertti; Shibasaki, Kiyoto; Hathaway, David

    2010-01-01

    The diminished polar magnetic field strength during the minimum between cycles 23 and 24 is also reflected in the thermal radio emission originating from the polar chromosphere. During solar minima, the polar corona has extended coronal holes containing intense unipolar flux. In microwave images, the coronal holes appear bright, with a brightness enhancement of 500 to 2000 K with respect to the quiet Sun. The brightness enhancement corresponds to the upper chromosphere, where the plasma temperature is approx.10000 K. We constructed a microwave butterfly diagram using the synoptic images obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph (NoRH) showing the evolution of the polar and low latitude brightness temperature. While the polar brightness reveals the chromospheric conditions, the low latitude brightness is attributed to active regions in the corona. When we compared the microwave butterfly diagram with the magnetic butterfly diagram, we found a good correlation between the microwave brightness enhancement and the polar field strength. The microwave butterfly diagram covers part of solar cycle 22, whole of cycle 23, and part of cycle 24, thus enabling comparison between the cycle 23/24 and cycle 22/23 minima. The microwave brightness during the cycle 23/24 minimum was found to be lower than that during the cycle 22/23 minimum by approx.250 K. The reduced brightness temperature is consistent with the reduced polar field strength during the cycle 23/24 minimum seen in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We suggest that the microwave brightness at the solar poles is a good indicator of the speed of the solar wind sampled by Ulysses at high latitudes..

  12. Performance of the IRI-2007 Model for Topside Ion Density and Composition Profiles During the 23/24 Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenzing, J. H.; Simoes, F.; Ivanov, S.; Pfaff, R. F.; Rowland, D. E.; Bilitza, D.; Heelis, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    The recent solar minimum between cycles 23 and 24 was unusually extended and deep, resulting in an ionosphere that is significantly different from that expected based on previous solar minima. The ion density and composition estimates from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite are used to evaluate the performance of the IRI-2007 model between 400 and 850 kIn altitude in equatorial regions. The current model is shown to typically overestimate the expected topside density of 0+ and underestimate the density of H+ during 2008 and 2009. The overestimation of ion density by IRI-2007 is found to vary with local time and longitude.

  13. Measurement of Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Spectrum at Solar Minimum with a Long-Duration Balloon Flight in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E. S.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons (p(raised bar)'s) collected by the BESS-Polar II instrument during a long-duration flight over Antarctica in the solar minimum period of December 2007 through January 2008. The p(raised bar) spectrum measured by BESS-Polar II shows good consistency with secondary p(raised bar) calculations. Cosmologically primary p(raised bar)'s have been searched for by comparing the observed and calculated p(raised bar) spectra. The BESSPolar II result shows no evidence of primary p(raised bar)'s originating from the evaporation of PBH.

  14. Measurement of cosmic-ray antiproton spectrum at solar minimum with a long-duration balloon flight in Antarctica

    E-print Network

    Abe, K; Haino, S; Hams, T; Hasegawa, M; Horikoshi, A; Kim, K C; Kusumoto, A; Lee, M H; Makida, Y; Matsuda, S; Matsukawa, Y; Mitchell, J W; Nishimura, J; Nozaki, M; Orito, R; Ormes, J F; Sakai, K; Sasaki, M; Seo, E S; Shinoda, R; Streitmatter, R E; Suzuki, J; Tanaka, K; Thakur, N; Yamagami, T; Yamamoto, A; Yoshida, T; Yoshimura, K

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons has been measured in the range 0.17 to 3.5 GeV, based on 7886 antiprotons collected by the BESS-Polar II instrument during a long-duration flight over Antarctica in the solar minimum period of December 2007 through January 2008. The antiproton spectrum measured by BESS-Polar II shows good consistency with secondary antiproton calculations. Cosmologically primary antiprotons have been searched for by comparing the observed and calculated antiproton spectra. The BESS-Polar II result shows no evidence of primary antiprotons originating from the evaporation of PBH.

  15. Measurement of comic-ray antiproton spectrum at solar minimum with the BESS-Polar II flight in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Yamamoto, A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K.C.; Kumazawal, T.; Lee, M.H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Moiseev, A.A.; Meyers, Z.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J.F.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E.S.; Shikaze, Y.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Suzuki, J.; Takasugi, Y.; Takeuchi, K.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.; Yamagami, T.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshimura, K.

    A long-duration balloon flight in Antarctica at solarminum, in 2007 -2008 was performed to measure low-energy antiproton spetrum in galactic cosmic radiation, studying elemenary particle phenomena in early universe, and to search for novel cosmological primary antiproton sources. More than 8000 antiproton events were detected at an altitude level of 36 km, for a period of 24.5 days. It corresponds to 10 -20 times the statistics in previous flights at solar minimum period of 1995 -1997. In this paper, progress in the data analysis will be reported.

  16. Measurement of the Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Spectrum at Solar Minimum with a Long-Duration Balloon Flight over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E. S.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.

    2012-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons (p-bar's) from 0.17 to 3.5 GeV has been measured using 7886 p-bar's detected by BESS-Polar II during a long-duration flight over Antarctica near solar minimum in December 2007 and January 2008. This shows good consistency with secondary p-bar calculations. Cosmologically primary p-bar's have been investigated by comparing measured and calculated p-bar spectra. BESS-Polar II data.show no evidence of primary p-bar's from the evaporation of primordial black holes.

  17. Disease specific protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  18. DECLINE AND RECOVERY OF THE INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD DURING THE PROTRACTED SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Charles W.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; DeForest, Craig E. E-mail: N.Schwadron@unh.edu

    2013-09-20

    The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is determined by the amount of solar magnetic flux that passes through the top of the solar corona into the heliosphere, and by the dynamical evolution of that flux. Recently, it has been argued that the total flux of the IMF evolves over the solar cycle due to a combination of flux that extends well outside of 1 AU and is associated with the solar wind, and additionally, transient flux associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In addition to the CME eruption rate, there are three fundamental processes involving conversion of magnetic flux (from transient to wind-associated), disconnection, and interchange reconnection that control the levels of each form of magnetic flux in the interplanetary medium. This is distinct from some earlier models in which the wind-associated component remains steady across the solar cycle. We apply the model of Schwadron et al. that quantifies the sources, interchange, and losses of magnetic flux to 50 yr of interplanetary data as represented by the Omni2 data set using the sunspot number as a proxy for the CME eruption rate. We do justify the use of that proxy substitution. We find very good agreement between the predicted and observed interplanetary magnetic flux. In the absence of sufficient CME eruptions, the IMF falls on the timescale of ?6 yr. A key result is that rising toroidal flux resulting from CME eruption predates the increase in wind-associated IMF.

  19. The Sun's X-ray Emission During the Recent Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Mirek; Gburek, Szymon; Siarkowski, Marek; Kuzin, Sergey; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.

    2010-02-01

    The Sun recently underwent a period of a remarkable lack of major activity such as large flares and sunspots, without equal since the advent of the space age a half century ago. A widely used measure of solar activity is the amount of solar soft X-ray emission, but until recently this has been below the threshold of the X-ray-monitoring Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). There is thus an urgent need for more sensitive instrumentation to record solar X-ray emission in this range. Anticipating this need, a highly sensitive spectrophotometer called Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) was included in the solar telescope/spectrometer TESIS instrument package on the third spacecraft in Russia's Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun (CORONAS-PHOTON) program, launched 30 January 2009 into a near-polar orbit. SphinX measures X-rays in a band similar to the GOES longer-wavelength channel.

  20. Chromospheric Signatures of the Subdued Cycle 23/24 Solar Minimum in Microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yashiro, S.; Makela, P.; Shibasaki, K.; Hathaway, D.

    2011-01-01

    Coronal holes appear brighter than the quiet Sun in microwave images, with a brightness enhancement of 500 to 2000 K. The brightness enhancement corresponds to the upper chromosphere, where the plasma temperature is about 10000 K. We constructed a microwave butterfly diagram using the synoptic images obtained by the Nobeyama radio-heliograph (NoRH) showing the evolution of the polar and low latitude brightness temperature. While the polar brightness reveals the chromospheric conditions, the low latitude brightness is attributed to active regions in the corona. When we compared the microwave butterfly diagram with the magnetic butterfly diagram, we found a good correlation between the microwave brightness enhancement and the polar field strength. The microwave butterfly diagram covers part of solar cycle 22, whole of cycle 23, and part of cycle 24, thus enabling comparison between the cycle 23/24 and cycle 22/23 minima. The microwave brightness during the cycle 23/24 minimum was found to be lower than that during the cycle 22/23 minimum by approx.250 K. The reduced brightness temperature is consistent with the reduced polar field strength during the cycle 23/24 minimum seen in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We suggest that the microwave brightness at the solar poles is a good indicator of the speed of the solar wind sampled by Ulysses at high latitudes.

  1. Polar Chromospheric Signatures of the Subdued Cycle 23/24 Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.; Makela, P.; Shibasaki, K.; Hathaway, D.

    2010-01-01

    Coronal holes appear brighter than the quiet Sun in microwave images, with a brightness enhancement of 500 to 2000 K. The brightness enhancement corresponds to the upper chromosphere, where the plasma temperature is about 10000 K. We constructed a microwave butterfly diagram using the synoptic images obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph (NoRH) showing the evolution of the polar and low latitude brightness temperature. While the polar brightness reveals the chromospheric conditions, the low latitude brightness is attributed to active regions in the corona. When we compared the microwave butterfly diagram with the magnetic butterfly diagram, we found a good correlation between the microwave brightness enhancement and the polar field strength. The microwave butterfly diagram covers part of solar cycle 22, whole of cycle 23, and part of cycle 24, thus enabling comparison between the cycle 23/24 and cycle 22/23 minima. The microwave brightness during the cycle 23/24 minimum was found to be lower than that during the cycle 22/23 minimum by approximately 250 K. The reduced brightness temperature is consistent with the reduced polar field strength during the cycle 23/24 minimum seen in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We suggest that the microwave brightness at the solar poles is a good indicator of the speed of the solar wind sampled by Ulysses at high latitudes.

  2. Climatology of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere over Brazil during solar minimum of solar cycle 23/24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoli Candido, C. M.; Batista, I. S.; Santos, A.

    2012-12-01

    We present a study of the Brazilian equatorial and low latitude ionosphere during the solar minimum of the solar cycle 23 and the initial phase of solar cycle 24. We analyzed data from ground-based sounding with digisondes at two equatorial sites, São Luís (44.2° W, 2.33° S, dip angle: -6.9°) and Fortaleza (38.45°W, 3.9° S, dip angle: -16°) and at a low latitude site Cachoeira Paulista (22.4° S, 45° W, dip angle: -37°). The plasma densities and the F-layer heights presented values lower than the previous solar minimum of solar cycle 22/23. The spread-F occurrence was investigated and revealed some distinct features such as the occurrence of abnormal spread-F signatures in ionograms associated with post-midnight irregularities. In the equatorial region, it was observed significant decreases in the plasma densities during nighttime hours lasting for several hours with no-echoes in ionograms. We present a statistic study of the plasma irregularities occurrence as well as some examples of unusual signatures of spread-F/plasma irregularities observed in ionograms.

  3. The shape of the Venusian bow shock at solar minimum and maximum: Revisit based on VEX observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Lican; Lu, Quanming; Mazelle, Christian; Huang, Can; Zhang, Tielong; Wu, Mingyu; Gao, Xinliang; Wang, Shui

    2015-05-01

    Several factors control the bow shock position at Venus, including short-term period responses (solar wind dynamic pressure) and long-term period variations (solar activity). Based on Venus Express (VEX) observations, we revisit the influence of solar activity on the Venusian bow shock location, by accurately determining not only the shock terminator distance but also the subsolar point with a three-parameter fit (TPF) method. At the same time, VEX covers a larger range of solar zenith angles (SZA) at the Venusian bow shock (from about 10 to 135 degrees) than the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) spacecraft. Fitting results display that the Venusian bow shock is farther away from Venus at solar maximum than at solar minimum. The subsolar stand-off distance increases from 1.364 planetary radii at solar minimum to 1.459RV at solar maximum, while the terminator shock distance changes from 2.087RV to 2.146RV. Inspection of the bow shock and the induced magnetosphere boundary (IMB) locations clearly shows a positive correlation for every orbit, while the average bow shock location is not responsive to changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure.

  4. The causal relationship between plasma bubbles and blobs in the low-latitude F region during a solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kil, Hyosub; Kwak, Young-Sil; Lee, Woo Kyoung; Miller, Ethan S.; Oh, Seung-Jun; Choi, Ho-Sung

    2015-05-01

    Plasma density depletions (bubbles) and enhancements (blobs) with respect to the background ionosphere occur at night in the low-latitude F region. Those phenomena are understood to be either causally linked or independent. The idea of the causal relationship between bubbles and blobs is on the basis of the observations of them in the same longitude. However, the occurrence of bubbles and blobs in the same longitude can also be just a coincidence. We investigate causal linkage of bubbles and blobs using the measurements of the ion density on 5 days in June 2008 and April 2009 by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System and CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload satellites. The observations during the solar minimum show that blobs occur in broader longitudes than do bubbles and occur in any longitudes regardless of the existence of bubbles. These observations indicate that a significant portion of blobs are not associated with bubbles. Even if some blobs are associated with bubbles, those blobs are indistinguishable from those produced by other sources. Therefore, the observations of bubbles and blobs at the same longitudes do not warrant their causal relationship. The independent behavior of bubbles and blobs rather indicates that their occurrences in the same longitudes are mostly coincidences. Considering the frequent occurrence of blobs near midnight, June solstice, and the solar minimum, medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances are likely the major source of blobs. This idea is supported by the observations of blobs with the ionospheric disturbances in broad longitudes and latitudes.

  5. Terrestrial exospheric hydrogen density distributions under solar minimum and solar maximum conditions observed by the TWINS stereo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoennchen, J. H.; Nass, U.; Fahr, H. J.

    2015-03-01

    Circumterrestrial Lyman-? column brightness observations above 3 Earth radii (Re) have been used to derive separate 3-D neutral hydrogen density models of the Earth's exosphere for solar minimum (2008, 2010) and near-solar-maximum (2012) conditions. The data used were measured by Lyman-? detectors (LAD1/2) onboard each of the TWINS satellites from very different orbital positions with respect to the exosphere. Exospheric H atoms resonantly scatter the near-line-center solar Lyman-? flux at 121.6 nm. Assuming optically thin conditions above 3Re along a line of sight (LOS), the scattered LOS-column intensity is proportional to the LOS H-column density. We found significant differences in the density distribution of the terrestrial exosphere under different solar conditions. Under solar maximum conditions we found higher H densities and a larger spatial extension compared to solar minimum. After a continuous, 2-month decrease in (27 day averaged) solar activity, significantly lower densities were found. Differences in shape and orientation of the exosphere under different solar conditions exist. Above 3 Re, independent of solar activity, increased H densities appear on the Earth's nightside shifted towards dawn. With increasing distance (as measured at 8Re) this feature is shifted westward/duskward by between -4 and -5° with respect to midnight. Thus, at larger geocentric distance the exosphere seems to be aligned with the aberrated Earth-solar-wind line, defined by the solar wind velocity and the orbital velocity of the Earth. The results presented in this paper are valid for geocentric distances between 3 and 8Re.

  6. The impact of helium on thermosphere mass density response to geomagnetic activity during the recent solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, J. P.; Liu, X.; Lei, J.; Pilinski, M.; Burns, A. G.

    2012-07-01

    High-resolution mass density observations inferred from accelerometer measurements on the CHAMP and GRACE satellites are employed to investigate the thermosphere mass density response with latitude and altitude to geomagnetic activity during the recent solar minimum. Coplanar orbital periods in February 2007 and December 2008 revealed the altitude and latitude response in thermosphere mass density for their respective winter hemispheres was influenced by the relative amount of helium and oxygen present. The CHAMP-to-GRACE (C/G) mass density ratio depends on two terms; the first proportional to the ratio of the mean molecular weight to temperature and the second proportional to the vertical gradient of the logarithmic mean molecular weight. For the relative levels of helium and oxygen in February 2007, the winter hemisphere C/G mass density response to geomagnetic activity, although similar to the summer hemisphere, was caused predominantly by changes in the vertical gradient of the logarithmic mean molecular weight. In December 2008, the significant presence of helium caused the mean molecular weight changes to exceed temperature changes in the winter hemisphere leading to an increase in the C/G ratio with increasing geomagnetic activity, in opposition to the decrease observed in the summer hemisphere that was caused primarily by temperature changes. The observed behavior is indicative of composition effects influencing the mass density response and the dynamic action of the oxygen to helium transition region in both latitude and altitude will lead to complex behaviors in the mass density at GRACE altitudes throughout the extended solar minimum from 2007 to 2010.

  7. Westward traveling planetary wave events in the lower thermosphere during solar minimum conditions simulated by SD-WACCM-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, Fabrizio; Liu, Han-Li

    2014-11-01

    We present numerical simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, eXtended version (WACCM-X), whose dynamics is constrained by atmospheric specifications during recent and historical solar minimum conditions. The focus of this study is to describe how various dynamical conditions of boreal winter affect the dynamical behavior of the lower thermosphere (90-150 km). The model simulations are carried out during solar minimum conditions and the results shown here discuss the period January 1-March 30 for five years (1995, 1996, 2008, 2009, and 2010). These years were selected because they include boreal winters without stratospheric warming (1995 and 1996), with modest or normal stratospheric warming (2008 and 2010), and with a large and persistent stratospheric warming (2009). The ultimate goal of this study is to encapsulate the statistically significant dynamical behavior due to westward propagating, planetary-scale waves (wavenumber 1 and wavenumber 2) in the lower thermosphere that are associated with different stratospheric conditions. To this end we show that the westward zonal acceleration above about 80 km is by and large described by traveling waves with periods between 2 and 10 days. We show that the momentum carried by these waves is unlikely to affect directly the momentum budget of the extra-tropical lower thermosphere, where instead gravity-wave drag figures prominently. However, at the times leading to and following large stratospheric disturbances, we show prominent meridional propagation of wave activity from the mid-latitudes toward the tropics. In combination with strong eastward meridional wind shear, our results provide further evidence that such equatorward propagation of momentum in the lower thermosphere might influence the amplitude of equatorially trapped tides.

  8. Modeling the Line-of-Sight Integrated Emission in the Corona: Implications for Coronal Heating

    E-print Network

    Viall, Nicholeen M

    2013-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in all of space science is uncovering how the solar corona is heated to temperatures greater than 1 MK. Though studied for decades, one of the major difficulties in solving this problem has been unraveling the line-of-sight (LOS) effects in the observations. The corona is optically thin, so a single pixel measures counts from an indeterminate number (perhaps tens of thousands) of independently heated flux tubes, all along that pixel's LOS. In this paper we model the emission in individual pixels imaging the active region corona in the Extreme Ultraviolet. If LOS effects are not properly taken into account, erroneous conclusions regarding both coronal heating and coronal dynamics may be reached. We model the corona as a LOS integration of many thousands of completely independently heated flux tubes. We demonstrate that despite the superposition of randomly heated flux tubes, nanoflares leave distinct signatures in light curves observed with multi-wavelength and high time cadence...

  9. Exploring the prominence-corona connection and its expansion into the outer corona using total solar eclipse observations

    SciTech Connect

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Morgan, Huw; Druckmüller, Miloslav

    2014-10-01

    Prominences constitute the most complex magnetic structures in the solar corona. The ubiquitous presence of their seemingly confined dense and cool plasma in an otherwise million-degree environment remains a puzzle. Using a decade of white light total solar eclipse observations, we show how these images reveal an intricate relationship between prominences and coronal structures both in their immediate vicinity, known as coronal cavities, and in the extended corona out to several solar radii. Observations of suspended prominences and twisted helical structures spanning several solar radii are central to these findings. The different manifestations of the prominence-corona interface that emerge from this study underscore the fundamental role played by prominences in defining and controlling the complex expansion and dynamic behavior of the solar magnetic field in the neighborhood of magnetic polarity reversal regions. This study suggests that the unraveling of prominences and the outward expansion of the helical twisted field lines linked to them could be the solar origin of twisted magnetic flux ropes detected in interplanetary space, and of the mechanism by which the Sun sheds its magnetic helicity. This work also underscores the likely role of the prominence-corona interface as a source of the slow solar wind.

  10. Ion temperature and density relationships measured by CINDI from the C/NOFS spacecraft during solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.; Hairston, M. R.; Earle, G. D.; Perdue, M. D.; Power, R. A.; Harmon, L. L.; Holt, B. J.; Lippincott, C. R.

    2010-02-01

    The Ion Velocity Meter (IVM), a part of the CINDI instrument package on board the C/NOFS spacecraft, makes in situ measurements of plasma temperature, composition, density, and velocity. The 16 April 2008 launch of C/NOFS coincided with the deepest solar minimum since the space age began with F10.7 cm radio fluxes in the 60-70 solar flux unit range. Because of the 13° inclination of the orbit the location of the perigee advances through all local times in about 66 days. This allows seasonal sampling of ionospheric temperature, density, and composition as a function of local time, magnetic latitude, and altitude. Measurements taken near the spacecraft's 402 km perigee altitude indicate an unusually cold low-density ionosphere with nighttime ion temperatures at the magnetic equator reaching as low as 600 K with an [O+]/[H+] ratio of 4 and maximum daytime temperatures of 1300 K. The O+ to H+ transition height is very low and at the highest altitudes measured H+ comprises over 75% of the ionospheric plasma at all local times. We compare average values of the measured parameters with those from the International Reference Ionosphere and with incoherent scatter radar measurements from Jicamarca.

  11. Observations of quiet time vertical ion drift in the equatorial ionosphere during the solar minimum period of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneback, R. A.; Heelis, R. A.; Burrell, A. G.; Coley, W. R.; Fejer, B. G.; Pacheco, E.

    2011-12-01

    The extended solar minimum conditions in 2008 and 2009 presented an opportunity to investigate the ionosphere at lower solar activity levels than previously observed. The Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) instrument onboard the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System is used to construct the median meridional (vertical) ion drifts, ion densities, and O+ concentrations during periods of low geomagnetic activity for four characteristic seasons each year spanning late 2008 to 2010. The presence of a large semidiurnal component in the ion drift variation at the equator produced significant differences from typical ionospheric conditions. Instead of upward drifts during the day and downward drifts at night, downward drifts in the afternoon and upward drifts near midnight are observed. This semidiurnal component is present in all seasons though it is strongest during the solstice seasons. It is shown that upward drifts at night correspond to regions with a high occurrence of postmidnight irregularities during the December 2008 and June 2009 solstices. A comparison with vertical ion drifts observed by the Jicamarca Radio Observatory supports the methodology used to extract meridional drifts from the IVM.

  12. Ion Temperature and Density Relationships Measured by CINDI from the C/NOFS Spacecraft During Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.; Hairston, M. R.; Earle, G. D.; Perdue, M. D.; Power, R. A.; Harmon, L. L.; Holt, B. J.; Lippincott, C. R.

    2008-12-01

    The Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) which is part of the CINDI instrument package on-board the C/NOFS spacecraft makes in-situ measurements of plasma temperature, composition, density, and velocity. The April 16, 2008 launch of C/NOFS coincided with the deepest solar minimum since the space age began with F10.7 cm radio fluxes in the 60-70 sfu range. Measurements taken near the spacecraftís 402 km perigee altitude indicate an unusually cold low-density ionosphere with nighttime ion temperatures at the magnetic equator reaching as low as 700 K with an [O+]/[H+] ratio of 3 and maximum daytime temperatures of 1400 K. Due to the 13° inclination of the orbit the location of the perigee advances through all local times in about 60 days. This allows seasonal sampling of ionospheric temperature, density, and composition as a function of local time, magnetic latitude, and altitude. We will present the average values of these parameters and discuss their differences from those seen under more typical conditions of solar activity.

  13. Climatology of the O+ temperatures over Arecibo for the historical deep solar minimum using Incoherent Scatter Radar and airglow data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, P. T.; Brum, C. G. M.; Kerr, R.; Noto, J.

    2014-12-01

    At Arecibo Observatory (AO) a comprehensive description of the ionosphere and thermosphere environment is achieved by the synergy between the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) and the optical instruments nested on site. An example of this synergy is present in his work where optical and radar techniques were reconciled in order to obtain the O+ temperature variability for 2008 and 2009. During this period, a historical deep solar minimum condition was registered with a remarkable absence of sunspots for a long period (translated into a decreasing in the EUV-UV irradiance). This particular feature implies in an important tool to investigate the variability of O+ temperature, once that any variation can be related to season (modulated by the neutral atmosphere) and/or another modulator different than solar energy input. The OII 7320 Å twilight airglow data used in this work were obtained during new moon periods using a high-spectral resolution Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) with CCD array detection. The FPI was configured with 0.9 cm plate spacing, which produced a free spectral range of 0.298Å and a spectral resolution of 0.03Å, sufficient to sample line width temperatures as low as 500K. A very narrow 3Å Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) three-cavity interference filter was also used.

  14. Climatologies of nighttime thermospheric winds and temperatures from Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements: From solar minimum to solar maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Daniel J.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Meriwether, John W.; Buriti, Ricardo A.; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Kaab, Mohamed; Lagheryeb, Amine

    2015-08-01

    We present a climatology of quiet time thermospheric winds and temperatures estimated from high-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of the 630.0 nm airglow emission spectral line shape. Three locations are examined in this long-term study: northeastern Brazil (August 2009 to August 2014), a midlatitude site in North Carolina, USA (June 2011 to December 2014), and a midlatitude site in Morocco (November 2013 to December 2014). We discuss the day-to-day, seasonal, and solar cycle trends and variations of thermospheric meridional winds, zonal winds, neutral temperatures, and for the first time vertical winds. Observations made from solar minimum to solar maximum (with F10.7 values ranging from ˜70 to ˜159 solar flux units) confirm that neutral temperatures have a strong solar cycle dependence. However, this data set shows that the neutral winds are more closely tied to the seasonal variation, rather than the solar cycle. We also present comparisons between the two midlatitude sites and include neutral wind comparisons to the updated Horizontal Wind Model 14.

  15. Galactic Cosmic Rays and Lunar Secondary Particles from Solar Minimum to Maximum: CRaTER Observations and Geant4 Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Blake, J. B.; Spence, H. E.; Schwadron, N.; Golightly, M. J.; Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission was launched in 2009 during the recent deep and extended solar minimum, with the highest galactic cosmic ray (GCR) fluxes observed since the beginning of the space era. Its Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) instrument was designed to measure the spectra of energy deposits in silicon detectors shielded behind pieces of tissue equivalent plastic, simulating the self-shielding provided by an astronaut's body around radiation-sensitive organs. The CRaTER data set now covers the evolution of the GCR environment near the moon during the first five years of development of the present solar cycle. We will present these observations, along with Geant4 modeling to illustrate the varying particle contributions to the energy-deposit spectra. CRaTER has also measured protons traveling up from the lunar surface after their creation during GCR interactions with surface material, and we will report observations and modeling of the energy and angular distributions of these "albedo" protons.

  16. Inferring the Structure of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere During the Maunder Minimum Using Global Thermodynamic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Pete; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Cliver, Ed; Balogh, Andre; Beer, Jürg; Charbonneau, Paul; Crooker, Nancy; DeRosa, Marc; Lockwood, Mike; Owens, Matt; McCracken, Ken; Usoskin, Ilya; Koutchmy, S.

    2015-04-01

    Observations of the Sun’s corona during the space era have led to a picture of relatively constant, but cyclically varying solar output and structure. Longer-term, more indirect measurements, such as from 10Be, coupled by other albeit less reliable contemporaneous reports, however, suggest periods of significant departure from this standard. The Maunder Minimum was one such epoch where: (1) sunspots effectively disappeared for long intervals during a 70 yr period; (2) eclipse observations suggested the distinct lack of a visible K-corona but possible appearance of the F-corona; (3) reports of aurora were notably reduced; and (4) cosmic ray intensities at Earth were inferred to be substantially higher. Using a global thermodynamic MHD model, we have constructed a range of possible coronal configurations for the Maunder Minimum period and compared their predictions with these limited observational constraints. We conclude that the most likely state of the corona during—at least—the later portion of the Maunder Minimum was not merely that of the 2008/2009 solar minimum, as has been suggested recently, but rather a state devoid of any large-scale structure, driven by a photospheric field composed of only ephemeral regions, and likely substantially reduced in strength. Moreover, we suggest that the Sun evolved from a 2008/2009-like configuration at the start of the Maunder Minimum toward an ephemeral-only configuration by the end of it, supporting a prediction that we may be on the cusp of a new grand solar minimum.

  17. Modeling the Climatology of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles at Solar Minimum Using Plasma Drifts Observed by C/NOFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retterer, J. M.; Su, Y.; Gentile, L. C.; de La Beaujardiere, O.; Stoneback, R. A.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of the C/NOFS (Communication and Navigation Outage Forecast System) project is to further our understanding of the processes in the low-latitude ionosphere that lead to radio scintillation that can interfere with operational systems. Because the height of the F-layer of the ionospheric plasma at night largely controls whether scintillation occurs, the vertical plasma drift is a key parameter among the several quantities the C/NOFS satellite was instrumented to measure in predicting whether scintillation occurs or not. Based on the operation of the C/NOFS IVM Ion Driftmeter and VEFI Electric Field Instrument over the two years since its launch, a climatological model of the vertical plasma drift has been obtained using long-term averages of the measurements. These drifts have been used in PBMOD, the first-principles model of the low-latitude ionosphere, bubble formation, and scintillation developed for the C/NOFS program, to see whether these drifts are in accord with observations of these phenomena. The DMSP satellites, in circular near-polar orbits around 840 km altitude, occasionally observe depletions in plasma density when they cross the geomagnetic equator in the evening and dawn sectors. Statistics for the frequency of observation of these depletions have been collected over the period of the C/NOFS mission. Recall that this period was a remarkably low and extended solar minimum, and the pattern of scintillation occurrence then is notably different from the standard paradigm of post-sunset occurrence. We will present maps of the frequency of occurrence of depletions, calculated with the models using the C/NOFS drift climatology, as a function of season and longitude, and compare the results with DMSP and other observations.

  18. A plasma protein corona enhances the biocompatibility of Au@Fe3O4 Janus particles.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Lisa; Christner, Carolin; Storck, Wiebke; Schick, Isabel; Krumbein, Ines; Dähring, Heidi; Haedicke, Katja; Heinz-Herrmann, Karl; Teichgräber, Ulf; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tenzer, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    Au@Fe3O4 Janus particles (JPs) are heteroparticles with discrete domains defined by different materials. Their tunable composition and morphology confer multimodal and versatile capabilities for use as contrast agents and drug carriers in future medicine. Au@Fe3O4 JPs have colloidal properties and surface characteristics leading to interactions with proteins in biological fluids. The resulting protein adsorption layer ("protein corona") critically affects their interaction with living matter. Although Au@Fe3O4 JPs displayed good biocompatibility in a standardized in vitro situation, an in-depth characterization of the protein corona is of prime importance to unravel underlying mechanisms affecting their pathophysiology and biodistribution in vitro and in vivo. Here, we comparatively analyzed the human plasma corona of Au-thiol@Fe3O4-SiO2-PEG JPs (NH2-functionalized and non-functionalized) and spherical magnetite (Fe3O4-SiO2-PEG) particles and investigated its effects on colloidal stability, biocompatibility and cellular uptake. Label-free quantitative proteomic analyses revealed that complex coronas including almost 180 different proteins were formed within only one minute. Remarkably, in contrast to spherical magnetite particles with surface NH2 groups, the Janus structure prevented aggregation and the adhesion of opsonins. This resulted in an enhanced biocompatibility of corona sheathed JPs compared to spherical magnetite particles and corona-free JPs. PMID:26276693

  19. PULSE ENERGIZATION IN THE TUFT CORONA REGIME OF NEGATIVE CORONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses pulse energization in the tuft corona regime of negative corona. Fabric filtration, with integral particle charging and collection in a combined electric and flow field, is sensitive to maldistribution of current among bags energized by one power source, espec...

  20. Coronae on stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, B. M.

    1986-01-01

    Three lines of evidence are noted to point to a flare heating source for stellar coronae: a strong correlation between time-averaged flare energy release and coronal X-ray luminosity, the high temperature flare-like component of the spectral signature of coronal X-ray emission, and the observed short time scale variability that indicates continuous flare activity. It is presently suggested that flares may represent only the extreme high energy tail of a continuous distribution of coronal energy release events.

  1. Accretion disk coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N. E.; Holt, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observations of partial X-ray eclipses from 4U1822-37 have shown that the central X-ray source in this system is diffused by a large Compton-thick accretion disk corona (ADC). Another binary, 4U2129-47, also displays a partial eclipse and contains an ADC. The possible origin of an ADC is discussed and a simple hydrostatic evaporated ADC model is developed which, when applied to 4U1822-37, 4U2129+47 and Cyg X-3, can explain their temporal and spectral properties. The quasi-sinusoidal modulation of all three sources can be reconciled with the partial occultation of the ADC by a bulge at the edge of the accretion disk which is caused by the inflowing material. The height of this bulge is an order of magnitude larger than the hydrostatic disk height and is the result of turbulence in the outer region of the disk. The spectral properties of all three sources can be understood in terms of Compton scattering of the original source spectrum by the ADC. Spectral variations with epoch in Cyg X-3 are probably caused by changes in the optical depth of the corona. A consequence of our model is that any accreting neutron star X-ray source in a semi-detached binary system which is close to its Eddington limit most likely contains an optically thick ADC.

  2. Ultraviolet corona detection sensor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; MATHERN

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of detecting electrical corona discharge phenomena in a space simulation chamber via emission of ultraviolet light was evaluated. A corona simulator, with a hemispherically capped point to plane electrode geometry, was used to generate corona glows over a wide range of pressure, voltage, current, electrode gap length and electrode point radius. Several ultraviolet detectors, including a copper cathode gas discharge tube and a UV enhanced silicon photodiode detector, were evaluated in the course of the spectral intensity measurements. The performance of both silicon target vidicons and silicon intensified target vidicons was evaluated analytically using the data generated by the spectroradiometer scans and the performance data supplied by the manufacturers.

  3. How mathematics helps unraveling the mystery behind somitogenesis

    E-print Network

    Feng, Peng

    How mathematics helps unraveling the mystery behind somitogenesis Peng Feng DEPARTMENT Mathematical Model How mathematics helps unraveling the mystery behind somitogenesis Peng Feng 2 / 37 #12 Delay Hopf Bifurcation With Discrete Delay How mathematics helps unraveling the mystery behind

  4. The Neutral Exosphere of the Earth Between Solar Minimum (2008-2010) and Solar Maximum (2012) Conditions Using Twins Lyman-Alpha Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, U.; Zoennchen, J.; Fahr, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The exospheric,neutral hydrogen (H) continuously appears as a source of Lyman-alpha resonance radiation at 121.5 nm. The process behind this is the resonant backscattering of solar Lyman-alpha radiation from exospheric hydrogen. Along a line of sight (LOS) above 3 Earth radii geocentric distance, the backscattered Lyman-alpha intensity is proportional to the H-column density (optically thin conditions). Based on a large number of LOSs the 3D exospheric H-density distribution is derived from exospheric Lyman-alpha observations. In the presented analysis we are using data from 2008-2010 (solar minimum) and 2012 (near solar maximum) from the Lyman-alpha detectors (LADs) on the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission to model the 3D hydrogen density distribution under different solar conditions. We discuss the methods, the datasets, a recalibration procedure, and present structural differences of the 3D exospheric H-density distributions at solar minimum (2008-2010) and near solar maximum (2012) above 3 Earth radii.

  5. Spectroscopic investigation of protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Poonam

    Nanotechnology has revolutionalized the landscape of modern science and technology, including materials, electronics, therapeutics, bioimaging, sensing, and the environment. Research in the past decade has examined the fate of nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo, as well as the interactions between nanoparticles and biological and ecosystems using primarily toxicological and ecotoxicological approaches. However, due to the versatility in the physical and physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, and due to the vast complexity of their hosting systems, the solubility, transformation, and biocompatibility of nanomaterials are still poorly understood. Nanotechnology has been undergoing tremendous development in recent decades, driven by realized perceived applications of nanomaterials in electronics, therapeutics, imaging, sensing, environmental remediation, and consumer products. Nanoparticles on entering the blood stream undergo an identity change, they become coated with proteins. There are different kind of proteins present in blood. Proteins compete for getting coated over the surface of nanoparticle and this whole entity of proteins coated over nanoparticle surface is called Protein Corona. Proteins tightly bound to the surface of nanoparticle form hard corona and the ones loosely bound on the outer surface form soft corona. This dissertation is aimed at spectroscopic investigation of Protein Corona. Chapter I of this dissertation offers a comprehensive review of the literature based on nanomaterials with the focus on carbon based nanomaterilas and introduction to Protein Corona. Chapter II is based different methods used for Graphene Synthesis,different types of defects and doping. In Chapter III influence of defects on Graphene Protein Corona was investigated. Chapter IV is based on the study of Apoptosis induced cell death by Gold and silver nanoparticles. In vitro study of effect of Protein Corona on toxicity of cells was done.

  6. STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE 2010 JULY 11 ECLIPSE WHITE-LIGHT CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.

    2011-06-20

    The white-light corona (WLC) during the total solar eclipse on 2010 July 11 was observed by several teams in the Moon's shadow stretching across the Pacific Ocean and a number of isolated islands. We present a comparison of the WLC as observed by eclipse teams located on the Tatakoto Atoll in French Polynesia and on Easter Island, 83 minutes later, combined with near-simultaneous space observations. The eclipse was observed at the beginning of the solar cycle, not long after solar minimum. Nevertheless, the solar corona shows a plethora of different features (coronal holes, helmet streamers, polar rays, very faint loops and radial-oriented thin streamers, a coronal mass ejection, and a puzzling 'curtain-like' object above the north pole). Comparing the observations from the two sites enables us to detect some dynamic phenomena. The eclipse observations are further compared with a hairy-ball model of the magnetic field and near-simultaneous images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, the Sun Watcher, using Active Pixel System Detector and Image Processing on ESA's PRoject for Onboard Autonomy, and the Naval Research Laboratory's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph on ESA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. The Ludendorff flattening coefficient is 0.156, matching the expected ellipticity of coronal isophotes at 2 Rs{sub un}, for this rising phase of the solar-activity cycle.

  7. A Determination of the North–South Heliospheric Magnetic Field Component from Inner Corona Closed-loop Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Yu, H.-S.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Zhao, X.

    2015-04-01

    A component of the magnetic field measured in situ near the Earth in the solar wind is present from north–south fields from the low solar corona. Using the Current-sheet Source Surface model, these fields can be extrapolated upward from near the solar surface to 1 AU. Global velocities inferred from a combination of interplanetary scintillation observations matched to in situ velocities and densities provide the extrapolation to 1 AU assuming mass and mass flux conservation. The north–south field component is compared with the same ACE in situ magnetic field component—the Normal (Radial Tangential Normal) Bn coordinate—for three years throughout the solar minimum of the current solar cycle. We find a significant positive correlation throughout this period between this method of determining the Bn field compared with in situ measurements. Given this result from a study during the latest solar minimum, this indicates that a small fraction of the low-coronal Bn component flux regularly escapes from closed field regions. The prospects for Space Weather, where the knowledge of a Bz field at Earth is important for its geomagnetic field effects, is also now enhanced. This is because the Bn field provides the major portion of the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric Bz field coordinate that couples most closely to the Earth’s geomagnetic field.

  8. Kinetic description of the 3D electromagnetic structures formation in flows of expanding plasma coronas. Part 1: General

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubchenko, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    In part I of the work, the physical effects responsible for the formation of low-speed flows in plasma coronas, coupled with formation of coronas magnetosphere-like structures, are described qualitatively. Coronal domain structures form if we neglect scales of spatial plasma dispersion: high-speed flows are accumulated in magnetic tubes of the open domains, while magnetic structures and low-speed flows are concentrated within boundaries of domains. The inductive electromagnetic process occurring in flows of the hot collisionless plasma is shown to underlie the formation of magnetosphere-like structures. Depending on the form of the velocity distribution function of particles (PDF), a hot flow differently reveals its electromagnetic properties, which are expressed by the induction of resistive and diamagnetic scales of spatial dispersion. These determine the magnetic structure scales and structure reconstruction. The inductive electromagnetic process located in lines of the plasma nontransparency and absorption, in which the structures of excited fields are spatially aperiodic and skinned to the magnetic field sources. The toroidal and dipole magnetic sources of different configurations are considered for describing the corona structures during the solar maximum and solar minimum.

  9. Insights into Corona Formation Through Statistical Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L. S.; Stofan, E. R.; Smrekar, S. E.; Baloga, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    Statistical analysis of an expanded database of coronae on Venus indicates that the populations of Type 1 (with fracture annuli) and 2 (without fracture annuli) corona diameters are statistically indistinguishable, and therefore we have no basis for assuming different formation mechanisms. Analysis of the topography and diameters of coronae shows that coronae that are depressions, rimmed depressions, and domes tend to be significantly smaller than those that are plateaus, rimmed plateaus, or domes with surrounding rims. This is consistent with the model of Smrekar and Stofan and inconsistent with predictions of the spreading drop model of Koch and Munga. The diameter range for domes, the initial stage of corona formation, provides a broad constraint on the buoyancy of corona-forming plumes. Coronae are only slightly more likely to be topographically raised than depressions, with Type 1 coronae most frequently occurring as rimmed depressions and Type 2 coronae most frequently occurring with flat interiors and raised rims. Most Type 1 coronae are located along chasmata systems or fracture belts, while Type 2 coronae are found predominantly as isolated features in the plains. Coronae at hot spot rises tend to be significantly lager than coronae in other settings, consistent with a hotter upper mantle at hot spot rises and their active state.

  10. Insights into Corona Formation through Statistical Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L. S.; Stofan, E. R.; Smrekar, S. E.; Baloga, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    Statistical analysis of an expanded database of coronae on Venus indicates that the populations of Type 1 (with fracture annuli) and 2 (without fracture annuli) corona diameters are statistically indistinguishable, and therefore we have no basis for assuming different formation mechanisms. Analysis of the topography and diameters of coronae shows that coronae that are depressions, rimmed depressions, and domes tend to be significantly smaller than those that are plateaus, rimmed plateaus, or domes with surrounding rims. This is consistent with the model of Smrekar and Stofan and inconsistent with predictions of the spreading drop model of Koch and Manga. The diameter range for domes, the initial stage of corona formation, provides a broad constraint on the buoyancy of corona-forming plumes. Coronae are only slightly more likely to be topographically raised than depressions, with Type 1 coronae most frequently occurring as rimmed depressions and Type 2 coronae most frequently occuring with flat interiors and raised rims. Most Type 1 coronae are located along chasmata systems or fracture belts, while Type 2 coronas are found predominantly as isolated features in the plains. Coronae at hotspot rises tend to be significantly larger than coronae in other settings, consistent with a hotter upper mantle at hotspot rises and their active state.

  11. Laplacian State Transfer in Coronas

    E-print Network

    Ethan Ackelsberg; Zachary Brehm; Ada Chan; Joshua Mundinger; Christino Tamon

    2015-08-22

    We prove that the corona product of two graphs has no Laplacian perfect state transfer whenever the first graph has at least two vertices. This complements a result of Coutinho and Liu who showed that no tree of size greater than two has Laplacian perfect state transfer. In contrast, we prove that the corona product of two graphs exhibits Laplacian pretty good state transfer, under some mild conditions. This provides the first known examples of families of graphs with Laplacian pretty good state transfer. Our result extends of the work of Fan and Godsil on double stars to the Laplacian setting. Moreover, we also show that the corona product of any cocktail party graph with a single vertex graph has Laplacian pretty good state transfer, even though odd cocktail party graphs have no perfect state transfer.

  12. The H Corona of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Michael Scott

    The atmosphere of every planet is surrounded by a tenuous cloud of hydrogen gas, referred to as a hydrogen corona. At Mars, a substantial fraction of the H present in the corona is moving fast enough to escape the planet's gravity, permanently removing H from the Martian atmosphere. Because this H is ultimately derived from lower atmospheric water, loss of H from Mars is capable of drying and oxidizing the planet over geologic time. Understanding the processes that supply the H corona and control its escape is therefore essential for a complete understanding of the climate history of Mars and for assessing its habitability. In this thesis, I present the most complete analysis of the H corona ever attempted, surveying eight years of data gathered by the ultraviolet spectrograph SPICAM on Mars Express. Using a coupled radiative transfer and physical density model, I interpret brightness measurements of the corona in terms of escape rates of H from the planet, uncovering an order-of-magnitude variability in the H escape rate never before detected. These variations are interpreted using a completely new photochemical model of the atmosphere, demonstrating that newly discovered high altitude water vapor layers are sufficient to produce the observed variation. Finally, I present first results of the SPICAM successor instrument IUVS, an imaging ultraviolet spectrograph carried by NASA's MAVEN spacecraft. IUVS measurements are producing the most complete dataset ever gathered for the Martian H corona, enabling supply and loss processes to be assessed in more complete detail than ever before. This dataset will allow present-day loss rates to be extrapolated into the past, determining the absolute amount of water Mars has lost to space over the course of its history. Planets the size of Mars may be common throughout the universe; the work of this thesis is one step toward assessing the habitability of such planets in general.

  13. Short-Term Variations of Cosmic-Ray Intensity During the Recent Deep Solar Minimum and the Previous Four Solar Minima: A Wavelet Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Y. P.; Badruddin

    2015-10-01

    The recent, unusual solar cycle and solar minima between Cycles 23 and 24 have been studied extensively. Wavelet analysis of hourly cosmic-ray intensity during the last five solar minima reveals a number of short-term variations with few temporal shifts in the periods. This study suggests that deviations with a one-solar-rotation period and its harmonics are small during the recent minimum. However, deviations are considerably larger during the other minima. Analysis also demonstrates that the behavior of active regions is nearly the same during the minima of Cycles 19, 20, 21, and 22. The results also suggest that regions outside the streamer stalk are significantly larger in the recent solar minimum as opposed to the other minima.

  14. Climatological study of the daytime occurrence of the 3-meter EEJ plasma irregularities over Jicamarca close to the solar minimum (2007 and 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guizelli, L. M.; Denardini, C. M.; Moro, J.; Resende, L. C. A.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed algorithms for conducting a seasonal statistical study of the occurrence of plasma irregularities in the Peruvian sector as a function of height and local time, covering two years of data (2007 and 2008) close to the solar minimum. This study was performed based on radar measurements carried out at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO), which is located in Lima-Peru (11.57°S, 76.52°W, dip: 2°N), under the magnetic equator. The statistical analysis runs over daily Range Time Intensity (RTI) maps obtained with the radar operating in the Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Investigations of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere (JULIA) mode. Our results revealed relevant features of the diurnal variation of the plasma irregularities embedded in the equatorial electrojet, such as: a more often occurring presence of the 3-m irregularities during equinox, and a descent of the scattering profile in the morning hours, followed by its ascent in the afternoon.

  15. Backtracking Membrane Systems Unravel Stable Oscillations in

    E-print Network

    Hinze, Thomas

    Backtracking Membrane Systems Unravel Stable Oscillations in Distributed Reaction Networks Thomas of membrane systems [11] towards an underly- ing backtracking mechanism able to explore the nature example: membrane division membrane merge complex decomposition molecular transport formation complex

  16. MODELING THE LINE-OF-SIGHT INTEGRATED EMISSION IN THE CORONA: IMPLICATIONS FOR CORONAL HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Viall, Nicholeen M.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2013-07-10

    One of the outstanding problems in all of space science is uncovering how the solar corona is heated to temperatures greater than 1 MK. Though studied for decades, one of the major difficulties in solving this problem has been unraveling the line-of-sight (LOS) effects in the observations. The corona is optically thin, so a single pixel measures counts from an indeterminate number (perhaps tens of thousands) of independently heated flux tubes, all along that pixel's LOS. In this paper we model the emission in individual pixels imaging the active region corona in the extreme ultraviolet. If LOS effects are not properly taken into account, erroneous conclusions regarding both coronal heating and coronal dynamics may be reached. We model the corona as an LOS integration of many thousands of completely independently heated flux tubes. We demonstrate that despite the superposition of randomly heated flux tubes, nanoflares leave distinct signatures in light curves observed with multi-wavelength and high time cadence data, such as those data taken with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. These signatures are readily detected with the time-lag analysis technique of Viall and Klimchuk in 2012. Steady coronal heating leaves a different and equally distinct signature that is also revealed by the technique.

  17. Radiation Measured with Different Dosimeters for ISS-Expedition 18-19/ULF2 on Board International Space Station during Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Dazhuang; Gaza, R.; Roed, Y.; Semones, E.; Lee, K.; Steenburgh, R.; Johnson, S.; Flanders, J.; Zapp, N.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation field of particles in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly composed of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in SAA (South Atlantic Anomaly). GCR are modulated by solar activity, at the period of solar minimum activity, GCR intensity is at maximum and the main contributor for space radiation is GCR. At present for space radiation measurements conducted by JSC (Johnson Space Center) SRAG (Space Radiation Analysis Group), the preferred active dosimeter sensitive to all LET (Linear Energy Transfer) is the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC); the preferred passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) sensitive to low LET as well as CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) sensitive to high LET. For the method using passive dosimeters, radiation quantities for all LET can be obtained by combining radiation results measured with TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs. TEPC, TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 detectors were used to measure the radiation field for the ISS (International Space Station) - Expedition 18-19/ULF2 space mission which was conducted from 15 November 2008 to 31 July 2009 - near the period of the recent solar minimum activity. LET spectra (differential and integral fluence, absorbed dose and dose equivalent) and radiation quantities were measured for positions TEPC, TESS (Temporary Sleeping Station, inside the polyethylene lined sleep station), SM-P 327 and 442 (Service Module - Panel 327 and 442). This paper presents radiation LET spectra measured with TEPC and CR-39 PNTDs and radiation dose measured with TLDs/OSLDs as well as the radiation quantities combined from results measured with passive dosimeters.

  18. Statistical study of the night-time F-layer dynamics at the magnetic equator in West Africa during the solar minimum period 1995-1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoh, K. S.; Adohi, B. J.-P.; Coulibaly, I. S.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Kobea, A. T.; Assamoi, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the night-time equatorial F-layer height behaviour at Korhogo (9.2° N, 5° W; 2.4° S dip lat), Ivory Coast, in the West African sector during the solar minimum period 1995-1997. The data were collected from quarter-hourly ionograms of an Ionospheric Prediction Service (IPS) 42-type vertical sounder. The main focus of this work was to study the seasonal changes in the F-layer height and to clarify the equinox transition process recently evidenced at Korhogo during 1995, the year of declining solar flux activity. The F-layer height was found to vary strongly with time, with up to three main phases. The night-to-night variability of these morphological phases was then analysed. The early post-sunset slow rise, commonly associated with rapid chemical recombination processes in the bottom part of the F layer, remained featureless and was observed regardless of the date. By contrast, the following event, either presented like the post-sunset height peak associated with the evening E × B drift, or was delayed to the midnight sector, thus involving another mechanism. The statistical analysis of the occurrence of these events throughout the solar minimum period 1995-1997 revealed two main F-layer height patterns, each characteristic of a specific season. The one with the post-sunset height peak was associated with the northern winter period, whereas the other, with the midnight height peak, characterized the northern summer period. The transition process from one pattern to the other took place during the equinox periods and was found to last only a few weeks. We discuss these results in the light of earlier works.

  19. LABORATORY ANALYSES OF CORONA DISCHARGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an experimental research program to characterize corona generation from different electrode geometries in a range of conditions comparable to those found in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A wire-parallel plate device and a wire-cylinder device were used t...

  20. Corona Discharge Influences Ozone Concentrations Near Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Gaither, Kari A.; Anantatmula, Shantha M.; Mong, Gary M.; Sasser, Lyle B.; Lessor, Delbert L.

    2004-02-26

    Ozone is produced by corona discharge in air. Its production is enhanced near grounded water. Whether grounded animals behave like grounded water, producing more ozone was investigated. Rats were exposed to corona discharge in a plastic cage. The concentration of ozone in the gas phase was monitored. The ozone concentration exceeded ambient levels only in the presence of corona discharge and either rats or water. When water or rats were exposed to corona discharge, ozone levels were more than 10 times higher than controls. Ozone levels increased rapidly with applied voltage. There was also a correlation between the distance of the corona needle to the rats and the amount of ozone produced. As the distance increased, ozone production decreased. These results are discussed in relation to the potential exposure of mammals to ozone in the vicinity of corona discharge and electric fields.

  1. Corona discharge of Titan's troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-González, Rafael; Ramírez, Sandra I.

    1997-05-01

    The atmosphere of Titan is constantly bombarded by galactic cosmic rays and Saturnian magnetospheric electrons causing the formation of free electrons and primary ions, which are then stabilized by ion cluster formation and charging of aerosols. These charged particles accumulate in drops in cloud regions of the troposphere. Their abundance can substantially increase by friction, fragmentation or collisions during convective activity. Charge separation occurs with help of convection and gravitational settling leading to development of electric fields within the cloud and between the cloud and the ground. Neutralization of these charge particles leads to corona discharges which are characterized by low current densities. These electric discharges could induce a number of chemical reactions in the troposphere and hence it is of interest to explore such effects. We have therefore, experimentally studied the corona discharge of a simulated Titan's atmosphere (10% methane and 2% argon in nitrogen) at 500 Torr and 298 K by GC-FTIR-MS techniques. The main products have been identified as hydrocarbons (ethane, ethyne, ethene, propane, propene + propyne, cyclopropane, butane, 2-methylpropane, 2-methylpropene, n-butene, 2-butene, 2,2-dimethylpropane, 2-methylbutane, 2-methylbutene, n-pentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, n-hexane, 2,2-dimethylhexane, 2,2-dimethylpentane, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, 2,3-dimethylpentane and n-heptane), nitriles (hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen, ethanenitrile, propanenitrile, 2-methylpropanenitrile and butanenitrile) and an uncharacterized film deposit. We present their trends of formation as a function of discharge time in an ample interval and have derived their initial yields of formation. These results clearly demonstrate that a complex organic chemistry can be initiated by corona processes in the lower atmosphere. Although photochemistry and charged particle chemistry occurring in the stratosphere can account for many of the observed hydrocarbon species in Titan, the predicted abundance of ethene is to low by a factor of 10 to 40. While some ethene will be produced by charged-particle chemistry, its production by corona processes and subsequent diffusion into the stratosphere appears to be an adequate source. Because little UV penetrates to the lower atmosphere to destroy the molecules formed there, the corona-produced species may be long-lived and contribute significantly to the composition of the lower atmosphere and surface.

  2. Early Results from the LRO Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) During this Historic Solar Minimum (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, H. E.; Kasper, J. C.; Golightly, M. J.; Blake, J. B.; Mazur, J. E.; Townsend, L. W.; Case, A. W.; Looper, M. D.; Larsen, B. A.; Stubbs, T. J.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Semones, E.; Onsager, T. G.; Huang, C.; Jordan, A.

    2009-12-01

    We describe early results from a new instrument, the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), which is providing measurements of energetic particles while in orbit around the Moon onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. CRaTER measures the effects of ionizing energy loss in matter due to penetrating solar energetic protons (SEP) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), specifically in six silicon solid-state detectors and after interactions with tissue-equivalent plastic (TEP), a synthetic analog of human tissue. The CRaTER investigation quantifies the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum in these materials through direct measurements with the lunar space radiation environment, particularly the interactions of ions with energies above 10 MeV. Combined with models of radiation transport through materials, CRaTER LET measurements constrain models of the biological effects of ionizing radiation in the lunar environment as well as provide valuable information on radiation effects on electronic systems in deep space. In addition to these human exploration goals, CRaTER measurement capabilities provide new insights on the spatial and temporal variability of the SEP and GCR populations and their interactions with the lunar surface. We present an overview of the CRaTER instrument, its exploration and science goals, and early results from flight observations obtained since LRO’s launch in June 2009 until present, an interesting interval during this historic solar minimum accompanied by record high GCR intensity.

  3. EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR CORONA DURING THE MINIMUM BETWEEN SOLAR CYCLES 23 AND 24

    SciTech Connect

    Nuevo, Federico A.; Vasquez, Alberto M.; Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Jin Meng

    2013-08-10

    The combination of differential emission measure tomography with extrapolation of the photospheric magnetic field allows determination of the electron density and electron temperature along individual magnetic field lines. This is especially useful in quiet-Sun (QS) plasmas where individual loops cannot otherwise be identified. In Paper I, this approach was applied to study QS plasmas during Carrington rotation (CR) 2077 at the minimum between solar cycles (SCs) 23 and 24. In that work, two types of QS coronal loops were identified: ''up'' loops in which the temperature increases with height, and ''down'' loops in which the temperature decreases with height. While the first ones were expected, the latter ones were a surprise and, furthermore, were found to be ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. In the present work, we extend the analysis to 11 CRs around the last solar minimum. We found that the ''down'' population, always located at low latitudes, was maximum at the time when the sunspot number was minimum, and the number of down loops systematically increased during the declining phase of SC-23 and diminished during the rising phase of SC-24. ''Down'' loops are found to have systematically larger values of {beta} than do ''up'' loops. These discoveries are interpreted in terms of excitation of Alfven waves in the photosphere, and mode conversion and damping in the low corona.

  4. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOEpatents

    Rohwein, Gerald J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil.

  5. Inverted Temperature Loops in The Quiet Corona: Properties and Physical Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; van der Holst, B.; Frazin, R. A.; Nuevo, F.; Vásquez, A. M.; Manchester, W.; Sokolov, I.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2013-12-01

    Huang et al. 2012 revealed the existence of inverted temperature ("down") loops, in which temperature decreases with height, as well as the usual ("up") loops, in which the temperature increases with height, in the quiet solar Corona. It was shown that the "down" loops are mostly located at low latitudes and "up" loops most often appear in high latitudes. A recent study by Nuevo et al. 2013 confirmed this discovery and further showed that the "down" loop population is greatest at solar minimum; and strongly decreases with solar activity. Moreover, the "down" loops were found to be associated with values of the plasma beta greater than about unity, while the "up" loops were associated with much smaller values of beta. Here, we review the properties of "up" and "down" loops, and employ a state-of-the-art global MHD model to understand the physics of these loops as well as to investigate their thermodynamic stability. The 3D MHD model uses a phenomenological wave dissipation model based on wave reflection (proportional to the Alfvén speed gradients) and turbulent dissipation.

  6. Parga Chasma: Coronae and Rifting on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Stofan, E. R.; Buck, W. R.; Martin, P.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of coronae (quasicircular volcano-tectonic features) are found along rifts or fracture belts, and the majority of rifts have coronae [e.g. 1,2]. However, the relationship between coronae and rifts remains unclear [3-6]. There is evidence that coronae can form before, after, or synchronously with rifts [3,4]. The extensional fractures in the rift zones have been proposed to be a result of broad scale upwelling and traction on the lower lithosphere [7]. However, not all rift systems have a significant positive geoid anomaly, as would be expected for an upwelling site [8]. This could be explained if the rifts lacking anomalies are no longer active. Coronae are generally accepted to be sites of local upwelling [e.g. 1], but the observed rifting is frequently not radial to the coronae and extends well beyond the coronae into the surrounding plains. Thus the question remains as to whether the rifts represent regional extension, perhaps driven by mantle tractions, or if the coronae themselves create local thinning and extension of the lithosphere. In the first case, a regional extension model should be consistent with the observed characteristics of the rifts. In the latter case, a model of lithospheric loading and fracturing would be more appropriate. A good analogy may be the propagation of oceanic intraplate volcanoes [9].

  7. System reliability analysis through corona testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Mueller, L. A.; Koutnik, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    A corona vacuum test facility for nondestructive testing of power system components was built in the Reliability and Quality Engineering Test Laboratories at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The facility was developed to simulate operating temperature and vacuum while monitoring corona discharges with residual gases. The facility is being used to test various high-voltage power system components.

  8. HEATING OF CHROMOSPHERES AND CORONAE P. ULMSCHNEIDER

    E-print Network

    Ulmschneider, Peter

    HEATING OF CHROMOSPHERES AND CORONAE P. ULMSCHNEIDER Institut [iir Theoretische Astrophysik are produced by mechanical heating. The heating mechanisms of chromospheres and coronae, clas- sified- and DC-mechanisms for magnetic heating. Intense heating is usually associated with the formation of very

  9. Validation of Spherically Symmetric Inversion by Use of a Tomographically Reconstructed Three-Dimensional Electron Density of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the coronal electron density by the inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) measurements by coronagraphs is a classic problem in solar physics. An inversion technique based on the spherically symmetric geometry (spherically symmetric inversion, SSI) was developed in the 1950s and has been widely applied to interpret various observations. However, to date there is no study of the uncertainty estimation of this method. We here present the detailed assessment of this method using a three-dimensional (3D) electron density in the corona from 1.5 to 4 solar radius as a model, which is reconstructed by a tomography method from STEREO/COR1 observations during the solar minimum in February 2008 (Carrington Rotation, CR 2066).We first show in theory and observation that the spherically symmetric polynomial approximation (SSPA) method and the Van de Hulst inversion technique are equivalent. Then we assess the SSPA method using synthesized pB images from the 3D density model, and find that the SSPA density values are close to the model inputs for the streamer core near the plane of the sky (POS) with differences generally smaller than about a factor of two; the former has the lower peak but extends more in both longitudinal and latitudinal directions than the latter. We estimate that the SSPA method may resolve the coronal density structure near the POS with angular resolution in longitude of about 50 deg. Our results confirm the suggestion that the SSI method is applicable to the solar minimum streamer (belt), as stated in some previous studies. In addition, we demonstrate that the SSPA method can be used to reconstruct the 3D coronal density, roughly in agreement with the reconstruction by tomography for a period of low solar activity (CR 2066). We suggest that the SSI method is complementary to the 3D tomographic technique in some cases, given that the development of the latter is still an ongoing research effort.

  10. Variability of the ionospheric plasma density, NmF2, and of Total Electron Content, TEC, over equatorial and low latitude region in Brazil during solar minimum activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candido, Claudia; Batista, Inez S.; Negreti, Patricia M. S.; Klausner, Virginia

    The recent solar minimum period was unusually deep and prolonged, which opened a window to observe the ionospheric behavior under unprecedented low solar activity conditions. This work is part of a multi-instrumental effort to investigate the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere over Brazilian sector during low solar activity. We present a study of the ionospheric plasma densities variations through ionosondes measurements and dual frequency GPS receivers (L1= 1275.4 MHz, L2 = 1227.6 MHz) for two equatorial stations, Sao Luis (3° S, 45º W) e Fortaleza (4° S, 39.5° W), and for a station close to the south crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly region, Cachoeira Paulista (23º S, 45º W). From ionosondes we extract the plasma critical frequency foF2 which is related to F2 region peak electron density, NmF2, by the relationship: NmF2 = 1.24 x 104 (foF2)2, and the F2 layer peak height, hmF2. From GPS receivers we used the quantity VTEC (Vertical total electron content). We analyzed the seasonal and local time variations of NmF2 and VTEC, as well as the differences between two solar minima, 2008-2009 and 1996. We observe that the ionospheric plasma densities were lower in 2008-2009 than in 1996 for both regions. In addition, we observe that the lowest plasma densities persisted longer during 2008/2009 than in 1996, especially for nighttime periods. Finally, we applied the wavelet technique to investigate the impact of some distinct time scales drivers on the ionosphere, such as the wave activity from below that seems have been better observed and appreciated during this unusual solar quiescence.

  11. Effects of sporadic E-layer characteristics on spread-F generation in the nighttime ionosphere near a northern equatorial anomaly crest during solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. C.; Chen, W. S.

    2015-06-01

    This study is to know how the characteristics of sporadic E-layer (Es-layer) affect the generation of spread-F in the nighttime ionosphere near the crest of equatorial ionization anomaly during solar minimum. The data of Es-layer parameters and spread-F are obtained from the Chungli ionograms of 1996. The Es-layer parameters include foEs (critical frequency of Es-layer), fbEs (blanketing frequency of Es-layer), and ?f (?foEs-fbEs). Results show that the nighttime variations of foEs and fbEs medians (?f medians) are different from (similar to) that of the occurrence probabilities of spread-F. Because the total number of Es-layer events is greater than that of spread-F events, the comparison between the medians of Es-layer parameters and the occurrence probabilities of spread-F might have a shortfall. Further, we categorize the Es-layer and spread-F events into each frequency interval of Es-layer parameters. For the occurrence probabilities of spread-F versus foEs, an increasing trend is found in post-midnight of all three seasons. The increasing trend also exists in pre-midnight of the J-months and in post-midnight of all seasons, for the occurrence probabilities of spread-F versus ?f. These demonstrate that the spread-F occurrence increases with increasing foEs and/or ?f. Moreover, the increasing trends indicate that polarization electric fields generated in Es-layer assist to produce spread-F, through the electrodynamical coupling of Es-layer and F-region. Regarding the occurrence probabilities of spread-F versus fbEs, the significant trend only appears in post-midnight of the E-months. This implies that fbEs might not be a major factor for the spread-F formation.

  12. Climatology of the ionospheric slab thickness along the longitude of 120° E in China and its adjacent region during the solar minimum years of 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Yuan, H.

    2015-10-01

    The ionospheric slab thickness is defined as the ratio of the total electron content (TEC) to the ionospheric F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2). In this study, the slab thickness is determined by measuring the ionospheric TEC from dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) data and the NmF2 from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC). A statistical analysis of the diurnal, seasonal and spatial variation in the ionospheric slab thickness is presented along the longitude of 120° E in China and its adjacent region during the recent solar minimum phase (2007-2009). The diurnal ratio, defined as the maximum slab thickness to the minimum slab thickness, and the night-to-day ratio, defined as the slab thickness during daytime to the slab thickness during night-time, are both analysed. The results show that the TEC of the northern crest is greater in winter than in summer, whereas NmF2 is greater in summer than in winter. A pronounced peak of slab thickness occurs during the post-midnight (00:00-04:00 LT) period, when the peak electron density is at the lowest level. A large diurnal ratio exists at the equatorial ionization anomaly, and a large night-to-day ratio occurs near the equatorial latitudes and mid- to high latitudes. It is found that the behaviours of the slab thickness and the F2 peak altitude are well correlated at the latitudes of 30-50° N and during the period of 10:00-16:00 LT. This current study is useful for improvement of the regional model and accurate calculation of the signal delay of radio waves propagating through the ionosphere.

  13. Theoretical predictions for ion composition in the high-latitude winter F-region for solar minimum and low magnetic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sojka, J.J.; Raitt, W.J.; Schunk, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    We combined a simple plasma convection model with an ionospheric-atmospheric density model in order to study the ion composition in the high-latitude winter F-region at solar minimum for low geomagnetic activity. Our numerical study produced time-dependent, 3-dimensional, ion density distributions for the ions NO/sup +/, O/sub 2/ /sup +/, N/sub 2/ /sup +/, O/sup +/, N/sup +/, and He/sup +/. We covered the high-latitude ionosphere above 54/sup 0/N magnetic latitude and at altitudes between 160 and 800 km for a time period of 1 complete day. From our study we found the following (1) The ion composition exhibits a significant variation with latitude, local time, altitude, and universal time. (2) The variations of the ion composition with latitude and local time are in good agreement with the Atmosphere Explorer measurements both quantitatively and qualitatively. (3) At times and at certain locations the molecular ion density can be comparable to the O/sup +/ density at 300 km, and at 200 km the O/sup +/ density can be comparable to the molecular ion density. These results have important implications for the interpretation of incoherent scatter radar spectra obtained at high-latitudes. (4) Different ground-based observation sites should measure different diurnal variations in ion composition even if these sites are approximately at the same magnetic latitude owing to the UT response of the high-latitude ionosphere. (5) A satellite in a 300 km circular polar orbits should measure large orbit to orbit variations in both electron density and ion composition, again owing to the UT response of the polar ionosphere. (6) Erroneous conclusions can be drawn about ion density scale heights if the variations along the track of a satellite in a highly elliptical polar orbit are assumed to be only due to altitude variations.

  14. The protein corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes.

    PubMed

    Palchetti, Sara; Colapicchioni, Valentina; Digiacomo, Luca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Pozzi, Daniela; Capriotti, Anna Laura; La Barbera, Giorgia; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-02-01

    Following systemic administration, liposomes are covered by a 'corona' of proteins, and preserving the surface functionality is challenging. Coating the liposome surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the most widely used anti-opsonization strategy, but it cannot fully preclude protein adsorption. To date, protein binding has been studied following in vitro incubation to predict the fate of liposomes in vivo, while dynamic incubation mimicking in vivo conditions remains largely unexplored. The main aim of this investigation was to determine whether shear stress, produced by physiologically relevant dynamic flow, could influence the liposome-protein corona. The corona of circulating PEGylated liposome was thoroughly compared with that formed by incubation in vitro. Systematic comparison in terms of size, surface charge and quantitative composition was made by dynamic light scattering, microelectrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Size of coronas formed under static vs. dynamic incubation did not appreciably differ from each other. On the other side, the corona of circulating liposomes was more negatively charged than its static counterpart. Of note, the variety of protein species in the corona formed in a dynamic flow was significantly wider. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes can be considerably different from that formed in a static fluid. This seems to be a key factor to predict the biological activity of a liposomal formulation in a physiological environment. PMID:26607013

  15. Magnetohydrostatic modelling of stellar coronae

    E-print Network

    MacTaggart, David; Neukirch, Thomas; Donati, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    We introduce to the stellar physics community a method of modelling stellar coronae that can be considered to be an extension of the potential field. In this approach, the magnetic field is coupled to the background atmosphere. The model is magnetohydrostatic (MHS) and is a balance between the Lorentz force, the pressure gradient and gravity. Analytical solutions are possible and we consider a particular class of equilibria in this paper. The model contains two free parameters and the effects of these on both the geometry and topology of the coronal magnetic field are investigated. A demonstration of the approach is given using a magnetogram derived from Zeeman-Doppler imaging of the 0.75 M$_{\\odot}$ M-dwarf star GJ 182.

  16. Dynamics of the transition corona

    SciTech Connect

    Masson, Sophie; McCauley, Patrick; Golub, Leon; Reeves, Katharine K.; DeLuca, Edward E.

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic reconnection between the open and closed magnetic fields in the corona is believed to play a crucial role in the corona/heliosphere coupling. At large scale, the exchange of open/closed connectivity is expected to occur in pseudo-streamer (PS) structures. However, there is neither clear observational evidence of how such coupling occurs in PSs, nor evidence for how the magnetic reconnection evolves. Using a newly developed technique, we enhance the off-limb magnetic fine structures observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and identify a PS-like feature located close to the northern coronal hole. We first identify that the magnetic topology associated with the observation is a PS, null-point (NP) related topology bounded by the open field. By comparing the magnetic field configuration with the EUV emission regions, we determined that most of the magnetic flux associated with plasma emission are small loops below the PS basic NP and open field bounding the PS topology. In order to interpret the evolution of the PS, we referred to a three-dimensional MHD interchange reconnection modeling the exchange of connectivity between small closed loops and the open field. The observed PS fine structures follow the dynamics of the magnetic field before and after reconnecting at the NP obtained by the interchange model. Moreover, the pattern of the EUV plasma emission is the same as the shape of the expected plasma emission location derived from the simulation. These morphological and dynamical similarities between the PS observations and the results from the simulation strongly suggest that the evolution of the PS, and in particular the opening/closing of the field, occurs via interchange/slipping reconnection at the basic NP of the PS. Besides identifying the mechanism at work in the large-scale coupling between the open and closed fields, our results highlight that interchange reconnection in PSs is a gradual physical process that differs from the impulsive reconnection of the solar-jet model.

  17. Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Solar Corona

    E-print Network

    Del Zanna, Giulio

    of Central Lancashire July 1999 #12;Abstract New Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) observations of the solar corona of accuracy and completeness of the CHIANTI atomic database, used throughout this thesis, has allowed

  18. Venus - Mosaic of Bahet and Onatah Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This mosaic of Magellan data in the Fortuna region of Venus, centered at 49 degrees north latitude, 2 degrees longitude, shows two coronae. Coronae are large circular or oval structures first identified in Soviet radar images of Venus. The structure on the left, Bahet Corona, is about 230 kilometers (138 miles) long and 150 kilometers (90 miles) across. A portion of Onatah Corona, over 350 kilometers (210 miles) in diameter, can be seen on the right of the mosaic. Both features are surrounded by a ring of ridges and troughs, which in places cut more radially-oriented fractures. The centers of the features also contain radial fractures as well as volcanic domes and flows. Coronae are thought to form due to the upwelling of hot material from deep in the interior of Venus. The two coronae may have formed at the same time over a single upwelling, or may indicate movement of the upwelling or the upper layers of the planet to the west over time. A 'pancake' dome, similar to low-relief domes see in the southern hemisphere, is located just to the southwest of Bahet. Resolution of the Magellan data is about 120 meters (400 feet).

  19. Corona Associations and Their Implications for Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Zimbelman, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Geologic mapping principles were applied to determine genetic relations between coronae and surrounding geomorphologic features within two study areas in order to better understand venusian coronae. The study areas contain coronae in a cluster versus a contrasting chain and are (1) directly west of Phoebe Regio (quadrangle V-40; centered at latitude 15??S, longitude 250??) and (2) west of Asteria and Beta Regiones (between latitude 23??N, longitude 239?? and latitude 43??N, longitude 275??). Results of this research indicate two groups of coronae on Venus: (1) those that are older and nearly coeval with regional plains, and occur globally; and (2) those that are younger and occur between Beta, Atla, and Themis Regiones or along extensional rifts elsewhere, sometimes showing systematic age progressions. Mapping relations and Earth analogs suggest that older plains coronae may be related to a near-global resurfacing event perhaps initiated by a mantle superplume or plumes. Younger coronae of this study that show age progression may be related to (1) a tectonic junction of connecting rifts resulting from local mantle upwelling and spread of a quasi-stationary hotspot plume, and (2) localized spread of post-plains volcanism. We postulate that on Venus most of the young, post-resurfacing coronal plumes may be concentrated within an area defined by the bounds of Beta, Atla, and Themis Regiones. ?? 1998 Academic Press.

  20. Dynamics of the Transition Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, Sophie; McCauley, Patrick; Golub, Leon; Reeves, Katharine K.; DeLuca, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection between the open and closed magnetic fields in the corona is believed to play a crucial role in the corona/heliosphere coupling. At large scale, the exchange of open/closed connectivity is expected to occur in pseudo-streamer (PS) structures. However, there is neither clear observational evidence of how such coupling occurs in PSs, nor evidence for how the magnetic reconnection evolves. Using a newly developed technique, we enhance the off-limb magnetic fine structures observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and identify a PS-like feature located close to the northern coronal hole. We first identify that the magnetic topology associated with the observation is a PS, null-point (NP) related topology bounded by the open field. By comparing the magnetic field configuration with the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission regions, we determined that most of the magnetic flux associated with plasma emission are small loops below the PS basic NP and open field bounding the PS topology. In order to interpret the evolution of the PS, we referred to a three-dimensional MHD interchange reconnection modeling the exchange of connectivity between small closed loops and the open field. The observed PS fine structures follow the dynamics of the magnetic field before and after reconnecting at the NP obtained by the interchange model. Moreover, the pattern of the EUV plasma emission is the same as the shape of the expected plasma emission location derived from the simulation. These morphological and dynamical similarities between the PS observations and the results from the simulation strongly suggest that the evolution of the PS, and in particular the opening/closing of the field, occurs via interchange/slipping reconnection at the basic NP of the PS. Besides identifying the mechanism at work in the large-scale coupling between the open and closed fields, our results highlight that interchange reconnection in PSs is a gradual physical process that differs from the impulsive reconnection of the solar-jet model.

  1. Simulation of the Unusual Solar Minimum with 3D SIP-CESE MHD Model by Comparison with Multi-Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liping; Feng, Xueshang; Xiang, Changqing; Zhang, Shaohua; Wu, S. T.

    2011-07-01

    The observations both near the Sun and in the heliosphere during the activity minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24 exhibit different phenomena from those typical of the previous solar minima. In this paper, we have chosen Carrington rotation 2070 in 2008 to investigate the properties of the background solar wind by using the three-dimensional (3D) Solar-InterPlanetary Conservation Element/Solution Element Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We also study the effects of polar magnetic fields on the characteristics of the solar corona and the solar wind by conducting simulations with an axisymmetric polar flux added to the observed magnetic field. The numerical results are compared with the observations from multiple satellites, such as the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Ulysses, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), Wind and the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). The comparison demonstrates that the first simulation with the observed magnetic fields reproduces some observed peculiarities near the Sun, such as relatively small polar coronal holes, the presence of mid- and low-latitude holes, a tilted and warped current sheet, and the broad multiple streamers. The numerical results also capture the inconsistency between the locus of the minimum wind speed and the location of the heliospheric current sheet, and predict slightly slower and cooler polar streams with a relatively smaller latitudinal width, broad low-latitude intermediate-speed streams, and globally weak magnetic field and low density in the heliosphere. The second simulation with strengthened polar fields indicates that the weak polar fields in the current minimum play a crucial role in determining the states of the corona and the solar wind.

  2. Determination of vertical plasma drift and meridional wind using the Sheffield University Plasmasphere Ionosphere Model and ionospheric data at equatorial and low latitudes in Brazil: Summer solar minimum and maximum conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. R.; Abdu, M. A.; Batista, I. S.; Bailey, G. J.

    2000-06-01

    The F region critical frequency f0F2 and peak height hmF2, measured simultaneously at the equatorial location Fortaleza (4°S, 38°W, magneticlatitude=3.5°S) and at the low-latitude location Cachoeira Paulista (22°S, 45°W, magnetic latitude=15°S), are compared with their values calculated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model (SUPIM) to determine the vertical (E×B) drift velocity at the equator and the magnetic meridional wind velocity over the two locations. The calculated and observed values of f0F2 are then matched at both Fortaleza and Cachoeira Paulista to obtain the magnetic meridional winds over their respective conjugate locations. To account for the observed f0F2 diurnal variation pattern over Cachoeira Paulista, it was found necessary to include a small source of ionization, attributable to energetic particle precipitation in the South Atlantic anomaly region. The vertical drift velocity and magnetic meridional wind velocity derived for summer months during both solar minimum and solar maximum are compared with their values given by other published models. While the diurnal variation of the modeled vertical drift velocity shows general agreement with the values based on Jicamarca radar measurements (the exception being during the sunset-midnight period at solar maximum and between 2000-2300 LT at solar minimum), the magnetic meridional wind shows significant differences with respect to the Horizontal Wind Model 1990 (HWM90) [Hedin et al., 1991] during both solar minimum and solar maximum at Fortaleza and at locations conjugate to Fortaleza and Cachoeira Paulista.

  3. Unraveling flow patterns through nonlinear manifold learning.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Flavia; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    From climatology to biofluidics, the characterization of complex flows relies on computationally expensive kinematic and kinetic measurements. In addition, such big data are difficult to handle in real time, thereby hampering advancements in the area of flow control and distributed sensing. Here, we propose a novel framework for unsupervised characterization of flow patterns through nonlinear manifold learning. Specifically, we apply the isometric feature mapping (Isomap) to experimental video data of the wake past a circular cylinder from steady to turbulent flows. Without direct velocity measurements, we show that manifold topology is intrinsically related to flow regime and that Isomap global coordinates can unravel salient flow features. PMID:24614890

  4. Unraveling Flow Patterns through Nonlinear Manifold Learning

    PubMed Central

    Tauro, Flavia; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    From climatology to biofluidics, the characterization of complex flows relies on computationally expensive kinematic and kinetic measurements. In addition, such big data are difficult to handle in real time, thereby hampering advancements in the area of flow control and distributed sensing. Here, we propose a novel framework for unsupervised characterization of flow patterns through nonlinear manifold learning. Specifically, we apply the isometric feature mapping (Isomap) to experimental video data of the wake past a circular cylinder from steady to turbulent flows. Without direct velocity measurements, we show that manifold topology is intrinsically related to flow regime and that Isomap global coordinates can unravel salient flow features. PMID:24614890

  5. A Statistical Analysis of Corona Topography: New Insights into Corona Formation and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stofan, E. R.; Glaze, L. S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Baloga, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive mapping of the surface of Venus and continued analysis of Magellan data have allowed a more comprehensive survey of coronae to be conducted. Our updated corona database contains 514 features, an increase from the 326 coronae of the previous survey. We include a new set of 106 Type 2 or stealth coronae, which have a topographic rather than a fracture annulus. The large increase in the number of coronae over the 1992 survey results from several factors, including the use of the full Magellan data set and the addition of features identified as part of the systematic geologic mapping of Venus. Parameters of the population that we have analyzed to date include size and topography.

  6. Complementary analysis of the hard and soft protein corona: sample preparation critically effects corona composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winzen, S.; Schoettler, S.; Baier, G.; Rosenauer, C.; Mailaender, V.; Landfester, K.; Mohr, K.

    2015-02-01

    Here we demonstrate how a complementary analysis of nanocapsule-protein interactions with and without application media allows gaining insights into the so called hard and soft protein corona. We have investigated how both human plasma and individual proteins (human serum albumin (HSA), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I)) adsorb and interact with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) nanocapsules possessing different functionalities. To analyse the hard protein corona we used sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and a protein quantitation assay. No significant differences were observed with regards to the hard protein corona. For analysis of the soft protein corona we characterized the nanocapsule-protein interaction with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). DLS and ITC measurements revealed that a high amount of plasma proteins were adsorbed onto the capsules' surface. Although HSA was not detected in the hard protein corona, ITC measurements indicated the adsorption of an HSA amount similar to plasma with a low binding affinity and reaction heat. In contrast, only small amounts of ApoA-I protein adsorb to the capsules with high binding affinities. Through a comparison of these methods we have identified ApoA-I to be a component of the hard protein corona and HSA as a component of the soft corona. We demonstrate a pronounced difference in the protein corona observed depending on the type of characterization technique applied. As the biological identity of a particle is given by the protein corona it is crucial to use complementary characterization techniques to analyse different aspects of the protein corona.Here we demonstrate how a complementary analysis of nanocapsule-protein interactions with and without application media allows gaining insights into the so called hard and soft protein corona. We have investigated how both human plasma and individual proteins (human serum albumin (HSA), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I)) adsorb and interact with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) nanocapsules possessing different functionalities. To analyse the hard protein corona we used sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and a protein quantitation assay. No significant differences were observed with regards to the hard protein corona. For analysis of the soft protein corona we characterized the nanocapsule-protein interaction with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). DLS and ITC measurements revealed that a high amount of plasma proteins were adsorbed onto the capsules' surface. Although HSA was not detected in the hard protein corona, ITC measurements indicated the adsorption of an HSA amount similar to plasma with a low binding affinity and reaction heat. In contrast, only small amounts of ApoA-I protein adsorb to the capsules with high binding affinities. Through a comparison of these methods we have identified ApoA-I to be a component of the hard protein corona and HSA as a component of the soft corona. We demonstrate a pronounced difference in the protein corona observed depending on the type of characterization technique applied. As the biological identity of a particle is given by the protein corona it is crucial to use complementary characterization techniques to analyse different aspects of the protein corona. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Pierce 660 nm protein assay, ITC data evaluation, DLS data evaluation, autocorrelation functions of protein - HES capsule mixtures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05982d

  7. Interplanetary Fast Shocks and Associated Drivers Observed through the Twenty-Third Solar Minimum by WIND Over its First 2.5 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mariani, F.; Berdichevsky, D.; Szabo, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Vinas, A. F.

    1999-01-01

    A list of the interplanetary (IP) shocks observed by WIND from its launch (in November 1994) to May 1997 is presented. Forty two shocks were identified. The magnetohydrodynamic nature of the shocks is investigated, and the associated shock parameters and their uncertainties are accurately computed using a practical scheme which combines two techniques. These techniques are a combination of the "pre-averaged" magnetic-coplanarity, velocity-coplanarity, and the Abraham-Schrauner-mixed methods, on the one hand, and the Vinas and Scudder [1986] technique for solving the non-linear least-squares Rankine-Hugoniot shock equations, on the other. Within acceptable limits these two techniques generally gave the same results, with some exceptions. The reasons for the exceptions are discussed. It is found that the mean strength and rate of occurrence of the shocks appears to correlated with the solar cycle. Both showed a decrease in 1996 coincident with the time of the lowest ultraviolet solar radiance, indicative of solar minimum and start of solar cycle 23, which began around June 1996. Eighteen shocks appeared to be associated with corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The distribution of their shock normals showed a mean direction peaking in the ecliptic plane and with a longitude (phi(sub n)) in that plane between perpendicular to the Parker spiral and radial from the Sun. When grouped according to the sense of the direction of propagation of the shocks the mean azimuthal (longitude) angle in GSE coordinates was approximately 194 deg for the fast-forward and approximately 20 deg for the fast-reverse shocks. Another 16 shocks were determined to be driven by solar transients, including magnetic clouds. These shocks had a broader distribution of normal directions than those of the CIR cases with a mean direction close to the Sun-Earth line. Eight shocks of unknown origin had normal orientation well off the ecliptic plane. No shock propagated with longitude phi(sub n) >= 220 +/- 10 deg, this would suggest strong hindrance to the propagation of shocks contra a rather tightly winding Parker spiral. Examination of the obliquity angle theta(sub Bn) (that between the shock normal and the upstream interplanetary magnetic field) for the full set of shocks revealed that about 58% was quasi-perpendicular, and some were very nearly perpendicular. About 32% of the shocks were oblique, and the rest (only 10%) were quasi-parallel, with one on Dec. 9, 1996 that showed field pulsations. Small uncertainty in the estimated angle theta(sub Bn) was obtained for about 10 shocks with magnetosonic Mach numbers between 1 and 2, hopefully significantly contributing to studies researching particle acceleration mechanisms at IP shocks, and to investigations where accurate values of theta(sub Bn) are crucial.

  8. Complementary analysis of the hard and soft protein corona: sample preparation critically effects corona composition.

    PubMed

    Winzen, S; Schoettler, S; Baier, G; Rosenauer, C; Mailaender, V; Landfester, K; Mohr, K

    2015-02-21

    Here we demonstrate how a complementary analysis of nanocapsule-protein interactions with and without application media allows gaining insights into the so called hard and soft protein corona. We have investigated how both human plasma and individual proteins (human serum albumin (HSA), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I)) adsorb and interact with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) nanocapsules possessing different functionalities. To analyse the hard protein corona we used sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and a protein quantitation assay. No significant differences were observed with regards to the hard protein corona. For analysis of the soft protein corona we characterized the nanocapsule-protein interaction with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). DLS and ITC measurements revealed that a high amount of plasma proteins were adsorbed onto the capsules' surface. Although HSA was not detected in the hard protein corona, ITC measurements indicated the adsorption of an HSA amount similar to plasma with a low binding affinity and reaction heat. In contrast, only small amounts of ApoA-I protein adsorb to the capsules with high binding affinities. Through a comparison of these methods we have identified ApoA-I to be a component of the hard protein corona and HSA as a component of the soft corona. We demonstrate a pronounced difference in the protein corona observed depending on the type of characterization technique applied. As the biological identity of a particle is given by the protein corona it is crucial to use complementary characterization techniques to analyse different aspects of the protein corona. PMID:25599336

  9. Mapping the Solar Wind from its Source Region into the Outer Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esser, Ruth; Wagner, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The solar wind not only forms the space environment of Earth and other planets, but is also the cause of many phenomena observed in the Earth's atmosphere, such as aurorae. The expansion of the coronal plasma of the Sun is characteristic to many main sequence stars, and thus provides an example for understanding stellar winds as well. In spite of its importance for both space science and stellar physics, basic solar wind properties remain essentially unresolved. Since its discovery about 50 years ago, the complexity of the Sun corona - solar wind system has complicated the interpretation of observations. Recent progress in remote sensing observations as provided for example by YOHKOH, SOHO, SPARTAN and ULYSSES as well as some ground based techniques such as Interplanetary Scintillation observations, offer a compelling opportunity to unravel the 50 year old puzzle regarding the heat source or sources that cause the expansion of the solar corona. The new era of solar wind observations initiated by SOHO and ULYSSES, have also led to a wealth of new theoretical approaches. The goal of the proposed research was to carry out an integrated study of the coronal and solar wind plasma making use of the opportunities provided by the above spacecraft, as well as plasma emission calculations and new ideas on solar wind expansion theory.

  10. Coronas and iridescence in mountain wave clouds.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph A; Neiman, Paul J

    2003-01-20

    We use Fraunhofer diffraction theory and meterological data to determine the nature of cloud-particle distributions and the mean particle sizes required for interpreting photographs of coronas and iridescence in mountain wave clouds. Traditional descriptions of coronas and iridescence usually explain these optical phenomena as diffraction by droplets of liquid water. Our analysis shows that the photographed displays have mean particle sizes from 7.6 to 24.3 microm, with over half the cases requiring diffraction by small (approximatley 20 microm) quasispherical ice particles rather than liquid water droplets. Previous documentation of coronas produced by ice particles are limited to observations in cirrus clouds that appear to be composed of small ice crystals, whereas our observations suggest that coronas and iridescence quite often can be created by tiny quasispherical ice particles that might be unique to mountain wave clouds. Furthermore, we see that the dominant colors in mountain wave-cloud coronas are red and blue, rather than the traditionally described red and green. PMID:12570269

  11. Direct observation of laser guided corona discharges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Wei, Yingxia; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Liu, Yonghong; Ju, Jingjing; Sun, Haiyi; Wang, Cheng; Lu, Haihe; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-01-01

    Laser based lightning control holds a promising way to solve the problem of the long standing disaster of lightning strikes. But it is a challenging project due to insufficient understanding of the interaction between laser plasma channel and high voltage electric filed. In this work, a direct observation of laser guided corona discharge is reported. Laser filament guided streamer and leader types of corona discharges were observed. An enhanced ionization took place in the leader (filament) through the interaction with the high voltage discharging field. The fluorescence lifetime of laser filament guided corona discharge was measured to be several microseconds, which is 3 orders of magnitude longer than the fluorescence lifetime of laser filaments. This work could be advantageous towards a better understanding of laser assisted leader development in the atmosphere. PMID:26679271

  12. Direct observation of laser guided corona discharges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Wei, Yingxia; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Liu, Yonghong; Ju, Jingjing; Sun, Haiyi; Wang, Cheng; Lu, Haihe; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-01-01

    Laser based lightning control holds a promising way to solve the problem of the long standing disaster of lightning strikes. But it is a challenging project due to insufficient understanding of the interaction between laser plasma channel and high voltage electric filed. In this work, a direct observation of laser guided corona discharge is reported. Laser filament guided streamer and leader types of corona discharges were observed. An enhanced ionization took place in the leader (filament) through the interaction with the high voltage discharging field. The fluorescence lifetime of laser filament guided corona discharge was measured to be several microseconds, which is 3 orders of magnitude longer than the fluorescence lifetime of laser filaments. This work could be advantageous towards a better understanding of laser assisted leader development in the atmosphere. PMID:26679271

  13. Stellar Coronae: The First Twenty - Five Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2000-01-01

    Hot X-ray emitting coronae were detected on stars other than the Sun about twenty-five years ago. Within only a few years of the first detections, the Einstein Observatory had mapped out coronal activity across the HR diagram. These observations provided the foundations for a coarse theoretical understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for hot coronae on stars that has changed relatively little in the intervening years: plasma trapped in magnetic structures generated by dynamo processes somewhere beneath the photosphere is heated by as yet unidentified mechanisms that appear to transfer kinetic energy from underlying convective regions of the stellar envelope into the outer atmosphere. This review will describe the observational advances that have lead to some further theoretical understanding of stellar coronae, including the first results from high resolution X-ray spectroscopy obtained by Chandra and XMM-Newton, and will highlight the observational directions needed to make further progress.

  14. TRIANGLE-SHAPED DC CORONA DISCHARGE DEVICE FOR MOLECULAR DECOMPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the evaluation of electrostatic DC corona discharge devices for the application of molecular decomposition. A point-to-plane geometry corona device with a rectangular cross section demonstrated low decomposition efficiencies in earlier experimental work. The n...

  15. Hydrogen Coronae around Mars and Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröller, H.; Lichtenegger, H.; Lammer, H.; Shematovich, V. I.

    2015-10-01

    We present Monte-Carlo simulatios of the hydrogen corona around Mars and Venus for various possible photochemical sources of hot (energetic) hydrogen atoms. The aim of this study is to investigate those possible sources which may significantly contribute to the hydrogen corona and to compare the obtained densities with observations. The model includes the initial energy distribution of hot atoms, elastic, inelastic, and quenching collisions between the suprathermal atoms and the ambient cooler neutral atmosphere, and uses energy dependent total and differential cross sections for the determination of the collision probability and the scattering angles.

  16. Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge

    DOEpatents

    Gutsol, Alexander F. (San Ramon, CA); Fridman, Alexander (Marlton, NJ); Blank, Kenneth (Philadelphia, PA); Korobtsev, Sergey (Moscow, RU); Shiryaevsky, Valery (Moscow, RU); Medvedev, Dmitry (Moscow, RU)

    2012-05-08

    The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being used in the presence of conductive liquid droplets. The method and system can be used, for example, in different devices for cleaning of gaseous or liquid media using pulsed corona discharge. Specially designed electrodes and an inductor increase the efficiency of the system, permit the plasma chemical oxidation of detrimental impurities, and increase the range of stable discharge operations in the presence of droplets of water or other conductive liquids in the discharge chamber.

  17. Heating of the corona by magnetic singularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical models of current-sheet formation and magnetic heating in the solar corona are examined analytically. The role of photospheric connectivity in determining the topology of the coronal magnetic field and its equilibrium properties is explored; nonequilibrium models of current-sheet formation (assuming an initially well connected field) are described; and particular attention is given to models with discontinuous connectivity, where magnetic singularities arise from smooth footpoint motions. It is shown that current sheets arise from connectivities in which the photospheric flux structure is complex, with three or more polarity regions and a magnetic null point within the corona.

  18. Transient corona effects on a wire over the ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear EMP effect on VLF/trailing wire antennas is investigated in relation to new features of corona effects. Previous experimental results on transmission lines with corona under E 80 kV/cm recorded in the nanosecond time frame are analyzed. A nonlinear macroscopic model which describes a transmission line with corona is discussed. The model not only accounts for overall waveform, but also describes the sharp changes in the waveform associated with the corona onset.

  19. Double streamer phenomena in atmospheric pressure low frequency corona plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho

    2010-07-15

    Time-resolved images of an atmospheric pressure corona discharge, generated at 50 kHz in a single pin electrode source, show unique positive and negative corona discharge features: a streamer for the positive period and a glow for the negative period. However, unlike in previous reports of dc pulse and low frequency corona discharges, multistreamers were observed at the initial time stage of the positive corona. A possible physical mechanism for the multistreamers is suggested.

  20. Petrovay: Solar physics Chromosphere and corona THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    Petrovay: Solar physics Chromosphere and corona THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE Visible in eclipses as red brightness temperature at 10.7 cm: Tb 10 000 K. #12;Petrovay: Solar physics Chromosphere and corona Mean temperature profile: VAL model atmosphere, based on lines #12;Petrovay: Solar physics Chromosphere and corona

  1. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOEpatents

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  2. Unraveling the Miswired Connectome: A Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Di Martino, Adriana; Fair, Damien A.; Kelly, Clare; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Thomason, Moriah E.; Craddock, R. Cameron; Luna, Beatriz; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Milham, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The vast majority of mental illnesses can be conceptualized as developmental disorders of neural interactions within the connectome, or developmental miswiring. The recent maturation of pediatric in vivo brain imaging is bringing within reach the identification of clinically meaningful brain-based biomarkers of developmental disorders. Even more auspicious, is the ability to study the evolving connectome throughout life, beginning in utero, which promises to move the field from topological phenomenology to etiological nosology. Here, we scope advances in pediatric imaging of the brain connectome as the field faces the challenge of unraveling developmental miswiring. We highlight promises while also providing a pragmatic review of the many obstacles ahead that must be overcome to significantly impact public health. PMID:25233316

  3. Unraveling the miswired connectome: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Adriana; Fair, Damien A; Kelly, Clare; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Castellanos, F Xavier; Thomason, Moriah E; Craddock, R Cameron; Luna, Beatriz; Leventhal, Bennett L; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Milham, Michael P

    2014-09-17

    The vast majority of mental illnesses can be conceptualized as developmental disorders of neural interactions within the connectome, or developmental miswiring. The recent maturation of pediatric in vivo brain imaging is bringing the identification of clinically meaningful brain-based biomarkers of developmental disorders within reach. Even more auspicious is the ability to study the evolving connectome throughout life, beginning in utero, which promises to move the field from topological phenomenology to etiological nosology. Here, we scope advances in pediatric imaging of the brain connectome as the field faces the challenge of unraveling developmental miswiring. We highlight promises while also providing a pragmatic review of the many obstacles ahead that must be overcome to significantly impact public health. PMID:25233316

  4. Black hole accretion disks with coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svensson, Roland; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    1994-01-01

    Observations suggest the existence of both hot and cold dark matter in the centers of active galactic nuclei. Recent spectral models require a major fraction of power to be dissipated in the hot matter. We study the case when the hot matter forms a corona around a standard cold alpha-disk. In particular, we investigate the case when a major fraction, f, of the power released when the cold matter accretes is transported to and dissipated in the corona. This has major effects on the cold disk, making it colder, more geometrically thin, denser, and having larger optical depths. One important consequence is the disappearance of the effectively optically thin zone as well as of the radiation pressure dominated zone for values of f sufficiently closed to unity. The disappearance of the radiation pressure dominated zone will result in a cold disk with only a gas pressure dominated zone that is stable against thermal and viscous instabilities. We also show that the pressure ( and the radiation) from the corona will only affect the surface layers of the cold disk. Our results disagree with those of other recent work on accretion disks with coronae. We find those works to be based on unphysical assumptions.

  5. The Making of the Film, SOLAR CORONA

    E-print Network

    Beeler, Michael

    1973-02-01

    The film SOLAR CORONA was made from data taken from August 14, 1969 through May 7, 1970, by OSO-VI, one of the Orbiting Satellite Observatories. One of the experiments on board scanned across and up and down the image of ...

  6. Arecibo/Magellan Composite of Quetzalpetlatl Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This composite image was created by inserting approximately 70 orbits of Magellan data into an image obtained at the Arecibo, Puerto Rico radiotelescope and shows a geologically complex region in the southern hemisphere of Venus. The region is centered on 65 degrees south, 359 degrees east and is about 1500 x 1500 km (900 x 900 miles) in extent. The large oval feature in the lower half of the image is Quetzalpetlatl Corona, approximately 700 km (420 miles) in diameter. Coronae are circular to oval regions defined by an annulus of ridges and are centers for tectonic and volcanic activity. Tectonic activity is largely observed in a relatively narrow rim region, which in this image is defined by a complex lineated terrain that surrounds much of the corona. Bright and dark volcanic flows are seen throughout the corona and surrounding terrain. Small shield volcanoes, 1-20 km (0.6-12 miles) in diameter, are seen near the southern limit of the Magellan data image. Narrow linear troughs (seen in the image as bright lines) trend to the north-northwest of Quetzalpetlatl.

  7. LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF BACK-CORONA DISCHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an experimental research program to characterize back-corona generation and behavior in a range of environments and geometries common to electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A wire-parallel plate device was used to monitor the intensity and distribution of back...

  8. Solar Corona Explorer: A mission for the physical diagnosis of the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mission objectives and spacecraft requirements for the Solar Corona Explorer (SCE), a proposed free flying, unmanned solar research craft to be tenatively launched in 1987, were defined. The SCE's purpose is to investigate structure, dynamics and evolution of the corona, globally and in the required physical detail, to study the close coupling between the inner corona and the heliosphere. Investigative objectives are: (1) to understand the corona as the source of varying interplanetary plasma and of varying solar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet fluxes; (2) to develop the capabilities to model the corona with sufficient precision to forecast the Earth's variable environment in space, on the scales from weeks to years; (3) to develop an understanding of the physical processes that determine the dynamics and physical state of the coronal plasma, particularly acceleration processes; and (4) to develop insight and test theory on the Sun applicable to stellar coronae and winds, and in particular, to understand why cool stars put such a large fraction of their energy into X-rays. Considered related factors are: (1) duration of the mission; (2) onboard measuring instrumentation; (3) ground support equipment and procedures; and (4) programs of interpretation and modeling.

  9. Unraveling environmental histories from skeletal diaries --Advances in sclerochronology

    E-print Network

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    Preface Unraveling environmental histories from skeletal diaries -- Advances in sclerochronology and INCREMENTS Research Group, Earth System Science Research Center, Institute of Geosciences, University formed skeletal hard parts provide a means to place the proxy record in a precise temporal context

  10. Geometric phase for open quantum systems and stochastic unravelings

    SciTech Connect

    Bassi, Angelo; Ippoliti, Emiliano

    2006-06-15

    We analyze the geometric phase for an open quantum system when computed by resorting to a stochastic unraveling of the reduced density matrix (quantum jump approach or stochastic Schroedinger equations). We show that the resulting phase strongly depends on the type of unraveling used for the calculations: as such, this phase is not a geometric object since it depends on nonphysical parameters, which are not related to the path followed by the density matrix during the evolution of the system.

  11. Solar cycle variations in F-region Te in the vicinity of the midlatitude trough based on AE-C measurements at solar minimum and DE-2 measurements at solar maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brace, Larry H.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetospheric energy deposited in the plasmasphere produces large enhancements in the electron temperature in the nightside ionosphere at the foot of the geomagnetic L shell that traverses the plasmapause. This temperature peak, which is associated with the midlatitude trough in electron density, often has a great enough amplitude to produce 630 nm emission known as a Sar-arc. The Atmosphere Explorer-C measurements made at solar minimum and the Dynamics Explorer-2 measurements made at solar maximum are used to illustrate how this signature of F-region electron heating changes with solar activity. Global empirical models of the electron temperature and density have not been able to resolve these features thus far because of their large movements with geomagnetic activity and because of the large bin sizes used in the models. It is not yet clear how this major feature of the F-region temperature structure could be included easily in the IRI model.

  12. News and Views: Kleopatra a pile of rubble, shedding moons; Did plasma flow falter to stretch solar minimum? Amateurs hit 20 million variable-star observations; Climate maths; Planetary priorities; New roles in BGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    Metallic asteroid 216 Kleopatra is shaped like a dog's bone and has two tiny moons - which came from the asteroid itself - according to a team of astronomers from France and the US, who also measured its surprisingly low density and concluded that it is a collection of rubble. The recent solar minimum was longer and lower than expected, with a low polar field and an unusually large number of days with no sunspots visible. Models of the magnetic field and plasma flow within the Sun suggest that fast, then slow meridional flow could account for this pattern. Variable stars are a significant scientific target for amateur astronomers. The American Association of Variable Star Observers runs the world's largest database of variable star observations, from volunteers, and reached 20 million observations in February.

  13. Unraveling overlapping deletions by agglomerative clustering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Structural variations in human genomes, such as deletions, play an important role in cancer development. Next-Generation Sequencing technologies have been central in providing ways to detect such variations. Methods like paired-end mapping allow to simultaneously analyze data from several samples in order to, e.g., distinguish tumor from patient specific variations. However, it has been shown that, especially in this setting, there is a need to explicitly take overlapping deletions into consideration. Existing tools have only minor capabilities to call overlapping deletions, unable to unravel complex signals to obtain consistent predictions. Result We present a first approach specifically designed to cluster short-read paired-end data into possibly overlapping deletion predictions. The method does not make any assumptions on the composition of the data, such as the number of samples, heterogeneity, polyploidy, etc. Taking paired ends mapped to a reference genome as input, it iteratively merges mappings to clusters based on a similarity score that takes both the putative location and size of a deletion into account. Conclusion We demonstrate that agglomerative clustering is suitable to predict deletions. Analyzing real data from three samples of a cancer patient, we found putatively overlapping deletions and observed that, as a side-effect, erroneous mappings are mostly identified as singleton clusters. An evaluation on simulated data shows, compared to other methods which can output overlapping clusters, high accuracy in separating overlapping from single deletions. PMID:23369161

  14. Corona and Motor Voltage Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.

    2005-05-06

    It has been suggested that to meet the FreedomCAR objectives for cost, size, weight, efficiency, and reliability higher buss voltages be utilized in HEV and FC automotive applications. The reasoning is that since electric power is equal to the product of voltage and current for a given power a higher voltage and lower current would result in smaller cable and inverter switching components. Consequently, the system can be lighter and smaller. On the other hand, higher voltages are known to require better and thicker electrical insulation that reduce the available slot area for motor windings. One cause of slow insulation breakdown is corona that gradually erodes the insulation and shortens the life expectancy of the motor. This study reports on the results of a study on corona initiating voltages for mush-wound and bobbin-wound stators. A unique testing method is illustrated.

  15. Nanoflare Heating of Solar and Stellar Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of observational and theoretical evidence suggests that much, and perhaps most, of the Sun's corona is heated by small unresolved bursts of energy called nanoflares. It seems likely that stellar coronae are heated in a similar fashion. Kanoflares are here taken to mean any impulsive heating that occurs within a magnetic flux strand. Many mechanisms have this property, including waves, but we prefer Parker's picture of tangled magnetic fields. The tangling is caused by turbulent convection at the stellar surface, and magnetic energy is released when the stresses reach a critical level. We suggest that the mechanism of energy release is the "secondary instability" of electric current sheets that are present at the boundaries between misaligned strands. I will discuss the collective evidence for solar and stellar nanoflares and hopefully present new results from the Solar Dynamics Observatory that was just launched.

  16. Nonlinear Plasma Physics of the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    As a tribute to Dennis Papadopoulos, we present a review of some recent ideas in solar coronal plasma physics. In particular we discuss some models of coronal heating, notably the coronal tectonics model, as well as some ideas on the nature of reconnection in three dimensions. In addition, we summarise a model for the time-dependent response of the corona to the sudden dissipation of a current sheet.

  17. STOCHASTIC COUPLING OF SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE AND CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.; Coyner, Aaron J.

    2013-05-20

    The observed solar activity is believed to be driven by the dissipation of nonpotential magnetic energy injected into the corona by dynamic processes in the photosphere. The enormous range of scales involved in the interaction makes it difficult to track down the photospheric origin of each coronal dissipation event, especially in the presence of complex magnetic topologies. In this paper, we propose an ensemble-based approach for testing the photosphere-corona coupling in a quiet solar region as represented by intermittent activity in Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager and Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Imager image sets. For properly adjusted detection thresholds corresponding to the same degree of intermittency in the photosphere and corona, the dynamics of the two solar regions is described by the same occurrence probability distributions of energy release events but significantly different geometric properties. We derive a set of scaling relations reconciling the two groups of results and enabling statistical description of coronal dynamics based on photospheric observations. Our analysis suggests that multiscale intermittent dissipation in the corona at spatial scales >3 Mm is controlled by turbulent photospheric convection. Complex topology of the photospheric network makes this coupling essentially nonlocal and non-deterministic. Our results are in an agreement with the Parker's coupling scenario in which random photospheric shuffling generates marginally stable magnetic discontinuities at the coronal level, but they are also consistent with an impulsive wave heating involving multiscale Alfvenic wave packets and/or magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade. A back-reaction on the photosphere due to coronal magnetic reconfiguration can be a contributing factor.

  18. Stellar coronae from Einstein - Observations and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Einstein Observatory observations of stellar X-ray emission are presented and their implications for the formation of stellar coronae and the problem of stellar angular momentum loss are discussed. Solar coronal X-ray observations and observations of stellar coronae made prior to Einstein are reviewed, and it is noted that they already suggest that the standard theory of acoustic coronal heating is inadequate. The principal results of the Einstein/CfA stellar survey are summarized, with attention given to variations of the level of X-ray flux detected along the main sequence, the decline of X-ray flux with increasing age of giants and supergiants, and indications of a large range of X-ray emission levels within a given type, which are clearly incompatible with models for acoustic flux generation. A new theory to explain stellar coronae and hence X-ray emission from them is then proposed in which stellar magnetic fields play the key role in determining the level of coronal emission, and the modulation of the surface magnetic flux level and the level of stressing of surface magnetic fields essentially determine the variation of mean coronal activity in the H-R diagram.

  19. Turbulent photospheric drivers of multiscale solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the collective dynamics of transient photospheric and coronal events detected using high-resolution solar magnetograms and coronal emission images. We focus on statistical, ensemble-averaged properties of the interacting solar regions [Uritsky et al., 2011, 2013, 2014; Uritsky and Davila, 2012], as opposed to case-oriented methodologies recruited in some previous studies. The behavior of solar events is studied in the three-dimensional space-time enabling accurate representation of the event evolution. By applying advanced data analysis methods including feature tracking algorithms, multiscale correlation analysis and scaling analysis techniques, we identify leading physical scenarios of the photosphere - corona coupling in quiet and active solar regions, and strive to identify new statistical precursors of coronal eruptions. We also discuss the possibility of modeling multiscale photosphere - corona interactions using idealized three-dimensional MHD models. The obtained results shed a new light on the origin of multiscale dissipation in the solar corona by enabling quantitative validation of several popular statistical physical scenarios, such as e.g. intermittent turbulence, self-organized criticality, and topological complexity.

  20. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: Unraveling the conundrum.

    PubMed

    Zampeli, Evangelia; Vlachoyiannopoulos, Panayiotis G; Tzioufas, Athanasios G

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous disease with a complex and yet not fully understood pathophysiology, where numerous different cell-types contribute to a destructive process of the joints. This complexity results into a considerable interpatient variability in clinical course and severity, which may additionally involve genetics and/or environmental factors. After three decades of focused efforts scientists have now achieved to apply in clinical practice, for patients with RA, the "treat to target" approach with initiation of aggressive therapy soon after diagnosis and escalation of the therapy in pursuit of clinical remission. In addition to the conventional synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, biologics have greatly improved the management of RA, demonstrating efficacy and safety in alleviating symptoms, inhibiting bone erosion, and preventing loss of function. Nonetheless, despite the plethora of therapeutic options and their combinations, unmet therapeutic needs in RA remain, as current therapies sometimes fail or produce only partial responses and/or develop unwanted side-effects. Unfortunately the mechanisms of 'nonresponse' remain unknown and most probable lie in the unrevealed heterogeneity of the RA pathophysiology. In this review, through the effort of unraveling the complex pathophysiological pathways, we will depict drugs used throughout the years for the treatment of RA, the current and future biological therapies and their molecular or cellular targets and finally will suggest therapeutic algorithms for RA management. With multiple biologic options, there is still a need for strong predictive biomarkers to determine which drug is most likely to be effective, safe, and durable in a given individual. The fact that available biologics are not effective in all patients attests to the heterogeneity of RA, yet over the long term, as research and treatment become more aggressive, efficacy, toxicity, and costs must be balanced within the therapeutic equation to enhance the quality of life in patients with RA. PMID:26515757

  1. Unravelling the chemical characteristics of YSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    1999-10-01

    The formation of stars is accompanied by orders of magnitude changes in the physical conditions, with densities in the envelopes and disks increasing from 104 cm-3 to > 1013 cm-3 and temperatures from ~ 10 K in the cold quiescent gas to 10,000 K in shocked regions. The abundances and excitation of the various molecules respond to these changes, and are therefore excellent probes of the physical evolution of YSOs. Moreover, a comprehensive inventory of the chemical composition of envelopes and disks at different evolutionary stages is essential to study the chemistry of matter as it is incorporated into new solar systems. Recent observations of the envelopes of YSOs using single-dish telescopes and millimeter interferometers clearly reveal the potential of submillimeter lines to probe these physical and chemical changes. However, the existing data generally lack the spatial resolution to separate the different physical components, such as the warm inner envelope or `hot core', the region of interaction of the outflow with the envelope and any possible circumstellar disk. ALMA will be essential to provide an `unblurred' view of the YSO environment and unravel the chemical evolution during star formation. In this talk, an overview will be given of recent single-dish and interferometer results of the chemistry in the envelopes and disks around low- and high-mass young stellar objects. Together with ISO data on solid-state material, these observations lead to a chemical scenario in which both gas-phase and gas-grain chemistry (in particular freeze-out and evaporation) play an important role. The evaporated molecules drive a rich chemistry in the warm gas, which can result in complex organic molecules. The potential of ALMA to test chemical theories and determine the composition of gas and dust as it enters forming planetary systems will be illustrated.

  2. Igneous and tectonic evolution of Venusian and terrestrial coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Komatsu, G.

    1992-01-01

    A great variety of tectonic and volcanic features have been documented on Venus. It is widely appreciated that there are close spatial associations among certain types of tectonic structures and some classes of volcanic flows and constructs. Coronae are endowed with a particularly rich variety of volcanism. It is thought that coupled tectonic and volcanic aspects of coronae are cogenetic manifestations of mantle plumes. An outstanding feature of most venusian coronae is their circular or elliptical shape defined by peripheral zones of fracturing and/or folding. Some coronae are composite, consisting of two or more small coronae within a larger enclosing corona, suggesting complex histories of structured diapirism analogous in some ways to salt dome tectonics. Coronae range widely in size, from smaller than 100 km to over 1000 km in diameter. Volcanic features associated with venusian coronae include lunar-like sinuous rilles, thin lava flows, cinder cone-like constructs, shield volcanos, and pancake domes. Several types of volcanic features are often situated within or near a single corona, in many instances including land-forms indicating effusions of both low- and high-viscosity lavas. In some cases stratigraphic evidence brackets emplacement of pancake domes during the period of tectonic development of the corona, thus supporting a close link between the igneous and tectonic histories of coronae. These associations suggest emplacement of huge diapirs and massive magmatic intrusions, thus producing the tectonic deformations defining these structures. Igneous differentiation of the intrusion could yield a range of lava compositions. Head and Wilson suggested a mechanism that would cause development of neutral buoyancy zones in the shallow subsurface of Venus, thereby tending to promote development of massive igneous intrusions.

  3. The solar extreme ultra-violet corona: Resolved loops and the unresolved active region corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirtain, Jonathan Wesley

    In this work, physical characteristics of the solar corona as observed in the Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) regime are investigated. The focus will be the regions of intense EUV radiation generally found near the locations of sunspots. These regions are commonly called active regions. Multiple space- based observing platforms have been deployed in the last decade; it is possible to use several of these observatories in combination to develop a more complete picture of the solar corona. Joint Observing Program 146 was created to collect spectroscopic intensities using the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer on Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and EUV images using NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer. The emission line intensities are analyzed to develop an understanding of the temperature and density of the active region coronal plasma. However, the performance of the CDS instrument in the spatial and temporal domains is limited and to compensate for these limitations, data collected by the TRACE instrument provide a high spatial and temporal resolution set of observations. One of the most exciting unsolved problems in solar astrophysics is to understand why the corona maintains a temperature roughly two orders of magnitude higher than the underlying material. A detailed investigation of the coronal emission has provided constraints on models of the heating mechanism, since the temperature, density and evolution of emission rates for multiple ionic species are indicative of the mechanism(s) working to heat the corona. The corona appears to consist of multiple unresolved structures as well as resolved active region structures, called coronal loops. The purpose of the present work is to determine the characteristics of the unresolved background corona. Using the characterizations of the coronal unresolved background, results for loops after background subtraction are also presented. This work demonstrates the magnitude of the unresolved coronal emission with respect to the total emission along the line of sight, and the relationship of the coronal background emission to the resolved loop emission. It is apparent from this analysis that the unresolved corona is the dominant source of radiation in active regions. Additionally, the unresolved active region coronal emission can be characterized by hydrostatic scaling laws.

  4. Corona And Ultraviolet Equipment For Testing Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G.

    1993-01-01

    Two assemblies of laboratory equipment developed for use in testing abilities of polymers, paints, and other materials to withstand ultraviolet radiation and charged particles. One is vacuum ultraviolet source built around commercial deuterium lamp. Other exposes specimen in partial vacuum to both ultraviolet radiation and brush corona discharge. Either or both assemblies used separately or together to simulate approximately combination of solar radiation and charged particles encountered by materials aboard spacecraft in orbit around Earth. Also used to provide rigorous environmental tests of materials exposed to artificial ultraviolet radiation and charged particles in industrial and scientific settings or to natural ultraviolet radiation and charged particles aboard aircraft at high altitudes.

  5. Fluorine in R Coronae Borealis Stars

    E-print Network

    Gajendra Pandey; David L. Lambert; N. Kameswara Rao

    2007-11-15

    Neutral fluorine (F I) lines are identified in the optical spectra of several R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) at maximum light. These lines provide the first measurement of the fluorine abundance in these stars. Fluorine is enriched in some RCBs by factors of 800 to 8000 relative to its likely initial abundance. The overabundances of fluorine are evidence for the synthesis of fluorine. These results are discussed in the light of the scenario that RCBs are formed by accretion of an He white dwarf by a C-O white dwarf. Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr), a final He-shell flash product, shows no detectable F I lines.

  6. The solar corona through numerical eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Ofer

    The Sun and the Space environment serve as a natural laboratory to study the physics of ionized gas (plasma) under extreme conditions, which are nearly impossible to achieve using artificial experiments. Understanding the behavior of this environment has become more and more important with our growing dependency on space-based technology and the growing number of space exploration missions. As a consequence, the new concept of Space Weather, which characterizes the conditions in space, requires the development of forecasting tools to provide prediction of these conditions. In this work, I present a numerical study of the solar corona and the space environment. Numerical simulations are important, due to the fact that they provide a more accurate solution than the approximated analytical solution. This work has three main parts: (1) I develop a global MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) model for the ambient conditions in the solar corona and the inner heliosphere and validate it with long-term satellite data. This model provides preconditioning for Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and also can be used to study the large-scale evolution of the corona and the heliosphere. (2) I develop a flux-transport model for the solar surface to investigate the effect of magnetic reconnection on the transport of the Suns open magnetic flux. I show that this process can modify the surface meridional flow that is important in solar dynamo theory. (3) I simulate a Sun-to-Earth CME event in order to investigate the capabilities of the model to serve as an operational tool for space weather forecasting. This simulation demonstrates that it is possible and also addresses required improvements. This work is a step towards a better understanding of the space environment and the physics of the solar corona. I propose to further investigate the role of the open flux in the long-term, large-scale evolution of the solar and heliospheric magnetic field. I also propose to investigate the relations between the solar and stellar physics.

  7. Relationship of coronae, regional plains and rift zones on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassilnikov, A. S.; Kostama, V.-P.; Aittola, M.; Guseva, E. N.; Cherkashina, O. S.

    2012-08-01

    Coronae and rifts are the most prominent volcano-tectonic features on the surface of Venus. Coronae are large radial-concentric structures with diameters of 100 to over 1000 km. They have varied topographical shapes, radial and concentric fracturing and compressional tectonic structures are common for their annuli. Massive volcanism is also connected with some of the structures. Coronae are interpreted to be the result of updoming and fracturing on the surface due to interaction of mantle diapirs with the lithosphere and its subsequent gravitational relaxation. According to Stofan et al. (2001), two types of coronae are observed: type 1 - coronae that have annuli of concentric ridges and/or fractures (407 structures), and type 2 that have similar characteristics to type 1 but lack a complete annulus of ridges and fractures (107 structures). We analyzed 20% of this coronae population (we chose each fifth structure from the Stofan et al. (2001) catalog; 82 coronae of type 1 and 22 coronae of type 2, in total 104 coronae) for the (1) spatial distribution of rift structures and time relationship of rift zones activity with time of regional volcanic plains emplacement, and (2) tectonics, volcanism, age relative to regional plains and relationship with rifts. Two different age groups of rifts on Venus were mapped at the scale 1:50 000 000: old rifts that predate and young rifts that postdate regional plains. Most of young rifts inherit strikes of old rifts and old rifts are reworked by them. This may be evidence of rift-produced uplift zones that were probably mostly stable during both types of rifts formation. Evolution of distribution of rift systems with time (decreasing of distribution and localization of rift zones) imply thickening of the lithosphere with time. Coronae-producing mantle diapirism and uplift of mantle material in rift zones are not well correlated at least in time in most cases, because majority of coronae (77%) of both types has no genetic association with rifts. Majority of coronae (72%) were mostly active before regional plains formation, and only 3% appear to have begun to form after the plains emplacement, which may be also due to thickening of the lithosphere. According to the relationship with regional plains type 2 coronae are in general older than type 1 coronae. Three types of corona-related volcanic activity were observed: shield volcanoes and their clusters, as well as extensive lobate lava flows and smooth volcanic plains. Shield volcanoes during coronae evolution were mostly active before regional plains emplacement. Most active phase of volcanism of corona may not coincide with the time of the major tectonic activity of corona, as majority of coronae (77%) were most active before regional plains formation, but almost half of all coronae have traces of post regional plains volcanism. Detailed mapping and stratigraphic analysis of seven regions with 34 examples of coronae showed a similarity in the sequence of regional geologic units.

  8. RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOLAR CORONA DURING AN ECLIPSE

    SciTech Connect

    Kathiravan, C.; Ramesh, R.; Barve, Indrajit V.; Rajalingam, M. E-mail: ramesh@iiap.res.in E-mail: rajalingam@iiap.res.in

    2011-04-01

    We carried out radio observations of the solar corona at 170 MHz during the eclipse of 2008 August 1, from the Gauribidanur observatory located about 100 km north of Bangalore in India. The results indicate the presence of a discrete radio source of very small angular dimension ({approx}15'') in the corona from where the observed radiation originated.

  9. Rings Around the Sun and Moon: Coronae and Diffraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Les; Laven, Philip; Vollmer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric optical effects can teach much about physics and especially optics. Coronae--coloured rings around the sun or moon--are large-scale consequences of diffraction, which is often thought of as only a small effect confined to the laboratory. We describe coronae, how they are formed and experiments that can be conducted on ones in the sky.…

  10. Skylab high voltage electrical/electronic systems corona assessment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    Six significant design parameters which must be considered in the corona assessment include the operating voltage, radio frequency power, the 'pressure times spacing' relation, operating temperature, gases and contaminants in the environment, and configuration and field gradients. An equipment and experiments survey is presented, giving attention to corona-free equipment and equipment requiring detailed investigations.

  11. Turbulent heating of the corona and solar wind: the heliospheric

    E-print Network

    Turbulent heating of the corona and solar wind: the heliospheric dark energy problem Stuart D. Bale that the gas is highly ionized, i.e. a magnetized collisionless plasma ( solar wind model A `solar wind' is accelerated from the corona - Hydrostatic solution (similar to Bondi accretion

  12. Magnetic Relaxation in the Solar Corona Kenneth Miller1

    E-print Network

    Fornberg, Bengt

    Magnetic Relaxation in the Solar Corona Kenneth Miller1 , Bengt Fornberg2 , Natasha Flyer3 , & B. C- duced in the tenuous solar corona by the turbulent, resistive relaxation of a magnetic field under to a rigid, perfectly conducting base, and, (ii) that em- beds a force-free magnetic field in the form

  13. Protein corona – from molecular adsorption to physiological complexity

    PubMed Central

    Docter, Dominic; Maskos, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary In biological environments, nanoparticles are enshrouded by a layer of biomolecules, predominantly proteins, mediating its subsequent interactions with cells. Detecting this protein corona, understanding its formation with regards to nanoparticle (NP) and protein properties, and elucidating its biological implications were central aims of bio-related nano-research throughout the past years. Here, we discuss the mechanistic parameters that are involved in the protein corona formation and the consequences of this corona formation for both, the particle, and the protein. We review consequences of corona formation for colloidal stability and discuss the role of functional groups and NP surface functionalities in shaping NP–protein interactions. We also elaborate the recent advances demonstrating the strong involvement of Coulomb-type interactions between NPs and charged patches on the protein surface. Moreover, we discuss novel aspects related to the complexity of the protein corona forming under physiological conditions in full serum. Specifically, we address the relation between particle size and corona composition and the latest findings that help to shed light on temporal evolution of the full serum corona for the first time. Finally, we discuss the most recent advances regarding the molecular-scale mechanistic role of the protein corona in cellular uptake of NPs. PMID:25977856

  14. Icy wave-cloud lunar corona and cirrus iridescence

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Icy wave-cloud lunar corona and cirrus iridescence Joseph A. Shaw* and Nathan J. Pust Electrical to determine that iridescence in cirrus and a lunar corona in a thin wave cloud were caused by tiny ice showed that ice-laden cirrus clouds also can create iridescence, which is a randomized diffraction

  15. An analytical theory of corona discharge plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper we describe an analytical investigation of corona discharge systems. Electrical charge and the energy transfer mechanism are investigated based on the circuit analysis. Efficient delivery of electrical energy from the external circuit to the reactor chamber is a major issue in design studies. The optimum condition obtained in this paper ensures 100{percent} energy transfer. Second-order coupled differential equations are numerically solved. All the analytical results agree remarkably well with numerical data. The reactor capacitor plays a pivotal role in circuit performance. The voltage profile is dominated by the reactor capacitor. Corona discharge properties in the reactor chamber are also investigated, assuming that a specified voltage profile V(t) is fed through the inner conductor. The analytical description is based on the electron moment equation. Defining the plasma breakdown parameter u=V/R{sub c}p, plasma is generated for a high-voltage pulse satisfying u{gt}u{sub c}, where u{sub c} is the critical breakdown parameter defined by geometrical configuration. Here, u is in units of a million volts per m per atm, and R{sub c} is the outer conductor radius. It is found that the plasma density profile generated inside the reactor chamber depends very sensitively on the system parameters. A small change of a physical parameter can easily lead to a density change in one order of magnitude.

  16. An analytical theory of corona discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Woong M.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper we describe an analytical investigation of corona discharge systems. Electrical charge and the energy transfer mechanism are investigated based on the circuit analysis. Efficient delivery of electrical energy from the external circuit to the reactor chamber is a major issue in design studies. The optimum condition obtained in this paper ensures 100% energy transfer. Second-order coupled differential equations are numerically solved. All the analytical results agree remarkably well with numerical data. The reactor capacitor plays a pivotal role in circuit performance. The voltage profile is dominated by the reactor capacitor. Corona discharge properties in the reactor chamber are also investigated, assuming that a specified voltage profile V(t) is fed through the inner conductor. The analytical description is based on the electron moment equation. Defining the plasma breakdown parameter u=V/Rcp, plasma is generated for a high-voltage pulse satisfying u>uc, where uc is the critical breakdown parameter defined by geometrical configuration. Here, u is in units of a million volts per m per atm, and Rc is the outer conductor radius. It is found that the plasma density profile generated inside the reactor chamber depends very sensitively on the system parameters. A small change of a physical parameter can easily lead to a density change in one order of magnitude.

  17. Flexural ridges, trenches, and outer rises around coronae on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Schubert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Flexural signatures outboard of Venusian coronal rims are examined with the purpose of inferring the thickness of the planet's elastic lithosphere. Topographic profiles of several prominent coronae which display clear trench and outer rise signatures are presented. Via a thin elastic plate flexure model to characterize the shape of the trench and outer rise, Venusian flexures are found to be similar in both amplitude and wavelength to lithospheric flexures seaward of subduction zones on earth. It is shown that circumferential fractures are concentrated in areas where the topography is curved downward, in good agreement with the high tensile stress predicted by the flexure models. Two scenarios for the development of the ridge-trench-outer rise flexural topography and circumferential fractures of coronae are presented. The first scenario involves reheating and thermal subsidence of the lithosphere interior to the corona, while the second involves expansion of the corona interior and roll back of the subducting lithosphere exterior to the corona.

  18. Warm and optically thick dissipative coronae above accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ró?a?ska, A.; Malzac, J.; Belmont, R.; Czerny, B.; Petrucci, P.-O.

    2015-08-01

    Context. In past years, several observations of AGN and X-ray binaries suggested the existence of a warm (T ~ 0.5 - 1 keV) and optically thick (?cor ~ 10 - 20) corona covering the inner parts of the accretion disk. These properties are directly derived from spectral fitting in UV to soft-X-rays using Comptonization models. However, whether such a medium can be both in radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium with an accretion disk is still uncertain. Aims: We investigate the properties of such warm, optically thick coronae and put constraints on their existence. Methods: We solve the radiative transfer equation for grey atmosphere analytically in a pure scattering medium, including local dissipation as an additional heating term in the warm corona. The temperature profile of the warm corona is calculated assuming that it is cooled by Compton scattering, with the underlying dissipative disk providing photons to the corona. Results: Our analytic calculations show that a dissipative thick corona (?cor in the range 10-12) on top of a standard accretion disk can reach temperatures of the order of 0.5-1 keV in its upper layers provided that the disk is passive. However, in the absence of strong magnetic fields, the requirement of a Compton cooled corona in hydrostatic equilibrium in the vertical direction sets an upper limit on the Thomson optical depth ?cor ? 5. We show that this value cannot be exceeded independently of the accretion disk parameters. However, magnetic pressure can extend this result to larger optical depths. Namely, a dissipative corona might have an optical depth up to ~20 when the magnetic pressure is 100 times higher than the gas pressure. Conclusions: The observation of warm coronae with Thomson depth larger than ?5 puts tight constraints on the physics of the accretion disk/corona systems and requires either strong magnetic fields or vertical outflows to stabilize the system.

  19. Unraveling the 3D genome: genomics tools for multiscale exploration

    E-print Network

    Straight, Aaron

    Unraveling the 3D genome: genomics tools for multiscale exploration Viviana I. Risca and William J genome and the roles it may play in regulating transcription. Here we review core methods and new tools-scale chromosomal domains, and discuss the emerging pic- ture of the 3D genome that these tools have revealed. Blind

  20. Unraveling "Braid": Puzzle Games and Storytelling in the Imperative Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Luke

    2012-01-01

    "Unraveling Braid" analyzes how unconventional, non-linear narrative fiction can help explain the ways in which video games signify. Specifically, this essay looks at the links between the semiotic features of Jonathan Blow's 2008 puzzle-platform video game Braid and similar elements in Georges Perec's 1978 novel "Life A User's Manual," as well as…

  1. R Coronae Australis: A Cosmic Watercolour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-06-01

    This magnificent view of the region around the star R Coronae Australis was created from images taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. R Coronae Australis lies at the heart of a nearby star-forming region and is surrounded by a delicate bluish reflection nebula embedded in a huge dust cloud. The image reveals surprising new details in this dramatic area of sky. The star R Coronae Australis lies in one of the nearest and most spectacular star-forming regions. This portrait was taken by the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. The image is a combination of twelve separate pictures taken through red, green and blue filters. This image shows a section of sky that spans roughly the width of the full Moon. This is equivalent to about four light-years at the distance of the nebula, which is located some 420 light-years away in the small constellation of Corona Australis (the Southern Crown). The complex is named after the star R Coronae Australis, which lies at the centre of the image. It is one of several stars in this region that belong to the class of very young stars that vary in brightness and are still surrounded by the clouds of gas and dust from which they formed. The intense radiation given off by these hot young stars interacts with the gas surrounding them and is either reflected or re-emitted at a different wavelength. These complex processes, determined by the physics of the interstellar medium and the properties of the stars, are responsible for the magnificent colours of nebulae. The light blue nebulosity seen in this picture is mostly due to the reflection of starlight off small dust particles. The young stars in the R Coronae Australis complex are similar in mass to the Sun and do not emit enough ultraviolet light to ionise a substantial fraction of the surrounding hydrogen. This means that the cloud does not glow with the characteristic red colour seen in many star-forming regions. The huge dust cloud in which the reflection nebula is embedded is here shown in impressively fine detail. The subtle colours and varied textures of the dust clouds make this image resemble an impressionist painting. A prominent dark lane crosses the image from the centre to the bottom left. Here the visible light emitted by the stars that are forming inside the cloud is completely absorbed by the dust. These objects could only be detected by observing at longer wavelengths, by using a camera that can detect infrared radiation. R Coronae Australis itself is not visible to the unaided eye, but the tiny, tiara-shaped constellation in which it lies is easily spotted from dark sites due to its proximity on the sky to the larger constellation of Sagittarius and the rich star clouds towards the centre of our own galaxy, the Milky Way. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  2. Exploring dynamic events in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, Cooper James

    With the advent of modern computational technology it is now becoming the norm to employ detailed 3D computer models as empirical tools that directly account for the inhomogeneous nature of the Sun-Heliosphere environment. The key advantage of this approach lies in the ability to compare model results directly to observational data and to use a successful comparison (or lack thereof) to glean information on the underlying physical processes. Using extreme ultraviolet waves (EUV waves) as the overarching scientific driver, we apply this observation modeling approach to study the complex dynamics of the magnetic and thermodynamic structures that are observed in the low solar corona. Representing a highly non-trivial effort, this work includes three main scientific thrusts: an initial modeling effort and two EUV wave case-studies. First we document the development of the new Low Corona (LC) model, a 3D time-dependent thermodynamic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model implemented within the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). Observation synthesis methods are integrated within the LC model, which provides the ability to compare model results directly to EUV imaging observations taken by spacecraft. The new model is then used to explore the dynamic interplay between magnetic structures and thermodynamic energy balance in the corona that is caused by coronal heating mechanisms. With the model development complete, we investigate the nature of EUV waves in detail through two case-studies. Starting with the 2008 March 25 event, we conduct a series of numerical simulations that independently vary fundamental parameters thought to govern the physical mechanisms behind EUV waves. Through the subsequent analysis of the 3D data and comparison to observations we find evidence for both wave and non-wave mechanisms contributing to the EUV wave signal. We conclude with a comprehensive observation and modeling analysis of the 2010 June 13 EUV wave event, which was observed by the recently launched Solar Dynamics Observatory. We use a high resolution simulation of the transient to unambiguously characterize the globally propagating front of EUV wave as a fast-mode magnetosonic wave, and use the rich set of observations to place the many other facets of the EUV transient within a unified scenario involving wave and non-wave components.

  3. Charging of moving surfaces by corona discharges sustained in air

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun-Chieh Kushner, Mark J.; Zhang, Daihua; Leoni, Napoleon Birecki, Henryk Gila, Omer

    2014-07-28

    Atmospheric pressure corona discharges are used in electrophotographic (EP) printing technologies for charging imaging surfaces such as photoconductors. A typical corona discharge consists of a wire (or wire array) biased with a few hundred volts of dc plus a few kV of ac voltage. An electric discharge is produced around the corona wire from which electrons drift towards and charge the underlying dielectric surface. The surface charging reduces the voltage drop across the gap between the corona wire and the dielectric surface, which then terminates the discharge, as in a dielectric barrier discharge. In printing applications, this underlying surface is continuously moving throughout the charging process. For example, previously charged surfaces, which had reduced the local electric field and terminated the local discharge, are translated out of the field of view and are replaced with uncharged surface. The uncharged surface produces a rebound in the electric field in the vicinity of the corona wire which in turn results in re-ignition of the discharge. The discharge, so reignited, is then asymmetric. We found that in the idealized corona charging system we investigated, a negatively dc biased corona blade with a dielectric covered ground electrode, the discharge is initially sustained by electron impact ionization from the bulk plasma and then dominated by ionization from sheath accelerated secondary electrons. Depending on the speed of the underlying surface, the periodic re-ignition of the discharge can produce an oscillatory charging pattern on the moving surface.

  4. Charging of moving surfaces by corona discharges sustained in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Chieh; Zhang, Daihua; Leoni, Napoleon; Birecki, Henryk; Gila, Omer; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure corona discharges are used in electrophotographic (EP) printing technologies for charging imaging surfaces such as photoconductors. A typical corona discharge consists of a wire (or wire array) biased with a few hundred volts of dc plus a few kV of ac voltage. An electric discharge is produced around the corona wire from which electrons drift towards and charge the underlying dielectric surface. The surface charging reduces the voltage drop across the gap between the corona wire and the dielectric surface, which then terminates the discharge, as in a dielectric barrier discharge. In printing applications, this underlying surface is continuously moving throughout the charging process. For example, previously charged surfaces, which had reduced the local electric field and terminated the local discharge, are translated out of the field of view and are replaced with uncharged surface. The uncharged surface produces a rebound in the electric field in the vicinity of the corona wire which in turn results in re-ignition of the discharge. The discharge, so reignited, is then asymmetric. We found that in the idealized corona charging system we investigated, a negatively dc biased corona blade with a dielectric covered ground electrode, the discharge is initially sustained by electron impact ionization from the bulk plasma and then dominated by ionization from sheath accelerated secondary electrons. Depending on the speed of the underlying surface, the periodic re-ignition of the discharge can produce an oscillatory charging pattern on the moving surface.

  5. Dynamics and energetics of the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is to improve our understanding of the dynamics and energetics of the solar corona both in the quiescent dynamic equilibrium state when coronal structure is dominated by the equatorial streamer belt and in the eruptive state when coronal plasma is ejected into the interplanetary medium. Numerical solutions of the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations and comparisons of the computed results with observations form the core of the approach to achieving this objective. Some of the specific topics that have been studied are: (1) quiescent coronal streamers in an atmosphere dominated by a dipole magnetic field at large radii, (2) the formation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in quiescent streamers due to the emergence of new magnetic flux and due to photospheric shear motion, (3) MHD shock formation near the leading edge of CMEs, (4) coronal magnetic arcade eruption as a result of applied photospheric shear motion, and (5) the three-dimensional structure of CMEs.

  6. Corona-discharge-initiated mine explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, H.K.; Novak, T.

    2005-10-01

    Strong circumstantial evidence suggests that lightning has initiated methane explosions in abandoned and sealed areas of underground coal mines. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) investigated several of these occurrences within recent years. The investigated explosions occurred at significant depths, ranging from 700 to 1200 ft. Data from the National Lightning Detection Network indicated a strong correlation between the times and locations of the explosions with those of specific lightning strikes. This paper proposes that corona discharge from a steel borehole casing is the most likely mechanism responsible for these ignitions. A recently investigated mine explosion and fire at a depth greater than 1000 ft was selected for this study. Computer simulations were performed, using data collected at the mine site. CDEGS software from Safe Engineering Services & Technologies, Ltd. and MaxwellSV from Ansoft Corporation were used for the simulations.

  7. High Energy Particles in the Solar Corona

    E-print Network

    A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

    2008-04-16

    Collective Ampere law interactions producing magnetic flux tubes piercing through sunspots into and then out of the solar corona allow for low energy nuclear reactions in a steady state and high energy particle reactions if a magnetic flux tube explodes in a violent event such as a solar flare. Filamentous flux tubes themselves are vortices of Ampere currents circulating around in a tornado fashion in a roughly cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field lines are parallel to and largely confined within the core of the vortex. The vortices may thereby be viewed as long current carrying coils surrounding magnetic flux and subject to inductive Faraday and Ampere laws. These laws set the energy scales of (i) low energy solar nuclear reactions which may regularly occur and (ii) high energy electro-weak interactions which occur when magnetic flux coils explode into violent episodic events such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections.

  8. Rotation characteristics of the Fe XIV (5303 A) solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, D. G.; Fisher, R. R.; Altrock, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    The rotational characteristics of the solar corona as revealed by the coronal Fe XIV line at 5303 A are examined. Measurements of the intensity at 5303 A observed at a radius of 1.15 solar radii between 1973 and 1985 are presented. It is found that, on average, the Fe XIV corona rotates more rigidly than do features in the photosphere or chromosphere. The observations support the theory that the Fe XIV coronal signal arises from the effects of local heating on the large-scale density structure of the corona.

  9. The TESIS experiment on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Ignat'ev, A. P.; Pertsov, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Reva, A. A.; Slemzin, V. A.; Sukhodrev, N. K.; Ivanov, Yu. S.; Goncharov, L. A.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Popov, S. G.; Shergina, T. A.; Solov'ev, V. A.; Oparin, S. N.; Zykov, A. M.

    2011-04-01

    On February 26, 2009, the first data was obtained in the TESIS experiment on the research of the solar corona using imaging spectroscopy. The TESIS is a part of the scientific equipment of the CORONAS-PHO-TON spacecraft and is designed for imaging the solar corona in soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet regions of the spectrum with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions at altitudes from the transition region to three solar radii. The article describes the main characteristics of the instrumentation, management features, and operation modes.

  10. Coronae as a result of giant magma intrusions in the lithosphere of Venus: insights from laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Polteau, Stephane; Werner, Stephanie C.

    2013-04-01

    Coronae on the surface of Venus are unique volcano-tectonic structures in the solar systems. Their circular morphology is associated with various topographic signatures, from bell-shape domes, flat-topped plateaus, to uplifted rings surrounding a subsided centre similar to caldera. Their extensive size and associated lava flows erupting from their periphery, indicate that they result from deep processes in the Venus mantle. Understanding their origin is thus essential for unraveling the dynamics of Venus through time. There are several scenarios explaining the formation of coronae, the most popular being the interaction between an upwelling mantle plume and the lithosphere, creating dynamic topography. In this contribution, we propose that coronae can result from the emplacement of giant magma intrusions below the Venus' lithosphere, on the basis of laboratory experiments. The experimental apparatus consists of a square box filled with compacted fine-grained silica flour (model crust), in which a low viscosity vegetable oil (model magma) is injected at constant flow rate. The initial conditions are such that magma initially flows horizontally, forming a sill-like body, to simulate magmatic underplating. During the experiments, oil injection triggers deformation of the model surface, which is monitored periodically using a moiré projection device, producing time series topographic maps of the model surface. Our results show that the surface evolution of the models follows three stages: (1) initial bell-shaped doming occurs above the injection inlet, producing radial open fractures at the model surfaces; (2) the bell-shape dome evolves to a flat-topped plateau, at the rim of which the oil erupts; (3) after the injection stops, the centre of the plateau subsides, and a positive topographic ring surrounding a depression, like a caldera, remains. The collapse of the plateau also generates concentric extensional fractures at the rims of the caldera. After the dynamic experiment, the oil solidifies and we extracted the intrusion, which exhibits a sill-shape, feeding outward circular inclined sheets at its external edges (i.e. a saucer-shaped sill). From a series of experiments in which the depth of injection h was varied, we show that the diameter of the intrusion and its associated topographic structure correlates linearly with h. The three evolutionary stages simulated in the experiments reproduce remarkably well (1) the three main corona morphologies observed on Venus, and (2) their established succession through time. In addition, the relationships between the structures and the oil flow in our experiments are also similar to those observed on Venus. Therefore, our experimental results suggest that corona structures are the result of giant magma intrusions in the lithosphere of Venus. In addition, our experiments suggest that the diameters of coronae are related to the depth of emplacement of the underlying intrusions, which might be controlled by the rheological architecture of the Venus' lithosphere. Therefore, the analysis of the dimensions and morphologies of coronae are likely to provide crucial information of the structure of the lithosphere of Venus.

  11. Deep solar minimum and global climate changes

    PubMed Central

    Hady, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue. PMID:25685420

  12. Deep solar minimum and global climate changes.

    PubMed

    Hady, Ahmed A

    2013-05-01

    This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue. PMID:25685420

  13. Stereo Science Results at Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Eric R.; Kaiser, Michael L.; Kucera Therese A.; St. Cyr, O. C.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Mandrini, Cristina H.

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic fields that drive solar activity are complex and inherently three-dimensional structures. Twisted flux ropes, magnetic reconnection and the initiation of solar storms, as well as space weather propagation through the heliosphere, are just a few of the topics that cannot properly be observed or modeled in only two dimensions. Examination of this three-dimensional complex has been hampered by the fact that solar remote sensing observations have occurred only from the Earth-Sun line, and in situ observations, while available from a greater variety of locations, have been sparse throughout the heliosphere.

  14. Direct observation of silver nanoparticle-ubiquitin corona formation

    E-print Network

    Ding, Feng; Choudhary, Poonam; Chen, Ran; Brown, Jared M; Ke, Pu Chun

    2012-01-01

    Upon entering physiological environments, nanoparticles readily assume the form of a nanoparticle-protein corona that dictates their biological identity. Understanding the structure and dynamics of nanoparticle-protein corona is essential for predicting the fate, transport, and toxicity of nanomaterials in living systems and for enabling the vast applications of nanomedicine. We combined multiscale molecular dynamics simulations and complementary experiments to characterize the silver nanoparticle-ubiquitin corona formation. Specifically, ubiquitins competed with citrates for the nanoparticle surface and bound to the particle in a specific manner. Under a high protein/nanoparticle stoichiometry, ubiquitions formed a multi-layer corona on the particle surface. The binding exhibited an unusual stretched-exponential behavior, suggesting a rich kinetics originated from protein-protein, protein-citrate, and protein-nanoparticle interactions. Furthermore, the binding destabilized the {\\alpha}-helices while increasi...

  15. Experimental Tools to Study Molecular Recognition within the Nanoparticle Corona

    E-print Network

    Kruss, Sebastian

    Advancements in optical nanosensor development have enabled the design of sensors using synthetic molecular recognition elements through a recently developed method called Corona Phase Molecular Recognition (CoPhMoRe). The ...

  16. Study of the solar corona using radio and space observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The physics of coronal transients, the characteristics of radiation and accelerated particles at the time of flares, and the density/temperature structure of the transition region and corona and the coronal magnetic field are investigated.

  17. A Data-Driven Evolution Model for the Global Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X. S.; Jiang, C.; Xiang, C. Q.; Wu, S.

    2011-12-01

    In this work we have developed a new time-dependent global corona model for the study of dynamic evolution of the global corona that can respond continuously to the changing of the photospheric magnetogram. A surface flux transport (SFT) model is employed to produce the time-varying and self-consistent magnetogram with synoptic map as input. The global corona model is established with our newly-developed numerical code AMR-CESE-MHD on an overset grid of Yin-Yang overlapping structure. The SFT model and the three-dimensional global corona model is coupled through the boundary condition of projected-characteristic method. Numerical study of the coronal evolution from Carrington rotation 1913 to 1915 presents results comparable with multi-observed coronal images.

  18. HOT GASEOUS CORONAE AROUND SPIRAL GALAXIES: PROBING THE ILLUSTRIS SIMULATION

    E-print Network

    Vogelsberger, Mark

    The presence of hot gaseous coronae around present-day massive spiral galaxies is a fundamental prediction of galaxy formation models. However, our observational knowledge remains scarce, since to date only four gaseous ...

  19. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Topographic Highs on Venus to Produce Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Daniel M.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    Coronae on Venus are believed to result from the gravitationally driven relaxation of topography that was originally raised by mantle diapirs. We examine this relaxation using a viscoelastic finite element code, and show that an initially plateau shaped load will evolve to the characteristic corona topography of central raised bowl, annular rim, and surrounding moat. Stresses induced by the relaxation are consistent with the development of concentric extensional fracturing common on the outer margins of corona moats. However, relaxation is not expected to produce the concentric faulting often observed on the annular rim. The relaxation timescale is shorter than the diapir cooling timescale, so loss of thermal support controls the rate at which topography is reduced. The final corona shape is supported by buoyancy and flexural stresses and will persist through geologic time. Development of lower, flatter central bowls and narrower and more pronounced annular rims and moats enhanced by thicker crusts, higher thermal gradients, and crustal thinning over the diapir.

  20. Icy wave-cloud lunar corona and cirrus iridescence.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph A; Pust, Nathan J

    2011-10-01

    Dual-polarization lidar data and radiosonde data are used to determine that iridescence in cirrus and a lunar corona in a thin wave cloud were caused by tiny ice crystals, not droplets of liquid water. The size of the corona diffraction rings recorded in photographs is used to estimate the mean diameter of the diffracting particles to be 14.6 ?m, much smaller than conventional ice crystals. The iridescent cloud was located at the tropopause [~11-13.6 km above mean sea level (ASL)] with temperature near -70 °C, while the more optically pure corona was located at approximately 9.5 km ASL with temperature nearing -60 °C. Lidar cross-polarization ratios of 0.5 and 0.4 confirm that ice formed both the iridescence and the corona, respectively. PMID:22016246

  1. Observations of corona in triggered dart-stepped leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.

    2015-03-01

    Corona streamers are a critical component of lightning leader step formation and are postulated to produce the very high electric fields at their tips that produce runaway electrons resulting in the observed X-ray bursts associated with leader stepping. Corona emanating from the vicinity of the leader tip between leader steps was analyzed using three sequential high-speed video sequences of dart-stepped leaders in three different triggered lightning flashes during the summers of 2013 and 2014 in northeast Florida. Images were recorded at 648 kiloframes per second (1.16 µs exposure time, 380 ns dead time) at an altitude of 65 m or less. In each image sequence, the leader propagates downward in consecutive frames, with corona streamers observed to fan outward from the bright leader tip in less than the image frame time of about 1.5 µs. In 21 exposures, corona streamers propagate, on average, 9 m below the bright leader tip.

  2. Scintillation effects on radio wave propagation through solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Sue, M. K.; Bedrossian, A.; Sniffin, R. W.

    2002-01-01

    When RF waves pass through the solar corona and solar wind regions close to the Sun, strong scintillation effects appear at their amplitude, frequency and phase, especially in the regions very close to the Sun (less than 4 solar radius).

  3. Experimental Tools to Study Molecular Recognition within the Nanoparticle Corona

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Markita P.; Kruss, Sebastian; Nelson, Justin T.; Bisker, Gili; Iverson, Nicole M.; Reuel, Nigel F.; Strano, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in optical nanosensor development have enabled the design of sensors using syntheticmolecular recognition elements through a recently developed method called Corona Phase MolecularRecognition (CoPhMoRe). The synthetic sensors resulting from these design principles are highly selective for specific analytes, and demonstrate remarkable stability for use under a variety of conditions. An essential element of nanosensor development hinges on the ability to understand the interface between nanoparticles and the associated corona phase surrounding the nanosensor, an environment outside of the range of traditional characterization tools, such as NMR. This review discusses the need for new strategies and instrumentation to study the nanoparticle corona, operating in both in vitro and in vivo environments. Approaches to instrumentation must have the capacity to concurrently monitor nanosensor operation and the molecular changes in the corona phase. A detailed overview of new tools for the understanding of CoPhMoRe mechanisms is provided for future applications. PMID:25184487

  4. Shock Acceleration in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandroos, Arto

    2010-03-01

    In this thesis acceleration of energetic particles at collisionless shock waves in space plasmas is studied using numerical simulations, with an emphasis on physical conditions applicable to the solar corona. The thesis consists of four research articles and an introductory part that summarises the main findings reached in the articles and discusses them with respect to theory of diffusive shock acceleration and observations. This thesis gives a brief review of observational properties of solar energetic particles and discusses a few open questions that are currently under active research. For example, in a few large gradual solar energetic particle events the heavy ion abundance ratios and average charge states show characteristics at high energies that are typically associated with flare-accelerated particles, i.e. impulsive events. The role of flare-accelerated particles in these and other gradual events has been discussed a lot in the scientific community, and it has been questioned if and how the observed features can be explained in terms of diffusive shock acceleration at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections. The most extreme solar energetic particle events are the so-called ground level enhancements where particle receive so high energies that they can penetrate all the way through Earth's atmosphere and increase radiation levels at the surface. It is not known what conditions are required for acceleration into GeV/nuc energies, and the presence of both very fast coronal mass ejections and X-class solar flares makes it difficult to determine what is the role of these two accelerators in ground level enhancements. The theory of diffusive shock acceleration is reviewed and its predictions discussed with respect to the observed particle characteristics. We discuss how shock waves can be modeled and describe in detail the numerical model developed by the author. The main part of this thesis consists of the four scientific articles that are based on results of the numerical shock acceleration model developed by the author. The novel feature of this model is that it can handle complex magnetic geometries which are found, for example, near active regions in the solar corona. We show that, according to our simulations, diffusive shock acceleration can explain the observed variations in abundance ratios and average charge states, provided that suitable seed particles and magnetic geometry are available for the acceleration process in the solar corona. We also derive an injection threshold for diffusive shock acceleration that agrees with our simulation results very well, and which is valid under weakly turbulent conditions. Finally, we show that diffusive shock acceleration can produce GeV/nuc energies under suitable coronal conditions, which include the presence of energetic seed particles, a favourable magnetic geometry, and an enhanced level of ambient turbulence.

  5. Elastic Thickness Estimates for Coronae Associated with Chasmata on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Martin, P.; Housean, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    Coronae are large-scale circular tectonic features surrounded by annular ridges. They are generally considered unique to Venus and may offer insights into the differences in lithospheric structure or mantle convective pattern between Venus and Earth. 68% of all coronae are associated with chasmata or fracture belts. The remaining 32% are located at volcanic rises or in the plains. Chasmata are linear to arcuate troughs, with trough parallel fractures and faults which extend for 1000 s of kilometers. Estimates of the elastic thickness of the lithosphere (T(sub e)) have been calculated in a number of gravity/topography studies of Venus and for coronae specifically. None of these studies, however, have explored the dependence of T(sub e) on the tectonic history of the region, as implied from the interpretation of relative timing relationships between coronae and surrounding features. We examine the relationship between the local T(sub e) and the relative ages of coronae and chasmata with the aim of further constraining the origin and evolution of coronae and chasmata systems.

  6. The theory of positive glow corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, R.

    1997-11-01

    A theory for the current and light pulses of positive glow corona from a point in air is presented; this phenomenon was first observed as an apparently continuous glow by Michael Faraday. Results are obtained, in concentric sphere geometry, for air at atmospheric pressure, by solving the continuity equations for electrons, positive ions, negative ions and metastable oxygen molecules, coupled with Poisson's equation. A series of `saw-toothed' current pulses of period about 0022-3727/30/22/008/img1 is predicted with a DC current level. Accompanying the current peaks are discrete pulses of light 30 ns wide. Successive `shells' of positive ions, from successive current pulses, carry 96% of the mean current. The mean current - voltage relationship has the classic square-law form. The seed electrons required for successive pulses are detached from negative ions by metastable oxygen molecules. Photo-ionization is crucial for the discharge at the anode and for the formation of negative ions throughout the gap. The pulse frequency varies with applied voltage and is found to be approximately proportional to the positive-ion mobility. The surface electric field at the central electrode remains close to Peek's onset field. The origin of onset streamers is explained and sub-microsecond voltage pulses are found to produce streamers. The results for concentric-cylinder electrodes are described briefly.

  7. Titan's corona: The contribution of exothermic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Haye, V.; Waite, J. H.; Cravens, T. E.; Nagy, A. F.; Johnson, R. E.; Lebonnois, S.; Robertson, I. P.

    2007-11-01

    The contribution of exothermic ion and neutral chemistry to Titan's corona is studied. The production rates for fast neutrals N 2, CH 4, H, H 2, 3CH 2, CH 3, C 2H 4, C 2H 5, C 2H 6, N( 4S), NH, and HCN are determined using a coupled ion and neutral model of Titan's upper atmosphere. After production, the formation of the suprathermal particles is modeled using a two-stream simulation, as they travel simultaneously through a thermal mixture of N 2, CH 4, and H 2. The resulting suprathermal fluxes, hot density profiles, and energy distributions are compared to the N 2 and CH 4 INMS exospheric data presented in [De La Haye, V., Waite Jr., J.H., Johnson, R.E., Yelle, R.V., Cravens, T.E., Luhmann, J.G., Kasprzak, W.T., Gell, D.A., Magee, B., Leblanc, F., Michael, M., Jurac, S., Robertson, I.P., 2007. J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2006JA012222, in press], and are found insufficient for producing the suprathermal populations measured. Global losses of nitrogen atoms and carbon atoms in all forms due to exothermic chemistry are estimated to be 8.3×10 Ns and 7.2×10 Cs.

  8. Bright point study. [of solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona.

  9. Galactic Corona or Local Group Intergalactic Medium?

    E-print Network

    Rik J. Williams; Smita Mathur; Fabrizio Nicastro

    2005-11-21

    Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations predict that the low redshift universe comprises a web of warm-hot intergalactic gas and galaxies, with groups of galaxies and clusters forming at dense knots in these filaments. Our own Galaxy being no exception is also expected to be surrounded by the warm-hot intergalactic medium, filling the Local Group. Some theoretical models also predict the existence of a hot Galactic corona. With X-ray and FUV observations of extragalactic sources, we can probe the warm-hot gas through absorption lines of highly ionized elements. Indeed, Chandra, XMM and FUSE observations have detected z=0 absorption lines toward many sightlines. The debate that has emerged is over the interpretation of these observations: are the z=0 absorption systems from the halo of our Galaxy or from the extended Local Group environment? This has important implications for our understanding of the mass of the Local Group, the physical conditions in the intergalactic medium, the structure of the Galaxy and galaxy formation in general. We will present the current status of the debate and discuss our ongoing observing program aimed at understanding the z=0 absorption systems, with an emphasis on the high quality Chandra spectra of the Mrk 421 and Mrk 279 sightlines.

  10. Direct observation of a single nanoparticle-ubiquitin corona formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Feng; Radic, Slaven; Chen, Ran; Chen, Pengyu; Geitner, Nicholas K.; Brown, Jared M.; Ke, Pu Chun

    2013-09-01

    The advancement of nanomedicine and the increasing applications of nanoparticles in consumer products have led to administered biological exposure and unintentional environmental accumulation of nanoparticles, causing concerns over the biocompatibility and sustainability of nanotechnology. Upon entering physiological environments, nanoparticles readily assume the form of a nanoparticle-protein corona that dictates their biological identity. Consequently, understanding the structure and dynamics of a nanoparticle-protein corona is essential for predicting the fate, transport, and toxicity of nanomaterials in living systems and for enabling the vast applications of nanomedicine. Here we combined multiscale molecular dynamics simulations and complementary experiments to characterize the silver nanoparticle-ubiquitin corona formation. Notably, ubiquitins competed with citrates for the nanoparticle surface, governed by specific electrostatic interactions. Under a high protein/nanoparticle stoichiometry, ubiquitins formed a multi-layer corona on the particle surface. The binding exhibited an unusual stretched-exponential behavior, suggesting a rich binding kinetics. Furthermore, the binding destabilized the ?-helices while increasing the ?-sheet content of the proteins. This study revealed the atomic and molecular details of the structural and dynamic characteristics of nanoparticle-protein corona formation.The advancement of nanomedicine and the increasing applications of nanoparticles in consumer products have led to administered biological exposure and unintentional environmental accumulation of nanoparticles, causing concerns over the biocompatibility and sustainability of nanotechnology. Upon entering physiological environments, nanoparticles readily assume the form of a nanoparticle-protein corona that dictates their biological identity. Consequently, understanding the structure and dynamics of a nanoparticle-protein corona is essential for predicting the fate, transport, and toxicity of nanomaterials in living systems and for enabling the vast applications of nanomedicine. Here we combined multiscale molecular dynamics simulations and complementary experiments to characterize the silver nanoparticle-ubiquitin corona formation. Notably, ubiquitins competed with citrates for the nanoparticle surface, governed by specific electrostatic interactions. Under a high protein/nanoparticle stoichiometry, ubiquitins formed a multi-layer corona on the particle surface. The binding exhibited an unusual stretched-exponential behavior, suggesting a rich binding kinetics. Furthermore, the binding destabilized the ?-helices while increasing the ?-sheet content of the proteins. This study revealed the atomic and molecular details of the structural and dynamic characteristics of nanoparticle-protein corona formation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental and computational methods as well as supporting figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02147e

  11. Formation of Relativistic Outflows in Shearing Black Hole Accretion Coronae

    E-print Network

    Prasad Subramanian; Peter A. Becker; Demosthenes Kazanas

    1999-03-22

    We examine the possibility that the relativistic jets observed in many active galactic nuclei may be powered by the Fermi acceleration of protons in a tenuous corona above a two-temperature accretion disk. In this picture the acceleration arises as a consequence of the shearing motion of the magnetic field in the corona, which is anchored in the underlying Keplerian disk. The protons in the corona have a power-law distribution because the density there is too low for proton-proton collisions to thermalize the energy supplied via Fermi acceleration. The same shear acceleration mechanism also operates in the disk itself, however, there the density is high enough for thermalization to occur and consequently the disk protons have a Maxwellian distribution. Particle acceleration in the corona leads to the development of a pressure-driven wind that passes through a critical point and subsequently transforms into a relativistic jet at large distances from the black hole. We combine the critical conditions for the wind with the structure equations for the disk and the corona to obtain a coupled disk/corona/wind model. Using the coupled model we compute the asymptotic Lorentz factor $\\Gamma_\\infty$ of the jet as a function of the cylindrical starting radius at the base of the outflow, in the corona. Our results suggest that $\\Gamma_\\infty \\lapprox 10$, which is consistent with observations of superluminal motion in blazars. We show that collisions between the jet and broad-line emission clouds can produce high-energy radiation with a luminosity sufficient to power the $\\gamma$-rays observed from blazars. Subject headings: radiation mechanisms: non-thermal, accretion, accretion disks, acceleration of particles, gamma rays: theory

  12. Discovering New R Coronae Borealis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tisserand, Patrick; Welch, Douglas L.; LeBleu, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs, or a final helium shell flash in a PN central star. The evidence pointing toward a white-dwarf merger or a final-flash origin for RCB stars is contradictory. The distribution on the sky and radial velocities of the RCB stars tend toward those of the bulge population but a much larger sample of stars is needed to determine the true population. We need to discover RCB stars much more efficiently. In order to do this, we have used a series of IR color-color cuts, using the recent release of the WISE All-Sky Catalog, to produce a sample of 2200 candidates that may yield over 200 new RCB star identifications. Most of these candidates do not have lightcurves, the traditional technique of identifying RCB stars from their characteristic large and irregular light variations. We have obtained optical spectra of several hundred candidates and have confirmed over 40 new RCB stars in the Galaxy. We are attempting to develop a quantitative spectral classification system for the RCB stars so that they can be identified without an accompanying light curve. The cooler RCB stars look like carbon stars with strong C2 bands, but they can be differentiated from carbon stars by their extreme hydrogen deficiency and very low 13C/12C ratio. Also, the red CN bands are much weaker in RCB stars than in carbon stars. The number of RCB stars in the Galaxy may be consistent with the predicted number of He/CO white-dwarf mergers. Solving the mystery of how the RCB stars evolve would be a watershed event in the study of stellar evolution that will lead to a better understanding of other important types of stellar merger events such as Type Ia SNe.

  13. Evidence for wave heating in the solar corona.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Michael

    2013-07-01

    The temperature of the Sun increases over a short distance from a few thousand degrees in the photosphere to over a million degrees in the corona. To understand coronal heating is one of the major problems in astrophysics. There is general agreement that the energy source is convective motion in and below the photosphere. It remains to determine how this mechanical energy is transported outward into the corona and then deposited as heat. Two classes of models have been proposed, namely those that rely on magnetic reconnection and those that rely on waves, particularly Alfvén waves. There is increasing evidence that waves are ubiquitous in the corona. However, a difficulty for wave-driven models has been that most theories predict Alfvén waves to be undamped in the corona, and therefore they cannot dissipate their energy into heat. Our research has shown unambiguous observational evidence that the waves do damp at sufficiently low heights in the corona to be important for coronal heating. PMID:23676178

  14. Properties of optically thick coronae around accreting black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmont, R.; Ró?a?ska, A.; Malzac, J.; Czerny, B.; Petrucci, P.-O.

    2015-12-01

    Accreting black holes are complex sources exhibiting several spectral components (disc, jet, hot corona etc). The exact nature and the interplay between these components is still uncertain, and constraining the accretion flow in the vicinity of the compact object has become a key problem to understand the general physics of accretion and ejection. In the past years, the X-ray spectra of several X-ray binaries and AGN have suggested the existence of a new type of coronae in the inner part of their accretion disk. These coronae are warm (about 1 keV) and have Thomson optical depths of about ? ? 10, much larger than the standard comptonizing medium inferred in black hole systems. However, simple radiative models based on the diffusion approximation are unable to sustain a large temperature over such high optical depths, therefore questioning existence of these thick coronae. Here we investigate the radiative and hydrostatic properties of slabs, thick coronae covering a standard accretion disc. A precise modelling of the radiation transfer shows that the observed temperature inversion can be reproduced, provided that most of the accretion power is dissipated in this upper layer and that the medium is strongly magnetised.

  15. Systems Biology: unravelling complex networks? Peter Grindrod, Des Higham, Keith Vass and Alastair Spence

    E-print Network

    Scheichl, Robert

    Systems Biology: unravelling complex networks? Peter Grindrod, Des Higham, Keith Vass and Alastair;Systems Biology: unravelling complex networks? Peter Grindrod (University of Bath and University of Oxford explosion of possible cooperative/interactive relations between genes (epistasis)? The larger picture

  16. The Structure and Dynamics of the Corona - Heliosphere Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.; Linker, Jon A.; Lionello, Roberto; Mikic, Zoran; Titov, Viacheslav; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the source at the Sun of the slow solar wind is one of the major unsolved problems in solar and heliospheric physics. First, we review the existing theories for the slow wind and argue that they have difficulty accounting for both the observed composition of the wind and its large angular extent. A new theory in which the slow wind originates from the continuous opening and closing of narrow open field corridors, the S-Web model, is described. Support for the S-Web model is derived from MHD solutions for the quasisteady corona and wind during the time of the August 1, 2008 eclipse. Additionally, we perform fully dynamic numerical simulations of the corona and heliosphere in order to test the S-Web model as well as the interchange model proposed by Fisk and co-workers. We discuss the implications of our simulations for the competing theories and for understanding the corona - heliosphere connection, in general.

  17. The Structure and Dynamics of the Corona - Heliosphere Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.; Linker, Jon A.; Lionello, Roberto; Mikic, Zoran; Titov, Viacheslav; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the source at the Sun of the slow solar wind is one of the major unsolved problems in solar and heliospheric physics. First, we review the existing theories for the slow wind and argue that they have difficulty accounting for both the observed composition of the wind and its large angular extent. A new theory in which the slow wind originates from the continuous opening and closing of narrow open field corridors, the S-Web model, is described. Support for the S-Web model is derived from MHD solutions for the quasisteady corona and wind during the time of the August 1, 2008 eclipse. Additionally, we perform fully dynamic numerical simulations of the corona and heliosphere in order to test the S-Web model as well as the interchange model proposed by Fisk and co-workers. We discuss the implications of our simulations for the competing theories and for understanding the corona - heliosphere connection, in general.

  18. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  19. Probing the solar corona with very long baseline interferometry.

    PubMed

    Soja, B; Heinkelmann, R; Schuh, H

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and monitoring the solar corona and solar wind is important for many applications like telecommunications or geomagnetic studies. Coronal electron density models have been derived by various techniques over the last 45 years, principally by analysing the effect of the corona on spacecraft tracking. Here we show that recent observational data from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), a radio technique crucial for astrophysics and geodesy, could be used to develop electron density models of the Sun's corona. The VLBI results agree well with previous models from spacecraft measurements. They also show that the simple spherical electron density model is violated by regional density variations and that on average the electron density in active regions is about three times that of low-density regions. Unlike spacecraft tracking, a VLBI campaign would be possible on a regular basis and would provide highly resolved spatial-temporal samplings over a complete solar cycle. PMID:24946791

  20. Induced scattering limits on fast radio bursts from stellar coronae

    E-print Network

    Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    The origin of fast radio bursts remains a puzzle. Suggestions have been made that they are produced within the Earth atmosphere, in stellar coronae, in other galaxies or at cosmological distances. If they are extraterrestrial, the implied brightness temperature is very high, and therefore, the induced scattering places constraints on possible models. In this paper, constraints are obtained on flares from coronae of nearby stars. It is shown that the radio pulses with the observed power could not be generated if the plasma density within and in the nearest vicinity of the source is as high as it is necessary in order to provide the observed dispersion measure. However, one cannot exclude a possibility that the pulses are generated within a bubble with a very low density and pass through the dense plasma only in the outer corona.

  1. Probing the solar corona with very long baseline interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Soja, B.; Heinkelmann, R.; Schuh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and monitoring the solar corona and solar wind is important for many applications like telecommunications or geomagnetic studies. Coronal electron density models have been derived by various techniques over the last 45 years, principally by analysing the effect of the corona on spacecraft tracking. Here we show that recent observational data from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), a radio technique crucial for astrophysics and geodesy, could be used to develop electron density models of the Sun’s corona. The VLBI results agree well with previous models from spacecraft measurements. They also show that the simple spherical electron density model is violated by regional density variations and that on average the electron density in active regions is about three times that of low-density regions. Unlike spacecraft tracking, a VLBI campaign would be possible on a regular basis and would provide highly resolved spatial–temporal samplings over a complete solar cycle. PMID:24946791

  2. Comparison of direct current and 50?Hz alternating current microscopic corona characteristics on conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang

    2014-06-15

    Corona discharge is one of the major design factors for extra-high voltage and ultra-high voltage DC/AC transmission lines. Under different voltages, corona discharge reveals different characteristics. This paper aims at investigating DC and AC coronas on the microscopic scale. To obtain the specific characteristics of DC and AC coronas, a new measurement approach that utilizes a coaxial wire-cylinder corona cage is designed in this paper, and wires of different diameters are used in the experiment. Based on the measurements, the respective microscopic characteristics of DC and AC coronas are analyzed and compared. With differences in characteristics between DC and AC coronas proposed, this study provides useful insights into DC/AC corona discharges on transmission line applications.

  3. An XMM-Newton Study of the Coronae of $?^2$ Coronae Borealis

    E-print Network

    J. A. Suh; M. Audard; M. Guedel; F. B. S. Paerels

    2005-06-10

    (Abridged) We present results of XMM-Newton observations of the RS CVn binary $\\sigma^2$ Coronae Borealis. The RGS and EPIC MOS2 spectra were simultaneously fitted with collisional ionization equilibrium plasma models to determine coronal abundances of various elements. Contrary to the solar first ionization potential (FIP) effect in which elements with a low FIP are overabundant in the corona compared to the solar photosphere, and contrary to the ``inverse'' FIP effect observed in several active RS CVn binaries, coronal abundance ratios in $\\sigma^2$ CrB show a complex pattern as supported by similar findings in the Chandra HETGS analysis of $\\sigma^2$ CrB with a different methodology (Osten et al. 2003). Low-FIP elements ($<10$ eV) have their abundance ratios relative to Fe consistent with the solar photospheric ratios, whereas high-FIP elements have their abundance ratios increase with increasing FIP. We find that the coronal Fe abundance is consistent with the stellar photospheric value, indicating that there is no metal depletion in $\\sigma^2$ CrB. However, we obtain a higher Fe absolute abundance than in Osten et al. (2003). Except for Ar and S, our absolute abundances are about 1.5 times larger than those reported by Osten et al. (2003). However, a comparison of their model with our XMM-Newton data (and vice versa) shows that both models work adequately in general. We find, therefore, no preference for one methodology over the other to derive coronal abundances. Despite the systematic discrepancy in absolute abundances, our abundance ratios are very close to those obtained by Osten et al. (2003). Finally, we confirm the measurement of a low density in \\ion{O}{7} ($< 4 \\times 10^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$), but could not confirm the higher densities measured in spectral lines formed at higher temperatures.

  4. Radio Remote Sensing of the Corona and the Solar Wind

    E-print Network

    Steven R. Spangler; Catherine A. Whiting

    2008-09-26

    Modern radio telescopes are extremely sensitive to plasma on the line of sight from a radio source to the antenna. Plasmas in the corona and solar wind produce measurable changes in the radio wave amplitude and phase, and the phase difference between wave fields of opposite circular polarization. Such measurements can be made of radio waves from spacecraft transmitters and extragalactic radio sources, using radio telescopes and spacecraft tracking antennas. Data have been taken at frequencies from about 80 MHz to 8000 MHz. Lower frequencies probe plasma at greater heliocentric distances. Analysis of these data yields information on the plasma density, density fluctuations, and plasma flow speeds in the corona and solar wind, and on the magnetic field in the solar corona. This paper will concentrate on the information that can be obtained from measurements of Faraday rotation through the corona and inner solar wind. The magnitude of Faraday rotation is proportional to the line of sight integral of the plasma density and the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field. Faraday rotation provides an almost unique means of estimating the magnetic field in this part of space. This technique has contributed to measurement of the large scale coronal magnetic field, the properties of electromagnetic turbulence in the corona, possible detection of electrical currents in the corona, and probing of the internal structure of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This paper concentrates on the search for small-scale coronal turbulence and remote sensing of the structure of CMEs. Future investigations with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) or Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) could provide unique observational input on the astrophysics of CMEs.

  5. The Structure and Dynamics of the Corona—Heliosphere Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.; Linker, Jon A.; Lionello, Roberto; Miki?, Zoran; Titov, Viacheslav; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2012-11-01

    Determining how the heliospheric magnetic field and plasma connect to the Sun's corona and photosphere is, perhaps, the central problem in solar and heliospheric physics. For much of the heliosphere, this connection appears to be well understood. It is now generally accepted that so-called coronal holes, which appear dark in X-rays and are predominantly unipolar at the photosphere, are the sources of quasi-steady wind that is generally fast, >500 km/s, but can sometimes be slow. However, the connection to the Sun of the slow, non-steady wind is far from understood and remains a major mystery. We review the existing theories for the sources of the non-steady wind and demonstrate that they have difficulty accounting for both the observed composition of the wind and its large angular extent. A new theory is described in which this wind originates from the continuous opening and closing of narrow open field corridors in the corona, which give rise to a web of separatrices (the S-Web) in the heliosphere. Note that in this theory the corona—heliosphere connection is intrinsically dynamic, at least for this type of wind. Support for the S-Web model is derived from MHD solutions for the corona and wind during the time of the August 1, 2008 eclipse. Additionally, we perform fully dynamic numerical simulations of the corona and heliosphere in order to test the S-Web model as well as the interchange model proposed by Fisk and co-workers. We discuss the implications of our simulations for the competing theories and for understanding the corona—heliosphere connection, in general.

  6. Patchy reconnection in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoni, Silvina Esther

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic reconnection in plasmas, a process characterized by a change in connectivity of field lines that are broken and connected to other ones with different topology, owes its usefulness to its ability to unify a wide range of phenomena within a single universal principle. There are newly observed phenomena in the solar corona that cannot be reconciled with two-dimensional or steady-state standard models of magnetic reconnection. Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) and supra-arcade downflowing loops (SADLs) descending from reconnection regions toward solar post-flare arcades seem to be two different observational signatures of retracting, isolated reconnected flux tubes with irreducible three-dimensional geometries. This dissertation describes work in refining and improving a novel model of patchy reconnection, where only a small bundle of field lines is reconnected across a current sheet (magnetic discontinuity) and forms a reconnected thin flux tube. Traditional models have not been able to explain why some of the observed SADs appear to be hot and relatively devoid of plasma. The present work shows that plasma depletion naturally occurs in flux tubes that are reconnected across nonuniform current sheets and slide trough regions of decreasing magnetic field magnitude. Moreover, through a detailed theoretical analysis of generalized thin flux tube equations, we show that the addition to the model of pressure-driven parallel dynamics, as well as temperature-dependent, anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity is essential for self-consistently producing gas-dynamic shocks inside reconnected tubes that heat and compress plasma to observed temperatures and densities. The shock thickness can be as long as the entire tube and heat can be conducted along tube's legs, possibly driving chromospheric evaporation. We developed a computer program that solves numerically the thin flux tube equations that govern the retraction of reconnected tubes. Simulations carried out with this program corroborate our theoretical predictions. A comparison of these simulations with fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations is presented to assess the validity of the thin flux tube model. We also present an observational method based on total emission measure and mean temperature to determine where in the current sheet a tube was reconnected.

  7. Symmetries of general non-Markovian Gaussian diffusive unravelings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budini, Adrián A.

    2015-11-01

    By using a condition of average trace preservation we rederive a general class of non-Markovian Gaussian diffusive unravelings [L. Diósi and L. Ferialdi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 200403 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.200403], here valid for arbitrary non-Hermitian system operators and noise correlations. The conditions under which the generalized stochastic Schrödinger equation has the same symmetry properties (invariance under unitary changes of operator base) as a microscopic system-bath Hamiltonian dynamics are determined. While the standard quantum diffusion model (standard noise correlations) always shares the same invariance symmetry, the generalized stochastic dynamics can be mapped with an arbitrary bosonic environment only if some specific correlation constraints are fulfilled. These features are analyzed for different non-Markovian unravelings equivalent on average. Results based on quantum measurement theory that leads to specific cases of the generalized dynamics [J. Gambetta and H. M. Wiseman, Phys. Rev. A 66, 012108 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevA.66.012108] are studied from the perspective of the present analysis.

  8. A theory of heating of quiet solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C. S.; Yoon, P. H.; Wang, C. B.

    2015-03-15

    A theory is proposed to discuss the creation of hot solar corona. We pay special attention to the transition region and the low corona, and consider that the sun is quiet. The proposed scenario suggests that the protons are heated by intrinsic Alfvénic turbulence, while the ambient electrons are heated by the hot protons via collisions. The theory contains two prime components: the generation of the Alfvénic fluctuations by the heavy minor ions in the transition region and second, the explanation of the temperature profile in the low solar atmosphere. The proposed heating process operates continuously in time and globally in space.

  9. The Differential Emission Measure Distribution in the Multiloop Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2002-11-01

    This is a rebuttal of a recent Letter on the inadequacy of temperature measurements in the solar corona through narrowband filter and line ratios by Martens et al. We simulate the differential emission measure (DEM) distribution of a multiloop corona and find that the temperature profile of individual loops can be retrieved with narrowband filter ratios. The apparently flat DEM distributions constructed from Coronal Diagnostics Spectrometer line fluxes by Schmelz et al. are an artifact of a smoothing function (in temperature), while the unsmoothed DEM distribution reveals multiple peaks of near-isothermal loops.

  10. Fabrication of Corona-Free Nanoparticles with Tunable Hydrophobicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A protein corona is formed at the surface of nanoparticles in the presence of biological fluids, masking the surface properties of the particle and complicating the relationship between chemical functionality and biological effects. We present here a series of zwitterionic NPs of variable hydrophobicity that do not adsorb proteins at moderate levels of serum protein and do not form hard coronas at physiological serum concentrations. These particles provide platforms to evaluate nanobiological behavior such as cell uptake and hemolysis dictated directly by chemical motifs at the nanoparticle surface. PMID:24971670

  11. Modeling Jets in the Corona and Solar Wind

    E-print Network

    Torok, T; Titov, V S; Leake, J E; Mikic, Z; Linker, J A; Linton, M G

    2015-01-01

    Coronal jets are transient, collimated eruptions that occur in regions of predominantly open magnetic field in the solar corona. Our understanding of these events has greatly evolved in recent years but several open questions, such as the contribution of coronal jets to the solar wind, remain. Here we present an overview of the observations and numerical modeling of coronal jets, followed by a brief description of "next-generation" simulations that include an advanced description of the energy transfer in the corona ("thermodynamic MHD"), large spherical computational domains, and the solar wind. These new models will allow us to address some of the open questions.

  12. Corona graphs as a model of small-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Qian; Yi, Yuhao; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2015-11-01

    We introduce recursive corona graphs as a model of small-world networks. We investigate analytically the critical characteristics of the model, including order and size, degree distribution, average path length, clustering coefficient, and the number of spanning trees, as well as Kirchhoff index. Furthermore, we study the spectra for the adjacency matrix and the Laplacian matrix for the model. We obtain explicit results for all the quantities of the recursive corona graphs, which are similar to those observed in real-life networks.

  13. Simultaneous Observation of High Temperature Plasma of Solar Corona By TESIS CORONAS-PHOTON and XRT Hinode.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reva, A.; Kuzin, S.; Bogachev, S.; Shestov, S.

    2012-05-01

    The Mg XII spectroheliograph is a part of instrumentation complex TESIS (satellite CORONAS-PHOTON). This instrument builds monochromatic images of hot plasma of the solar corona (? = 8.42 Å, T>5 MK). The Mg XII spectroheliograph observed hot plasma in the non-flaring active-region NOAA 11019 during nine days. We reconstructed DEM of this active region with the help of genetic algorithm (we used data of the Mg XII spectroheliograph, XRT and EIT). Emission measure of the hot component amounts 1 % of the emission measure of the cool component.

  14. Venus: Craters, Coronae, and Chasmata Donna M. Jurdy

    E-print Network

    Jurdy, Donna M.

    Venus: Craters, Coronae, and Chasmata Donna M. Jurdy Northwestern University #12;Early View of Venus #12;#12;Venus, as seen by Veneras 9 and 10 #12;Venus as seen by Venera 13 (1-Mar-1982) #12;Pioneer Venus Topography #12;Inner Solar System Hypsographic Comparisons #12;Magellan Deployment #12;Magellan

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER The Corona lava tube, Lanzarote: geology, habitat diversity

    E-print Network

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    Biología Animal, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain A. Martínez . Mesozoicdistributions Introduction The Corona lava tube on Lanzarote, Canary Islands is the 15th longest lava tube, 3000 Helsingør, Denmark S. Koenemann Institute for Animal Ecology and Cell Biology, University

  16. Semi-analytical modelling of positive corona discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontiga, Francisco; Yanallah, Khelifa; Chen, Junhong

    2013-09-01

    Semianalytical approximate solutions of the spatial distribution of electric field and electron and ion densities have been obtained by solving Poisson's equations and the continuity equations for the charged species along the Laplacian field lines. The need to iterate for the correct value of space charge on the corona electrode has been eliminated by using the corona current distribution over the grounded plane derived by Deutsch, which predicts a cos m ? law similar to Warburg's law. Based on the results of the approximated model, a parametric study of the influence of gas pressure, the corona wire radius, and the inter-electrode wire-plate separation has been carried out. Also, the approximate solutions of the electron number density has been combined with a simplified plasma chemistry model in order to compute the ozone density generated by the corona discharge in the presence of a gas flow. This work was supported by the Consejeria de Innovacion, Ciencia y Empresa (Junta de Andalucia) and by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, Spain, within the European Regional Development Fund contracts FQM-4983 and FIS2011-25161.

  17. Ultralong optical-pulse corona preionized XeCl laser

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.S.; Leopold, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    A simple corona preionization scheme together with magnetic spiker and pulse forming line technology has resulted in the production of 100-mJ, 1-..mu..s duration as well as 500-mJ, 0.5-..mu..s duration XeCl laser pulses.

  18. On the Size of Structures in the Solar Corona

    E-print Network

    C. E. DeForest

    2007-02-22

    Fine-scale structure in the corona appears not to be well resolved by current imaging instruments. Assuming this to be true offers a simple geometric explanation for several current puzzles in coronal physics, including: the apparent uniform cross-section of bright threadlike structures in the corona; the low EUV contrast (long apparent scale height) between the top and bottom of active region loops; and the inconsistency between loop densities derived by spectral and photometric means. Treating coronal loops as a mixture of diffuse background and very dense, unresolved filamentary structures address these problems with a combination of high plasma density within the structures, which greatly increases the emissivity of the structures, and geometric effects that attenuate the apparent brightness of the feature at low altitudes. It also suggests a possible explanation for both the surprisingly high contrast of EUV coronal loops against the coronal background, and the uniform ``typical'' height of the bright portion of the corona (about 0.3 solar radii) in full-disk EUV images. Some ramifications of this picture are discussed, including an estimate (10-100 km) of the fundamental scale of strong heating events in the corona.

  19. Quantitative Evidence for Wave Heating of the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Daniel Wolf; Hahn, Michael

    2015-08-01

    One of the major theories to explain the heating of the solar corona is that waves carry the required energy from lower layers of the solar atmosphere into the corona where the waves dissipate, thereby heating the plasma. Recent observational evidence has demonstrated that waves are ubiquitous in the corona, but a challenge for wave-driven heating models has been to determine if the waves are damped. In order to address this question, we analyzed observations from the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. In particular, we studied the non-thermal line width, which is proportional to the amplitude of transverse Alfvenic waves. Our results indicate that Alfvenic waves both carry and dissipate enough energy to heat coronal holes as well as quiet Sun regions. Thus, our results imply that such waves are responsible for the bulk of the heating of the corona outside of active regions. One of the questions raised by this work is the damping mechanism. The observed dissipation is faster than expected from viscosity or resistivity, but there are more complex theories that may explain the damping. We are developing laboratory plasma experiments that will test these theories.

  20. Asymptotic analysis of corona discharge from thin electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbin, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    The steady discharge of a high-voltage corona is analyzed as a singular perturbation problem. The small parameter is the ratio of the length of the ionization region to the total gap length. By this method, current versus voltage characteristics can be calculated analytically.

  1. Global seismology of the solar corona using "EIT waves"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David

    2015-08-01

    “EIT waves” are globally-propagating disturbances in the solar corona that remain controversial more than fifteen years after their first observation by the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Originally identified as waves, opposing observations from a myriad of instruments and passbands have questioned this assumption and resulted in conflicting interpretations being proposed to explain this phenomenon. The launch in 2010 of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has revolutionised our understanding of these features, providing high temporal and spatial resolution observations of “EIT waves” and their evolution through the solar corona. These observations have allowed the development of automated tracking algorithms and better data-driven simulations, which, combined with detailed case studies and statistical analysis of event databases are leading to a better understanding of “EIT waves”. Analysis of these features is therefore moving beyond a simple investigation of their physical nature towards using them to study the corona through which they propagate. Here, we review the theories proposed to explain “EIT waves”, placing them in the context of the observations available at the time and showing how these theories have been updated with improved observations and models. We then look towards the future, studying how “EIT waves” may be used to study the structure of the solar corona and infer the properties of their associated coronal mass ejections.

  2. Energy distribution of nanoflares in the quiet solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Artyom

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of flare-like events in low layer of solar corona detected with TESIS instrument onboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite in 171 {Å} during high-cadence (5 sec) time-series. The estimated thermal energies of these small events amount to 10^{23} - 10^{26} erg. According to modern classification flare-like events with such energies are usually referred to as nanoflares. The big number of registered events (above 2000) allowed us to obtain precise distributions of geometric and physical parameters of nanoflares, the most intriguing being energy distribution. Following Aschwanden et al. (2000) and other authors we approximated the calculated energy distribution with a single power law slope: N(E)dE ˜ N^{-?}dE. The power law index was derived to be ? = 2.4 ± 0.2, which is very close to the value reported by Krucker & Benz (1998): ? ? 2.3 - 2.4. The total energy input from registered events constitute about 10^4 erg \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}, which is well beyond net losses in quiet corona (3 \\cdot 10^5 erg \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}). However, the value of ? > 2 indicates that nanoflares with lower energies dominate over nanoflares with bigger energies and could contribute considerably to quiet corona heating.

  3. A Technique for Measuring Electrical Currents in the Solar Corona

    E-print Network

    Steven R. Spangler

    2007-09-11

    A technique is described for measuring electrical currents in the solar corona. It uses radioastronomical polarization measurements of a spatially-extended radio source viewed through the corona. The observations yield the difference in the Faraday rotation measure between two closely-spaced lines of sight through the corona, a measurement referred to as {\\em differential Faraday rotation}. It is shown that the expression for differential Faraday rotation is proportional to the path integral $\\oint n \\vec{B}\\cdot \\vec{ds}$ where $n$ is the plasma density and $\\vec{B}$ is the coronal magnetic field. The integral is around a closed loop (Amperian Loop) in the corona. If the plasma density is assumed roughly constant, the differential Faraday rotation is proportional to the current within the loop, via Ampere's Law. The validity of the constant density approximation is discussed, and two test cases are presented in which the associated error in the inferred current is small, of order tens of percent or less. The method is illustrated with observations of the radio source 3C228 with the Very Large Array (VLA) in August, 2003. A measurement of a differential Faraday rotation ``event'' on August 16, 2003, yields an estimate of $2.5 \\times 10^9$ Amperes in the Amperian Loop. A smaller event on August 18 yields an enclosed current of $2.3 \\times 10^8$ Amperes. The implications of these currents for coronal heating are briefly discussed.

  4. Outflowing X-ray corona in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junxian; Liu, Teng; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Feifan; Zhou, Youyuan

    2015-08-01

    Hard X-ray emission in radio-quiet AGNs is believed to be produced via inverse Compton scattering by hot and compact corona near the super massive black hole. However the origin and physical properties of the coronae, including geometry, kinematics and dynamics, yet remain poorly known. Taking [OIV] 25.89um emission line as an isotropic indicator of AGN's intrinsic luminosity, we compare the intrinsic corona X-ray emission between Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies, which are viewed at different inclinations according to the unification scheme. We find that Seyfert 1 galaxies are brighter in "absorption-corrected" 2-10 keV emission by a factor of ~2.8, comparing with Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies. The Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies follow a statistically identical correlation between the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the SWIFT BAT 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating that our absorption correction to the 2-10 keV flux is sufficient. The difference between the two populations thus can not be attributed to X-ray absorption, and instead implies an intrinsic anisotropy in the corona X-ray emission. This striking anisotropy of X-ray emission can be explained by a bipolar outflowing corona with a bulk velocity of ~0.3-0.5c. This would provide a natural link between the so-called coronae and weak jets in these systems. We also show that how this study would affect our understanding to the nature of mid-infrared emission in AGNs and the properties of dusty torus. Furthermore, such anisotropy implies that, contrary to previous understanding based on the assumption of isotropic corona emission, hard X-ray AGN surveys are biased against type 2 AGNs even after absorption-correction, and careful correction for this effect is required to measure the obscured fraction from X-ray surveys. Other interesting consequences of this discovery will also be discussed.

  5. Research on Nanosecond Pulse Corona Discharge with Cross Magnetic Field Applied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhenghao; Yu, Fusheng; Hu, Feng; Yuan, Yun; Guo, Lina; Li, Jin

    2007-12-01

    An application of magnetic field to the nanosecond pulse corona discharge is investigated. A cylinder reactor with different corona electrodes is set up for experimental study. A magnetic field with its direction perpendicular to the corona discharge is applied. Different discharge images are taken under single nanosecond pulse with a high sensitive UV-visible light imagine recorder. Experimental results show that with a cross magnetic field the nanosecond corona discharge both generates paths and develops homogeneously in space more than that without the magnetic field. The results may lead to a possibility to apply a cross magnetic field on nanosecond pulse corona discharge for getting higher desulfurization efficiency.

  6. Anisotropic radiation from accretion disc coronae in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ya-Di

    2015-05-01

    In the unification scheme for active galactic nuclei, type 1 Seyfert galaxies and type 2 Seyfert galaxies are thought to be intrinsically the same but viewed at different angles. However, the Fe K? emission line luminosity of type 1 Seyfert galaxies was found on average to be about twice that of type 2 Seyfert galaxies for a given X-ray continuum luminosity in previous work. We construct an accretion disc-corona model in which a fraction of the energy dissipated in the disc is extracted to heat the corona above the disc. The radiation transfer equation with Compton scattering processes is an integro-differential equation, which is solved numerically for the corona with a parallel plane geometry. We find that the specific intensity of X-ray radiation from the corona changes little with the viewing angle ? when ? is small (nearly face-on), and it is sensitive to ? if the viewing angle is large (? ? 40°). The radiation from the cold disc, mostly in infrared, optical and UV bands, is almost proportional to cos ? when ? ? 40°, while it decreases more rapidly than cos ? when ? ? 40° because of strong absorption in the corona in this case. For Seyfert galaxies, the Fe K? line may probably be emitted from the disc irradiated by the X-ray continuum emission. The observed equivalent width difference between type 1 Seyfert galaxies and type 2 Seyfert galaxies can be reproduced by our model calculations, provided the type 1 Seyfert galaxies are observed nearly face-on and the average inclination angle of type 2 Seyfert galaxies is ˜65°.

  7. The Optical Diagnosis of Underwater Positive Sparks and Corona Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dan; Zeng, Xinwu; Wang, Yibo

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, two types of underwater discharges, spark discharge and corona discharge, are investigated by optical diagnosis using a high speed framing camera (HSFC) with the framing time within nanoseconds under the same experimental conditions. In order to capture the photographs of streamer propagation, the influence of the randomicity of the pre-breakdown duration is taken into consideration. By increasing the conductivity of water, the randomicity reduces effectively. Experimental results show that, for a spark discharge, the process can be separated into three stages: the generation and propagation of a streamer, the generation and expansion of the discharge channel, and the development and annihilation of the plasma. The streamers do not directly move to the opposite electrode, but form a bush-like figure. With the increase of the number of branches, the velocity of streamer propagation slows down. The trajectory of the initial channel between electrodes is not straight. However, with the channel expanding, its shape transforms into a straight column. For a corona discharge, there are two stages: the generation and propagation of a streamer, and the stagnation and annihilation of the streamer. The initial streamer in a corona discharge is generated later than in a spark discharge. The forms of streamers for both kinds of discharge are similar; however, streamers generated by a corona discharge propagate with a slower velocity and the number of branches is less compared with a spark discharge. When the energy injection stops, the luminescence of plasma inside the discharge channel (spark discharge) or streamers (corona discharge) becomes weaker and weaker, and finally disappears.

  8. Dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder? Unravelling the enigma

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, John; Appleton, Jeanette; Appleton, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Dyspraxia is an enigma to many people, both professional and lay alike—what is it, how does it relate to developmental coordination disorder and associated conditions, how common is it, how is it recognised and diagnosed and how should it be managed? This article attempts to unravel this enigma by: dealing with the terminology of coordination difficulties from the “clumsy child syndrome” through “dyspraxia” to “developmental coordination disorder (DCD)”; briefly examining the debate as to whether dyspraxia or DCD should be regarded as a medical or social disorder; discussing the differential diagnosis of dyspraxia or DCD; considering the assessment of children with dyspraxia or DCD; reviewing the range of current treatment approaches in the UK. PMID:17515623

  9. Microbiome to Brain: Unravelling the Multidirectional Axes of Communication.

    PubMed

    El Aidy, Sahar; Stilling, Roman; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiome plays a crucial role in host physiology. Disruption of its community structure and function can have wide-ranging effects making it critical to understand exactly how the interactive dialogue between the host and its microbiota is regulated to maintain homeostasis. An array of multidirectional signalling molecules is clearly involved in the host-microbiome communication. This interactive signalling not only impacts the gastrointestinal tract, where the majority of microbiota resides, but also extends to affect other host systems including the brain and liver as well as the microbiome itself. Understanding the mechanistic principles of this inter-kingdom signalling is fundamental to unravelling how our supraorganism function to maintain wellbeing, subsequently opening up new avenues for microbiome manipulation to favour desirable mental health outcome. PMID:26589226

  10. Experimental Study of Corona Properties with a Heated Discharge Electrode and Crossed Magnetic Fields Individually

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Elabass, Karim

    2015-07-01

    This work involves ac and dc corona in air with heated discharge electrode, and breakdown streamers in corona in a crossed magnetic field. At first, the triggering of the breakdown streamers in positive and ac corona are governed by the temperature of the discharge electrode. In the negative corona, however, the breakdown streamers found to be practically independent of the temperature of the discharge electrode. Then, the transverse magnetic field, applied perpendicularly to the electric field, result in an improvement in pre-breakdown characteristic of the wire-tube gap. The application of the transverse field has the effect of increasing the corona onset voltage and the breakdown voltage. Also the transverse applied field has the effect of decreasing the corona current. It has been observed that triggering of the breakdown streamers in negative corona is affected appreciably by the transverse magnetic field.

  11. The biomolecular corona of nanoparticles in circulating biological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, D.; Caracciolo, G.; Digiacomo, L.; Colapicchioni, V.; Palchetti, S.; Capriotti, A. L.; Cavaliere, C.; Zenezini Chiozzi, R.; Puglisi, A.; Laganà, A.

    2015-08-01

    When nanoparticles come into contact with biological media, they are covered by a biomolecular `corona', which confers a new identity to the particles. In all the studies reported so far nanoparticles are incubated with isolated plasma or serum that are used as a model for protein adsorption. Anyway, bodily fluids are dynamic in nature so the question arises on whether the incubation protocol, i.e. dynamic vs. static incubation, could affect the composition and structure of the biomolecular corona. Here we let multicomponent liposomes interact with fetal bovine serum (FBS) both statically and dynamically, i.e. in contact with circulating FBS (~40 cm s-1). The structure and composition of the liposome-protein corona, as determined by dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, were found to be dependent on the incubation protocol. Specifically, following dynamic exposure to FBS, multicomponent liposomes were less enriched in complement proteins and appreciably more enriched in apolipoproteins and acute phase proteins (e.g. alpha-1-antitrypsin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3) that are involved in relevant interactions between nanoparticles and living systems. Supported by our results, we speculate that efficient predictive modeling of nanoparticle behavior in vivo will require accurate knowledge of nanoparticle-specific protein fingerprints in circulating biological media.When nanoparticles come into contact with biological media, they are covered by a biomolecular `corona', which confers a new identity to the particles. In all the studies reported so far nanoparticles are incubated with isolated plasma or serum that are used as a model for protein adsorption. Anyway, bodily fluids are dynamic in nature so the question arises on whether the incubation protocol, i.e. dynamic vs. static incubation, could affect the composition and structure of the biomolecular corona. Here we let multicomponent liposomes interact with fetal bovine serum (FBS) both statically and dynamically, i.e. in contact with circulating FBS (~40 cm s-1). The structure and composition of the liposome-protein corona, as determined by dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, were found to be dependent on the incubation protocol. Specifically, following dynamic exposure to FBS, multicomponent liposomes were less enriched in complement proteins and appreciably more enriched in apolipoproteins and acute phase proteins (e.g. alpha-1-antitrypsin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3) that are involved in relevant interactions between nanoparticles and living systems. Supported by our results, we speculate that efficient predictive modeling of nanoparticle behavior in vivo will require accurate knowledge of nanoparticle-specific protein fingerprints in circulating biological media. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Table S1: estimation of the corona thickness, sk, of elementary units (liposome-protein corona) clustered in k-fold equilibrium aggregates (t > 15 min). Tables S2 and S3: the full list of the most abundant corona proteins identified on the surface of multicomponent liposomes following dynamic and static incubation with fetal bovine serum. Table S4: the list of the unique proteins bound to MC liposomes following 90 min incubation with FBS under dynamic and static incubation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03701h

  12. The Newly Active R Coronae Borealis Star, V2552 Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesselbach, E.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Smith, Paul S.

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, V2552 Oph (CD -22°12017, Had V98) quickly faded by several magnitudes in a manner typical of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. Photometry of V2552 Oph obtained over 70 years previous to 2001 shows no indication of variability. Optical spectra of this star subsequently confirmed that V2552 Oph is a member of the hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich RCB class of variables. It resembles the warm (Teff~7000 K) RCB stars such as R Coronae Borealis itself. Other RCB stars, such as XX Cam and Y Mus, have experienced similar periods of inactivity, going decades without significant dust formation. Further observations of V2552 Oph will be of great interest since there is an opportunity to monitor an RCB star that may be moving from prolonged inactivity into an active phase of dust production.

  13. THE CONNECTION OF TYPE II SPICULES TO THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Philip G.; McIntosh, Scott W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Olluri, Kosovare

    2012-02-20

    We examine the hypothesis that plasma associated with 'Type II' spicules is heated to coronal temperatures, and that the upward moving hot plasma constitutes a significant mass supply to the solar corona. One-dimensional hydrodynamical models including time-dependent ionization are brought to bear on the problem. These calculations indicate that heating of field-aligned spicule flows should produce significant differential Doppler shifts between emission lines formed in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. At present, observational evidence for the computed 60-90 km s{sup -1} differential shifts is weak, but the data are limited by difficulties in comparing the proper motion of Type II spicules with spectral and kinematic properties of an associated transition region and coronal emission lines. Future observations with the upcoming infrared interferometer spectrometer instrument should clarify if Doppler shifts are consistent with the dynamics modeled here.

  14. The degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Durham, D.E.; Heath, W.O.

    1992-02-01

    Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an in situ colorimeter and the effects of varying the current, voltage, gas phase, stirring rates, salinity, and electrode spacing were investigated. The highest reaction rates were observed using the highest current, highest voltage (up to 10kV), highest stirring rate, lowest salinity, smallest electrode spacing, and an environment containing enhanced levels of oxygen. Current was higher in the presence of nitrogen than in the presence of oxygen (for the same voltage), but the reaction of methylene blue did not proceed unless oxygen was present. These results help identify conditions using corona discharge in which dyes, and potentially other organics, can be destroyed. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  15. The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran

    2000-01-01

    This report covers technical progress during the third year of the NASA Space Physics Theory contract "The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona," between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation, and covers the period June 16, 1998 to August 15, 1999. This is also the final report for this contract. Under this contract SAIC, the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model. During the three-year duration of this contract we have published 49 articles in the scientific literature. These publications are listed in Section 3 of this report. In the Appendix we have attached reprints of selected articles. We summarize our progress during the third year of the contract. Full descriptions of our work can be found in the cited publications, a few of which are attached to this report.

  16. Corona method and apparatus for altering carbon containing compounds

    DOEpatents

    Sharma, Amit K. (Richland, WA); Camaioni, Donald M. (Richland, WA); Josephson, Gary B. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for altering a carbon containing compound in an aqueous mixture. According to a first aspect of the present invention, it has been discovered that for an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound with an ozone reaction rate less than the ozone reaction rate of pentachlorophenol, use of corona discharge in a low or non-oxidizing atmosphere increases the rate of destruction of the carbon containing compound compared to corona discharge an oxidizing atmosphere. For an aqueous mixture containing pentachlorphenol, there was essentially no difference in destruction between atmospheres. According to a second aspect of the present invention, it has been further discovered that an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound in the presence of a catalyst and oxygen resulted in an increased destruction rate of the carbon containing compound compared to no catalyst.

  17. Corona Method And Apparatus For Altering Carbon Containing Compounds

    DOEpatents

    Sharma, Amit K. (Plainsboro, NJ); Camaioni, Donald M. (Richland, WA); Josephson; Gary B. (Richland, WA)

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for altering a carbon-containing compound in an aqueous mixture. According to a first aspect of the present invention, it has been discovered that for an aqueous mixture having a carbon containing compound with an ozone reaction rate less than the ozone reaction rate of pentachlorophenol, use of corona discharge in a low or non-oxidizing atmosphere increases the rate of destruction of the carbon containing compound compared to corona discharge an oxidizing atmosphere. For an aqueous mixture containing pentachlorphenol, there was essentially no difference in destruction between atmospheres. According to a second aspect of the present invention, it has been further discovered that an aqueous mixture having a carbon-containing compound in the presence of a catalyst and oxygen resulted in an increased destruction rate of the carbon containing compound compared to no catalyst.

  18. The Effect of a Corona Discharge on a Lightning Attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, N.L.; Bazelyan, E.M.; Raizer, Yu.P.

    2005-01-15

    The interaction between the lightning leader and the space charge accumulated near the top of a ground object in the atmospheric electric field is considered using analytical and numerical models developed earlier to describe spark discharges in long laboratory gaps. The specific features of a nonstationary corona discharge that develops in the electric field of a thundercloud and a downward lightning leader are analyzed. Conditions for the development of an upward lightning discharge from a ground object and for the propagation of an upward-connecting leader from the object toward a downward lightning leader (the process determining the point of strike to the ground) are investigated. Possible mechanisms for the interaction of the corona space charge with an upward leader and prospects of using it to control downward lightning discharges are analyzed.

  19. Heating of the Solar Corona and its Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2009-01-01

    At several million degrees, the solar corona is more than two orders of magnitude hotter than the underlying solar surface. The reason for these extreme conditions has been a puzzle for decades and is considered one of the fundamental problems in astrophysics. Much of the coronal plasma is organized by the magnetic field into arch-like structures called loops. Recent observational and theoretical advances have led to great progress in understanding the nature of these loops. In particular, we now believe they are bundles of unresolved magnetic strands that are heated by storms of impulsive energy bursts called nanoflares. Turbulent convection at the solar surface shuffles the footpoints of the strands and causes them to become tangled. A nanoflare occurs when the magnetic stresses reach a critical threshold, probably by way of a mechanism called the secondary instability. I will describe our current state of knowledge concerning the corona, its loops, and how they are heated.

  20. Detailed characteristics of intermittent current pulses due to positive corona

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Xuebao; Xiang, Yu; Wang, Xiaobo

    2014-08-15

    In order to get detailed characteristics of intermittent current pulses due to positive corona such as the repetition rate of burst-pulse trains, the peak value ratio of the primary pulse to the secondary pulse, the number of pulses per burst, and the interval of the secondary pulses, a systematic study was carried out in a coaxial conductor-cylinder electrode system with the conductor electrode being set with a discharge point. Empirical formulae for the number of pulses per burst and the interval of the secondary pulses are first presented. A theoretical model based on the motion of the space-charge clouds is proposed. Analysis with the model gives explanations to the experimental results and reveals some new insights into the physical mechanism of positive intermittent corona.

  1. Properties of AGN coronae in the NuSTAR era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, A. C.; Lohfink, A.; Kara, E.; Parker, M. L.; Vasudevan, R.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2015-08-01

    The focusing optics of NuSTAR have enabled high signal-to-noise ratio spectra to be obtained from many X-ray bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galactic black hole binaries (BHB). Spectral modelling then allows robust characterization of the spectral index and upper energy cutoff of the coronal power-law continuum, after accounting for reflection and absorption effects. Spectral-timing studies, such as reverberation and broad iron line fitting, of these sources yield coronal sizes, often showing them to be small and in the range of 3 to 10 gravitational radii in size. Our results indicate that coronae are hot and radiatively compact, lying close to the boundary of the region in the compactness-temperature (? - ?) diagram which is forbidden due to runaway pair production. The coincidence suggests that pair production and annihilation are essential ingredients in the coronae of AGN and BHB and that they control the shape of the observed spectra.

  2. The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran

    1998-01-01

    Under this contract SAIC, the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model. During the period covered by this report we have published 17 articles in the scientific literature. These publications are listed in Section 4 of this report. In the Appendix we have attached reprints of selected articles.

  3. OBSERVATION OF ULTRAFINE CHANNELS OF SOLAR CORONA HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Haisheng; Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.

    2012-05-01

    We report the first direct observations of dynamical events originating in the Sun's photosphere and subsequently lighting up the corona. Continuous small-scale, impulsive events have been tracked from their origin in the photosphere on through to their brightening of the local corona. We achieve this by combining high-resolution ground-based data from the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), and satellite data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The NST imaging observations in helium I 10830 A reveal unexpected complexes of ultrafine, hot magnetic loops seen to be reaching from the photosphere to the base of the corona. Most of these ultrafine loops are characterized by an apparently constant, but surprisingly narrow diameter of about 100 km all along each loop, and the loops originate on the solar surface from intense, compact magnetic field elements. The NST observations detect the signature of upward injections of hot plasma that excite the ultrafine loops from the photosphere to the base of the corona. The ejecta have their individual footpoints in the intergranular lanes between the Sun's ubiquitous, convectively driven granules. In many cases, AIA/SDO detects cospatial and cotemporal brightenings in the overlying, million degree coronal loops in conjunction with the upward injections along the ultrafine loops. Segments of some of the more intense upward injections are seen as rapid blueshifted events in simultaneous H{alpha} blue wing images observed at BBSO. In sum, the observations unambiguously show impulsive coronal heating events from upward energy flows originating from intergranular lanes on the solar surface accompanied by cospatial mass flows.

  4. Estimation of winding insulation resistance to the corona discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, A.; Red'ko, V.; Soldatenko, E.

    2014-10-01

    This article presents test results of enameled winding wires, characterizing an insulation electrical and mechanical strength. Standard and original test methods were used. Note that existing standard test methods do not estimate enamel insulation resistance to the electrical loads under winding operation of variable-speed drive. We show that estimation of wire corona resistance can be done by high frequency electrical impulse testing. Wire insulation plays the main role of reliability of insulation system.

  5. Numerical Simulations of Helicity Condensation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2015-05-01

    The helicity condensation model has been proposed by Antiochos to explain the observed smoothness of coronal loops and the observed buildup of magnetic shear at filament channels. The basic hypothesis of the model is that magnetic reconnection in the corona causes the magnetic stress injected by photospheric motions to collect only at those special locations where prominences are observed to form. In this work we present the first detailed quantitative MHD simulations of the reconnection evolution proposed by the helicity condensation model. We use the well-known ansatz of modeling the closed corona as an initially uniform field between two horizontal photospheric plates. The system is driven by applying photospheric rotational flows that inject magnetic helicity into the corona. The flows are confined to a finite region on the photosphere so as to mimic the finite flux system of a bipolar active region, for example. The calculations demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, opposite helicity twists do not lead to significant reconnection in such a coronal system, whereas twists with the same sense of helicity do produce substantial reconnection. Furthermore, we find that for a given amount of helicity injected into the corona, the evolution of the magnetic shear is insensitive to whether the pattern of driving photospheric motions is fixed or quasi-random. In all cases, the shear propagates via reconnection to the boundary of the flow region while the total magnetic helicity is conserved, as predicted by the model. We discuss the implications of our results for solar observations and for future, more realistic simulations of the helicity condensation process.

  6. Type III radio bursts in a fibrous corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelof, E. C.; Pick, M.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the effects of density variations in the solar corona may be comparable to or greater than other effects in producing the time and frequency profiles of Type III bursts. A quantitative treatment of the density inhomogeneity effect is presented and a simple mathematical theory that incorporates a log-normal distribution for density variations in nonradial diverging flux tubes is presented. This theory successfully simulates dynamic spectrograms of Type III bursts from 50 to 400 MHz.

  7. The Martian Hot Oxygen Corona at Ancient times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.; Bougher, S. W.; Dong, C.; Pawlowski, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The evaluation of the global atomic oxygen loss rate and its changes over geologic time is necessary for a better understanding of the evolution of the Martian atmosphere. The recent surface geomorphological evidence suggests that water has played a key role in forming the present atmospheric environment. Throughout the planet's history, the inventory of water has been affected in part by changing solar radiation and solar wind conditions. In this study, we investigate the evolution of the oxygen atom inventory by simulating the hot oxygen corona for solar conditions appropriate to about 2.5 Gyr ago (about 3 times the current solar EUV flux). Dissociative recombination of O2+ion is assumed to remain as the dominant source of hot atomic oxygen at ancient times. To describe ancient Mars, we present the 3D self-consistent simulations of the Martian hot oxygen corona by one-way coupling our Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (AMPS) with the ancient thermosphere and ionosphere as simulated by the 3D Mars Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (M-GITM), a newly developed atmospheric model. The structure and composition of the Martian upper atmosphere and the hot oxygen corona during early solar conditions are compared with those at the current epoch to study the evolution of the macroscopic parameters and their effects on the hot oxygen corona. The coupled framework provides the density and escape probabilities of hot oxygen and estimates the global atmospheric loss rates for the conditions considered. These results are also being used as input into calculations of the global solar wind interaction with Mars' atmosphere, ionosphere and exosphere.

  8. ESTIMATING THE ''DARK'' ENERGY CONTENT OF THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Scott W.; De Pontieu, Bart

    2012-12-20

    The discovery of ubiquitous low-frequency (3-5 mHz) Alfvenic waves in the solar chromosphere (with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope) and corona (with CoMP and SDO) has provided some insight into the non-thermal energy content of the outer solar atmosphere. However, many questions remain about the true magnitude of the energy flux carried by these waves. Here we explore the apparent discrepancy in the resolved coronal Alfvenic wave amplitude ({approx}0.5 km s{sup -1}) measured by the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) compared to those of the Hinode and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) near the limb ({approx}20 km s{sup -1}). We use a blend of observational data and a simple forward model of Alfvenic wave propagation to resolve this discrepancy and determine the Alfvenic wave energy content of the corona. Our results indicate that enormous line-of-sight superposition within the coarse spatio-temporal sampling of CoMP hides the strong wave flux observed by Hinode and SDO and leads to the large non-thermal line broadening observed. While this scenario has been assumed in the past, our observations with CoMP of a strong correlation between the non-thermal line broadening with the low-amplitude, low-frequency Alfvenic waves observed in the corona provide the first direct evidence of a wave-related non-thermal line broadening. By reconciling the diverse measurements of Alfvenic waves, we establish large coronal non-thermal line widths as direct signatures of the hidden, or ''dark'', energy content in the corona and provide preliminary constraints on the energy content of the wave motions observed.

  9. Electrical Auxiliary Power Unit (EAPU) Corona Design Guideline. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David K.; Kirkici, Hulya; Schweickart, Dan L.; Dunbar, William; Hillard, Barry

    2000-01-01

    This document is the result of a collaborative effort between NASA's Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Glenn Research Center, and the United States Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright Patterson AFB in support of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Upgrades Program, specifically the Electric Auxiliary Power Unit Program. This document is intended as a guideline for design applications for corona and partial discharge avoidance and is not a requirements specification instrument.

  10. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOEpatents

    Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

    1999-06-22

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

  11. Hydrogen Sulfide Decomposition in Pulsed Corona Discharge Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, S.; Zhao, G. B.; Zhang, J. J.; Hamann, J. C.; Muknahallipatna, S. S.; Legowski, S.; Ackerman, J. F.; Argyle, M. D.

    2008-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) decomposition was carried out in each of four balance gases (Ar, He, N2 and H2) in a wire-in-tube pulsed corona discharge reactor. H2S conversion rates and H2S decomposition energy efficiencies depend on the balance gas and H2S concentrations. H2S conversion in monatomic balance gases, like Ar and He, is more efficient than in diatomic balance gases like N2 and H2. Low pulse forming capacitance, low charge voltage, and high pulse frequency operation produces the highest energy efficiency for H2S conversion at constant power. H2S conversion is more efficient in Ar-N2 gas mixture than in Ar or N2. These results can be explained by corona discharge observations, the electron attachment reactions of H2S and the proposed reaction mechanism of H2S dissociation. The results reveal the potential for energy efficient H2S decomposition in pulsed corona discharge reactors.

  12. Steady diffusion model for olivine-plagioclase corona growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Tadao

    1983-02-01

    This paper describes an application of a steady diffusion model ( JOESTEN, 1977) to an olivineplagioclase corona and some new results about a theoretical background on the steady diffusion equations. The olivine-plagioclase corona in a metanorite from Mt. Ikoma. Japan, has a layer sequence of olivinecummingtonite-hornblende + spinel-plagioclase. An analysis of a set of steady diffusion equations for the corona in the four-component system, MgO-AlO 3/2-SiO 2-Na 0.1Ca 0.9O 0.95 (NC) with excess H 2O. successfully gives the exchange cycle ( FISHER, 1973) in the layer sequence with specific values of the phenomenological coefficients' ratios; L MgMg/L SiSi, L MgMg/L AlAl and L MgMg/L NCNC. The factor which controls most strictly the stability of the layer sequence under isobaric-isothermal conditions is L MgMg/L AlAl. Theoretical considerations on the steady diffusion equations show that the L-ratios does not depend on concentrations even if the phenomenological coefficients themselves are functions of concentrations. Equivalence of the steady state condition and the minimum rate of entropy production law ( PRIGOGINE, 1967) is also proved for the system with fixed chemical potential gradients under isobaric-isothermal conditions, such as reaction bands. These results give a strong background for the model.

  13. High Resolution Analysis of the Eclipse Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutchmy, S.

    1998-09-01

    A very large W-L coronal flux is made available during total eclipses. High speed analysis of very fine-scale structure of the magnetically dominated solar atmosphere is made possible, including the deeply seeded sources of the solar mass loss. Additional observations of both the disk and of the more outer corona should be simultaneusly collected from space, using the SOHO and the Yohkoh missions to complements the data. The most optimum eclipse studies should concentrate on the intermediate corona where acceleration processes are taking place. MHD waves, including magneto-acoustic propagating waves and standing loop-resonance waves are everywhere present with rather short periods. W-L fine imaging at high signal-to noise ratio is needed to avoid the overlapping problem and measure their magnitude. Ubiquituos plasmoid like objects are also produced in this region near the temperature maximum and they need a special attention. They are rather privileged site where both the radiation cooling and the magnetic dissipation mechanisms are occurring. Eclipses are good opportunities to look at the dynamics of coronal ejections. At larger scale, sharp edges of streamers and plumes can be used to deduce a 3-D view of the corona neutral sheets, provided pictures taken at several hours interval are made available along the path of the totality. Both the quasi-rigid rotation and the more subtle outward motions of coronal material are then evidenced, giving a good tool to study the origin of the slow wind.

  14. Microstructural Changes of Anterior Corona Radiata in Bipolar Depression

    PubMed Central

    Karababa, I. Fatih; Bayaz?t, Huseyin; K?l?çaslan, Nihat; Celik, Mustafa; Cece, Hasan; Karakas, Ekrem

    2015-01-01

    Objective In bipolar disorder, dysregulation of mood may result from white matter abnormalities that change fiber tract length and fiber density. There are few studies evaluating the white matter microstructural changes in bipolar I patients (BD) with depressive episodes. The present study aimed to evaluate anterior corona radiata in BD patients with depressive episode using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Methods Twenty-one patients with bipolar depression and 19 healthy controls were investigated and groups were matched for age and gender. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar brain images (DW-EPI) were obtained using a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually placed on directional maps based on principal anisotropy. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of white matter were measured in the anterior corona radiata (ACR) bilaterally by diffusion tensor imaging. Results There was not a significant difference between groups of age and gender (p>0.05). Significantly lower FA was observed in bilateral ACR in bipolar patients with depression compared with healthy individuals. And there is significantly higher ADC values in the left frontal corona radiate in bipolar patients. Conclusion White matter abnormalities can be detected in patients with BD using DTI. The neuropathology of these abnormalities is unclear, but neuronal and axonal loss, myelin abnormalities and reduced white matter fiber density are likely to be relevant. PMID:26207131

  15. Joule Heating and Anomalous Resistivity in the Solar Corona

    E-print Network

    Steven R. Spangler

    2008-12-22

    Recent radioastronomical observations of Faraday rotation in the solar corona can be interpreted as evidence for coronal currents, with values as large as $2.5 \\times 10^9$ Amperes (Spangler 2007). These estimates of currents are used to develop a model for Joule heating in the corona. It is assumed that the currents are concentrated in thin current sheets, as suggested by theories of two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The Spitzer result for the resistivity is adopted as a lower limit to the true resistivity. The calculated volumetric heating rate is compared with an independent theoretical estimate by Cranmer et al (2007). This latter estimate accounts for the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the corona at a heliocentric distance of several solar radii. Our calculated Joule heating rate is less than the Cranmer et al estimate by at least a factor of $3 \\times 10^5$. The currents inferred from the observations of Spangler (2007) are not relevant to coronal heating unless the true resistivity is enormously increased relative to the Spitzer value. However, the same model for turbulent current sheets used to calculate the heating rate also gives an electron drift speed which can be comparable to the electron thermal speed, and larger than the ion acoustic speed. It is therefore possible that the coronal current sheets are unstable to current-driven instabilities which produce high levels of waves, enhance the resistivity and thus the heating rate.

  16. Humidity Influence on Corona Discharge Characteristics on Polymer Insulators under Polluted Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banno, Tomoki; Umeda, Itsuki; Kondo, Takanori; Tanaka, Kenji; Suzuki, Yoshihiro

    Silicone rubber for polymer insulator has an excellent hydrophobicity with recovery properties, resulting in higher pollution performance. However it is inevitable that even silicone rubber polymer insulators start generating corona discharge with time under humid and polluted conditions. And such a corona discharge causes rubber damage because of acid generation. Since it is assumed that the corona discharge characteristics depend on humidity and polluted conditions, corona discharge tests were conducted on silicone rubber polymer insulators by changing humidity and polluted conditions. As a result, it was verified that the corona discharge phenomena were affected by humidity and pollution even on silicone rubber polymer insulators, and that contribution of corona rings to suppressing the discharge was not large.

  17. The Survival and Destruction of Galactic X-ray Coronae in Groups and Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Rukmani; Milton Ricker, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The discovery of long-lived, ubiquitous, hot galactic coronae in groups and clusters by Chandra poses a challenge to our understanding of galactic ISM survival in harsh environments. These coronae are unique probes of ICM and ISM microphysics, since their survival depends on a delicate balance between external ICM physical processes that can alternatively destroy or replenish these coronae and internal galactic physics that can replenish them. In this talk, I present MHD simulations of the evolution of hot coronae of cosmological populations of galaxies in group and cluster environments. I summarize the effects of external ICM phenomena, like tidal and ram pressure stripping, shielding by magnetic fields, and thermal conduction on the survival of these coronae. I also present synthetic X-ray observations which I use to motivate a stacking analysis on combined optical and X-ray surveys to quantify the effect of the local environment on galactic coronae.

  18. Unraveling shock-induced chemistry using ultrafast lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2010-12-06

    The exquisite time synchronicity between shock and diagnostics needed to unravel chemical events occurring in picoseconds has been achieved using a shaped ultrafast laser pulse to both drive the shocks and interrogate the sample via a multiplicity of optical diagnostics. The shaped laser drive pulse can produce well-controlled shock states of sub-ns duration with sub-10 ps risetimes, sufficient for investigation offast reactions or phase transformations in a thin layer with picosecond time resolution. The shock state is characterized using ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) in either planar or Gaussian spatial geometries, the latter allowing measurements of the equation of state of materials at a range of stresses in a single laser pulse. Time-resolved processes in materials are being interrogated using UDE, ultrafast infrared absorption, ultrafast UV/visible absorption, and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy. Using these tools we showed that chemistry in an energetic thin film starts only after an induction time of a few tens of ps, an observation that allows differentiation between proposed shock-induced reaction mechanisms. These tools are presently being applied to a variety of energetic and reactive sample systems, from nitromethane and carbon disulfide, to microengineered interfaces in tunable energetic mixtures. Recent results will be presented, and future trends outlined.

  19. Unravelling the proteome of degenerative human mitral valves.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hwee Tong; Lim, Teck Kwang; Richards, Arthur Mark; Kofidis, Theodoros; Teoh, Kristine Leok-Kheng; Ling, Lieng H; Chung, Maxey C M

    2015-09-01

    Degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD), which includes the syndromes of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and flail leaflet, is a common valvular condition which can be complicated by mitral regurgitation and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Although several genetic and other studies of MVP in dog models have provided some information regarding the underlying disease mechanisms, the proteins and molecular events mediating human MVP pathogenesis have not been unraveled. In this study, we report the first large-scale proteome profiling of mitral valve tissue resected from patients with MVP. A total of 1134 proteins were identified, some of which were validated using SWATH-MS and western blotting. GO annotation of these proteins confirmed the validity of this proteome database in various cardiovascular processes. Among the list of proteins, we found several structural and extracellular matrix proteins, such as asporin, biglycan, decorin, lumican, mimecan, prolargin, versican, and vinculin, that have putative roles in the pathophysiology of MVP. These proteins could also be involved in the cardiac remodeling associated with mitral regurgitation. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000774 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000774). PMID:25914152

  20. Unraveling shock-induced chemistry using ultrafast lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David S

    2009-01-01

    The exquisite time synchronicity between shock and diagnostics needed to unravel chemical events occurring in picoseconds has been achieved using a shaped ultrafast laser pulse to both drive the shocks and interrogate the sample via a multiplicity of optical diagnostics. The shaped laser drive pulse can produce well-controlled shock states of sub-ns duration with sub-10 ps risetimes, sufficient for investigation of fast reactions or phase transformations in a thin layer with picosecond time resolution. The shock state is characterized using ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) in either planar or Gaussian spatial geometries, the latter allowing measurements of the equation of state of materials at a range of stresses in a single laser pulse. Time-resolved processes in materials are being interrogated using UDE, ultrafast infrared absorption, ultrafast UV/visible absorption, and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy. Using these tools we showed that chemistry in an energetic thin film starts only after an induction time of a few tens of ps, an observation that allows differentiation between proposed shock-induced reaction mechanisms. These tools are presently being applied to a variety of energetic and reactive sample systems, from nitromethane and carbon disulfide, to micro-engineered interfaces in tunable energetic mixtures.

  1. Determination of enamel insulation corona resistance by high- frequency modulated pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, A. P.; Red'ko, V. V.; Red'ko, L. A.; Y Soldatenko, E.

    2015-04-01

    In the article test equipment is described for corona resistance testing of enameled winding wire samples. The primary element of equipment is generator producing test voltage with necessary waveform and magnitude according to the required PWM. Test conditions are accurately simulated by operational loads on a winding insulation (simultaneous impact of temperature and corona discharges). Obtained results of average time to breakdown show that the enamel insulation modified by silicon nanoparticles has a maximum corona resistance.

  2. Impact of protein pre-coating on the protein corona composition and nanoparticle cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiee, Vahid; Kim, Raehyun; Park, Soyun; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Kraft, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are functionalized with targeting ligands to enable selectively delivering drugs to desired locations in the body. When these functionalized NPs enter the blood stream, plasma proteins bind to their surfaces, forming a protein corona that affects NP uptake and targeting efficiency. To address this problem, new strategies for directing the formation of a protein corona that has targeting capabilities are emerging. Here, we have investigated the feasibility of directing corona composition to promote targeted NP uptake by specific types of cells. We used the well-characterized process of opsonin-induced phagocytosis by macrophages as a simplified model of corona-mediated NP uptake by a desired cell type. We demonstrate that pre-coating silica NPs with gamma-globulins (?-globulins) produced a protein corona that was enriched with opsonins, such as immunoglobulins. Although immunoglobulins are ligands that bind to receptors on macrophages and elicit phagocytois, the opsonin-rich protein corona did not increase NP uptake by macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Immunolabeling experiments indicated that the binding of opsonins to their target cell surface receptors was impeded by other proteins in the corona. Thus, corona-mediated NP targeting strategies must optimize both the recruitment of the desired plasma proteins as well as their accessibility and orientation in the corona layer. PMID:26513421

  3. Unravelling genetics at the top: mountain islands or isolated belts?

    PubMed Central

    García-Fernández, Alfredo; Segarra-Moragues, Jose Gabriel; Widmer, Alex; Escudero, Adrian; Iriondo, José María

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims In mountain plant populations, local adaptation has been described as one of the main responses to climate warming, allowing plants to persist under stressful conditions. This is especially the case for marginal populations at their lowest elevation, as they are highly vulnerable. Adequate levels of genetic diversity are required for selection to take place, while high levels of altitudinal gene flow are seen as a major limiting factor potentially precluding local adaptation processes. Thus, a compromise between genetic diversity and gene flow seems necessary to guarantee persistence under oncoming conditions. It is therefore critical to determine if gene flow occurs preferentially between mountains at similar altitudinal belts, promoting local adaptation at the lowest populations, or conversely along altitude within each mountain. Methods Microsatellite markers were used to unravel genetic diversity and population structure, inbreeding and gene flow of populations at two nearby altitudinal gradients of Silene ciliata, a Mediterranean high-mountain cushion plant. Key Results Genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients were similar in all populations. Substantial gene flow was found both along altitudinal gradients and horizontally within each elevation belt, although greater values were obtained along altitudinal gradients. Gene flow may be responsible for the homogeneous levels of genetic diversity found among populations. Bayesian cluster analyses also suggested that shifts along altitudinal gradients are the most plausible scenario. Conclusions Past population shifts associated with glaciations and interglacial periods in temperate mountains may partially explain current distributions of genetic diversity and population structure. In spite of the predominance of gene flow along the altitudinal gradients, local genetic differentiation of one of the lower populations together with the detection of one outlier locus might support the existence of different selection forces at low altitudes. PMID:23002271

  4. X-ray astronomy of stellar coronae (Review)

    E-print Network

    Manuel Guedel

    2004-06-29

    X-ray emission from stars in the cool half of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is generally attributed to the presence of a magnetic corona that contains plasma at temperatures exceeding 1 million K. Coronae are ubiquitous among these stars, yet many fundamental mechanisms operating in their magnetic fields still elude an interpretation through a detailed physical description. Stellar X-ray astronomy is therefore contributing toward a deeper understanding of the generation of magnetic fields in magnetohydrodynamic dynamos, the release of energy in tenuous astrophysical plasmas through various plasma-physical processes, and the interactions of high-energy radiation with the stellar environment. Stellar X-ray emission also provides important diagnostics to study the structure and evolution of stellar magnetic fields from the first days of a protostellar life to the latest stages of stellar evolution among giants and supergiants. The discipline of stellar coronal X-ray astronomy has now reached a level of sophistication that makes tests of advanced theories in stellar physics possible. This development is based on the rapidly advancing instrumental possibilities that today allow us to obtain images with sub-arcsecond resolution and spectra with resolving powers exceeding 1000. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy has, in fact, opened new windows into astrophysical sources, and has played a fundamental role in coronal research. The present article reviews the development and current status of various topics in the X-ray astronomy of stellar coronae, focusing on observational results and on theoretical aspects relevant to our understanding of coronal magnetic structure and evolution.

  5. Prediction of Dn-Resonances in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Benson, R. F.; MacDowall, R.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2006-05-01

    A new plasma wave mode has been proposed with quantized frequencies fDn = 3/?(fpefce)½ n½ , n = 1,2,... where fpe is the electron plasma frequency and fce is the electron gyrofrequency. These frequencies have been associated with a spectrum of emissions known as the Dn resonance stimulated by ionospheric topside sounders [Osherovich, 1987]. The foundations and observational support for this new electromagnetic mode have been summarized in the recent review by Osherovich et al. [2005] for three plasmas: the Earth's ionosphere (topside radio sounding from Alouette 2, ISIS 1 and ISIS 2 satellites), the Earth's magnetosphere (radio sounding from the IMAGE spacecraft) and in Jupiter's Io plasma torus (radio sounding from the Ulysses space probe). For these plasmas, the electron densities, magnetic fields and electron temperatures are quite different but in each of these plasmas there exists extended regions where the range of fpe/fce is roughly the same, namely 1? fpe/fce ? 8. From available observations of the solar corona and coronal loops, we conclude that the two-million degree corona is the fourth example of a magnetized plasma containing extended regions with fpe/fce in the same range. Therefore we predict the presence of Dn resonances with their distinctive ? n frequency spectrum, in the solar corona. References: Osherovich, V.A.,"Physical nature of diffuse plasma resonances in the ionosphere", J. Geophys. Res, 92, 316-320, 1987. Osherovich, V.A., R.F. Benson and J. Fainberg, "Electromagnetic bounded states and challenges of plasma spectroscopy", IEEE Transactions of Plasma Science, 33(2), 2005.

  6. Hot Carbon Corona in Mars’ Upper Thermosphere and Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuni; Combi, M.; Tenishev, V.; Bougher, S.

    2013-10-01

    The production of energetic particles results in the formation of the hot corona, where the most of the escape of neutral atoms occur, in the Martian upper atmosphere. In order to investigate the dynamics of these energetic neutral atoms, we have carried out a study that provides a self-consistent global description of the hot corona in the upper thermosphere and exosphere by employing a self-consistent global kinetic model coupled with a thermosphere/ionosphere model. In this work, we evaluate the carbon atom inventory by studying the production and distribution of energetic carbon atoms. The most important source reactions for hot atomic carbon are expected to be photodissociation of CO and dissociative recombination of CO+, which are highly sensitive to solar activity and occur mostly deep in the dayside of the thermosphere. The latest available branching ratios is adopted, and appropriate choices of the rate coefficient and the photodissociation frequencies are made. In this study, we simulate the variations of the hot carbon corona over the solar cycle and seasons. The spatial distributions and profiles of density and temperature, atmospheric loss rates are discussed for the cases considered. The total global escape of hot carbon from all dominant photochemical processes is computed and compared with those from other previous models. To describe self-consistently the upper thermosphere and exosphere, a combination of our 3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model [Valeille, A., Combi, M., Bougher, S., Tenishev, V., Nagy, A., 2009. J. Geophys. Res. 114, E11006. doi:10.1029/2009JE003389] and the 3D Mars Thermosphere General Circulation Model (MTGCM) [Bougher, S. W., Bell, J. M., Murphy, J. R., Lopez-Valverde, M. A., Withers, P. G., 2006. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024059. L02203] is used. Finally, our computed global total escape rate of hot carbon ranges ~ (5.2 - 57.1) × 1023 s-1 for the aphelion solar low to perihelion solar high case.

  7. Observational capabilities of solar satellite "Coronas-Photon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Yu.

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation The main goal of the Coronas-Photon is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation sim 2000MeV Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three type of instruments 1 monitors Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 Penguin-M BRM Phoka Sphin-X Sokol for spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation with timing in flare burst mode up to one msec Instruments Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft Gamma rays 15keV to 2000MeV and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators with energy resolution sim 5 for nuclear gamma-line band to 35 for GeV-band PSD analysis is used for gamma neutron separation for solar neutron registration T 30MeV Penguin-M has capability to measure linear polarization of hard X-rays using azimuth are measured by Compton scattering asymmetry in case of polarization of an incident flux For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors gas proportional counter CZT assembly and Filter-covered Si-diodes are used 2 Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays with angular resolution up to 1 in three spectral lines and RT-2 CZT assembly of CZT

  8. On the Inner Circumstellar Envelopes of R Coronae Borealis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leão, I. C.; Bright, S. N.; Chesneau, O.

    2015-12-01

    We present different analyses of Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) data to interpret the inner circumstellar envelope (CSE) morphology of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. Three objects were considered: RY Sgr, V CrA, and V854 Cen. Chi-squared maps of different geometrical models allow to identify a reasonable description of these CSEs, which can be further studied in radiative transfer codes. Overall, the inner CSE morphology of these RCB stars are consistent with a central star surrounded by a dusty shell with at least a bright clump (or a dust cluster).

  9. High Resolution Imaging of the Sun with CORONAS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karovska, Margarita

    1998-01-01

    We applied several image restoration and enhancement techniques, to CORONAS-I images. We carried out the characterization of the Point Spread Function (PSF) using the unique capability of the Blind Iterative Deconvolution (BID) technique, which recovers the real PSF at a given location and time of observation, when limited a priori information is available on its characteristics. We also applied image enhancement technique to extract the small scale structure imbeded in bright large scale structures on the disk and on the limb. The results demonstrate the capability of the image post-processing to substantially increase the yield from the space observations by improving the resolution and reducing noise in the images.

  10. Toxic Gas Removal by Dielectric Discharge with Corona Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, H.; Pacheco, M.; Mercado, A.; Cruz, A.; Pacheco, J.; Yousfi, M.; Eichwald, O.; Benhenni, M.

    2006-12-04

    In this work, a theoretical and experimental study on SO2 and NOx removal by non-thermal plasma technology, more specifically a dielectric barrier (DBD) discharge combined with the Corona effect, is presented. Results obtained from a theoretical study describe the chemical kinetic model of SO2 and NOx removal processes; the effect of OH radicals in removal of both gases is noteworthy. Experimental results of de-SO2 process are reported. Also, optical emission spectroscopy study was applied on some atomic helium lines to obtain temperature of electrons in the non-thermal plasma.

  11. The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran

    1998-01-01

    This report covers technical progress during the first year of the NASA Space Physics Theory contract between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation. Under this contract SAIC, the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model. During the period covered by this report we have published 26 articles in the scientific literature. These publications are listed in Section 4 of this report. In the Appendix we have attached reprints of selected articles.

  12. Fluorine in R Coronae Borealis and Extreme Helium Stars

    E-print Network

    Gajendra Pandey; David L. Lambert; N. Kameswara Rao

    2007-12-24

    Neutral fluorine lines are identified in the optical spectra of several R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) at maximum light. These lines provide the first measurement of the fluorine abundance in these stars. Fluorine is enriched in some RCBs by factors of 800 to 8000 relative to its likely initial abundance. The overabundances of fluorine are evidence for the synthesis of fluorine. These results are discussed in the light of the scenario that RCBs are formed by accretion of an He white dwarf by a C-O white dwarf. Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr), a final He-shell flash product, shows no detectable neutral fluorine lines.

  13. Study of a dual frequency atmospheric pressure corona plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dan Bee; Moon, S. Y.; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho

    2010-05-15

    Radio frequency mixing of 2 and 13.56 MHz was investigated by performing experimental measurements on the atmospheric pressure corona plasma. As a result of the dual frequency, length, current density, and electron excitation temperature of the plasma were increased, while the gas temperature was maintained at roughly the same level when compared to the respective single frequency plasmas. Moreover, observation of time-resolved images revealed that the dual frequency plasma has a discharge mode of 2 MHz positive streamer, 2 MHz negative glow, and 13.56 MHz continuous glow.

  14. RECONNECTION IN MARGINALLY COLLISIONLESS ACCRETION DISK CORONAE J. Goodman and D. Uzdensky

    E-print Network

    's corona, such marginal states may result from a combination of energy balance and the requirements of fast''; Liang & Price 1977; see also Uzdensky & Goodman 2008 for more complete references), while in others the corona lies inside the inner edge of a radially truncated disk (e.g., Thorne & Price 1975; Shapiro et al

  15. The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium M. Jariyaboon a,1

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium M. Jariyaboon a,1 , P. Møller a , R t The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AA1050 aluminium surface was investigated using electro, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after the 15 min air

  16. Helium corona-assisted air discharge Nan Jiang, Lei Gao, Ailing Ji, and Zexian Caoa)

    E-print Network

    Zexian, Cao

    Helium corona-assisted air discharge Nan Jiang, Lei Gao, Ailing Ji, and Zexian Caoa) Institute of non-thermal plasmas. By taking advantage of the low onset voltage for helium corona, air discharge was successfully launched at much reduced voltages with a needle-plate system partly contained in a helium

  17. Coronas and iridescence in mountain wave clouds Joseph A. Shaw and Paul J. Neiman

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Coronas and iridescence in mountain wave clouds Joseph A. Shaw and Paul J. Neiman We use Fraunhofer particle sizes required for interpreting photographs of coronas and iridescence in mountain wave clouds particles that might be unique to mountain wave clouds. Further- more, we see that the dominant colors

  18. CORONA DESTRUCTION: AN INNOVATIVE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR VOCS AND AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the work and results to date leading to the demonstration of the corona destruction process at pilot scale. The research effort in corona destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air toxics has shown significant promise for providing a valuable co...

  19. APPLICATION OF CORONA DESTRUCTION AS A METHOD TO CONTROL VOLATILEORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA tests of two types of corona reactors. nemakes use of a bed of ferroelectric pellets across which analternating current electric field is impressed. he otherdevelops corona between two electrodes that have been energized bya fast rise time (nanosecond rang...

  20. On the Intrinsic Difficulty of Producing Stellar Coronae With Acoustic Waves

    E-print Network

    Ulmschneider, Peter

    , however, severe empirical limits could be placed on the role that these waves play in heating the solar to heat the open corona, even though such waves are certainly abundant in the photosphere, Finally budget of a corona that is heated exclusively by acoustic waves of the given period. Solar coronal hole

  1. Utilizing the protein corona around silica nanoparticles for dual drug loading and release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabi, Shakiba; Treccani, Laura; Dringen, Ralf; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-10-01

    A protein corona forms spontaneously around silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in serum-containing media. To test whether this protein corona can be utilized for the loading and release of anticancer drugs we incorporated the hydrophilic doxorubicin, the hydrophobic meloxicam as well as their combination in the corona around SNPs. The application of corona-covered SNPs to osteosarcoma cells revealed that drug-free particles did not affect the cell viability. In contrast, SNPs carrying a protein corona with doxorubicin or meloxicam lowered the cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, these particles had an even greater antiproliferative potential than the respective concentrations of free drugs. The best antiproliferative effects were observed for SNPs containing both doxorubicin and meloxicam in their corona. Co-localization studies revealed the presence of doxorubicin fluorescence in the nucleus and lysosomes of cells exposed to doxorubicin-containing coated SNPs, suggesting that endocytotic uptake of the SNPs facilitates the cellular accumulation of the drug. Our data demonstrate that the protein corona, which spontaneously forms around nanoparticles, can be efficiently exploited for loading the particles with multiple drugs for therapeutic purposes. As drugs are efficiently released from such particles they may have a great potential for nanomedical applications.A protein corona forms spontaneously around silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in serum-containing media. To test whether this protein corona can be utilized for the loading and release of anticancer drugs we incorporated the hydrophilic doxorubicin, the hydrophobic meloxicam as well as their combination in the corona around SNPs. The application of corona-covered SNPs to osteosarcoma cells revealed that drug-free particles did not affect the cell viability. In contrast, SNPs carrying a protein corona with doxorubicin or meloxicam lowered the cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, these particles had an even greater antiproliferative potential than the respective concentrations of free drugs. The best antiproliferative effects were observed for SNPs containing both doxorubicin and meloxicam in their corona. Co-localization studies revealed the presence of doxorubicin fluorescence in the nucleus and lysosomes of cells exposed to doxorubicin-containing coated SNPs, suggesting that endocytotic uptake of the SNPs facilitates the cellular accumulation of the drug. Our data demonstrate that the protein corona, which spontaneously forms around nanoparticles, can be efficiently exploited for loading the particles with multiple drugs for therapeutic purposes. As drugs are efficiently released from such particles they may have a great potential for nanomedical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04726a

  2. Personalized disease-specific protein corona influences the therapeutic impact of graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajipour, Mohammad Javad; Raheb, Jamshid; Akhavan, Omid; Arjmand, Sareh; Mashinchian, Omid; Rahman, Masoud; Abdolahad, Mohammad; Serpooshan, Vahid; Laurent, Sophie; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2015-05-01

    The hard corona, the protein shell that is strongly attached to the surface of nano-objects in biological fluids, is recognized as the first layer that interacts with biological objects (e.g., cells and tissues). The decoration of the hard corona (i.e., the type, amount, and conformation of the attached proteins) can define the biological fate of the nanomaterial. Recent developments have revealed that corona decoration strongly depends on the type of disease in human patients from which the plasma is obtained as a protein source for corona formation (referred to as the `personalized protein corona'). In this study, we demonstrate that graphene oxide (GO) sheets can trigger different biological responses in the presence of coronas obtained from various types of diseases. GO sheets were incubated with plasma from human subjects with different diseases/conditions, including hypofibrinogenemia, blood cancer, thalassemia major, thalassemia minor, rheumatism, fauvism, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and pregnancy. Identical sheets coated with varying protein corona decorations exhibited significantly different cellular toxicity, apoptosis, and uptake, reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation and nitrogen oxide levels. The results of this report will help researchers design efficient and safe, patient-specific nano biomaterials in a disease type-specific manner for clinical and biological applications.The hard corona, the protein shell that is strongly attached to the surface of nano-objects in biological fluids, is recognized as the first layer that interacts with biological objects (e.g., cells and tissues). The decoration of the hard corona (i.e., the type, amount, and conformation of the attached proteins) can define the biological fate of the nanomaterial. Recent developments have revealed that corona decoration strongly depends on the type of disease in human patients from which the plasma is obtained as a protein source for corona formation (referred to as the `personalized protein corona'). In this study, we demonstrate that graphene oxide (GO) sheets can trigger different biological responses in the presence of coronas obtained from various types of diseases. GO sheets were incubated with plasma from human subjects with different diseases/conditions, including hypofibrinogenemia, blood cancer, thalassemia major, thalassemia minor, rheumatism, fauvism, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and pregnancy. Identical sheets coated with varying protein corona decorations exhibited significantly different cellular toxicity, apoptosis, and uptake, reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation and nitrogen oxide levels. The results of this report will help researchers design efficient and safe, patient-specific nano biomaterials in a disease type-specific manner for clinical and biological applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00520e

  3. Ex situ evaluation of the composition of protein corona of intravenously injected superparamagnetic nanoparticles in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Maurizi, Lionel; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Motazacker, Mahdi; Vries, Marcel; Gramoun, Azza; Ollivier Beuzelin, Marie-Gabrielle; Vallée, Jean-Paul; Rezaee, Farhad; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2014-09-01

    It is now well recognized that the surfaces of nanoparticles (NPs) are coated with biomolecules (e.g., proteins) in a biological medium. Although extensive reports have been published on the protein corona at the surface of NPs in vitro, there are very few on the in vivo protein corona. The main reason for having very poor information regarding the protein corona in vivo is that separation of NPs from the in vivo environment has not been possible by using available techniques. Knowledge of the in vivo protein corona could lead to better understanding and prediction of the fate of NPs in vivo. Here, by using the unique magnetic properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs), NPs were extracted from rat sera after in vivo interaction with the rat's physiological system. More specifically, the in vivo protein coronas of polyvinyl-alcohol-coated SPIONs with various surface charges are defined. The compositions of the corona at the surface of various SPIONs and their effects on the biodistribution of SPIONs were examined and compared with the corona composition of particles incubated for the same time in rat serum.It is now well recognized that the surfaces of nanoparticles (NPs) are coated with biomolecules (e.g., proteins) in a biological medium. Although extensive reports have been published on the protein corona at the surface of NPs in vitro, there are very few on the in vivo protein corona. The main reason for having very poor information regarding the protein corona in vivo is that separation of NPs from the in vivo environment has not been possible by using available techniques. Knowledge of the in vivo protein corona could lead to better understanding and prediction of the fate of NPs in vivo. Here, by using the unique magnetic properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs), NPs were extracted from rat sera after in vivo interaction with the rat's physiological system. More specifically, the in vivo protein coronas of polyvinyl-alcohol-coated SPIONs with various surface charges are defined. The compositions of the corona at the surface of various SPIONs and their effects on the biodistribution of SPIONs were examined and compared with the corona composition of particles incubated for the same time in rat serum. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Summary table of identified proteins. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02793k

  4. Driving disk winds and heating hot coronae by MRI turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Io, Yuki; Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the formation of hot coronae and vertical outflows in accretion disks by magnetorotational turbulence. We perform local three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations with the vertical stratification by explicitly solving an energy equation with various effective ratios of specific heats, ?. Initially imposed weak vertical magnetic fields are effectively amplified by magnetorotational instability and winding caused by the differential rotation. In the isothermal case (? = 1), the disk winds are driven mainly by the Poynting flux associated with the MHD turbulence and show quasi-periodic intermittency. In contrast, in the non-isothermal cases with ? ? 1.1, the regions above 1-2 scale heights from the midplane are effectively heated to form coronae with temperature ?50 times the initial value, which are connected to the cooler midplane region through the pressure-balanced transition regions. As a result, the disk winds are driven mainly by the gas pressure, exhibiting more time-steady nature, although the nondimensional time-averaged mass loss rates are similar to that of the isothermal case. Sound-like waves are confined in the cool midplane region in these cases, and the amplitude of the density fluctuations is larger than that of the isothermal case.

  5. Corongraphic Observations and Analyses of The Ultraviolet Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, John L.

    2000-01-01

    The activities supported under NASA Grant NAG5-613 included the following: 1) reduction and scientific analysis of data from three sounding rocket flights of the Rocket Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer, 2) development of ultraviolet spectroscopic diagnostic techniques to provide a detailed empirical description of the extended solar corona, 3) extensive upgrade of the rocket instrument to become the Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) for Spartan 201,4) instrument scientific calibration and characterization, 5) observation planning and mission support for a series of five Spartan 201 missions (fully successful except for STS 87 where the Spartan spacecraft was not successfully deployed and the instruments were not activated), and 6) reduction and scientific analysis of the UVCS/Spartan 201 observational data. The Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer for Spartan 201 was one unit of a joint payload and the other unit was a White Light Coronagraph (WLC) provided by the High Altitude Observatory and the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two instruments were used in concert to determine plasma parameters describing structures in the extended solar corona. They provided data that could be used individually or jointly in scientific analyses. The WLC provided electron column densities in high spatial resolution and high time resolution. UVCS/Spartan provided hydrogen velocity distributions, and line of sight hydrogen velocities. The hydrogen intensities from UVCS together with the electron densities from WLC were used to determine hydrogen outflow velocities. The UVCS also provided O VI intensities which were used to develop diagnostics for velocity distributions and outflow velocities of minor ions.

  6. Multimodal Differential Emission Measure in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuevo, Federico A.; Vásquez, Alberto M.; Landi, Enrico; Frazin, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) telescope on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides coronal extreme ultraviolet imaging over a broader temperature sensitivity range than the previous generations of instruments (Extreme Ultraviolet Imager; EUVI, EIT, and TRACE). Differential emission measure tomography (DEMT) of the solar corona based on AIA data is presented here for the first time. The main product of DEMT is the three-dimensional distribution of the local differential emission measure (LDEM). While in previous studies, based on EIT or EUVI data, there were three available EUV bands, the present study is based on the four cooler AIA bands (aimed at studying the quiet sun). The AIA filters allow exploration of new parametric LDEM models. Since DEMT is better suited for lower activity periods, we use data from Carrington Rotation 2099, when the Sun was in its most quiescent state during the AIA mission. Also, we validate the parametric LDEM models by using them to perform a bi-dimensional differential emission measure (DEM) analysis on sets of simultaneous AIA images, and comparing results with those obtained using other methods. Our study reveals a ubiquitous bimodal LDEM distribution in the quiet diffuse corona, characterized by two well-defined average centroid temperatures < {T}{0,1}> =(1.47+/- 0.05) {MK} and < {T}{0,2}> =(2.57+/- 0.05) {MK}. We argue that the nanoflare heating scenario is less likely to explain these results, and that alternative mechanisms, such as wave dissipation, appear better supported by our results.

  7. Synoptic, Global Mhd Model For The Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Ofer; Sokolov, I. V.; Roussev, I. I.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2007-05-01

    The common techniques for mimic the solar corona heating and the solar wind acceleration in global MHD models are as follow. 1) Additional terms in the momentum and energy equations derived from the WKB approximation for the Alfv’en wave turbulence; 2) some empirical heat source in the energy equation; 3) a non-uniform distribution of the polytropic index, ?, used in the energy equation. In our model, we choose the latter approach. However, in order to get a more realistic distribution of ?, we use the empirical Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model to constrain the MHD solution. The WSA model provides the distribution of the asymptotic solar wind speed from the potential field approximation; therefore it also provides the distribution of the kinetic energy. Assuming that far from the Sun the total energy is dominated by the energy of the bulk motion and assuming the conservation of the Bernoulli integral, we can trace the total energy along a magnetic field line to the solar surface. On the surface the gravity is known and the kinetic energy is negligible. Therefore, we can get the surface distribution of ? as a function of the final speed originating from this point. By interpolation ? to spherically uniform value on the source surface, we use this spatial distribution of ? in the energy equation to obtain a self-consistent, steady state MHD solution for the solar corona. We present the model result for different Carrington Rotations.

  8. Diffusion modelling of coronas around olivine in an open system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, J. R.; Birdi, J. J.

    1990-09-01

    An open-system modification is introduced to Joesten's theory for steady-state diffusion-controlled growth of layered structures. The modified theory produces a model which is fully consistent with data for coronas between olivine and plagioclase from NE Scotland, having the layer sequence Pl|Hbl + Spl|Hbl|Opx|Ol. Relative immobility of Al and Si, inferred from the two-mineral symplectite, leads to the useful approximation of closure to Al and Si. The resulting model is consistent with Al, Si immobility, because it requires an Onsager diffusion coefficient for Al ( LAlAl) lower by an order of magnitude than that for Mg, while L AlAl/L SiSi?1 . Iron is less constrained than Mg to be mobile, with Ca and Na unconstrained, because their fluxes are relatively small. The results are insensitive to small errors in the data, except in Al and Si contents. Low Al/Si in plagioclase, as an example, requires lower L AlAl/L SiSi in the model. Variation of metasomatic inputs can explain the layer sequence Pl|Hbl + Spl|Opx + Spl|Opx|Ol, reported in the literature but not accounted for by the more restricted version of the theory previously available. The modified theory remains simple, and is likely to be applicable to other coronas, though complex examples may reveal its limitations.

  9. Confirmed Assignments of Isomeric Dimethylbenzyl Radicals Generated by Corona Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2012-06-01

    Polymethylbenzyl radicals, multi-methyl-substituted benzyl radicals, have been believed to be an ideal model for understanding the torsional effect of methyl group and substitution effect on electronic transition. These radicals are mainly generated from polymethylbenzenes by electric discharge for spectroscopic observation. However, the existence of several methyl groups on the benzene ring may produce several isomeric polymethylbenzyl radicals by removing one of the C-H bonds of each methyl group at different substitution position, which makes the assignment of spectrum ambiguous. In this work, the controversial vibronic assignments of isomeric dimethylbenzyl radicals were clearly resolved by using different precursors. By using corresponding dimethylbenzyl chlorides as precursors, we identified the origins of the vibronic bands of the dimethylbenzyl radicals generated by corona discharge of precursors 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzenes. From the analysis of the spectra observed from the dimethylbenzyl chlorides in a corona excited supersonic expansion using a pinhole-type glass nozzle, we revised previous assignments of the 2,6- and 2,3-dimethylbenzyl radicals as well as the 3,4-, 2,4-, and 2,5-dimethylbenzyl radicals. In addition, spectroscopic data of electronic transition and vibrational mode frequencies in the ground electronic state of each isomer were accurately determined by comparing them with those obtained by an ab initio calculation and with the known vibrational data of precursors.

  10. The EUV Emission in Comet-Solar Corona Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryans, Paul; Pesnell, William Dean; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Brown, John C.; Battams, Karl; Saint-Hilaire, Pasal; Liu, Wei; Hudson, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AlA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) viewed a comet as it passed through the solar corona on 2011 July 5. This was the first sighting of a comet by a EUV telescope. For 20 minutes, enhanced emission in several of the AlA wavelength bands marked the path of the comet. We explain this EUV emission by considering the evolution of the cometary atmosphere as it interacts with the ambient solar atmosphere. Water ice in the comet rapidly sublimates as it approaches the Sun. This water vapor is then photodissociated, primarily by Ly-alpha, by the solar radiation field to create atomic Hand O. Other molecules present in the comet also evaporate and dissociate to give atomic Fe and other metals. Subsequent ionization of these atoms can be achieved by a number of means, including photoionization, electron impact, and charge exchange with coronal protons and other highly-charged species. Finally, particles from the cometary atmosphere are thermalized to the background temperature of the corona. Each step could cause emission in the AlA bandpasses. We will report here on their relative contribution to the emission seen in the AlA telescopes.

  11. Optics to rectify CORONA panoramic photographs for map making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Robert S.

    2006-08-01

    In the 1960's, accurate maps of the United States were available to all, from the U.S. Government, but maps of the Soviet Union were not, and in fact were classified. Maps of the Soviet Union were needed by the U.S. Government, including for U.S. targeting of Soviet ICBM sites, and for negotiating the SALT ICBM disarmament treaty. Although mapping cameras were historically frame cameras with low distortion, the CORONA panoramic film coverage was used to identify any ICBM sites. If distortion-free photographs could be produced from this inherently distorted panoramic material, accurate maps could be produced that would be valuable. Use of the stereo photographs from CORONA, for developing accurate topographical maps, was the mission of Itek's Gamma Rectifier. Bob Shannon's department at Itek was responsible for designing the optics for the Gamma Rectifier. He assigned the design to the author. The optical requirements of this system are described along with the optical design solution, which allowed the inherent panoramic distortion of the original photographs to be "rectified" to a very high level of accuracy, in enlarged photographs. These rectifiers were used three shifts a day, for over a decade, and produced the most accurate maps of the earth's surface, that existed at that time. The results facilitated the success of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) Treaty signed by the US and the Soviet Union in 1972, which were verified by "national means of verification" (i.e. space reconnaissance).

  12. Corona performance of a compact 230-kV line

    SciTech Connect

    Chartier, V.L.; Blair, D.E.; Easley, M.D.; Raczkowski, R.T.

    1994-12-31

    Permitting requirements and the acquisition of new rights-of-way for transmission facilities has in recent years become increasingly difficult for most utilities, including Puget Sound Power and Light Company. In order to maintain a high degree of reliability of service while being responsive to public concerns regarding the siting of high voltage (HV) transmission facilities, Puget Power has found it necessary to more heavily rely upon the use of compact lines in franchise corridors. Compaction does, however, precipitant increased levels of audible noise (AN) and radio and TV interference (RI and TVI) due to corona on the conductors and insulator assemblies. Puget Power relies upon the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Corona and Field Effects computer program to calculate AN and RI for new lines. Since there was some question of the program`s ability to accurately represent quiet 230-kV compact designs, a joint project was undertaken with BPA to verify the program`s algorithms. Long-term measurements made on an operating Puget Power 230-kV compact line confirmed the accuracy of BPA`s AN model; however, the RI measurements were much lower than predicted by the BPA computer and other programs. This paper also describes how the BPA computer program can be used to calculate the voltage needed to expose insulator assemblies to the correct electric field in single test setups in HV laboratories.

  13. The "sweet" side of the protein corona: effects of glycosylation on nanoparticle-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Wan, Sha; Kelly, Philip M; Mahon, Eugene; Stöckmann, Henning; Rudd, Pauline M; Caruso, Frank; Dawson, Kenneth A; Yan, Yan; Monopoli, Marco P

    2015-02-24

    The significance of a protein corona on nanoparticles in modulating particle properties and their biological interactions has been widely acknowledged. The protein corona is derived from proteins in biological fluids, many of which are glycosylated. To date, the glycans on the proteins have been largely overlooked in studies of nanoparticle-cell interactions. In this study, we demonstrate that glycosylation of the protein corona plays an important role in maintaining the colloidal stability of nanoparticles and influences nanoparticle-cell interactions. The removal of glycans from the protein corona enhances cell membrane adhesion and cell uptake of nanoparticles in comparison with the fully glycosylated form, resulting in the generation of a pro-inflammatory milieu by macrophages. This study highlights that the post-translational modification of proteins can significantly impact nanoparticle-cell interactions by modulating the protein corona properties. PMID:25599105

  14. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1: III. Implications for Compton Corona and ADAF Models. Report 3; Implications for Compton Corona and ADAF Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wilms, Joern; Vaughan, Brian A.; Dove, James B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1999-01-01

    We have recently shown that a 'sphere + disk' geometry Compton corona model provides a good description of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the hard/low state of Cygnus X-1. Separately, we have analyzed the temporal data provided by RXTE. In this paper we consider the implications of this timing analysis for our best-fit 'sphere + disk' Comptonization models. We focus our attention on the observed Fourier frequency-dependent time delays between hard and soft photons. We consider whether the observed time delays are: created in the disk but are merely reprocessed by the corona; created by differences between the hard and soft photon diffusion times in coronae with extremely large radii; or are due to 'propagation' of disturbances through the corona. We find that the time delays are most likely created directly within the corona; however, it is currently uncertain which specific model is the most likely explanation. Models that posit a large coronal radius [or equivalently, a large Advection Dominated Accretion Flow (ADAF) region] do not fully address all the details of the observed spectrum. The Compton corona models that do address the full spectrum do not contain dynamical information. We show, however, that simple phenomenological propagation models for the observed time delays for these latter models imply extremely slow characteristic propagation speeds within the coronal region.

  15. Unraveling the chemical space of terrestrial and meteoritic organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Kanawati, Basem; Ruf, Alexander; Quirico, Eric; Bonal, Lydie; Beck, Pierre; Gabelica, Zelimir

    2015-04-01

    In terrestrial environments natural organic matter (NOM) occurs in soils, freshwater and marine environments, in the atmosphere and represents an exceedingly complex mixture of organic compounds that collectively exhibits a nearly continuous range of properties (size-reactivity continuum). In these materials, the "classical" biogeosignatures of the (biogenic and geogenic) precursor molecules, like lipids, lignins, proteins and natural products have been attenuated, often beyond recognition, during a succession of biotic and abiotic (e.g. photo- and redox chemistry) reactions. Because of this loss of biochemical signature, these materials can be designated non-repetitive complex systems. The access to extra-terrestrial organic matter is given i.e. in the analysis of meteoritic materials. Numerous descriptions of organic molecules present in organic chondrites have improved our understanding of the early interstellar chemistry that operated at or just before the birth of our solar system. However, many molecular analyses are so far targeted toward selected classes of compounds with a particular emphasis on biologically active components in the context of prebiotic chemistry. Here we demonstrate that a non-targeted ultrahigh-resolution molecular analysis of the solvent-accessible organic fraction of meteorite extracted under mild conditions allows one to extend its indigenous chemical diversity to tens of thousands of different molecular compositions and likely millions of diverse structures. The description of the molecular complexity provides hints on heteroatoms chronological assembly, shock and thermal events and revealed recently new classes of thousands of novel organic, organometallic compounds uniquely found in extra-terrestrial materials and never described in terrestrial systems. This high polymolecularity suggests that the extraterrestrial chemodiversity is high compared to terrestrial relevant biological and biogeochemical-driven chemical space. (ultra)High resolution analytical approaches will be presented in their application to unravel the chemical nature and organic signatures in bio-geosystems and especially in selected chondritic (organic and ordinary) and achondritic meteorites. We will focus on thermal effects in CM types of materials and describe the effect of shock events on the changes in chemodiversity and the formation of unique novel organic compounds using high magnetic field ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (12 Tesla ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry - ICR-FT/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Cryo 800MHz NMR).

  16. Chandra HETGS Observes Tortured Coronae in the Rapid Braking Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, T. R.; Osten, R. A.; Brown, A.; Gagne, M.; Linsky, J. L.

    2002-05-01

    We have obtained Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer observations of five moderate mass (2--3 Msun) giants straddling the portion of the Hertzsprung gap where early-G III stars---evolving rapidly toward the red giant branch---suffer strong rotational braking and dramatic changes in their X-ray emitting coronae. G0 III giants prior to the braking epoch are fast rotators (? rot ~ 50-100 km s-1) and display very hot (T> 107 K) coronae, but nevertheless have curiously depressed X-ray luminosities. The post-braking giants are slow rotators (? rot< 10 km s-1) with cooler coronae (T ~ 106.8 K), but nevertheless manage a healthy level of X-ray emission. We believe the differences reflect the violent replacement of a ``fossil'' magnetosphere---inherited from the late-B or early-A MS progenitor---by a solar-like regenerative magnetic dynamo. The latter becomes dominant when the initially shallow surface convection in yellow giants at the blue edge of the Hertzsprung gap gives way to deep convective layers as the stars evolve to the red edge. Three of the targets were observed in Cycle 2: 31 Com (G0 III) on 2001-03-12 [132.0 ks]; HR 9024 (G1 III) on 2001-08-11 [96.9 ks]; and ? Vel (G5 III) on 2001-09-24 [19.9 ks], 2001-10-29 [58.1 ks], and 2001-12-18 [57.7 ks]. (The first ? Vel observation was scheduled for 80 ks, but was cut short by a solar flare. The second pointing was intended to complete the exposure, but was affected by ``threshold crossing plane'' latchup in the ACIS CCDs, and was repeated two months later, accounting for the third pointing.) The remaining two stars are: Cycle 3 target 24 UMa (G4 III; ~50 ks pointings on 2002-03-26 and 2002-03-29); and GTO target ? Ceti (K0 III) observed on 2001-06-29 [87.5 ks]. We describe the HETGS spectra and our efforts to infer plasma conditions (temperature/density models), chemical fractionation, gas dynamics (through emission line Doppler shifts), and coronal variability. [-3mm] This work was supported by Chandra grant GO1-2018X to the University of Colorado.

  17. PHASES IN THE UNRAVELING OF THE SECRETS OF THE GEAR SYSTEM OF THE ANTIKYTHERA MECHANISM. 1

    E-print Network

    Museum in Athens. Traces of gear- wheels were clearly visible as well. The pieces turned out to be partsPHASES IN THE UNRAVELING OF THE SECRETS OF THE GEAR SYSTEM OF THE ANTIKYTHERA MECHANISM. 1 Teun of the gearing system. 1 This is the text of a lecture given at the International Symposium on the History

  18. Unraveling the Complexity of Student Teachers' Learning in and from the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeferink, Han; Koopman, Maaike; Beijaard, Douwe; Ketelaar, Evelien

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on how student teachers' workplace experiences were transformed into learning experiences. In total, 26 stories from 10 student teachers were collected by means of digital logs and in-depth interviews and unraveled using a new technique of reconstructing stories into webs. In these webs, the factors that played a role in student…

  19. Unravelling Coherent Dynamics and Energy Dissipation in Photosynthetic Complexes by 2D Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Mukamel, Shaul

    Unravelling Coherent Dynamics and Energy Dissipation in Photosynthetic Complexes by 2D Spectroscopy of pigments in space with interpigment distances varying from 11 to 14 A° inside each unit (4). The complex coherences (7). Two- dimensional (2D) PE spectroscopy has recently been applied to study the exciton

  20. Israel must pursue peace urgently as Egypt unravels, former U.S. Rep. Wexler says

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Israel must pursue peace urgently as Egypt unravels, former U.S. Rep. Wexler says By Ana M. Valdes's government teeter, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on Wednesday called for "bolstering Israel turned upside down." For decades, Egypt has been Israel's closest ally in the Middle East, particularly

  1. Statistical shear lag model Unraveling the size effect in hierarchical Xiaoding Wei, Tobin Filleter 1

    E-print Network

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    have been pro- posed to predict strength distributions for unidirectional fiber-re- inforced compositesStatistical shear lag model ­ Unraveling the size effect in hierarchical composites Xiaoding Wei February 2015 Keywords: Size effect Load transfer Shear lag Defect tolerance Hierarchical composites a b

  2. Scientists unravel secrets of marine life at the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas Atoll, Brazil

    E-print Network

    Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

    Scientists unravel secrets of marine life at the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas Atoll, Brazil the Northeastern coast of Brazil is Rocas Atoll, the only atoll in the entire Southern Atlantic. Atolls enclosing a shallow interior. Most of the atolls around the world are formed by corals, but in Rocas Atoll

  3. Unravelling the Cretaceous-Paleogene (KT) Turnover, Evidence from Flora, Fauna and

    E-print Network

    Vajda, Vivi

    Unravelling the Cretaceous-Paleogene (KT) Turnover, Evidence from Flora, Fauna and Geology Adriana and geological signatures left by the devastation, including information from new proximal KT boundary exposures well with the atmospheric radiative transfer models. The pattern of vertebrate extinctions revealed

  4. Unravelling the Sources of Adolescent Substance Use: A Test of Rival Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonson, Cheryl Lero; McArthur, Rachel; Cullen, Francis T.; Wilcox, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Among any cohort of American youths, some will use drugs and alcohol whereas others will not. Further, some youngsters will not only use these illegal substances but also abuse them, at times wreaking havoc with their lives and ruining their futures. The purpose of this study is to attempt to unravel this heterogeneity of substance abuse; that is,…

  5. Unraveling environmental drivers of a recent increase in Swiss fungi fruiting

    E-print Network

    Laudal, Arnfinn

    Unraveling environmental drivers of a recent increase in Swiss fungi fruiting U L F B UN T G E N rethinking the conceptual role of symbiotic pathways in fungi-host interaction. Moreover, this conceptual and the atmosphere. Keywords: climate change, forest ecology, fungi-host interaction, global carbon cycle, plant

  6. Unraveling the early steps of prokaryotic replication Erin L Cunningham and James M Berger

    E-print Network

    Berger, James M.

    Unraveling the early steps of prokaryotic replication Erin L Cunningham and James M Berger In prokaryotes, many of the physical mechanisms governing the process of initiating DNA replication are now studies have shown that prokaryotic initiator structures are both modular and conserved, and have begun

  7. Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions Unraveling Relaxor Phase Transitions by

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions Unraveling Relaxor 2009 WILLIAMSBURG WORKSHOP ON FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS OF FERROELECTRICS #12;Introduction Strontium Barium ferroelectrics Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions SBN ­ SrxBa1-xNb2O6

  8. Oxygen Isotopes Unravel the Role of Microorganisms in Phosphate Cycling in Soils

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Oxygen Isotopes Unravel the Role of Microorganisms in Phosphate Cycling in Soils Federica Tamburini analyzed the isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (18 O-Pi) from the parent material, soil for the temperature- dependent equilibrium between phosphate and water. In addition, the isotopic signature

  9. Ground-based observation of emission lines from the corona of a red-dwarf star.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J H; Wichmann, R

    2001-08-01

    All 'solar-like' stars are surrounded by coronae, which contain magnetically confined plasma at temperatures above 106 K. (Until now, only the Sun's corona could be observed in the optical-as a shimmering envelope during a total solar eclipse.) As the underlying stellar 'surfaces'-the photospheres-are much cooler, some non-radiative process must be responsible for heating the coronae. The heating mechanism is generally thought to be magnetic in origin, but is not yet understood even for the case of the Sun. Ultraviolet emission lines first led to the discovery of the enormous temperature of the Sun's corona, but thermal emission from the coronae of other stars has hitherto been detectable only from space, at X-ray wavelengths. Here we report the detection of emission from highly ionized iron (Fe XIII at 3,388.1 A) in the corona of the red-dwarf star CN Leonis, using a ground-based telescope. The X-ray flux inferred from our data is consistent with previously measured X-ray fluxes, and the non-thermal line width of 18.4 km s-1 indicates great similarities between solar and stellar coronal heating mechanisms. The accessibility and spectral resolution (45,000) of the ground-based instrument are much better than those of X-ray satellites, so a new window to the study of stellar coronae has been opened. PMID:11484044

  10. IAU, Joint Commission Meeting on Solar and Stellar Coronae, Buenos Aires, Argentina, July 30, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Roberto

    Papers are presented on coronal emission and stellar evolution, high-resolution observations of the solar corona, modeling solar coronal loops, heating and momentum deposition in hot stars, and heating of solar and stellar chromospheres and coronae by MHD waves, and magnetized and collimated meridional outflows. Other papers are on X-ray activity and magnetic fields of T Tauri stars, X-ray spectroscopy of solar and stellar coronae, radio observations of solar and stellar coronae, stellar coronae and their relation to convection zones and rotation rates, results from an extensive Einstein Observatory survey of B-type stars, and transient optical periodicities in coronal red dwarfs. Particular attention is given to radio observations of weak-lined T Tauri, spectra of MHD turbulence in the solar corona, the thermodynamic decay scaling laws in solar loop flares, the differential emission measure and the composition of the solar corona, the structural instability of nonlinear Alfven waves, and heating of solar coronal holes by reflected Alfven waves. (For individual items see A93-26152 to A93-26175)

  11. Geology of coronae and domal structures on Venus and models of their origin

    SciTech Connect

    Stofan, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    Coronae (160 to 670 km across) and domal structures (greater than 1000 km across) are complex topographic highs on Venus that were affected by volcanic and topographic processes. The geology of coronae and a major domal structure, Beta Regio, are documented using Pioneer Venus, Arecibo, and Venera 15/16 data. The evolution and possible models of origin of these features are also investigated. Beta Regio is a 2000 x 2300 km topographic high located in the equatorial region of Venus that rises over 5 km above the surrounding region. Within Beta Regio lie two large volcanic shields, Theia and Rhea Mons. Coronae are circular to elongate structures on Venus, characterized by an annulus of concentric compressional ridges and relatively raised topography surrounded by a peripheral trough. Volcanic domes, flows and edifices, as well as tectonic lineaments characterize the interiors of coronae. Thirty one coronae were detected on Venus. Two analytical models were developed that are consistent with the general characteristics and evolution of coronae: hotspot or rising mantle diapir model and sinking mantle diapir model. Coronae appear to be part of a continuum of thermally produced features on Venus, along with volcanic complexes and domal structures such as Beta Regio.

  12. The Role of Magnetic Reconnection in Self-Organization of the Corona: Theory and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassak, P. A.; Mullan, D. J.; Shay, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Based on observations that solar flares obey power law statistics, it was suggested that the solar corona is in a state of self-organized criticality [1]. However, the physical mechanism underlying the dynamics is not well understood. A recent model [2] describing the catastrophic onset of fast (Hall) magnetic reconnection in weakly collisional plasmas may potentially contribute to this discussion. We suggest that the condition at which the catastrophic onset of reconnection occurs sets the critical state of the corona and the physics of reconnection organizes the corona into this critical state [3]. (See also [4].) The model makes a quantitative prediction for the conditions of the corona at the onset of eruptions, which is known to be consistent with observations of the solar corona. We present new observational evidence from stellar flares (107 events in 37 sun-like stars) that stellar coronae are near the same critical state at flare onset. This provides observational evidence in support of the model and suggests that magnetic reconnection plays an active role in constraining the conditions in solar and stellar coronae. Implications for self-organization in coronal heating and solar eruptions will be discussed. [1] E. T. Lu and R. J. Hamilton, Ap. J., 380, L89, 1991; [2] P. A. Cassak et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 95, 235002, 2005; P. A. Cassak et al., Ap. J. Lett., 644, L145, 2006; [3] P. A. Cassak et al., Ap. J. Lett., 676, L69, 2008; [4] D. A. Uzdensky, Ap. J., 671, 2139, 2007.

  13. VARIABLE WINDS AND DUST FORMATION IN R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Zhang Wanshu; Geballe, T. R. E-mail: wzhan21@lsu.edu

    2013-08-01

    We have observed P-Cygni and asymmetric, blue-shifted absorption profiles in the He I {lambda}10830 lines of 12 R Coronae Borealis stars over short (1 month) and long (3 yr) timescales to look for variations linked to their dust-formation episodes. In almost all cases, the strengths and terminal velocities of the line vary significantly and are correlated with dust formation events. Strong absorption features with blue-shifted velocities {approx}400 km s{sup -1} appear during declines in visible brightness and persist for about 100 days after recovery to maximum brightness. Small residual winds of somewhat lower velocity are present outside of the decline and recovery periods. The correlations support models in which recently formed dust near the star is propelled outward at high speed by radiation pressure and drags the gas along with it.

  14. Mapping protein binding sites on the biomolecular corona of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Philip M.; Åberg, Christoffer; Polo, Ester; O'Connell, Ann; Cookman, Jennifer; Fallon, Jonathan; Krpeti?, Željka; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2015-05-01

    Nanoparticles in a biological milieu are known to form a sufficiently long-lived and well-organized ‘corona’ of biomolecules to confer a biological identity to the particle. Because this nanoparticle-biomolecule complex interacts with cells and biological barriers, potentially engaging with different biological pathways, it is important to clarify the presentation of functional biomolecular motifs at its interface. Here, we demonstrate that by using antibody-labelled gold nanoparticles, differential centrifugal sedimentation and various imaging techniques it is possible to identify the spatial location of proteins, their functional motifs and their binding sites. We show that for transferrin-coated polystyrene nanoparticles only a minority of adsorbed proteins exhibit functional motifs and the spatial organization appears random, which is consistent, overall, with a stochastic and irreversible adsorption process. Our methods are applicable to a wide array of nanoparticles and can offer a microscopic molecular description of the biological identity of nanoparticles.

  15. Magnetic loops, downflows, and convection in the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, P.

    1978-01-01

    Optical and extreme-ultraviolet observations of solar loop structures show that flows of cool plasma from condensations near the loop apex are a common property of loops associated with radiations whose maximum temperature is greater than approximately 7000 K and less than approximately 3,000,000 K. It is suggested that the mass balance of these structures indicates reconnection by means of plasma motion across field lines under rather general circumstances (not only after flares). It is shown that the cool material has lower gas pressure than the surrounding coronal medium. The density structure of the bright extreme ultraviolet loops suggests that downflows of cool gas result from isobaric condensation of plasma that is either out of thermal equilibrium with the local energy deposition rate into the corona, or is thermally unstable. The evidence is thought to indicate that magnetic fields act to induce a pattern of forced convection.

  16. Clementine Observes the Moon, Solar Corona, and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, during its flight, the Clementine spacecraft returned images of the Moon. In addition to the geologic mapping cameras, the Clementine spacecraft also carried two Star Tracker cameras for navigation. These lightweight (0.3 kg) cameras kept the spacecraft on track by constantly observing the positions of stars, reminiscent of the age-old seafaring tradition of sextant/star navigation. These navigation cameras were also to take some spectacular wide angle images of the Moon.

    In this picture the Moon is seen illuminated solely by light reflected from the Earth--Earthshine! The bright glow on the lunar horizon is caused by light from the solar corona; the sun is just behind the lunar limb. Caught in this image is the planet Venus at the top of the frame.

  17. Burgulence and Alfven waves heating mechanism of solar corona

    E-print Network

    T. M. Mishonov; Y. G. Maneva

    2007-01-16

    Heating of magnetized turbulent plasma is calculated in the framework of Burgers turbulence [A.M. Polyakov, Phys. Rev. E. 52, 6183 (1995)]. Explicit formula for the energy flux of Alfven waves along the magnetic field is presented. The Alfven waves are considered as intermediary between the turbulent energy and the heat. The derived results are related to a wave channel of heating of the solar corona. If we incorporate amplification of Alfven waves by shear flow the suggested model of heating can be applied to analysis of the missing viscosity of accretion discs and to reveal why the quasars are the most powerful sources of light in the universe. We suppose that the Langevin-Burgers approach to turbulence we have applied in the current work can be also helpful for other systems where we have intensive interaction between a stochastic turbulent system and waves and can be used in many multidisciplinary researches in hydrodynamics and MHD.

  18. Radiative transfer of X-rays in the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L. W.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of resonance scattering of X-ray emission lines in the solar corona is investigated. For the resonance lines of some helium-like ions, significant optical depths are reached over distances small compared with the size of typical coronal features. A general integral equation for the transfer of resonance-line radiation under solar coronal conditions is derived. This expression is in a form useful for modeling the complex three-dimensional temperature and density structure of coronal active regions. The transfer equation is then cast in a form illustrating the terms which give rise to the attenuation or enhancement of the resonance-line intensity. The source function for helium-like oxygen (O VII) under coronal conditions is computed and discussed in terms of the relative importance of scattering.

  19. Magnetic Jam in the Corona of the Sun

    E-print Network

    Chen, F; Bingert, S; Cheung, M C M

    2015-01-01

    The outer solar atmosphere, the corona, contains plasma at temperatures of more than a million K, more than 100 times hotter that solar surface. How this gas is heated is a fundamental question tightly interwoven with the structure of the magnetic field in the upper atmosphere. Conducting numerical experiments based on magnetohydrodynamics we account for both the evolving three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere and the complex interaction of magnetic field and plasma. Together this defines the formation and evolution of coronal loops, the basic building block prominently seen in X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images. The structures seen as coronal loops in the EUV can evolve quite differently from the magnetic field. While the magnetic field continuously expands as new magnetic flux emerges through the solar surface, the plasma gets heated on successively emerging fieldlines creating an EUV loop that remains roughly at the same place. For each snapshot the EUV images outline the magnetic field, bu...

  20. THE EXPANSION OF ACTIVE REGIONS INTO THE EXTENDED SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Huw; Jeska, Lauren; Leonard, Drew

    2013-06-01

    Advanced image processing of Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO) C2 observations reveals the expansion of the active region closed field into the extended corona. The nested closed-loop systems are large, with an apparent latitudinal extent of 50 Degree-Sign , and expanding to heights of at least 12 R{sub Sun }. The expansion speeds are {approx}10 km s{sup -1} in the AIA/SDO field of view, below {approx}20 km s{sup -1} at 2.3 R{sub Sun }, and accelerate linearly to {approx}60 km s{sup -1} at 5 R{sub Sun }. They appear with a frequency of one every {approx}3 hr over a time period of around three days. They are not coronal mass ejections (CMEs) since their gradual expansion is continuous and steady. They are also faint, with an upper limit of 3% of the brightness of background streamers. Extreme ultraviolet images reveal continuous birth and expansion of hot, bright loops from a new active region at the base of the system. The LASCO images show that the loops span a radial fan-like system of streamers, suggesting that they are not propagating within the main coronal streamer structure. The expanding loops brighten at low heights a few hours prior to a CME eruption, and the expansion process is temporarily halted as the closed field system is swept away. Closed magnetic structures from some active regions are not isolated from the extended corona and solar wind, but can expand to large heights in the form of quiescent expanding loops.

  1. What Is the Shell Around R Coronae Borealis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Marcello, Dominic C.; Lockman, Felix J.

    2015-07-01

    The hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are known for being prolific producers of dust which causes their large iconic declines in brightness. Several RCB stars, including R Coronae Borealis (R CrB), itself, have large extended dust shells seen in the far-infrared. The origin of these shells is uncertain but they may give us clues to the evolution of the RCB stars. The shells could form in three possible ways. (1) They are fossil Planetary Nebula (PN) shells, which would exist if RCB stars are the result of a final, helium-shell flash, (2) they are material left over from a white-dwarf (WD) merger event which formed the RCB stars, or (3) they are material lost from the star during the RCB phase. Arecibo 21 cm observations establish an upper limit on the column density of H I in the R CrB shell implying a maximum shell mass of ?0.3 M?. A low-mass fossil PN shell is still a possible source of the shell although it may not contain enough dust. The mass of gas lost during a WD merger event will not condense enough dust to produce the observed shell, assuming a reasonable gas-to-dust ratio. The third scenario where the shell around R CrB has been produced during the star’s RCB phase seems most likely to produce the observed mass of dust and the observed size of the shell. But this means that R CrB has been in its RCB phase for ?104 years.

  2. Remote-sensing Observations of the Corona and Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeley, Neil R., Jr.

    2009-05-01

    On June 25, 1908, George Ellery Hale used the 60-foot Tower Telescope on Mount Wilson to make the first measurements of magnetic fields in sunspots. This began a series of studies that led to Hale's Law of sunspot polarities and established the Mount Wilson Observatory as a leading center of solar magnetic field research. The magnetic aura was still present in 1962 when I began solar research there as a Caltech graduate student. Mount Wilson astronomer Horace Babcock and his father had invented the solar magnetograph, discovered the polar fields of the Sun, and observed their reversal near the 1958 sunspot maximum. Caltech physicist Robert Leighton had added new instrumentation to the Mount Wilson spectroheliograph and obtained high-resolution maps of the magnetic field. Babcock had just published his classic paper on the topology of the field and its 22-year cycle. The paper contained a sketch, illustrating the coronal field-line reconnection, which he thought must occur in response to changes of the photospheric field. Some loops flew away in the yet-to-be-discovered solar wind and other loops collapsed back to the Sun. In this talk, I will present new observations from the SOHO and STEREO spacecraft, which show such coronal changes. Loops stretch out in the expanding corona and tear away from the Sun like drops from a leaky faucet. Simultaneous observations with different perspectives show that the detached loops are really helices in 3-D. Off-pointed heliospheric imagers allow us to track these ejections outward past planets (including Earth) and comets, and to observe their compression into a heliospheric spiral, as a consequence of longitudinal speed gradients on the rotating Sun. And XUV observations of the solar disk show brightness changes associated with reconnections high in the corona, like auroral displays in the magnetosphere.

  3. Distribution of electric currents in sunspots from photosphere to corona

    SciTech Connect

    Gosain, Sanjay; Démoulin, Pascal; López Fuentes, Marcelo

    2014-09-20

    We present a study of two regular sunspots that exhibit nearly uniform twist from the photosphere to the corona. We derive the twist parameter in the corona and in the chromosphere by minimizing the difference between the extrapolated linear force-free field model field lines and the observed intensity structures in the extreme-ultraviolet images of the Sun. The chromospheric structures appear more twisted than the coronal structures by a factor of two. Further, we derive the vertical component of electric current density, j{sub z} , using vector magnetograms from the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). The spatial distribution of j{sub z} has a zebra pattern of strong positive and negative values owing to the penumbral fibril structure resolved by Hinode/SOT. This zebra pattern is due to the derivative of the horizontal magnetic field across the thin fibrils; therefore, it is strong and masks weaker currents that might be present, for example, as a result of the twist of the sunspot. We decompose j{sub z} into the contribution due to the derivatives along and across the direction of the horizontal field, which follows the fibril orientation closely. The map of the tangential component has more distributed currents that are coherent with the chromospheric and coronal twisted structures. Moreover, it allows us to map and identify the direct and return currents in the sunspots. Finally, this decomposition of j{sub z} is general and can be applied to any vector magnetogram in order to better identify the weaker large-scale currents that are associated with coronal twisted/sheared structures.

  4. Atmospheric Pressure Weakly Ionized Plasma Reactor Based on the Corona Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wemlinger, Erik

    Atmospheric pressure weakly ionized plasma (APWIP) is being used to treat or process goods and materials because it only activates the surface without modification of the bulk material. This work describes research into the synchronicity of corona discharges and some applications of APWIP. A reactor was built to generate corona discharges using an array of needles, the geometry of each needle being consistent with point-to-plane configuration. The interaction between corona discharges in the needle array was studied. The reactor was then used to decontaminate fresh produce inoculated with E. coli ATCC 1177 and to deposit films via plasma polymerization of acetylene.

  5. Properties of the two-temperature corona model for active galactic nuclei and galactic black holes

    E-print Network

    Agnieszka Janiuk; Bozena Czerny

    1999-12-22

    We study in detail the properties of the accreting corona model for active galactic nuclei and galactic black holes. In this model the fraction of the energy liberated in the corona at a given radius is calculated from the global parameters of the model (mass of the central object, accretion rate and viscosity parameter) and it appears to be a strong function of the radius. The model predicts the relative decrease of the coronal hard X-ray emission with an increase of the accretion rate. The presented description of disc/corona interaction forms a basis for further studies of disc disruption mechanism.

  6. MESSENGER soft X-ray observations of the quiet solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Richard A.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Tolbert, Anne K; Dennis, Brian R.

    2014-06-01

    In a remarkable result from their "SphinX" experiment, Sylwester et al. (2012) found a non-varying base level of soft X-ray emission at the quietest times in 2009. We describe comparable data from the soft X-ray monitor on board MESSENGER (en route to Mercury) which had excellent coverage both in 2009 and during the true solar minimum of 2008. These observations overlap SphinX's and also are often exactly at Sun-MESSENGER-Earth conjunctions. During solar minimum the Sun-MESSENGER distance varied substantially, allowing us to use the inverse-square law to help distinguish the aperture flux (ie, solar X-rays) from that due to sources of background in the 2-5 keV range. The MESSENGER data show a non-varying background level for many months in 2008 when no active regions were present. We compare these data in detail with those from SphinX. Both sets of data reveal a different behavior when magnetic active regions are present on the Sun, and when they are not.Reference: Sylwester et al., ApJ 751, 111 (2012)

  7. NASA's Great Observatories May Unravel 400-Year Old Supernova Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of observations is needed to help us understand the complex relationship that exists among the various components," Blair said. The explosion of a star is a catastrophic event. The blast rips the star apart and unleashes a roughly spherical shock wave that expands outward at more than 22 million mph like an interstellar tsunami. The shock wave spreads out into surrounding space, sweeping up any tenuous interstellar gas and dust into an expanding shell. The stellar ejecta from the explosion initially trail behind the shock wave. It eventually catches up with the inner edge of the shell and is heated to X-ray temperatures. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Hubble Optical Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Visible-light images from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps that form behind the shock wave. Sankrit and Blair compared their HST observations with those taken with ground-based telescopes to obtain a more accurate distance to the supernova remnant of about 13,000 light-years. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Spitzer Infrared Image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant The astronomers used the SST to probe for material that radiates in infrared light, which shows heated microscopic dust particles that have been swept up by the supernova shock wave. SST is sensitive enough to detect both the densest regions seen by HST and the entire expanding shock wave, a spherical cloud of material. Instruments on SST also reveal information about the chemical composition and physical environment of the expanding clouds of gas and dust ejected into space. This dust is similar to dust which was part of the cloud of dust and gas that formed the sun and planets in our solar system. Interview with Dr. William Blair Interview with Dr. William Blair The Chandra X-ray data show regions of very hot gas. The hottest gas, higher-energy X-rays, is located primarily in the regions directly behind the shock front. These regions also show up

  8. The VLT Unravels the Nature of the Fastest Binary Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Two Hot White Dwarfs Perform a Tight Dance Summary Observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile and the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) on the Canary Islands during the past two years have enabled an international group of astronomers [1] to unravel the true nature of an exceptional binary stellar system. This system, designated RX J0806.3+1527 , was first discovered as an X-ray source of variable brightness - once every five minutes, it "switches off" for a short moment. The new observations have shown beyond doubt that this period reflects the orbital motion of two "white dwarf" stars that revolve around each other at a distance of only 80,000 km . Each of the stars is about as large as the Earth and this is the shortest orbital period known for any binary stellar system. The VLT spectrum displays lines of ionized helium, indicating that the presence of an exceedingly hot area on one of the stars - a "hot spot" with a temperature of approx. 250,000 degrees. The system is currently in a rarely seen, transitory evolutionary state . PR Photo 10a/02 : U- and R-band images of RX J0806.3+1527. PR Photo 10b/02 : Spectrum of RX J0806.3+1527 An amazing stellar binary system ESO PR Photo 10a/02 ESO PR Photo 10a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 400 pix - 440k] [Normal - JPEG: 1600 x 800 pix - 1.1M] Caption : PR Photo 10a/02 shows U and R filter images of the sky field around RX J0806.3+1527 (at centre of circle), obtained with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument on VLT KUEYEN. The object is brightest at the shorter wavelength (U-band) - reflecting its very high temperature. Technical information about the photo is available below. One year is the time it takes the Earth to move once around the Sun, our central star. This may seem quite fast when measured on the scale of the Universe, but this is a snail's motion compared to the the speed of two recently discovered stars. They revolve around each other 100,000 times faster; one full revolution takes only 321 seconds , or a little more than 5 minutes! It is the shortest period ever observed in a binary stellar system . This is the surprising conclusion reached by an international team of astronomers led by GianLuca Israel of the Astronomical Observatory of Rome [1], and based on detailed observations of the faint light from these two stars with some of the world's most advanced telescopes. The record-holding binary stellar system bears the prosaic name RX J0806.3+1527 and it is located north of the celestial equator in the constellation Cancer (The Crab). The scientists also find that the two partners in this hectic dance are most likely a dying white dwarf star , trapped in the strong gravitational grip of another, somewhat heavier star of the same exotic type. The two Earth-size stars are separated by only 80,000 kilometers , a little more than twice the altitude of the TV-broadcasting satellites in orbit around the Earth, or just one fifth of the distance to the Moon. The orbital motion is very fast indeed - over 1,000 km/sec, and the lighter star apparently always turns the same hemisphere towards its companion, just as the Moon in its orbit around Earth. Thus, that star also makes one full turn around its axis in only 5 minutes, i.e. its "day" is exactly as long as its "year". The discovery of RX J0806.3+1527 The visible light emitted by this unusual system is very faint, but it radiates comparatively strong X-rays. It was due to this emission that it was first detected as a celestial X-ray source of unknown origin by the German ROSAT space observatory in 1994. Later it was found to be a periodically variable source [2]. Once every 5 minutes, the X-ray radiation disappears for a couple of minutes. It was recently studied in greater detail by the NASA Chandra observatory. The position of the X-ray source in the sky was localised with sufficient accuracy to reveal a very faint visible-light emitting object in the same direction, over one million times weaker than the faintest star that can be seen by unaided eye (V

  9. Effect of the protein corona on nanoparticles for modulating cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon Kyung; Choi, Eun-Ju; Webster, Thomas J; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Khang, Dongwoo

    2015-01-01

    Although the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) is greatly influenced by their interactions with blood proteins, toxic effects resulting from blood interactions are often ignored in the development and use of nanostructured biomaterials for in vivo applications. Protein coronas created during the initial reaction with NPs can determine the subsequent immunological cascade, and protein coronas formed on NPs can either stimulate or mitigate the immune response. Along these lines, the understanding of NP-protein corona formation in terms of physiochemical surface properties of the NPs and NP interactions with the immune system components in blood is an essential step for evaluating NP toxicity for in vivo therapeutics. This article reviews the most recent developments in NP-based protein coronas through the modification of NP surface properties and discusses the associated immune responses. PMID:25565807

  10. Diagnostics of the Solar corona from Comparison Between Faraday Rotation Measurements and MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LE CHAT, G.; Kasper, J. C.; Cohen, O.; Spangler, S.

    2013-05-01

    Faraday rotation observations of natural radio sources allow remote diagnostics of the density and magnetic field of the solar corona. We use linear polarization observations made with the NRAO Very Large Array at frequencies of 1465 and 1665 MHz of 33 polarized radio sources occulted by the solar corona within 5 to 14 solar radii. The measurements were made during May 1997 (Mancuso and Spangler, 2000), March 2005 and april 2005 (Ingleby et al., 2005), corresponding to Carrington rotation number 1922, 1923, 2027 and 2028. We compare the observed Faraday rotation values with values extracted from MHD steady-state simulations of the solar corona using the BATS-R-US model. The simulations are driven by magnetogram data taken at the same time as the observed data. We present the agreement between the model and the Faraday rotation measurements, and we discuss the contraints imposed on models of the quiet corona and CMEs by these observations.

  11. Evidence for a Listric Extensional Fault System Bounding Arden Corona on Uranus' Moon Miranda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddingfield, C. B.; Burr, D. M.; Emery, J. P.

    2012-03-01

    We use multiple lines of evidence to test the hypothesis that the boundary of Arden Corona on Uranus' moon Miranda consists of a listric fault geometry. Our results support this hypothesis and may indicate a subsurface detachment.

  12. Carbohydrate-Based Nanocarriers Exhibiting Specific Cell Targeting with Minimum Influence from the Protein Corona.

    PubMed

    Kang, Biao; Okwieka, Patricia; Schöttler, Susanne; Winzen, Svenja; Langhanki, Jens; Mohr, Kristin; Opatz, Till; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Wurm, Frederik R

    2015-06-15

    Whenever nanoparticles encounter biological fluids like blood, proteins adsorb on their surface and form a so-called protein corona. Although its importance is widely accepted, information on the influence of surface functionalization of nanocarriers on the protein corona is still sparse, especially concerning how the functionalization of PEGylated nanocarriers with targeting agents will affect protein corona formation and how the protein corona may in turn influence the targeting effect. Herein, hydroxyethyl starch nanocarriers (HES-NCs) were prepared, PEGylated, and modified on the outer PEG layer with mannose to target dendritic cells (DCs). Their interaction with human plasma was then studied. Low overall protein adsorption with a distinct protein pattern and high specific affinity for DC binding were observed, thus indicating an efficient combination of "stealth" and targeting behavior. PMID:25940402

  13. Corona contraction and polyelectrolyte complexation of polybasic micelles in buffered aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laaser, Jennifer; Jiang, Yaming; Reineke, Theresa; Lodge, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the pH- and ionic strength-induced contraction of polycationic micelles with a polystyrene core and poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) corona in buffered aqueous solutions, and report on complexation of these micelles with poly(styrene sulfonate) under varying ionic strength conditions. We find that in monoprotic buffers, the micelle corona behaves as a salted osmotic brush, as has been observed for other block polyelectrolyte micelle systems in unbuffered solutions. In polyprotic buffers, however, we find that concentration of the charged buffer species in the micelle corona shifts the buffer dissociation equilibrium farther toward multivalent species than in the bulk, resulting in an anomalously high degree of corona contraction. In our complexation experiments, we observe multimodal size distributions that evolve on timescales of days to weeks at physiologically relevant ionic strengths, which may have implications for the design of gene- and drug-delivery vehicles using these types of interpolyelectrolyte complexes.

  14. Sterilisation of Hydroponic Culture Solution Contaminated by Fungi using an Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Kohji; Satoh, Kohki; Kanayama, Hiroshi; Itoh, Hidenori; Tagashira, Hiroaki; Shimozuma, Mitsuo; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Takasaki, Satoko; Kinoshita, Muneshige

    The hydroponic culture solution contaminated by fungi is sterilised by a DC corona discharge, and the sterilisation characteristics are investigated in this work. A DC streamer corona discharge is generated at atmospheric pressure in air between needle clusters and a water bath containing contaminated solution by fungus such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae or Fusarium sp.. It is found that the fungi are killed by the exposure of the corona discharge, and that the death rates of the fungi chiefly depend on the concentration of the hydroponic culture solutions. It is also found that the number densities of the fungi decrease exponentially with the energy expenditure of the corona discharge, and that damping coefficients of the fungi densities depend on the concentration of the hydroponic culture solutions. This suggests that the fungi are chiefly inactivated by electroporation.

  15. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide by Direct-Current Corona Discharges in Dry Air

    E-print Network

    Chen, Junhong

    Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide by Direct-Current Corona Discharges in Dry Air Containing Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane Vapor: Measurement of the Deposition Rate Junhong Chen1 and Jane H-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CECVD); octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS); electrostatic precipitator. 1

  16. Magnetic and thermodynamic structure of the solar corona during sunspot minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Tzur, I.; Gliner, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    A model of the solar corona during sunspot minimum was constructed. It was suggested that pole-equator asymmetry is caused by interaction of global azimuthal electric currents in the corona and potential magnetic fields originating below the corona. The problem was reduced to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation for a structural function. Taking the difference in electron density between the equatorial plane and the polar direction from observations, the basic equation was solved and the global electric current distribution around the Sun along with the magnetic and thermodynamic structures of the solar corona was derived. The asymmetry between the two hemispheres, which can be due to the magnetic quadrupole, is considered in detail. It is shown that an additional quadrupole term in the magnetic field representation affects the position of polar coronal hole boundaries differently in the two hemispheres. As a result, the outflow from the two polar regions is found to be different.

  17. Self-Consistent Thermal Accretion Disk Corona Models for Compact Objects. I: Properties of the Corona and the Spectrum of Escaping Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, James B.; Wilms, Jorn; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1997-01-01

    We present the properties of accretion disk corona (ADC) models in which the radiation field, the temperature, and the total opacity of the corona are determined self-consistently. We use a nonlinear Monte Carlo code to perform the calculations. As an example, we discuss models in which the corona is situated above and below a cold accretion disk with a plane-parallel (slab) geometry, similar to the model of Haardt & Maraschi. By Comptonizing the soft radiation emitted by the accretion disk, the corona is responsible for producing the high-energy component of the escaping radiation. Our models include the reprocessing of radiation in the accretion disk. Here the photons either are Compton-reflected or photoabsorbed, giving rise to fluorescent line emission and thermal emission. The self- consistent coronal temperature is determined by balancing heating (due to viscous energy dissipation) with Compton cooling, determined using the fully relativistic, angle-dependent cross sections. The total opacity is found by balancing pair productions with annihilations. We find that, for a disk temperature kT(sub BB) approx. less than 200 eV, these coronae are unable to have a self-consistent temperature higher than approx. 140 keV if the total optical depth is approx. less than 0.2, regardless of the compactness parameter of the corona and the seed opacity. This limitation corresponds to the angle-averaged spectrum of escaping radiation having a photon index approx. greater than 1.8 within the 5-30 keV band. Finally, all models that have reprocessing features also predict a large thermal excess at lower energies. These constraints make explaining the X-ray spectra of persistent black hole candidates with ADC models very problematic.

  18. Shock Formation Height in the Solar Corona Estimated from SDO and Radio Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Nitta, N.

    2011-01-01

    Wave transients at EUV wavelengths and type II radio bursts are good indicators of shock formation in the solar corona. We use recent EUV wave observations from SDO and combine them with metric type II radio data to estimate the height in the corona where the shocks form. We compare the results with those obtained from other methods. We also estimate the shock formation heights independently using white-light observations of coronal mass ejections that ultimately drive the shocks.

  19. Driving extreme variability: the evolving corona and evidence for jet launching in Markarian 335

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, D. R.; Gallo, L. C.

    2015-05-01

    Variations in the X-ray emission from the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy, Markarian 335, are studied on both long and short time-scales through observations made between 2006 and 2013 with XMM-Newton, Suzaku and NuSTAR. Changes in the geometry and energetics of the corona that give rise to this variability are inferred through measurements of the relativistically blurred reflection seen from the accretion disc. On long time-scales, we find that during the high-flux epochs the corona has expanded, covering the inner regions of the accretion disc out to a radius of 26_{-7}^{+10} rg. The corona contracts to within 12rg and 5rg in the intermediate- and low-flux epochs, respectively. While the earlier high-flux observation made in 2006 is consistent with a corona extending over the inner part of the accretion disc, a later high-flux observation that year revealed that the X-ray source had become collimated into a vertically extended jet-like corona and suggested relativistic motion of material upwards. On short time-scales, we find that an X-ray flare during a low-flux epoch in 2013 corresponded to a reconfiguration from a slightly extended corona to one much more compact, within just 2 ˜ 3rg of the black hole. There is evidence that during the flare itself, the spectrum softened and the corona became collimated and slightly extended vertically as if a jet-launching event was aborted. Understanding the evolution of the X-ray emitting corona may reveal the underlying mechanism by which the luminous X-ray sources in AGN are powered.

  20. A GENERAL RELATIVISTIC MODEL OF ACCRETION DISKS WITH CORONAE SURROUNDING KERR BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    You Bei; Cao Xinwu; Yuan Yefei E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2012-12-20

    We calculate the structure of a standard accretion disk with a corona surrounding a massive Kerr black hole in the general relativistic frame, in which the corona is assumed to be heated by the reconnection of the strongly buoyant magnetic fields generated in the cold accretion disk. The emergent spectra of accretion disk-corona systems are calculated by using the relativistic ray-tracing method. We propose a new method to calculate the emergent Comptonized spectra from the coronae. The spectra of disk-corona systems with a modified {alpha}-magnetic stress show that both the hard X-ray spectral index and the hard X-ray bolometric correction factor L{sub bol}/L{sub X,2-10keV} increase with the dimensionless mass accretion rate, which is qualitatively consistent with the observations of active galactic nuclei. The fraction of the power dissipated in the corona decreases with increasing black hole spin parameter a, which leads to lower electron temperatures of the coronae for rapidly spinning black holes. The X-ray emission from the coronae surrounding rapidly spinning black holes becomes weak and soft. The ratio of the X-ray luminosity to the optical/UV luminosity increases with the viewing angle, while the spectral shape in the X-ray band is insensitive to the viewing angle. We find that the spectral index in the infrared waveband depends on the mass accretion rate and the black hole spin a, which deviates from the f{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup 1/3} relation expected by the standard thin disk model.

  1. Hi-C Observations of an Active Region Corona, and Investigation of the Underlying Magnetic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. K.; Alexander, C. E.; Winebarger, A.; Moore, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    The solar corona is much hotter (>=10(exp 6) K) than its surface (approx 6000 K), puzzling astrophysicists for several decades. Active region (AR) corona is again hotter than the quiet Sun (QS) corona by a factor of 4-10. The most widely accepted mechanism that could heat the active region corona is the energy release by current dissipation via reconnection of braided magnetic field structure, first proposed by E. N. Parker three decades ago. The first observational evidence for this mechanism has only recently been presented by Cirtain et al. by using High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) observations of an AR corona at a spatial resolution of 0.2 arcsec, which is required to resolve the coronal loops, and was not available before the rocket flight of Hi-C in July 2012. The Hi-C project is led by NASA/MSFC. In the case of the QS, work done by convection/granulation on the inter-granular feet of the coronal field lines translates into the heat observed in the corona. In the case of the AR, as here, there could be flux emergence, cancellation/submergence, or shear flows generating large stress and tension in coronal field loops which is released as heat in the corona. We are currently investigating the changes taking place in photospheric feet of the magnetic field involved with brightenings in the Hi-C AR corona. For this purpose, we are also using SDO/AIA data of +/- 2 hours around the 5 minutes Hi-C flight. In the present talk, I will first summarize some of the results of the Hi-C observations and then present some results from our recent analysis on what photospheric processes feed the magnetic energy that dissipates into heat in coronal loops.

  2. Charge Exchange and Ablation Rates of a Titanium Wire Plasma Corona

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, Robert E.

    2009-01-21

    Wire ablation rates are important features in any examination of precursors or transparent mode implosions of wire arrays. When ion temperatures in a Ti wire plasma corona exceed a few eV, the process of resonant charge exchange competes with elastic scattering. Ions pushed into the corona from an anode bias wire array can be expected to drive a fast neutral wind into the surrounding volume, while a cathode bias wire array would not show the strong neutral wind.

  3. From nanometers to gigaparsecs: The role of nanostructures in unraveling the mysteries of the cosmos

    E-print Network

    the billions of stars in our galaxy combined. There are black holes and neutron stars, literally eating hapless objects as supernova remnants, the accretion disks around black holes and neutron stars, stellar coronae of the massive black holes believed to lurk at the center of most galaxies. © 2001 American Vacuum Society. DOI

  4. Investigation on the Corona Discharge in Blade-to-Plane Electrode Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaci, Meziane; Ait Said, Hakim; Laifaoui, Abdelkrim; Aissou, Massinissa; Nouri, Hamou; Zebboudj, Youcef

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the characteristics of the corona discharge in blade-to-plane electrode configuration. An experimental investigation has been carried out on the geometric parameters that govern the formation of both positive and negative corona discharges, such as the inter-electrode distance, the blade-to-blade spacing, and the number of the discharging blades. The current-voltage characteristics, the breakdown voltage, and the Warburg current distribution were measured. The assisted corona discharge is an example of a blade electrode discharge that can be used to reduce the operating voltage of a conventional corona discharge. The current-voltage characteristics of both positive and negative corona discharges in a blade-to-plane electrode configuration are of the Townsend's law form. The general formula proposed by Meng et al. can also be applied in this system. It has been shown that the breakdown voltage and the corona conductance are strongly affected by the inter-electrode distance. To obtain a maximum current, the blade electrodes should be distant from each other by a value of 2 a ? h. To obtain a constant value of current, the blade electrodes should be separated by a value of 2 a >> h, confirming the Cooperman's law. The current density distribution is satisfied; an exponent of 5.0 is taken for positive polarity and an exponent of 4.8 for negative polarity.

  5. Primary and secondary tip coronae from splashing water drops in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, P. B.

    2012-06-01

    An enquiry has been carried out into millimetre size water drops falling through vertical electric fields, at terminal and near terminal velocities, and impacting a water surface. A laboratory method was devised to electronically observe the splashing event, together with the onset, duration and magnitude of all ensuing coronae. The production of a secondary jet tip and the discovery of a previously unknown corona were originally recorded by Kinsey (1986) and are here described in detail. Emanating from the secondary jet tip, the corona is synonymous with the release and electrification of an airborne water drop and its nC range of charge transfer (being field/momentum dependant) offer low level luminosity to the dark adapted eye (mentioned by ur Rahman and Saunders, 1988). For terminal and near terminal velocity drops, the resulting water jets follow under-damped sinusoidal oscillation and, in fields above a critical value (Ec), their primary tips often support more than one corona, thus yielding charge to the aerosol and space charge below oceanic thunderstorms. Secondary tip, or jet drop, corona data show the phenomenon to occur in fields of 100 V cm- 1 and maybe even lower. The role of such drops, in oceanic thunderstorm electrification, being subject to drop size, ambient field, updraft and wind shear speeds. Oscilloscopic and photographic evidence is presented in support of the discovered corona and oscillographs, photographs and data are taken from P. B. Kinsey Ph.D. thesis (1986).

  6. Atmospheric negative corona discharge using Taylor cone as a liquid cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Naoki; Sekine, Ryuto; Uchida, Satoshi; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    2014-02-01

    We examined the characteristics of atmospheric negative corona discharge using a liquid needle cathode. As a liquid needle cathode, a Taylor cone with conical shape was adopted. A micronozzle was filled with liquid, and a plate electrode was placed above the nozzle. By applying a dc voltage between electrodes, a Taylor cone is formed. To change the liquid property, we added sodium dodecyl sulfate to reduce the surface tension, sodium sulfate to increase the conductivity, and polyvinyl alcohol to increase the viscosity, in distilled water. Liquids with a high surface tension such as pure water could not form a Taylor cone. When we reduced the surface tension, a Taylor cone was formed and a stable corona discharge was observed at the tip of the cone. When we increased viscosity, a liquid filament protruding from the solution surface was formed and corona discharge was observed along the filament at a position 0.7-1.0 mm above the tip of the cone. Increasing the conductivity resulted in the higher light intensity of the corona and the lower corona onset voltage. Using a Taylor cone, different types of corona discharge were observed by changing the property of the liquid.

  7. Alfvénic waves with sufficient energy to power the quiet solar corona and fast solar wind.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott W; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo; Boerner, Paul; Goossens, Marcel

    2011-07-28

    Energy is required to heat the outer solar atmosphere to millions of degrees (refs 1, 2) and to accelerate the solar wind to hundreds of kilometres per second (refs 2-6). Alfvén waves (travelling oscillations of ions and magnetic field) have been invoked as a possible mechanism to transport magneto-convective energy upwards along the Sun's magnetic field lines into the corona. Previous observations of Alfvénic waves in the corona revealed amplitudes far too small (0.5?km?s(-1)) to supply the energy flux (100-200?W?m(-2)) required to drive the fast solar wind or balance the radiative losses of the quiet corona. Here we report observations of the transition region (between the chromosphere and the corona) and of the corona that reveal how Alfvénic motions permeate the dynamic and finely structured outer solar atmosphere. The ubiquitous outward-propagating Alfvénic motions observed have amplitudes of the order of 20?km?s(-1) and periods of the order of 100-500?s throughout the quiescent atmosphere (compatible with recent investigations), and are energetic enough to accelerate the fast solar wind and heat the quiet corona. PMID:21796206

  8. Experimental Study of Magnetic Field Effect on dc Corona Discharge in Low Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elabbas, K.

    2014-09-01

    In the present paper, an attempt was made to investigate the effect of applying a transverse magnetic field on the dc corona discharge behavior in low vacuum. In general, two experiments were carried out in this work: the first is the ionization-region magnetic field experiment, and the second was the drift region magnetic field experiment. In these experiments, permanent magnets were used to produce magnetic field. The degree of vacuum used in this test was 0.4×105 Pa. It is found that the effect of the magnetic field increases as the degree of vacuum increases. It is also seen from this study that the corona current values are higher with magnetic fields than without magnetic fields. The experimental results indicate that the enhancement of the magnetic field near the wire discharge electrode has a significant influence on the increment of the discharge current. The effect of the magnetic field on the discharge current is the most significant with the negative corona discharges rather than with positive corona discharge. In contrast to, the curves were demonstrated that the application of magnetic fields in drift region magnetic field does not significantly change the corona discharge current. Discharge characteristics of magnetically enhanced corona discharges, extracted from this study, can be applied to various industrial applications, such as, in an electrostatic enhancement filter for the purpose of capturing fine particles, and as effective method for production of high ozone concentrations in a generator as compared to the ultraviolet (UV) radiation method.

  9. The Norris Survey of the Corona Borealis Supercluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Todd A.

    We describe the design, construction, and first results of the Norris Survey of the Corona Borealis Supercluster, a redshift survey of a 6^circ x 6^circ region in the core of the Corona Borealis supercluster. The redshift survey has been conducted with the 176-fiber Norris Spectrograph on the Hale 5m telescope. Our redshift catalog consists of 1654 extragalactic objects. The faintest galaxies in the survey have magnitudes of g ~22.5m, and the most distant galaxies have redshifts of z~0.7. . We have measured the redshifts of 528 galaxies in the supercluster itself. We find that the galaxy distribution within the supercluster is overall unrelaxed. The virial mass of the supercluster is (1.7+/-0.2)times10 16h^{-1} { rm M}_odot, which yields a B band mass-to-light ratio of 224+/-121h( {Mover L})_odot a scale of 10h^{-1} Mpc. A dynamical analysis suggests that the supercluster has not yet generated large flows towards itself and that, therefore, the supercluster has only recently begun to break away from the Hubble expansion. Since the redshift catalog extends to z = 0.5, we have been able to investigate the evolution of large -scale structure and of the galaxy population. Galaxies were more weakly clustered in the past. The comoving correlation length declines from {~}6h^ {-1} Mpc for local samples to 2.6 +/-0.5h^{-1} Mpc for galaxies with 0.3

  10. The Corona of the Young Solar Analog EK Draconis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudel, M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Benz, A. O.; Elias, N. M., II

    1995-01-01

    First coronal microwave and new soft X-ray observations of the very active, near-Zero-Age Main-Sequence (ZAMS) dGOe star EK Dra = HD 129333 show that this analog of the young Sun is more luminous in both emissions than most single M-dwarf flare stars. Variations in the 8.4 GHz flux include modulation with the optically determined rotation period of 2.7 days. This result points to a non-uniform filling of the corona with energetic electrons due to an incomplete coverage of the surface with active regions and a source volume that is not concentric with the star. The radio luminosity varying between log L(sub R) = 13.6 and 14.6 (L(sub R) in erg/s/Hz) shows evidence for unpolarized gyrosynchrotron flares, while strongly polarized flares were absent during the observations. This star is the first young, truly solar-like main sequence G star discovered in microwaves. Having just arrived on the main sequence, it conclusively proves that young, solar-like G stars can maintain very high levels of radio emission after their T Tau phase. The X-ray observations were obtained from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). The average X-ray luminosity amounts to log L(sub x) = 29.9 (L(sub x) in erg/s). A Raymond-Smith type plasma model fit yields two plasma components at temperatures of 1.9 and 10 MK, with volume emission measures of 1.2 and 2.5 x 10 (exp 52)/cu cm, respectively. The X-ray light curve is significantly variable, with the photon count rate from the cooler plasma being strongly modulated by the rotation period; the emission from the hotter plasma is only weakly variable. Modeling of the source distribution in the stellar corona yields electron densities of the order of 4 x 10(exp 10)/cu cm or higher for the cool plasma component. It indicates that a considerable portion of EK Dra's high X-ray luminosity is due to high-density plasma rather than large emission volume. Parameters for an X-ray flare indicate an electron density of 1.75 x 10(exp 11)/cu cm and a source height of (1-2) x 10(exp 10) cm, compatible with a few times the scale height of the cooler plasma component.

  11. Jump-diffusion unravelling of a non-Markovian generalized Lindblad master equation

    SciTech Connect

    Barchielli, A.; Pellegrini, C.

    2010-11-15

    The ''correlated-projection technique'' has been successfully applied to derive a large class of highly non-Markovian dynamics, the so called non-Markovian generalized Lindblad-type equations or Lindblad rate equations. In this article, general unravelings are presented for these equations, described in terms of jump-diffusion stochastic differential equations for wave functions. We show also that the proposed unraveling can be interpreted in terms of measurements continuous in time but with some conceptual restrictions. The main point in the measurement interpretation is that the structure itself of the underlying mathematical theory poses restrictions on what can be considered as observable and what is not; such restrictions can be seen as the effect of some kind of superselection rule. Finally, we develop a concrete example and discuss possible effects on the heterodyne spectrum of a two-level system due to a structured thermal-like bath with memory.

  12. Magnetic jam in the corona of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Peter, H.; Bingert, S.; Cheung, M. C. M.

    2015-06-01

    The outer solar atmosphere, the corona, contains plasma at temperatures of more than a million kelvin--more than 100 times hotter than the solar surface. How this gas is heated is a fundamental question tightly interwoven with the structure of the magnetic field. Together this governs the evolution of coronal loops, the basic building block prominently seen in X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images. Here we present numerical experiments accounting for both the evolving three-dimensional structure of the magnetic field and its complex interaction with the plasma. Although the magnetic field continuously expands as new magnetic flux emerges through the solar surface, plasma on successive field lines is heated in succession, giving the illusion that an EUV loop remains roughly at the same place. For each snapshot the EUV images outline the magnetic field. However, in contrast to the traditional view, the temporal evolution of the magnetic field and the EUV loops can be quite different. This indicates that the thermal and the magnetic evolution in the outer atmosphere of a cool star should be treated together, and should not be simply separated as predominantly done so far.

  13. The Origins of Magnetic Structure in the Corona and Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and most puzzling features of the coronal magnetic field is that it appears to have smooth magnetic structure with little evidence for non-potentiality except at two special locations: photospheric polarity inversions lines. (non-potentiality observed as a filament channel) and coronal hole boundaries, (observed as the slow solar wind). This characteristic feature of the closed-field corona is highly unexpected given that its magnetic field is continuously tangled by photospheric motions. Although reconnection can eliminate some of the injected structure, it cannot destroy the helicity, which should build up to produce observable complexity. I propose that an inverse cascade process transports the injected helicity from the interior of closed flux regions to their boundaries inversion lines and coronal holes, creating both filament channels and the slow wind. We describe how the helicity is injected and transported and calculate the relevant rates. I argue that one process, helicity transport, can explain both the observed lack and presence of structure in the coronal magnetic field. This work has been supported by the NASA HTP, SR&T, and LWS programs.

  14. Sausage wave oscillations and dampings in the corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasheghani Farahani, Soheil; Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Goossens, Marcel; Hornsey, Christopher

    The frequency and damping rate of fast axisymmetric (Sausage)waves that experience leakage from a coronal structure e.g. jet or loop is studied. In this line we consider a 1-D magnetic cylindrical structure which resembles a jet or loop in the solar corona. We consider the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dispersion relation for axisymmetric MHD waves superimposed on a straight magnetic cylinder in the zero ? limit. An analytic study accompanied by numerical calculations has been carried out to model the frequency, damping rate, and phase speed of the sausage wave around the cut-off frequency and in the long wavelength limit. Analytic expressions have been obtained for the damping and frequency of the sausage wave around the cut-off and in the long wave-length limit. These analytic results are compared with numerical computations. The expressions show that the complex frequencies are mainly dominated by the density ratio. In addition, it is shown that the damping eventually becomes independent of the wave number in the long wavelength limit. Hence, interestingly when a high density jet or loop ejects from the solar atmosphere, long wave-length sausage waves guided by the Jet or loop would be observable for a significant number of periods.

  15. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0?mm.

  16. Chemical Compositions and Abundance Anomalies in Stellar Coronae ADP 99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Progress has been made using both EUVE (Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer) and ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) data and a new postdoctoral scientist has now been hired. Stars studied to date include YY Gem (dMe binary), xi Boo A (intermediate activity G8 V), xi UMa (more active G quadruple system) HR1099 (K1 IV + G5 V) RS CVn-like, AU Mic (dMe). In addition to a paper that concentrated on abundancies in HR1099, a paper was recently submitted on the coronal abundances of AR(tilde)Lac that revealed an interesting pattern of overabundances of very low FIP elements (Al and Ca) compared to the low FIP elements Si, Mg and Fe. Two papers are nearing completion on methods of analysis and on the abundances in the corona of AU(tilde)Mic. Additionally, two invited conference proceedings papers are being published on this work. The main conclusion of the study to date is that our existing ideas of coronal abundance anomalies need complete revision. The solar-like FIP effect is replaced by a pattern than appears to enhance high FIP elements rather than low FIP elements in very active stars. The archival studies we are undertaking now are revealing some key details of these patterns, and are beginning to map out the anomalies as a function of spectral type, a key goal of this study.

  17. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Koonchun; Lim, Sooking; Teh, Pehchiong

    2015-05-01

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  18. Recurrent and sporadic Forbush-effects in deep solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryakunova, O.; Belov, A.; Abunin, A.; Abunina, M.; Eroshenko, E.; Malimbayev, A.; Tsepakina, I.; Yanke, V.

    2015-08-01

    The effects of high-speed solar wind streams from low-latitude coronal holes and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on cosmic ray intensity in 2007 are studied. The database on Forbush effects created at IZMIRAN, with cosmic ray density and anisotropy calculated by the Global Survey Method (GSM) on the basis of Neutron Monitor network data has been used. The behaviour of the mean characteristics by all the Forbush-effects in 2007 caused by coronal holes (interplanetary magnetic field intensity and solar wind velocity, 10 GV cosmic ray density and equatorial component of the cosmic ray anisotropy) is calculated by the epoch method. Features of the Forbush-effects caused by high-speed solar wind streams from low- latitude coronal holes and coronal mass ejections are described.

  19. Regional climate impacts of a possible future grand solar minimum.

    PubMed

    Ineson, Sarah; Maycock, Amanda C; Gray, Lesley J; Scaife, Adam A; Dunstone, Nick J; Harder, Jerald W; Knight, Jeff R; Lockwood, Mike; Manners, James C; Wood, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Any reduction in global mean near-surface temperature due to a future decline in solar activity is likely to be a small fraction of projected anthropogenic warming. However, variability in ultraviolet solar irradiance is linked to modulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations, suggesting the potential for larger regional surface climate effects. Here, we explore possible impacts through two experiments designed to bracket uncertainty in ultraviolet irradiance in a scenario in which future solar activity decreases to Maunder Minimum-like conditions by 2050. Both experiments show regional structure in the wintertime response, resembling the North Atlantic Oscillation, with enhanced relative cooling over northern Eurasia and the eastern United States. For a high-end decline in solar ultraviolet irradiance, the impact on winter northern European surface temperatures over the late twenty-first century could be a significant fraction of the difference in climate change between plausible AR5 scenarios of greenhouse gas concentrations. PMID:26102364

  20. Regional climate impacts of a possible future grand solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ineson, Sarah; Maycock, Amanda C.; Gray, Lesley J.; Scaife, Adam A.; Dunstone, Nick J.; Harder, Jerald W.; Knight, Jeff R.; Lockwood, Mike; Manners, James C.; Wood, Richard A.

    2015-06-01

    Any reduction in global mean near-surface temperature due to a future decline in solar activity is likely to be a small fraction of projected anthropogenic warming. However, variability in ultraviolet solar irradiance is linked to modulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations, suggesting the potential for larger regional surface climate effects. Here, we explore possible impacts through two experiments designed to bracket uncertainty in ultraviolet irradiance in a scenario in which future solar activity decreases to Maunder Minimum-like conditions by 2050. Both experiments show regional structure in the wintertime response, resembling the North Atlantic Oscillation, with enhanced relative cooling over northern Eurasia and the eastern United States. For a high-end decline in solar ultraviolet irradiance, the impact on winter northern European surface temperatures over the late twenty-first century could be a significant fraction of the difference in climate change between plausible AR5 scenarios of greenhouse gas concentrations.

  1. Radiation environment on the MIR orbital station during solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Cash, B.; Petrov, V. M.; Akatov, Yu. A.; Tchernykh, I. V.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Arkhangelsky, V. A.

    The Mir station has been in a 51.65 deg inclination orbit since March 1986. In March 1995, the first US astronaut flew on the Mir-18 mission and returned on the Space Shuttle in July 1995. Since then three additional US astronauts have stayed on orbit for up to 6 months. Since the return of the first US astronaut, both the Spektr and Priroda modules have docked with Mir station, altering the mass shielding distribution. Radiation measurements, including the direct comparison of US and Russian absorbed dose rates in the Base Block of the Mir station, were made during the Mir-18 and -19 missions. There is a significant variation of dose rates across the core module; the six locations sampled showed a variation of a factor of nearly two. A tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) measured a total absorbed dose rate of 300 mu Gy/day, roughly equally divided between the rate due to trapped protons from the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). This dose rate is about a factor of two lower than the rate measured by the thinly shielded (0.5 g cm^-2 of Al) operational ion chamber (R-16), and about 3/2 of the rate of the more heavily shielded (3.5 g cm^-2 of Al) ion chamber. This is due to the differences in the mass shielding properties at the location of these detectors. A comparison of integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra measured by TEPC and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) deployed side by side are in remarkable agreement in the LET region of 15 -1000 keV/mum, where the PNTDs are fully efficient. The average quality factor, using the ICRP-26 definition, was 2.6, which is higher than normally used. There is excellent agreement between the measured GCR dose rate and model calculations, but this is not true for trapped protons. The measured Mir-18 crew skin dose equivalent rate was 1133 muSv/day. Using the skin dose rate and anatomical models, we have estimated the blood-forming organ (BFO) dose rate and the maximum stay time in orbit for International Space Station crew members.

  2. Longitudinal structures in the equatorial ionosphere during deep solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheryl Y.; Delay, Susan H.; Roddy, Patrick A.; Sutton, Eric K.; Stoneback, R.

    2012-12-01

    The plasma densities detected by the Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP) on board the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite have been analyzed in detail from launch in April 2008 through December 2009 period. The initial period just after launch which corresponds to one of the quietest periods in the space era, exhibited broad plasma decreases (BPDs) which we have reported previously. In order to treat the data quantitatively, we have detrended the PLP data by using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model to remove variations in density due to changes in spacecraft altitude and latitude along the orbit. In this paper we present results of a statistical analysis of C/NOFS detrended plasma densities as well as neutral densities from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measured during the same period. The results show periodic structures in both charged and neutral species, most evident in limited local times. These structures resemble wave-4 nonmigrating tides. BPDs persist in the detrended data and appear as one of the minima in the longitudinal signatures, most strikingly on the nightside. Statistical averages of meridional velocities from the Ion Velocity Meter (IVM), also on C/NOFS, during the same period shows that the locations of BPDs coincide with measurements of large downward-directed velocities.

  3. ISS and Space Shuttle Radiation Measurements at Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaza, Ramona; Welton, Andrew; Dunegan, Audrey; Lee, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    A summary of 2008-2011 ISS and Space Shuttle radiation dosimetry results for inside vehicle radiation monitoring in low-Earth orbit will be presented. Results include new data from ISS Expedition 22-25/20A radiation area monitors (RAM) and Shuttle Missions STS127-STS133 passive radiation dosimeters (PRD). ISS 20A radiation measurement locations included three Node 2 crew quarters locations at NOD2S5_CQ, NOD2P5_CQ and CQ-3 (Deck), as well as ESA Columbus, and JAXA Kibo locations. ISS 20A and STS127-STS133 missions were flown at 51.6 inclination with an altitude range of 330-350 km. The passive radiation results will be presented in terms of measured daily dose obtained using luminescence detectors (i.e., Al2O3:C, LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF2:Tm). In addition, preliminary results from the DOSIS 2 Project, in collaboration with the German Space Agency (DLR) will be presented. SRAG s participation to the DOSIS 2 exposure on ISS (11/16/2009-05/26/2010) involved passive radiation measurements at 10 different shielding locations inside the ESA Columbus Module.

  4. Differences Between the Current Solar Minimum and Earlier Minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, S.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Fletcher, S.; New, R.

    2010-06-01

    The Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) has collected helioseismic data over three solar cycles. We use these data to determine how the internal properties of the Sun during this minimum differ from the previous two minima. The Cycle 24 data show oscillatory differences with respect to the other two sets, indicating relatively localized changes in the solar interior. Analysis of MDI data from Cycle 23 and Cycle 24 also show significant signs of differences.

  5. Time-Series Analysis of Supergranule Characterstics at Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Peter E.; Pesnell, W. Dean

    2013-01-01

    Sixty days of Doppler images from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) / Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) investigation during the 1996 and 2008 solar minima have been analyzed to show that certain supergranule characteristics (size, size range, and horizontal velocity) exhibit fluctuations of three to five days. Cross-correlating parameters showed a good, positive correlation between supergranulation size and size range, and a moderate, negative correlation between size range and velocity. The size and velocity do exhibit a moderate, negative correlation, but with a small time lag (less than 12 hours). Supergranule sizes during five days of co-temporal data from MDI and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) / Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) exhibit similar fluctuations with a high level of correlation between them. This verifies the solar origin of the fluctuations, which cannot be caused by instrumental artifacts according to these observations. Similar fluctuations are also observed in data simulations that model the evolution of the MDI Doppler pattern over a 60-day period. Correlations between the supergranule size and size range time-series derived from the simulated data are similar to those seen in MDI data. A simple toy-model using cumulative, uncorrelated exponential growth and decay patterns at random emergence times produces a time-series similar to the data simulations. The qualitative similarities between the simulated and the observed time-series suggest that the fluctuations arise from stochastic processes occurring within the solar convection zone. This behavior, propagating to surface manifestations of supergranulation, may assist our understanding of magnetic-field-line advection, evolution, and interaction.

  6. Regional climate impacts of a possible future grand solar minimum

    E-print Network

    Ineson, Sarah; Maycock, Amanda C.; Gray, Lesley J.; Scaife, Adam A.; Dunstone, Nick J.; Harder, Jerald W.; Knight, Jeff R.; Lockwood, Mike; Manners, James C.; Wood, Richard A.

    2015-06-23

    fraction of the difference in climate change between plausible AR5 scenarios of greenhouse gas concentrations. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8535 OPEN 1Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter EX1 3PB, UK. 2 Centre for Atmospheric Science, Department of Chemistry, University... (2010). 33. Luterbacher, J., Dietrich, D., Xoplaki, E., Grosjean, M. & Wanner, H. European seasonal and annual temperature variability, trends, and extremes since 1500. Science 303, 1499–1503 (2004). 34. Moffa-Sa´nchez, P., Born, A., Hall, I. R...

  7. Lunar semidiurnal tide in the thermosphere under solar minimum conditions

    E-print Network

    Forbes, Jeffrey

    of the effects of the gravitational forcing of the Moon on the solid Earth, oceans, and atmosphere have a long gravitational force, the Moon produces perturbations in the temperature, density, pressure, and winds throughout Earth's atmosphere. Lunar tidal winds in the dynamo region (~100­150 km) can furthermore generate

  8. Regional climate impacts of a possible future grand solar minimum

    PubMed Central

    Ineson, Sarah; Maycock, Amanda C.; Gray, Lesley J.; Scaife, Adam A.; Dunstone, Nick J.; Harder, Jerald W.; Knight, Jeff R.; Lockwood, Mike; Manners, James C.; Wood, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Any reduction in global mean near-surface temperature due to a future decline in solar activity is likely to be a small fraction of projected anthropogenic warming. However, variability in ultraviolet solar irradiance is linked to modulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations, suggesting the potential for larger regional surface climate effects. Here, we explore possible impacts through two experiments designed to bracket uncertainty in ultraviolet irradiance in a scenario in which future solar activity decreases to Maunder Minimum-like conditions by 2050. Both experiments show regional structure in the wintertime response, resembling the North Atlantic Oscillation, with enhanced relative cooling over northern Eurasia and the eastern United States. For a high-end decline in solar ultraviolet irradiance, the impact on winter northern European surface temperatures over the late twenty-first century could be a significant fraction of the difference in climate change between plausible AR5 scenarios of greenhouse gas concentrations. PMID:26102364

  9. Quality and matching performance analysis of three-dimensional unraveled fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongchang; Hao, Qi; Fatehpuria, Abhishika; Hassebrook, Laurence G.; Lau, Daniel L.

    2010-07-01

    The use of fingerprints as a biometric is both the oldest mode of computer-aided personal identification and the most-relied-on technology in use today. However, current acquisition methods have some challenging and peculiar difficulties. For higher performance fingerprint data acquisition and verification, a novel noncontact 3-D fingerprint scanner is investigated, where both the detailed 3-D and albedo information of the finger is obtained. The obtained high-resolution 3-D prints are further converted into 3-D unraveled prints, to be compatible with traditional 2-D automatic fingerprint identification systems. As a result, many limitations imposed on conventional fingerprint capture and processing can be reduced by the unobtrusiveness of this approach and the extra depth information acquired. To compare the quality and matching performances of 3-D unraveled with traditional 2-D plain fingerprints, we collect both 3-D prints and their 2-D plain counterparts. The print quality and matching performances are evaluated and analyzed by using National Institute of Standard Technology fingerprint software. Experimental results show that the 3-D unraveled print outperforms the 2-D print in both quality and matching performances.

  10. Numerical modelling of ozone production in a wire-cylinder corona discharge and comparison with a wire-plate corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengxiang; Chen, Junhong

    2009-02-01

    The effect of electrode configuration on ozone production in the direct-current corona discharge of dry and humid air is studied by a numerical model that combines the electron distribution in the corona plasma, plasma chemistry and transport phenomena. Two electrode configurations are considered: wire-cylinder discharge with air flowing along the wire axis and wire-plate discharge with air flowing transverse to the wire. The ozone distributions in both types of discharges are compared. For both electrode configurations, the ozone production rate is higher in the negative corona than in the positive corona and it decreases with an increase in relative humidity. More importantly, the detailed ozone distribution in the neighbourhood of the discharge wire, together with the ozone kinetics, reveals the possible difference in the ozone production from the two discharges. With the same operating conditions and sufficiently short flow residence time, the ozone production rate is nearly the same for both electrode configurations. When the flow residence time is longer than the characteristic time for homogeneous ozone destruction, the net ozone production is higher in the wire-cylinder discharge than in the wire-plate discharge due to relatively less ozone destruction.

  11. Preliminary protein corona formation stabilizes gold nanoparticles and improves deposition efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luby, Alexandra O.; Breitner, Emily K.; Comfort, Kristen K.

    2015-09-01

    Due to their advantageous characteristics, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are being increasingly utilized in a vast array of biomedical applications. However, the efficacy of these procedures are highly dependent upon strong interactions between AuNPs and the surrounding environment. While the field of nanotechnology has grown exponentially, there is still much to be discovered with regards to the complex interactions between NPs and biological systems. One area of particular interest is the generation of a protein corona, which instantaneously forms when NPs encounter a protein-rich environment. Currently, the corona is viewed as an obstacle and has been identified as the cause for loss of application efficiency in physiological systems. To date, however, no study has explored if the protein corona could be designed and advantageously utilized to improve both NP behavior and application efficacy. Therefore, we sought to identify if the formation of a preliminary protein corona could modify both AuNP characteristics and association with the HaCaT cell model. In this study, a corona comprised solely of epidermal growth factor (EGF) was successfully formed around 10-nm AuNPs. These EGF-AuNPs demonstrated augmented particle stability, a modified corona composition, and increased deposition over stock AuNPs, while remaining biocompatible. Analysis of AuNP dosimetry was repeated under dynamic conditions, with lateral flow significantly disrupting deposition and the nano-cellular interface. Taken together, this study demonstrated the plausibility and potential of utilizing the protein corona as a means to influence NP behavior; however, fluid dynamics remains a major challenge to progressing NP dosimetry.

  12. The Soft X-Ray/Microwave Ratio of Solar and Stellar Flares and Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, A. O.; Guedel, M.

    1994-01-01

    We have carried out plasma diagnostics of solar flares using soft X-ray (SXR) and simultaneous microwave observations and have compared the ratio of X-ray to microwave luminosities of solar flares with various active late-type stars available in the published literature. Both the SXR low-level ('quiescent') emission from stellar coronae and the flaring emission from the Sun and stars are generally interpreted as thermal radiations of coronal plasmas. On the other hand, the microwave emission of stars and solar flares is generally attributed to an extremely hot or nonthermal population of electrons. Solar flare SXR are conventionally measured in a narrower and harder passband than the stellar sources. Observations of the GOES-2 satellite in two energy channels have been used to estimate the luminosity of solar flares as it would appear in the ROSAT satellite passband. The solar and stellar flare luminosities fit well at the lower end of the active stellar coronae. The flare SXR/microwave ratio is similar to the ratio for stellar coronae. The average ratio follows a power-law relation L(sub X) varies as L(sub R)(sup 0.73 +/- 0.03) over 10 orders of magnitude from solar microflares to RS CVn and FK Com-type coronae. Dwarf Me and Ke stars, and RS CVn stars are also compatible with a linear SXR/microwave relation, but the ratio is slightly different for each type of star. Considering the differences between solar flares, stellar flares and the various active stellar coronae, the similarity of the SXR/microwave ratios is surprising. It suggests that the energetic electrons in low-level stellar coronae observed in microwaves are related in a similar way to the coronal thermal plasma as flare electrons to the flare thermal plasma, and, consequently, that the heating mechanism of active stellar coronae is a flare-like process.

  13. Preparation of Core-Shell Hybrid Materials by Producing a Protein Corona Around Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, A.; Gräfe, C.; von der Lühe, M.; Remmer, H.; Clement, J. H.; Eberbeck, D.; Ludwig, F.; Müller, R.; Schacher, F. H.; Dutz, S.

    2015-07-01

    Nanoparticles experience increasing interest for a variety of medical and pharmaceutical applications. When exposing nanomaterials, e.g., magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP), to human blood, a protein corona consisting of various components is formed immediately. The composition of the corona as well as its amount bound to the particle surface is dependent on different factors, e.g., particle size and surface charge. The actual composition of the formed protein corona might be of major importance for cellular uptake of magnetic nanoparticles. The aim of the present study was to analyze the formation of the protein corona during in vitro serum incubation in dependency of incubation time and temperature. For this, MNP with different shells were incubated in fetal calf serum (FCS, serving as protein source) within a water bath for a defined time and at a defined temperature. Before and after incubation the particles were characterized by a variety of methods. It was found that immediately (seconds) after contact of MNP and FCS, a protein corona is formed on the surface of MNP. This formation led to an increase of particle size and a slight agglomeration of the particles, which was relatively constant during the first minutes of incubation. A longer incubation (from hours to days) resulted in a stronger agglomeration of the FCS incubated MNP. Quantitative analysis (gel electrophoresis) of serum-incubated particles revealed a relatively constant amount of bound proteins during the first minutes of serum incubation. After a longer incubation (>20 min), a considerably higher amount of surface proteins was determined for incubation temperatures below 40 °C. For incubation temperatures above 50 °C, the influence of time was less significant which might be attributed to denaturation of proteins during incubation. Overall, analysis of the molecular weight distribution of proteins found in the corona revealed a clear influence of incubation time and temperature on corona composition.

  14. Preparation of Core-Shell Hybrid Materials by Producing a Protein Corona Around Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Weidner, A; Gräfe, C; von der Lühe, M; Remmer, H; Clement, J H; Eberbeck, D; Ludwig, F; Müller, R; Schacher, F H; Dutz, S

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticles experience increasing interest for a variety of medical and pharmaceutical applications. When exposing nanomaterials, e.g., magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP), to human blood, a protein corona consisting of various components is formed immediately. The composition of the corona as well as its amount bound to the particle surface is dependent on different factors, e.g., particle size and surface charge. The actual composition of the formed protein corona might be of major importance for cellular uptake of magnetic nanoparticles. The aim of the present study was to analyze the formation of the protein corona during in vitro serum incubation in dependency of incubation time and temperature. For this, MNP with different shells were incubated in fetal calf serum (FCS, serving as protein source) within a water bath for a defined time and at a defined temperature. Before and after incubation the particles were characterized by a variety of methods. It was found that immediately (seconds) after contact of MNP and FCS, a protein corona is formed on the surface of MNP. This formation led to an increase of particle size and a slight agglomeration of the particles, which was relatively constant during the first minutes of incubation. A longer incubation (from hours to days) resulted in a stronger agglomeration of the FCS incubated MNP. Quantitative analysis (gel electrophoresis) of serum-incubated particles revealed a relatively constant amount of bound proteins during the first minutes of serum incubation. After a longer incubation (>20 min), a considerably higher amount of surface proteins was determined for incubation temperatures below 40 °C. For incubation temperatures above 50 °C, the influence of time was less significant which might be attributed to denaturation of proteins during incubation. Overall, analysis of the molecular weight distribution of proteins found in the corona revealed a clear influence of incubation time and temperature on corona composition. PMID:26153125

  15. On the Heating of the Solar Corona and the Acceleration of the Low-Speed Solar Wind by Acoustic Waves Generated in Corona

    E-print Network

    Takeru Ken Suzuki

    2002-08-06

    We investigate possibilities of solar coronal heating by acoustic waves generated not at the photosphere but in the corona, aiming at heating in the mid- to low-latitude corona where the low-speed wind is expected to come from. Acoustic waves of period tau ~ 100s are triggered by chromospheric reconnection, one model of small scale magnetic reconnection events recently proposed by Sturrock. These waves having a finite amplitude eventually form shocks to shape sawtooth waves (N-waves), and directly heat the surrounding corona by dissipation of their wave energy. Outward propagation of the N-waves is treated based on the weak shock theory, so that the heating rate can be evaluated consistently with physical properties of the background coronal plasma without setting a dissipation length in an ad hoc manner. We construct coronal structures from the upper chromosphere to the outside of 1AU for various inputs of the acoustic waves having a range of energy flux of F_{w,0} = (1-20) times 10^5 erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} and a period of tau = 60-300s. The heating by the N-wave dissipation effectively works in the inner corona and we find that the waves of F_{w,0} >= 2 times 10^5 erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} and tau >= 60s could maintain peak coronal temperature, T_{max} > 10^6 K. The model could also reproduce the density profile observed in the streamer region. However, due to its short dissipation length, the location of T_{max} is closer to the surface than the observation, and the resultant flow velocity of the solar wind is lower than the observed profile of the low-speed wind. The cooperations with other heating and acceleration sources with the larger dissipation length are inevitable to reproduce the real solar corona.

  16. OXYGEN ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN COOL R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Rao, N. Kameswara; Hinkle, Ken H.; Eriksson, Kjell E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.ed E-mail: hinkle@noao.ed

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the relationship between R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars and hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars by measuring precise {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios for five cool RCB stars. The {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios are derived by spectrum synthesis from high-resolution (R {approx} 50, 000) K-band spectra. Lower limits to the {sup 16}O/{sup 17}O and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios as well as Na and S abundances (when possible) are also given. RCB stars in our sample generally display less {sup 18}O than HdC stars-the derived {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios range from 3 to 20. The only exception is the RCB star WX CrA, which seems to be an HdC-like star with {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O = 0.3. Our result of a higher {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratio for the RCB stars must be accounted for by a theory of the formation and evolution of HdC and RCB stars. We speculate that a late dredge-up of products of He burning, principally {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O, may convert an {sup 18}O-rich HdC star into an {sup 18}O-poor RCB star as the H-deficient star begins its final evolution from a cool supergiant to the top of the white dwarf cooling track.

  17. CHARACTERIZING TRANSITION TEMPERATURE GAS IN THE GALACTIC CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Wakker, Bart P.; Savage, Blair D.; Fox, Andrew J.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Shapiro, Paul R. E-mail: savage@astro.wisc.edu E-mail: benjamir@uww.edu

    2012-04-20

    We present a study of the properties of the transition temperature (T {approx} 10{sup 5} K) gas in the Milky Way corona, based on the measurements of O VI, N V, C IV, Si IV, and Fe III absorption lines seen in the far-ultraviolet spectra of 58 sight lines to extragalactic targets, obtained with the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. In many sight lines the Galactic absorption profiles show multiple components, which are analyzed separately. We find that the highly ionized atoms are distributed irregularly in a layer with a scale height of about 3 kpc, which rotates along with the gas in the disk, without an obvious gradient in the rotation velocity away from the Galactic plane. Within this layer the gas has randomly oriented velocities with a dispersion of 40-60 km s{sup -1}. On average the integrated column densities are log N(O VI) = 14.3, log N(N V) = 13.5, log N(C IV) = 14.2, log N(Si IV) = 13.6, and log N(Fe III) = 14.2, with a dispersion of just 0.2 dex in each case. In sight lines around the Galactic center and Galactic north pole, all column densities are enhanced by a factor {approx}2, while at intermediate latitudes in the southern sky there is a deficit in N(O VI) of about a factor of two, but no deficit for the other ions. We compare the column densities and ionic ratios to a series of theoretical predictions: collisional ionization equilibrium, shock ionization, conductive interfaces, turbulent mixing, thick disk supernovae, static non-equilibrium ionization (NIE) radiative cooling, and an NIE radiative cooling model in which the gas flows through the cooling zone. None of these models can fully reproduce the data, but it is clear that NIE radiative cooling is important in generating the transition temperature gas.

  18. Multiscale simulation of DC corona discharge and ozone generation from nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengxiang

    Atmospheric direct current (dc) corona discharge from micro-sized objects has been widely used as an ion source in many devices, such as photocopiers, laser printers, and electronic air cleaners. Shrinking the size of the discharge electrode to the nanometer range (e.g., through the use of carbon nanotubes or CNTs) is expected to lead to a significant reduction in power consumption and detrimental ozone production in these devices. The objectives of this study are to unveil the fundamental physics of the nanoscale corona discharge and to evaluate its performance and ozone production through numerical models. The extremely small size of CNTs presents considerable complexity and challenges in modeling CNT corona discharges. A hybrid multiscale model, which combines a kinetic particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collision (PIC-MCC) model and a continuum model, is developed to simulate the corona discharge from nanostructures. The multiscale model is developed in several steps. First, a pure PIC-MCC model is developed and PIC-MCC simulations of corona plasma from micro-sized electrode with same boundary conditions as prior model are performed to validate the PIC-MCC scheme. The agreement between the PIC-MCC model and the prior continuum model indicates the validity of the PIC-MCC scheme. The validated PIC-MCC scheme is then coupled with a continuum model to simulate the corona discharge from a micro-sized electrode. Unlike the prior continuum model which only predicts the corona plasma region, the hybrid model successfully predicts the self-consistent discharge process in the entire corona discharge gap that includes both corona plasma region and unipolar ion region. The voltage-current density curves obtained by the hybrid model agree well with analytical prediction and experimental results. The hybrid modeling approach, which combines the accuracy of a kinetic model and the efficiency of a continuum model, is thus validated for modeling dc corona discharges. For simulation of corona discharges from nanostructures, a one-dimensional (1-D) multiscale model is used due to the prohibitive computational expense associated with two-dimensional (2-D) modeling. Near the nanoscale discharge electrode surface, a kinetic model based on PIC-MCC is used due to a relatively large Knudsen number in this region. Far away from the nanoscale discharge electrode, a continuum model is used since the Knudsen number is very small there. The multiscale modeling results are compared with experimental data. The quantitative agreement in positive discharges and qualitative agreement in negative discharges validate the modeling approach. The mechanism of sustaining the discharge process from nanostructures is revealed and is found to be different from that of discharge from micro- or macro-sized electrodes. Finally, the corona plasma model is combined with a plasma chemistry model and a transport model to predict the ozone production from the nanoscale corona. The dependence of ozone production on the applied potential and air velocity is studied. The electric field distribution in a 2-D multiscale domain (from nanoscale to microscale) is predicted by solving the Poisson's equation using a finite difference scheme. The discretized linear equations are solved using a multigrid method under the framework of PETSc on a paralleled supercomputer. Although the Poisson solver is able to resolve the multiscale field, the prohibitively long computation time limits the use of a 2-D solver in the current PIC-MCC scheme.

  19. Childhood cancer and exposure to corona ions from power lines: an epidemiological test.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J; Bunch, K J; Vincent, T J; Murphy, M F G

    2014-12-01

    We previously reported an association between childhood leukaemia in Britain and proximity of the child's address at birth to high-voltage power lines that declines from the 1960s to the 2000s. We test here whether a 'corona-ion hypothesis' could explain these results. This hypothesis proposes that corona ions, atmospheric ions produced by power lines and blown away from them by the wind, increase the retention of airborne pollutants in the airways when breathed in and hence cause disease. We develop an improved model for calculating exposure to corona ions, using data on winds from meteorological stations and considering the whole length of power line within 600?m of each subject's address. Corona-ion exposure is highly correlated with proximity to power lines, and hence the results parallel the elevations in leukaemia risk seen with distance analyses. But our model explains the observed pattern of leukaemia rates around power lines less well than straightforward distance measurements, and ecological considerations also argue against the hypothesis. This does not disprove the corona-ion hypothesis as the explanation for our previous results, but nor does it provide support for it, or, by extension, any other hypothesis dependent on wind direction. PMID:25356811

  20. Variation of protein corona composition of gold nanoparticles following plasmonic heating.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Morteza; Lohse, Samuel E; Murphy, Catherine J; Fathizadeh, Arman; Montazeri, Abbas; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the primary interaction of most biological environments with nanoparticles (NPs) is strongly influenced by a long-lived ("hard") protein corona that surrounds the NP and remains strongly adsorbed to its surface. The amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona adsorbed onto the NPs is related to several important factors, including the physicochemical properties of the NPs and the composition of the protein solution. Here, for the first time, it is shown that plasmonic heat induction (by laser activation) leads to significant changes in the composition of the hard protein corona adsorbed on low aspect ratio gold nanorods. Using mass spectrometry, several proteins in the corona were identified whose concentrations change most substantially as a result of photoinduced (plasmonic) heating versus simple thermal heating. Molecular modeling suggests that the origin of these changes in protein adsorption may be the result of protein conformational changes in response to much higher local temperatures that occur near the gold nanorods during photoinduced, plasmonic heating. These results may define new applications in vivo for NPs with hyperthermia capability and better define the likely interactions of cells with NPs after plasmonic heating. Potential changes in the protein corona following hyperthermia treatment may influence the final biological fate of plasmonic NPs in clinical applications and help elucidate safety considerations for hyperthermia applications. PMID:24328336

  1. TRACING ELECTRON BEAMS IN THE SUN'S CORONA WITH RADIO DYNAMIC IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Bin; Bastian, T. S.; White, S. M.; Gary, D. E.; Perley, R.; Rupen, M.; Carlson, B.

    2013-01-20

    We report observations of type III radio bursts at decimeter wavelengths (type IIIdm bursts)-signatures of suprathermal electron beams propagating in the low corona-using the new technique of radio dynamic imaging spectroscopy provided by the recently upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. For the first time, type IIIdm bursts were imaged with high time and frequency resolution over a broad frequency band, allowing electron beam trajectories in the corona to be deduced. Together with simultaneous hard X-ray and extreme ultraviolet observations, we show that these beams emanate from an energy release site located in the low corona at a height below {approx}15 Mm, and propagate along a bundle of discrete magnetic loops upward into the corona. Our observations enable direct measurements of the plasma density along the magnetic loops, and allow us to constrain the diameter of these loops to be less than 100 km. These overdense and ultra-thin loops reveal the fundamentally fibrous structure of the Sun's corona. The impulsive nature of the electron beams, their accessibility to different magnetic field lines, and the detailed structure of the magnetic release site revealed by the radio observations indicate that the localized energy release is highly fragmentary in time and space, supporting a bursty reconnection model that involves secondary magnetic structures for magnetic energy release and particle acceleration.

  2. A semi-analytical study of positive corona discharge in wire-plane electrode configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanallah, K.; Pontiga, F.; Chen, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    Wire-to-plane positive corona discharge in air has been studied using an analytical model of two species (electrons and positive ions). The spatial distributions of electric field and charged species are obtained by integrating Gauss's law and the continuity equations of species along the Laplacian field lines. The experimental values of corona current intensity and applied voltage, together with Warburg's law, have been used to formulate the boundary condition for the electron density on the corona wire. To test the accuracy of the model, the approximate electric field distribution has been compared with the exact numerical solution obtained from a finite element analysis. A parametrical study of wire-to-plane corona discharge has then been undertaken using the approximate semi-analytical solutions. Thus, the spatial distributions of electric field and charged particles have been computed for different values of the gas pressure, wire radius and electrode separation. Also, the two dimensional distribution of ozone density has been obtained using a simplified plasma chemistry model. The approximate semi-analytical solutions can be evaluated in a negligible computational time, yet provide precise estimates of corona discharge variables.

  3. Outflow structure of the quiet sun corona probed by spacecraft radio scintillations in strong scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, Takeshi; Ando, Hiroki; Toda, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Masato; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Shiota, Daikou; Isobe, Hiroaki; Asai, Ayumi; Miyamoto, Mayu; Häusler, Bernd; Pätzold, Martin; Nabatov, Alexander; Yaji, Kentaro; Yamada, Manabu

    2014-06-20

    Radio scintillation observations have been unable to probe flow speeds in the low corona where the scattering of radio waves is exceedingly strong. Here we estimate outflow speeds continuously from the vicinity of the Sun to the outer corona (heliocentric distances of 1.5-20.5 solar radii) by applying the strong scattering theory to radio scintillations for the first time, using the Akatsuki spacecraft as the radio source. Small, nonzero outflow speeds were observed over a wide latitudinal range in the quiet-Sun low corona, suggesting that the supply of plasma from closed loops to the solar wind occurs over an extended area. The existence of power-law density fluctuations down to the scale of 100 m was suggested, which is indicative of well-developed turbulence which can play a key role in heating the corona. At higher altitudes, a rapid acceleration typical of radial open fields is observed, and the temperatures derived from the speed profile show a distinct maximum in the outer corona. This study opened up a possibility of observing detailed flow structures near the Sun from a vast amount of existing interplanetary scintillation data.

  4. Inbound waves in the solar corona: A direct indicator of Alfvén surface location

    SciTech Connect

    DeForest, C. E.; Howard, T. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    The tenuous supersonic solar wind that streams from the top of the corona passes through a natural boundary—the Alfvén surface—that marks the causal disconnection of individual packets of plasma and magnetic flux from the Sun itself. The Alfvén surface is the locus where the radial motion of the accelerating solar wind passes the radial Alfvén speed, and therefore any displacement of material cannot carry information back down into the corona. It is thus the natural outer boundary of the solar corona and the inner boundary of interplanetary space. Using a new and unique motion analysis to separate inbound and outbound motions in synoptic visible-light image sequences from the COR2 coronagraph on board the STEREO-A spacecraft, we have identified inbound wave motion in the outer corona beyond 6 solar radii for the first time and used it to determine that the Alfvén surface is at least 12 solar radii from the Sun over the polar coronal holes and 15 solar radii in the streamer belt, well beyond the distance planned for NASA's upcoming Solar Probe Plus mission. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of inbound waves in the outer solar corona and the first direct measurement of lower bounds for the Alfvén surface.

  5. Influence of humidity on the characteristics of negative corona discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Bo; He, Jinliang; Chen, Shuiming

    2015-09-01

    Detailed negative corona discharge characteristics, such as the pulse amplitude, repetition frequency, average corona current, rise time, and half-wave time, are systematically studied under various air humidities with a single artificial defect electrode. The experimental result reveals that the pulse amplitude increases with the increase of air humidity; meanwhile, the repetition frequency deceases as the air humidity increases. Empirical formulae are first established for the pulse amplitude and repetition frequency with the humidity factor taken into consideration. The effective ionization integral is calculated and a positive correlation is found between the integral and the pulse amplitude. Furthermore, a simplified negative-ion cloud model is built up to investigate the mechanism of the humidity's influence on negative corona discharge. Based on the theoretical analyses, the correlation between pulse amplitude, repetition frequency, and air humidity is well explained.

  6. A global galactic dynamo with a corona constrained by relative helicity

    E-print Network

    Prasad, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for a global axisymmetric turbulent dynamo operating in a galaxy with a corona which treats the supernovae (SNe) and magneto-rotational instability (MRI) driven turbulence parameters under a common formalism. The nonlinear quenching of the dynamo is alleviated by inclusion of small-scale advective and diffusive magnetic helicity fluxes, which allow the gauge invariant magnetic helicity to be transferred outside the disk and consequently build up a corona during the course of dynamo action. The time-dependent dynamo equations are expressed in a separable form and solved through an eigenvector expansion constructed using the steady-state solutions of the dynamo equation. The parametric evolution of the dynamo solution allows us to estimate the final structure of the global magnetic field and the saturated value of the turbulence parameter $\\alpha_m$, even before solving the dynamical equations for evolution of magnetic fields in the disk and the corona, along with $\\alpha$-quenching. We then ...

  7. Research on dual spectrum solar-blind ultraviolet corona detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feng; Gu, Yan; Sun, Jianning; Pan, Jingsheng; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Qi; Lu, Xiaoqing

    2015-04-01

    A dual spectrum solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) corona detection system is designed in this paper. A common optical axis using a dichroic mirror is applied to this system in order to make visible light and ultraviolet light spectroscopy to ultraviolet detector and visible detectors. A high speed circuit of image processing based on TMS320DM642 DSP and a circuit that is used into system control and power management based on microcontroller are designed for the presented system. On the basis of the multi-threaded programming ideas, real-time image acquisition of ultraviolet and visible detectors, ultraviolet image noise reduction, image registration, dual spectral integration, Characteristic superimposing, serial communication and image display are achieved by using the DSP image processing circuit. Experimental results show that the dual spectrum solar-blind ultraviolet corona detection system has a good performance of corona detection based on ultraviolet and visible image fusion.

  8. The corona near the time of the 1983 June 11 total solar eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sime, D. G.; Fisher, R. R.; Mccabe, M. K.; Mickey, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Observations are presented of the corona during the June 11, 1983 total solar eclipse, together with preliminary results of a coordinated observing program conducted to investigate the relationship between the corona and the lower parts of the solar atmosphere. Synoptic observations of the white light corona and disk in H-alpha are compared with the eclipse image, together with the inferred longitudinal component of the photospheric magnetic field measured using the magnetically sensitive Fe line at 6303 A. Using these data, an interpretation of the global three-dimensional coronal structure is attempted; showing that the eclipse image contains bright features which are far from the plane of the sky, and that it is dominated by streamers over polar filament neutral lines.

  9. The structure of the white-light corona and the large-scale solar magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sime, D. G.; Mccabe, M. K.

    1990-01-01

    The large-scale density structure of the white-light solar corona is compared to the organization of the solar magnetic field as identified by the appearance of neutral lines in the photosphere to examine whether any consistent relationship exists between the two. During the period covering Carrington rotations 1717 to 1736 brightness enhancements in the low corona tend to lie over the global neutral sheet identified in the photospheric magnetic field. The brightest of these enhancements are associated with neutral lines throguh active regions. These associations are not 1-1, but do hold both in stable and evolving conditions of the corona. A significant number of long-lived neutral lines is found, including filaments seen in H-alpha, for which there are not coronal enhancements.

  10. The structure of the white-light corona and the large-scale solar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, D. G.; McCabe, M. K.

    1990-04-01

    The large-scale density structure of the white-light solar corona is compared to the organization of the solar magnetic field as identified by the appearance of neutral lines in the photosphere to examine whether any consistent relationship exists between the two. During the period covering Carrington rotations 1717 to 1736 brightness enhancements in the low corona tend to lie over the global neutral sheet identified in the photospheric magnetic field. The brightest of these enhancements are associated with neutral lines through active regions. These associations are not 1-1, but do hold both in stable and evolving conditions of the corona. A significant number of long-lived neutral lines is found, including filaments seen in H-alpha, for which there are not coronal enhancements.

  11. Search for the Alfven Waves in the Solar Corona on the Profiles of Coronal Spectral Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, S. H.; Rustamov, A. A.; Dzhalilov, N. S.

    2007-06-01

    Many researchers of the mechanism of heating of the solar corona identify the nonthermal velocities found from half-width of observed coronal spectral lines with velocities of Alfven waves. On the basis of this assumption it was concluded that Alfven waves can heat the corona. For check up this assumption in this work we used the theoretical contours of coronal spectral lines are calculated by Maltby [15] for various values of the velocity amplitude of Alfven waves. It was found that if to identify observed velocities of nonthermal movements with movements on Alfven waves, it would be appear deep central depression in these lines . As in observed lines the central depression is absent and profiles of these lines are well approximated with Doppler profiles, we conclude that in the corona Alfven waves with large amplitude are missed.

  12. Influence of water conductivity on particular electrospray modes with dc corona discharge — optical visualization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongrác, Branislav; Kim, Hyun-Ha; Negishi, Nobuaki; Machala, Zdenko

    2014-08-01

    The effect of water conductivity on electrospraying of water was studied in combination with positive DC corona discharge generated in air. We used a point-to-plane geometry of electrodes with a hollow syringe needle anode opposite to the metal mesh cathode. We employed total average current measurements and high-speed camera fast time-resolved imaging. We visualized the formation of a water jet (filament) and investigated corona discharge behavior for various water conductivities. Depending on the conductivity, various jet properties were observed: pointy, prolonged, and fast spreading water filaments for lower conductivity; in contrast to rounder, broader, and shorter quickly disintegrating filaments for higher conductivity. The large acceleration values (4060 m/s2 and 520 m/s2 for 2 ?S/cm and 400 ?S/cm, respectively) indicate that the process is mainly governed by the electrostatic force. In addition, with increasing conductivity, the breakdown voltage for corona-to-spark transition was decreasing.

  13. Energy-Dependent Ionization States of Shock-Accelerated Particles in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.; Ng, C. K.; Tylka, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the range of possible energy dependence of the ionization states of ions that are shock-accelerated from the ambient plasma of the solar corona. If acceleration begins in a region of moderate density, sufficiently low in the corona, ions above about 0.1 MeV/amu approach an equilibrium charge state that depends primarily upon their speed and only weakly on the plasma temperature. We suggest that the large variations of the charge states with energy for ions such as Si and Fe observed in the 1997 November 6 event are consistent with stripping in moderately dense coronal. plasma during shock acceleration. In the large solar-particle events studied previously, acceleration occurs sufficiently high in the corona that even Fe ions up to 600 MeV/amu are not stripped of electrons.

  14. Dynamic development of the protein corona on silica nanoparticles: composition and role in toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, Ninell P.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Wang, Wei; Foster, Carmen M.; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2013-06-01

    The formation and composition of the protein corona on silica (SiO2) nanoparticles (NP) with different surface chemistries was evaluated over time. Native SiO2, amine (-NH2) and carboxy (-COO-) modified NP were examined following incubation in mammalian growth media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 1, 4, 24 and 48 hours. The protein corona transition from its early dynamic state to the later more stable corona was evaluated using mass spectrometry. The NP diameter was 22.4 +/- 2.2 nm measured by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Changes in hydrodynamic diameter and agglomeration kinetics were studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The initial surface chemistry of the NP played an important role in the development and final composition of the protein corona, impacting agglomeration kinetics and NP toxicity. Particle toxicity, indicated by changes in membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity, was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and tetrazolium reduction (MTT), respectively, in mouse alveolar macrophages (RAW264.7) and mouse lung epithelial cells (C10). SiO2-COO- NP had a slower agglomeration rate, formed smaller aggregates, and exhibited lower cytotoxicity compared to SiO2 and SiO2-NH2. Composition of the protein corona for each of the three NP was unique, indicating a strong dependence of corona development on NP surface chemistry. This work underscores the need to understand all aspects of NP toxicity, particularly the influence of agglomeration on effective dose and particle size. Furthermore, the interplay between materials and local biological environment is emphasized and highlights the need to conduct toxicity profiling under physiologically relevant conditions that provide an appropriate estimation of material modifications that occur during exposure in natural environments.The formation and composition of the protein corona on silica (SiO2) nanoparticles (NP) with different surface chemistries was evaluated over time. Native SiO2, amine (-NH2) and carboxy (-COO-) modified NP were examined following incubation in mammalian growth media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 1, 4, 24 and 48 hours. The protein corona transition from its early dynamic state to the later more stable corona was evaluated using mass spectrometry. The NP diameter was 22.4 +/- 2.2 nm measured by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Changes in hydrodynamic diameter and agglomeration kinetics were studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The initial surface chemistry of the NP played an important role in the development and final composition of the protein corona, impacting agglomeration kinetics and NP toxicity. Particle toxicity, indicated by changes in membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity, was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and tetrazolium reduction (MTT), respectively, in mouse alveolar macrophages (RAW264.7) and mouse lung epithelial cells (C10). SiO2-COO- NP had a slower agglomeration rate, formed smaller aggregates, and exhibited lower cytotoxicity compared to SiO2 and SiO2-NH2. Composition of the protein corona for each of the three NP was unique, indicating a strong dependence of corona development on NP surface chemistry. This work underscores the need to understand all aspects of NP toxicity, particularly the influence of agglomeration on effective dose and particle size. Furthermore, the interplay between materials and local biological environment is emphasized and highlights the need to conduct toxicity profiling under physiologically relevant conditions that provide an appropriate estimation of material modifications that occur during exposure in natural environments. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33280b

  15. Laboratory study of microphysical and scattering properties of corona-producing cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, E; Vochezer, P; Möhler, O; Schnaiter, M

    2014-11-01

    Corona-producing cirrus clouds were generated and measured under chamber conditions at the AIDA cloud chamber in Karlsruhe. We were able to measure the scattering properties as well as microphysical properties of these clouds under well-defined laboratory conditions in contrast with previous studies of corona-producing clouds, where the measurements were conducted by means of lidar and in situ aircraft measurements. Our results are in agreement with those of previous studies, confirming that corona-producing cirrus clouds consist of a narrow distribution of small (median Dp=19-32???m) and compact ice crystals. We showed that the ice crystals in these clouds are most likely formed in homogeneous freezing processes. As a result of the homogeneous freezing process, the ice crystals grow uniformly in size; furthermore, the majority of the ice crystals have rough surface features. PMID:25402925

  16. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the formation of hot accretion disk coronae

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.; Davis, Shane W.

    2014-04-01

    A new mechanism to form a magnetic pressure supported, high temperature corona above the photosphere of an accretion disk is explored using three dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The thermal properties of the disk are calculated self-consistently by balancing radiative cooling through the surfaces of the disk with heating due to dissipation of turbulence driven by magneto-rotational instability (MRI). As has been noted in previous work, we find the dissipation rate per unit mass increases dramatically with height above the mid-plane, in stark contrast to the ?-disk model which assumes this quantity is a constant. Thus, we find that in simulations with a low surface density (and therefore a shallow photosphere), the fraction of energy dissipated above the photosphere is significant (about 3.4% in our lowest surface density model), and this fraction increases as surface density decreases. When a significant fraction of the accretion energy is dissipated in the optically thin photosphere, the gas temperature increases substantially and a high temperature, magnetic pressure supported corona is formed. The volume-averaged temperature in the disk corona is more than 10 times larger than at the disk mid-plane. Moreover, gas temperature in the corona is strongly anti-correlated with gas density, which implies the corona formed by MRI turbulence is patchy. This mechanism to form an accretion disk corona may help explain the observed relation between the spectral index and luminosity from active galactic nucleus (AGNs), and the soft X-ray excess from some AGNs. It may also be relevant to spectral state changes in X-ray binaries.

  17. Evolution of the angrite parent body: Implications of metamorphic coronas in NWA 3164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdadi, Bashar; Godard, Gaston; Jambon, Albert

    2013-10-01

    Northwest Africa 3164 is a coarse-grained angrite that shows reaction coronas, a unique character among achondrites. Olivine (Fo57; 1.2 wt% CaO), fassaitic clinopyroxene, anorthite, and spinel account for 46-47, 28-29, 8-13, and 4-8 vol%, respectively; kamacite is an accessory phase. The spinel grains in contact with clinopyroxene are bounded by discontinuous 20 ?m thick coronas of anorthite and olivine, indicating the reaction Cpx + Spl ? Ol + An (R1). In addition, irregular coronas of clinopyroxene and spinel developed around the primary anorthite in contact with primary olivine, during the reaction Ol + An ? Cpx + Spl (R2). R2 also generated clinopyroxene and spinel films between the secondary olivine and anorthite coronas produced during R1, implying that R1 preceded R2. Both are metamorphic reactions that developed in the solid state. Finally, the coronas are cross cut by ?m-thick veinlets due to a late shock. A mass-balance study shows that R2 is almost the reverse of R1. The P-T metamorphic evolution of the rock, modeled by calculating a P-T isochemical diagram, indicates an equilibrium T of 940 ± 120 °C at P < 0.9 GPa for the initial assemblage, followed by an increase of T up to approximately 1000-1200 °C during reaction R1 and a subsequent cooling during R2. Several causes are envisaged to account for this metamorphic evolution. Contact metamorphism due to a hot magmatic intrusion in the angrite parent body is favored, as similar metamorphic coronas are well known in metamorphic terrestrial rocks. In addition to differentiation and magmatism, there is now evidence for metamorphism in the angrite parent body, which would have been a large asteroid or a planetary-sized body.

  18. Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, Vol. 23, No. 1, March 2003 ( 2003) Model of the Negative DC Corona Plasma

    E-print Network

    Chen, Junhong

    ­25). The electric field in the plasma region was 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of MinnesotaPlasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, Vol. 23, No. 1, March 2003 ( 2003) Model of the Negative DC Corona Plasma: Comparison to the Positive DC Corona Plasma Junhong Chen1 and Jane H. Davidson1,2 Receiûed

  19. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE SOLAR CORONA AND SOLAR WIND USING A BOUNDARY TREATMENT TO LIMIT SOLAR WIND MASS FLUX

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE SOLAR CORONA AND SOLAR WIND USING A BOUNDARY TREATMENT TO LIMIT SOLAR WIND MASS FLUX Keiji Hayashi W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford ABSTRACT Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar corona and solar wind are sensitive to conditions

  20. ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE SOLAR CORONA: FIRST RESULTS OBTAINED WITH A NEW 3D MHD MODEL

    E-print Network

    Grauer, Rainer

    1 ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE SOLAR CORONA: FIRST RESULTS OBTAINED WITH A NEW 3D MHD MODEL J. Kleimann 1) is applied to the problem of the dynamics of the solar corona. First, we present the basic system of equations for a two- uid description of the solar wind plasma and point out possible numerical di

  1. Silver Nanoparticle Protein Corona Composition in Cell Culture Media

    PubMed Central

    Shannahan, Jonathan H.; Lai, Xianyin; Ke, Pu Chun; Podila, Ramakrishna; Brown, Jared M.; Witzmann, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    The potential applications of nanomaterials as drug delivery systems and in other products continue to expand. Upon introduction into physiological environments and driven by energetics, nanomaterials readily associate proteins forming a protein corona (PC) on their surface. This PC influences the nanomaterial’s surface characteristics and may impact their interaction with cells. To determine the biological impact of nanomaterial exposure as well as nanotherapeutic applications, it is necessary to understand PC formation. Utilizing a label-free mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, we examined the composition of the PC for a set of four silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) including citrate-stabilized and polyvinlypyrrolidone-stabilized (PVP) colloidal silver (20 or 110 nm diameter). To simulate cell culture conditions, AgNPs were incubated for 1 h in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, washed, coronal proteins solubilized, and proteins identified and quantified by label-free LC-MS/MS. To determine which attributes influence PC formation, the AgNPs were characterized in both water and cell culture media with 10% FBS. All AgNPs associated a common subset of 11 proteins including albumin, apolipoproteins, keratins, and other serum proteins. 110 nm citrate- and PVP-stabilized AgNPs were found to bind the greatest number of proteins (79 and 85 respectively) compared to 20 nm citrate- and PVP-stabilized AgNPs (45 and 48 respectively), suggesting a difference in PC formation based on surface curvature. While no relationships were found for other protein parameters (isoelectric point or aliphatic index), the PC on 20 nm AgNPs (PVP and citrate) consisted of more hydrophobic proteins compared to 110 nm AgNPs implying that this class of proteins are more receptive to curvature-induced folding and crowding in exchange for an increased hydration in the aqueous environment. These observations demonstrate the significance of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in the formation of the PC which may have broad biological and toxicological implications. PMID:24040142

  2. Interaction of lipid vesicle with silver nanoparticle-serum albumin protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ran; Choudhary, Poonam; Schurr, Ryan N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Brown, Jared M.; Chun Ke, Pu

    2012-01-01

    The physical interaction between a lipid vesicle and a silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-human serum albumin (HSA) protein "corona" has been examined. Specifically, the binding of AgNPs and HSA was analyzed by spectrophotometry, and the induced conformational changes of the HSA were inferred from circular dichroism spectroscopy. The fluidity of the vesicle, a model system for mimicking cell membrane, was found to increase with the increased exposure to AgNP-HSA corona, though less pronounced compared to that induced by AgNPs alone. This study offers additional information for understanding the role of physical forces in nanoparticle-cell interaction and has implications for nanomedicine and nanotoxicology.

  3. Micro Corona Ionizer as an Ozone Source for Bacterial Cell Lysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Chua, Beelee; Son, Ahjeong

    2015-04-01

    DNA extraction is a critical process of DNA assays including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, molecular cloning, and DNA hybridization which has been well established and can be implemented by commercial kits. DNA extraction involves cell lysis, precipitation, and purification through the combination of physical and chemical processes. Cell lysis is essential to high DNA recovery yield which can be achieved via a variety of physical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. However, these methods were originally developed for bioassays that were labor intensive, time consuming, and vulnerable to contamination and inhibition. Here, we proposed to employ a micro corona ionizer as an ozone source to lyse bacterial cells. Ozone has been well known and used as a disinfectant which allows cell lysis and DNA extraction. Previously, we have shown that a micro corona ionizer is capable of generating a significant amount of ozone. In this study, we employed the micro corona ionizer for the bacterial cell lysis which consists of a 50 ?m diameter cantilever wire as the discharge cathode and a 50 ?m thick copper foil as anode. Applied voltages varied from 1900 to 2200 V with corresponding corona currents from 16 to 28 ?A. The resultant ozone (concentration > 0.14 ppm) generated from the micro corona ionizer was bubbled into the sample via a miniature pump. We demonstrated the cell lysis of Pseudomonas putida as the target bacterium using the micro corona ionizer. At a flow rate of 38 ml/min and applied corona voltage of 2000 V, 98.5 ± 0.2% lysis (normalized to sonication result) was achieved after 10 min. In comparison, untreated and air-treated samples showed normalized % lysis of 11.9 ± 2.4 and 36.1 ± 1.7%, respectively. We also showed that the cell lysis efficiency could be significantly increased by increasing the flow rate and the applied corona voltage. By comparing the experimental results for continuous and pulsed treatment, we verified that the percentage of lysis is primarily determined by the total ozone treatment time.

  4. Destruction of Sun-Grazing Comet C-2011 N3 (SOHO) Within the Low Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Brown, J. C.; Battams, K.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Liu, W.; Hudson, H.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of comets in Sun-grazing orbits that survive solar insolation long enough to penetrate into the Suns inner corona provide information on the solar atmosphere and magnetic field as well as on the makeup of the comet. On 6 July 2011, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observed the demise of comet C2011 N3 (SOHO) within the low solar corona in five wavelength bands in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). The comet penetrated to within 0.146 solarradius (100,000 kilometers) of the solar surface before its EUV signal disappeared.

  5. Characterization of the bionano interface and mapping extrinsic interactions of the corona of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, D. J.; Bombelli, F. Baldelli; Pitek, A. S.; Monopoli, M. P.; Cahill, D. J.; Dawson, K. A.

    2015-09-01

    Nanoparticles in physiological environments are known to selectively adsorb proteins and other biomolecules forming a tightly bound biomolecular `corona' on their surface. Where the exchange times of the proteins are sufficiently long, it is believed that the protein corona constitutes the particle identity in biological milieu. Here we show that proteins in the corona retain their functional characteristics and can specifically bind to cognate proteins on arrays of thousands of immobilised human proteins. The biological identity of the nanomaterial is seen to be specific to the blood plasma concentration in which they are exposed. We show that the resulting in situ nanoparticle interactome is dependent on the protein concentration in plasma, with the emergence of a small number of dominant protein-protein interactions. These interactions are those driven by proteins that are adsorbed onto the particle surface and whose binding epitopes are subsequently expressed or presented suitably on the particle surface. We suggest that, since specific tailored protein arrays for target systems and organs can be designed, their use may be an important element in an overall study of the biomolecular corona.Nanoparticles in physiological environments are known to selectively adsorb proteins and other biomolecules forming a tightly bound biomolecular `corona' on their surface. Where the exchange times of the proteins are sufficiently long, it is believed that the protein corona constitutes the particle identity in biological milieu. Here we show that proteins in the corona retain their functional characteristics and can specifically bind to cognate proteins on arrays of thousands of immobilised human proteins. The biological identity of the nanomaterial is seen to be specific to the blood plasma concentration in which they are exposed. We show that the resulting in situ nanoparticle interactome is dependent on the protein concentration in plasma, with the emergence of a small number of dominant protein-protein interactions. These interactions are those driven by proteins that are adsorbed onto the particle surface and whose binding epitopes are subsequently expressed or presented suitably on the particle surface. We suggest that, since specific tailored protein arrays for target systems and organs can be designed, their use may be an important element in an overall study of the biomolecular corona. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01970b

  6. Possible giant metamorphic core complex at the center of Artemis Corona, Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Hundreds of circular features on Venus known as coronae are characterized by annular fractures and commonly associated radial fractures and lava flows. Coronae are thought to have been produced by buoyant mantle diapirs that flatten and spread at the base of the lithosphere and cause fracturing, uplift, and magmatism. The interior of Artemis Corona, by far the largest corona at 2100 km diameter, is divided in half by a northeast-trending deformation belt that contains numerous rounded ridges resembling antiforms. The largest of these ridges, located at the center of Artemis Corona, is ???5 km high on its steep northwest flank where it is adjacent to a flat-bottomed, 10-km-wide trough interpreted as a rift valley. The 280-km-long antiformal ridge is marked by perpendicular grooves that cross the ???50-km-wide ridge and extend southeastward as far as 120 km across adjacent plains. The grooves abruptly terminate northwestward at the rift trough. The large antiformal ridge terminates southwestward at a transform shear zone that parallels the grooves. These features-rift valley, antiformal uplift, grooves, and transform shear zone-are morphologically and geometrically similar to grooved, elevated, submarine metamorphic core complexes on the inside corners of ridge-transform intersections of slow-spreading ridges on Earth. As with submarine core complexes, the grooved surface on Venus is interpreted as the footwall of a large-displacement normal fault, and the grooves are inferred to be the product of plastic molding of the footwall to irregularities on the underside of the hanging wall followed by tectonic exhumation of the molded grooves and conveyer-belt-like transport up and over the large antiform and across the southeastern plains. According to this interpretation, the trend of the grooves records the direction of extension, which is perpendicular to the thrusts at the leading edge of the annular thrust belt 1000 km to the southeast. Both may have formed at the same time as a result of uniform southeastward displacement of the southeastern half of the interior of Artemis Corona. The location of this grooved core complex at the center of Artemis Corona may reflect genesis above the bouyant, ascending tail of the corona-producing mantle diapir.

  7. Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities as a Mechanism for Coronae Formation on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Houseman, G. A.

    2002-12-01

    Coronae are Venusian quasi-circular volcano-tectonic features that range in size from 60km-1000km. They are believed to form over small-scale mantle upwellings. Previous models of corona formation can best match the observed topographic morphology when the upwellings cause the cold, dense lower lithosphere to delaminate, sinking into the mantle and deforming the surface. These complex evolutionary models can predict the general topography of most classes of coronae and can also account for most of the deformation observed around coronae. The size and depth at which these plumes might originate is unclear, however, and the relatively close spacing of coronae is surprising if these plumes originate from deep in the mantle. We here investigate an alternative causal mechanism for coronae based on the idea that gravitational instability of the dense mantle lithosphere could also explain the observed topography and gravity. In Rayleigh-Taylor instability, coupled downwelling and upwelling develops from an initial perturbation in lithospheric thickness. Recent analysis of gravity data suggests that deformation of the crustal layer may play an important role in causing surface topography for coronae and explaining volcano-tectonic deformation features. We examine the role of crustal thickness in forming specific corona morphologies using "basil", a 2D finite deformation program adapted to calculate viscous deformation assuming cylindrical axisymmetry. Instantaneous flow fields are integrated forward in time in order to compute the final strain field. Rayleigh-Taylor instability with imposed cylindrical axisymmetry produces either central depression surrounded by a positive topographic annulus (or vice-versa). If deformation is small we observe that linear growth rates q are the same for either form of the instability. We find this rate to be maximum at wavenumber k=2.5 for rigid boundary models, but the wavelength of deformation lengthens to k=0.32 for free-slip boundaries. When a low density crust is added (crust viscosity = mantle viscosity), we observe that surface topography above a central downwelling evolves from an initial central depression to central uplift surrounded by a depressed annular region, and find that the growth rate is now maximum at k=1.3 for free-slip boundaries. Adding a low density crust reduces q for all k as the buoyant crustal layer inhibits the growth of the instability. Whether the surface is elevated or depressed depends on crustal buoyancy and crustal viscosity.

  8. Gyroscopic waves in the base of the solar corona: A model and possible observational manifestations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanko, Y. V.; Tritakis, V. P.; Paliatsos, A. G.

    1997-01-01

    A linear model for gyroscopic waves in the base of the solar corona is proposed. The purpose was to point out possible observational manifestations of the phenomenon. According to the model, these waves move slowly around the sun along heliolatitude circles. The fact that the red line corona is fainter on the solar side facing the apex and north-south and east-west asymmetries of the red coronal emission line could be interpreted as a possible observational manifestation of the gyroscopic wave phenomenon in the coronal base.

  9. Processing method of images obtained during the TESIS/CORONAS-PHOTON experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Shestov, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Pertsov, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Reva, A. A.

    2011-04-01

    In January 2009, the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft was successfully launched. It includes a set of telescopes and spectroheliometers—TESIS—designed to image the solar corona in soft X-ray and EUV spectral ranges. Due to features of the reading system, to obtain physical information from these images, it is necessary to preprocess them, i.e., to remove the background, correct the white field, level, and clean. The paper discusses the algorithms and software developed and used for the preprocessing of images.

  10. A Covert Disruptive Technology: Test and Development of the Corona Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peebles, Curtis

    2008-01-01

    The launching by the Soviet Union of the Sputnik satellite in 19457 was an impetuous to the United States. The Intercontinental ballistic Missile (ICBM) that launched the Earth's first satellite, could have been armed with a nuclear warhead, that could destroy an American city. The primary intelligence requirement that the US had was to determine the actual size of the Soviet missile program. To this end, a covert, high-risk photoreconnaissance satellite was developed. The code name of this program was "Corona." This article describes the trials and eventual successes of the Corona program.

  11. Protein Corona Influences Cellular Uptake of Gold Nanoparticles by Phagocytic and Nonphagocytic Cells in a Size-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaju; Tian, Xin; Wu, Anqing; Li, Jianxiang; Tian, Jian; Chong, Yu; Chai, Zhifang; Zhao, Yuliang; Chen, Chunying; Ge, Cuicui

    2015-09-23

    The interaction at nanobio is a critical issue in designing safe nanomaterials for biomedical applications. Recent studies have reported that it is nanoparticle-protein corona rather than bare nanoparticle that determines the nanoparticle-cell interactions, including endocytic pathway and biological responses. Here, we demonstrate the effects of protein corona on cellular uptake of different sized gold nanoparticles in different cell lines. The experimental results show that protein corona significantly decreases the internalization of Au NPs in a particle size- and cell type-dependent manner. Protein corona exhibits much more significant inhibition on the uptake of large-sized Au NPs by phagocytic cell than that of small-sized Au NPs by nonphagocytic cell. The endocytosis experiment indicates that different endocytic pathways might be responsible for the differential roles of protein corona in the interaction of different sized Au NPs with different cell lines. Our findings can provide useful information for rational design of nanomaterials in biomedical application. PMID:26364560

  12. Simultaneous measurements of wire electrode surface contamination and corona discharge characteristics in an air-cleaning electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Kanazawa, Seiji; Ohkubo, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Yukiharu; Adachi, Takayoshi; Chang, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination of the corona wire in a wire-to-plate type air-cleaning electrostatic precipitator is studied experimentally. In order to enhance the contamination of wire, air containing dusts is directly supplied to a part of the wire electrode. Spores of Lycopodium and cigarette smoke particles are used as test dusts. Simultaneous measurements of wire electrode optical images and corona discharge modes are carried out during contamination processes. Results show that corona discharge modes and optical emission from the wire electrode change with time due to the surface contamination. In the case of cigarette smoke, after a time elapsed, streamer coronas appear due to the buildup of smoke particles on the wire surface. After the first streamer generation, the corona current fluctuates with time because the formation and diminution of the projections occur alternately at the different parts on the wire electrode surface.

  13. Unraveling CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering parameters via a library-on-library approach.

    PubMed

    Chari, Raj; Mali, Prashant; Moosburner, Mark; Church, George M

    2015-09-01

    We developed an in vivo library-on-library methodology to simultaneously assess single guide RNA (sgRNA) activity across ?1,400 genomic loci. Assaying across multiple human cell types and end-processing enzymes as well as two Cas9 orthologs, we unraveled underlying nucleotide sequence and epigenetic parameters. Our results and software (http://crispr.med.harvard.edu/sgRNAScorer) enable improved design of reagents, shed light on mechanisms of genome targeting, and provide a generalizable framework to study nucleic acid-nucleic acid interactions and biochemistry in high throughput. PMID:26167643

  14. Spatial variability of recent glacier area changes in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, using Corona (~1970), Landsat (~2000), and ALOS (~2007) satellite data

    E-print Network

    Kääb, Andreas

    Corona (~1970), Landsat (~2000), and ALOS (~2007) satellite data Chiyuki Narama a, , Andreas Kääb b differences water shortages glacier hazards ALOS Landsat Corona Tien Shan Mountains Central Asia Geographic using Corona KH-4B satellite photographs for 1968­1971, Landsat 7 ETM+data for 1999­2002,and ALOS/ PRISM

  15. Flexural models of trench/outer rise topography of coronae on Venus with axisymmetric spherical shell elastic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W.; Schubert, Gerald; Sandwell, David T.

    1992-01-01

    Magellan altimetry has revealed that many coronae on Venus have trenches or moats around their peripheries and rises outboard of the trenches. This trench/outer rise topographic signature is generally associated with the tectonic annulus of the corona. Sandwell and Schubert have interpreted the trench/outer rise topography and the associated tectonic annulus around coronae to be the result of elastic bending of the Venus lithosphere (though the tectonic structures are consequences of inelastic deformation of the lithosphere). They used two-dimensional elastic plate flexure theory to fit topographic profiles across a number of large coronae and inferred elastic lithosphere thicknesses between about 15 and 40 km, similar to inferred values of elastic thickness for the Earth's lithosphere at subduction zones around the Pacific Ocean. Here, we report the results of using axisymmetric elastic flexure theory for the deformation of thin spherical shell plates to interpret the trench/outer rise topography of the large coronae modeled by Sandwell and Schubert and of coronae as small as 250 km in diameter. In the case of a corona only a few hundred kilometers in diameter, the model accounts for the small planform radius of the moat and the nonradial orientation of altimetric traces across the corona. By fitting the flexural topography of coronae we determine the elastic thickness and loading necessary to account for the observed flexure. We calculate the associated bending moment and determine whether the corona interior topographic load can provide the required moment. We also calculate surface stresses and compare the stress distribution with the location of annular tectonic features.

  16. Proteomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Nanoparticle Corona upon Contact with Lung Surfactant Reveals Differences in Protein, but Not Lipid Composition.

    PubMed

    Raesch, Simon Sebastian; Tenzer, Stefan; Storck, Wiebke; Rurainski, Alexander; Selzer, Dominik; Ruge, Christian Arnold; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Schaefer, Ulrich Friedrich; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2015-12-22

    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) constitutes the first line of host defense in the deep lung. Because of its high content of phospholipids and surfactant specific proteins, the interaction of inhaled nanoparticles (NPs) with the pulmonary surfactant layer is likely to form a corona that is different to the one formed in plasma. Here we present a detailed lipidomic and proteomic analysis of NP corona formation using native porcine surfactant as a model. We analyzed the adsorbed biomolecules in the corona of three NP with different surface properties (PEG-, PLGA-, and Lipid-NP) after incubation with native porcine surfactant. Using label-free shotgun analysis for protein and LC-MS for lipid analysis, we quantitatively determined the corona composition. Our results show a conserved lipid composition in the coronas of all investigated NPs regardless of their surface properties, with only hydrophilic PEG-NPs adsorbing fewer lipids in total. In contrast, the analyzed NP displayed a marked difference in the protein corona, consisting of up to 417 different proteins. Among the proteins showing significant differences between the NP coronas, there was a striking prevalence of molecules with a notoriously high lipid and surface binding, such as, e.g., SP-A, SP-D, DMBT1. Our data indicate that the selective adsorption of proteins mediates the relatively similar lipid pattern in the coronas of different NPs. On the basis of our lipidomic and proteomic analysis, we provide a detailed set of quantitative data on the composition of the surfactant corona formed upon NP inhalation, which is unique and markedly different to the plasma corona. PMID:26575243

  17. Protein corona composition of gold nanoparticles/nanorods affects amyloid beta fibrillation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirsadeghi, Somayeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Hormozi-Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoudi, Zohreh; Hajipour, Mohammad Javad; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Ghavami, Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2015-03-01

    Protein fibrillation process (e.g., from amyloid beta (A?) and ?-synuclein) is the main cause of several catastrophic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. During the past few decades, nanoparticles (NPs) were recognized as one of the most promising tools for inhibiting the progress of the disease by controlling the fibrillation kinetic process; for instance, gold NPs have a strong capability to inhibit A? fibrillations. It is now well understood that a layer of biomolecules would cover the surface of NPs (so called ``protein corona'') upon the interaction of NPs with protein sources. Due to the fact that the biological species (e.g., cells and amyloidal proteins) ``see'' the protein corona coated NPs rather than the pristine coated particles, one should monitor the fibrillation process of amyloidal proteins in the presence of corona coated NPs (and not pristine coated ones). Therefore, the previously obtained data on NPs effects on the fibrillation process should be modified to achieve a more reliable and predictable in vivo results. Herein, we probed the effects of various gold NPs (with different sizes and shapes) on the fibrillation process of A? in the presence and absence of protein sources (i.e., serum and plasma). We found that the protein corona formed a shell at the surface of gold NPs, regardless of their size and shape, reducing the access of A? to the gold inhibitory surface and, therefore, affecting the rate of A? fibril formation. More specifically, the anti-fibrillation potencies of various corona coated gold NPs were strongly dependent on the protein source and their concentrations (10% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vitro milieu) and 100% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vivo milieu)).Protein fibrillation process (e.g., from amyloid beta (A?) and ?-synuclein) is the main cause of several catastrophic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. During the past few decades, nanoparticles (NPs) were recognized as one of the most promising tools for inhibiting the progress of the disease by controlling the fibrillation kinetic process; for instance, gold NPs have a strong capability to inhibit A? fibrillations. It is now well understood that a layer of biomolecules would cover the surface of NPs (so called ``protein corona'') upon the interaction of NPs with protein sources. Due to the fact that the biological species (e.g., cells and amyloidal proteins) ``see'' the protein corona coated NPs rather than the pristine coated particles, one should monitor the fibrillation process of amyloidal proteins in the presence of corona coated NPs (and not pristine coated ones). Therefore, the previously obtained data on NPs effects on the fibrillation process should be modified to achieve a more reliable and predictable in vivo results. Herein, we probed the effects of various gold NPs (with different sizes and shapes) on the fibrillation process of A? in the presence and absence of protein sources (i.e., serum and plasma). We found that the protein corona formed a shell at the surface of gold NPs, regardless of their size and shape, reducing the access of A? to the gold inhibitory surface and, therefore, affecting the rate of A? fibril formation. More specifically, the anti-fibrillation potencies of various corona coated gold NPs were strongly dependent on the protein source and their concentrations (10% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vitro milieu) and 100% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vivo milieu)). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full characterization results of the nanoparticles, protein corona, and fibrillation process. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06009a

  18. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C.; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3–4?day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12–22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  19. Percutaneous removal of unraveled HELEX® septal occluder 4 months post deployment.

    PubMed

    Suntharos, Patcharapong; Komarlu, Rukmini; Prieto, Lourdes R

    2015-07-01

    The GORE® HELEX® Septal Occluder (HSO: W.L. Gore & Associates; Flagstaff, AZ) is preferentially used at our institution for percutaneous closure of the patent foramen ovale (PFO). Adequate deployment of the device requires capture of three sequential eyelets by the locking loop. At times, the right atrial eyelet is not caught, particularly when a long tunnel PFO causes too much separation between the discs. Although rarely, unlocked devices have been left in the atrial septum with no untoward events provided they appear stable in the catheterization laboratory and the shunt has been eliminated. We report a patient in whom an unlocked, but otherwise well positioned, HSO subsequently unraveled with the right atrial disc migrating through the tricuspid valve while the left atrial disc remained well apposed to the left side of the atrial septum. The PFO was closed prior to liver transplantation to prevent an embolic event during the transplant. The patient required placement of several internal jugular central lines prior to transplant, and this instrumentation in the right atrium may have caused unraveling of the device. The HSO was removed percutaneously 15 weeks after implantation despite a well-seated and likely partially endothelialized left atrial disc. PMID:25639512

  20. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3-4?day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12-22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  1. Unraveling Protein-Protein Interactions in Clathrin Assemblies via Atomic Force Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Albert J.; Lafer, Eileen M.; Peng, Jennifer Q.; Smith, Paul D.; Nossal, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM), single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS), and single particle force spectroscopy (SPFS) are used to characterize intermolecular interactions and domain structures of clathrin triskelia and clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). The latter are involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) and other trafficking pathways. Here, we subject individual triskelia, bovine-brain CCVs, and reconstituted clathrin-AP180 coats to AFM-SMFS and AFM-SPFS pulling experiments and apply novel analytics to extract force-extension relations from very large data sets. The spectroscopic fingerprints of these samples differ markedly, providing important new information about the mechanism of CCV uncoating. For individual triskelia, SMFS reveals a series of events associated with heavy chain alpha-helix hairpin unfolding, as well as cooperative unraveling of several hairpin domains. SPFS of clathrin assemblies exposes weaker clathrin-clathrin interactions that are indicative of inter-leg association essential for RME and intracellular trafficking. Clathrin-AP180 coats are energetically easier to unravel than the coats of CCVs, with a non-trivial dependence on force-loading rate. PMID:23270814

  2. Neon and oxygen in stellar coronae A unification with the Sun

    E-print Network

    Robrade, Jan

    Neon and oxygen in stellar coronae A unification with the Sun Jan Robrade Hamburger Sternwarte From Atoms to Stars, July 2011, Oxford #12;O v e r v i e w 1 Neon and the solar modeling problem 2 Data;Neon and oxygen Increase neon by a factor of 3 ­ 4 !! (e.g. Antia & Basu 2005, Bahcall 2005) Why neon

  3. Prediction of nanoparticles-cell association based on corona proteins and physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Jiang, Wen; Walkey, Carl D; Chan, Warren C W; Cohen, Yoram

    2015-06-01

    Cellular association of nanoparticles (NPs) in biological fluids is affected by proteins adsorbed onto the NP surface, forming a "protein corona", thereby impacting cellular bioactivity. Here we investigate, based on an extensive gold NPs protein corona dataset, the relationships between NP-cell association and protein corona fingerprints (PCFs) as well as NP physicochemical properties. Accordingly, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed based on both linear and non-linear support vector regression (SVR) models making use of a sequential forward floating selection of descriptors. The SVR model with only 6 serum proteins and zeta potential had higher accuracy (R(2) = 0.895) relative to the linear model (R(2) = 0.850) with 11 PCFs. Considering the initial pool of 148 descriptors, the APOB, A1AT, ANT3, and PLMN serum proteins along with NP zeta potential were identified as most significant to correlating NP-cell association. The present study suggests that QSARs exploration of NP-cell association data, considering the role of both NP protein corona and physicochemical properties, can support the planning and interpretation of toxicity studies and guide the design of NPs for biomedical applications. PMID:25959034

  4. Prediction of nanoparticles-cell association based on corona proteins and physicochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Jiang, Wen; Walkey, Carl D.; Chan, Warren C. W.; Cohen, Yoram

    2015-05-01

    Cellular association of nanoparticles (NPs) in biological fluids is affected by proteins adsorbed onto the NP surface, forming a ``protein corona'', thereby impacting cellular bioactivity. Here we investigate, based on an extensive gold NPs protein corona dataset, the relationships between NP-cell association and protein corona fingerprints (PCFs) as well as NP physicochemical properties. Accordingly, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed based on both linear and non-linear support vector regression (SVR) models making use of a sequential forward floating selection of descriptors. The SVR model with only 6 serum proteins and zeta potential had higher accuracy (R2 = 0.895) relative to the linear model (R2 = 0.850) with 11 PCFs. Considering the initial pool of 148 descriptors, the APOB, A1AT, ANT3, and PLMN serum proteins along with NP zeta potential were identified as most significant to correlating NP-cell association. The present study suggests that QSARs exploration of NP-cell association data, considering the role of both NP protein corona and physicochemical properties, can support the planning and interpretation of toxicity studies and guide the design of NPs for biomedical applications.

  5. NARROW-GAP POINT-TO-PLANE CORONA WITH HIGH VELOCITY FLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses a mathematical model developed to describe a narrow- gap point- to- plane corona system used in the detoxification of chemical agents or their simulants, for which the degree of destruction depends on the strength of the electric field or electron energy. Na...

  6. ELECTRON DENSITY VARIATION IN OFF-LIMB SOLAR CORONA STRUCTURES I. Ugarte-Urra

    E-print Network

    1 ELECTRON DENSITY VARIATION IN OFF-LIMB SOLAR CORONA STRUCTURES I. Ugarte-Urra , J.G. Doyle a study of the electron density variation for off limb observations with the Coronal Diagnostic Spec- trometer (CDS) on board SoHO using the density sensi- tive coronal line ratio Si X (356

  7. Mechanical Properties of Porcine Brain Tissue in the Coronal Plane: Interregional Variations of the Corona Radiata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fuqian; Zhou, Jun; Li, Yan; Wang, Yongbo; Li, Lihong; Yue, Hongzhi

    2015-12-01

    Most biomechanical models that aim to investigate traumatic brain injury consider the corona radiata as a homogeneous structure. To verify this, indentation-relaxation tests using a custom-designed indentation device were performed on the anterior, superior, and posterior region of the corona radiata in the coronal plane of the porcine brain. Using Boltzmann hereditary integral, a linear viscoelastic model with a Prony series approximation was fitted to the time-dependent shear modulus for different regions of the corona radiata, and the fit parameters were generated. The posterior region was the stiffest and the anterior region was the least stiff. A statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in biomedical properties between the anterior and superior regions, as well as between the anterior and posterior regions in the short time scale. However, the results showed that these differences faded away as the tissue approached equilibrium. No significant difference was observed between the superior and posterior regions along the total time history of relaxation. This is the first demonstration of the regional biomechanical heterogeneity of the corona radiata, and these results will improve future biomedical models of the porcine brain. PMID:26048198

  8. Feasibility of cleaning PCB contaminated surfaces using pulsed corona discharges. Final report, FY1997--FY1998

    SciTech Connect

    Kirts, R.E.

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using pulsed corona discharges to destroy organic contaminants on surfaces. Pulsed corona discharge technology uses brief pulses of high voltage to generate strong oxidizing chemicals such as hydroxyl radical and ozone. These chemical species, in aqueous solution, can mineralize organic contaminants in solution or on the surface of solids. The target organic contaminants for this study were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) found on parts removed from Navy ships being recycled. Initial studies were performed using phenol as a surrogate for PCBs. Following successful degradation of phenol, degradation of a chlorinated phenol, and finally a chlorinated biphenyl would be studied. The author found no conclusive evidence that pulsed streaming corona discharges significantly degrade phenol. The reason for this is that the experimental procedure did not generate significant amounts of either ozone or hydrogen peroxide. Other investigators have found that up to 25 percent of phenol can be converted into catechol and resorcinol by the pulsed streaming corona discharge process. Catechol and resorcinol are classified as hazardous substances. It was recommended that the project be terminated.

  9. Spectroscopic Identification of Isomeric Trimethylbenzyl Radicals Generated in Corona Discharge of Tetramethylbenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk; Lee, Gi Woo

    2011-06-01

    The visible vibronic emission spectra were recorded from the corona discharge of precursor tetramethylbenzene with a large amount of inert carrier gas helium using a pinhole-type glass nozzle coupled with corona excited supersonic expansion (CESE) well developed in this laboratory. The spectra showed a series of vibronic bands in the D_1 ? D_0 electronic transition of jet-cooled benzyl-type radicals formed from the precursor in a corona excitation. The analysis confirmed that two isomeric radicals, 2,3,4- and 2,3,6-trimethylbenzyl radicals and three isomeric radicals, 3,4,5-, 2,3,5- and 2,4,6-trimethylbenzyl radicals were produced, respectively, from 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzenes as a result of removal of a hydrogen atom from the methyl group at different substitution position. For each isomeric trimethylbenzyl radical generated in the corona discharge of precursor, the electronic transition and a few vibrational mode frequencies were determined in the ground electronic state by comparing with those from both ab initio calculations and the known vibrational data of the precursor. The substitution effect that states the shift of electronic transition depends on the nature, the number, and the position of substituents on the ring has been qualitatively proved for the case of benzyl-type radicals.

  10. The corona of the daffodil Narcissus bulbocodium is distinct from the orthodox floral whorls.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The structural homology of the daffodil corona has remained a source of confusion throughout the history of botany. Over the years it has been separately referred to as a modified petal stipule, stamen and tepal. Here we provide new insights from anatomy and molecular studies to clarify the early de...

  11. Forward modeling of stellar coronae: from a 3D MHD model to synthetic EUV spectra

    E-print Network

    H. Peter; B. V. Gudiksen; A. Nordlund

    2005-03-16

    A forward model is described in which we synthesize spectra from an ab-initio 3D MHD simulation of an outer stellar atmosphere, where the coronal heating is based on braiding of magnetic flux due to photospheric footpoint motions. We discuss the validity of assumptions such as ionization equilibrium and investigate the applicability of diagnostics like the differential emission measure inversion. We find that the general appearance of the synthesized corona is similar to the solar corona and that, on a statistical basis, integral quantities such as average Doppler shifts or differential emission measures are reproduced remarkably well. The persistent redshifts in the transition region, which have puzzled theorists since their discovery, are explained by this model as caused by the flows induced by the heating through braiding of magnetic flux. While the model corona is only slowly evolving in intensity, as is observed, the amount of structure and variability in Doppler shift is very large. This emphasizes the need for fast coronal spectroscopy, as the dynamical response of the corona to the heating process manifests itself in a comparably slow evolving coronal intensity but rapid changes in Doppler shift.

  12. 75 FR 8395 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and... recovery project. The project will install new groundwater wells at the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin in... flows in the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin during wet years for delivery to communities in...

  13. 76 FR 3655 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... of Intent (NOI) to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement on February 24, 2010 (75 FR 8395). The... Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and... project, including new groundwater wells and a 28- mile water pipeline with pump stations and a...

  14. Deep Infrared Imaging of the R Coronae Australis Cloud Core Bruce A. Wilking

    E-print Network

    Wilking, Bruce A.

    Deep Infrared Imaging of the R Coronae Australis Cloud Core Bruce A. Wilking Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri­St. Louis 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121 brucew and Astronomy, University of Missouri­St. Louis 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121 giblin

  15. Protein corona mitigates the cytotoxicity of graphene oxide by reducing its physical interaction with cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guangxin; Kang, Seung-gu; Tian, Xin; Garate, Jose Antonio; Zhao, Lin; Ge, Cuicui; Zhou, Ruhong

    2015-10-01

    Many recent studies have shown that the way nanoparticles interact with cells and biological molecules can vary greatly in the serum-containing or serum-free culture medium. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how the so-called "protein corona" formed in serum medium affects nanoparticles' biological responses are still largely unresolved. Thus, it is critical to understand how absorbed proteins on the surfaces of nanoparticles alter their biological effects. In this work, we have demonstrated with both experimental and theoretical approaches that protein BSA coating can mitigate the cytotoxicity of graphene oxide (GO) by reducing its cell membrane penetration. Our cell viability and cellular uptake experiments showed that protein corona decreased cellular uptake of GO, thus significantly mitigating the potential cytotoxicity of GO. The electron microscopy images also confirmed that protein corona reduced the cellular morphological damage by limiting GO penetration into the cell membrane. Further molecular dynamics (MD) simulations validated the experimental results and revealed that the adsorbed BSA in effect weakened the interaction between the phospholipids and graphene surface due to a reduction of the available surface area plus an unfavorable steric effect, thus significantly reducing the graphene penetration and lipid bilayer damaging. These findings provide new insights into the underlying molecular mechanism of this important graphene protein corona interaction with cell membranes, and should have implications in future development of graphene-based biomedical applications. PMID:26315610

  16. Modeling and characterization of field-enhanced corona discharge in ozone-generator diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Jagadish G.; Vijayan, T.

    2010-02-01

    Electric field enhanced corona plasma discharge in ozone generator diode of axial symmetry has been investigated and characterized in theory. The cathode K of diode is made of a large number of sharpened nozzles arranged on various radial planes on the axial mast and pervaded in oxygen gas inside the anode cup A, produces high fields over MV/m and aids in the formation of a corona plume of dense ozone cloud over the cathode surface. An r-z finite difference scheme has been devised and employed to numerically determine the potential and electric field distributions inside the diode. The analyses of cathode emissions revealed a field emission domain conformed to modified Child-Langmuir diode-current. Passage of higher currents (over ?A) in shorter A-K gaps d gave rise to cathode heated plasma extending from the corona to Saha regimes depending on local temperature. Plasma densities of order 102-106 m-3 are predicted in these. For larger d however, currents are smaller and heating negligible and a negative corona favoring ozone formation is attained. High ozone yields about 20 per cent of oxygen input is predicted in this domain. The generator so developed will be applied to various important applications such as, purification of ambient air /drinking water, ozone therapy, and so on.

  17. MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. II. FIELD-PLASMA INTERACTION B. Fornberg,2

    E-print Network

    Fornberg, Bengt

    agent because it enhances the magnetic pressure to drive an outward expansion. A low-temperature plasma base. This is probably the magnetic role of quiescent prominences in coronal structures (TandbergMAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. II. FIELD-PLASMA INTERACTION N. Flyer,1 B. Fornberg

  18. A conceptual model for the relationship between coronae and large-scale mantle dynamics on Venus

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Catherine Louise

    that the spatial distribution of coronae has evolved from a previously less concentrated global distribution); 5475 Planetology: Solid Surface Planets: Tectonics (8149); 6295 Planetology: Solar System Objects and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data collected by Magellan [Ford and Pettengill, 1992] permit a first

  19. CORONA-INDUCED OZONATION COUPLED WITH PHOTOOXIDATION: AN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY AND COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a process that uses surface corona for the production of ozone by passing air or oxygen through a high voltage electrical discharge and the emitted ultraviolet light is being used to activate a photocatalyst. A thin film of nanostructured TiO2 with primary part...

  20. THE MAGNETIC CONNECTION BETWEEN THE CONVECTION ZONE AND CORONA IN THE QUIET SUN

    E-print Network

    Abbett, Bill

    THE MAGNETIC CONNECTION BETWEEN THE CONVECTION ZONE AND CORONA IN THE QUIET SUN W. P. Abbett Space connection between the convectively unstable layers below the visible surface of the Sun and the overlying application of this numerical model, we present a series of simulations of the quiet Sun in a domain

  1. Radial distribution of compressive waves in the solar corona revealed by Akatsuki radio occultation observations

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Mayu; Imamura, Takeshi; Ando, Hiroki; Toda, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Masato; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Shiota, Daikou; Isobe, Hiroaki; Asai, Ayumi; Häusler, Bernd; Pätzold, Martin; Nabatov, Alexander

    2014-12-10

    Radial variations of the amplitude and the energy flux of compressive waves in the solar corona were explored for the first time using a spacecraft radio occultation technique. By applying wavelet analysis to the frequency time series taken at heliocentric distances of 1.5-20.5 R{sub S} (solar radii), quasi-periodic density disturbances were detected at almost all distances. The period ranges from 100 to 2000 s. The amplitude of the fractional density fluctuation increases with distance and reaches ?30% around 5 R{sub S} , implying that nonlinearity of the wave field is potentially important. We further estimate the wave energy flux on the assumption that the observed periodical fluctuations are manifestations of acoustic waves. The energy flux increases with distance below ?6 R{sub S} and seems to saturate above this height, suggesting that the acoustic waves do not propagate from the low corona but are generated in the extended corona, probably through nonlinear dissipation of Alfvén waves. The compressive waves should eventually dissipate through shock generation to heat the corona.

  2. A Low-Frequency Radio Spectropolarimeter for Observations of the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, P.; Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Rajalingam, M.

    2015-09-01

    A new spectropolarimeter for dedicated ground-based observations of radio emission from the solar corona at low frequencies ({< }100 MHz) has recently been commissioned at the Gauribidanur Radio Observatory near Bengaluru, India. We report the observational setup, the calibration scheme, and first results.

  3. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline; Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward; Schuler, Timothy

    2014-05-20

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  4. IntrAst1 (Petrovay) The Sun THE CHROMOSPHERE AND THE SOLAR CORONA

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    : magnetic field can levitate dense plasma due to freezing in. Observed as dark filaments on the solar disk; short lived (minutes­hours) Quiescent prominence: floating persistently (days­weeks) in one place Cause mass ejections (CMEs) : plasma clouds ejected from the corona. Cause: photospheric motions slowly

  5. MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. I. FORCE-FREE MAGNETIC FIELDS B. Fornberg,2

    E-print Network

    Fornberg, Bengt

    MAGNETIC FIELD CONFINEMENT IN THE SOLAR CORONA. I. FORCE-FREE MAGNETIC FIELDS N. Flyer,1 B Axisymmetric force-free magnetic fields external to a unit sphere are studied as solutions to boundary value to the formation of an azimuthal rope of twisted magnetic field embedded within the global field, and to the energy

  6. Quantification of Corona Discharges on Nonceramic Insulators B. Pinnangudi, R. S. Gorur and A. J. Kroese *

    E-print Network

    , ? Infra-red (IR) thermography, ? Electric-field measurement, ? Visual observation, ? Daytime corona in future. Determination of surface temperature by IR thermography has yielded partial success. However in the surface temperature. The reliability of IR thermography is also reduced when performed under hot and sunny

  7. Stellar Flares Observed by LOFT: Implications for the Physics of Coronae

    E-print Network

    Stellar Flares Observed by LOFT: Implications for the Physics of Coronae and for the "Space Weather book (http://sci.esa.int/loft/53447-loft-yellow-book/) LOFT's primary instrument is the Large Area a host star on exoplanet systems, important for habitability concerns and space weather which other

  8. Discovery of Finely Structured Dynamic Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e. have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70 percent of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  9. The Substructure of the Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore calculate how the intensity scales from a low-resolution (AIA) pixels to high-resolution (Hi-C) pixels for both the dynamic events and "background" emission (meaning, the steady emission over the 5 minutes of data acquisition time). We find there is no evidence of substructure in the background corona; the intensity scales smoothly from low-resolution to high-resolution Hi-C pixels. In transient events, however, the intensity observed with Hi-C is, on average, 2.6 times larger than observed with AIA. This increase in intensity suggests that AIA is not resolving these events. This result suggests a finely structured dynamic corona embedded in a smoothly varying background.

  10. Are X-ray emitting coronae around supermassive black holes outflowing?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Teng; Wang, Jun-Xian; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Fei-Fan; Zhou, You-Yuan E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn

    2014-03-10

    Hard X-ray emission in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is believed to be produced via inverse Compton scattering by hot and compact coronae near the supermassive black hole. However, the origin and physical properties of the coronae, including geometry, kinematics, and dynamics, remain poorly known. In this work, taking [O IV] 25.89 ?m emission line as an isotropic indicator of AGNs' intrinsic luminosity, we compare the intrinsic corona X-ray emission between Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies, which are viewed at different inclinations according to the unification scheme. We compile a sample of 130 Compton-thin Seyfert galaxies with both [O IV] 25.89 ?m line luminosities measured with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer and X-ray spectra observed by XMM-Newton, Chandra, Suzaku, or Swift. Known radio-loud sources are excluded. We fit the X-ray spectra to obtain the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV continuum luminosities. We find that Seyfert 1 galaxies are intrinsically brighter in intrinsic 2-10 keV emission by a factor of 2.8{sub ?0.4}{sup +0.5} (2.2{sub ?0.3}{sup +0.9} in Swift Burst Alert Telescope 14-195 keV emission), compared with Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies. The Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies follow a statistically identical correlation between the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating that our absorption correction to the 2-10 keV flux is sufficient. The difference in X-ray emission between the two populations is thus unlikely to be due to X-ray absorption, and instead implies an intrinsic anisotropy in the corona X-ray emission. This striking anisotropy of X-ray emission can be explained by a bipolar outflowing corona with a bulk velocity of ?0.3-0.5c. This would provide a natural link between the so-called coronae and weak jets in these systems. Other consequences of outflowing coronae are also discussed.

  11. Technical tip: high-resolution isolation of nanoparticle-protein corona complexes from physiological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Silvio, Desirè; Rigby, Neil; Bajka, Balazs; Mayes, Andrew; Mackie, Alan; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca

    2015-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) in contact with biological fluids are generally coated with environmental proteins, forming a stronger layer of proteins around the NP surface called the hard corona. Protein corona complexes provide the biological identity of the NPs and their isolation and characterization are essential to understand their in vitro and in vivo behaviour. Here we present a one-step methodology to recover NPs from complex biological media in a stable non-aggregated form without affecting the structure or composition of the corona. This method allows NPs to be separated from complex fluids containing biological particulates and in a form suitable for use in further experiments. The study has been performed systematically comparing the new proposed methodology to standard approaches for a wide panel of NPs. NPs were first incubated in the biological fluid and successively recovered by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation in order to separate the NPs and their protein corona from the loosely bound proteins. The isolated NP-protein complexes were characterized by size and protein composition through Dynamic Light Scattering, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, SDS-PAGE and LC-MS. The protocol described is versatile and can be applied to diverse nanomaterials and complex fluids. It is shown to have higher resolution in separating the multiple protein corona complexes from a biological environment with a much lower impact on their in situ structure compared to conventional centrifugal approaches.Nanoparticles (NPs) in contact with biological fluids are generally coated with environmental proteins, forming a stronger layer of proteins around the NP surface called the hard corona. Protein corona complexes provide the biological identity of the NPs and their isolation and characterization are essential to understand their in vitro and in vivo behaviour. Here we present a one-step methodology to recover NPs from complex biological media in a stable non-aggregated form without affecting the structure or composition of the corona. This method allows NPs to be separated from complex fluids containing biological particulates and in a form suitable for use in further experiments. The study has been performed systematically comparing the new proposed methodology to standard approaches for a wide panel of NPs. NPs were first incubated in the biological fluid and successively recovered by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation in order to separate the NPs and their protein corona from the loosely bound proteins. The isolated NP-protein complexes were characterized by size and protein composition through Dynamic Light Scattering, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, SDS-PAGE and LC-MS. The protocol described is versatile and can be applied to diverse nanomaterials and complex fluids. It is shown to have higher resolution in separating the multiple protein corona complexes from a biological environment with a much lower impact on their in situ structure compared to conventional centrifugal approaches. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02618k

  12. Unravelling DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Rs; Danilowicz, C.

    2004-04-01

    The forces involved in the biology of life are carefully balanced between stopping thermal fluctuations ripping our DNA apart and having bonds weak enough to allow enzymes to function. The application of recently developed techniques for measuring piconewton forces and imaging at the nanometre scale on a molecule-by-molecule basis has dramatically increased the impact of single-molecule biophysics. This article describes the most commonly used techniques for imaging and manipulating single biomolecules. Using these techniques, the mechanical properties of DNA can be investigated, for example through measurements of the forces required to stretch and unzip the DNA double helix. These properties determine the ease with which DNA can be folded into the cell nucleus and the size and complexity of the accompanying cellular machinery. Part of this cellular machinery is enzymes, which manipulate, repair and transcribe the DNA helix. Enzymatic function is increasingly being investigated at the single molecule level to give better understanding of the forces and processes involved in the genetic cycle. One of the challenges is to transfer this understanding of single molecules into living systems. Already there have been some notable successes, such as the development of techniques for gene expression through the application of mechanical forces to cells, and the imaging and control of viral infection of a cell. This understanding and control of DNA has also been used to design molecules, which can self-assemble into a range of structures.

  13. Magnetic Untwisting in Jets that Go into the Outer Solar Corona in Polar Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David

    2014-06-01

    We present results from a study of 14 jets that were observed in SDO/AIA EUV movies to erupt in the Sun’s polar coronal holes. These jets were similar to the many other jets that erupt in coronal holes, but reached higher than the vast majority, high enough to be observed in the outer corona beyond 2 solar radii from Sun center by the SOHO/LASCO/C2 coronagraph. We illustrate the characteristic structure and motion of these high-reaching jets by showing observations of two representative jets. We find that (1) the speed of the jet front from the base of the corona out to 2-3 solar radii is typically several times the sound speed in jets in coronal holes, (2) each high-reaching jet displays unusually large rotation about its axis (spin) as it erupts, and (3) in the outer corona, many jets display lateral swaying and bending of the jet axis with an amplitude of a few degrees and a period of order 1 hour. From these observations we infer that these jets are magnetically driven, propose that the driver is a magnetic-untwisting wave that is basically a large-amplitude (non-linear) torsional Alfven wave that is put into the open magnetic field in the jet by interchange reconnection as the jet erupts, and estimate that the magnetic-untwisting wave loses most of its energy before reaching the outer corona. These observations of high-reaching coronal jets suggest that the torsional magnetic waves observed in Type-II spicules can similarly dissipate in the corona and thereby power much of the coronal heating in coronal holes and quiet regions. This work is funded by the NASA/SMD Heliophysics Division’s Living With a Star Targeted Research & Technology Program.

  14. Magnetic Untwisting in Solar Jets that Go into the Outer Corona in Polar Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2015-06-01

    We study 14 large solar jets observed in polar coronal holes. In EUV movies from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), each jet appears similar to most X-ray jets and EUV jets that erupt in coronal holes; but each is exceptional in that it goes higher than most, so high that it is observed in the outer corona beyond 2.2 RSun in images from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO)/C2 coronagraph. From AIA He ii 304 Å movies and LASCO/C2 running-difference images of these high-reaching jets, we find: (1) the front of the jet transits the corona below 2.2 RSun at a speed typically several times the sound speed; (2) each jet displays an exceptionally large amount of spin as it erupts; (3) in the outer corona, most of the jets display measureable swaying and bending of a few degrees in amplitude; in three jets the swaying is discernibly oscillatory with a period of order 1 hr. These characteristics suggest that the driver in these jets is a magnetic-untwisting wave that is basically a large-amplitude (i.e., nonlinear) torsional Alfvén wave that is put into the reconnected open field in the jet by interchange reconnection as the jet erupts. From the measured spinning and swaying, we estimate that the magnetic-untwisting wave loses most of its energy in the inner corona below 2.2 RSun. We point out that the torsional waves observed in Type-II spicules might dissipate in the corona in the same way as the magnetic-untwisting waves in our big jets, and thereby power much of the coronal heating in coronal holes.

  15. Magnetic Untwisting in Solar Jets that Go into the Outer Corona in Polar Coronal Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from 14 exceptionally high-reaching large solar jets observed in the polar coronal holes. EUV movies from SDO/AIA show that each jet is similar to many other similar-size and smaller jets that erupt in coronal holes, but each is exceptional in that it goes higher than most other jets, so high that it is observed in the outer corona beyond 2.2 R(sub Sun) in images from the SOHO/LASCO/C2 coronagraph. For these high-reaching jets, we find: (1) the front of the jet transits the corona below 2.2 R(sub Sun) at a speed typically several times the sound speed; (2) each jet displays an exceptionally large amount of spin as it erupts; (3) in the outer corona, most jets display oscillatory swaying having an amplitude of a few degrees and a period of order 1 hour. We conclude that these jets are magnetically driven, propose that the driver is a magnetic-untwisting wave that is grossly a large-amplitude (i.e., nonlinear) torsional Alfven wave that is put into the reconnected open magnetic field in the jet by interchange reconnection as the jet erupts, and estimate from the measured spinning and swaying that the magnetic-untwisting wave loses most of its energy in the inner corona below 2.2 R(sub Sun). From these results for these big jets, we reason that the torsional magnetic waves observed in Type-II spicules should dissipate in the corona in the same way and could thereby power much of the coronal heating in coronal holes.

  16. Influence of the airflow speed along transmission lines on the DC corona discharge loss, using finite element approach

    SciTech Connect

    Shemshadi, A.; Akbari, A.; Niayesh, K.

    2012-07-15

    Corona discharge is of great interest from the physical point of view and due to its numerous practical applications in industry and especially one of the most important sources of loss in the high voltage transmission lines. This paper provides guidelines for the amount of electric loss caused by corona phenomenon occurred around a DC high voltage wire placed between two flat plates and influence of wind speed rate on the amount of corona loss using COMSOL Multiphysics. So electric potential distribution patterns and charge density diffusion around the wire are studied in this article.

  17. Grantee Spotlight: Veena Rao, Ph.D. - Unraveling the Mysteries of BRCA1 in African American Women

    Cancer.gov

    Unraveling the mysteries of the BRCA1 gene and its role in breast and ovarian cancer in diverse populations has guided the research of Dr. Veena N. Rao, a CRCHD PACHE U54 grantee. Her other passion is training diverse scholars in cancer health disparities research.

  18. Unraveling the patterns of late Holocene debris-flow activity on a cone in the Swiss Alps: Chronology, environment

    E-print Network

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    Unraveling the patterns of late Holocene debris-flow activity on a cone in the Swiss Alps on the forested cone of the Ritigraben torrent (Valais, Swiss Alps) was assessed from growth disturbances summer in the Swiss Alps. In contrast, very low activity is observed for the last 10-yr period (1996

  19. HiRISE Mission to Address the Dynamical Chromosphere-Corona Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, Luc; Lamy, Philippe; von Fay-Siebenburgen (Erdélyi), Robert

    Several ground facilities and space missions are currently dedicated to the study of the Sun at high resolution and of the solar corona in particular. However, and despite significant progress with the advent of space missions and UV, EUV and XUV direct observations of the hot chro-mosphere and million degrees coronal plasma, much is yet to be achieved in the understanding of these high temperatures, fine dissipative structures and of the coronal heating in general. Recent missions have shown the definite role of waves and of the magnetic field deep in the inner corona, at the chromosphere-corona interface, where dramatic changes occur. The dynamics of the chromosphere and corona is controlled by the emerging magnetic field, guided by the coronal magnetic field. Accordingly, the direct measurement of the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields is of prime importance. The solar corona consists of many thin loops or threads with the plasmas brightening and fading independently. The dynamics in each thread is believed to be related to the formation of filaments, each one being dynamic, in a non-equilibrium state. The mechanism sustaining that dynamics, oscillations or waves (Alfvén or MHD?), require both very high-cadence, multi-spectral observations, and high resolution. This is foreseen in the future Space Mission HiRISE, the ultimate new generation ultrahigh resolution, interferomet-ric and coronagraphic, Solar Physics Mission, proposed for ESA Cosmic Vision (pre-selected in 2007, and under preparation for 2012 second call). HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging and Spectroscopy Explorer), at the L1 Lagrangian point, provides meter class FUV imaging and spectro-imaging, EUV and XUV imaging and spectroscopy, and ultimate coronagraphy by a remote external occulter (satellites in formation flying 280 m apart) allowing to characterize temperature, densities and velocities in the solar upper chromosphere, transition zone and inner corona with, in particular, 2D very high resolution multi-spectral imaging-spectroscopy, direct coronal magnetic field measurement: a unique set of tools to understand the structuration and onset of coronal heating. We give a detail account of the proposed mission profile, major scien-tific objectives and model payload of HiRISE, a natural complement to the Solar Probe type missions lacking duty cycle, high resolution, spatial, spectral and temporal multi-temperature diagnostics and full coronal magnetometry.

  20. Unraveling the effect of polymer dots doping in inverted low bandgap organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Liu, Chunyu; Li, Jinfeng; He, Yeyuan; Li, Zhiqi; Li, Hao; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2015-06-28

    In this study, molecular doping with polymer dots was designed to unravel its effect on the photoconductivity in organic solar cells. The photocurrent in organic solar cells exhibited a considerable increase under optimal doping concentration, leading to an ultimate enhancement of power conversion efficiency from 2.30% to 3.64%. This can be attributed primarily to the improvement of the initial boost in charge carriers due to the background carriers induced by the polymer dots and increased tail absorption by the active layer. Based on single carrier device and impedance measurements, polymer dopant can efficiently decrease charge recombination and improve charge carriers mobilities. The obtained achievements pave an approach of molecular doping in affecting the operation of organic solar cells. PMID:26029883