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1

Design and chemical synthesis of iodine-containing molecules for application to solar-pumped I* lasers. Semiannual progress report, 1 January30 June 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and chemical synthesis of new media for solar pumped iodine molecule lasers are explored. In an effort to prepare an iodo fluorocarbon compound absorbing strongly at 300 nm or above, the synthesis of perfluoro allylic iodides was investigated. These compounds furnish especially stable allylic radicals upon photodissociation. The desired red shift is anticipated in the absorption maximum could

Shiner

1986-01-01

2

Solar pumped, alkali vapor laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power lasers based in space have been considered as sources for power transmission, laser propulsion, materials processing and space defense. The feasibility of such systems is based on the cost per unit power delivered, with detailed studies indicating that light weight has a greater impact on cost than laser efficiency. Solar radiation is a natural source of power for these devices and two methods for conversion of solar radiation to laser radiation can be considered. An indirectly solar pumped laser would first convert the solar radiation to electricity or longer wavelength blackbody radiation which is then used to power the laser. A directly longer wavelength blackbody radiation which is then used to power the laser. A directly pumped solar laser would utilize a portion of te solar spectrum to directly pump the laser medium, eliminating the intervening step and substantially reducing the systems weight and complexity. Detailed comparisons showed a directly pumped laser with an overall efficiency of only 1.5 percent can compete with an indirectly energized solar laser with an overall efficiency of ten percent. With this in mind, a concept for a directly solar pumped laser was developed based on an alkali vapor (sodium) as the laser medium.

Ham, David; Defaccio, Mark A.

1987-09-01

3

Solar Pumped Laser Microthruster  

SciTech Connect

The development of microsatellites requires the development of engines to modify their orbit. It is natural to use solar energy to drive such engines. For an unlimited energy source the optimal thruster must use a minimal amount of expendable material to minimize launch costs. This requires the ejected material to have the maximal velocity and, hence, the ejected atoms must be as light as possible and be ejected by as high an energy density source as possible. Such a propulsion can be induced by pulses from an ultra-short laser. The ultra-short laser provides the high-energy concentration and high-ejected velocity. We suggest a microthruster system comprised of an inflatable solar concentrator, a solar panel, and a diode-pumped fiber laser. We will describe the system design and give weight estimates.

Rubenchik, A. M.; Beach, R.; Dawson, J.; Siders, C. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)

2010-10-08

4

Solar-pumped solid state laser program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar pumped lasers are candidates for wireless power transmission in space, free space optical communication and photochemistry. The present paper describes the progress on a joint project to develop solar pumped lasers, focusing on the temporal and spectral shaping of the laser beam, which comply with those applications. The program emphasizes the design, fabrication and testing of laser rods, passive

Mordechai Lando; Jacob A. Kagan; Yehoshua Shimony; Yehoshua Y. Kalisky; Yoram Noter; Amnon Yogev; Stanley R. Rotman; Zamik Rosenwaks

1997-01-01

5

Solar-pumped solid-state lasers  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented for direct solar pumping of a ND:YAG rod laser. Stable CW output of more than 60 W was obtained with a slope efficiency exceeding 2 percent. A compound parabolic concentrator, designed to increase the solar radiation coupled into the laser rod, was used in these experiments. The results are consistent with predictions based on a simple solar-pumped laser model, which is also presented. Using this model, it is shown that existing laser materials with broad-band absorption characteristics (e.g., alexandrite and Nd:Cr:GSGG) have a potential for better than 10 percent overall conversion efficiency when solar pumped.

Weksler, M.; Shwartz, J.

1988-06-01

6

Solar-pumped dimmer gas lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many attempts were made in the past to convert Solar light to Laser light. To date, only two systems were demonstrated successfully: Photo-Dissociation Lasers and Solid State Solar lasers. The absorption spectrum of many dimmer molecules posses a broad structural spectrum overlapping with the solar spectrum and can be good candidates for direct solar pumping. In the gas phase, the

Idit L. Pe'Er; Irina Vishnevetsky; Nir Naftali; Amnon Yogev

1999-01-01

7

Solar Pumped, Alkali Vapor Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High power lasers based in space have been considered as sources for power transmission, laser propulsion, materials processing and space defense. The feasibility of such systems is based on the cost per unit power delivered, with detailed studies indicat...

D. Ham M. A. DeFaccio

1987-01-01

8

Solar pumped, alkali vapor laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power lasers based in space have been considered as sources for power transmission, laser propulsion, materials processing and space defense. The feasibility of such systems is based on the cost per unit power delivered, with detailed studies indicating that light weight has a greater impact on cost than laser efficiency. Solar radiation is a natural source of power for

David Ham; Mark A. Defaccio

1987-01-01

9

Solar-pumped CO laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of converting thermal radiation directly into laser radiation at a wavelength of about 5 micrometers. The working fluid for the laser operation is a mixture of carbon monoxide and argon. The source of thermal radiation is assumed to be a solar oven or electrical oven operating in the range of 2000 to 2500 K. The

Charles E. Treanor

1986-01-01

10

Solar-pumped CO laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a method of converting thermal radiation directly into laser radiation at a wavelength of about 5 micrometers. The working fluid for the laser operation is a mixture of carbon monoxide and argon. The source of thermal radiation is assumed to be a solar oven or electrical oven operating in the range of 2000 to 2500 K. The use of carbon monoxide as the lasing material presents the advantage that the absorbing lines can be pressure broadened to permit efficient absorption of the thermal radiation without unacceptable increases in vibrational relaxation. Estimates of the efficiency, size, and power loading of such a laser are discussed.

Treanor, Charles E.

11

Scaling studies of solar pumped lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A progress report of scaling studies of solar pumped lasers is presented. Conversion of blackbody radiation into laser light has been demonstrated in this study. Parametric studies of the variation of laser mixture composition and laser gas temperature were carried out for CO2 and N2O gases. Theoretical analysis and modeling of the system have been performed. Reasonable agreement between predictions in the parameter variation and the experimental results have been obtained. Almost 200 mW of laser output at 10.6 micron was achieved by placing a small sapphire laser tube inside an oven at 1500 K the tube was filled with CO2 laser gas mixture and cooled by longitudinal nitrogen gas flow.

Christiansen, W. H.; Chang, J.

1985-08-01

12

Second-harmonic generation in solar-pumped laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Solar-pumped lasers are candidates for wireless power transmission in space, free space optical communication, and photochemistry. The broad variety of applications necessitates a spectral coverage between the UV and the IR. Here, we report on second-harmonic generation (SHG) of a solar-pumped laser using a type II KTP crystal in an intracavity Q-switched resonator. Q-switching was obtained

M. Lando; Y. Shimony; R. M. J. Benmair; I. Vishnevetsky; A. Yogev

1998-01-01

13

Design of ultrahigh brightness solar-pumped disk laser.  

PubMed

To significantly improve the solar-pumped laser beam brightness, a multi-Fresnel lens scheme is proposed for side-pumping either a single-crystal Nd:YAG or a core-doped ceramic Sm(3+) Nd:YAG disk. Optimum laser system parameters are found through ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis. An ultrahigh laser beam figure of merit B of 53 W is numerically calculated, corresponding to a significant enhancement of more than 180 times over the previous record. 17.7 W/m(2) collection efficiency is also numerically attained. The strong thermal effects that have hampered present-day rod-type solar-pumped lasers can also be largely alleviated. PMID:22968278

Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana

2012-09-10

14

Efficiency and threshold pump intensity of CW solar-pumped solid-state lasers  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the efficiencies and threshold pump intensities of various solid-state laser materials that have been estimated to compare their performance characteristics as direct solar-pumped CW lasers. Among the laser materials evaluated in this research, alexandrite has the highest slope efficiency of about 12.6%; however, it does not seem to be practical for solar-pumped laser application because of its high threshold pump intensity. Cr:Nd:GSGG is the most promising for solar-pumped lasing. Its threshold pump intensity is about 100 air-mass-zero (AMO) solar constants and its slope efficiency is about 12% when thermal deformation is completely prevented.

Hwang, I.H. (Hampton Univ., VA (United States). Dept. of Physics); Lee, J.H. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center)

1991-09-01

15

Solar-pumped, alkali-vapor laser. Final report, 1 September 1984-31 August 1986  

SciTech Connect

High-power lasers based in space have been considered as sources for power transmission, laser propulsion, materials processing, and space defense. The feasibility of such systems is based on the cost per unit power delivered, with detailed studies indicating that light weight has a greater impact on cost than laser efficiency. Solar radiation is a natural source of power for these devices and two methods for conversion of solar radiation to laser radiation can be considered. An indirectly solar-pumped laser would first convert the solar radiation to electricity or longer-wavelength blackbody radiation which is then used to power the laser. A directly longer wavelength blackbody radiation which is then used to power the laser. A directly pumped solar laser would utilize a portion of the solar spectrum to directly pump the laser medium, eliminating the intervening step and substantially reducing the systems weight and complexity. Detailed comparisons showed a directly pumped laser with an overall efficiency of only 1.5% can compete with an indirectly energized solar laser with an overall efficiency of 10%. With this in mind, a concept for a directly solar-pumped laser was developed based on an alkali vapor (sodium) as the laser medium.

Ham, D.; DeFaccio, M.A.

1987-09-04

16

Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens.  

PubMed

A solar-pumped 100 W class laser that features high efficiency and low cost owing to the use of a Fresnel lens and a chromium codoped neodymium YAG ceramic laser medium was developed. A laser output of about 80 W was achieved with combination of a 4 m(2) Fresnel lens and a pumping cavity as a secondary power concentrator. This output corresponds to 4.3% of conversion efficiency from solar power into laser, and the maximum output from a unit area of Fresnel lens was 20 W/m(2), which is 2.8 times larger than previous results with mirror-type concentrator. PMID:19148246

Ohkubo, Tomomasa; Yabe, Takashi; Yoshida, Kunio; Uchida, Shigeaki; Funatsu, Takayuki; Bagheri, Behgol; Oishi, Takehiro; Daito, Kazuya; Ishioka, Manabu; Nakayama, Yuichirou; Yasunaga, Norihito; Kido, Kouichirou; Sato, Yuji; Baasandash, Choijil; Kato, Kiyoshi; Yanagitani, Takagimi; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

2009-01-15

17

Performance of passive Q-switched, solar-pumped, high-power Nd:YAG lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Q-switched, solar-pumped, high power Nd:YAG lasers are attractive for a variety of applications requiring high instantaneous peak power density. The Q-switching can be obtained by an acousto-optic, electro-optic or passive device. Passive Q-switching seems an excellent choice for space as well as for other applications since it neither requires an external driver nor an electrical power supply. In recent years

Yoram Noter; Nir Naftali; Idit Pe'Er; Amnon Yogev; Mordechai Lando; Yehoshua Shimony

1997-01-01

18

Passive Q switching of a solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser.  

PubMed

Passive Q switching is a preferable choice for switching the Q factor of a solar-pumped laser because it requires neither a driver nor an electrical power supply. The superior thermal characteristics and durability of Cr(4+):YAG single crystals as passive Q switches for lamp and diode-pumped high-power lasers has been demonstrated. Here we report on an average power of 37 W and a switching efficiency of 80% obtained by use of a solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser Q switched by a Cr(4+):YAG saturable absorber. Concentration of the pumping solar energy on the laser crystal was obtained with a three-stage concentrator, composed of 12 heliostats, a three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and a two-dimensional CPC. The water-cooled passive Q switch also served as the laser rear mirror. Repetition rates of as much as 50 kHz, at pulse durations between 190 and 310 ns (FWHM) were achieved. From the experimental results, the saturated single-pass power absorption of the Cr(4+):YAG device was estimated as 3 ? 1%. PMID:18345094

Lando, M; Shimony, Y; Noter, Y; Benmair, R M; Yogev, A

2000-04-20

19

Passive Q Switching of a Solar-Pumped Nd:YAG Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive Q switching is a preferable choice for switching the Q factor of a solar-pumped laser because it requires neither a driver nor an electrical power supply. The superior thermal characteristics and durability of Cr 4 :YAG single crystals as passive Q switches for lamp and diode-pumped high-power lasers has been demonstrated. Here we report on an average power of 37 W and a switching efficiency of 80% obtained by use of a solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser Q switched by a Cr 4 :YAG saturable absorber. Concentration of the pumping solar energy on the laser crystal was obtained with a three-stage concentrator, composed of 12 heliostats, a three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and a two-dimensional CPC. The water-cooled passive Q switch also served as the laser rear mirror. Repetition rates of as much as 50 kHz, at pulse durations between 190 and 310 ns (FWHM) were achieved. From the experimental results, the saturated single-pass power absorption of the Cr 4 :YAG device was estimated as 3 1%.

Lando, Mordechai; Shimony, Yehoshua; Noter, Yoram; Benmair, Roth M. J.; Yogev, Amnon

2000-04-01

20

Solar-Pumped TEM00 Mode Nd:YAG laser.  

PubMed

Here we show a significant advance in solar-pumped laser beam brightness by utilizing a 1.0 m diameter Fresnel lens and a 3 mm diameter Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. The incoming solar radiation is firstly focused by the Fresnel lens on a solar tracker. A large aspheric lens and a 2D-CPC concentrator are then combined to further compress the concentrated solar radiation along the thin laser rod within a V-shaped pumping cavity. 2.3 W cw TEM00 (M2 ? 1.1) solar laser power is finally produced, attaining 1.9 W laser beam brightness figure of merit, which is 6.6 times higher than the previous record. For multimode operation, 8.1 W cw laser power is produced, corresponding to 143% enhancement in collection efficiency. PMID:24150353

Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana

2013-10-21

21

Thermal analysis in a solar pumped laser for Mg energy cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal analysis of a high-power cw solar-pumped laser under development as a magnesium energy cycle driver has been conducted experimentally and analytically. The laser system is equipped with a Fresnel lens and a cone-shaped secondary mirror chamber (SMC). The SMC realizes a hybrid-pumping scheme combining axial- and side-pumping configurations to enhance solar light absorption to a rod-shaped laser medium. A non-uniform temperature profile was obtained during experiments due to combination of volumetric heating and surface cooling, which leads to a nonuniform variation of index of refraction in the laser medium. The thermal lensing and thermal stress-induced birefringence are analyzed.

Bagheri, Behgol; Uchidat, Shgeaki

2012-10-01

22

Performance of passive Q-switched, solar-pumped, high-power Nd:YAG lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Q-switched, solar-pumped, high power Nd:YAG lasers are attractive for a variety of applications requiring high instantaneous peak power density. The Q-switching can be obtained by an acousto-optic, electro-optic or passive device. Passive Q-switching seems an excellent choice for space as well as for other applications since it neither requires an external driver nor an electrical power supply. In recent years Cr+4:YAG single crystals were extensively used as passive Q-switches for flashlamp-pumped high power Nd:YAG lasers, demonstrating their superior thermal superior thermal characteristics and durability. In this work we report the first operation of passive Q- switched, solar-pumped, high power Nd:YAG lasers. The concentrated solar energy for he optical pumping of the laser was obtained by a 3-stage combination of imaging and non-imaging optics. It included: i) Weizmann Institute solar tower heliostats, ii) 3D compound parabolic concentrator, and iii) 2D compound parabolic concentrator in which the laser rod was placed. 72 mm long laser rods with either 3 mm or 4 mm diameter were used. The passive Q-switch was made from a Cr$=+4):YAG single crystal having a low- intensity transmission of 72 percent at 1.06 (mu) . Its rear surface was coated by a high reflectivity coating, serving as the rear mirror of the cavity. Output coupling mirrors with various reflectivities were used. The passive Q-switch demonstrated excellent durability and reliability during all the experiments. Repetition rates of 6-39 kHz were measured, showing higher repetition rates at higher laser power levels. The pulses demonstrated shorter full width at half maximum (FWHM) time for higher laser power elves, and the FWHM time range was 190-310 nsec. The maximal measured average power was 14 W. Thermal lensing was measured as a function of the absorbed solar power in the laser rod. It is estimated that laser peak power densities of approximately 100 kW/cm2 were achieved in the experiments. It is believed that near-future modifications may improve this value appreciably.

Noter, Yoram; Naftali, Nir; Pe'Er, Idit; Yogev, Amnon; Lando, Mordechai; Shimony, Yehoshua

1997-09-01

23

Feasibility study of a conical-toroidal mirror resonator for solar-pumped thin-disk lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical resonator that is suited to a large-scale, space-based solar-pumped solid-state lasers is proposed, and it is studied by numerical simulations. The resonator consists of a conical-toroidal reflector element on which a doughnut-shaped thin-disk active medium is set, and an output coupler. Unlike the ordinary thin-disk lasers, the optical ray of the proposed resonator passes the medium radially. With

M. Endo

2007-01-01

24

Spectroscopic properties of Nd, Er codoped glasses for solar pumped fiber lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption and fluorescence characteristics of Er doped and Nd, Er codoped fluoride glasses were investigated under illumination of the simulated sunlight, laser or a monochromatic light filtered from a Xe lamp. Er was used as a sensitizing agent enhancing the energy conversion and the emission efficiency of Nd ions in fluoride glass intended for the sunlight excitation. Er doped fluoride glasses showed four emission peaks under simulated sunlight illumination at the wavelengths of 550, 848, 980, and 1530 nm attributed to the electronic transitions of Er3+ ions. The quantum efficiency of the emission from all of the bands had a peak at x = 0.5 mol. % Er and with the maximum of 73 %. The intensity of each emission band showed different ratios for various ErF3 contents. It is expected that concentration quenching of 4S3/2 state is easy to occur with high concentration of ErF3 compared to the other states. The energy transfer from Er to Nd was studied using a monochromatic light illumination which is absorbed by Er3+ ions only. Strong contribution of Er absorption to the 1.05 ?m emission of Nd, Er co-doped fluoride glass was observed. Er was confirmed as a suitable sensitizer for the enhanced energy conversion and emission efficiency of Nd ions in ZBLAN glasses which are proposed for highly efficient solar pumped fiber lasers.

Mizuno, Shintaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Nasu, Hiroyuki; Hughes, Mark A.; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

2011-02-01

25

The atomic iodine photodissociation laser  

SciTech Connect

After almost two decades of laboratory research and development, the iodine photodissociation laser is now a developed system with industrial and scientific applications. This article reviews the progress of the iodine laser, the basic configuration and performance of a flashlamp-pumped system, and several applications areas. The major impetus behind the development of the iodine photodissociation laser (IPL) has been the requirement for a high-power, short-pulse, terawatt laser for laser fusion studies.

Bannister, J.J.; King, T.A.

1984-08-01

26

Solar-pumped, alkali-vapor laser. Final report, 1 September 1984-31 August 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-power lasers based in space have been considered as sources for power transmission, laser propulsion, materials processing, and space defense. The feasibility of such systems is based on the cost per unit power delivered, with detailed studies indicating that light weight has a greater impact on cost than laser efficiency. Solar radiation is a natural source of power for these

D. Ham; M. A. DeFaccio

1987-01-01

27

Scalable chemical oxygen - iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

The problem of scaling chemical oxygen - iodine lasers (COILs) is discussed. The results of experimental study of a twisted-aerosol singlet oxygen generator meeting the COIL scalability requirements are presented. The energy characteristics of a supersonic COIL with singlet oxygen and iodine mixing in parallel flows are also experimentally studied. The output power of {approx}7.5 kW, corresponding to a specific power of 230 W cm{sup -2}, is achieved. The maximum chemical efficiency of the COIL is {approx}30%.

Adamenkov, A A; Bakshin, V V; Vyskubenko, B A; Efremov, V I; Il'in, S P; Ilyushin, Yurii N; Kolobyanin, Yu V; Kudryashov, E A; Troshkin, M V [Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

2011-12-31

28

Spectroscopic properties of Nd, Er codoped glasses for solar pumped fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption and fluorescence characteristics of Er doped and Nd, Er codoped fluoride glasses were investigated under illumination of the simulated sunlight, laser or a monochromatic light filtered from a Xe lamp. Er was used as a sensitizing agent enhancing the energy conversion and the emission efficiency of Nd ions in fluoride glass intended for the sunlight excitation. Er doped

Shintaro Mizuno; Hiroshi Ito; Kazuo Hasegawa; Hiroyuki Kawai; Hiroyuki Nasu; Mark A. Hughes; Takenobu Suzuki; Yasutake Ohishi

2011-01-01

29

Design of a formation of solar pumped lasers for asteroid deflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design of a multi-spacecraft system for the deflection of asteroids. Each spacecraft is equipped with a fibre laser and a solar concentrator. The laser induces the sublimation of a portion of the surface of the asteroid, and the resultant jet of gas and debris thrusts the asteroid off its natural course. The main idea is to have a formation of spacecraft flying in the proximity of the asteroid with all the spacecraft beaming to the same location to achieve the required deflection thrust. The paper presents the design of the formation orbits and the multi-objective optimisation of the formation in order to minimise the total mass in space and maximise the deflection of the asteroid. The paper demonstrates how significant deflections can be obtained with relatively small sized, easy-to-control spacecraft.

Vasile, Massimiliano; Maddock, Christie Alisa

2012-10-01

30

Excitation wavelength dependence of quantum efficiencies of Nd-doped glasses for solar pumped fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum efficiencies of the emission from the 4F3\\/2(R) level of Nd doped in tellurite glass were measured with an integrating sphere using natural sunlight(?ns), simulated sunlight (?ns), and 808 nm laser light (?808), respectively. The radiative quantum efficiency (?r) was estimated from the fluorescence lifetime (tauf) and the radiative lifetime calculated by Judd-Ofelt analysis (taur). ?r was almost 100

Takenobu Suzuki; Hiroyuki Kawai; Hiroyuki Nasu; Mark Hughes; Shintaro Mizuno; Kazuo Hasegawa; Hiroshi Ito; Yasutake Ohishi

2010-01-01

31

Quantum efficiency measurements on Nd-doped glasses for solar pumped lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nd-doped SiO2B2O3Na2OAl2O3CaOZrO2 glasses were prepared and optical properties such as absorption, lifetime and quantum efficiencies (QEs) of the emission were characterized. QE measurement system with natural sunlight as an excitation source was constructed. The radiative QE (?r) obtained from the lifetime by JuddOfelt analysis, directly measured QEs using natural sunlight (?ns), simulated sunlight (?ss) and an 800nm laser (?800) were

Takenobu Suzuki; Hiroyuki Nasu; Mark Hughes; Shintaro Mizuno; Kazuo Hasegawa; Hiroshi Ito; Yasutake Ohishi

2010-01-01

32

Development of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser with production of atomic iodine in a chemical reaction  

SciTech Connect

The alternative method of atomic iodine generation for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (COIL) in chemical reactions with gaseous reactants is investigated experimentally. The influence of the configuration of iodine atom injection into the laser cavity on the efficiency of the atomic iodine generation and small-signal gain is studied. (lasers)

Censky, M; Spalek, O; Jirasek, V; Kodymova, J [Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Jakubec, I [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Czech Academy of Sciences, Rez (Czech Republic)

2009-11-30

33

Micro Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been previously proposed to improve the performance and compactness of chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COIL) through the replacement of some of their macroscale components with arrays of higher-performing microscale (MEMS) components. In this progra...

C. Livermore-Clifford

2007-01-01

34

Supersonic cw chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Supersonic continuous wave (cw) chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COIL) have been studied for many years. By using the rotating disk O\\/sub 2\\/ generator and using supersonic gas flow instead of subsonic gas flow in the laser cavity, the laser output power has been improved. We got 5-kW laser output power with Cl flow rate at 0.3 moles\\/second.

Li Bin; Cheng Fang; Sang Feng Ting; Zhou Da Zheng; Zhuang Qi; Yang Bo Ling

1996-01-01

35

New active substances for photodissociation iodine lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following fluorinated iodides were tested as iodine-laser active media: C4F9I, C5F11I, CF3OCF2CF2I, and C3F7OCF2CF2I. A stimulated emission output energy of 80-85 mJ/cm3 was obtained from perfluorobutyl iodide (without an inert dilutent). This was comparable with the output achieved from n- and iso-perfluoropropyl iodides which are the most efficient active substances for iodine lasers. The lasing quenching mechanism was analyzed theoretically for a C4F9I laser.

Skorobogatov, German A.; Maksimov, B. N.; Seleznev, V. G.; Slesar', O. N.; Kostyreva, L. N.

1982-02-01

36

New active substances for photodissociation iodine lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following fluorinated iodides were tested as iodine-laser active media: C4F9I, C5F11I, CF3OCF2CF2I, and C3F7OCF2CF2I. A stimulated emission output energy of 80-85 mJ/cu cm was obtained from perfluorobutyl iodide (without an inert dilutent). This was comparable with the output achieved from n- and isoperfluoropropyl iodides which are the most efficient active substances for iodine lasers. The lasing quenching mechanism was analyzed theoretically for a C4F9I laser.

Skorobogatov, G. A.; Maksimov, B. N.; Seleznev, V. G.; Slesar, O. N.; Torbin, N. D.; Kostyreva, L. N.

1982-02-01

37

Iodine photodissociation laser system Perun II  

Microsoft Academic Search

A construction and exploitation of a medium size iodine photodissociation laser system Perun II is reported. This laser produced pulses of infrared light (?=1.315m) up to 50 J in energy and 300 ps in duration. The diameter of the beam is 82 mm. The beam divergence is about 410-4 rad. The laser beam can be focused in a focal spot

M. Chvojka; B. Krlikov; J. Krsa; E. Krousk; L. Lska; K. Masek; O. Renner; K. Rohlena; J. Skla; O. tirand; P. Trenda

1992-01-01

38

On kinetics of the photodissociation iodine laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of iodine laser amplifiers is examined by solving the time evolution equations of chemical kinetics during optical pumping. The pumping radiation intensity is modelled by a black body of the temperature varying in time (corresponding to the flash lamp pulse). A brief comparison is made of pumping effects by long and short light pulses. Pumping by the long

K. Rohlena; K. Masek; J. Kodymova; E. G. Balabanov; I. Pauli?ka; B. Stefanov

1985-01-01

39

Space interferometry application of laser frequency stabilization with molecular iodine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of planned space interferometry missions, including the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational wave detector, require a laser system with high-frequency stability over long time scales. A 1064 nm wavelength nonplanar ring oscillator (NPRO) laser stabilized to a resonant transition in molecular iodine is suitable for these missions, providing high-frequency stability at an absolute reference frequency. The iodine

Volker Leonhardt; Jordan B. Camp

2006-01-01

40

Chemical kinetics of discharge-driven oxygen-iodine lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen-iodine lasers that utilize electrical discharges to produce O2(a1Delta) are currently being developed. The discharge generators differ from those used in chemical oxygen-iodine lasers in that they produce significant amounts of atomic oxygen and traces of ozone. As a consequence of these differences, the chemical kinetics of the discharge laser are markedly different from those of a conventional chemical oxygen-iodine

Valeriy N. Azyazov; Ivan O. Antonov; Michael C. Heaven

2007-01-01

41

Phillips Laboratory COIL technology overview. [Chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic technology and performance of the chemically dumped oxygen-iodine laser is reviewed. The performance is discussed in terms of the operation of the chemical oxygen generator, the kinetics of energy transfer from oxygen to iodine, and the extraction of power by the optical resonator. Techniques for generation of excited oxygen and iodine are reviewed. In addition advanced concepts for

K. A. Truesdell; S. E. Lamberson; G. D. Hager

1992-01-01

42

Chemical oxygen-iodine laser with atomic iodine generated in a separate reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) with a chemical method of atomic iodine generation was studied. Two methods of atomic iodine generation were proposed and developed. They are based on fast reactions of gaseous hydrogen iodide with chemically produced chlorine or fluorine atoms. Atomic iodine formation via Cl atoms we studied earlier by mixing of reaction gases directly in the primary O2(1?g) flow in COIL. A revealed oxidation of HI by singlet oxygen and the O2(1?g) quenching by some reaction product, however, reduced the attainable laser gain. This problem could be avoided by atomic iodine generation in separate reactors with following injection of atomic iodine into the primary O2(1?g) flow. Gain measurements using this arrangement are presented in this paper. New experimental results on atomic iodine production via F atoms are also summarized. Using of reactive gases commercially available in pressure cylinders is the main advantage of this method.

palek, Otomar; Jirsek, Vt; ?ensk, Miroslav; Kodymova, Jarmila; Pickova, Irena; Jakubec, Ivo

2006-05-01

43

The PALS iodine laser-driven jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of plasma jets produced by the action of a defocused laser beam on planar metallic targets and the interaction of supersonic plasma jets with dense gases (He and Ar) are presented. The experiment was carried out at the iodine laser facility (Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS)) using the third harmonic of laser radiation (0.438 m) with a pulse duration of 250 ps (FWHM). In order to optimize the plasma jet parameters, the laser beam energy and the focal spot radius were changed in the ranges of 13-160 J and 35-600 m, respectively. Besides, the focal point was located both before and inside the targets. The study was performed with the use of target materials of different mass densities (Cu, Ag and Ta). Finally, the optimized Cu plasma jets were used for shock wave generation in ambient gases of different pressures. Information about the geometry of plasma expansion, plasma dynamics and electron density distributions was obtained by means of a 3-frame laser interferometric system. Additionally, a Photonic Science PE7051 x-ray pinhole camera and the crater replica method for the reconstruction of crater parameters were used. Our experiment has shown that the plasma jet forming is a fundamental process which accompanies the expansion of the laser plasma produced by irradiating a massive planar target, made of a material of a relatively high atomic number, with a partly defocused laser beam. One can suppose that there are no laser energy limitations for the plasma jet creation. Illustrations of applications of such plasma jets for astrophysical and inertial confinement fusion investigations are also presented.

Pisarczyk, T.; Kasperczuk, A.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Miklaszewski, R.; Nicolai, Ph; Pfeifer, M.; Pisarczyk, P.; Rohlena, K.; Stenc, K.; Skala, J.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Ullschmied, J.

2007-12-01

44

Studies of new media radiation induced laser. Final Report, 1 February 1979-30 April 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various lasants were investigated especially, 2-iodohepafluoropropane (i-C3F7I) for the direct solar pumped lasers. Optical pumping of iodine laser was achieved using a small flashlamp. Using i-C3F7I as a laser gain medium, threshold inversion density, small signal gain, and laser performance at the elevated temperature were measured. The experimental results and analysis are presented. The iodine laser kinetics of the C3F7I

K. S. Han; Y. J. Shiu; S. R. Raju; I. H. Hwang; B. Tabibi

1984-01-01

45

100 GW pulsed iodine photodissociation laser system PERUN I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photodissociation iodine laser system PERUN I is described. The laser generates and amplifies the subnanosecond pulse with the energy about 80 J of the fundamental wavelength 1315 m and beam diameter 10 cm. The physical principles of this type of the high power laser are briefly explained and the laser system and its characteristics are described from the physical

M. Chvojka; V. Hermoch; B. Kralikova; J. Krasa; L. Laska; K. Maek; J. Musil; S. Polk; K. Rohlena; J. Schmiedberger; J. Skla; J. Sulek

1988-01-01

46

Iodine-assisted matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of iodine to the matrix has been found to lead to lower thresholds for ion formation in matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionisation (MALDI) of peptides and other compounds. Intensities of ions from the matrix have been suppressed through the addition of iodine to the matrix; intensities of ions corresponding to addition of sodium or potassium to the analyte have been diminished.

Sajid Bashir; William I Burkitt; Peter J Derrick; Anastassios E Giannakopulos

2002-01-01

47

A portable iodine stabilized helium-neon laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly designed iodine stabilized helium-neon (He-Ne) laser is described which is stable to 3 x 10 to the -13th (1000-s sample time) but which exhibits an intensity dependent shift of about 8 kHz\\/W-sq cm. Closer agreement between dissimilar lasers is attained when the internal power densities are approximately equal.

Howard P. Layer

1980-01-01

48

Chemical processes in active volume of photodissociative iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective rate constants for chemical reactions in a gaseous active mixture have been calculated using kinetic models for a photodissociation iodine laser. The analysis was based on a detailed reaction scheme and Lindemann's collisional mechanism. Rate constants for all reactions occurring in the laser active volume are presented for the most important perfluorocarbon radials.

Skorobogatov, G. A.

1991-12-01

49

Cutting performance of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) is a member of the class of high power lasers for industrial applications, including the materials processing tasks of high speed cutting and drilling. COIL technology has received considerable interest over the last several years due to its short, fiber- deliverable wavelength (1.315 microns), scalability to very high powers (tens of kilowatts, cw), and demonstrated nearly

William P. Latham; James A. Rothenflue; Charles A. Helms; Aravinda Kar; David L. Carroll

1998-01-01

50

Iodine laser production of highly charged Ta ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of systematic studies of multiply charged Ta ion production with the fundamental frequency of an iodine laser (?=1.315m), and its 2nd (0.657m) and 3rd (0.438m) harmonics are summarized and discussed. Short laser pulse (350 ps) and a focus spot diameter of 100m allowed for the laser power densities in the range of 510131.51015 W\\/cm2. Corpuscular diagnostics were based

L. Lska; J. Krsa; K. Masek; M. Pfeifer; B. Krlikov; T. Mocek; J. Skla; P. Straka; P. Trenda; K. Rohlena; E. Woryna; J. Farny; P. Parys; J. Wolowski; W. Mrz; A. Shumshurov; B. Sharkov; J. Collier; K. Langbein; H. Haseroth

1996-01-01

51

Parameters of an electric-discharge generator of iodine atoms for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

Laser-induced fluorescence is used for measuring the concentration of iodine molecules at the output of an electric-discharge generator of atomic iodine. Methyl iodide CH{sub 3}I is used as the donor of atomic iodine. The fraction of iodine extracted from CH{sub 3}I in the generator is {approx}50%. The optimal operation regimes are found in which 80%-90% of iodine contained in the output flow of the generator was in the atomic state. This fraction decreased during the iodine transport due to recombination and was 20%-30% at the place where iodine was injected into the oxygen flow. The fraction of the discharge power spent for dissociation was {approx}3%. (elements of laser setups)

Azyazov, V N; Vorob'ev, M V; Voronov, A I; Kupryaev, Nikolai V; Mikheev, P A; Ufimtsev, N I [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

2009-01-31

52

Research on advanced chemical and discharge oxygen-iodine lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generation of singlet oxygen and atomic iodine for operation of the chemical or discharge oxygen-iodine laser (COIL/DOIL) is described, employing novel methods and device configurations proposed in our laboratory. A centrifugal spray generator of singlet oxygen was developed, based on the conventional reaction between chlorine and basic hydrogen peroxide. Recent results of theoretical and experimental investigation of the generator parameters are presented. A new conception of the discharge generator of singlet oxygen was initiated, based on a combined DC arc jet and RF discharge techniques. Principle of the generator currently developed and constructed is described. A new device configuration was designed for the alternative method of atomic iodine generation using a radiofrequency discharge decomposition of iodine compounds like CH3I or CF3I. Some recent experimental results of this research are also presented.

Kodymov, Jarmila; Jirsek, Vt; Schmiedberger, Josef; Spalek, Otomar; Censk, Miroslav

2009-02-01

53

Experimental Study of Supersonic Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 5kW supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was constructed. A rotating mesh-type singlet-delta oxygen generator (SOG) was used that appears to be simpler, lighter in weight, and more efficient than the rotating disk SOG. An output power of 1kw f...

S. Fengting C. Fang Y. Bailing S. Yizhu J. Yuqi

1996-01-01

54

Molecular Iodine Fluorescence Using a Green Helium-Neon Laser  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Excitation of molecular iodine vapor with a green (543.4 nm) helium-neon laser produces a fluorescence spectrum that is well suited for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. Application of standard evaluation techniques to the spectrum yields ground electronic-state molecular parameters in good agreement with literature

Williamson, J. Charles

2011-01-01

55

Experimental study of a CW chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

Through experimentation, a continuous wave oxygen-iodine chemical laser was achieved. When the amount of chlorine flow was 50mmol/s, the output power reached 1kW. In conjunction with this, measurements were made of beam divergence angles, investigating the relationships between beam divergence angles and power as well as cavity reflector curvature radii.

Sang, F.; Gu, C.

1995-11-21

56

Novel mixing nozzles for supersonic chemical oxygen iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixing enhancement technique of supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is studied. The difficulty of supersonic mixing due to the compressibility of the fluid has been overcome by the introduction of streamwise vortex into the flow. The developed nozzle is a staggered array of wedges, looks like "X" letter from the side of the flow duct. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is employed for the design optimization of the proposed mixing nozzle. A remarkable mixing condition is found when iodine injector is located at the exit plane of the mixing nozzle. Experiments are conducted and good agreement with calculation is obtained in terms of iodine molecule distribution. A 266W of output power with chemical efficiency of 14.6% is obtained and good mixing capability of the proposed nozzle design is confirmed.

Hirata, Takayuki; Endo, Masamori; Shinoda, Kazuhiko; Osaka, Tatsuo; Nanri, Kenzo; Takeda, Shuzaburo; Fujioka, Tomoo

2003-12-01

57

On a new method for chemical production of iodine atoms in a chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

A new method is proposed for generating iodine atoms in a chemical oxygen-iodine laser. The method is based on a branched chain reaction of dissociation of the alkyl iodide CH{sub 3}I in a medium of singlet oxygen and chlorine. (active media)

Andreeva, Tamara L; Kuznetsova, S V; Maslov, A I; Sorokin, Vadim N [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2004-11-30

58

Studies of new media radiation induced laser. Final Report, 1 February 1979-30 April 1984  

SciTech Connect

Various lasants were investigated especially, 2-iodohepafluoropropane (i-C3F7I) for the direct solar pumped lasers. Optical pumping of iodine laser was achieved using a small flashlamp. Using i-C3F7I as a laser gain medium, threshold inversion density, small signal gain, and laser performance at the elevated temperature were measured. The experimental results and analysis are presented. The iodine laser kinetics of the C3F7I and IBr system were numerically simulated. The concept of a direct solar-pumped laser amplifier using (i-C3F7I) as the laser material was evaluated and several kinetic coefficients for i-C3F7I laser system were reexamined. The results are discussed.

Han, K.S.; Shiu, Y.J.; Raju, S.R.; Hwang, I.H.; Tabibi, B.

1984-06-01

59

Nuclear-driven flashlamp pumping of the atomic iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

This report is a study of the atomic iodine laser pumped with nuclear- excited XeBr fluorescence. Preliminary experiments, conducted in the TRIGA reactor investigated the fluorescence of the excimer XeBr under nuclear pumping with {sup 10}B and {sup 3}He, for use as a flashlamp gas to stimulate the laser. These measurements included a determination of the fluorescence efficiency (light emitted in the wavelength region of interest, divided by energy deposited in the gas) of XeBr under nuclear pumping, with varying excimer mixtures. Maximum fluorescence efficiencies were approximately 1%. In order to better understand XeBr under nuclear excitation, a kinetics model of the system was prepared. The model generated the time-dependant concentrations of 20 reaction species for three pulse sizes, a TRIGA pulse, a fast burst reactor pulse, and an e-beam pulse. The modeling results predicted fluorescence efficiencies significantly higher (peak efficiencies of approximately 10%) than recorded in the fluorescence experiments. The cause of this discrepancy was not fully determined. A ray tracing computer model was also prepared to evaluate the efficiency with which nuclear-induced fluorescence generated in one cavity of a laser could be coupled into another cavity containing an iodine lasant. Finally, an experimental laser cell was constructed to verify that nuclear-induced XeBr fluorescence could be used to stimulate a laser. Lasing was achieved at 1.31 micron in the TRIGA using C{sub 3}F{sub 7}I, a common iodine lasant. Peak laser powers were approximately 20 mW. Measured flashlamp pump powers at threshold agreed well with literature values, as did lasant pressure dependency on laser operation.

Miley, G.H.

1992-03-01

60

Excited states in the active media of oxygen - iodine lasers  

SciTech Connect

A review of investigations of kinetic processes in active media oxygen - iodine lasers (OILs) performed in the last decade is presented. The mechanisms of pumping and quenching of electronically and vibrationally excited O{sub 2} and I{sub 2} molecules are considered, and dissociation mechanisms of I{sub 2} in the active medium of the OIL are analysed. The values of kinetic constants of processes proceeding in the active media of OILs are recommended. (review)

Azyazov, V N [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

2009-11-30

61

Experiment on iodine transmutation by laser Compton scattering gamma ray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser Compton scattering gamma-ray based nuclear transmutation is proposed to reduce the hazards of long-lived activity nuclear waste. In accordance with this proposal, a laser Compton scattering gamma-ray facility has been built on NewSUABARU storage ring. The facility provides 17.6 MeV gamma-ray photons, which is applicable to the nuclear transmutation research. In order to investigate the reaction rate of Iodine material, the 23Na127I target is adopted for the irradiation experiment. The results show that the experimental data is close to the simulation result.

Li, D.; Imasaki, K.; Miyamoto, S.; Horikawa, K.; Amano, S.; Mochizuki, T.

2008-05-01

62

LASERS, ACTIVE MEDIA: Calculation of the mixing chamber of an ejector chemical oxygen --- iodine laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas parameters are calculated at the outlet of the mixing chamber of an ejector chemical oxygen---iodine laser with a nozzle unit consisting of nozzles of three types, which provides a total pressure of the active medium that substantially exceeds a pressure in the generator of singlet oxygen. This technique of forming the laser active medium substantially facilitates the ejection of

M. V. Zagidullin; V. D. Nikolaev

2001-01-01

63

Identification of a solar pumping installation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process identification of a solar pumping facility is discussed in view of its importance to pump power supply optimization. A method for process identification based on the measurement of the short circuit current, open circuit voltage and in-charge current and voltage of the photovoltaic cell in order to determine the cell illumination and junction temperature is presented, and the

M. Annabi; N. B. Slama; M. Kachoukh; M. Ksouri; J. Perard

1980-01-01

64

ELEMENTS OF LASER SETUPS: Parameters of an electric-discharge generator of iodine atoms for a chemical oxygeniodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-induced fluorescence is used for measuring the concentration of iodine molecules at the output of an electric-discharge generator of atomic iodine. Methyl iodide CH3I is used as the donor of atomic iodine. The fraction of iodine extracted from CH3I in the generator is ~50%. The optimal operation regimes are found in which 80%90% of iodine contained in the output flow of the generator was in the atomic state. This fraction decreased during the iodine transport due to recombination and was 20%30% at the place where iodine was injected into the oxygen flow. The fraction of the discharge power spent for dissociation was ~3%.

Azyazov, V. N.; Vorob'ev, M. V.; Voronov, A. I.; Kupryaev, Nikolai V.; Mikheev, P. A.; Ufimtsev, N. I.

2009-01-01

65

Feasibility of high pressure operation and determination of the optimum gain zone in chemical oxygen-iodine lasers  

SciTech Connect

Use is made of a simple model to theoretically prove that there exist optimum values for small signal gains in chemical Oxygen-Iodine lasers dependent on overall system oxygen pressures. At the same time, the feasibility of chemical oxygen-iodine laser operations under high pressure is discussed. Finally, methods for determining optimum gain zones for chemical oxygen-iodine lasers are given.

Li, F.

1995-11-29

66

Theoretical studies of solar-pumped lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of stimulated emission causing transitions from the B(1) pi sub u state of sodium to the overlapping 2(1) sigma(+) sub g electronic state has been continued. A new method of estimating the Franck-Condon factors has been developed which instead of fitting the molecular potential curves with Morse functions, estimates the V(r) dependence by interpolation from given potential curves. The results for the sum of the rates from one vibrational level in the upper state to all the levels in the lower state show good agreement with the previous method, implying that curve crossing by stimulated emission due to photons from the oven is an important mechanism in sodium.

Harries, Wynford L.

1988-06-01

67

LASERS: Self-initiating volume discharge in iodides used for producing atomic iodine in pulsed chemical oxygen iodine lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A volume self-sustained discharge (VSD) in iodides (C3H7I, C4H9I) and in their mixtures with SF6, N2, and O2 in the presence of small-scale inhomogeneities on the cathode surface is shown to develop in the form of a self-initiating volume discharge (SIVD), i.e., a volume discharge without any preionisation including discharge gaps with a strong edge enhancement of the electric field. Additions of SF6 or N2 to the iodides improves the stability and homogeneity of the SIVD, while adding up to 300 % (relative to the partial iodide pressure) of O2 to these mixtures has only an insignificant effect on the discharge stability. The possibility of SIVD initiation was modelled experimentally in a 1.5-L discharge volume. For the C4H9I:O2:SF6=0.083:0.25:0.67 mixture at a pressure of 72 Torr, the specific energy input into the discharge plasma ranged up to 130 J L-1 in this geometry. A conclusion was drawn that the SIVD is promising for the production of atomic iodine in the pulsed and repetitively pulsed operating regimes of a chemical oxygen iodine laser.

Belevtsev, A. A.; Kazantsev, S. Yu; Saifulin, A. V.; Firsov, K. N.

2003-06-01

68

Saturation Energy Density and Line Profile of the Atomic Iodine Laser Transition at High Pressure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The saturation energy density of an iodine laser amplifier is proportional to the homogeneous medium line width and inversely proportional to the Einstein coefficient. For good energy extraction high values of the saturation energy density are needed, thu...

M. Galanti W. Thieme K. J. Witte

1980-01-01

69

COIL--Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser: advances in development and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advantageous features of Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) for laser technologies have increased considerably activities of international COIL communities during past ten years. They have been focused on the advanced concepts of hardware designs of the COIL subsystems, and testing and scaling-up of existing laser facilities. Prospective special applications of COIL technology, both civil and military, have received a significant attention

Jarmila Kodymova

2005-01-01

70

Rate constants for reactions in iodine laser active medium:a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the use of kinetic models for a photodissociation iodine laser the calculation of the effective rate constants for chemical reactions in a gaseous active mixture is carried out in the case of a strong influence of molecular collisions. The analysis uses a detailed reaction scheme and Lindemann's collisional mechanism. A list of measured values of rate constants for all reactions occurring in the photodissociation iodine laser active volume for the most important perfluorocarbon radicals is attached.

Skorobogatov, G. A.

1996-02-01

71

Some problems of KD*P crystal use for frequency conversion (FC) of iodine laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principal parameters of KH2(1-x)D2xPO4: the optical absorption and the refractive indices dispersion in a wide range, important for frequency conversion of iodine laser radiation are investigated. The use of 'skew' FC elements is proposed. Tuning curves have been calculated for 'normal' and 'skew' FC elements. The doubling and tripling 'skew' FC elements are used in large iodine laser installations: 'Iskra-IV' (Russia) and 'Perun' (Czech).

Bredikhin, Vladimir I.; Kuznetsov, S. P.

1996-02-01

72

PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN LASERS AND CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Influence of a quenching agent on parameters of stimulated enthalpy scattering in iodine photodissociation lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is made of the influence of quenching of excited iodine on the parameters of stimulated enthalpy scattering in iodine photodissociation lasers. It is shown that the stability of the active mixtures of these lasers during evolution of stimulated scattering by thermal waves may be improved by selecting a suitable quenching agent and a suitable concentration.

Orlov, E. P.

1989-04-01

73

Discharge-driven electric oxygen-iodine laser superlinear enhancement via increasing g0L.  

PubMed

The authors report the development of an electric oxygen-iodine laser with higher output using a larger product of gain and gain length, g0L. A factor of 4.4 increase in laser power output on the 1315 nm atomic iodine transition was achieved with a factor of 3 increase in gain length. I(2P1/2) is pumped using energy transferred from O2(a1?) produced by flowing a gas mixture of O2-He-NO through three coaxial geometry radio-frequency discharges. Continuous wave (CW) average total laser power of 481 W was extracted with g0L=0.042. PMID:22555687

Benavides, G F; Zimmerman, J W; Woodard, B S; Day, M T; King, D M; Carroll, D L; Palla, A D; Verdeyen, J T; Solomon, W C

2012-05-01

74

Calculation of the mixing chamber of an ejector chemical oxygen - iodine laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas parameters are calculated at the outlet of the mixing chamber of an ejector chemical oxygen-iodine laser with a nozzle unit consisting of nozzles of three types, which provides a total pressure of the active medium that substantially exceeds a pressure in the generator of singlet oxygen. This technique of forming the laser active medium substantially facilitates the ejection of

M V Zagidullin; V D Nikolaev

2001-01-01

75

Cutting performance of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser on aerospace and industrial materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was used for cutting aluminum, titanium, inconel and copper plates. The laser was operated with a stable resonator having an intracavity aperture to produce a circular COIL beam with very few transverse modes. The multimode focal spot diameter was calculated to be 0.24 mm. The new aluminum cut was of particularly high kerf edge quality.

William P. Latham; Kip R. Kendrick; James A. Rothenflue; Aravinda Kar; David L. Carroll

2000-01-01

76

Investigations of photodissociation iodine lasers utilizing molecules with bonds between iodine atoms and group V elements. I - Experimental investigation of \\/CF3\\/2AsI iodine laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports results of an experimental investigation of the feasibility of producing a photodissociation iodine laser on the basis of (CF3)2AsI. Attention was given to measurements of the absorption spectrum of (CF3)2AsI molecules, the dependence of output energy on pressure in the laser tube, and the dependence of output energy on pump energy (from the xenon flashlamp). Laser action

T. L. Andreeva; G. N. Birich; V. N. Sorokin; I. I. Struk

1976-01-01

77

Elementary processes in the active medium of an iodine photodissociation laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis is made of the elementary processes occurring in the active medium of an iodine photodissociation laser and affecting its emission spectrum. An estimate is obtained of the cross sections of the transitions between the hyperfine structure components within the group 2P3\\/2 and excited 2P1\\/2 states of atomic iodine, which occur because of collisions with various particles in

E A Yukov

1973-01-01

78

High-power iodine laser application for remote D&D cutting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the use of high-power lasers to remotely process material for decommissioning and dismantlement of nuclear facilities. Process requirements are established and suitable laser systems are compared. The chemical oxygen- iodine laser was identified as the leading candidate for long term dismantlement activities because it offers a high-power, high-brightness beam that can be remotely delivered into radiation containment by optical fibers.

Vetrovec, John; Hindy, Robert N.; Subbaraman, Ganesan; Spiegel, Lyle P.

1997-04-01

79

Time-resolved laser optogalvanic spectroscopy of iodine in a radio frequency discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed laser optogalvanic (LOG) spectra of iodine vapor in a \\/similar to\\/32 MHz rf discharge were excited at 14 900--17 100 cm⁻¹. Two distinct, time-resolved components were observed: a fast component, synchronous with the laser pulse, width \\/similar to\\/1 ..mu..s, followed by a slow component, width \\/similar to\\/100 ..mu..s, delayed relative to the laser pulse. The fast component exhibits atomic

D. Kumar; P. L. Clancy; S. P. McGlynn

1989-01-01

80

Computational fluid dynamics methodologies for simulation of chemical oxygen-iodine laser flowfields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of chemical lasers such as the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is of timely interest due to the recent acceleration of the airborne laser military research program and ongoing commercial development programs. As a part of these efforts, a 3-D COIL simulation model was developed based on the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code GASP which solves the conservative, finite-volume formulation

Timothy John Madden

1997-01-01

81

Pulse-periodic chemical oxygen-iodine laser with active medium formation by volumetric electric discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a study of pulse-periodic operation of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser. The generator in use was of the jet type with high chlorine utilization degree (>=97%). Atomic iodine was released by dissociating methyl-iodide (CH3I) in volumetric electric discharge. Steady lasing was achieved at a repetition rate up to 30 Hz. The emission energy attained per individual pulse in a train was 1.1 J at a pulse energy repeatability of (35) % and a specific energy extraction from the active medium of 1.7 J/L. The lasing pulse duration depended on the concentration of methyl-iodide and the energy deposited into discharge. The minimal half-height duration of pulses was achieved as 10 ?m at a concentration of atomic iodine in the laser cavity ~1*1015 cm-3.

Velikanov, S. D.; Gorelov, V. G.; Gostev, I. V.; Ireshev, Ye. V.; Kalinovsky, V. V.; Komissarov, I. A.; Konovalov, V. V.; Konovalov, I. V.; Mikhalkin, V. N.; Nikolaev, V. D.; Sevryugin, I. V.; Smirnov, A. V.; Sobolev, R. E.; Shornikov, L. N.

2007-05-01

82

Chemical oxygen-iodine laser for high-speed cutting of thick stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high power chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) at the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory was evaluated to determine its cutting capability in thick section stainless steel. The results of this experiment were used to validate a new model that describes the effects of using rectangular- shaped beams for thick section materials processing. That model, while derived in a way similar to

Joseph E. Scott; James A. Rothenflue; William P. Latham; Aravinda Kar

1996-01-01

83

Efficient generation in a chemical oxygen iodine laser with a low buffer-gas flow rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient generation in a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) with a low buffer-gas flow rate for Mach numbers M ? 1 is demonstrated. The maximum output power of the COIL was 415 W for a molecular chlorine flow rate of 20 mmol s-1, which corresponds to a chemical efficiency ?ch =23%. It is shown that the substitution of

V N Azyazov; V S Safonov; N I Ufimtsev

2002-01-01

84

Efficient generation in a chemical oxygen - iodine laser with a low buffer-gas flow rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient generation in a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (COIL) with a low buffer-gas flow rate for Mach numbers M {<=} 1 is demonstrated. The maximum output power of the COIL was 415 W for a molecular chlorine flow rate of 20 mmol s⁻¹, which corresponds to a chemical efficiency η{sub ch} =23%. It is shown that the substitution

V N Azyazov; V S Safonov; N I Ufimtsev

2002-01-01

85

Measuring the Yield of Singlet Oxygen in a Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (Postprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A critical parameter for understanding the performance of Chemical Oxygen Iodine Lasers is the yield of singlet oxygen produced by the generator. Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) has been utilized to measure the absolute dens...

J. E. McCord K. B. Hewett M. Gupta T. Owano

2006-01-01

86

Theoretical research of alpha-RF discharge in slab oxygen iodine lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model is established to describe the alpha-RF discharge in slab Oxygen Iodine lasers, according to the continuity equation of electron density, the electron energy equilibrium equation and the continuity equation of current density. Assuming a Maxwellian energy distribution, the spatial distributions of electron density and electric field in RF plasma are obtained by numerical method. The effects of

Xueling Zhang; Xinbing Wang; Guofu Li; Fan He; Junke Jiao; Yanzhao Lu

2008-01-01

87

Test bench for studying the outlook for industrial applications of an oxygen-iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

We report the development and tests of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser test bench based on a twisted-aerosol-flow singlet-oxygen generator and a supersonic laser model for studying the outlook for industrial applications of this laser. The maximal output power of the laser is {approx}65 kW (the average power is {approx}50 kW), corresponding to a specific output power of {approx}110 W cm{sup -2}. The maximal chemical efficiency is {approx}34%. (letters)

Adamenkov, A A; Bakshin, V V; Bogachev, A V; Buryak, E V; Vdovkin, L A; Velikanov, S D; Vyskubenko, B A; Garanin, Sergey G; Gorbacheva, E V; Grigorovich, Sergei V; Il'in, S P; Il'kaev, R I; Ilyushin, Yurii N; Kalashnik, A M; Kolobyanin, Yu V; Leonov, M L; Svischev, V V; Troshkin, M V [Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod Region (Russian Federation)

2007-07-31

88

Repetitively pulsed, 70-J photolytic iodine laser with excellent optical and long\\/reliable operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a repetitively pulsed, 70 joule, closed cycle 1.3 ?M photolytic atomic iodine laser with excellent beam quality (BQ=1.15) is presented. This BQ was exhibited in the fundamental mode from a M=3.1 confocal unstable resonator at a 0.5 Hz repetition rate. A closed cycle scrubber\\/laser fuel system consisting of a condensative-evaporative section, two Cu wool I2 reactor regions,

L. A. Schlie; R. D. Rathge

1995-01-01

89

Repetitively pulsed, 70-J photolytic iodine laser with excellent optical and long-reliable operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a repetitively pulsed, 70 joule, closed cycle 1.3 mu M photolytic atomic iodine laser with excellent beam quality (BQ = 1.15) is presented. This BQ was exhibited in the fundamental mode from a M = 3.1 confocal unstable resonator at a 0.5 Hz repetition rate. A closed cycle scrubber\\/laser fuel system consisting of a condensative-evaporative section, two

L. A. Schlie; R. D. Rathge

1995-01-01

90

LASERS: Efficient generation in a chemical oxygen --- iodine laser with a low buffer-gas flow rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient generation in a chemical oxygen --- iodine laser (COIL) with a low buffer-gas flow rate for Mach numbers M <= 1 is demonstrated. The maximum output power of the COIL was 415 W for a molecular chlorine flow rate of 20 mmol s-1, which corresponds to a chemical efficiency etach =23%. It is shown that the substitution of

V. N. Azyazov; V. S. Safonov; N. I. Ufimtsev

2002-01-01

91

Oxygen-iodine ejector laser with a centrifugal bubbling singlet-oxygen generator  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that if a supersonic oxygen-iodine ejector laser is fed by singlet oxygen from a centrifugal bubbling generator operating at a centrifugal acceleration of {approx}400g, the laser output power achieves a value 1264 W at a chemical efficiency of 24.6% for an alkaline hydrogen peroxide flow rate of 208 cm{sup 3}s{sup -1} and a specific chlorine load of 1.34 mmol s{sup -1} per square centimetre of the bubble layer. (lasers)

Zagidullin, M V; Nikolaev, V D; Svistun, M I; Khvatov, N A [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

2005-10-31

92

Measurement of the amplified spontaneous emission loss in an iodine photodissociation laser amplifier  

SciTech Connect

The directional amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) along the laser tube of an iodine photodissociation laser (IPL) amplifier is measured and the experimental results are compared with the one-dimensional ASE theory. Also, we have measured the loss of the stored energy in the IPL amplifier due to the omnidirectional ASE. The loss is found to be 13.5% for the present amplifier when the laser medium i-C/sub 3/F/sub 7/I is 72 Torr and no argon buffer gas is added. But by adding the argon buffer gas to 210 Torr, it is reduced to 4.2%.

Hahn, J.W.; Lee, S.S.

1985-11-15

93

Calculation of the mixing chamber of an ejector chemical oxygen - iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

Gas parameters are calculated at the outlet of the mixing chamber of an ejector chemical oxygen-iodine laser with a nozzle unit consisting of nozzles of three types, which provides a total pressure of the active medium that substantially exceeds a pressure in the generator of singlet oxygen. This technique of forming the laser active medium substantially facilitates the ejection of the exhaust gas to the atmosphere by using a diffuser and single-stage vacuum systems based on water circulating pumps. (lasers, active media)

Zagidullin, M V; Nikolaev, V D [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

2001-06-30

94

Parametric study of an efficient supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser\\/jet generator system operating without buffer gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed experimental study of an efficient supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser is presented. The laser is energized by a jet-type singlet oxygen generator, operated without primary buffer gas and applies simple nozzle geometry and transonic mixing of iodine and oxygen. Output power of 190 W with chemical efficiency of 18% was obtained in a 5-cm gain length for Cl2 flow

D. Furman; B. D. Barmashenko; S. Rosenwaks

1998-01-01

95

Two-dimensional source flow gain model for the chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A source flow gain model for optical extraction from the chemical oxygen-iodine laser medium is presented. In this model the gas dynamics of the reactive flow through the optical cavity, transverse to the optical axis, is described by the two-dimensional boundary-layer approximation to the full Navier-Stokes equations. The appropriate mass continuity, species, momentum, and energy conservation equations in cylindrical polar coordinates are presented and discussed. The gas kinetics are described by a reduced set of fourteen reactions among nine chemical species and includes pumping of the upper laser level by O2(1(Delta) ), deactivation by water and energy pooling with O2(1(Delta) ), and the Heidner molecular I2 dissociation mechanism. Stimulated emission on the 3 YLD 4 hyperfine transition of atomic iodine is described by a generalized version of the Zagidullian gain model which includes finite hyperfine relaxation of the 2P1/2 and 2P3/2 iodine sublevels, velocity cross-relaxation of the iodine atoms, and allows for incomplete I2 dissociation. The model is illustrated by application to a laboratory-sized device and the effects of the boundary layer upon the gas flow, I2 dissociation, O2(1(Delta) ) fraction, small signal gain, optical extraction, and the medium homogeneity are examined.

Copeland, Drew A.; Yang, Tien T.

1997-05-01

96

Laser-Induced Iodine Fluorescence Applied to Confined Supersonic Mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement system is presented and applied to the study of supersonic gas flows at low density. The LIF technique uses atomic or molecular tracers instead of microscopic particles so that particle lag effects, which are remarkable in low density flows, are avoided. The fluorescence signal of laser- excited molecules provides information about the gas velocity, temperature

Marc Havermann

97

A pared-down gas-phase kinetics for the chemical oxygen-iodine laser medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetic data obtained in the last decade has resulted in revisions of some mechanisms of excitation and deactivation of excited states in the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) medium. This review considers new kinetic data and presents analyses of the mechanisms of pumping and quenching of electronically and vibrationally excited states in the oxygen-iodine laser media. An effective three-level model of I2 molecule excitation and relaxation has been developed. The calculated effective rate constants for deactivation of I2(X,11 ? ? ? 24) by O2, N2, He and CO2 are presented. A simplified kinetic package for the COIL active medium is recommended. This model consists of a 30-reaction set with 14 species. The results of calculations utilizing simplified model are in good agreement with the experimental data.

Pichugin, S. Yu.; Heaven, M. C.

2013-11-01

98

Use of basic deuterium peroxide in the chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) uses a reaction of gaseous chorine and aqueous solution of basic oxygen peroxide (BHP) to produce oxygen singlet delta molecules, O2(1(Delta) ). Quenching of O2(1(Delta) ) during its extraction from the BHP solution and quenching of excited atomic iodine I* by water vapor from the O2(1(Delta) ) production process are well-known parasitic effects in COIL. This paper shows that both of these effects can be significantly reduced by replacing the hydrogen 1H1 isotope atoms in BHP by the 1H2 isotope atoms. In addition to restoring laser power lost to parasitic quenching, use of basic deuterium peroxide (BDP) rather than BHP is expected to allow generation of O2(1(Delta) ) at elevated temperature. This approach promises to save refrigerant, reduce the risk of BDP freezing, and delay precipitation of salt form BDP solution. Methods for producing BDP are outlined.

Vetrovec, John; Yang, Tien T.; Copeland, Drew A.

2000-05-01

99

PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN LASERS AND CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Control of the duration of optical pulses from an oxygen-iodine chemical laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that long radiation pulses needed in applications of lasers in technology may be emitted efficiently by an oxygen-iodine chemical laser. Slow photolysis can increase the output pulse duration to approximately 1 ms while retaining a high efficiency. Calculations yield the dependence of the lasing characteristics on all the parameters of interest. It is demonstrated that at high active medium pressures (up to 100 Torr) and low iodine concentrations, the pulse duration may be regulated with a high specific output energy and a high photolysis efficiency.

Zagidullin, M. V.; Zaikin, A. P.; Igoshin, Valerii I.

1989-04-01

100

Modeling of high-pressure O2(1^) generators for chemical oxygen-iodine lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model is developed for chemical generators producing O2(1(Delta) ) at high pressure. Such generators are especially important for supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine lasers. The model treats different types of generators, e.g., bubble column, film, aerosol, and jet generators. The main factor affecting the O2(1(Delta) ) yield under high pressure is liquid-phase quenching enhanced by depletion of HO2- ions near

B. D. Barmashenko; Salman Rosenwaks

1993-01-01

101

Similarity criteria in calculations of the energy characteristics of a cw oxygen - iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculated and experimental data on the energy efficiency of a cw oxygen - iodine laser (OIL) are analysed based on two similarity criteria, namely, on the ratio of the residence time of the gas mixture in the resonator to the characteristic time of extraction of the energy stored in singlet oxygen td and on the gain-to-loss ratio ?. It is shown that the simplified two-level laser model satisfactorily predicts the output characteristics of OILs with a stable resonator at ?d <= 7. Efficient energy extraction from the OIL active medium is achieved in the case of ?d = 5 - 7, ? = 4 - 8.

Mezhenin, A. V.; Azyazov, V. N.

2012-12-01

102

Test bed for a high throughput supersonic chemical oxygen - iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports the development of a test bed for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser based on a high throughput jet flow singlet oxygen generator (JSOG). The system provides vertical singlet oxygen extraction followed by horizontal orientation of subsequent subsystems. This design enables the study of flow complexities and engineering aspects of a distributed weight system as an input for mobile and other platform-mounted systems developed for large scale power levels. The system under consideration is modular and consists of twin SOGs, plenum and supersonic nozzle modules, with the active medium produced in the laser cavity. The maximal chlorine flow rate for the laser is {approx}1.5 mole s{sup -1} achieving a typical chemical efficiency of about 18%. (lasers)

Singhal, Gaurav; Mainuddin; Rajesh, R; Varshney, A K; Dohare, R K; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, V K; Kumar, Ashwani; Verma, Avinash C; Arora, B S; Chaturvedi, M K; Tyagi, R K; Dawar, A L

2011-05-31

103

GENETIC ALGORITHMS AND OPTIMIZING CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from the first known application of the genetic algorithm (GA) technique for optimizing the performance of a laser system (chemical, solid-state, or gaseous). The effects of elitism, single point and uniform crossover, creep mutation, different random number seeds, population size, niching and the number of children per pair of parents on the performance of the GA

David L. Carroll

1996-01-01

104

An oxygen-iodine laser utilizing an oscillator of high-pressure O2(1Delta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An oxygen-iodine laser developed on the basis of a fluid singlet-oxygen oscillator (SOO) is presented. The stimulated emission of the laser was observed up to oxygen pressures at the SOO output as high as 300 mm Hg. A diagram of the experimental setup is presented.

Zagidullin, M. V.; Erasov, N. V.; Kurov, A. Iu.; Nikolaev, V. D.; Svistun, M. I.; Khvatov, N. A.

1991-12-01

105

A Dye Laser Spectrometer Stabilized to a Hyperfine Component of Molecular Iodine for the Magnetooptical Trap of Sodium Atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dye laser spectrometer, whose sideband frequency was stabilized to a hyperfine component of molecular iodine, was developed for the magnetooptical trap of sodium atoms. The frequency difference between the transition from 3S1\\/2, F=2 to the 3P3\\/2, F\\\\prime=3 of a sodium atom and the f component of the P(38) line in the 15-2 band of the molecular iodine was measured

Shinichiro Watanabe; Yasuyuki Aizawa; Atsuo Morinaga

2003-01-01

106

DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHOTOLYTIC IODINE LASER (PIL) CUTTING AND JOINING TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANUFACTURING  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation was made of the Photolytic Iodine Laser (PIL) being developed by Advanced Optical Equipment and Services Corporation for metalworking applications. This laser operates in the infrared region of the spectrum and was anticipated to have a very small focal spot size and very low divergence. With these properties, it would be very effective at making small welds and narrow slots in metals. The program was of limited success due to low power output from the laser as well as power and positional instability. Some narrow slots were made and evaluated. The PIL may have applications in the electronics industry, even at low power, if the instability in the beam power and position can be solved.

MUSTALESKI, T.; RICHEY, M

1998-09-01

107

Cutting performance of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser on aerospace and industrial materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was used for cutting aluminum, titanium, inconel and copper plates. The laser was operated with a stable resonator having an intracavity aperture to produce a circular COIL beam with very few transverse modes. The multimode focal spot diameter was calculated to be 0.24 mm. The new aluminum cut was of particularly high kerf edge quality. These COIL cutting data are compared with an existing theoretical laser cutting model. Using thermophysical data for aluminum, titanium,l inconel and copper, this theory agrees very well with the data. To test the versatility of the model, the effects of different assumptions are examined; different assumptions produced very little effect on model predictions at high cutting speeds and a small difference at very slow cutting speeds. Overall, the theoretical model provides good agreement with experiments for a wide variety of metals.

Latham, William P.; Kendrick, Kip R.; Rothenflue, James A.; Kar, Aravinda; Carroll, David L.

2000-01-01

108

Properties of iodine laser-produced stream of multiply charged heavy ions of different elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of laser produced stream of ions of high- and medium-Z elements were analyzed in the far expansion zone using time-of-flight method and Thomson parabola spectrograph in experiments performed with the iodine laser system PERUN at IP ASCR, Prague (?=1.315 ?m, EL~45 J,?L~300-700 ?s). Ta, Au, and Pb, as well as Co, Sn, and Ag were mainly used as targets onto which a laser power density up to 11015 W cm-2 was delivered. Attention is paid to the evolution and comparison of different produced ion groups, and to the number, charge state, energy, and angular distribution of emitted ions.

Lska, L.; Krsa, J.; Maek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Krlikov, B.; Skla, J.; Woryna, E.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Mrz, W.; Sharkov, B.; Haseroth, H.

2000-02-01

109

Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) for the dismantlement of nuclear facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dismantlement of obsolete nuclear facilities is a major challenge for both the US Department of Energy and nuclear power utilities. Recent demonstrations have shown that lasers can be highly effective for size reduction cutting, especially for the efficient storage and recycling of materials. However, the full benefits of lasers can only be realized with high average power beams that can be conveniently delivered, via fiber optics, to remote and/or confined areas. Industrial lasers that can meet these requirements are not available now or for the foreseeable future. However, a military weapon laser, a Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL), which has been demonstrated at over a hundred kilo Watts, could be adapted to meet these needs and enable entirely new industrial applications. An 'industrialized' COIL would enable rapid sectioning of thick and complex structures, such as glove boxes, reactor vessels, and steam generators, accelerating dismantlement schedules and reducing worker hazards. The full advantages of lasers in dismantlement could finally be realized with a portable COIL which is integrated with sophisticated robotics. It could be built and deployed in less than two years, breaking the paradigm of labor-intensive dismantlement operations and cutting processing times and costs dramatically.

Hallada, Marc R.; Seiffert, Stephan L.; Walter, Robert F.; Vetrovec, John

2000-05-01

110

Measurements on a PV solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work on a simple high efficient solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve, reported at the Solar World Congress in Budapest, has been continued. Quasi-static and dynamic models of the solar pump have been derived with which the operation of the system is simulated. A test rig has been built at ECN in Petten (The

Paul Smulders; Joris Ten Thije O. G. Boonkkamp; Nico van Der Borg; Marco van Beek

1997-01-01

111

The P P laser transition in atomic iodine and the problem of search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed to search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) at a wavelength of 1.315 m of the laser P P transition in the atomic iodine, which can be used for this purpose as the natural frequency reference. The search at this wavelength is promising because active quantum filters (AQFs) with the quantum sensitivity limit have been developed for

Yu F Kutaev; S K Mankevich; O Yu Nosach; E P Orlov

2007-01-01

112

Theoretical and experimental studies of thick-section cutting with a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple mathematical model of thick-section stainless steel cutting with a high power chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is presented and compared with experimental results obtained with a 10-kilowatt COIL at the US Air Force`s Phillips Laboratory. This model uses a lumped-parameter technique to relate the cutting kerf depth with various process parameters and can be used to predict scaled laser

A. Kar; J. E. Scott; W. P. Latham

1996-01-01

113

Studies of oxygen-helium discharges for use in electric oxygen-iodine lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent work, the performance of the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL), developed in partnership by researchers at the University of Illinois and CU Aerospace, has been greatly improved through systematic study of various components of this new laser technology. One major contribution to the advancement of ElectricOIL technology has been the development of electric discharges capable of producing significant flow rates of the precursor electronically-excited molecular oxygen, O2(a1Delta). O2(a 1Delta) serves as an energy reservoir in the laser system, pumping atomic iodine by near-resonant energy transfer producing gain and laser on the I(2P1/2) ? I(2P3/2 ) transition at 1315 nm. Initial experimental work with radio-frequency discharges showed the importance of controlling O-atom flow rates to reduce quenching losses of energy stored in O2(a1Delta), and determined proper selection of the helium diluent ratio and specific power deposition (power per O2 flow rate). Further experimental investigations with transverse capacitive radio-frequency discharges in O2/He/NO mixtures in the pressure range of 1-100 Torr and power range of 0.1-1.2 kW have indicated that O2(a1Delta) production is a strong function of geometry (transverse gap), excitation frequency, and pressure. These parameters along with gas flow mixture dictate the current density at which the discharge operates, and its modal characteristics (normal vs. abnormal, homogeneous vs. inhomogeneous). A key result is that to encourage efficient O2(a1Delta) production these parameters should be selected in order to promote a homogeneous (low current density) discharge. The discharge behavior is characterized using terminal current-voltage-characteristics, microwave interferometer measurements, and plasma emission intensity measurements. Numerous spectroscopic measurements of O2(a1Delta), oxygen atoms, and discharge excited states are made in order to describe the discharge performance dependent on various parameters. The influence of NO on O-atom flow rates and O2(a1Delta) production is investigated. Progress of laser power extraction since initial reports in 2005 is overviewed.

Zimmerman, Joseph William

114

Quantitative determination of oxygen yield in a chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of the Airborne Laser program, the emphasis of chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) research has shifted toward improving the overall efficiency. A key component of COIL is the singlet-oxygen generator (SOG). To asses the efficiency of the SOG an accurate method of determining the yield of O2((alpha) 1(Delta) g),[O2((alpha) 1(Delta) g)]/[O2(total)] where [O2(total)]equals[O2((alpha) 1(Delta) g)]+[O2(X3(Sigma) g-)], has been developed. Absorption measurements of ground-state oxygen utilizing the magnetic-dipole transition, O2(X3(Sigma) g-) at 763 nm, have been obtained using a diode laser in conjunction with a multiple-pass Herriot-cell on a 10 kW class supersonic SOIL (RADICL). When RADICL is configured with a 0.35' throat, 15' diskpack, and a medium volume transition duct, with a diluent ratio (He:O2) of 3:1, the yield of O2((alpha) 1(Delta) g) in the diagnostic duct is 0.41 +/- 0.02.

Kendrick, K. R.; Helms, Charles A.; Quillen, B.; Copland, R. J.

1998-05-01

115

CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Enhancement of the efficiency and control of emission parameters of an unstable-resonator chemical oxygeniodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outlook is considered for the development of a high-power supersonic flowing chemical oxygeniodine laser operating as an amplifier and controlled by radiation from a master oscillator by using an unstable resonator with a hole-coupled mirror. The influence of the seed radiation intensity, the coupling-hole diameter, the active-medium length, and the magnification factor on the parameters of laser radiation is analysed. It is shown that the use of such resonators is most advisable in medium-power oxygeniodine lasers for which classical unstable resonators are inefficient because of their low magnification factors. The use of unstable resonators with a hole-coupled mirror and injection provides the control of radiation parameters and a considerable increase in the output power and brightness of laser radiation.

Boreisho, A. S.; Lobachev, V. V.; Savin, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Yu; Trilis, A. V.

2007-07-01

116

Electrode system for electric-discharge generation of atomic iodine in a repetitively pulsed oxygen - iodine laser with a large active volume  

SciTech Connect

Possibilities for increasing the active medium volume of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (CCOIL) with a pulsed electric-discharge generation of atomic iodine are studied. The reasons are analysed of the low stability of the transverse self-sustained volume discharge in electrode systems with metal cathodes under the conditions of the electric energy input into gas-discharge plasma that are typical for CCOILs: low pressure of mixtures containing a strongly electronegative component, low voltage of discharge burning, low specific energy depositions, and long duration of the current pulse. An efficient electrode system is elaborated with the cathode based on an anisotropically-resistive material, which resulted in a stable discharge in the mixtures of iodide (CH{sub 3}I, n-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}I, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}I) with oxygen and nitrogen at the specific energy depositions of {approx}5 J L{sup -1}, pressures of 10 - 25 Torr, and mixture volume of 2.5 L. (lasers)

Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, I G; Podlesnykh, S V; Firsov, K N [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-08-03

117

Ejector Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser with Supersonic Nozzle Bank Based on a Trip-Jet Mixing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nozzle banks for an ejector chemical oxygen-iodine laser consisting of two-dimensional slit nozzles with a trip-jet mixing system were tested in the cold- and hot-flow operation regimes. Horizontal Pitot scan experiments demonstrated that the mixing ability of the trips is excellent. The Mach number of the mixed flow was approximately 3. Gain measurements were conducted, and the results of these

Kazuyoku Tei; Kazuhiko Horioka; Mitsuo Nakajima; Daichi Sugimoto; Goro Watanabe; Shigeki Muto; Tomoo Fujioka

2008-01-01

118

Statistics and characteristics of xuv transition arrays from laser-produced plasmas of the elements tin through iodine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectra of laser-produced plasmas of the elements from tin to iodine contain weak bands of quasicontinuum overlaid by weak emission lines in the 70-120- region. Multiconfiguration-Dirac-Fock calculations show that these features are consistent with theoretical spectra for 4dN-4dN-1(5f+6p) transitions in a number of adjacent ion stages which are predicted to produce unresolved transition arrays (UTA) in this spectral region. Moreover,

Winnie Svendsen; Gerard O'sullivan

1994-01-01

119

Broadband femtosecond OPCPA system driven by the single-shot narrow-band iodine photodissociation laser SOFIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-stage optical parametric amplifier driven by a frequency-tripled beam from the high-energy iodine laser system SOFIA was built. This single-shot Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse-Amplification facility (OPCPA) and the system synchronizing the pump and signal pulses are described in detail. The chirped seed pulse of a Ti:sapphire oscillator running at the central wavelength of 800 nm is amplified in the two-stage (LBO and KDP) optical parametric amplifier over 108 times. The amplified spectral bandwidth of 68 nm corresponds to the pulse duration of 14 fs when a transform-limited pulse is assumed. This implies a compressed pulse of TW power. Systematic gain measurements reveal a good match with the theoretical predictions. Signal and idler beam fluence profiles are presented. The suitability of the iodine photo-dissociation laser as a pump source for the OPCPA technique is thus proved for the first time experimentally. A distinctive feature of the iodine laser is its very narrow gain bandwidth (<0.1 cm-1) and, therefore, the conventional chirped-pulse amplification technique does not lead to pulse durations at the femtosecond level.

Novk, O.; Tur?i?ov, H.; Smr, M.; Huynh, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Straka, P.

2012-09-01

120

Investigation of explosively pumped photodisassociation iodine laser with phase conjugation of super-high quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-steady-state theoretical and mathematical model and a complex of computer codes have been developed for modeling a high-power double-pass explosively pumped photo-dissociation iodine laser (EPDL) with phase conjugation (PC) at SBS. The model and the complex of codes taking into account 3D of space consist of two blocks. The first block is devoted to detailed modeling of the SBS mirror consisting of an angular selector of Stokes radiation, an ordered raster of small diffraction lenses, a main focusing lens, and a SBS cell. The second block describes the dynamics of radiation in the laser system as a whole with using SBS mirror parameters calculated in the first block. The model takes into account parasitic reflections of laser radiation from the elements of the optical scheme, intrinsic amplified spontaneous emission of the amplifiers, radiation losses in the optical path, non-uniformity of gain, and radiation refraction on optical non-uniformities of the active medium caused by a shock wave. As a result of calculations an optimal configuration of the SBS mirror has been determined, possessing unique properties if compared to the existing specimens of the SBS mirrors. It stably gives a nearly ideal quality of PC at any level of SBS saturation, i.e. any reflection coefficient that is confirmed by experimental laboratory investigations. Modeling of the laser sytem with two amplifiers at working mixture 25 Torr C3F7I+125 Torr Xe and amplifier aperture 15 cm has been shown a good agreement of calculated result with available experimental data in energy, time dependence of power and Strehl number of output radiation. The considered EPDL has output energy of about 400 J and brightness of about 1012 J/ster. Calculations show that under rising the density flux of input signal from the master oscillator in a range 0.01-20 W/cm2, the brightness of the EPDL output radiation increase whereas the full energy varies relativley slightly. It is shown that parasitic reflections of laser radiation from the ends of amplifiers and elements of the optical scheme with a coefficient exceeding 10-7 considerably decrease the axial brightness of output radiation. In order to reduce the harmful effect of parasitic reflections on brightness, the distance between the ampfiers should be increased.

Starikov, Fedor A.; Dolgopolov, Yu. V.; Dudov, A. M.; Gerasimenko, Natalia N.; Kirillov, Gennadi A.; Kochemasov, Gennady G.; Kulikov, Stanislav M.; Ladagin, Vladimir K.; Pevny, S. N.; Shkapa, A. F.; Smyshlyaev, Sergey P.; Sukharev, Stanislav A.; Zykov, L. I.

2003-11-01

121

Multiline (480--496 nm) discharge-pumped iodine monofluoride laser  

SciTech Connect

Lasing at 478.7, 484.7, 490.7, and 496.5 nm has been observed on the E..-->..A/sup 3/Pi (bound..-->..bound) band of the IF (iodine monofluoride) molecule in discharge-pumped He, Ar, CF/sub 3/I, and NF/sub 3/ gas mixtures. Oscillation was obtained using a stable optical cavity with output coupling mirror transmission of 0.2 and 92%. For a 99.7%-He, 0.2%-NF/sub 3/, and 0.1%-CF/sub 3/I (p/sub total/approx. =1540 Torr) gas mixture and Tapprox.92% (quartz flat), output pulse energies of approx.0.35 mJ in a approx.15-ns FWHM pulse (peak output power > or approx. =24 kW) were measured. Optimization of the cavity output coupling and increased Ar pressures in conjunction with the use of an attaching gas (to raise the discharge E/N) are expected to improve the output energy and, consequently, the overall efficiency of this blue-green laser.

Dlabal, M.L.; Hutchinson, S.B.; Eden, J.G.; Verdeyen, J.T.

1980-11-15

122

Closed-loop wavelength stabilization of an optical parametric oscillator as a front end of a high-power iodine laser chain.  

PubMed

We present a complex stabilization and control system for a commercially available optical parametric oscillator. The system is able to stabilize the oscillator's output wavelength at a narrow spectral line of atomic iodine with subpicometer precision, allowing utilization of this solid-state parametric oscillator as a front end of a high-power photodissociation laser chain formed by iodine gas amplifiers. In such setup, a precise wavelength matching between the front end and the amplifier chain is necessary due to extremely narrow spectral lines of the gaseous iodine (approximately 20 pm). The system is based on a personal computer, a heated iodine cell, and a few other low-cost components. It automatically identifies the proper peak within the iodine absorption spectrum, and then keeps the oscillator tuned to this peak with high precision and reliability. The use of the solid-state oscillator as the front end allows us to use the whole iodine laser system as a pump laser for the optical parametric chirped pulse amplification, as it enables precise time synchronization with a signal Ti:sapphire laser. PMID:17552809

Kral, L

2007-05-01

123

Prototype of a Laser-Induced Fluorescence Ground-Based Instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Iodine Monoxide (IO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer: (1) IO participates in depletion episodes of O3 and in the removal of mercury in the Arctic polar spring by enhancing atomic Br mixing ratios. Recent observations and computer simulations suggest that mercury sequestration is closely tied to halogen photochemistry and that gaseous atomic Hg depletion can be enhanced significantly by the presence of small amounts of iodine-containing compounds. (2) IO and higher- order iodine oxides are involved in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments. Studies using smog chamber experiments simulating coastal atmospheric conditions have demonstrated that new particles can form from condensable iodine-containing vapors and that their concentrations over the open ocean are sufficient to influence marine particle formation. (3) IO has also been shown to affect the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere by altering the partitioning of NO2/NO and HO2/HO and by activating chlorine and bromine in sea salt aerosols. In the stratosphere, these same processes can lead to enhanced ozone loss rates. Detailed photochemical models that include iodine photochemistry, however, are hampered by the lack of observational data. The distribution of IO in vertical, horizontal, and temporal coordinates is unknown, so the impact of IO on global photochemistry cannot be predicted. The resolution of these important scientific issues requires an in situ IO instrument. A fully functional nanosecond Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser system and a prototype IO ground-based instrument have been built in our lab. With the current setup, the laser system was situated 10 m from the field station, and the laser light was coupled via an optical fiber. With the use of highly efficient fluorescence detection optics and photon counting techniques, sensitivities of better than 0.1 ppt in 1 s for IO was achieved in the laboratory and 1-2 ppt in the field. The design of the instrument and data acquisition system will be described. The prototype was deployed to the Northeastern University Marine Science Center in Nahant, MA in August 2007. Laminaria macroalgae is known to be responsible for coastal I2 emissions, and Nahant has extensive populations of kelp within the shallow subtidal zone. Results from the field mission will be reported, and future developments of the instrument will be discussed. It is expected that a modified version of this new system will, in time, be capable of being integrated with the existing instrumentation used for the detection of halogen (ClO, BrO), nitrogen (NO2), and hydrogen (OH and HO2) free radicals.

Co, D. T.; Thurlow, M. E.; Hanisco, T. F.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J. G.

2007-12-01

124

Strong-field ionization of molecular iodine traced with XUV pulses from a free-electron laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafast dynamics of a molecular wave packet created by a strong 120-fs near-infrared (800 nm) laser pulse in iodine has been probed by synchronized 13.4-nm, 35-fs extreme-ultraviolet pulses delivered by the free-electron laser facility in Hamburg, FLASH. The kinetic energy release of the multiply charged ionic fragments reveals three essential steps of strong-field-induced molecular fragmentation dynamics: (i) The creation of I22+ and (I22+)* molecular ions proceeds within (75 15) fs full-width-at-half-maximum. (ii) With the onset of the I22+ fragmentation the probability to lose a further electron within the same optical laser pulse rises with increasing I+I+ internuclear separation and reaches its maximum after 30 fs with respect to the pulse maximum. (iii) Charge separation into the I22+?I2++I dissociative channel with an asymmetric charge distribution is completed after (121 22) fs.

Krikunova, Maria; Maltezopoulos, Theophilos; Wessels, Philipp; Schlie, Moritz; Azima, Armin; Gaumnitz, Thomas; Gebert, Thomas; Wieland, Marek; Drescher, Markus

2012-10-01

125

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Gas lasers with solar excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CONTENTS 1. Introduction 703 2. General requirements for laser media using solar excitation 704 3. Lasers with direct excitation by solar light 705 3.1. Basic characteristics of laser media. 3.2. Photodissociation Br2-CO2 lasers. 3.3. Interhalogen molecule lasers. 3.4. Iodine lasers. 3.5. Alkali metal vapor lasers. 4. Lasers with thermal conversion of solar pumping 709 4.1. General considerations. 4.2. CO2 laser with excitation in a black body cavity and with gas flow. 4.3. cw CO2 laser without gas flow. 5. Space laser media with solar excitation 713 5.1. Population inversion of molecular levels in the outer atmosphere of the Earth. 5.2. Laser effect in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. 5.3. Terrestrial experimental technique for observing infrared emission in the atmospheres of planets. 5.4. Designs for laser systems in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. 6. Conclusions 717 References 717

Gordiets, B. F.; Panchenko, Vladislav Ya

1986-07-01

126

The I2 dissociation mechanisms in the chemical oxygen-iodine laser revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently suggested mechanism of I2 dissociation in the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) [K. Waichman, B. D. Barmashenko, and S. Rosenwaks, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 063108 (2009); and J. Chem. Phys. 133, 084301 (2010)] was largely based on the suggestion of V. N. Azyazov, S. Yu. Pichugin, and M. C. Heaven [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 104306 (2009)] that the vibrational population of O2(a) produced in the chemical generator is high enough to play an essential role in the dissociation. The results of model calculations based on this mechanism agreed very well with measurements of the small signal gain g, I2 dissociation fraction F, and temperature T in the COIL. This mechanism is here revisited, following the recent experiments of M. V. Zagidullin [Quantum Electron. 40, 794 (2010)] where the observed low population of O2(b, v = 1) led to the conclusion that the vibrational population of O2(a) at the outlet of the generator is close to thermal equilibrium value. This value corresponds to a very small probability, ~0.05, of O2(a) energy pooling to the states O2(X,a,b, v > 0). We show that the dissociation mechanism can reproduce the experimentally observed values of g, F, and T in the COIL only if most of the energy released in the processes of O2(a) energy pooling and O2(b) quenching by H2O ends up as vibrational energy of the products, O2(X,a,b), where the vibrational states v = 2 and 3 are significantly populated. We discuss possible reasons for the differences in the suggested vibrational population and explain how these differences can be reconciled.

Waichman, K.; Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

2012-06-01

127

Analytic study of the chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides - atomic iodine donors - in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser: 2. Limiting parameters of the branching chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides  

SciTech Connect

The final stages in the development of a branching chain decomposition reaction of iodide in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) are analysed. Approximate expressions are derived to calculate the limiting parameters of the chain reaction: the final degree of iodide decomposition, the maximum concentration of excited iodine atoms, the time of its achievement, and concentrations of singlet oxygen and iodide at that moment. The limiting parameters, calculated by using these expressions for a typical composition of the active medium of a pulsed COIL, well coincide with the results of numerical calculations. (active media)

Andreeva, Tamara L; Kuznetsova, S V; Maslov, Aleksandr I; Sorokin, Vadim N [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-08-31

128

Optical frequency standard based on a Nd:YAG laser stabilised by saturated absorption resonances in molecular iodine using second-harmonic radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of studies devoted to the development of the optical frequency standard based on a diode-pumped 1064-nm single-frequency ring Nd:YAG laser with intracavity frequency doubling are presented. The laser frequency was stabilised by saturated absorption resonances in molecular iodine at the second-harmonic frequency of the laser (at 532 nm). The saturated absorption resonances were observed in an external luminescent

Mikhail N Skvortsov; M V Okhapkin; A Yu Nevsky; Sergei N Bagaev

2004-01-01

129

Analysis of lasing in chemical oxygen-iodine lasers with unstable resonators using a geometric-optics model.  

PubMed

A simple geometric-optics model is developed that describes the power extraction in chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COILs) with unstable resonators. The positive and negative branch unstable resonators with cylindrical mirrors that were recently used in COILs are studied theoretically. The optical extraction efficiency, spatial distributions of the intracavity radiation intensity in the flow direction, and the intensity in the far field are calculated for both kinds of resonator as a function of both the resonator and the COIL parameters. The optimal resonator magnifications that correspond to the maximum intensity in the far field are found. PMID:19412214

Barmashenko, Boris D

2009-05-01

130

Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser Diluted by CO2/N2 Buffer Gases with a Cryosorption Vacuum Pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were carried out on a verti-chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL), which was designed for N2 and energized by a square-pipe jet singlet oxygen generator (JSOG). A cryosorption vacuum pump was used as the pressure recovery system for CO2 and N2 buffer gases. The output power with CO2 was 27.3% lower than that with N2, but the zeolite bed showed an adsorption capacity threefold higher for CO2 than for N2 in the continuous operation with a Cl2 flow rate of 155 mmol/s and a total flow rate of 430 3 mmol/s.

Xu, Mingxiu; Sang, Fengting; Jin, Yuqi; Fang, Benjie; Chen, Fang; Geng, Zicai; Li, Yongzhao

2008-11-01

131

Direct evidence of the generality of charge-asymmetric dissociation of molecular iodine ionized by strong laser fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present ion time-of-flight data showing strong-field ionization of iodine molecules up to I13+2 using 33-fsec laser pulses. Every even molecular charge state shows an charge asymmetric dissociation channel (I2n+2-->I(n+1)++I(n-1)+) with a significant branching ratio (15-30 %) in addition to the symmetric dissociation channel (I2n+2-->In++In+) showing the general nature of this process. Furthermore, all charge states are formed at internuclear

G. N. Gibson; M. Li; C. Guo; J. P. Nibarger

1998-01-01

132

A simplified analytic model for gain saturation and power extraction in the flowing chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development of a simplified saturation model (SSM) for predicting power extraction from a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). Using the Fabry-Perot gain saturation assumption, analytic expressions for COIL extraction efficiency are presented for both constant-density and variable-density cavity conditions. The model treats mirror scattering, nonsaturable distributed losses, and diffractive losses from the mode-limiting aperture and is shown to be in excellent agreement with experimental COIL power extraction data. A comparison of the model with the Rigrod power extraction model is presented showing that the Rigrod model accurately predicts COIL extraction efficiency only in the limit that the COIL device no longer behaves as a transfer laser.

Hager, G.D.; Helms, C.A.; Truesdell, K.A. [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Plummer, D.; Erkkila, J.; Crowell, P. [Logicon RDA, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-09-01

133

Iodine Absorption-Line-Stabilized Frequency-Tunable Green Light Using Sum-Frequency Generation of Diode Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A precision frequency-tunable green light source, which involves a frequency reference using a molecular iodine absorption resonance and a tuner, has been demonstrated. The green coherent light was obtained by sum-frequency generation using a 0.82 m AlGaAs laser and a 1.54 m distributed-feedback (DFB) laser in a KTP crystal. The reference frequency was locked to an I2 absorption resonance and the residual frequency fluctuation was estimated to be within 0.5 MHz. A frequency-tunable range of 5 THz was obtained. Heterodyne beat signals were obtained to measure the frequency difference between the frequency reference and the tunable output. This system was also proposed for measuring the frequency spacings between different resonances of a molecular absorption spectrum.

Wang, Weizhi; Ohtsu, Motoichi

1994-03-01

134

A Ground-Based Instrument for the Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection of Coastal Iodine Monoxide (IO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photochemistry of iodine monoxide (IO) within the marine boundary layer plays a role in the catalytic loss cycles of surface ozone and potentially leads to the nucleation of marine aerosols. Biogenic emissions of molecular iodine and organo-halide precursor molecules account for the largest sources of IO in marine and coastal environments. Due to the inhomogeneous distribution of atmospheric IO in conjunction with low mixing ratios of less than 10 ppt, high sensitivity in-situ measurements are needed in order to better understand the impact of IO photochemistry in a quantifiable way. To address these challenges, a laser-induced fluorescence instrument has been developed, with a nanosecond-pulsed Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser system. Through efficient optical design and fluorescence detection, we are able to operate in the sensitivity threshold of 1 ppt per minute for IO. Further design considerations included the development of a mobile, weatherproof instrument configuration, which can sustain deployment in a variety of field conditions. In order to validate the detection technique, the instrument was deployed at Shoals Marine Laboratory in Maine from August-September 2011. Instrument design considerations as well as preliminary results of the detection of IO from laminaria digitata, a kelp species present in coastal New England sites, will be presented.

Hannun, R. A.; Thurlow, M. E.; O'Brien, A.; Co, D. T.; Hanisco, T. F.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J.

2011-12-01

135

2D gasdynamic simulation of the kinetics of an oxygen-iodine laser with electric-discharge generation of singlet oxygen  

SciTech Connect

The kinetic processes occurring in an electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser are analyzed with the help of a 2D (r, z) gasdynamic model taking into account transport of excited oxygen, singlet oxygen, and radicals from the electric discharge and their mixing with the iodine-containing gas. The main processes affecting the dynamics of the gas temperature and gain are revealed. The simulation results obtained using the 2D model agree well with the experimental data on the mixture gain. A subsonic oxygen-iodine laser in which singlet oxygen is generated by a 350 W transverse RF discharge excited in an oxygen flow at a pressure P = 10 Torr and the discharge tube wall is covered with mercury oxide is simulated. The simulated mixing system is optimized in terms of the flow rate and the degree of preliminary dissociation of the iodine flow. The optimal regime of continuous operation of a subsonic electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser is found.

Chukalovsky, A. A.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Klopovsky, K. S.; Mankelevich, Yu. A.; Proshina, O. V. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2011-03-15

136

A Novel Maximum Power Point Tracking Strategy for Stand-alone Solar Pumping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel hybrid maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control strategy for stand-alone solar pumping systems without backup batteries is proposed in this paper. The whole control process consists of two steps: the judgment of speed up or down and the selection of step size of speed command. Basically, the system with the proposed MPPT strategy is controlled by a normal

Guo Heng; Xu Zheng; Li You-Chun; Wang Hui

2005-01-01

137

Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) beam quality predictions using 3D Navier-Stokes (MINT) and wave optics (OCELOT) codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a series of analyses using the 3-d MINT Navier-Stokes and OCELOT wave optics codes to calculate beam quality in a COIL laser cavity. To make this analysis tractable, the problem was broken into two contributions to the medium quality; that associated with microscale disturbances primarily from the transverse iodine injectors, and that associated with the macroscale including

Alan I. Lampson; David N. Plummer; John H. Erkkila; Peter G. Crowell; Charles A. Helms

1998-01-01

138

Iodine Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. However, about 50% of Europe remains mildly iodine deficient, and iodine intakes in other industrialized countries, including the United States

M. B. Zimmermann

2009-01-01

139

Three-block model of the kinetics of vibrationally excited I{sub 2}(X) molecules in the active media of oxygen - iodine lasers  

SciTech Connect

A three-block model of the kinetics of vibrationally excited I{sub 2}(X) molecules in the active media of chemical oxygen - iodine lasers is developed. Instead of the system of equations describing a change in the concentrations of I{sub 2}(X, u) (u=0 - 47) molecules, this model uses equations for the total concentrations of iodine molecules belonging to the blocks of vibrational levels with u {<=} 10, u = 11 - 24, and u {>=} 25. Effective deactivation rate constants of I{sub 2}(X, 11 {<=} u {<=} 24) molecules are found for laser media of different compositions. The results of calculations performed using the proposed model agree with experimental data and are close to the parameters calculated previously by using the total system of equations for populations of individual vibrational levels of I{sub 2}(X, u). (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Pichugin, S Yu [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

2012-09-30

140

Optical frequency standard based on a Nd:YAG laser stabilised by saturated absorption resonances in molecular iodine using second-harmonic radiation  

SciTech Connect

The results of studies devoted to the development of the optical frequency standard based on a diode-pumped 1064-nm single-frequency ring Nd:YAG laser with intracavity frequency doubling are presented. The laser frequency was stabilised by saturated absorption resonances in molecular iodine at the second-harmonic frequency of the laser (at 532 nm). The saturated absorption resonances were observed in an external luminescent cell. The relative long-term frequency stability achieved in experiments was {approx}6x10{sup -15}. The physical and technical factors affecting the long-term frequency stability and reproducibility are investigated. (optical metrology and quantum frequency standards)

Skvortsov, Mikhail N; Okhapkin, M V; Nevsky, A Yu; Bagaev, Sergei N [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2004-12-31

141

Analytic study of the chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides - atomic iodine donors - in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser: 1. Criteria for the development of the branching chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides  

SciTech Connect

The scheme of chemical processes proceeding in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is analysed. Based on the analysis performed, the complete system of differential equations corresponding to this scheme is replaced by a simplified system of equations describing in dimensionless variables the chain dark decomposition of iodides - atomic iodine donors, in the COIL active medium. The procedure solving this system is described, the basic parameters determining the development of the chain reaction are found and its specific time intervals are determined. The initial stage of the reaction is analysed and criteria for the development of the branching chain decomposition reaction of iodide in the COIL active medium are determined. (active media)

Andreeva, Tamara L; Kuznetsova, S V; Maslov, Aleksandr I; Sorokin, Vadim N [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-02-28

142

Hydrogen pumped iodine laser study. Final report May 1976-September 1979  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data relative to attempts to induce lasing at 1.3154 microns in a chemical atomic iodine medium are presented. The critical issue was the establishment of high number densities of hydrogen atoms. First, atomic hydrogen was prepared by shock-heating mixtures of H2 in Ar. The plenum gases were accelerated through a nozzle bank and molecular HI was injected into the flow. Medium diagnostics were conducted in a windowed section downstream of the nozzle exit plane, on both 3 in. and 12 in. nozzle arrays. All attempts employing the shock tube to induce lasing in this chemical system were unsuccessful and measurements of small signal gain yielded ambiguous results. The major problem was probably loss of hydrogen atoms by wall recombustion. Following this, a CW approach for the in-situ chemical formation of atomic hydrogen involving reaction between sodium vapor and HI was tested in a flow reactor. Double-resonance gain measurements indicated loss rather than gain. Shock-tube experiments using conditions that previously yielded gain were repeated using the double-resonance gain diagnostic, and only loss was found. On the basis of these experimental results, it is recommended that efforts to obtain lasing from a hydrogen pumped iodine medium be discontinued.

Blauer, J.A.; Raymonda, J.W.; Janiak, D.R.; Hager, G.D.; Shortridge, R.

1980-07-01

143

Review of the simple model for metal cutting with the chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COIL has drawn considerable attention owing to its short, fiber-deliverable wavelength, scalability to very high powers, and nearly diffraction-limited optical quality. These unique abilities make it an ideal candidate for rapid cutting of thick metals and other laser materials processing applications. Cutting experiments have been conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory Chemical Laser Facility for a number of

William P. Latham; Aravinda Kar

2000-01-01

144

The electric oxygen-iodine laser: Chemical kinetics of O2(a 1 ?) production and I(2P1\\/2) excitation in microwave discharge systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation of singlet oxygen metastables, O2(a 1 ?), in an electric discharge plasma offers the potential for development of compact electric oxygen-iodine laser (EOIL) systems using a recyclable, all-gas-phase medium. The primary technical challenge for this concept is to develop a high-power, scalable electric discharge configuration that can produce high yields and flow rates of O2(a) to support I( 2

W. T. Rawlins; S. Lee; W. J. Kessler; D. B. Oakes; L. G. Piper; S. J. Davis

145

The electric oxygen-iodine laser: chemical kinetics of O2(a1Delta) production and I(2 P1\\/2) excitation in microwave discharge systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation of singlet oxygen metastables, O2(a1Delta), in an electric discharge plasma offers the potential for development of compact electric oxygen-iodine laser (EOIL) systems using a recyclable, all-gas-phase medium. The primary technical challenge for this concept is to develop a high-power, scalable electric discharge configuration that can produce high yields and flow rates of O2(a) to support I(2P1\\/2->2P3\\/2) lasing at high

W. T. Rawlins; S. Lee; W. J. Kessler; D. B. Oakes; L. G. Piper; S. J. Davis

2006-01-01

146

Investigation of an explosively pumped photo-dissociation iodine laser with phase conjugation of super-high quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of simulations and experiments on a high-power double-pass explosively pumped photo-dissociation iodine laser (EPDL) with phase conjugation (PC) are presented. The laser system consists of a master oscillator, two exploding amplifiers with a working mixture 25 Torr C3F7I+125 Torr Xe and amplifier aperture of 15 cm, and an SBS-mirror. The SBS mirror consists of an angular selector of Stokes radiation, an ordered raster of small diffraction lenses, a main focusing lens, and an SBS cell. The calculation model and the computer code package take into account the actual three-dimensionality of space, transient effects at SBS, parasitic reflections of laser radiation from elements of the optical scheme, intrinsic amplified spontaneous emission of amplifiers, radiation losses in the optical path, non-uniformity of gain, and radiation refraction on optical non-uniformities of the active medium caused by a shock wave. In the laser system, an optimal configuration of the SBS mirror is used. It possesses unique properties if compared to the existing specimens of SBS mirrors. It stably gives a nearly ideal quality of PC at any level of SBS saturation, i.e. any reflection coefficient that has been confirmed by experimental laboratory investigations. As a result of investigations, a good agreement of calculated results with available experimental data has been demonstrated in energy, time dependence of power and Strehl number of output radiation. The considered EPDL has output energy of about 400 J and brightness of about 1012 J/sr. It has been found that with the increase of the flux density of an input signal from the master oscillator in the range 0.01-20 W/cm2 the brightness of EPDL output radiation increases as well whereas the full energy varies relatively slightly. It has been shown that parasitic reflections of laser radiation from the ends of amplifiers and elements of the optical scheme with a coefficient exceeding 10-7 considerably decrease the axial brightness of output radiation. In order to reduce the harmful effect of parasitic reflections on brightness the distance between amplifiers should be increased.

Starikov, Fedor A.; Dolgopolov, Yu. V.; Dudov, A. M.; Gerasimenko, Natalia N.; Kirillov, Gennadi A.; Kochemasov, Gennady G.; Kopalkin, A. V.; Kovaldov, S. A.; Kulikov, Stanislav M.; Ladagin, Vladimir K.; Pevny, S. N.; Shkapa, A. F.; Smyshlyaev, Sergey P.; Sukharev, Stanislav A.; Zykov, L. I.

2004-06-01

147

PHYSICAL PHENOMENA ACCOMPANYING THE GENERATION AND AMPLIFICATION OF LASER RADIATION: Investigation of elementary stages of the CF3 + I + M ? CF3I + M recombination process using an iodine photodissociation laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements were made of the rate constant of the CF3 + I + M?CF3I + M recombination process as a function of the pressure of various buffer gases (M = Xe, SF6, CF3I, C5F12). An analysis was made of a method of measuring the recombination rate constants for perfluoroalkyl radicals using an iodine laser developed previously and improved in the present study. The main parameters of the elementary stages of the recombination process involving CF3 radicals and ground-state iodine atoms were determined from the dependences k( [M] ) using formulas from the simplified theory of monomolecular decay.

Kuznetsova, S. V.; Maslov, A. I.

1989-05-01

148

Deactivation rate of I{sub 2} molecules (X, v {>=} 30) in the medium of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

The effective deactivation rate constants are calculated for I{sub 2}(X) molecules at vibrational levels with v {>=} 30 colliding with N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} molecules in the medium of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser. The calculated constants (4x10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} and 3x10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}) are less by half plus than the corresponding constants found earlier in the paper of Lawrence et al., where the dissociation of I{sub 2} was neglected in calculations. (lasers, active media)

Pichugin, S Yu [Samara Branch of the P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

2008-08-31

149

Iodine deficiency.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. However, about 50% of Europe remains mildly iodine deficient, and iodine intakes in other industrialized countries, including the United States and Australia, have fallen in recent years. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy and infancy may impair growth and neurodevelopment of the offspring and increase infant mortality. Deficiency during childhood reduces somatic growth and cognitive and motor function. Assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goiter, newborn TSH, and blood thyroglobulin. But assessment of iodine status in pregnancy is difficult, and it remains unclear whether iodine intakes are sufficient in this group, leading to calls for iodine supplementation during pregnancy in several industrialized countries. In most countries, the best strategy to control iodine deficiency in populations is carefully monitored universal salt iodization, one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. Achieving optimal iodine intakes from iodized salt (in the range of 150-250 microg/d for adults) may minimize the amount of thyroid dysfunction in populations. Ensuring adequate iodine status during parenteral nutrition has become important, particularly in preterm infants, as the use of povidone-iodine disinfectants has declined. Introduction of iodized salt to regions of chronic iodine deficiency may transiently increase the incidence of thyroid disorders, but overall, the relatively small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency. PMID:19460960

Zimmermann, Michael B

2009-05-21

150

INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH TARGETS Tomographic imaging of a target directly irradiated in experiments on the Iskra-5 iodine laser facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We set forth the data of experiments involving direct microtarget irradiation by the 12 second-harmonic beams (? = 0.66 ?m) of iodine laser radiation carried out on the Iskra-5 facility. For microtargets we employed glass shells ~500 ?m in diameter with ~1-?m thick walls, which were filled with a DT mixture at a pressure pDT approx 3-4 atm. In one of these experiments, a tomographic image of the microtarget was recorded from the images obtained using pinhole cameras, which were arranged along seven different directions. The pinhole images were acquired in the X-ray radiation with photon energies above 1.5 keV. The procedure used for reconstructing the volume luminosity of the microtarget is described. An analysis of the tomographic image suggests that the compressed microtarget domain possesses a complex asymmetric shape; 20-30 ?m sized structural elements being clearly visible. The resultant data set allowed us to estimate the initial nonuniformity of microtarget surface irradiation by the laser radiation. The rms nonuniformity of microtarget irradiance was estimated at ~60 %.

Bondarenko, S. V.; Garanin, R. V.; Garanin, Sergey G.; Zhidkov, N. V.; Oreshkov, O. V.; Potapov, S. V.; Suslov, N. A.; Frolova, N. V.

2010-12-01

151

IODINE125  

Microsoft Academic Search

There may be some advantage in substituting iodine-125 for iodine-131 in ; a number of clinical and experimental situations. Among these advantages are: ; the long half life of iodine-125 (60 days), which results in a greatly increased ; shelf-life of tagged compounds; the low energy (27 kev) of its photon radiations, ; which reduces shielding requirements and permits more

P. V. Harper; W. D. Siemens; K. A. Lathrop; H. E. Brizel; R. W. Harrison

1961-01-01

152

FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Pulse Operation of Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser by Pulsed Gas Discharge with the Assistance of Spark Pre-ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous wavelength chemical oxygen-iodine laser can be turned into pulse operation mode in order to obtain high energy and high pulse power. We propose an approach to produce iodine atoms instantaneously by pulsed gas discharge with the assistance of spark pre-ionization to achieve the pulsed goal. The influence of spark pre-ionization on discharge homogeneity is discussed. Voltage-current characteristics are shown and discussed in existence of the pre-ionization capacitor and peaking capacitor. The spark pre-ionization and peaking capacitor are very helpful in obtaining a stable and homogeneous discharge. The lasing is achieved at the total pressure of 2.2-2.9kPa and single pulse energy is up to 180 mJ, the corresponding specific output energy is 1.0 J/L.

Li, Guo-Fu; Yu, Hai-Jun; Duo, Li-Ping; Jin, Yu-Qi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Feng-Ting; Fang, Ben-Jie; Wang, De-Zhen

2009-11-01

153

Review of the simple model for metal cutting with the chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The COIL has drawn considerable attention owing to its short, fiber-deliverable wavelength, scalability to very high powers, and nearly diffraction-limited optical quality. These unique abilities make it an ideal candidate for rapid cutting of thick metals and other laser materials processing applications. Cutting experiments have been conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory Chemical Laser Facility for a number of metals including stainless steel, nickel, copper, titanium and aluminum. A simple model for the cutting performance has been very successful in predicting the cutting sped and depth for most of these materials. Different assumptions of this model produce very little effect on the model predictions at high cutting speeds an a small difference at very slow cutting speeds. Additional physical effects such as the effects of vaporization, which can be significant at slow cutting speeds when cutting very thick sections, is incorporated into the model. This paper demonstrates how various assumptions within the derivation of the model can lead to different forms of the scaling law.

Latham, William P.; Kar, Aravinda

2000-01-01

154

LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: The 2P1\\/2 --> 2P3\\/2 laser transition in atomic iodine and the problem of search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed to search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) at a wavelength of 1.315 mum of the laser 2P1\\/2 --> 2P3\\/2 transition in the atomic iodine, which can be used for this purpose as the natural frequency reference. The search at this wavelength is promising because active quantum filters (AQFs) with the quantum sensitivity limit have been developed

Yu F. Kutaev; S. K. Mankevich; O. Yu Nosach; E. P. Orlov

2007-01-01

155

Kinetic-fluid dynamics modeling of I{sub 2} dissociation in supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine lasers  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of I{sub 2} dissociation in supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COILs) is studied applying kinetic-fluid dynamics modeling, where pathways involving the excited species I{sub 2}(X {sup 1}SIGMA{sub g}{sup +},10<=v<25), I{sub 2}(X {sup 1}SIGMA{sub g}{sup +},25<=v<=47), I{sub 2}(A{sup '} {sup 3}PI{sub 2u}), I{sub 2}(A {sup 3}PI{sub 1u}), O{sub 2}(X {sup 3}SIGMA{sub g}{sup -},v), O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}DELTA{sub g},v), O{sub 2}(b {sup 1}SIGMA{sub g}{sup +},v), and I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) as intermediate reactants are included. The gist of the model is adding the first reactant and reducing the contribution of the second as compared to previous models. These changes, recently suggested by Azyazov, et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 104306 (2009)], significantly improve the agreement with the measurements of the gain in a low pressure supersonic COIL for all I{sub 2} flow rates that have been tested in the experiments. In particular, the lack of agreement for high I{sub 2} flow rates, which was encountered in previous models, has been eliminated in the present model. It is suggested that future modeling of the COIL operation should take into account the proposed contribution of the above mentioned reactants.

Waichman, K. [Department of Physics, NRCN, P.O. Box 9001, Beer Sheva 89140 (Israel); Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2009-09-15

156

Generation of iodine L-shell X-rays under excitation of large CF3I clusters by femtosecond laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of clusters of polyatomic molecules with a relatively low ionisation energy (~10 eV) is proposed for the efficient production of X-ray radiation. We have observed for the first time the generation of characteristic X-ray radiation due to L transitions in iodine atoms under the high-intensity femtosecond laser irradiation of molecular CF3I clusters, which were a small admixture to Ar carrier gas. The X-ray conversion efficiency amounts to ~10-6 (for a yield of ~107 photons per pulse), which is an order of magnitude higher than the efficiency we obtained in the case of argon clusters under comparable conditions.

Gordienko, Vyacheslav M.; Dzhidzhoev, M. S.; Zhvaniya, I. A.; Pribytkov, Andrei V.; Trubnikov, Dmitrii N.; Fedorov, D. O.

2012-11-01

157

Effect of the solution temperature in a singlet-oxygen generator on the formation of active medium in an ejector oxygen - iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

The influence of the solution temperature in a singlet-oxygen generator on the formation of the active medium in the ejector oxygen - iodine laser is investigated. The following parameters of the active medium at the solution temperature -20{sup 0}C are obtained: the gain is 7.2 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup -1}, the Mach number is M=2, the temperature is 205 K, and the static pressure is 9.3 mmHg. As the solution temperature is increased to -4{sup 0}C, the gain decreases to 5 x 10{sup 3} cm{sup -1}, the Mach number decreases to 1.78, while the temperature and the static pressure increase to 241 K and 10.7 mmHg, respectively. As the solution temperature increases from -20 to -4{sup 0}C, the losses in O{sub 2}({sup 1}{Delta}) increase by less than 20%, while the dissociation efficiency of molecular iodine decreases by less than 21%. (lasers, active media)

Zagidullin, M V; Nikolaev, V D; Svistun, M I; Khvatov, N A [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation); Palina, N Yu [Samara State University, Samara (Russian Federation)

2002-02-28

158

Blackbody-pumped CO2 laser experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal radiation from a high temperature oven was used as an optical pump to achieve lasing from CO2 mixtures. Laser output as a function of blackbody temperature and gas conditions is described. This achievement represents the first blackbody cavity pumped laser and has potential for solar pumping. Previously announced in STAR as N83-10420

Christiansen, W. H.; Insuik, R. J.

1983-07-01

159

Generation of iodine L-shell X-rays under excitation of large CF{sub 3}I clusters by femtosecond laser radiation  

SciTech Connect

The use of clusters of polyatomic molecules with a relatively low ionisation energy ({approx}10 eV) is proposed for the efficient production of X-ray radiation. We have observed for the first time the generation of characteristic X-ray radiation due to L transitions in iodine atoms under the high-intensity femtosecond laser irradiation of molecular CF{sub 3}I clusters, which were a small admixture to Ar carrier gas. The X-ray conversion efficiency amounts to {approx}10{sup -6} (for a yield of {approx}10{sup 7} photons per pulse), which is an order of magnitude higher than the efficiency we obtained in the case of argon clusters under comparable conditions. (letters)

Gordienko, Vyacheslav M; Dzhidzhoev, M S; Zhvaniya, I A; Pribytkov, Andrei V; Trubnikov, Dmitrii N; Fedorov, D O

2012-11-30

160

OPTICAL METROLOGY AND QUANTUM FREQUENCY STANDARDS: Optical frequency standard based on a Nd:YAG laser stabilised by saturated absorption resonances in molecular iodine using second-harmonic radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies devoted to the development of the optical frequency standard based on a diode-pumped 1064-nm single-frequency ring Nd:YAG laser with intracavity frequency doubling are presented. The laser frequency was stabilised by saturated absorption resonances in molecular iodine at the second-harmonic frequency of the laser (at 532 nm). The saturated absorption resonances were observed in an external luminescent cell. The relative long-term frequency stability achieved in experiments was ~610-15. The physical and technical factors affecting the long-term frequency stability and reproducibility are investigated.

Skvortsov, Mikhail N.; Okhapkin, M. V.; Nevsky, A. Yu; Bagaev, Sergei N.

2004-12-01

161

A blackbody radiation-pumped CO2 laser experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal radiation from a high temperature oven was used as an optical pump to achieve lasing from CO2 mixtures. Laser output as a function of blackbody temperature and gas conditions is described. This achievement represents the first blackbody cavity pumped laser and has potential for solar pumping.

Christiansen, W. H.; Insuik, R. J.; Deyoung, R. J.

1982-09-01

162

Iodine-deficiency disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed iodine-deficiency disorders. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration,

Michael B Zimmermann; Pieter L Jooste; Chandrakant S Pandav

2008-01-01

163

The influence of cholesterol on the main phase transition of unilamellar dipalmytoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles. A differential scanning calorimetry and iodine laser T-jump study.  

PubMed Central

The influence of cholesterol (CHOL) on the main phase transition in single shell dipalmytoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles was investigated in equilibrium and kinetic experiments. CHOL increases the optical density and causes a slight hysteresis in turbidity transition curves. Static fluorescence anisotropy measurements showed interesting differences for three probes sensing different parts in the hydrophobic region of the phospholipid bilayer. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) peaks can be separated into a narrow and a broad component. The narrow component, which decreases linearly with increasing CHOL content and disappears at 20 mol %, is attributed to the transition of free phospholipid, while the broad component, being associated with the transition of CHOL-lipid units, increases monotoniously from 0 to 20%. Kinetic experiments were performed on our iodine-laser T-jump arrangement with turbidity detection. Three cooperative relaxation signals in the microsecond and millisecond time range were detected for pure DPPC vesicles as well as vesicles containing 7.5 and 16.5 mol % CHOL. All three relaxation processes were changed by CHOL: the superposition of the three relaxation amplitudes can be separated into a narrow and a broad component, as in DSC experiments. A speculative model is presented which assumes an inhomogeneous CHOL distribution fluctuating on a millisecond time scale in the temperature region of the main phase transition.

Genz, A; Holzwarth, J F; Tsong, T Y

1986-01-01

164

Iodine Excess and Hyperthyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

150 mg iodine are daily required for thyroid hormone synthesis. The thyroid gland has intrinsic mechanisms that maintain normal thyroid function even in the presence of iodine excess. Large quantities of iodide are pres- ent in drugs, antiseptics, contrast media and food preservatives. Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is frequently observed in patients affected by euthyroid iodine deficient goiter when suddenly exposed

Elio Roti; Ettore Degli Uberti

2001-01-01

165

Iodine volatility. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

1984-01-01

166

GAS LASERS: Some relationships governing amplification of a two-frequency signal in the active medium of an iodine photodissociation amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of numerical modeling and experimental results are used to show that effective amplification of two-frequency short optical signals is possible in the active medium of an iodine photodissociation amplifier.

Kiselev, V. M.; Grenishin, A. S.; Rodina, L. I.

1987-06-01

167

The {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {yields} {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} laser transition in atomic iodine and the problem of search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

It is proposed to search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) at a wavelength of 1.315 {mu}m of the laser {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {yields} {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transition in the atomic iodine, which can be used for this purpose as the natural frequency reference. The search at this wavelength is promising because active quantum filters (AQFs) with the quantum sensitivity limit have been developed for this wavelength, which are capable of receiving laser signals, consisting of only a few photons, against the background of emission from a star under study. In addition, high-power iodine lasers emitting diffraction-limited radiation at 1.315 {mu}m have been created, which highly developed ETI also can have. If a ETI sends in our direction a diffraction-limited 10-ns, 1-kJ laser pulse with the beam diameter of 10 m, a receiver with an AQF mounted on a ten-meter extra-atmospheric optical telescope can detect this signal at a distance of up to 300 light years, irrespective of the ETI position on the celestial sphere. The realisation of the projects for manufacturing optical telescopes of diameter 30 m will increase the research range up to 2700 light years. A weak absorption of the 1.315-{mu}m radiation in the Earth atmosphere (the signal is attenuated by less than 20%) allows the search for ETI signals by using ground telescopes equipped with adaptive optical systems. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K ['Astrofizika' Research and Production Association (Russian Federation); Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-07-31

168

Lasers '85; Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference, Las Vegas, NV, Dec. 2-6, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The present conference on laser technology development encompasses issues in such areas as VUV and X-ray lasers; optical phase conjugation and nonlinear optics; laser applications in medicine; methods for optical processing; laser and nonlinear spectroscopy; ultrashort-pulse lasers and their applications; frequency selection in pulsed lasers; and interactions between laser beams, material surfaces, and material volumes. Also treated are laser applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative program, chemical laser design and performance, the lasing of biophysical materials, laser diagnostics in fluids and plasma, semiconductor laser diodes and arrays, solid state lasers, radiation- and solar-pumped lasers, laser cavities and propagation, remote sensing with lasers and fiber-optics, coupled resonators and diode lasers, industrial applications of lasers, excimer lasers, optoelectronics, CO/sub 2/ lasers, fiber-optic sensors, alexandrite lasers, free electron lasers, and IR and visible wavelength lasers.

Wang, C.P.

1986-01-01

169

Iodine-deficiency disorders.  

PubMed

2 billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed iodine-deficiency disorders. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goitre, newborn thyroid-stimulating hormone, and blood thyroglobulin. In nearly all countries, the best strategy to control iodine deficiency is iodisation of salt, which is one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. When iodisation of salt is not possible, iodine supplements can be given to susceptible groups. Introduction of iodised salt to regions of chronic iodine-deficiency disorders might transiently increase the proportion of thyroid disorders, but overall the small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency. International efforts to control iodine-deficiency disorders are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges. PMID:18676011

Zimmermann, Michael B; Jooste, Pieter L; Pandav, Chandrakant S

2008-10-01

170

Laser satellite power systems - Concepts and issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by Earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the Earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by a laser beam. The laser SPS is an alternative to the microwave SPS. Lasers and how they work are described, as are the types of lasers - electric discharge, direct and indirect solar pumped, free electron, and closed-cycle chemical - that are candidates for application in a laser SPS. The advantages of a laser SPS over the microwave alternative are pointed out. One such advantage is that, for the same power delivered to the utility busbar, land requirements for a laser system are much smaller (by a factor of 21) than those for a microwave system. The four laser SPS concepts that have been presented in the literature are described and commented on. Finally key issues for further laser SPS research are discussed.

Walbridge, E. W.

171

Iodine neutron capture therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid

Kazi Fariduddin Ahmed

1999-01-01

172

Advanced solar energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

Lee, J. H.

1981-08-01

173

Deep well solar pump  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in a pump having a source of gas under pressure, and a gas operated pump, a mechanism periodically injecting gas from the source of gas into the gas operated pump. It comprises: a long period pendulum turning towards a first position by gravity, an injection valve connected between the source of gas under pressure and the gas operated pump, a linkage between the pendulum and the injection valve. The linkage opening the injection valve when the pendulum is in the first position, an impulse tube connected between the injection valve and the gas operated pump, a member having a surface adjacent to the first position of the pendulum, and an elastic impulse bladder connected to the impulse tube adjacent to the surface so that inflation of the impulse bladder on the opening of the injection valve forces the impulse bladder against the pendulum urging the pendulum against the force of gravity toward a second position.

Vanek, J.

1990-02-06

174

Lasers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)|

Schewe, Phillip F.

1981-01-01

175

Lasers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

Schewe, Phillip F.

1981-01-01

176

Iodine Clock Reaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)|

Mitchell, Richard S.

1996-01-01

177

Breastmilk Iodine Concentrations Following Acute Dietary Iodine Intake.  

PubMed

Background: Breastmilk iodine levels may vary temporally in response to recent changes in dietary iodine intake. We assessed the effect of and time to peak breastmilk iodine levels after potassium iodine ingestion, which has never been studied and is important toward interpretation of future studies of breastmilk iodine measurements. Methods: Sixteen healthy lactating Boston-area women with no known thyroid disease were each given 600 g oral potassium iodide (KI) (456 g iodine) after an overnight fast. Iodine was measured in breastmilk and urine at baseline and hourly for 8 hours following iodine intake. All dietary iodine ingested during the study period was also measured. Results: Mean age of mothers was 30.2 4.1 (SD) years. Median (interquartile range, IQR) baseline iodine levels were 45.5 (IQR 34.5-169.0) g/L (breastmilk) and 67.5 (IQR 57.5-140.0) g/L (urine). Following 600 g KI administration, median increase in breastmilk iodine levels above baseline was 280.5 (IQR 71.5-338.0) g/L, and median peak breastmilk iodine concentration was 354 (IQR 315-495) g/L. Median time to peak breastmilk iodine levels following KI administration was 6 (IQR 5-7) hours. Dietary iodine sources provided an additional 36-685 g iodine intake during the 8-hour study. Conclusions: Following ingestion of 600 g KI, there is a measurable rise in breastmilk iodine concentrations, with peak levels occurring at 6 hours. These findings strongly suggest that breastmilk iodine concentrations should be interpreted in relation to recent iodine intake. PMID:22830631

Leung, Angela; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Heeren, Timothy; Pearce, Elizabeth

2012-07-25

178

Control of polarized iodine atom branching ratio in NaI photodissociation  

SciTech Connect

We report branching ratios between the ground and excited states of iodine atoms in the photodissociation of sodium iodide. We employ wave packet propagation techniques to study the optimal production of polarized iodine atoms and find experimentally realizable laser parameters to control the outcome. Application of a learning algorithm shows that the product branching can be controlled by suitably varying the time delay, the chirp, and the relative phase of the pump and control laser pulses. Periodic modulation of the polarized iodine atom branching ratio as a function of the delay between the firing of the two ultrashort laser pulses provides interesting insights into the photodissociation process.

Hosseini, Babak H. [ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Sadeghpour, H.R. [ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Balakrishnan, N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States)

2005-02-01

179

Iodine deficiency disorders in Europe.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are related to the degree of iodine deficiency. In European countries, characterized by mild to moderate iodine deficiency, neurological deficits or minor neuropsychological impairments have been described. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) ranged from 30 to 170 mcg/L, 141 millions of people were at risk of IDD, 97 millions were affected by goiter and 0.9 millions had an impaired mental development. Iodine prophylaxis is devoid of adverse reactions with the exception of sporadic cases of transitory hyperthyroidism, associated to the severity of iodine deficiency before the prophylaxis. The International Council for Control of IDD recommends an universal iodine prophylaxis, instituted gradually in severe iodine deficient countries. The total cost of universal iodine prophylaxis is very cheap compared to the social cost of goiter and cretinism. In conclusion, most European countries are still characterized by mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Iodine prophylaxis programs are already operating, its cost is irrelevant with respect to the undebatable beneficial impact on the health. Adverse effects are not observed except in severe iodine deficient areas where iodine intake was abruptly increased. PMID:11683547

Vitti, P; Rago, T; Aghini-Lombardi, F; Pinchera, A

2001-04-01

180

Iodine nutrition and breast feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the databanks Medline and Web of science identified studies dealing with maternal and infant iodine nutrition during breast feeding. The iodine concentration of human milk varies widely due to maternal iodine intake. Mean breast milk iodine concentrations are reported as ranging from 5.4 to 2170 ?g\\/L (median 62 ?g\\/L) in worldwide studies. In the few studies that

Jose G. Dorea

2002-01-01

181

Aqueous chemistry of iodine  

SciTech Connect

The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO/sub 3//sup -/ + 2I/sup -/ + 3H/sup +/, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >10/sup 4/ has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Toth, L.M.; Pannell, K.D.; Kirkland, O.L.

1984-01-01

182

[Iodine nutrition and thyroid diseases].  

PubMed

Iodine,an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland,is widely but unevenly distributed in the earth's environment.Great difference exists in the iodine nutritional status of populations residing in different region.Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can injure the thyroid gland.Iodine deficiency tigers endemic goiter,cretinism,and hyperthyroidism,while iodine excess can result in high iodine goiter,chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis,iodine-induced hyperthyroidism,and hypothyroidism;also,iodine deficiency or excess may affect the histological type of thyroid cancer.In 1996,China began to implement the universal salt iodization policy,which has basically eliminated the iodine deficiency disorders nationwide;however,it also caused the changes in the spectra of other thyroid diseases including iodine-induced hyperthyroidism,autoimmune thyroid disease,and papillary thyroid carcinoma.Individualized iodine nutritional status assessment for the populations,particularly those with thyroid diseases,will be beneficial. PMID:23987479

Wu, Lian; Yu, Jian-chun; Kang, Wei-ming; Ma, Zhi-qiang

2013-08-01

183

Photodissociation lasers for controlled fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results obtained with various types of organic-iodine photodissociation lasers are reviewed. Active media and stimulated-emission processes are examined, and amplifier output energies are evaluated. The degrees of pump uniformity and active-medium optical homogeneity in iodine lasers are considered, along with optical decoupling of the amplifiers, radiation contrasts, the use of stimulated Brillouin scattering to increase the radiation contrast, and ways to shorten the laser pulse length. Some typical results are presented for the Iskra IV high-power iodine laser, for which the active medium is n-C3F7I.

Kormer, S. B.

1980-10-01

184

Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... I-131, is taken into the body in liquid or capsule form, it concentrates in thyroid cells. The radiation can destroy the thyroid gland and any other thyroid cells (including cancer cells) that take up iodine, with little effect on the rest of your body. (The radiation dose used here is much stronger ...

185

HWVP Iodine Trap Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report details our assessment of the chemistry of the planned Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) off-gas system and its impact on the applicability of known iodine removal and control methods. To predict the gaseous species in the off-gas system, we completed thermodynamic calculations to determine theoretical equilibrium concentrations of the various potential chemical species. In addition, we found that

Leland L. Burger; Randall D. Scheele

2004-01-01

186

Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency is generally recognized as the most commonly preventable cause of mental retardation and the most common cause of endocrinopathy (goiter and primary hypothyroidism). Iodine deficiency becomes particularly critical in pregnancy due to the consequences for neurological damage during fetal development as well as during lactation. The safety of therapeutic doses of iodine above the established safe upper limit of 1 mg is evident in the lack of toxicity in the Japanese population that consumes 25 times the median intake of iodine consumption in the United States. Japan's population suffers no demonstrable increased incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis or hypothyroidism. Studies using 3.0- to 6.0-mg doses to effectively treat fibrocystic breast disease may reveal an important role for iodine in maintaining normal breast tissue architecture and function. Iodine may also have important antioxidant functions in breast tissue and other tissues that concentrate iodine via the sodium iodide symporter. PMID:18590348

Patrick, Lyn

2008-06-01

187

Near-infrared laser production of fullerenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed graphite vaporization by an iodine photodissociation laser and obtained C60 as the first by IR laser. We obtained sufficient macroscopic amount of fullerene, which enabled us to apply solvent extraction method and UV spectrophotometry.

Laska, L.; Krasa, Josef; Juha, Libor; Hamplova, Vera; Soukup, Ladislav

1994-12-01

188

[Iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents].  

PubMed

Radioactive iodine isotopes may be released to air to a varying degree during accidents with nuclear reactors. Iodine tablets, taken before or shortly after such release, protect against intake of radioactive iodine isotopes, but not against other radionuclides. Iodine prophylaxis can be a relevant countermeasure in Norway and will be implemented according to recommendations from the Crisis Committee for Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. The Chernobyl accident confirmed that the risk for radiogenic thyroid cancer is much higher for foetuses and children and adolescents under 18 years. An epidemiological study showed that intake of iodine tablets could reduce the risk for thyroid cancer by a factor of three. For children, the WHO has therefore recommended a 10 mGy avertable dose to the thyroid. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority acknowledge the WHO guidelines and advise that the first priority of all emergency preparedness planning for potential releases that can cause dispersion of radioactive iodine, should be given to the protection of pregnant and breast-feeding women, newborns and children under 18 years. Iodine tablets should be taken immediately (preferably not later than a few hours) in situations where inhalation of radioactive iodine may occur. It should be underlined that iodine prophylaxis is one of several emergency countermeasures; other measures are sheltering and evacuation. The latter two countermeasures will protect not only from intake of radioactive iodine, but also against other radionuclides that may be released. Based on the present risk assessment in Norway, iodine tablets have been distributed to the counties north of Salten. In addition, there is an emergency stockpile of iodine tablets in Oslo. PMID:17205086

Jaworska, Alicja

2007-01-01

189

Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The optical laser was first developed in 1960. Among the first medical applications for lasers was the dermatologic application of this Ruby laser in 1964. Since that time, the application of lasers in medical and surgical uses has grown quite extensively...

J. A. Werkhaven R. H. Ossoff D. Harris

1991-01-01

190

Iodine neutron capture therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of 20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at different times after exposure as an indicator of thyroid function. Cell damage is assessed by postmortem histopathologic examination. The intent of this endeavor is to relate radiation dose, T4 concentration in the blood stream and cellular damage. This information will help better understand the dose response relationship of thyroid cells exposed to ionizing radiation.

Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

191

Release of bioactive active iodine in kelp.  

PubMed

The release process and influencing factors of bioactive iodine of kelp are systemically studied by leaching experiment. The results showed that the bioactive iodine of kelp can be released rapidly and the principal form of iodine in lixivium is I-. There is a dynamic process between the release and absorption of iodine. With the increase of leaching water, the gross amounts of released iodine rise. There also exists a transforming process among I-, IO3- and organic iodine in lixivium. PMID:16295897

Sun, Xiang-wu; Weng, Huan-xin; Qin, Ya-chao

2005-01-01

192

Iodine speciation in the Nile River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

During high- and low-flood periods, surface and bottom water samples were collected along the Nile River estuary for the voltammetric determination of dissolved iodine species. Iodine occurs in the estuary as iodate, iodide and organic iodine. Total iodine increases with salinity, showing a source feature in surface and bottom waters during high-flow indicating iodine input. During low-flow, total iodine showed

M. A. R Abdel-Moati

1999-01-01

193

Iodine-123 Generator/Iodination Kit: A Preliminary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary results are described of a xenon-123 filled device to serve as a combination iodine-123 generator/iodination kit. Xenon-123 is produced in the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) by the reaction exp 127 I(p, 5n) exp 123 Xe. The device con...

P. Richards T. Prach S. C. ivastava G. E. Meinken

1980-01-01

194

Retention of iodine in yttria stabilized zirconia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion behavior of iodine in yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was investigated as a function of the temperature. Iodine implantation was performed in this cubic solid solution by irradiating material samples with 1MeV iodine ions. The distribution of iodine was evaluated by using TRIM computer calculation and measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) using 5MeV 4He particle. The iodine profile was quantified after successive temperature steps. At each step the maximum temperature was held for 2h. It was found, that the iodine profile remained unchanged up to 1373K. At 1573K iodine diffused significantly. The iodine profile was measurable up to 1773K. Even at this high temperature a significant iodine retention is observed. The diffusion coefficient of iodine (3.5+/-1.4x10-15cm2s-1) is of the same order as the temperature extrapolated data of iodine in monoclinic/tetragonal zirconia.

Pouchon, M. A.; Dbeli, M.; Degueldre, C.

1999-01-01

195

INACTIVATION OF PEPSIN BY IODINE  

PubMed Central

1. Pepsin solutions were iodinated at pH 5.06.0 until 1020 per cent of the activity was lost and 1/20 (0.7 per cent) of the saturating amount of iodine had been introduced into the protein molecule. After alkaline hydrolysis 65 per cent of the original iodine was accounted for as mono-iodotyrosine although only 42 per cent was isolated as a crystalline product. No evidence was obtained to support the possibility that any group other than tyrosine in pepsin was iodinated. 2. Some of the properties of the crystalline l-mono-iodotyrosine were determined and compared to those of di-iodotyrosine. 3. One iodinated pepsin preparation was crystallized. The crystal form was the same as that of the original pepsin. A solubility curve of the crystals demonstrated that it was very different from pepsin and had nearly constant solubility.

Herriott, Roger M.

1941-01-01

196

Comparison of Iodination of Methoxylated Benzaldehydes and Related Compounds using Iodine\\/Silver Nitrate and Iodine\\/Periodic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodination of the three methoxybenzaldehydes, four dimethoxybenzaldehydes, vanillin, and piperonal by two methods were compared. Iodine and periodic acid gave better yields for iodination for the methoxybenzaldehydes, whereas iodine and silver nitrate generally gave better yields for the rest of the compounds.

Bruce A. Hathaway; Kristen L. White; Mark E. McGill

2007-01-01

197

Stability of Iodine Content in Iodized Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodization of consumed salts is mandatory in many countries fighting against to iodine deficiency. In salts iodine stability is affected by storage conditions. In this study, stabilization of iodine in salt has been determined by using Isotope Dilution Analysis. Heating, heating with oxidizing agent, incubation by time were the parameters which have been determined. Iodine loss was 41.16% by heating

F. Z. Biber; P. nak; F. Yurt

2002-01-01

198

Iodination of Annexin V for Imaging Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal in this investigation was to develop a method for iodinating annexin V that would be suitable for the in vivo detection of apoptosis. Methods: Annexin V was iodinated with 125I using 2 different techniques: direct iodination with IODO- BEADS, resulting in the iodination of tyrosine residues; and use of the Bolton-Hunter reagent, which binds to lysine. The active

James Russell; Joseph A. O'Donoghue; Ron Finn; Jacek Koziorowski; Shutian Ruan; John L. Humm; C. Clifton Ling

199

[Iodine excess and thyroid dysfunction].  

PubMed

Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism may develop during iodine excess. Hypothyroidism occurs mostly in newborns or in elderly patients with underlying autoimmune thyroiditis and is treated by substitutive doses of thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism is of two types. Type I develops in patients with pretoxic thyroid glands, the radioactive tracer uptake remains high. This type is treated with thionamides and potassium perchlorate, as well as, in some cases, by thyroidectomy or iodine 131. Type II develops in non pretoxic thyroid gland, and it evoluates spontaneously towards euthyroidism, in several months, despite continuation of iodine excess. It responds to glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:15825999

Thomopoulos, Pierre

2005-01-31

200

Iodination and radiolabeling of ?-allocryptopine with iodine-125  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for labeling of ?-allocryptopine with 125I is reported in this article. ?-allocryptopine is first iodinated with largely excessive iodine monochloride, and then radiolabeled by isotopic exchange with Na125I in a dichloromethanewater two-phase system. The radiochemical purity and yield of the labeled product are typically as high as 94% and 72%, respectively. Further chromatographic purification gives a highly pure

Yu Wei; Xionghui Wei; Yi Wang; Xinqi Liu; Taiwei Chu; Shaowen Hu; Xiangyun Wang

2005-01-01

201

Iodine-xenon studies of Bjurbole and Parnallee using RELAX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine-xenon analyses of chondrules from the Bjurble L4 and Parnallee LL3.6 meteorites have been made using a continuous wave laser microprobe and the resonance ionisation mass spectrometer RELAX. The excess 129Xe content released from the Bjurble chondrule is lower than previous stepped-heating studies have found, suggesting that the technique does not completely degas the samples. Nonetheless, clear isochrons were produced,

J. D. Gilmour; R. D. Ash; R. Hutchison; J. C. Bridges; I. C. Lyon; G. Turner

1995-01-01

202

Continuously variable filter for iodine lasers.  

PubMed

A water cell has been developed as an attenuator for 1.315-microm radiation, providing a variable transmission with a dynamic range of typically 10(3). The filter was used to determine the linear range of a photoresistor. PMID:18699111

Ariga, S; Ahlborn, B

1978-03-01

203

[Iodine deficiency and iodine prophylaxis experience in Sicily].  

PubMed

Twenty years ago we described an area of goiter endemia in North-Eastern Sicily. In this area endemic goiter was associated to a variable degree of iodine deficiency and, in some places, also to an increased thiocyanate urine excretion. Our studies have demonstrated a strict relationship between iodine deficiency and congenital hypothyroidism (both permanent and transient), an increased prevalence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and an increased prevalence of thyroid cancer (follicular and anaplastic histotypes). A number of cases of endemic cretinism have also been described. An active iodine prophylaxis program has been carried in the town of Troina in the years 1979-87, by iodinating the municipal water supply. This intervention caused the disappearance of goiter in schoolchildren in only five years. In the last 20 years the prevalence of goiter has decreased in all endemic areas probably because of the "silent prophylaxis", due to improved socio-economic conditions and industrial food consumption. Today the persistence of endemic goiter confirms the inadequacy of the silent iodine prophylaxis and the need to immediately introduce an active iodine prophylaxis in Sicily. PMID:10052190

Regalbuto, C; Salamone, S; La Rosa, G L; Calaciura, F; Buscema, M; Vigneri, R

1998-01-01

204

Iodination of irrigation water as a method of supplying iodine to a severely iodine-deficient population in Xinjiang, China.  

PubMed

Severe iodine deficiency still occurs in many countries, and causes cretinism and mental impairment. In southern Xinjiang province, China, after usual methods of iodine supplementation had failed, we iodinated irrigation water to increase iodine in soil, crops, animals, and human beings. 5% potassium iodate solution, dripped into an irrigation canal for 12 or 24 days, increased soil iodine 3-fold, and crop and animal iodine 2-fold. Median urinary iodine excretion in children increased from 18 to 49 micrograms/L (two groups of similar age). The cost for iodine was US $0.05 per person per year. Soil iodine remained stable over one winter, and dripping of iodine during the second year (US $0.12 per person per year) resulted in a further 4-fold increase in soil iodine and a 1.8-fold increase in iodine in crops. We conclude that iodination of irrigation water is an advantageous and cost-effective method of supplying iodine in southern Xinjiang, and may be useful in other areas dependent on irrigation. PMID:7912349

Cao, X Y; Jiang, X M; Kareem, A; Dou, Z H; Abdul Rakeman, M; Zhang, M L; Ma, T; O'Donnell, K; DeLong, N; DeLong, G R

1994-07-01

205

Iodine deficiency and neonatal hypothyroidism*  

PubMed Central

The incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism, as reflected in cord-blood thyroxine and thyrotropin levels, varied from 0.6% to 13.3% in iodine-deficient and normal regions of India (selected districts of Uttar Pradesh and Kerala and the city of Delhi), depending on the degree of environmental iodine deficiency. In populations with a high incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism, an increased prevalence of nerve deafness and a shift to the left in the distribution of IQ scores (towards lower scores) have been demonstrated. These indications of mild brain damage suggest that nutritional iodine deficiency can present in other ways than goitre or cretinism. Determination of the incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism using dried cord-blood spot screening appears to be the most useful and reliable method to assess the risk of brain damage in iodine-deficient areas.

Kochupillai, N.; Pandav, C. S.; Godbole, M. M.; Mehta, M.; Ahuja, M. M. S.

1986-01-01

206

Lithium-iodine pacemaker cell  

SciTech Connect

The lithium-iodine pacemaker cell is described as supplied by several manufacturers. The features of each design are discussed along with their effect on energy density, self-discharge and shape of the discharge curve. Differences in performance characteristics are related to morphology of the lithium iodine electrolyte and to the form of the cathode. A new, high-drain cell is mentioned which can supply 60 /mu/a/cm/sup 2/. 10 refs.

Schneider, A.A.; Snyder, S.E.; DeVan, T.; Harney, M.J.; Harney, D.E.

1980-01-01

207

Beverage iodine levels in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sales of iodized table salt (household use, bulk containers) have been flat in Germany since 1996\\/1997. Nevertheless, the\\u000a amount of iodide excreted with the urine has been steadily increasing in the German population since 1993. We investigated\\u000a the beverage iodine levels as possible source of the increased input of iodine into the food chain. No systematic studies\\u000a on this topic

Rainer Hampel; Julia Kairies

2009-01-01

208

Mixing in a supersonic COIL laser: influence of trip jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an experimental study of a supersonic nozzle with supersonic iodine injection. This nozzle simulates Chemical Oxygen\\u000a Iodine Laser (COIL) flow conditions with non-reacting, cold flows. During the experiments, we used a laser sheet near 565nm\\u000a to excite fluorescence in iodine, which we imaged with an intensified and gated CCD camera. We captured streamwise and semi-spanwise\\u000a (oblique-view) images, with

Carrie Noren; Peter Vorobieff; C. Randall Truman; Timothy J. Madden

2011-01-01

209

Mixing in a supersonic COIL laser: influence of trip jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an experimental study of a supersonic nozzle with supersonic iodine injection. This nozzle simulates Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) flow conditions with non-reacting, cold flows. During the experiments, we used a laser sheet near 565 nm to excite fluorescence in iodine, which we imaged with an intensified and gated CCD camera. We captured streamwise and semi-spanwise (oblique-view) images,

Carrie Noren; Peter Vorobieff; C. Randall Truman; Timothy J. Madden

2011-01-01

210

Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess  

PubMed Central

Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodinefor example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most of these patients do not always present with typical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Treatment can be very challenging as drugs commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism have little effect on already formed thyroid hormone due to iodine excess.

Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

2009-01-01

211

[Lasers].  

PubMed

Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and caf-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. PMID:23260518

Passeron, T

2012-11-01

212

Lasers.  

PubMed

Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and caf-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. PMID:23522632

Passeron, T

2012-12-01

213

Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goiter, thyroglobulin and newborn thyrotropin. In nearly all iodine-deficient countries, the best strategy to control IDD is salt

Michael B. Zimmermann

2008-01-01

214

Iodine status assessment in Campania (Italy) as determined by urinary iodine excretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveMild iodine deficiency was first documented in Campania in the 1990s. We assessed the urinary iodine nutritional status of schoolchildren in Campania before the introduction of legislation for salt iodization and compared the findings with previous results to evaluate to what extent silent iodine prophylaxis, which accompanies socioeconomic advances, affects iodine status.

Claudia Mazzarella; Daniela Terracciano; Angelina Di Carlo; Paolo Emidio Macchia; Eduardo Consiglio; Vincenzo Macchia; Angela Mariano

2009-01-01

215

The Absorption Spectrum of Iodine Vapour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A laboratory experiment is described which presents some molecular parameters of iodine molecule by studying iodine spectrum. Points out this experiment can be conducted by sixth form students in high school laboratories. (PS)|

Tetlow, K. S.

1972-01-01

216

Core level photoemission of iodine overlayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the core level binding energies of chemisorbed iodine on Fe(110) and Fe(100). A decrease of 0.6 eV in the binding energies of the iodine core levels is observed with the increasing coverage of the chemisorbed iodine overlayer. This change in core level binding energies with coverage is compared with the results for iodine overlayers on other transition metal

P. A. Dowben; Y. J. Kime; D. Mueller; T. N. Rhodin

1988-01-01

217

Iodine Deficiency in Vegetarians and Vegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine content in food of plant origin is lower in comparison with that of animal origin due to a low iodine concentration in soil. Urinary iodine excretion was assessed in 15 vegans, 31 lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians and 35 adults on a mixed diet. Iodine excretion was significantly lower in alternative nutrition groups 172 ?g\\/l in vegetarians and 78 ?g\\/l

I. Klime; E. ebokov

2003-01-01

218

Iodine supplementation of laying hen feed: a supplementary measure to eliminate iodine deficiency in humans?  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency still exists in many countries worldwide, to a certain degree this is also true for Germany. Food of animal origin can be a good source for iodine depending on the feed. To investigate the possible use of laying hen feed enriched with iodine, we conducted a feeding experiment with 40 laying hens receiving feed with different amounts of iodine either as KIO3 or in the form of seaweed. Iodine concentration in eggs increased significantly depending on iodine intake after a 2 week period. Seaweed could also be used as an iodine source by the hens. A subsequent consumption study with 24 volunteers showed that eggs enriched with iodine can increase human's iodine excretion and therefore improve human's iodine supply. This new strategy is thought to accompany salt iodization programs, not to replace them. PMID:9800320

Kaufmann, S; Wolfram, G; Delange, F; Rambeck, W A

1998-09-01

219

Sublimation of Iodine at Various Pressures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Various phenomena that are observed in the process of heating solid iodine in closed vessels at different pressures and temperatures are described. When solid iodine is heated in an evacuated ampoule where the pressure is less than 10(super -3), no noticeable color appears and immediate condensation of tiny iodine crystals is visible higher up on

Leenson, Ilya A.

2005-01-01

220

Endemic Goitre and Iodine Malnutrition in Iraq.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clinical studies of goitre in northern Iraq reveal a high prevalence of endemic goitre. Studies of urinary iodine levels in adolescent girls indicate that the main cause of the endemic is iodine malnutrition. The iodine content of water from the Tigris in...

J. E. Caughey R. H. Follis

1964-01-01

221

Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ancient Chinese recognized goiter and the therapeutic effects of burnt sponge and seaweed in reducing its size or causing its disappearance. The modern use of iodine in the prevention of goiter dates from 1830, when it was proposed that goiter is an iodine deficiency disease due to lack of iodine in the water supply. But unfavorable symptoms of iodism

Louis Rosenfeld

2000-01-01

222

Process for decontaminating gas containing radioactive iodine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vent gas containing radioactive iodine and methyl iodide is effectively decontaminated by chemically adsorbing the iodine contained in the vent gas onto an activated carbon layer at first, then physically adsorbing the methyl iodide contained in the vent gas onto another activated carbon layer separately disposed from the former activated carbon layer, and retaining the radioactive iodine and radioactive

M. Hirano; M. Takeshima; T. Saito; A. Shimozato

1977-01-01

223

Sublimation of Iodine at Various Pressures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various phenomena that are observed in the process of heating solid iodine in closed vessels at different pressures and temperatures are described. When solid iodine is heated in an evacuated ampoule where the pressure is less than 10(super -3), no noticeable color appears and immediate condensation of tiny iodine crystals is visible higher up on

Leenson, Ilya A.

2005-01-01

224

Labeling of ornidazole with iodine-131  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornidazole (1-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole) was labeled with iodine-131 by using iodogen method. Quality\\u000a controls were performed by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) and electrophoresis methods. Labeling yield was 91%. Iodination\\u000a was carried out by substitution of chloride by iodine-131. Structure was confirmed by1H-NMR.

M. A?iko?lu; F. Yurt; P. nak

1998-01-01

225

Does iodine gas released from seaweed contribute to dietary iodine intake?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid hormone levels sufficient for brain development and normal metabolism require a minimal supply of iodine, mainly dietary.\\u000a Living near the sea may confer advantages for iodine intake. Iodine (I2) gas released from seaweeds may, through respiration, supply a significant fraction of daily iodine requirements. Gaseous\\u000a iodine released over seaweed beds was measured by a new gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GCMS)-based

P. P. A. Smyth; R. Burns; R. J. Huang; T. Hoffman; K. Mullan; U. Graham; K. Seitz; U. Platt; C. ODowd

2011-01-01

226

Laser damage to spherical targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has investigated laser beam interaction with flat surfaces. Those studies have generated theoretical foundations for cratering, plasma formation and expansion, and electric and magnetic field dynamics. This thesis applies previously developed theory to understanding damage to spherical targets of 1 millimeter diameter and smaller. The targets analyzed were irradiated on one side with 300 picosecond iodine laser pulses

C. O. Stephenson

1985-01-01

227

Energy Levels of Iodine-127.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gamma-ray singles and coincidence measurements were made on the radiations from the Tellurium-127m, Tellurium-127 to Iodine-127 decay sequence. Gamma-ray intensities were measured, log ft values were computed, and spin-parity assignments were made to the ...

J. P. Hurley J. M. Mathiesen

1966-01-01

228

Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goiter, thyroglobulin and newborn thyrotropin. In nearly all iodine-deficient countries, the best strategy to control IDD is salt iodization, one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. When salt iodization is not possible, iodine supplements can be targeted to vulnerable groups. Introduction of iodized salt to regions of chronic IDD may transiently increase the incidence of thyroid disorders, and programs should include monitoring for both iodine deficiency and excess. Although more data on the epidemiology of thyroid disorders caused by differences in iodine intake are needed, overall, the relatively small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency. PMID:18565420

Zimmermann, Michael B

2008-05-07

229

Bioavailability of seaweed iodine in human beings.  

PubMed

The major procedure used to correct iodine deficiency is the universal salt iodization by addition of iodide or iodate to salt with an iodine content varying from 7 to 100 mg/kg of salt depending on the country legislation. As an important fraction of consumers in the world prefers natural products over artificial ones, we investigated the industrial feasibility of naturally iodized salt using seaweed as source of iodine. We report the results of the iodine bioavailability in healthy subjects from two seaweeds: Laminaria hyperborea and Gracilaria verrucosa selected due to their high level in iodine as a mineral or an organic form and low levels of heavy metals. As a control we studied in a normal man the bioavailability of pure mineral iodine such as potassium iodide which was excellent i.e. 96.4% and of pure organic iodine such as monoiodotyrosine which was a little lower i.e. 80.0%. Iodine bioavailability from these two seaweeds was studied in nine normal subjects from Marseille (France) which is an iodine sufficient area based on a median urinary iodine level of 137 microg/day and innine normal subjects from Brussels (Belgium) who present a mild iodine deficiency with a value of 73 microg/day. The iodine bioavailability of Gracilaria verrucosa is better than for Laminaria hyperborea (101% versus 90% in Marseille, t=0.812, NS; 85% versus 61.5% in Brussels, t = 2.486, p = 0.024, S*). The urinary excretion of iodine is lower in Brussels than in Marseille for the same seaweed because part of the iodine is stored in the thyroid (101% versus 85% for Gracilaria verrucosa, t = 1.010, NS; 90% versus 61.5% for Laminaria hyperborea, t = 3.879, p= 0.001, S***). PMID:12146713

Aquaron, Robert; Delange, Franois; Marchal, Pascal; Lognon, Vincent; Ninane, Lon

2002-07-01

230

Dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion in normal Korean adults.  

PubMed

Korea is a region abundant in foods containing iodine such as seaweed and fish. An adequate amount of iodine consumption is extremely important as both a deficiency and excess of iodine can result in health problems. This study was undertaken to assess the iodine nutritional status of normal Korean adults who consume seaweed and fish, and to determine the relationship between the dietary iodine intake and the urinary excretion of iodine. The dietary assessment of iodine using a food frequency questionnaire and a urinary iodine excretion examination were carried out in 278 healthy adults. The iodide selective electrode (ISE) method was used to determine urinary iodine excretion. The average usual iodine intake of Korean adults was 479 micrograms per day (ranging from 61 micrograms to 4086 micrograms). There was no significant difference in sex or age. The major food sources of dietary iodine included seaweed (66%), milk and dairy products (11%), and fish (9%). The contribution of seaweed to the total iodine intake tended to increase with age while the contribution of milk decreased. The average urinary excretion of iodine was 674 micrograms/g creatinine and there was no significant difference in sex or age. The dietary iodine intake was positively correlated with the urinary excretion of iodine (gamma = 0.60, p < 0.01). The study data indicated that the iodine intake and excretion of Koreans depends mostly on the amount of seaweed consumption like sea tangle and sea mustard. As well, the current iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion by Koreans seems to be higher than in other countries. PMID:9752802

Kim, J Y; Moon, S J; Kim, K R; Sohn, C Y; Oh, J J

1998-08-01

231

Mechanism of iodine uptake by cabbage: effects of iodine species and where it is stored.  

PubMed

Iodine-enhanced vegetable has been proven to be an effective way to reduce iodine deficiency disorders in many regions. However, the knowledge about what mechanisms control plant uptake of iodine and where iodine is stored in plants is still very limited. A series of controlled experiments, including solution culture, pot planting, and field experiments were carried out to investigate the uptake mechanism of iodine in different forms. A new methodology for observing the iodine distribution within the plant tissues, based on AgI precipitation reaction and transmission electron microscope techniques, has been developed and successfully applied to Chinese cabbage. Results show that iodine uptake by Chinese cabbage was more effective when iodine was in the form of IO(3) (-) than in the form of I(-) if the concentration was low (<0.5 mg L(-1)), but the trend was opposite if iodine concentration was 0.5 mg L(-1) or higher. The uptake was more sensitive to metabolism inhibitor in lower concentration of iodine, which implies that the uptake mechanism transits from active to passive as the iodine concentration increases, especially when the iodine is in the form of IO(3) (-). The inorganic iodine fertilizer provided a quicker supply for plant uptake, but the higher level of iodine was toxic to plant growth. The organic iodine fertilizer (seaweed composite) provided a more sustainable iodine supply for plants. Most of the iodine uptake by the cabbage is intercepted and stored in the fibrins in the root while the iodine that is transported to the above-ground portion (shoots and leaves) is selectively stored in the chloroplasts. PMID:18521548

Weng, Huan-Xin; Hong, Chun-Lai; Yan, Ai-Lan; Pan, Le-Hua; Qin, Ya-Chao; Bao, L-Ting; Xie, Ling-Li

2008-06-03

232

Iodine nutrition, nodular thyroid disease, and urinary iodine excretion in a German university study population.  

PubMed

We determined the influence of different nutritional factors on the urinary iodine excretion in an East German university population. First, we assessed iodine excretion in spot urine samples. Second, we measured iodine content in the university canteen meals, where approximately 20% of the probands had regular meals. Third, we used a special food questionnaire to assess for other sources of nutritional iodine intake, namely iodine tablets, fish consumption, etc. Fourth, we determined the actual prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules in our probands by high-resolution ultrasonography. The mean urinary iodine excretion in our cohort was 109 +/- 81 microg/g level indicating a borderline adequate iodine intake (100-200). The frequency of thyroid nodules was 30% and the frequency of goiter 11%. Thyroid volumes greater than 18 mL and 25 mL were considered to be enlarged in adult women and men respectively. Urinary iodine excretion was not related to the presence of goiter or thyroid nodules. In addition urinary iodine excretion did not vary with regular consumption of canteen meals, which contained approximately 50% of the daily recommended iodine intake. In contrast probands with regular supplementary intake of iodine tablets had significantly higher values of urinary iodine excretion (169 +/- 130 microg/g) compared to participants without (103 +/- 87 microg/g). No other single nutritional factor (e.g., salt, milk, or bread) had a statistically significant impact on urinary iodine excretion or was able to raise the urinary iodine excretion above the level of marginal iodine deficiency. In summary, the nutritional iodine intake in a Saxonian study population was found to be close to the margin of iodine deficiency. This shows insufficient supplementation of iodine through iodized salt/industrialized food production. PMID:15876161

Brauer, V F H; Brauer, W H; Fhrer, D; Paschke, R

2005-04-01

233

Laser Fine-Adjustment Thruster For Space Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

To the present time, a few laser propulsion engine devices have been developed by using dominant mechanisms of laser propulsion. Generally these mechanisms are laser ablation, laser breakdown of gases, and laser detonation waves that are induced due to extraction of the internal energy of polymer propellants. In the paper, we consider the Aero-Space Laser Propulsion Engine (ASLPE) developed earlier, in which all of these mechanisms are realized via interaction of laser radiation with polymers both in continuous wave (CW) and in repetitively pulsed modes of laser operation. The ASLPE is considered to be exploited as a unit of a laser propulsion device being arranged onboard space vehicles moving around the Earth or in interplanetary missions and intended to correct the vehicles orbits. To produce a thrust, a power of the solar pumped lasers designed to the present time is considered in the paper. The problem of increasing the efficiency of the laser propulsion device is analyzed as applied to space missions of vehicles by optimizing the laser propulsion propellant composition.

Rezunkov, Yu. A.; Egorov, M. S.; Repina, E. V.; Safronov, A. L. [Research Institute for Complex Testing of Optic-Electronic Devices, Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad region, Russian Federation, 188540 (Russian Federation); Rebrov, S. G. [Keldyish Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-05-06

234

An iodine-123 generator\\/iodination kit: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results are described of a123Xe filled device to serve as a combination123I generator\\/iodination kit.123X was produced in the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) by the reaction127I(p, 5n)123Xe. The device consists of a small glass ampoule containing an internal glass breakseal and a flanged neck on which was crimped\\u000a a multi-injection type septum. The ampoule contained a hydrogen sulfide atmosphere

P. Richards; T. Prach; S. C. Srivastava; G. E. Meinken

1981-01-01

235

Iodine concentration and availability in atmospheric aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine has been determined in aerosol samples collected at a coastal site in southeast England using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and by an electrochemical technique, after aqueous extraction. Size distribution and enrichment factor data for the samples are consistent with a non-sea-salt source of iodine, presumably gas-to-particle conversion of volatile iodocarbons. On average, only 70% of INAA (i.e. total) iodine could be released from the aerosols as inorganic iodine by aqueous extraction at 95C. Extraction at a more environmentally realistic temperature (20C) decreased this yield to 25%. Through the use of high-energy UV light, which is known to destroy organic matter, the yield of aqueous extractable iodine at the lower temperature was increased for some samples. Thus, it appears likely that iodine is present in aerosol in varying proportions as soluble inorganic iodine, soluble organic iodine and insoluble, or unextractable, iodine. The different characteristics of these fractions are likely to have significant impacts on the cycling and reactivity of iodine in the atmosphere.

Baker, A. R.; Thompson, D.; Campos, M. L. A. M.; Parry, S. J.; Jickells, T. D.

236

Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils  

SciTech Connect

Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

2007-08-23

237

Iodine content of human milk and dietary iodine intake of Korean lactating mothers.  

PubMed

Korea's food culture includes the consumption of seaweed, which is abundant and has a high iodine content. Because it is customary to serve seaweed soup to new mothers, the consumption of seaweed increases dramatically when a woman is lactating. The present study was undertaken for the purpose of determining the iodine content in human milk of Korean lactating mothers according to dietary iodine intake. The iodine content of human milk and dietary iodine intake from 50 lactating mothers were analyzed at 2 to 5 days and at 4 weeks postpartum. The dietary iodine intake was assessed by the 24-hour recall method. The iodine content in human milk was analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The average daily iodine intake of lactating mothers was 2744 micrograms at 2 to 5 days postpartum, decreasing significantly to 1295 micrograms at 4 weeks postpartum. The major sources of iodine were seaweed (87%) and cows' milk (7%). The average iodine content in colostrum and mature milk was 2170 micrograms/l and 892 micrograms/l, respectively. There was a significant reduction in the levels of iodine in human milk depending on the lactation period. A significant correlation between maternal iodine intake and iodine content of human milk was observed (P < 0.0001). The frequency of seaweed soup intake in lactating mothers seems to be a modifying factor in the iodine intake level and the iodine content in human milk. The level of dietary iodine intake and the iodine content of breast milk of Korean lactating mothers is found to be much higher than in other countries. PMID:10627832

Moon, S; Kim, J

1999-05-01

238

THE BEHAVIOUR OF IODINE RELEASED IN REACTOR CONTAINERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments are described in which iodine-127 and iodine-132 tracer was ; released as elemental iodine vapor in the DIDO and PLUTO reactor shells to give ; concentrations in the range 0.01 to 15 mu g\\/m³, and the behavior of the ; iodine studied over a period of several hours. It was found that most of the ; iodine disappeared rapidly

W. J. Megaw; F. G. May

1962-01-01

239

Determination of chemical species of iodine in some seaweeds (I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical species of iodine in seven marine algae Codium fragile, Ulva pertusa, Monostroma nitidum, Gracilaria confervoides, Sargassum Kjellmanianum, Dictyopteris divaricata and Laminaria japonica were studied using neutron activation analysis combined with chemical separation. The contents of total iodine, water-soluble iodine, soluble organic iodine, I? and IO3? were determined. The results indicate that the chemical species and contents of iodine

Xiaolin Hou; Chifang Chai; Qinfang Qian; Xiaojun Yan; Xiao Fan

1997-01-01

240

Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from

K M Pedersen; P Laurberg; S Nhr; A Jrgensen; S Andersen

1999-01-01

241

Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ancient Chinese recognized goiter and the therapeutic effects of burnt sponge and seaweed in reducing its size or causing its disappearance. The modern use of iodine in the prevention of goiter dates from 1830, when it was proposed that goiter is an iodine deficiency disease due to lack of iodine in the water supply. But unfavorable symptoms of iodism were frequent owing to overenthusiastic use and overdose of iodine. Consequently, iodide prophylaxis was discredited and abandoned. The presence of iodine in organic combination as a normal constituent of the thyroid was established in 1896 and the use of iodine in treatment and prevention of goiter was revived. In 1917 the general use of iodized salt in goitrous areas was shown to be effective in preventing simple endemic goiter.

Rosenfeld, Louis

2000-08-01

242

Experimental investigation of the iodine partition coefficient  

SciTech Connect

Short-term values of the iodine partition coefficient (IPC) were evaluated experimentally by an air/water system over the following ranges of conditions: temperature = 25 to 70/sup 0/C, pH = 5 to 9, and iodine concentration = 10/sup -9/ to 10/sup -2/ kg iodine/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/O. The experimental IPC values are relatively independent of temperature over the indicated range, but show a significant dependence on pH and iodine concentration. In basic solutions the short-term values are several orders of magnitude less than the true equilibrium values; in acid solutions, the differences are much less. These results are useful for predicting the disposition of iodine shortly (i.e., 1 to 10 h) after iodine has been released into an air/water environment.

Kelly, J.L.; Babad, C.J.; Mulder, R.U.

1985-11-01

243

Local radiolytic effectiveness of Auger electrons of iodine-125 in benzene-iodine solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas-chromatographic analysis of benzene-iodine solutions containing molecular iodine-125 after various storage times showed that no radiolytic products appeared while some products such as benzene, iodobenzene, biphenyl, and iodobiphenyl, were detected under the same analytical conditions in our recent studies concerning the reactions of iodine atoms activated by L shell photoelectric ionization in benzene-iodine solutions, and the self-radiolysis of iodobenzene

P. nak; T. nak

1987-01-01

244

Transfer of iodine from soil to vegetables by applying exogenous iodine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine deficiency disorders are one of the commonest preventable human health problems. Producing iodine-enriched crops could\\u000a be an effective way to reduce their epidemicity in many regions. However, the actual knowledge on this issue is limited mostly\\u000a to studies involving grain crops and inorganic iodine fertilizers such as I? and IO3?. Moreover, the translocation, transformation and distribution of iodine from

Chun-Lai Hong; Huan-Xin Weng; Ya-Chao Qin; Ai-Lan Yan; Ling-Li Xie

2008-01-01

245

Solid state lithium-iodine primary battery  

SciTech Connect

A solid-state primary cell comprising a lithium anode, an iodine cathode containing a charge transfer complex and a solid lithium iodide electrolyte doped with a 1-normal-alkyl-pyridinium iodide. The anode surface can be coated with LiOH or Li/sub 3/N. The iodine cathode comprises a complex of iodine and 1-normal-alkyl-pyridinium iodide and preferably contains titanium dioxide powder, alumina gel powder or silica gel powder admixed with the complex.

Sekido, S.; Ninomiya, Y.; Sotomura, T.

1984-01-10

246

Atmospheric Photochemical Reactions Inhibited by Iodine.  

PubMed

The inhibition by iodine of the atmosphere photochemical reaction of olefin with nitrogen dioxide has been confirmed. The presence of iodine in concentrations comparable to those of the reactants retards the formation of aldehyde, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and aerosol as well as the disappearance of olefin. The reaction of iodine with atomic oxygen may account for this inhibition. A number of other potential inhibitors were found to be ineffective. PMID:17821006

Stephens, E R; Linnell, R H; Reckner, L

1962-11-16

247

Chemical Species of Iodine in Some Seaweeds II. Iodine-Bound Biological Macromolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of iodine in various biological macromolecules in Sargassum kjellmanianum was studied using neutron activation analysis combined with chemical and biochemical separation techniques. The results indicate that iodine is mainly bound with protein, part of iodine with pigment and polyphenol, and little with polysaccharides, such as algin, fucoidan and cellulose. This result is significant for the mechanism of enriching

Xiaolin Hou; Xiaojun Yan; Chifang Chai

2000-01-01

248

An Infra-Red Study of the Interaction of Polyamides with Iodine in Iodine--Potassium Iodide Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The infra-red spectra of thirty one polyamides of different structures have been examined. The spectral changes which occur on iodine sorption in iodine-potassium iodide solutions and the accompanying changes on iodine desorption with sodium thiosulphate ...

I. Matsubara J. H. Magill

1965-01-01

249

Singlet oxygen generation using iodinated squaraine and squaraine-rotaxane dyes  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to assess the ability of squaraine-rotaxanes to generate singlet oxygen for potential application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Specifically, we compare the aggregation and photophysical properties of an iodinated squaraine dye and an iodinated squaraine-rotaxane. Even under strongly aggregating conditions, the absorption spectra of both remain relatively sharp. An X-ray crystal structure of the iodinated squaraine dye shows that it adopts perpendicular, end-to-face orientations in the solid state. Singlet oxygen generation efficiency was measured by trapping with 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran. The triplet state of the rotaxane was characterized using laser flash photolysis. The results of this study suggest that heavily halogenated squaraine-rotaxanes have potential as singlet oxygen photosensitizers for PDT.

Arunkumar, Easwaran; Sudeep, Pallikkara K.; Kamat, Prashant V.; Noll, Bruce C.

2010-01-01

250

Singlet oxygen generation using iodinated squaraine and squaraine-rotaxane dyes.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to assess the ability of squaraine-rotaxanes to generate singlet oxygen for potential application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Specifically, we compare the aggregation and photophysical properties of an iodinated squaraine dye and an iodinated squaraine-rotaxane. Even under strongly aggregating conditions, the absorption spectra of both remain relatively sharp. An X-ray crystal structure of the iodinated squaraine dye shows that it adopts perpendicular, end-to-face orientations in the solid state. Singlet oxygen generation efficiency was measured by trapping with 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran. The triplet state of the rotaxane was characterized using laser flash photolysis. The results of this study suggest that heavily halogenated squaraine-rotaxanes have potential as singlet oxygen photosensitizers for PDT. PMID:20376333

Arunkumar, Easwaran; Sudeep, Pallikkara K; Kamat, Prashant V; Noll, Bruce C; Smith, Bradley D

2007-01-01

251

Atmospheric iodine levels influenced by sea surface emissions of inorganic iodine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally occurring bromine- and iodine-containing compounds substantially reduce regional, and possibly even global, tropospheric ozone levels. As such, these halogen gases reduce the global warming effects of ozone in the troposphere, and its capacity to initiate the chemical removal of hydrocarbons such as methane. The majority of halogen-related surface ozone destruction is attributable to iodine chemistry. So far, organic iodine compounds have been assumed to serve as the main source of oceanic iodine emissions. However, known organic sources of atmospheric iodine cannot account for gas-phase iodine oxide concentrations in the lower troposphere over the tropical oceans. Here, we quantify gaseous emissions of inorganic iodine following the reaction of iodide with ozone in a series of laboratory experiments. We show that the reaction of iodide with ozone leads to the formation of both molecular iodine and hypoiodous acid. Using a kinetic box model of the sea surface layer and a one-dimensional model of the marine boundary layer, we show that the reaction of ozone with iodide on the sea surface could account for around 75% of observed iodine oxide levels over the tropical Atlantic Ocean. According to the sea surface model, hypoiodous acid--not previously considered as an oceanic source of iodine--is emitted at a rate ten-fold higher than that of molecular iodine under ambient conditions.

Carpenter, Lucy J.; MacDonald, Samantha M.; Shaw, Marvin D.; Kumar, Ravi; Saunders, Russell W.; Parthipan, Rajendran; Wilson, Julie; Plane, John M. C.

2013-02-01

252

Iodine deficiency in Australia: is iodine supplementation for pregnant and lactating women warranted?  

PubMed

Recent research has confirmed that Australian children and pregnant women are mildly iodine deficient. A considerable proportion of the pregnant population is moderately to severely iodine deficient. Even subclinical hypothyroidism in the mother, occurring as a consequence of iodine deficiency, can cause irreversible brain damage in the fetus, making it essential to avoid iodine deficiency in pregnancy. The proposal of Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) - Mandatory Iodine Fortification for Australia (P1003) - has been implemented. FSANZ openly admits P1003 is inadequate for covering the needs of pregnant women. Therefore, health professionals and the public must be properly informed about the limitations of this proposal. Views differ about the most effective measures to prevent iodine deficiency in Australia. We propose that women planning a pregnancy, and pregnant and lactating women should be advised to take an iodine supplement. Women with pre-existing thyroid disease should exercise caution and seek medical advice before taking a supplement. PMID:20402611

Gallego, Gisselle; Goodall, Stephen; Eastman, Creswell J

2010-04-19

253

International Conference on Lasers '82, New Orleans, LA, December 13-17, 1982, Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subjects are discussed which are related to phase conjugation, laser chemistry, laser induced ionization, free electron lasers and masers, applications of lasers in nuclear physics, solid state laser materials, laser applications of collisions and dissociation phenomena, excimer lasers, tunable coherent UV radiation, laser assisted collisions, cavities and propagation, chemically pumped iodine atom lasers, lasers in medicine, blue-green and metal vapor lasers, accelerators using laser light, and X-ray lasers and coherent X-ray optics. Other areas considered are connected with tunable IR lasers, fiber optical communications, infrared molecular lasers, modern laser spectroscopy, polarization, diatomic optically-pumped lasers, combustion and plasma diagnostics, collective atomic phenomena, multiphoton processes, photophysics of complex molecules, and lasers and atmospheric sciences. Attention is also given to laser action in emerald, operating conditions for the hydrogen/deuterium triplet lasers, longitudinal electron-beam pumped rare gas-halide excimer lasers, and UV laser induced chemistry of stilbene.

Powell, R. C.

254

Modelling Iodine Chemistry at the Dead Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine oxide (IO) has recently been detected at the Dead Sea with mixing ratios reaching up to 10 pmol\\/mol. IO has otherwise been detected at several coastal sites around the globe as well as in Antarctica. Our present understanding of iodine chemistry indicates that the precursors for IO are either iodocarbons, which are emitted by several types of algae, and

L. Smoydzin; R. von Glasow

2009-01-01

255

STUDY OF IODINE METABOLISM BY AN \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of a prolonged administration, over a period of several weeks, ; of a constant amount of iodie labelled with I¹³¹ of known specific ; radioactivity, the stable iodine in the organism can be progressively replaced by ; the labelled iodine administered; after 4 or 5 weeks isotopic equilibrium'' is ; effectively reached. From then on, by measuring the

Cl. Simon; F. Morel

1957-01-01

256

The geochemistry of iodine a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine has long been recognised as an important element environmentally. Despite this there are many gaps in our knowledge of its geochemistry and even where information is available much of this is based on old data which, in the light of recent data, are suspect.Iodine forms few independent minerals and is unlikely to enter most rock-forming minerals. In igneous rocks

Ronald Fuge; Christopher C. Johnson

1986-01-01

257

Determination of iodine in marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique was developed for the quick fixation and rapid analysis of ; iodine in seaweed. The method consists of digesting the seaweed with 10% ; potassium hydroxide in a domestic model pressure cooker for 10 min. The cooled ; material is dried and ashed at 500 deg C. The ash is extracted with hot water and ; iodine is

H. M. Dave; S. K. Naiya; N. N. Sharma; K. Seshadri

1973-01-01

258

Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.  

SciTech Connect

A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

2009-03-01

259

Acute Hemolysis Following Iodine Tincture Ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine tincture poisoning is uncommon regardless of its widespread use as an antiseptic in daily practice. Previously reported effects of iodine-containing antiseptic poisoning included topical irritation, corrosive effects, allergic response, and hepatic or renal injury, which mainly resulted from complications of topical use during surgical procedures. We herein reported an unusual case of severe hemolysis and acute renal failure following

Yan-Chiao Mao; Wei-Jen Tsai; Ming-Ling Wu; Jiin Ger; Jou-Fang Deng; Chen-Chang Yang

2011-01-01

260

An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock

Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

2007-01-01

261

Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women  

PubMed Central

Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

2013-01-01

262

Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.  

PubMed

Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 ?g/day and 150 ?g/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 ?g/day from food and 166 ?g/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 ?g/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 ?g/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 ?g/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 ?g/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302

Brantster, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

2013-02-06

263

High conversion efficiency solar laser pumping by a light-guide/2D-CPC cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and efficient light-guide/2D-CPC solar pumping approach is proposed. A fused silica light-guide assembly is used to transmit 6 kW concentrated solar power from the focal spot of a large parabolic mirror to the entrance aperture of a 2D-CPC pump cavity, where a long and thin Nd:YAG rod is efficiently pumped. Numerical calculations are made for different light-guides, 2D-CPC cavities and laser rods. The laser output power is investigated through finite element analysis. With 4 mm diameter rod, the maximum calculated laser power of 75.8 W is obtained, corresponding to the conversion efficiency of more than 11 W/m2. The tracking error dependent laser power losses are lower than 4%. A small scale prototype was constructed and tested, reaching 8.1 W/m2 conversion efficiency.

Pereira, Rui; Liang, Dawei

2009-04-01

264

INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Efficiency of ablative loading of material upon the fast-electron transfer of absorbed laser energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of experiments on the short-term irradiation of a solid material by a laser beam. The data testify to a rise in efficiency of the energy transfer from the laser pulse to a shock wave due to the fast-electron energy transfer. The experiments were performed with massive aluminium targets on the PALS iodine laser, whose pulse duration

Sergei Yu Gus'kov; A. Kasperczuk; T. Pisarczyk; S. Borodziuk; M. Kalal; J. Limpouch; J. Ullschmied; E. Krousky; K. Masek; M. Pfeifer; K. Rohlena; J. Skala; P. Pisarczyk

2006-01-01

265

An evaluation of the suitability of laser-induced fluorescence for measurements of fission-product iodine sorptivity in the MHTGR [modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor  

SciTech Connect

Experiments and calculations indicate that laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) lacks the sensitivity needed for sorptivity measurements of I{sub 2} or other molecular species at partial pressures below 10{sup {minus}11} atm. Although the technique may have sufficient sensitivity for measurements of atomic species, the species of interest are, in all likelihood, not atomic. Methods of measurement which would allow the determination of species are proposed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Sherrow, S.A.

1989-07-01

266

Prospects of a visible (green) chemical laser  

SciTech Connect

The experimental conditions for a 1.25-kW visible (green) chemical laser are detailed. In this system, a supersonic oxygen--iodine laser is optically coupled straightforwardly to a nitrogen flouride DFlike supersonic flow. The design conditions presented here are based on previously unpublished experimental and theoretical results that are shown to be in good agreement.

Herbelin, J.M.

1986-07-01

267

Development of a Robotic Dispensing System for Radioactive Iodine131  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Patients with thyroid carcinoma or hyperthyroidism undergo oral radioactive iodine-131 treatment at the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Singapore General Hospital by consutning a specified dose of radioactive iodine-131. Currently, the liquid iodine-131 is handled manually by Nuclear Medicine staff, resulting in a high personal radiation exposure. To make the dispensing of the iodine-131 safer and accurate, a mechanised system

Teo Ming; Yeong SM; Kwoh Chee Keong; S Somanesan; FX Sun

268

History of U.S. iodine fortification and supplementation.  

PubMed

Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing age. PMID:23201844

Leung, Angela M; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

2012-11-13

269

[Characteristics of iodine uptake and accumulation by vegetables].  

PubMed

With seaweed iodine and KI as exogenous iodine sources, a pot experiment was conducted to study the characteristics of iodine uptake and accumulation by pakchoi cabbage, celery, capsicum, and radish. The results showed that the iodine content in the edible parts of test vegetables increased with increasing amount of exogenous iodine, but the iodine accumulation rate differed with the kinds of vegetables, in the order of pakchoi > celery > radish > capsicum. The majority of iodine was accumulated in roots, with lesser amount transferred to shoots. The distribution of iodine in vegetables was commonly in the order of root > leaf > stem > fruit, but the iodine in radish is lower in its rhizome than in its shoot. Low concentrations (0-25 mg x kg(-1)) of exogenous iodine had little effects on the growth of vegetables, while high concentrations (> or = 50 mg x kg(-1)) of it had inhibitory effects, resulting in a decreased vegetable biomass. The sensitivity of test vegetables to the adverse effect of exogenous iodine was in the order of capsicum > pachoi > celery > radish. Compared with seaweed iodine, KI decreased the biomass of first cutting significantly (P < 0.05), but for the second cutting, little difference was observed between these two iodine sources. The uptake and accumulation of these two iodine sources by vegetables also differed with cuttings, i.e., the first cutting vegetables absorbed more KI, while the second cutting vegetables absorbed more seaweed iodine (P < 0.05), suggesting that seaweed iodine had a longer efficacy than KI. PMID:18163316

Hong, Chun-Lai; Weng, Huan-Xin; Yan, Ai-Lan; Xie, Ling-Li

2007-10-01

270

History of U.S. Iodine Fortification and Supplementation  

PubMed Central

Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing age.

Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

2012-01-01

271

Thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical evaluation has been made of the thermodynamic properties reported in the literature for 43 organic iodine compounds in the solid, liquid, or ideal gas state. These compounds include aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic iodides, iodophenols, iodocarboxylic acids, and acetyl and benzoyl iodides. The evaluation has been made on the basis of carbon number systematics and group additivity relations, which also allowed to provide estimates of the thermodynamic properties of those compounds for which no experimental data were available. Standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar and heat capacity coefficients are reported for 13 crystalline, 29 liquid, and 39 ideal gas organic iodine compounds, which can be used to calculate the corresponding properties as a function of temperature and pressure. Values derived for the standard molal Gibbs energy of formation at 25 C and 1 bar of these crystalline, liquid, and ideal gas organic iodine compounds have subsequently been combined with either solubility measurements or gas/water partition coefficients to obtain values for the standard partial molal Gibbs energies of formation at 25 C and 1 bar of 32 aqueous organic iodine compounds. The thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds calculated in the present study can be used together with those for aqueous inorganic iodine species to predict the organic/inorganic speciation of iodine in marine sediments and petroleum systems, or in the near- and far-field of nuclear waste repositories.

Richard, Laurent; Gaona, Xavier

2011-11-01

272

Modelling Iodine Chemistry at the Dead Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine oxide (IO) has recently been detected at the Dead Sea with mixing ratios reaching up to 10 pmol/mol. IO has otherwise been detected at several coastal sites around the globe as well as in Antarctica. Our present understanding of iodine chemistry indicates that the precursors for IO are either iodocarbons, which are emitted by several types of algae, and molecular iodine which can be released from certain types of sea weeds and which is also produced abiotically in the ocean. At the Dead Sea however, it is very unlikely that organic precursor compounds play a role in the iodine cycle due to the high salinity of the Dead Sea water. We performed sensitivity studies with a 1D model (MISTRA) including gas- and aqueous phase chemistry in order to explain the measured IO mixing ratios at the Dead Sea. We explicitly calculate chemistry in the Dead Sea water as well as the exchange of halogen species between the Dead Sea and the overlaying atmosphere. We show that under the extreme conditions prevailing at the Dead Sea it is potentially possible to explain the observed iodine oxide mixing ratios by inorganic iodine chemistry and by considering the direct degassing of iodine species out of the water of the Dead Sea.

Smoydzin, L.; von Glasow, R.

2009-04-01

273

Iodine  

MedlinePLUS

... in dietary supplements , usually in the form of potassium iodide or sodium iodide. Many multivitamin -mineral supplements ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved potassium iodide as a thyroid-blocking agent to reduce ...

274

Quantification of Iodine Supply: Representative Data on Intake and Urinary Excretion of Iodine from the German Population in 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Methods: In Germany, iodine deficiency is common. In a representative group of 2,500 Germans (age >13 years), using a specially designed food questionnaire, the iodine intake was calculated. In addition, iodine and creatinine concentrations in spot urine samples were determined in three groups with a possibly increased risk of iodine deficiency (769 conscripts, 886 pairs of mothers and newborns) or

Friedrich Manz; Thomas Bhmer; Roland Grtner; Rolf Grossklaus; Martin Klett; Roland Schneider

2002-01-01

275

Adsorption Properties of Iodine-Doped Activated Carbon Fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine-doped activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared by the iodine immersion method on pitch-based ACF. Then iodine-doped ACFs were heated in argon at 523 K for 4 h and at 673 K for 2 h. The iodine structure of the resultant iodine-doped ACFs was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The micropore structures were determined by N2 adsorption at 77 K.

Cheol-Min Yang; Katsumi Kaneko

2002-01-01

276

Iodine stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy reactor cladding: iodine chemistry (a review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review covers chemical aspects of the iodine stress corrosion cracking (ISCC) pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) failures which have occurred in some reactors with UO2 fuel in unlined Zircaloy tubes. The cracking mechanism is discussed in relation to chemical factors. Cesium and iodine are released as fission products and form CsI but its dissociation iodine pressure p(I) is many orders of

P. S Sidky

1998-01-01

277

Iodine content in bread, milk and the retention of inherent iodine in commonly used Indian recipes.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is still a major public health problem and iodized salt remains the most effective means to control IDD in India. Few reports indicate that vegans have inadequate iodine intake while at the same time concerns are being raised on the implementation of universal salt iodization in the country. Therefore, we investigated the iodine content in bread, milk and commonly used Indian recipes prepared without iodized salt and the retention of inherent iodine therein. Results showed considerable iodine content in bread (25 ?g/100g) and milk (303 ?g/L) as a positive fallout of universal salt iodization. Iodine content in 38 vegetarian recipes prepared without iodized salt was very low (2.9 2.4 ?g/100g). Retention of inherent iodine (65.6 15.4%) and iodine from iodized salt (76.7 10.3%) in the same recipes was comparable. Thus, universal salt iodization programme remains the single most important source of dietary iodine for the Indian population. PMID:23122074

Longvah, T; Toteja, G S; Upadhyay, A

2012-09-16

278

Effect of mouth rinsing with two polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine mixtures on iodine absorption and thyroid function.  

PubMed

A prospective study was conducted to investigate the effect of long term therapy with two iodine-containing mouth rinses on thyroid function. Two groups of subjects were treated daily for 6 months with either a 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPI)-1.5% H2O2 mixture (Perimed) or a 5% PVPI-water mixture. Thyroid function studies, serum iodine concentrations, and urinary iodine excretion were measured before treatment, at 6-week intervals during the 6-month treatment period, and 3 weeks after the last treatment. There was evidence of significant iodine absorption (elevated serum total iodine and inorganic iodide concentrations and urinary iodine excretion) from daily use of both Perimed and the PVPI-water mixture. Serum T3 and T4 concentrations and the free T4 index did not change. There was a small significant rise in serum TSH concentrations during mouth rinse therapy, but all values remained within the normal range. This small increase in serum TSH is a normal adaptive response to the antithyroid effect of increased iodine intake and accounts for the maintenance of normal serum T4 and T3 concentrations. While daily use of these iodine-containing mouth rinses does result in significant iodine absorption, there is no evidence for the development of thyroid dysfunction during a 6-month course of therapy. PMID:3350910

Ader, A W; Paul, T L; Reinhardt, W; Safran, M; Pino, S; McArthur, W; Braverman, L E

1988-03-01

279

Iodine concentration in fodder influences the dynamics of iodine levels in hen's egg components.  

PubMed

In this study we determined the availability and accumulation of iodine in selected structures in hen's eggs: yolk, albumen, and eggshells. Iodine was administered as a yeast-derived biological complex mixed in standard fodder mix "DJ" to laying hens in their maximum egg yield period. The feeding period was sustained for 12weeks, resulting in iodine enrichment in yolk and eggshells. These results suggest that iodine-enriched yeast can be added to fodder mix and premix (mineral-vitamin) given to monogastric animals such as poultry and pigs. PMID:21773719

Doli?ska, Barbara; Opali?ski, Sebastian; Zieli?ski, Micha?; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Dobrza?ski, Zbigniew; Ryszka, Florian

2011-07-20

280

[Stable iodine as a prophylaxis therapy following exposure to radioactive iodines: pharmacological and pharmaceutical characteristics].  

PubMed

More or less rapid radio-induction of thyroidian cancers is the main pathological consequence of an accidental exposure to ingested or inhaled radioactive iodines following a nuclear power plant accident. The prophylactic administration of potassium iodine in a single oral dose has to be practiced as soon as possible after the nuclear accident. The efficacy of this therapy depends on pharmacokinetics of radioidines. Iodines are rapidly and completely absorbed as iodides. The radioactive iodines, mainly iodine 131, concentrate in the thyroid gland because of a carrier-mediated transport by the Na-I symporter. Administration of stable iodine results in the symporter blockade, which limits the uptake of radioactive iodines by the thyroid and the duration of the internal irradiation. This irradiation will never exceed 3days if the therapy is started between 6h before the accidental exposure and 1h after. The pharmacist asked to dispense the tablets of stable iodine has a important place because, besides his advices on the optimal modalities of taking stable iodine and the risks of unwanted effects, he extend these advices to information on the radioactive risk and on measures of civil and sanitary protection. PMID:22500958

Hosten, B; Rizzo-Padoin, N; Scherrmann, J-M; Bloch, V

2012-02-28

281

Noise-immune laser receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit  

SciTech Connect

We consider the operation principles of noise-immune near-IR receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit, in which active quantum filters based on iodine photodissociation quantum amplifiers and iodine lasers are used. The possible applications of these devices in laser location, laser space communication, for the search for signals from extraterrestrial civilisations and sending signals to extraterrestrial civilisations are discussed. (invited paper)

Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K ['Astrofizika' Research and Production Association (Russian Federation); Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-11-30

282

CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Effect of the 129I impurity on the radiation frequency of a stabilised He Ne/127I2 laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation frequency of a He Ne/127I2 laser stabilised to the hyperfine structure component of molecular iodine exhibits shifts caused by the presence of impurities in the iodine cell. The specific effect of the 129I impurity on the radiation frequency of a stabilised laser is considered. It is shown that even for a 0.25 % concentration of 129I, the frequency shift in a He Ne/127I2 laser caused by this isotope plays a decisive role. To exclude the possible effect of other iodine isotopes on the accuracy of reproducibility of the frequency of metrological lasers, it is expedient to carry out the laser fluorescence test of the cells to check for the presence of heteroisotopic molecular iodine impurity.

Negriyko, Anatolii M.; Boyko, Oleksei V.; Kachalova, Nataliya M.; Khodakovskii, Vladimir M.

2004-05-01

283

Teaching the Rovibronic Spectroscopy of Molecular Iodine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The rovibronic spectroscopy of molecular iodine provides a clearer understanding of the electronic potential parameters of various systems to the undergraduate students. The technique also helps them to test the various other quantum mechanical concepts.|

Williamson, J. Charles

2007-01-01

284

The Electronic Spectrum of Iodine Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents equations and techniques for calculating and interpreting many of the spectroscopically important parameters associated with the ground and second excited states of the iodine molecule. (Author/CS)|

McNaught, Ian J.

1980-01-01

285

Use of Radioactive Iodine for Thyroid Cancer  

PubMed Central

Context Substantial uncertainty persists over the indications for radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer. Use of radioactive iodine over time and the correlates of its use remain unknown. Objective To determine practice patterns, the degree to which hospitals vary in their use of radioactive iodine, and factors that contribute to this variation Design, Setting, Patients We performed time trend analysis of radioactive iodine use in a cohort of 189,219 well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients treated at 981 hospitals associated with the National Cancer Database between 1990 and 2008. We used multilevel analysis to assess the correlates of patient and hospital characteristics on radioactive iodine use in the cohort treated from 20042008. Main Outcome Measure Use of radioactive iodine after total thyroidectomy Results Between 1990 and 2008, across all tumor sizes, there was a significant rise in the proportion of well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients receiving radioactive iodine (1373/3397, versus 11539/20620, P<0.001). Multivariable analysis of patients treated from 2004 to 2008 found that there was a statistical difference in radioactive iodine use between AJCC stage I and IV (odds ratios (OR) 0.34 (0.310.37) but not between stage II/III versus IV (OR 0.97 (0.881.07), 1.06 (0.951.17), respectively). In addition to patient and tumor characteristics, hospital volume was associated with radioactive iodine use. Wide variation in radioactive iodine use existed, and only 21.1% of this variation was accounted for by patient and tumor characteristics. Hospital type and case volume accounted for 17.1% of the variation. After adjusting for available patient, tumor, and hospital characteristics, much of the variance, 29.1%, was attributable to unexplained hospital characteristics. Conclusions Among patients treated for well-differentiated thyroid cancer at hospitals in the National Cancer Database, there was an increase in the proportion receiving radioactive iodine between 1990 and 2008; much of the variation in use was associated with hospital characteristics.

Haymart, MR; Banerjee, M; Stewart, AK; Koenig, RJ; Birkmeyer, JD; Griggs, JJ

2012-01-01

286

Staging in polyacetyleneiodine conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented for the existence of highly conducting polyacetylene complexes with structures related to high-stage graphite, as well as structures related to first-stage graphite. X-ray diffraction measurements on polyacetyleneiodine complexes indicate equatorial lines at 7.78.0 and 13.814.3 A?. The shorter spacing arises in part from a structure in which iodine-rich planes alternate with planes of polyacetylene chains. The longer

R. H. Baughman; N. S. Murthy; G. G. Miller; L. W. Shacklette

1983-01-01

287

The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer.  

PubMed

A renewal of the search for a link between breast cancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breast cancer. This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breast cancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are female predominant with a similar postmenopausal peak incidence. The significance of the presence of thyroid autoantibodies, particularly thyroid peroxidase antibodies, in serum from patients with breast cancer is unknown, but it has been suggested that antibody positivity is associated with better prognosis. One area in which thyroid and breast functions overlap is in the uptake and utilization of dietary iodide. Experimental findings showing the ability of iodine or iodine-rich seaweed to inhibit breast tumour development is supported by the relatively low rate of breast cancer in Japanese women who consume a diet containing iodine-rich seaweed. However, there is as yet no direct evidence that iodine, iodinated compounds, or a combination of iodine and selenium is the antimammary carcinogenic element in the Japanese diet. It remains to be resolved whether the perceived breast cancer-thyroid disease relationship is thyroid or iodine related or, in the case of thyroid autoantibodies, is the consequence of an immune response to the carcinoma. Is this response breast specific and does it relate to iodine status? These and many other questions await resolution before a definitive role in the natural history of breast carcinoma can be assigned to the thyroid. PMID:12927031

Smyth, Peter P A

2003-07-29

288

The chlorate-iodine clock reaction.  

PubMed

A clock reaction produced by mixing chlorate and iodine solutions in perchloric acid media is reported. This is the first example of a clock reaction using chlorate as a reagent. Increasing chlorate and acid concentration reduces the induction period. Changing the initial iodine concentration does not affect the length of the induction period. The discovery of this clock reaction opens the possibility that a new family of oscillation reactions can be built using chlorate as reagent. PMID:16366551

Oliveira, Andr P; Faria, Roberto B

2005-12-28

289

Iodine - Its possible role in tropospheric photochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of the photochemistry of iodine and its oxides indicates that iodine species may play an important role in the tropospheric photochemical system. Methyl iodide, often observed in the marine troposphere with an average concentration of 5-10 ppt, is photolyzed and thereby produces I atoms. Chemical interactions with O3, HxOy, and NOx cause I to be converted to

W. L. Chameides; D. D. Davis

1980-01-01

290

The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer  

PubMed Central

A renewal of the search for a link between breast cancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breast cancer. This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breast cancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are female predominant with a similar postmenopausal peak incidence. The significance of the presence of thyroid autoantibodies, particularly thyroid peroxidase antibodies, in serum from patients with breast cancer is unknown, but it has been suggested that antibody positivity is associated with better prognosis. One area in which thyroid and breast functions overlap is in the uptake and utilization of dietary iodide. Experimental findings showing the ability of iodine or iodine-rich seaweed to inhibit breast tumour development is supported by the relatively low rate of breast cancer in Japanese women who consume a diet containing iodine-rich seaweed. However, there is as yet no direct evidence that iodine, iodinated compounds, or a combination of iodine and selenium is the antimammary carcinogenic element in the Japanese diet. It remains to be resolved whether the perceived breast cancerthyroid disease relationship is thyroid or iodine related or, in the case of thyroid autoantibodies, is the consequence of an immune response to the carcinoma. Is this response breast specific and does it relate to iodine status? These and many other questions await resolution before a definitive role in the natural history of breast carcinoma can be assigned to the thyroid.

Smyth, Peter PA

2003-01-01

291

Invasive bladder cancer following 125iodine implants.  

PubMed

We present 2 cases of invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder following implantation of 125iodine seeds for the treatment of localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. These tumors, which occurred approximately 6 years after radiotherapy, were located in the trigone and prostatic urethra within the previous radiation treatment field. The development of high grade transitional cell carcinoma in these patients may be due to the tumorigenic effects of 125iodine radiation. PMID:1433634

Winters, J C; Fuselier, H A

1992-12-01

292

a High Spectral Resolution LIDAR Using AN Iodine Vapor Filter at 589 NM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-spectral resolution Rayleigh-Mie lidar based on an iodine vapor filter and operating at 589 nm has been developed. The use of an iodine vapor filter as a band stop filter has allowed the separation of Rayleigh and Mie scattering signals. This allows the lidar to measure atmospheric state variables and optical aerosol properties as a stand alone device. This lidar uses a narrow band pulsed laser as a light source, Rayleigh scattering by the atmosphere to provide a return signal, Doppler free saturated absorption spectra to provide an absolute frequency scale, and the absorption spectrum of iodine as a band stop filter. The determination of atmospheric and aerosol parameters relies on knowing the characteristics of the iodine absorption cell obtained by laboratory experiments. The analysis uses the theoretical Rayleigh-Brillouin frequency scattering function, as well as the assumption that the atmosphere is in hydrostatic equilibrium and acts as an ideal gas. It is also necessary to input or pin the air pressure at one altitude. This lidar implements features not present in the previous version. Locking to a frequency reference and monitoring the quality of the locking, installation of a 1 A norrowband interference filter, and most importantly using a temperature stabilized iodine vapor cell as the ultra-narrow band stop filter. These improvements result, respectively, in elimination of rotational Raman scattering from the lidar return, in a more stable laser frequency, and a more precise vapor filter transmission function. These, together, have resulted in improved lidar performance. Uncertainties in the experiment are predominately due to photon noise which may be reduced by various methods of increasing photon counts. Results of the field experiment are presented in profiles averaged over 82 minutes, semi-nightly, and nightly averages. For an integration time of 82 minutes the temperature can be measured at 1 km to within 4.6K, the volume backscatter ratio to 1% and the depolarization ratio to 2.4%.

Caldwell, Loren Max, Jr.

293

Iodine supplementation and the prevention of cretinism.  

PubMed

Normal development of the CNS requires adequate thyroid hormone exposure. Since iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone molecule, its deficiency during fetal development can cause hypothyroidism and irreversible mental retardation. The full-blown syndrome, called cretinism, includes deaf-mutism, short stature, spasticity, and profound mental retardation. The clinical spectrum can vary in degree and combination of these features. Screening programs in iodine-deficient countries show that up to 10% of neonates have elevated serum TSH levels, putting them at theoretical risk for permanent brain damage. About one billion people worldwide risk the consequences of iodine deficiency, all of which can be prevented by adequate maternal and infant iodine nutrition. Iodized salt is usually the preferred prophylactic vehicle, but iodized vegetable oil, iodized water, and iodine tablets are also occasionally used. The United Nations and the heads of state of most countries have pledged the virtual elimination of iodine deficiency by the year 2000. This goal is technically feasible if pursued with sufficient vigor and resources. PMID:8494259

Dunn, J T

1993-03-15

294

Dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion in patients with thyroid diseases.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to examine the usual iodine intake in patients with thyroid diseases and to compare iodine status with normal subjects. The dietary iodine intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and urinary iodine excretion was measured in 184 patients diagnosed with thyroid diseases and 207 normal subjects. The average usual iodine intake of patients with thyroid diseases was 673.8 +/- 794.9 ug/day and that of normal subjects was 468.9 +/- 481.9 ug/day. Among the patients with thyroid diseases, higher values were found in the patients with thyroid cancer (1460.6 +/- 1044.8 ug/day) and lower values were found in patients with simple goiter (443.5 +/- 470.4 ug/day). The urinary iodine excretions of patients and normal subjects were 4.33 +/- 5.70 mg/L and 2.11 +/- 0.69 mg/L, respectively. The iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion of patients with thyroid diseases were significantly higher than those of normal subjects (p < 0.05). The dietary iodine intake and urinary excretion of patients with thyroid cancer were significantly higher than other patients with thyroid diseases and normal subjects because of the use of seaweed or seaweed-containing dietary supplements (p < 0.01). This study suggests that the habitual ingestion of seaweed-containing dietary supplements in addition to dietary iodine intake will have adverse effects due to its excessive iodine intake. PMID:10731915

Kim, J Y; Kim, K R

2000-02-01

295

Maternal Iodine Status and Thyroid Volume during Pregnancy: Correlation with Neonatal Iodine Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in pregnancy-associated alterations in thyroid vol- ume and urinary iodine (UI) excretion have been attributed to geographical variations in dietary iodine intake. In this study, ultrasound-measured thyroid volume and UI excretion were as- sessed during the 3 trimesters of pregnancy, at delivery, and at 6 weeks postpartum. Urine specimens also were obtained from moth- ers and both breast- and

P. P. A. Smyth; A. M. T. HETHERTON; D. F. SMITH; M. RADCLIFF; C. O'HERLIHY

1997-01-01

296

Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments  

SciTech Connect

Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect.

Wilhite, E.L.

1999-10-15

297

Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine  

DOEpatents

Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

2013-02-26

298

Iodine toxicity and its amelioration.  

PubMed

Iodine (I) toxicity is rare in animals and humans, but nuclear explosions that give off radioactive I and excessive stable I ingestion in parts of the world where seaweed is consumed represent specialized I toxicity concerns. Chronic overconsumption of I reduces organic binding of I by the thyroid gland, which results in hypothyroidism and goiter. Bromine can replace I on position 5 of both T(3) and T(4) with no loss of thyroid hormone activity. Avian work has also demonstrated that oral bromide salts can reverse the malaise and growth depressions caused by high doses of I (as KI) added as supplements to the diet. Newborn infants by virtue of having immature thyroid glands are most susceptible to I toxicity, whether of stable or radioactive origin. For the latter, the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Belarus has provided evidence that KI blockage therapy for exposed individuals 18 years of age and younger is effective in minimizing the development of thyroid cancer. Whether bromide therapy has a place in I toxicity situations remains to be determined. PMID:15169965

Baker, David H

2004-06-01

299

[Iodine and thyroid: what a clinic should know].  

PubMed

The World Health Organization considers iodine deficiency as a major worldwide cause of mental and development diseases, estimating that about 13% of the world population is affected by diseases caused by iodine deficiency. Iodine is a trace element necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which, since it cannot be formed by the organism, must be taken regularly with food. Fish and shellfish are generally a good source, because the ocean contains a considerable amount of iodine. On the contrary, plants which grow in iodine-deficient soils are poor in this element, as well as meat and other animal products fed in plants low in iodine. Salt is the best way for iodine supplementation. Cooking the food with iodized salt is a desirable practice because it guarantees the presence of this element. There are also other methods to provide iodine to the general population, such as adding iodine to drinking water or taking supplements of iodine. In pregnancy is recommended iodine supplementation, except in patients with known thyroid disorders. Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3). Inadequate iodine intake leads to inadequate thyroid hormone production. The most important consequences of iodine deficiency, in the general population are goiter and hypothyroidism, and in the severe cases, mental retardation, cretinism and increased neo-natal and infant mortality. The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) formed in 1985, with the only aim of achieving optimal iodine nutrition in the world, in cooperation with UNICEF and WHO. In Portugal, recent studies show significant deficiencies in pregnancy and The Portuguese Society of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, in partnership with General Directorate of Health, proposed an iodine supplementation during pregnancy with 150-200g/day. PMID:23069238

Santana Lopes, Maria; Jcome de Castro, Joo; Marcelino, Mafalda; Oliveira, Maria Joo; Carrilho, Francisco; Limbert, Edward

2012-07-23

300

Teratology Public Affairs Committee Position Paper: Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Iodine deficiency is an important nutritional deficiency, with more than 2 billion people worldwide estimated to be at risk. The developing fetus and young children are particularly at risk. During pregnancy and lactation, iodine requirements increase, whether in iodine-poor or iodine-sufficient countries, making the mother and the developing fetus vulnerable. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends 250 micrograms per day of iodine intake for pregnant and lactating women. The thyroid gland is able to adapt to the changes associated with pregnancy as long as sufficient iodine is present. Dietary intake is the sole source of iodine, which is essential to the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine is found in multiple dietary sources including iodized salt, dairy products, seaweed, and fish. Prenatal vitamins containing iodine are a good source of iodine, but iodine content in multivitamin supplements is highly variable. Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with cretinism. Clinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of poor perinatal outcome including prematurity, low birth weight, miscarriage, preeclampsia, fetal death, and impaired fetal neurocognitive development. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and potential fetal neurocognitive deficits, but the data are more variable than those for clinical hypothyroidism. We concur with the ATA recommendation that all pregnant and lactating women should ingest (through diet and supplements) 250 micrograms of iodine daily. To achieve this goal, we recommend that all pregnant and lactating women take daily iodine supplementation of 150 micrograms.

Obican, Sarah G.; Jahnke, Gloria D.; Soldin, Offie P.; Scialli, Anthony R.

2013-01-01

301

Optimization of iodine intake in Belgium.  

PubMed

Mild iodine deficiency (MID) is a long-standing problem in Belgium and was recognized only recently as public health issue by the Ministry of Health (MOH). The main MID-related health problems in Belgium are a high prevalence of thyroid nodules and multinodular goiter. The economic cost of thyroid nodular disease only in Belgium was estimated at about 40millions per year. The Belgian health authorities adopted a selective strategy to optimize iodine intake through the fortification of bread with iodized salt. A progressive, step-by-step increase of the iodine content of salt was chosen in order to minimize the incidence of hyperthyroidism. MOH monitors this strategy by assessing periodically the urinary iodine concentration in school-aged children and pregnant women, as well as by a yearly follow-up of TSH concentrations in all Belgian newborns. Although the implementation of this strategy was an important step, the main drawback of the current situation is the absence of a legal framework to support the strategy. The utilization of iodized salt in bread on a voluntary basis was endorsed by the bakery industry and MOH. However a legal framework is required to assure the effectiveness and continuity of the program and to avoid a higher than optimal iodine intake in the population. PMID:21513914

Moreno-Reyes, R; Van Oyen, H; Vandevijvere, S

2011-04-21

302

Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents  

SciTech Connect

Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light-water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled, and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 16 refs.

Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.

1991-01-01

303

Iodine nutrition during pregnancy in toronto, Canada.  

PubMed

Objective: To evaluate the status of iodine nutrition among pregnant women presenting for routine antenatal care in Toronto, Canada, as determined by the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of this population.Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted involving 142 pregnant women recruited from four low-risk antenatal outpatient clinics in Toronto, Canada. Subjects completed a questionnaire and provided a spot urine sample for the measurement of iodine concentration.Results: Mean maternal age was 33.8 4.3 years. Mean gestational age was 29.3 7.8 weeks. The median UIC was 221 ?g/L (interquartile range, 142 to 397 ?g/L). Six women (4.2%) had urine iodine levels <50 ?g/L, and 36 women (25.4%) had levels between 50 and 150 ?g/L.Conclusion: This cohort of primarily Caucasian, well-educated, and relatively affluent pregnant women in Toronto, Canada, are iodine sufficient, perhaps due to universal salt iodization and/or other dietary and lifestyle factors. PMID:23186967

Katz, Pamela M; Leung, Angela M; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Tomlinson, George; He, Xuemei; Vertes, Jaclyn; Okun, Nan; Walfish, Paul G; Feig, Denice S

304

Observations of iodine monoxide columns from satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine species in the troposphere are linked to ozone depletion and new particle formation. In this study, a full year of iodine monoxide (IO) columns retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument is presented, coupled with a discussion of their uncertainties and the detection limits. The largest amounts of IO are found near springtime in the Antarctic. A seasonal variation of iodine monoxide in Antarctica is revealed with high values in springtime, slightly less IO in the summer period and again larger amounts in autumn. In winter, no elevated IO levels are found in the areas accessible to satellite measurements. This seasonal cycle is in good agreement with recent ground-based measurements in Antarctica. In the Arctic region, no elevated IO levels were found in the period analysed. This implies that different conditions with respect to iodine release exist in the two Polar Regions. To investigate possible release mechanisms, comparisons of IO columns with those of tropospheric BrO, and ice coverage are described and discussed. Some parallels and interesting differences between IO and BrO temporal and spatial distributions are identified. Overall, the large spatial coverage of satellite retrieved IO data and the availability of a long-term dataset provide new insight about the abundances and distributions of iodine compounds in the troposphere.

Schnhardt, A.; Richter, A.; Wittrock, F.; Kirk, H.; Oetjen, H.; Roscoe, H. K.; Burrows, J. P.

2008-02-01

305

Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents  

SciTech Connect

Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation-induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 17 refs., 5 tabs.

Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

1991-01-01

306

Effect of iodine supply on neonatal thyroid volume and TSH.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was performed to prove the correlation between iodine intake and neonatal thyroid volume in a randomized group of 100 mother/newborn pairs. Thyroid volume and iodine excretion were measured by ultrasound and urinary iodine excretion, respectively. Iodine intake and, nutritional and smoking habits were estimated by questionnaire. In 89 mother/child-pairs the data were complete for all parameters and have been analyzed: 32 mothers substituted with iodine tablets, average dose 175 microg K-Iodide/day. Iodine excretion of prenatally iodine-substituted newborns increased by 62% whereas neonatal thyroid volume was reduced by 18% compared with the non-iodine-supplemented group. Smoker's newborns (n = 8) had a thyroid volume 20% larger than that of newborns of non-smokers. Neonatal TSH-screening values remained within normal limits. PMID:10626570

Klett, M; Ohlig, M; Manz, F; Trger, J; Heinrich, U

1999-12-01

307

Low iodine diet in I-131 ablation of thyroid remnants  

SciTech Connect

A low-iodine diet was developed for use in decreasing iodine intake and excretion in patients undergoing evaluation with radioactive I-131 for ablation of thyroid remnants as treatment for thyroid cancer. It has been demonstrated to effectively lower iodine excretion to less than 25% of basal values. Preliminary calculations suggest that such iodine depletion may be potentially useful in increasing the radiation dose per mCi of administered activity in I-131 ablative therapy.

Maxon, H.R.; Thomas, S.R.; Boehringer, A.; Drilling, J.; Sperling, M.I.; Sparks, J.C.; Chen, I.W.

1983-03-01

308

Effect of different cooking methods on iodine losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is a public health problem in India. It is because of poor iodine availability to the body\\u000a either due to loss of iodine from iodized salt or due to cooking. Since there is lack of scientific evidence on loss of iodine\\u000a during different cooking methods, present study was undertaken to study the effect of different cooking

Ritu Rana; Rita Singh Raghuvanshi

309

[Iodine deficiency in infancy - a risk for cognitive development].  

PubMed

Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy seriously influences fetal brain development and in the worst case induces cretinism. Recent studies have shown that even a mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy and during the first years of life adversely affects brain development. The World Health Organisation (WHO) considers iodine deficiency as the most common preventable cause of early childhood mental deficiency. In this context, the insufficient production of the four iodine atoms containing thyroxine seems to play a causal role, i. e., due to the iodine substrate deficiency the neuronally particularly relevant free-thyroxine level falls. Due to the very limited iodine storage capacity, the infantile thyroid is eminently dependent on an adequate and steady iodine supply. In the first month of life, when milk is the only energy- and nutrient provider, infants fed a commercial formula regularly have a sufficient iodine supply. However, breastfed infants, who depend on maternal iodine status, frequently show an inadequate iodine intake. Furthermore, iodine intake is critical when complementary food (CF) is introduced. Especially homemade CF is poor in iodine, but also commercial CFs are only partly fortified. A simultaneous inadequate iodine supply of the breastfeeding mother and the preferential use of mostly iodine-poor organic milk cannot ensure an adequate iodine supply of the infant. In terms of an improvement of nutrient supply, especially concerning an unhindered brain development, the corresponding German reference value for iodine intake of infants until age 4 month should be raised from currently 40 microg/d to at least 60 microg/d (WHO-reference: 90 microg/d). PMID:20665419

Remer, T; Johner, S A; Grtner, R; Thamm, M; Kriener, E

2010-07-27

310

Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae - linkage to emissions of molecular iodine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2), (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003), provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000) and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical and behave alike when exposed to increased humidity environments. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular iodine release from intertidal macroalgae is presented and the potential importance of macroalgal iodine particles in their contribution to CCN and global radiative forcing are discussed.

McFiggans, G.; Coe, H.; Burgess, R.; Allan, J.; Cubison, M.; Rami Alfarra, M.; Saunders, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Plane, J. M. C.; Wevill, D.; Carpenter, L.; Rickard, A. R.; Monks, P. S.

2004-02-01

311

Seed-less iodine-125 ophthalmic applicator.  

PubMed

A method of preparation a seed-less active insert of iodine-125 ophthalmic applicator is described. Internal electrolysis was applied for fixing iodine-125 on the concave surface of the silver shell which is afterwards hermetically sealed inside a spherically shaped acrylic insert. The current-voltage characteristics of the galvanic cell used for deposition of silver iodide were determined. The results of the measurements of the energy spectra of the radiation emitted by a seed-less and seed-containing applicator are presented. The iodine-125 surface distribution uniformity on a silver shell was measured. The depth dose rate measurements indicate that the total activity incorporated in a seed-less applicator can be lower than that in seed-containing, while simultaneously assuring the desired dose rate. PMID:12485658

Puchalska, Izabela; Mielcarski, Mieczyslaw

2003-01-01

312

Dynamics of iodine, bromine, and chlorine in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the moisture content, temperature, and pH on the dissolution ratios of iodine, bromine, and chlorine (triad) from Japanese soils which contain large amounts of iodine and bromine was examined, (i) Soil moisture level was the most important environmental factor affecting the dissolution ratio. The dissolution ratios of iodine and bromine which were lowest under the non-flooded conditions

Kouichi Yuita; Tadashi Tanaka; Chieko Abe; Sueo Aso

1991-01-01

313

Effects of organic impurities on the partitioning of iodine  

SciTech Connect

For the purposes of iodine source term calculations a knowledge of the time-dependence of iodine partitioning and the composition of the volatile iodine species may be very important. This study demonstrates that the disposition of iodine in a water-air system subjected to gamma radiation can be significantly affected by the presence of organics in the liquid and/or vapor phases. A useful parameter for characterizing the distribution of iodine between the liquid and vapor phases is the time dependent iodine partition coefficient (IPC) defined by: IPC = (Total Iodine Concentration in Liquid Phase)/(Total Iodine Concentration in Vapor Phase). The addition of methanol to a gamma-irradiated water-air-iodine system tends to increase the IPC over that which would be observed in the absence of methanol. This increase in the IPC is attributed to the ability of methanol to inhibit the formation of volatile molecular iodine by scavenging the hydroxyl radicals necessary to initiate molecular iodine formation. In the presence of gamma radiation, gaseous molecular iodine (I{sub 2}) and methane may react to form volatile organic iodides (mainly methyl iodide) which tend to lower the IPC of a system. It is evident that the formation of volatile organic iodide species depends strongly on the specific organic present in the system.

Lutz, J.B.

1987-01-01

314

Congenital hypothyroidism caused by excess prenatal maternal iodineingestion.  

PubMed

We report the cases of 3 infants with congenital hypothyroidism detected with the use of our newborn screening program, with evidence supporting excess maternal iodine ingestion (12.5 mg/d) as the etiology. Levels of whole blood iodine extracted from their newborn screening specimens were 10 times above mean control levels. Excess iodine ingestion from nutritional supplements is often unrecognized. PMID:22841183

Connelly, Kara J; Boston, Bruce A; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Sesser, David; Snyder, David; Braverman, Lewis E; Pino, Sam; LaFranchi, Stephen H

2012-07-27

315

Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell-Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R(2)=0.9483; creatinine: R(2)=0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs. PMID:23374216

Zava, Theodore T; Kapur, Sonia; Zava, David T

2012-12-22

316

Hydrolysis of iodine: equilibria at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The hydrolysis (or disproportionation) of molecular iodine to form iodate and iodide ions has been studied by emf measurements over the temperature range, 3.8/sup 0/ to 209.0/sup 0/C. The interpretation of these results required a knowledge of the formation constant for triiodide ion and the acid dissociation constant of iodic acid, both of which were measured as a function of temperature. The resulting thermodynamic data have been incorporated into a general computer model describing the hydrolysis equilibria of iodine as a function of initial concentration, pH and temperature.

Palmer, D.A.; Ramette, R.W.; Mesmer, R.E.

1984-01-01

317

Transperineal 125iodine endocurietherapy of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

We present the improved implant technique, intraoperative and postoperative complications, local control, and survival of 67 patients with cancer of the prostate treated by means of percutaneous transperineal template permanent 125iodine interstitial endocurietherapy (ECT). This ECT technique is a simple, easily learned, accurate and rapid procedure that can be performed without subjecting the patient to celiotomy. The use of vicryl carriers for permanent 125iodine implantation of the prostate with the percutaneous transperineal template technique prevents seed loss and permits implantation of patients after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). PMID:3407629

Kumar, P P; Good, R R; Bartone, F F; Jones, E O; Lynch, G

1988-08-01

318

Iodine in oil and gas fields: Especially on the geochemical consideration of the prospecting for iodine deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine contents in brines of gas and oil fields throughout the world are surveyed from the standpoint of water quality and Cl content, and brines from oil, gas, and coal fields in Japan are studied in terms of Cl content. The distribution of iodine and halogens and their relationship in underground waters and the relationship between iodine and organic substances

K. Motojima

1976-01-01

319

Low Iodine Content in the Diets of Hospitalized Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Context: Iodine is critical for normal thyroid hormone synthesis and brain development during infancy, and preterm infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of both iodine deficiency and excess. Use of iodine-containing skin antiseptics in intensive care nurseries has declined substantially in recent years, but whether the current dietary iodine intake meets the requirement for hospitalized preterm infants is unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the iodine content of enteral and parenteral nutrition products commonly used for hospitalized preterm infants and estimate the daily iodine intake for a hypothetical 1-kg infant. Methods: We used mass spectrometry to measure the iodine concentration of seven preterm infant formulas, 10 samples of pooled donor human milk, two human milk fortifiers (HMF) and other enteral supplements, and a parenteral amino acid solution and soy-based lipid emulsion. We calculated the iodine provided by typical diets based on 150 ml/kg d of formula, donor human milk with or without HMF, and parenteral nutrition. Results: Preterm formula provided 16.428.5 ?g/d of iodine, whereas unfortified donor human milk provided only 5.017.6 ?g/d. Adding two servings (six packets) of Similac HMF to human milk increased iodine intake by 11.7 ?g/d, whereas adding two servings of Enfamil HMF increased iodine intake by only 0.9 ?g/d. The other enteral supplements contained almost no iodine, nor did a parenteral nutrition-based diet. Conclusions: Typical enteral diets for hospitalized preterm infants, particularly those based on donor human milk, provide less than the recommended 30 ?g/d of iodine, and parenteral nutrition provides almost no iodine. Additional iodine fortification should be considered.

Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.; He, Xuemei; Brown, Rosalind S.

2012-01-01

320

Representative data of iodine intake and urinary excretion in Germany.  

PubMed

To evaluate the iodine supply of the German population, 2500 representative subjects older than 13 years were elected for answering a specific food questionnaire. In addition spot urine samples in 3 selected risk groups for iodine deficiency (574 adults aged 50-70 years, 769 conscripts, 886 pairs of mothers and newborns) from 26 representative regions were collected. Furthermore the circadian iodine excretion was measured in 24 h urine samples collected in 6 fractions per day in 4 subgroups (young and older males and females) of 91 controls and this 24 h iodine excretion related to iodine/creatinine ratio in these subgroups. Mean estimated iodine intake was 119 microg/d in adults aged 50-70 years, 137 microg/d in conscripts, and 162 microg/d in mothers at still birth. The mean iodine concentration (iodine/creatinine ratio) was 9.4 microg/dl in 566 adults aged 50-70 years, 8.3 microg/dl in 772 conscripts and 5.6 microg/dl in 739 breast fed newborns. The mean daily iodine excretion was 134 microg/d in 278 men aged 50-70 years, 117 microg/d in 288 women aged 50-70 years, 125 microg/d in 772 conscripts and 74 microg/d in 53 breast-feeding mothers not using iodine tablets. These results show, that iodine intake in Germany has increased over the last years. The deficit in iodine intake with significant regional differences and defined risk groups for iodine deficiency (e.g. breast feeding mothers without iodine deficiency prophylaxis) is estimated to be about 30% of the recommended iodine intake. PMID:11573130

Grtner, R; Manz, F; Grossklaus, R

2001-01-01

321

Multi-input digital frequency stabilization of monolithic lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital control application for the frequency stabilization of optical frequency standards is presented. The standard employed is a monolithic neodymium in yttrium aluminum garnet laser locked to an iodine frequency reference. Traditionally, laser frequency is locked to the reference through analogue loops, which may require a lengthy set-up and a manual search for the reference to which to lock

Enrico S. Canuto; Andrea Rolino

2004-01-01

322

Kinetic Model of the CF3I Photodissociation Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model is developed to describe the reaction kinetics of the CF3I flash photolysis iodine laser. All chemical reactions and relaxation processes which are important in the pressure and temperature regimes of laser amplifiers are described. The model was ...

R. D. Franklin

1973-01-01

323

Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite  

DOEpatents

Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which adsorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine.

Thomas, Thomas R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Staples, Bruce A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Murphy, Llewellyn P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1978-05-09

324

Iodine Overload and Severe Hypothyroidism in Two Neonates  

PubMed Central

Iodine overload frequently leads to transient hyperthyrotropinemia or hypothyroidism, and rarely to hyperthyroidism in neonates. Iodine exposure can be prenatal, perinatal or postnatal. Herein we report two newborn infants who developed severe hypothyroidism due to iodine overload. The overloading was caused by excessive use of an iodinated antiseptic for umbilical care in the first case, and as a result of maternal exposure and through breast milk with a high iodine level in the second case. Presenting the two cases, we wanted to draw attention to these preventable causes of hypothyroidism in infants. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Ak?n, Leyla; Ak?n, Mustafa Ali; Coban, Dilek

2009-01-01

325

Efficiency of ablative loading of material upon the fast-electron transfer of absorbed laser energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of experiments on the short-term irradiation of a solid material by a laser beam. The data testify to a rise in efficiency of the energy transfer from the laser pulse to a shock wave due to the fast-electron energy transfer. The experiments were performed with massive aluminium targets on the PALS iodine laser, whose pulse duration

Sergei Yu Guskov; A Kasperczuk; T Pisarczyk; S Borodziuk; M Kalal; J Limpouch; J Ullschmied; E Krousky; K Masek; M Pfeifer; K Rohlena; J Skala; P Pisarczyk

2006-01-01

326

Determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in waters with a new total organic iodine measurement approach.  

PubMed

The dissolved iodine species that dominate aquatic systems are iodide, iodate and organo-iodine. These species may undergo transformation to one another and thus affect the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts during disinfection of drinking waters or wastewater effluents. In this study, a fast, sensitive and accurate method for determining these iodine species in waters was developed by derivatizing iodide and iodate to organic iodine and measuring organic iodine with a total organic iodine (TOI) measurement approach. Within this method, organo-iodine was determined directly by TOI measurement; iodide was oxidized by monochloramine to hypoiodous acid and then hypoiodous acid reacted with phenol to form organic iodine, which was determined by TOI measurement; iodate was reduced by ascorbic acid to iodide and then determined as iodide. The quantitation limit of organo-iodine or sum of organo-iodine and iodide or sum of organo-iodine, iodide and iodate was 5?g/L as I for a 40mL water sample (or 2.5?g/L as I for an 80mL water sample, or 1.25?g/L as I for a 160mL water sample). This method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in a variety of water samples, including tap water, seawater, urine and wastewater. The recoveries of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine were 91-109%, 90-108% and 91-108%, respectively. The concentrations and distributions of iodine species in different water samples were obtained and compared. PMID:24075720

Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

2013-09-12

327

Maternal and Neonatal Urinary Iodine Status and its Effect on Neonatal TSH Levels in a Mildly Iodine-Deficient Area  

PubMed Central

Objective: Iodine deficiency and excess are the most important factors that affect screening and recall rates of congenital hypothyroidism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the urinary iodine status in newborns and their mothers and its effects on neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in a mildly iodine-deficient area. Methods: A total of 116 newborns and their mothers were included in the study. Urinary iodine levels were measured from healthy mothers and their babies on the 5th day following birth. Neonatal TSH levels were screened, and TSH and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were measured on the15th day in the recall cases. T4 treatment was started in infants with high TSH and low fT4 levels. These measurements were repeated on the 30th day in these newborns. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the mothers included in the study were using iodized salt. The median urinary iodine level in the newborns was 279 g/L, while it was 84 g/L in their mothers. The rate of iodine deficiency among the mothers was 56.8%, and the rate of iodine excess was 8.6%. This rate was 10.3% for iodine deficiency and 61.2% for iodine excess in the newborns. The recall rate at the screening was 9.5% (n=11). The urinary iodine levels were above 200 g/L in three newborns who had transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Conclusions: Iodine deficiency was more frequently observed in nursing mothers, and iodine excess was more frequently seen in their newborns. The iodine excess noted in the newborns was attributed to the use of antiseptics containing iodine. The iodine excess leads to increases in recall rates, screening costs, and frequency of transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Kutlu Yaman, Arzu; Demirel, Fatma; Ermis, Bahri; Piskin, I. Etem

2013-01-01

328

Testing of iodine filters in nuclear plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the various methods for testing the efficiency of ; filters and ventilation systems used in nuclear plants for the retention of ; iodine and its volatile compounds are discussed. The development of the ; equipment and instrumentation systems required for the execution of such tests, ; as well as the results obtained with the full-scale filter and

S. Lanza; M. Mazzini

1973-01-01

329

Iodine insufficiency: a global health problem?  

PubMed

As a result of collaborative efforts with international organizations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries practice universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory salt fortification programs. As a consequence, the prevalence of iodine deficiency decreased dramatically. The United States and Canada are among the few developed countries that do not practice USI. Such an undertaking would require evidence of deficiency among vulnerable population groups, including pregnant women, newborns, and developing infants. Government agencies in the United States rely heavily on data from NHANES to assess the iodine status of the general population and pregnant women in particular. NHANES data suggest that pregnant women in the United States remain mildly deficient. This is important, because the developing fetus is dependent on maternal iodine intake for normal brain development throughout pregnancy. Professional societies have recommended that pregnant and lactating women, or those considering pregnancy, consume a supplement providing 150 ?g iodine daily. The United States and Canada collaborate on the daily recommended intake and are also confronted with the challenge of identifying the studies needed to determine if USI is likely to be beneficial to vulnerable population groups without exposing them to harm. PMID:24038248

Swanson, Christine A; Pearce, Elizabeth N

2013-09-01

330

New iodination of cellulose in phosphoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcrystalline cellulose was dissolved at ambient temperature in 85% H3PO4, and KIO3 was added together with KI to the solution thereby obtained. After 24 h, a white product was isolated by adding cold ethanol. The product has a large specific weight and a high content of iodine. On the basis of IR and NMR spectroscopy data, it is suggested that

Mario Pagliaro

1999-01-01

331

Antimicrobial activities of iodinated polystyrene derivatives.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activities of insoluble halogenated acetamidomethy1-styrene polymers (prepared by covalent bonding of iodine to polystyrene) were assessed as were the factors determining antimicrobial efficacy. The most active materials were selected from chlorinated or iodinated polymers. Antimicrobial activities were assessed for Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922; American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD, U.S.A.), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans by determining time-course changes in microbial counts in vitro. A 2-iodoacetamidomethylstyrene polymer (No.6-I:-CH2I) was found to have the greatest antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi. No.6-I is the first antimicrobial material that did not make an inhibition hollow in the conventional diffusion test or for which conjugated iodine showed antibacterial activity. This material can be introduced into styrene units on the surface of devices by chemical modification. This material was most active at 37 degrees C. For coated dishes, antimicrobial activity depended on the depth or swollen character of the reactive layer. NO.6-I requires not only a minimum width of polymer layer, but also frequent contact with microbes to have an antimicrobial effect. No.6-I is valuable as a new material because it has strong antimicrobial activity by itself but does not release active iodine. This material is expected to have various applications in implantable clinical devices. PMID:8908329

Lin, K J; Tani, T; Endo, Y; Kodama, M; Teramoto, K

1996-11-01

332

Factors Influencing the Occurrence of High Numbers of Iodine-Resistant Bacteria in Iodinated Swimming Pools  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that, although iodinated swimming-pool waters are usually free from coliform bacteria and enterococci, the total counts frequently become relatively high. Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Alcaligenes faecalis have been shown to account for most of these high counts. It was of interest, therefore, to compare the microbial flora of four alternately chlorinated and iodinated swimming pools. By means of the membrane filter method and suitable selective media, examinations were made for total viable counts, coliform bacteria, enterococci, staphylococci, Streptococcus salivarius, and P. aeruginosa. Colonies also were picked from membrane filters incubated on standard plate count agar and identified. The results showed that, although viable counts were significantly higher during the iodinated periods, the specific types of bacteria determined were either fewer than or the same as in chlorinated periods. During chlorination, the predominant microbial flora consisted of staphylococci and members of the genus Bacillus. During iodination, however, the P. alcaligenes-A. faecalis group accounted for 92 to 99% of the microbial flora. The accumulation of high numbers of these bacteria was shown to be due to their iodine resistance and their ability to grow rapidly in pool water in the absence of free iodine.

Favero, Martin S.; Drake, Charles H.

1966-01-01

333

Adsorption properties of iodine-doped activated carbon fiber.  

PubMed

Iodine-doped activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared by the iodine immersion method on pitch-based ACF. Then iodine-doped ACFs were heated in argon at 523 K for 4 h and at 673 K for 2 h. The iodine structure of the resultant iodine-doped ACFs was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The micropore structures were determined by N(2) adsorption at 77 K. The surface area and micropore volume of iodine-doped ACFs are less than those of pristine ACFs. However, the pore width does not change with the iodine doping. The effects of iodine doping on adsorption properties of ACFs for H(2)O and NO at 303 K were examined. The iodine doping affected remarkably the adsorptivities of ACFs for H(2)O and NO. In particular, iodine-doped ACFs treated at 673 K show enhanced adsorptivities for H(2)O and NO. This result suggests that iodine molecules doped on the micropores should be charged by heat treatment at 673 K. PMID:16290381

Yang, Cheol-Min; Kaneko, Katsumi

2002-02-01

334

Nano-structured calcium silicate hydrate functionalised with iodine.  

PubMed

Nano-structured calcium silicate hydrate can physisorb or chemisorb iodine, making it interesting for medical or materials science applications, where a slow, controlled release of iodine is desired. It was found that iodine can be sorbed and released by applying the elemental halogen in solution, either as a gas or as a solid. At ambient temperatures the sorption and desorption process is quantitative and physical, meaning that the same amount of iodine is taken up and released. At temperatures above 32.5 degrees C (305.7K) iodine reacts with the calcium silicate hydrate forming a complex, which is stable above the sublimation temperature of iodine. The formation energy for the iodine calcium silicate hydrate complex was established to be 41.8+/-0.8kJmol(-1) by calorimetry and the nature of the complex was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PMID:19682703

Borrmann, Thomas; Johnston, James H; McFarlane, Andrew J; Richardson, Michael J; O'Connor, Sean J

2009-08-13

335

The challenges of iodine supplementation: a public health programme perspective.  

PubMed

An adequate iodine intake during pregnancy, lactation and early childhood is particularly critical for optimal brain development of the foetus and of children 7-24 months of age. While the primary strategy for sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency remains universal salt iodisation, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund recommend a complementary strategy of iodine supplements as a temporary measure when salt iodisation could not be implemented. This article aims to review current evidence on efficacy and implications of implementing iodine supplementation as a public health measure to address iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation seems unlikely to reach high coverage in a rapid, equitable and sustained way. Implementing the programme requires political commitment, effective and efficient supply, distribution and targeting, continuous education and communication and a robust monitoring system. Thus, universal salt iodisation should remain the primary strategy to eliminate iodine deficiency. PMID:20172473

Untoro, Juliawati; Timmer, Arnold; Schultink, Werner

2010-02-01

336

Multicenter trial of cadexomer iodine to treat venous stasis ulcer.  

PubMed Central

In a crossover study designed to judge the efficacy of the topical polymeric starch iodophore, cadexomer iodine, in accelerating the healing of venous stasis ulcers, 75 patients were prospectively randomly assigned to receive either cadexomer iodine or standard treatment. The control treatment consisted of a standard saline wet-to-dry compressive dressing. The patients improved with either treatment: ulcers healed more than twice as rapidly using cadexomer iodine (n = 38) as with standard therapy (n = 37) (P = .0025). Ulcers treated with cadexomer iodine showed trends toward less pain, exudate, pus, and debris, and a more rapid development of granulation tissue. Twelve patients crossed over from control treatment to the use of cadexomer iodine because of a failure to heal, but no patients switched to control therapy from the use of cadexomer iodine (P = .01). Except for occasional mild local burning in wounds treated with cadexomer iodine, no adverse effects were noted with either regimen.

Holloway, G A; Johansen, K H; Barnes, R W; Pierce, G E

1989-01-01

337

Environmental iodine intake affects the type of nonmalignant thyroid disease.  

PubMed

The relationship between the iodine intake level of a population and the occurrence of thyroid diseases is U-shaped with an increase in risk from both low and high iodine intakes. Developmental brain disorders and endemic goiter caused by severe iodine deficiency may seriously deteriorate overall health status and economic performance of a population. Severe iodine deficiency with a median 24-hour urinary iodine excretion of the population below 25 microg needs immediate attention and correction. Less severe iodine deficiency with median urinary iodine excretion below 120 microg per 24 hours is associated with multinodular autonomous growth and function of the thyroid gland leading to goiter and hyperthyroidism in middle aged and elderly subjects. The lower the iodine intake, the earlier and more prominent are the abnormalities. At the other end of the spectrum, severely excessive iodine intake starting at median urinary iodine excretion levels around 800 microg per 24 hours is associated with a higher prevalence of thyroid hypofunction and goiter in children. A number of studies indicate that moderate and mild iodine excess (median urinary iodine >220 microg per 24 hours) are associated with a more frequent occurrence of hypothyroidism, especially in elderly subjects. The exact mechanism leading to this has not been clarified, and more studies are needed to define the limits of excessive iodine intake precisely. Due to the frequent occurrence of thyroid disorders, proper monitoring and control of the population iodine intake level is a cost-effective alternative to diagnosing, therapy and control of the many individual cases of thyroid diseases that might have been prevented. PMID:11396704

Laurberg, P; Blow Pedersen, I; Knudsen, N; Ovesen, L; Andersen, S

2001-05-01

338

Iodination of human thyroglobulin (Tg) alters its immunoreactivity. II. Fine specificity of a monoclonal antibody that recognizes iodinated Tg  

PubMed Central

In a previous investigation, we found that murine MoAb 42C3, raised against human Tg, recognized Tg differently depending upon its level of iodination of Tg. A possible explanation for this finding is that iodine is directly involved with the specific epitope recognized by MoAb 42C3. In the present study, we report that the binding of MoAb 42C3 to iodinated Tg is inhibited by T4, T3, reverse T3 (rT3), triiodothyroacetic acid (triac), diiodothyronine (T2), diiodotyrosine (DIT), but not by thyronine (T0) or tyrosine. The order of inhibition of these iodinated compounds is T4 > T3 > rT3 > triac > T2 > DIT. The MoAb 42C3 does not have the same specificity as the T3, T4-receptor since the order of binding of these iodinated compounds on the receptor differed from the order of their inhibition of this MoAb. Monoclonal antibody 42C3 also recognized non-iodinated Tg that was subsequently iodinated in vitro. It failed to recognize another protein, bovine serum albumin, that was iodinated in vitro by the same method. These results suggest that iodinated tyrosines and thyronines determine the binding specificity of MoAb 42C3. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on MoAb 42C3 depend on their iodine content as well as location of iodine in the aromatic ring.

Saboori, A M; Rose, N R; Burek, C L

1998-01-01

339

Iodination of human thyroglobulin (Tg) alters its immunoreactivity. II. Fine specificity of a monoclonal antibody that recognizes iodinated Tg.  

PubMed

In a previous investigation, we found that murine MoAb 42C3, raised against human Tg, recognized Tg differently depending upon its level of iodination of Tg. A possible explanation for this finding is that iodine is directly involved with the specific epitope recognized by MoAb 42C3. In the present study, we report that the binding of MoAb 42C3 to iodinated Tg is inhibited by T4, T3, reverse T3 (rT3), triiodothyroacetic acid (triac), diiodothyronine (T2), diiodotyrosine (DIT), but not by thyronine (TO) or tyrosine. The order of inhibition of these iodinated compounds is T4 > T3 > rT3 > triac > T2 > DIT. The MoAb 42C3 does not have the same specificity as the T3, T4-receptor since the order of binding of these iodinated compounds on the receptor differed from the order of their inhibition of this MoAb. Monoclonal antibody 42C3 also recognized non-iodinated Tg that was subsequently iodinated in vitro. It failed to recognize another protein, bovine serum albumin, that was iodinated in vitro by the same method. These results suggest that iodinated tyrosines and thyronines determine the binding specificity of MoAb 42C3. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on MoAb 42C3 depend on their iodine content as well as location of iodine in the aromatic ring. PMID:9717982

Saboori, A M; Rose, N R; Burek, C L

1998-08-01

340

Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae - linkage to emissions of molecular iodine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2), (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003), provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000) and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical. When small, those formed in the molecular iodine system swell only moderately when exposed to increased humidity environments, and swell progressively less with increasing size; this behaviour occurs whether they are formed in dry or humid environments, in contrast to those in the CH2I2 system. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular iodine release from intertidal macroalgae is presented and the potential importance of macroalgal iodine particles in their contribution to CCN and global radiative forcing are discussed.

McFiggans, G.; Coe, H.; Burgess, R.; Allan, J.; Cubison, M.; Alfarra, M. R.; Saunders, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Plane, J. M. C.; Wevill, D.; Carpenter, L.; Rickard, A. R.; Monks, P. S.

2004-05-01

341

Kinetics of the electrical discharge pumped oxygen-iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study of microwave discharges at 2.45 GHz has been performed through the pressure range of sustainable electric discharges in pure oxygen flows of 2 to 10 Torr. A corresponding study of 13.56 MHz has also been performed at pressures of 2, 4, and 7 Torr. Optical emissions from O2( a),O2(b), and O-atoms have been measured from the center of a microwave discharge. Discharge residence times from 0.1 to 5 ms have been reported, establishing that gas temperatures arrive at stationary values within the first 0.3 ms upon entering the discharge region. The O2(b) emissions, with a spectral resolution of 0.01 nm, have been used to measure the temperature of the gas, which typically reaches a steady-state of 1,200 K. A theoretical description of the gas heating is fit to measured temperatures, which determines that the fraction of discharge energy coupled into gas heating is 17 +/- 2%. The yield of O2( a) comes to steady-state at all pressures within 1 ms of entering the discharge region. The interpretation of the measured yield, using a streamlined, nearly analytic model, cast new light on the kinetics within the electric discharge. The pseudo-first order quenching rate of O2 (a) ranges from 6,000 1/s for microwave discharges to 600 1/s for radio frequency (RF) discharges, independent of gas pressure and flow rate. The slower decay rate for the RF discharge corresponds with a considerably lower ionization rate. The observations are consistent with a second order reaction channel that is dependent on both the electron and molecular oxygen ground state concentrations. Destruction of the O2 (b) state by direct impact with electrons or atomic oxygen does not adequately describe the observed behavior of O2( a). The role of vibrationally excited ground state oxygen is explored and provides a plausible destruction mechanism.

Lange, Matthew A.

342

Quantification of total iodine in intact granular starches of different botanical origin exposed to iodine vapor at various water activities.  

PubMed

Iodine has been used as an effective tool for studying both the structure and composition of dispersed starch and starch granules. In addition to being employed to assess relative amylose contents for starch samples, it has been used to look at the molecular mobility of the glucose polymers within intact starch granules based on exposure to iodine vapor equilibrated at different water activities. Starches of different botanical origin including corn, high amylose corn, waxy corn, potato, waxy potato, tapioca, wheat, rice, waxy rice, chick pea and mung bean were equilibrated to 0.33, 0.75, 0.97 water activities, exposed to iodine vapor and then absorbance spectra and LAB color were determined. In addition, a new iodine quantification method sensitive to <0.1% iodine (w/w) was employed to measure bound iodine within intact granular starch. Amylose content, particle size distribution of granules, and the density of the starch were also determined to explore whether high levels of long linear glucose chains and the surface area-to-volume ratio were important factors relating to the granular iodine binding. Results showed, in all cases, starches complexed more iodine as water content increased and waxy starches bound less iodine than their normal starch counterparts. However, much more bound iodine could be measured chemically with waxy starches than was expected based on colorimetric determination. Surface area appeared to be a factor as smaller rice and waxy rice starch granules complexed more iodine, while the larger potato and waxy potato granules complexed less than would be expected based on measured amylose contents. Corn, high amylose corn, and wheat, known to have starch granules with extensive surface pores, bound higher levels of iodine suggesting pores and channels may be an important factor giving iodine vapor greater access to bind within the granules. Exposing iodine vapor to moisture-equilibrated native starches is an effective tool to explore starch granule architecture. PMID:21962455

Manion, Bruce; Ye, Mei; Holbein, Bruce E; Seetharaman, Koushik

2011-08-27

343

Development of safe infrared gas lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared gas lasers find application in numerous civil and military areas. Such lasers are therefore being developed at different institutions around the world. However, the development of chemical infrared gas lasers such as chemical oxygen iodine lasers (COIL) involves the use of several hazardous chemicals. In order to exploit full potential of these lasers, one must take diligent care of the safety issues associated with the handling of these chemicals and the involved processes. The present paper discusses the safety aspects to be taken into account in the development of these infrared gas lasers including various detection sensors working in conjunction with a customized data acquisition system loaded with safety interlocks for safe operation. The developed safety schemes may also be implemented for CO2 gas dynamic laser (GDL) and hydrogen fluoride-deuterium fluoride (HF-DF) Laser.

Mainuddin; Singhal, Gaurav; Tyagi, R. K.; Maini, A. K.

2013-04-01

344

Laser damage to spherical targets. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has investigated laser-beam interaction with flat surfaces. Those studies have generated theoretical foundations for cratering, plasma formation and expansion, and electric- and magnetic-field dynamics. This thesis applies previously developed theory to understanding damage to spherical targets of 1 millimeter diameter and smaller. The targets analyzed were irradiated on one side with 300-picosecond iodine laser pulses (6 X 10¹⁵

1985-01-01

345

Reaction of gaseous mercury with molecular iodine, atomic iodine, and iodine oxide radicals - Kinetics, product studies, and atmospheric implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury is present in the Earth's atmosphere mainly in elemental form. The chemical transformation of mercury in the atmosphere may influence its bioaccumulation in the human food chain as well as its global cycling. We carried out the first kinetic and product studies of the reactions of gaseous mercury with molecular iodine, atomic iodine, and iodine oxide radicals at tropospheric pressure (similar to 740 Torr) and 296 2 K in air and in N2 (1 Torr = 133.3 Pa). Atomic iodine was formed using UV photolysis of CH2I2. IO radicals were formed by the UV photolysis of CH2I2 in the presence of ozone The reaction kinetics were studied using absolute rate techniques with gas chromatographic and mass spectroscopic detection (GC-MS). The measured rate coefficient for the reaction of Hg{0} with I2 was < (1.27 0.58) 10-19 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The reaction products were analyzed in the gas phase from the suspended aerosols and from deposits on the walls of the reaction chambers using six complementary methods involving chemical ionization and electron impact mass spectrometry, GC-MS, a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, a cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometer (CVAFS), and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) coupled to an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The major reaction products identified were HgI2, HgO, and HgIO or HgOI. The implications of the results are discussed with regards to both the chemistry of atmospheric mercury and its potential implications in the biogeochemical cycling of mercury.

Raofie, F.; Snider, G.; Ariya, P.

2008-12-01

346

Fractionation analysis of iodine in bovine milk by preconcentration neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine is an essential trace element for human beings. The main source of iodine is generally food items such as fish and milk. Either the lack or the excess of iodine can cause health problems. There exists an increasing interest in the determination of total iodine as well as various species of iodine in milk. We have developed an epithermal

K. Isaac-Olive; R. Acharya; A. Chatt

2008-01-01

347

Radiotracer Experiments on Biological Volatilization of Organic Iodine from Coastal Seawaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological volatilization of iodine from seawaters was studied using a radiotracer technique. Seawater samples were incubated aerobically in serum bottles with radioactive iodide tracer (I), and volatile organic and inorganic iodine were collected with activated charcoal and silver wool trap, respectively. Iodine was volatilized mainly as organic iodine, and inorganic iodine volatilization was not observed. Influence of light intensity on

Seigo Amachi; Mizuyo Kasahara; Takaaki Fujii; Hirofumi Shinoyama; Satoshi Hanada; Yoichi Kamagata; Tadaaki Ban-nai; Yasuyuki Muramatsu

2004-01-01

348

The Swiss lodized Salt Program Provides Adequate Iodine for School Children and Pregnant Women, but Weaning Infants Not Receiving Iodine-Containing Complementary Foods as well as Their Mothers Are Iodine Deficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: If children and pregnant women in the population are iodine sufficient, it is generally assumed infants are also sufficient. But weaning infants may be at risk of iodine deficiency because iodized salt contributes little dietary iodine during this period. To fill this gap, iodine fortification of infant formula milk (IFM) and complementary foods (CF) is likely important. Objectives: The

M. Andersson; I. Aeberli; N. Wst; A. M. Piacenza; T. Bucher; I. Henschen; M. Haldimann; M. B. Zimmermann

2010-01-01

349

Flow visualization using fluorescence from locally seeded I2 excited by an ArF excimer laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new concept for flow visualization is demonstrated in which fluorescence from locally seeded iodine is viewed in the wake of simple aerodynamic models at Mach 6. Localized seeding is performed by painting a small area of a ceramic model with a tincture of iodine. When the model is injected into the flow, the adsorbed iodine is entrained into the boundary layer, follows the model contour, and ultimately mixes into the wake region. Planar ``snapshots'' of the wake flow are taken by exciting the iodine with an ArF excimer laser sheet at 193 nm and observing the fluorescence in the 210-600 nm region with an intensified CCD camera.

Exton, R. J.; Balla, R. J.; Shirinzadeh, B.; Hillard, M. E.; Brauckmann, G. J.

350

Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments  

SciTech Connect

Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

1992-10-01

351

Effect of iodine-enriched yeast supplementation of diet on performance of laying hens, egg traits, and egg iodine content.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of iodine yeast (I-yeast) supplementation on the performance, egg traits, and iodine content of eggs of laying hens. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design. A total of 60 laying hens (Hy-Line Brown), 25 wk of age, was divided into 3 groups (4 replicates), and a feeding experiment was conducted for 12 wk. The concentrations and forms of iodine added to the basal diet were as follows: control group, 1 mg of iodine/kg of feed, Ca(IO(3))(2)H(2)O; experimental groups E1 and E2, 1 and 2 mg of iodine per kilogram of feed, I-yeast, respectively. The iodine yeast did not significantly affect BW gain. Lower level of hen day egg production for groups E1 and E2 was not confirmed statistically; however, it was probably the consequence of low replication. Feed intake was the lowest in the E1 group and feed conversion rate was the highest in the E2 group. Furthermore, the egg and albumen weight was the highest in the group supplemented with 2 mg/kg of iodine from I-yeast (P < 0.05). The concentration of iodine in the egg yolk from groups E1 and E2 was respectively about 80 and 90% higher, compared with the control group. Eggshells from the group fed with 2 mg/kg of I-yeast contained almost 3 times more iodine than eggshells from the control group. The results suggest that iodine yeast supplementation in the diet of laying hens is an effective method for increasing iodine concentration in eggs and thus could contribute to elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in humans consuming iodine-enriched eggs. PMID:22700508

Opalinski, S; Dolinska, B; Korczynski, M; Chojnacka, K; Dobrzanski, Z; Ryszka, F

2012-07-01

352

The impact of iodine supplementation and bread fortification on urinary iodine concentrations in a mildly iodine deficient population of pregnant women in South Australia  

PubMed Central

Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy can have significant effects on fetal development and future cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to characterise the iodine status of South Australian women during pregnancy and relate it to the use of iodine-containing multivitamins. The impact of fortification of bread with iodized salt was also assessed. Women (n?=?196) were recruited prospectively at the beginning of pregnancy and urine collected at 12, 18, 30, 36weeks gestation and 6months postpartum. The use of a multivitamin supplement was recorded at each visit. Spot urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) were assessed. Median UICs were within the mildly deficient range in women not taking supplements (<90?g/L). Among the women taking iodine-containing multivitamins UICs were within WHO recommendations (150249?g/L) for sufficiency and showed an increasing trend through gestation. The fortification of bread with iodized salt increased the median UIC from 68?g/L to 84?g/L (p?=?.011) which was still in the deficient range. Pregnant women in this region of Australia were unlikely to reach recommended iodine levels without an iodine supplement, even after the mandatory iodine supplementation of bread was instituted in October 2009.

2013-01-01

353

Optimization of iodine intake in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild iodine deficiency (MID) is a long-standing problem in Belgium and was recognized only recently as public health issue by the Ministry of Health (MOH). The main MID-related health problems in Belgium are a high prevalence of thyroid nodules and multinodular goiter. The economic cost of thyroid nodular disease only in Belgium was estimated at about 40millions per year. The

R. Moreno-Reyes; H. Van Oyen; S. Vandevijvere

2011-01-01

354

Therapeutic implications of iodine-125 cytotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

The biological consequences of differential subcellular radionuclide accumulation within nuclear structures have important implications for the design and development of new therapeutic agents for cancer management. A growing body of experimental data demonstrates that localization of /sup 125/I within the genome results in marked cytotoxicity. Investigations of iodine-125 labeled iododeoxyuridine, DNA intercalators and tamoxifen are reviewed as representative of this new group of potential radiotherapeutic agents.

Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Adelstein, S.J.

1982-11-01

355

Therapeutic implications of iodine-125 cytotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

The biological consequences of differential subcellular radionuclide accumulation within nuclear stuctures have important implications for the design and development of new therapeutic agents for cancer management. A growing body of experimental data demonstrates that localization of /sup 125/I within the genome results in marked cytotoxicity. Investigations of iodine-125 labeled iododeoxyuridine, DNA intercalators and tamoxifen are reviewed as representative of this new group of potential radiotherapeutic agents.

Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Adelstein, S.J.

1982-11-01

356

Iodine: The missing halogen of polar tropospheric chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine is important in the Earth's troposphere for several reasons, including the catalytic destruction of ozone, altering the oxidizing capacity, and the formation of ultra-fine aerosol, all with potential impacts on climate. Nevertheless, the role of iodine chemistry has so far remained virtually unconsidered in studies of the polar troposphere. Only recently, the occurrence of high concentrations of IO over vast sea-ice covered areas of the Southern Ocean and around coastal Antarctica has been reported. The sources of such a large iodine burden in the Antarctic atmosphere remain unknown. This talk will address ground- and satellite-based observations of the IO radical over coastal Antarctica. Also, it presents a novel mechanism for biologically-induced iodine release from sea-ice surfaces that initiates an autocatalytic cycle, termed iodine explosion. Numerical modeling studies on the impact of iodine upon the chemistry of the Antarctic troposphere will also be presented.

Saiz-Lopez, A.; Boxe, C. S.; Chance, K.; Kurosu, T. P.; Liu, X.; Mahajan, A.; Plane, J. M.; Sander, S. P.

2007-12-01

357

A new hypothesis: iodine and gastric cancer.  

PubMed

The authors have hypothesized that iodine-deficiency (I-def) or in some cases iodine-excess (I-excess) is associated with the development of gastric cancer. They report a short review of their own work and general literature on this subject in three fields: (1) epidemiology, where geographical and temporal correlations between territories with I-def (or I-excess) endemic goitre and high GC-death rate are reported; (2) immunology, where the possible correlations between I-def, immune-deficiency and GC are reported; and (3) thyroid gland and stomach correlations, both being embryologically derived from primitive gut and able to concentrate iodine. This ability is impaired by nitrates, thiocyanate, salt and by I-excess, which in fact can cause goitre. In our study I-def goitrous people have shown more atrophic gastritis than normal subjects. These data enable us to hypothesize that I-def or I-excess might constitute a new risk factor for gastric cancer, both by regulating gastric trophism and by antagonizing the action of those I-inhibitors (such as nitrates, thiocyanate and salt) previously studied as risk factors for gastric cancer. PMID:8428171

Venturi, S; Venturi, A; Cimini, D; Arduini, C; Venturi, M; Guidi, A

1993-01-01

358

Photochemistry of halogen pyrimidines: iodine release studies.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using direct iodide (I-) measurements to monitor the photochemistry of the halogenated pyrimidines 5-iodocytosine and 5-iodouracil and their corresponding deoxynucleosides was examined. Radiation from either a germicidal lamp (lambda = 254 nm) or a sunlamp (lambda greater than 290 nm) was employed to induce homolytic splitting of the carbon-iodine bond and the release of iodine atoms. These atoms combine to form I2 which reacts with water to ultimately form I- and iodate (IO3-). The formation of I- was followed using either high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection or a specific ion electrode. IO3- was assayed spectroscopically following its conversion to triiodide. The yields of I- relative to starting material destroyed were either close to the theoretical limit of 83% or higher depending upon (a) the compound being irradiated, (b) the irradiation wavelength and (c) the extent of exposure. Yields of iodide greater than 83% are generally accounted for by a concomitant reduction in the yield of iodate such that the sum I(-) + IO3- is approx. 100%. Because iodate is photochemically reduced to iodide by 254 nm but not sunlamp irradiation, exhaustive irradiation at 254 nm converts all of the iodate present to iodide. These studies have application to the use of photochemical methods for quantitating the percent substitution of iodinated pyrimidines in DNA, and should be useful in following the photochemistry of IdUrd and IdCyd substituted DNA. PMID:1508985

Rahn, R O

1992-07-01

359

Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism  

SciTech Connect

Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

1984-03-01

360

Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages.Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41 evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milk was collected at the same time (twice

LB Rasmussen; EH Larsen; L Ovesen

2000-01-01

361

Direct Green Iodination of Phenol over Solid Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a AbstractExamination of several solid acid catalysts of different nature (acid resins, zeolites, mixed oxides, Nb-oxide, and Nb-phosphate)\\u000a was performed for the direct iodination reaction of phenol by using molecular iodine. The experiments were carried out in\\u000a mild and green conditions (50C at ambient pressure) in methanol in the presence of H2O2 as oxidant agent. Iodine was introduced in reduced amount,

Paolo Carniti; Stefano Colonna; Antonella Gervasini

2010-01-01

362

Iodine determination in milk by isotope dilution analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine is an essential trace element in the human diet. It is utilized in the synthesis of L-monoiodothyrosine, which is a\\u000a precursor of the thyroid hormones, thyroxin and triiodothyronin. In this study, a method that can determine iodine concentrations\\u000a in milk has been developed. The method is based on substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis (IDA). Iodine concentrations\\u000a were measured in milk,

P. nak; F. Yurt Lambrecht; F. Z. Biber; S. Teksoz; P. Eri?kin; N. Kansu

2004-01-01

363

Gaseous and Particulate Iodine in the Marine Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty gaseous iodine samples collected from a 20-meter tower on the windward shore of Oahu, Hawaii, during the summer of 1969 showed that the concentration of gaseous iodine ranged from 5 to 20 ng\\/m a. Particulate samples collected simultaneously with the gaseous samples showed that the atmospheric concentrations of gaseous iodine in marine air are 2-4 times the concentration of

Jarvis L. Moyers; Robert A. Duce

1972-01-01

364

Iodine containing species in the remote marine boundary layer: A link to oceanic phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

CH3I and iodate, iodide, organic iodine species in PM2.5 were measuredGaseous and particulate iodine species exhibited similar temporal variationsCovariance of biological activity and iodine suggests a biological marine source

S. C. Lai; J. Williams; S. R. Arnold; E. L. Atlas; S. Gebhardt; T. Hoffmann

2011-01-01

365

40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. 415.430...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

366

40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. 415.430...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

367

40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. 415.430...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

368

Iodinated natural rubber latex: preparation, characterisation & antibacterial activity assessment.  

PubMed

Natural Rubber (NR) in both its latex and dried form was treated with iodine to make it antibacterial in nature. The NR latex was dried and washed, dissolved in toluene, iodinated and cast into films. In a different approach, NR in its latex form (emulsion) was blended with aqueous solution of povidone-iodine complex (PVP-I) and films were cast. Phase separation of PVP-I was observed in the films prepared using NR latex; whereas the film prepared using NR solution in toluene and molecular iodine were homogeneous, transparent light brown. Solubility assessment of the films revealed that unlike pure NR, the iodinated NR failed to go into solution completely. The films obtained from both the approaches were evaluated for release of iodide ions. On immersion in water, PVP-I blended latex did not retain iodine while sustained release of iodide ion was observed in case of dried NR dissolved in toluene and treated with iodine. The FT-IR spectra of the iodinated films revealed that iodine attaches covalently to the double bonds in the isoprene units of NR. The films were also evaluated for their antibacterial properties and it was observed that the films prepared from both the approaches, acquired antimicrobial properties. PMID:11063093

Tyagi, M; Singh, S; Singh, H

2000-11-01

369

Iodine supplementation in pregnancy and its effect on child cognition.  

PubMed

Maternal hypothyroidism and hypothyroxenemia due to iodine deficiency have been shown to affect development of the newborn negatively. Maternal iodine supplementation may therefore improve cognitive performance of the offspring, even in areas of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency (ID). Several iodine supplementation studies have been performed in mildly ID pregnant women in Europe. These studies have shown that iodine supplementation increases maternal urinary iodine (UI) excretion and reduces thyroid volume, as well as prevents increases in infant thyroid volume and thyroglobuline. However, randomized controlled studies with long-term outcomes are lacking. Therefore, two trials were started in 2008 in areas of low iodine status; one in Bangalore, India (n=325), and another in Bangkok, Thailand (n=514). Pregnant women were recruited <14 weeks gestational age and randomized to either receive a daily dose of 200 ?g I (as KI) or an identical placebo throughout pregnancy. Both trials are ongoing, and women are followed up during pregnancy and at delivery. UI, thyroid hormones, and thyroid size are measured. Birth outcomes are recorded, such as gestational age at delivery, height, weight, and APGAR scores, and cord blood and heel stick blood (<72 h) is collected from the child. Child development is assessed at 6 weeks of age using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), and at 12 and 24 months of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The outcomes of these trials will contribute importantly to the evidence base for iodine supplementation of pregnant women living in areas of mild iodine deficiency. PMID:22575544

Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Jaiswal, Nidhi; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Zimmermann, Michael B

2012-05-08

370

Iodine concentration in milk sampled from Canadian farms.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the iodine concentration in milk and the relationship between that concentration and milking and feeding management practices. Milk samples were collected from the bulk tanks of 501 farms in all provinces of Canada. With a view to obtaining further information about farm management, a questionnaire was completed at each of the selected farms. Total iodine concentration (organic and inorganic) in the milk was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The farms were grouped for each of the variables and, based on significant differences in iodine concentrations, 15 variables were selected for further analysis. A general linear model was fitted, with milk iodine as the response variable to main and two-way interaction effects. The mean iodine concentration in Canadian milk was 304 8.4 ?g/kg, with concentrations ranging from 54 to 1,902 ?g/kg. Analysis of the questionnaire data suggested that component feeding was associated with lower iodine levels in milk than the levels obtained with total mixed rations. Neither the use of mineral supplementation nor the form of supplementation affected iodine levels in milk. Washing and dipping the teats before milking affected iodine in milk. The method of application of the teat sanitizers appears to be important, given that spray applications (inline or hand spraying) were associated with higher levels than those observed with the dip-cup procedure. In conclusion, Canadian milk iodine concentration varies considerably and appears to be influenced by feeding and milking practices. PMID:20828472

Borucki Castro, S I; Berthiaume, R; Laffey, P; Fouquet, A; Beraldin, F; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

2010-09-01

371

Iodine Deficiency Induces a Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-Independent Early Phase of Microvascular Reshaping in the Thyroid  

PubMed Central

Expansion of the thyroid microvasculature is the earliest event during goiter formation, always occurring before thyrocyte proliferation; however, the precise mechanisms governing this physiological angiogenesis are not well understood. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to measure gene expression and laser Doppler to measure blood flow in an animal model of goitrogenesis, we show that thyroid angiogenesis occurred into two successive phases. The first phase lasted a week and involved vascular activation; this process was thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-independent and was directly triggered by expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by thyrocytes as soon as the intracellular iodine content decreased. This early reaction was followed by an increase in thyroid blood flow and endothelial cell proliferation, both of which were mediated by VEGF and inhibited by VEGF-blocking antibodies. The second, angiogenic, phase was TSH-dependent and was activated as TSH levels increased. This phase involved substantial up-regulation of the major proangiogenic factors VEGF-A, fibroblast growth factor-2, angiopoietin 1, and NG2 as well as their receptors Flk-1/VEGFR2, Flt-1/VEGFR1, and Tie-2. In conclusion, goiter-associated angiogenesis promotes thyroid adaptation to iodine deficiency. Specifically, as soon as the iodine supply is limited, thyrocytes produce proangiogenic signals that elicit early TSH-independent microvascular activation; if iodine deficiency persists, TSH plasma levels increase, triggering the second angiogenic phase that supports thyrocyte proliferation.

Gerard, Anne-Catherine; Poncin, Sylvie; Caetano, Bertrand; Sonveaux, Pierre; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Feron, Olivier; Colin, Ides M.; Soncin, Fabrice

2008-01-01

372

Absolute frequency measurement for the emission transitions of molecular iodine in the 982 985 nm range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report high-precision frequency measurements of the separate hyperfine structure (HFS) components of the emission B X system transitions of 127I2 molecules in the 982 985 nm range. To resolve the HFS of the emission lines, advantage was taken of the method of three-level laser spectroscopy. The function of exciting radiation was fulfilled by the second harmonic of a cw Nd : YAG laser, and the probe radiation in the 968 998 nm range was generated by an external-cavity diode laser. The output Nd : YAG laser frequency was locked to an HFS component of the absorption transition and the probing laser radiation to the emission transition component. When both frequencies were locked to HFS components with a common upper level, the output diode laser frequency was precisely equal to the emission transition frequency. The output frequency of the thus stabilised diode laser was measured with the help of a femtosecond optical frequency synthesiser based on a Ti : sapphire laser. We present the results of the absolute frequency measurements of 20 HFS components belonging to six vibrational rotational transitions of the B X system of iodine [R56(32 48)a1, P58(32 48)a1, P85(33 48)a1, R87(33 48a1, R88(33 48)a10] and all 15 components of the R86(33 48) line. The relative measurement uncertainty is equal to 710-10 and is determined by the frequency instability of the diode laser radiation.

Matyugin, Yu A.; Ignatovich, S. M.; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Nesterenko, M. I.; Okhapkin, M. V.; Pivtsov, V. S.; Skvortsov, Mikhail N.; Bagaev, Sergei N.

2012-03-01

373

Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIt is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population\\u000a may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child\\u000a at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation

Gemma Prieto; Maria Teresa Torres; Lidia Francs; Gemma Falguera; Lluis Vila; Josep Mara Manresa; Roser Casamitjana; Juan Ramn Barrada; Amlia Acera; Dolors Guix; Anna Torrent; Josep Grau; Pere Torn

2011-01-01

374

Method for the simultaneous preparation of Radon-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Astatine-211, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123  

DOEpatents

A method for simultaneously preparing Radon-211, Astatine-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123 in a process that includes irradiating a fertile metal material then using a one-step chemical procedure to collect a first mixture of about equal amounts of Radon-211 and Xenon-125, and a separate second mixture of about equal amounts of Iodine-123 and Astatine-211.

Mirzadeh, Saed (East Setauket, NY); Lambrecht, Richard M. (Quogue, NY)

1987-01-01

375

Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Iodine capture is an important aspect of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Off-gas Sigma Team (Jubin 2011, Pantano 2011). Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: Decontamination factors were achieved that exceed reasonably conservative estimates for DFs needed for used fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.S. to meet regulatory requirements for I-129 capture. Silver utilizations approached or exceeded 100% for high inlet gas iodine concentrations, but test durations were not long enough to approach 100% silver utilization for lower iodine concentrations. The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined for both low iodine concentrations (under 10 ppmv) and for higher iodine concentrations (between 10-50 ppmv); the depth increases over time as iodine is sorbed. These sorbents capture iodine by chemisorption, where the sorbed iodine reacts with the silver to form very non-volatile AgI. Any sorbed iodine that is physisorbed but not chemically reacted with silver to form AgI might not be tightly held by the sorbent. The portion of sorbed iodine that tends to desorb because it is not chemisorbed (reacted to form AgI) is small, under 1%, for the AgZ tests, and even smaller, under 0.01%, for the silver-functionalized Aerogel.

Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

2012-08-01

376

Precise measurements of hyperfine components in the spectrum of molecular iodine  

SciTech Connect

Absolute wave numbers with a typical uncertainty of 1 MHz (95% confidence) were measured for 102 hyperfine-structure components of {sup 127}I{sub 2}. The data cover the range 560-656 nm, with no gaps over 50 cm{sup -1}. The spectra were observed using Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy with tunable cw laser. The laser was locked to selected iodine components and its wave number measured with a high precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. Accuracy is confirmed by good agreement of 9 of the lines with previous results from other laboratories. These measurements provide a well-distributed set of precise reference lines for this spectral region.

Sansonetti, C.J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1996-05-01

377

Salt fortification with iodine: Sudan situation analysis.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute a severe public health problem in Sudan. IDD affects children and women throughout life. More than 2 out of 10 school age children have goiter. The prevalence reaches 40% in some regions of the country. Several interventional measures were introduced to control the IDD problem. While the situation with regard to production and supply of iodized salt was thus deteriorating, an Emergency Food Security and Nutrition Assessment Survey (EFSNA) revealed that the prevalence of IDD among adult women, as reflected in the presence of visible goiter, was as high as 25.5%. We have conducted a situation analysis survey in the Republic of Sudan to review the prevailing situation and suggest a benchmark that would help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementations. SWOT analysis, questionnaire, focus groups discussion beside a combination of rapid assessment approach and qualitative method were used to critically evaluate the salt iodization situation in the country and assess the prevailing IDD situation in and propose a plan of action to overcome the bottlenecks. The survey concluded that Iodine deficiency affects children and women all through Sudan. The prevalence is even greater in some regions of the country and there is no supportive policy environment for successful universal salt iodization. To overcome this aggravated situation Sudan will need to conduct a baseline study to provide data on the prevalence of IDD, geographic distribution, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to iodine deficiency. This will provide a benchmark that will help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementation. The study recommended a set of actions to the government to overcome the prevailing situation and strengthening the current policy and implementation. PMID:19326717

Izzeldin, S H; Crawford, M A; Ghebremeskel, K

2009-01-01

378

Emission of bromine and iodine from Mount Etna volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraining fluxes of volcanic bromine and iodine to the atmosphere is important given the significant role these species play in ozone depletion. However, very few such measurements have been made hitherto, such that global volcanic fluxes are poorly constrained. Here we extend the data set of volcanic Br and I degassing by reporting the first measurements of bromine and iodine

A. Aiuppa; C. Federico; A. Franco; G. Giudice; S. Gurrieri; S. Inguaggiato; M. Liuzzo; A. J. S. McGonigle; M. Valenza

2005-01-01

379

On the iodine doping process of plasma polymerised thiophene layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make a fair comparison of the conductive properties of plasma polymerised thiophene (PPT) layers deposited under different conditions, optimal doping procedures should be applied. The iodine doping process of PPT layers deposited at high (HP) and low (LP) pressure has been studied in detail. Doping time, thickness, and exposure time to air before and after doping were varied. Iodine

L. M. H. Groenewoud; G. H. M. Engbers; R. White; J. Feijen

2001-01-01

380

Iodine concentrations in cow's milk in Central and Northern Bohemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine deficiency and related risks of medical and\\/or developmental disorders in humans are a world - wide problem. In the last years, Czech endocrinologists and paediatricians have observed a significant increase in the occurrence of goitre in children and adolescents caused by a low dietary intake of iodine. Given the low consumption of seafood, milk and dairy products are the

A. Hejtmnkov; E. Trnkov; H. Dragounov

381

Materials performance in off-gas systems containing iodine  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the reprocessing of spent reactor fuel elements, iodine is released to gas streams from which it is ultimately removed by conversion to nonvolatile iodic acid. Under some conditions iodine can produce severe corrosion in off-gas lines; in this study these conditions were established. Iron- and nickel-based alloys containing more than 6% molybdenum, such as Hastelloy G (7%), Inconel 625

J. A. Beavers; W. E. Berry; J. C. Griess

1981-01-01

382

Assessment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in District Bharatpur, Rajasthan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is a public health problem in India. A ban on the sale of uniodised salt for household consumption has been introduced in Rajasthan State since 1992. The presen study was conducted in the district of Bharatpur, Rajasthan with the objective to assess the prevalence of iodine disorders in school children as no data is available on

Umesh Kapil; Preeti Singh; Priyali Pathak; Charan Singh

383

Activities and achievements in the elimination of iodine deficiency disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mongolia was one of the countries with a high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD have been recognized as a major public health problem in Mongolia. Mongolia is a landlocked, mountainous country with limited rainfall that is far from the ocean. Iodine deficiency has affected more than 20.0% of our country. Not only Mongolians have been at risk of

D Oyunchimeg; B Byambatogtokh; Ch Yamada

2004-01-01

384

Determination of iodine to compliment mass spectrometric measurements  

SciTech Connect

The dose of iodine-129 to facility personnel and the general public as a result of past, present, and future activities at DOE sites is of continuing interest, WINCO received about 160 samples annually in a variety of natural matrices, including snow, milk, thyroid tissue, and sagebrush, in which iodine-129 is determined in order to evaluate this dose, Currently, total iodine and the isotopic ratio of iodine-127 to iodine-129 are determined by mass spectrometry. These two measurements determine the concentration of iodine-129 in each sample, These measurements require at least 16 h of mass spectrometer operator time for each sample. A variety of methods are available which concentrate and determine small quantities of iodine. Although useful, these approaches would increase both time and cost. The objective of this effort was to determine total iodine by an alternative method in order to decrease the load on mass spectrometry by 25 to 50%. The preparation of each sample for mass spectrometric analysis involves a common step--collection of iodide on an ion exchange bed. This was the focal point of the effort since the results would be applicable to all samples.

Hohorst, F.A.

1994-11-01

385

Comparative Iodine Geochemistry of Earth and Mars: A Possible Biomarker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine geochemistry on Earth is dominated by the actions of life, and thus may act as a biomarker on other planets. To begin to address this question we review our data on iodine in ALH84001 carbonate and Nakhla and outline some areas for future research.

J. D. Gilmour; J. A. Whitby; G. Turner

1999-01-01

386

REVIEW: Iodine Determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine is a chemical element with critical physiological roles and its determination using instrumental analysis is not trivial. Inductively coupled plasma spectrometry associated with either optical emission (ICP-OES) or mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) may be employed, but each alternative presents limitations considering iodine behavior in argon plasma and the occurrence of interferences. Sample preparation is also a critical issue when using

Adriana A. Oliveira; Lilian C. Trevizan; Joaquim A. Nbrega

2010-01-01

387

[Effects of cooking methods on iodine content in iodized salt].  

PubMed

Effects of cooking methods and variety of foods on the retention of iodine content in food with iodized salt were studied. Vegetables from market and usual cooking methods were selected, including procedures of various cooking methods. The samples were fixed by potassium carbonate, ashed with zinc sulfate at 550 degrees C, then determined by colorimetric method with Ce-As-I catalytical reaction. The different cooking methods had different effects on the retention of iodine, in general, the retention of iodine by stewing of steaming was higher than by stir-frying. The effect of various vegetables on the retention of iodine was also different. The retention of iodine after stir-frying was 84.2%, 56.9%, 44.5%, 36.6% for fruit-bearing vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and beans. The retention of iodine after stewing was 66.1%, 53.4%, 47.0%, and 43.2% for fruit-bearing vegetables, roots, beans and meat. The stability of organic iodine in food is higher than that of inorganic iodine. PMID:11939033

Shi, L; Zhou, R; Wang, G

1998-11-30

388

Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and

McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

2004-01-01

389

The devastating consequence of iodine deficiency.  

PubMed

Endemic cretinism is the most striking consequence of iodine deficiency. Although cretinism is a serious condition, it usually involves only about 5% of the population even in serious endemic areas. There is a spectrum between cretinism and normality, many are able to perform simple work and look apparently normal, but it is difficult for them to perform skilled labor. Studies in China using the IQ distribution curve revealed that every person in an endemic area lost about 10-15 IQ points, so that the socio-economic development of the community was severely affected. PMID:9561638

Tai, M

1997-01-01

390

Fixing latent fingermarks developed by iodine fuming: a new method.  

PubMed

The latent fingermarks developed with iodine fumes are not permanent due to the sublimation of iodine. In this paper a new method has been proposed to fix the latent fingermarks developed with iodine fumes. Latent fingermarks were developed on both porous as well as non-porous substrates which were subsequently fixed by treating them with brucine based reagent. The fingermarks fixed with this method were not only permanent but also without any background coloration. Adsorption of the brucine over the iodine has been found to be a possible reason for permanency of iodine developed fingermarks. This research has successfully demonstrated the first use of the brucine solution for fixing latent fingermarks on porous and as well as on non porous substrates. PMID:23103178

Jasuja, Om Prakash; Kaur, Amandeep; Kumar, Parveen

2012-10-25

391

Mucoadhesive tablet releasing iodine for treating oral infections.  

PubMed

Iodine complexes with ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were prepared by immersing polymer powder in aqueous solutions of iodine. These complexes were incorporated in a mucoadhesive tablet for potential use as antimicrobial agent for treating oral infections. The release profile of iodine from the adhesive tablets was determined and the antimicrobial activity was assessed by diffusion assays using Candida albicans and Porphyromonas gingivalis cultures. Iodine was readily absorbed up to 35%w/w in the polymers. A differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) scan revealed a correlation between the endotherm peak of the complexes and the iodine content in the polymer complex. The tablets exhibited marked antifungal and antibacterial activities against the fungal/bacterial strains tested. PMID:17724656

Mizrahi, Boaz; Domb, Abraham J

2007-11-01

392

Low-altitude atmospheric wind measurement from the combined Mie and Rayleigh backscattering by Doppler lidar with an iodine filter.  

PubMed

This paper briefly discusses the mobile ground-based incoherent Doppler wind lidar system, with iodine filters as receiving frequency discriminators, developed by the Ocean Remote Sensing Laboratory, Ocean University of Qingdao, China. The presented result of wind profiles in October and November 2000, retrieved from the combined Mie and Rayleigh backscattering, is the first report to our knowledge of wind measurements in the troposphere by such a system, where the required independent measurement of aerosol-scattering ratio can also be performed. A second iodine vapor filter was used to lock the laser to absolute frequency reference for both wind and aerosol-scattering ratio measurements. Intercomparison experiments of the lidar wind profile measurements were performed with pilot balloons. Results showed that the standard deviation of wind speed and wind direction, for the 2-4 km altitude range, were 0.985 m/s and 17.9 degrees, respectively. PMID:12463255

Liu, Zhi-Shen; Wu, Dong; Liu, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Kai-Lin; Chen, Wei-Biao; Song, Xiao-Quan; Hair, Johnathan W; She, Chiao-Yao

2002-11-20

393

Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation) in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status) during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion). No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account.

Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Dahl, Lisbeth

2012-01-01

394

Excessive iodine intake during pregnancy in Somali refugees.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency and excess are both associated with adverse health consequences, with fetuses, children and pregnant women being most vulnerable to the devastating effects of severe deficiency. It is often assumed that the iodine status of a population if displaced or in a remote or emergency situation is low. However, there is little evidence available to support this assumption, especially among long-term food-aid-dependent pregnant women. An effectiveness trial of a prenatal multiple-micronutrient supplement that contained 150 g day(-1) iodine was conducted in two refugee camps in the North Eastern Province of Kenya in 2002. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in a subsample of pregnant women attending antenatal care in Dagahaley (control camp) (n = 74) and Ifo (intervention camp) (n = 63). There was no significant difference in median UIC between the two camps (P = 0.118). The combined median UIC was 730 g L(-1) (interquartile range, 780) (5.77 mol L(-1)) and exceeded the upper safe limit of 500 g L(-1) (3.95 mol L(-1)) for pregnant women (P < 0.001), indicating excessive iodine intake. About 20% of the study subjects had 'more than adequate' urinary iodine, while over 71% had excessive UIC. Salt iodine content varied between 5.1 and 80.1 ppm in the five market salt samples analysed. In conclusion, excessive iodine intake was evident in the Dadaab refugee camps. Further research needs to be conducted to investigate the source of excess iodine, to determine the measures needed to address excessive iodine intake and to reconsider the World Health Organization/World Food Programme/United Nations Children's Fund guidance on supplementation of vulnerable groups in emergencies. PMID:22250295

Kassim, Ismail A R; Ruth, Laird J; Creeke, Paul I; Gnat, Danielle; Abdalla, Fathia; Seal, Andrew J

2012-01-01

395

Iodine nutritional status in pregnant women of two historically different iodine-deficient areas of Catalonia, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveCatalonia (Spain) has a historically worse situation of mild iodine deficiency in the Pyrenees Mountains compared with the coastal region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current iodine status in pregnant women living in these two areas.

Lluis Vila; Mateu Serra-Prat; Alfonso de Castro; Elisabet Palomera; Roser Casamitjana; Gustavo Legaz; Celia Barrionuevo; Jos A. Muoz; Ana J. Garca; Sanjay Lal-Trehan; Amparo Garca; Josep Durn; Manel Puig-Domingo

2011-01-01

396

Revisiting History: Encountering Iodine Then and Now--A General Chemistry Laboratory to Observe Iodine from Seaweed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The history of the discovery of iodine is retold using brown-colored seaweed found commonly along the ocean shore. The seaweed is ashed at a low temperature and the iodides are extracted into boiling water. The iodides are oxidized in acidic medium. Solvent extraction of iodine by oxidation of iodides as well as simple aqueous extraction of

Wahab, M. Farooq

2009-01-01

397

Iodine in Oil and Gas Fields: Especially on the Geochemical Consideration of the Prospecting for Iodine Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Iodine contents in brines of gas and oil fields throughout the world are surveyed from the standpoint of water quality and Cl content, and brines from oil, gas, and coal fields in Japan are studied in terms of Cl content. The distribution of iodine and ha...

K. Motojima

1976-01-01

398

Probabilities of the production of vibrationally excited iodine molecules in the reaction I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) + I{sub 2}(X) {yields} I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) + I{sub 2}(X, v > 10)  

SciTech Connect

Vibrational distributions of I{sub 2}(X, v) (0 {<=} v {<=} 45) molecules are calculated and analysed in the active medium of an oxygen-iodine laser. It is found by comparing the calculated values with the experimental data that during the I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) + I{sub 2}(X) {yields} I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) + I{sub 2}(X, v > 10) reaction the probability of the production of I{sub 2}(X, v > 23) molecules is 0.1 and the total probability of the direct excitation of iodine molecules at the vibrational levels from 15 to 23 is 0.9. Based on the data obtained, the dissociation mechanisms of iodine molecules in the active medium of the oxygen-iodine laser are analysed. (active media)

Azyazov, V N; Pichugin, S Yu [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

2008-12-31

399

Iodine waste form summary report (FY 2007).  

SciTech Connect

This new program at Sandia is focused on Iodine waste form development for GNEP cycle needs. Our research has a general theme of 'Waste Forms by Design' in which we are focused on silver loaded zeolite waste forms and related metal loaded zeolites that can be validated for chosen GNEP cycle designs. With that theme, we are interested in materials flexibility for iodine feed stream and sequestration material (in a sense, the ability to develop a universal material independent on the waste stream composition). We also are designing the flexibility to work in a variety of repository or storage scenarios. This is possible by studying the structure/property relationship of existing waste forms and optimizing them to our current needs. Furthermore, by understanding the properties of the waste and the storage forms we may be able to predict their long-term behavior and stability. Finally, we are working collaboratively with the Waste Form Development Campaign to ensure materials durability and stability testing.

Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; McMahon, Kevin A.; Gao, Huizhen; Rajan, Ashwath Natech

2007-11-01

400

Laser-induced magnesium production from magnesium oxide using reducing agents  

SciTech Connect

Experiments for laser induced production of magnesium (Mg) from magnesium oxide (MgO) using reducing agents (R) were conducted. In these experiments, continuous wave CO{sub 2} focused laser is focused on a mixture of magnesium oxide and reducing agent. High power density of focused laser leads to high temperature and the reduction reaction resulting in Mg production. The resultant vapor is collected on a copper plate and analyzed in terms of magnesium deposition efficiency. Deposition efficiencies with various reducing agents such as Zr, C, and Si have been measured to be 60, 9.2, and 12.1 mg/kJ respectively. An excess addition of reducing agent over their corresponding reaction stoichiometric amounts is found to be optimum condition for the most of performed laser induced reactions. In addition, utilizing solar-pumped laser in Mg production with reducing agent will reduce CO{sub 2} emission and produce magnesium with high-energy efficiency and large throughput.

Mohamed, M. S.; Yabe, T.; Baasandash, C.; Sato, Y.; Mori, Y.; Shi-Hua, Liao; Sato, H.; Uchida, S. [Entropia Laser Initiative, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

2008-12-01

401

Earth's Volatiles History and Cycles: the Case of Iodine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the volatile elements present in our solar system, iodine is involved in mechanisms of primary importance during planet's evolution. The different isotopic signatures of 129Xe/132Xe for mantle and atmosphere between the Earth and Mars may reflect an early fractionation of xenon with respect to iodine. The role of fluids and more especially water is seriously envisaged to generate such a fractionation because whereas iodine is hydrophilic, xenon is not. Therefore iodine's early degassing with a water-rich fluid from a magma ocean is a good hypothesis to explain iodine, but also chlorine and bromine losses during early differentiation stages of the Earth. It was also shown that iodine is involved in natural ozone destruction in the Earth's atmosphere. Today we are able to detect iodine in volcanic emissions. The intensive subduction-zones volcanic degassing may explain the presence of iodine in the atmosphere if degassed together with water. The combination of synchrotron X-Ray characterization with diamond anvil cells, applied as magmatic and mantelic reactors to simulate pressure and temperature conditions of the planet interiors allows: (1) the characterization of fluids (aqueous, melt, supercritic) existing in the Earth; (2) element transfers via such fluids from depths to planets surfaces. Here, we have experimentally monitored iodine degassing from high pressure hydrous melts in situ in diamond anvil cells DAC by measuring iodine partitioning between aqueous fluids and hydrous melts during decompression. DAC experiments have been combined with high energy Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence at the beam lines Id27 and FAME from ESRF. Partition coefficients (D(I)fluid/melt = (I)fluid/(I)melt ) have been measured in situ from 500 to 900 C and from 0.1 to 1.8 GPa. First results show that they are ranging from 1.9 (1.4 GPa) to 60 (0.1 GPa) and seem to tend to unity close to total miscibility between melts and aqueous fluids. At low pressure conditions (lower than 0.5 GPa) iodine partition coefficients are higher than those of bromine [Bureau et al., 2010, CGA 74, 3839-3850] confirming the higher affinity of iodine for water. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis of iodine early magmatic degassing process to generate I fractionation from Xe. They may also be useful to explain the bulk Earth's halogen elements abundances.

Bureau, H.; Marocchi, M.; Munsch, P.; Auzende, A.; Raepsaet, C.; Mezouar, M.; Testemale, D.; Kubsky, S.; Carriere, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

2011-12-01

402

The effect of dietary iodine supplementation in dairy goats on milk production traits and milk iodine content.  

PubMed

Dairy products offer an important source of iodine for humans, particularly infants and children. An adequate iodine content in the diet of lactating animals must guarantee a suitable milk iodine concentration. In this experiment, the effects of iodine supplementation of dairy goat diets on the iodine concentration, milk yield, and milk composition of goat milk were studied. Thirty crossbred dairy goats of the Sarda population were divided into 3 groups supplemented with 0 (control group), 0.45 (group 1), or 0.90 (group 2) mg of KI/d per goat. The dose of KI (76.5% of iodine) was dissolved in water and orally administered with a syringe every day for 10 wk. Mean milk iodine concentrations were 60.1 +/- 50.5, 78.8 +/- 55.4, and 130.2 +/- 62.0 microg/L (mean +/- SD) in the control group, group 1, and group 2, respectively. The extent of iodine enrichment in milk was approximately 31% in group 1 and 117% in group 2 compared with the control group. Milk yield was not influenced by KI supplementation and averaged 1,229, 1,227, and 1,179 g/d in groups 0, 1, and 2, respectively. Milk urea nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in the KI-supplemented groups (32 and 33 mg/dL in groups 1 and 2, respectively) than in the control group (37 mg/dL). Iodine supplementation of dairy goat diets can increase milk iodine content without adverse effects on milk production traits. PMID:19762831

Nudda, A; Battacone, G; Decandia, M; Acciaro, M; Aghini-Lombardi, F; Frigeri, M; Pulina, G

2009-10-01

403

Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine  

PubMed Central

Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768

2011-01-01

404

The impact of dietary iodine intake on lipid metabolism in mice.  

PubMed

The present study has been designed to investigate the impact of dietary iodine intake on lipid metabolism in mice, including iodine deficiency and iodine excess. Different amounts of iodine mixed in the drinking water were continuously administered to mice. The body weights and the levels of urinary iodine were measured 8months after the treatment. Thyroid hormones in the serum were detected by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined enzymatically by automatic analyzer. Results showed that the urine iodine concentrations paralleled the amounts of iodine intakes. No statistical differences of body weights among different groups were found. The levels of thyroid hormones were dramatically decreased in iodine deficiency while no significant differences were found between iodine excess groups and normal iodine group. In iodine deficiency groups, the levels of TG, TC, and LDL were increased at varying degrees. In iodine excess groups, the levels of TG in the male mice and the levels of TC in the female mice were much lower than normal iodine group. In conclusion, dietary iodine intake may affect the metabolism of serum lipids. Hypothyroid function induced by iodine deficiency may be responsible for the changes of lipids. Higher iodine intake might benefit lipid metabolism. PMID:20652651

Zhao, Shu-Jun; Ye, Yan; Sun, Fu-Jun; Tian, En-Jiang; Chen, Zu-Pei

2010-07-23

405

A historical note on the iodine-sulphuric acid reaction of amyloid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical development of the iodine-sulphuric acid reaction for amyloid is described. The reaction dates back to 1814 when Colin and Gaultier de Claubry, and independently Stromeyer, introduced the iodine reaction for starch. A variant of the acidified iodine reaction appears to have been used for printing paper by Gmelin in 1829, and in 1838 Schleiden used the iodine-sulphuric acid

Kurt Aterman

1976-01-01

406

Iodine concentrations in porcine blood, urine, and tissues after a single dose of iodised oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental groups of pigs were treated orally with 120 mg (Group O 120), or 480 mg (Group O 480) of iodine per animal, or intramuscularly with 240 mg (Group I 240) of iodine per animal. Iodine was administered in the form of iodised fatty acid esters (IFAE). The treatment resulted in significantly increased iodine concentrations in tissues and a single

I. HERZIG; B. PSA?KOV; I. DIBLKOV; P. SUCH

2001-01-01

407

Preliminary Studies on the Iodine Content of some Marine Algae from Coastal Areas of Jaffna Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iodine content of twenty seven species of marine algae collected from different coastal regions of the Jaffna Peninsula was determined. Of the species analysed, Gracilaria opuntia (1277 ppm), Gracilaria crassa (889 ppm) and Turbinaria ornata (810 ppm) have relatively high iodine contents. The iodine content of Graci- laria opuntia is comparable with the amount of iodine present in caliche

RAJESWARY MAGESWARAN; S. SIVASUBRAMANIAM

408

Reduction of salt: will iodine intake remain adequate in The Netherlands?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt is the main vehicle for iodine fortification in The Netherlands. A reduction in salt intake may reduce the supply of iodine. Our aim was to quantify the effect of salt reduction on the habitual iodine intake of the Dutch population and the risk of inadequate iodine intake. We used data of the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (19978) and

Janneke Verkaik-Kloosterman; Pieter van't Veer; M. C. Ocke

2010-01-01

409

Intelligence Quotient and Iodine Intake: A Cross Sectional Study in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between iodine deficiency and poor mental and psychomotor development is known. However, most stud- ies were undertaken in areas of very low iodine intake. We investigated whether a similar association is found in school- children from southern Europe with a median urinary iodine output of 90 g\\/liter. Urinary iodine levels were measured in 1221 children who also completed

PIEDAD SANTIAGO-FERNANDEZ; ROSARIO TORRES-BARAHONA; J. ANTONIO MUELA-MARTNEZ; GEMMA ROJO-MARTNEZ; EDUARDO GARCA-FUENTES; M. JOSEGARRIGA; ANA GARCA LEON

410

The Deposition of Unattached Radon Progeny in a Tracheobronchial Cast as Measured with Iodine Vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of the unattached radon progeny in hollow cast models of the human tracheobronchial region was studied using iodine vapor. The experiments were conducted in a replicate cast whose inner surface was coated with NaOH impregnated charcoal powder. This coating can trap iodine molecules by converting iodine into iodide and iodate, so that the iodine gas molecules behave like

W. Li; J. Q. Xiong; B. S. Cohen

1998-01-01

411

Opposite Variations in Maternal and Neonatal Thyroid Function Induced by Iodine Supplementation during Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas the consequences of extremes in iodine intake are well described, much less is known about the effect of more moderate variations in maternal iodine intake on fetal thyroid function. The present study performed in Denmark with mild to moderate iodine deficiency dealt with the effect of maternal iodine supplementation on thyroid function in the mother at term and in

SUSANNE B. NHR; PETER LAURBERG

412

AGING AND IODINE LOADING OF SILVER-FUNCTIONALIZED AEROGELS  

SciTech Connect

Engineered silver-functionalized silica aerogels are being investigated for their application in off-gas treatment at a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. Reprocessing will release several key volatile radionuclides, including iodine-129. To achieve regulatory compliance, iodine-129 must be removed from any off-gas stream prior to environmental discharge. Silver-functionalized aerogels have been demonstrated to have high iodine capture capacity, high porosity and potential for conversion into a waste form. Capture materials used in off-gas treatment may be exposed to a heated, high humidity, acidic gas stream for months. Extended exposure to this stream could affect sorbent performance. It was the aim of this study to evaluate what impacts might be observed when Ag0-functionalized aerogels prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were contacted with a dry air stream for up to 6 months and then used to adsorb iodine from a synthetic off-gas stream. Results demonstrate that there is some loss of iodine capture capacity caused by aging, but that this loss is not as marked as for aging of more traditional iodine sorbents, such as silver-impregnated mordenite. Specifically, aging silver-functionalized aerogel under a dry air stream for up to 6 months can decrease its iodine capacity from 41wt% to 32wt%.

Bruffey, Stephanie H [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Anderson, Kaara K [ORNL; Walker Jr, Joseph Franklin [ORNL

2013-01-01

413

Chemical Speciation of Iodine Source Term to Containment  

SciTech Connect

Iodine species released into a reactor containment building following a loss-of-coolant accident is determined by the relative timing and quantity of iodine and other fission products released from the fuel, chemical thermodynamics in the fuel channel, and reaction kinetics in cooler regions of the heat transport system (HTS). Iodine speciation along the transport path from the fuel to cooler regions of the HTS and into containment is evaluated using chemical thermodynamics calculations, leading to a prediction of the volatile iodine mole fraction that theoretically would enter containment. Sensitivities to a decrease in the cesium-to-iodine ratio, a decrease in iodine concentration in the coolant, and an increase in oxygen partial pressure are tested. The role of the presence of other elements, namely, molybdenum, tellurium, uranium, and lithium, are also evaluated. Under most conditions, the mole fraction of iodine entering containment in volatile form is found to be <0.1%. There are circumstances, however, when cesium iodide can be destabilized by a low cesium-to-molybdenum ratio in an oxidizing atmosphere such as steam. To further explore this situation and to validate the code, chemical equilibrium calculations are also compared to earlier Knudsen-cell experimental studies of the interaction of cesium, iodine, molybdenum, and urania. In these experiments, the partial pressures of cesium molybdate and elemental iodine are measured as a function of temperature over the range 1100 to 1500 K. The calculated Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} vapor pressures agree with the experimental results within an order of magnitude at temperatures up to 1200 K; and between 770 and 1150 K, the agreement is within a factor of 2 to 5 depending on the chemical system.

McFarlane, Joanna; Wren, Jungsook C.; Lemire, Robert J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada)

2002-05-15

414

Thyroid autoregulation. Inhibitory effects of iodinated derivatives of arachidonic acid on iodine metabolism.  

PubMed

Thyroid autoregulation has been linked to an organified iodocompound. Since several iodolipids are produced by the gland their possible role in thyroid autoregulation was examined. The following pure synthetic compounds were prepared: 1) 14-iodo-15-hydroxy-5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid (I-OH-A); 2) its omega lactone (IL-omega); 3) 5-hydroxy-6-iodo-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid delta lactone (IL-delta). Their action on iodine metabolism was studied. Iodine uptake was measured in calf thyroid slices. At 10(-4)M I-OH-A caused a 64% decrease in the T/M ratio, while IL-omega inhibited it by 36% and IL-delta was without effect. At 10(-5)M the inhibition was 44% for I-OH-A and 19% for IL-omega, while T3 was without action. A possible isotopic dilution effect was excluded, and no change in iodine efflux was observed. The inhibition by I-OH-A of iodide uptake was observed after only 15 min preincubation. This compound also decreased 125I accumulation in rats. In calf thyroid slices, I-OH-A at 10(-4)M, inhibited PB125I formation by 80%, IL-omega by 62% and IL-delta by 37%. T3 and arachidonic acid were without action. I-OH-A also caused a dose-dependent inhibition of TSH-stimulated iodide organification. The present results demonstrate, for the first time, that iodinated derivatives of arachidonic acid inhibit thyroid function and mimic the effect of iodide on thyroid autoregulation. PMID:3141976

Chazenbalk, G D; Valsecchi, R M; Krawiec, L; Burton, G; Juvenal, G J; Monteagudo, E; Chester, H A; Pisarev, M A

1988-08-01

415

Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide  

DOEpatents

The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

Mysels, Karol J. (La Jolla, CA)

1979-01-01

416

Gamma Radiation Effects on Time-Dependent Iodine Partitioning.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A need for characterization of the iodine source -term used in safety calculations for hypothesized fission reactor core disruptive accidents has motivated this study in iodine volatility. Previous experimental studies have been directed at evaluating volatility of iodine at a single time shortly (1-12 h) after introduction into the aqueous -phase. This work has explored the very important variables of time in solution and gamma radiation dose rate for a range of iodine concentrations (10('-8) - 10('-5) gI/ml) and pH's (5, 9 and 11). All experiments were performed at (TURN)25(DEGREES)C, first in the absence of a significant radiation field and later with a gamma radiation dose rate ranging from .003 MRad/hr to .06 MRad/hr. Iodine was introduced either as molecular I(,2) or NaI with I-131 (8.04 day half -life) as a tracer. Conditions present during the course of the experiment governed iodine solution chemistry thus determining whether volatile forms (I(,2) and HOI) would predominate. Results of experiments with nonirradiated systems indicated very little volatility with NaI initiated studies. I(,2) initiated systems at pH 5 were the most volatile whereas pH 9 and 11 I(,2) systems showed decreasing volatility with time. This has been explained by analysis of iodine aqueous chemistry. Total iodine concentration dependence has also been addressed. A pronounced radiation-induced reduction in iodine volatility in pH 5 iodide solutions has been demonstrated as well as a dose rate dependence in the transient phase. This effect is more pronounced in higher concentration solutions. As with nonirradiated systems, irradiated alkaline solutions exhibit low volatility. Explanations for the behavior of irradiated systems based on iodine radiolytic chemistry are provided. A computer based model incorporating water radiolysis and iodine radiolytic chemical reactions has been formulated and tested. The model successfully predicts radiation induced volatility changes in pH 5 iodide systems. The experimentally observed dose rate dependence is also verified; however, insufficient knowledge of alkaline system iodine radiolytic interactions prevented success under those conditions.

Marshall, Paul Watson

417

Novel measurements of atmospheric iodine species by resonance fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field instrument has been developed for the purpose of measuring gas-phase atmospheric iodine species in the marine boundary\\u000a layer. Vacuum UV resonance-fluorescence (RF), generated using a microwave discharge lamp, is employed to detect atomic iodine\\u000a via the (5p46s)(5p5) transitions around 178184nm. The system can be operated in two modes; either to directly measure ambient iodine atoms,\\u000a or to measure

Catherine S. E. Bale; Trevor Ingham; Roisin Commane; Dwayne E. Heard; William J. Bloss

2008-01-01

418

Determination of iodine in biological materials by neutron activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

The authors analyze biological materials containing less than 2.10/sup -6/ g/g of iodine, using radiochemical separation, which enabled its determination down to 10/sup -9/. The method involved mineralizing samples by fusion with NaOH, carrying out a redox cycle with NaNO/sub 2/ and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/, extraction of elemental iodine with carbon tetrachloride, and precipitating the I as AgI. Methods have also been developed for the determination of both total and progeinbound iodine in urine.

Taskaev, E.; Apostolov, D.

1985-08-10

419

Thyroid volumes and urinary iodine in German school children.  

PubMed

Several recently published investigations showed a significant improvement in the iodine supply of the German population, but so far Germany is still considered an iodine deficient country. However most of the studies presented do not meet the epidemiological criteria established by WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD and may therefore suffer from a selection bias with respect to goiter prevalence estimates. School children, owing to their easy recruitment, representativeness of different socio-economic classes and high vulnerability of Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), are one of the best target groups for surveillance of IDD. In this field study a total of 591 children were investigated. The total sample included 268 females and 323 males aged 7-17 years. The following data were collected: thyroid size by ultrasound, urinary iodine concentration in a first-morning spot urine, weight, height, sex and age. The median urinary iodine concentration of the children was 183 microg/L. The proportion of samples with concentrations below 100 microg/L or below 50 microg/L was 15.4% and 4.3% respectively. Urine samples with high iodine concentrations were also found amounting to 17.3%. Almost all families (97%) declared to use iodized kitchen salt and 19.6% of all children are taking regularly iodine tablets. Application of the WHO/ICCIDD thyroid volume references to the German children resulted in a goiter prevalence of 0.2%, using either age/sex-specific or body surface area (BSA)/sex-specific cut-off values. Comparison with the P97 values of the original normative data of Gutekunst and Martin-Teichert however gives a goiter prevalence of 3% as expected. The thyroid volumes of the children in our study appear comparable with those reported recently for iodine sufficient children from Switzerland and for iodine replete Berlin children and for children with sufficient iodine supply in the region of Leipzig, so that Germany probably has no longer to be considered an iodine deficient country. Our own study and the most recently published studies on iodine replete children give rise to the supposition that the WHO/ICCIDD recommended thyroid volume references are too high. PMID:11573131

Rendl, J; Juhran, N; Reiners, C

2001-01-01

420

New method of iodine labelling of peptide hormones  

SciTech Connect

Usually peptide hormones and related compounds are radioactively labelled with iodine on tyrosine residues of the peptide. However many peptide hormones do not contain tyrosine or the iodinated tyrosine interferes with the biological properties. In order to circumvent these and other problems, a general method is proposed which allows the introduction of iodine into the para-position of phenylalanine with a modified Sandmeyer procedure. This last-step modification together with HPLC purification permits the obtention of carrier-free and metabolically stable labelled products with maximal specific activity possible. The model has been carried out on several peptide-models like angiotensin II, endorphine and head activator peptide.

Escher, E.

1984-01-01

421

Irradiation of malignant eyelid melanoma with iodine 125 plaque  

SciTech Connect

We used contact irradiation with iodine 125 seeds to treat a large, exulcerative, nodular, amelanotic malignant eyelid melanoma with metastasis to the regional lymph nodes in an 80-year-old man. The procedure was similar to iodine 125 plaque irradiation of malignant choroidal melanoma; special equipment, however, was needed to protect the eye from radiation exposure. The response of the malignant eyelid melanoma to iodine 125 plaque irradiation was similar to that of malignant melanomas of the choroid. No complications were observed in a follow-up period of 15 months.

Stanowsky, A.; Krey, H.F.; Kopp, J.; Kanitz, W.; Wagner, T. (Eye Clinic, Central Clinic, Augsburg (West Germany))

1990-07-15

422

Raman scattering and thermogravimetric analysis of iodine-doped multiwall carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine-doped multiwall carbon nanotubes (I-MWNTs) were characterized by means of Raman scattering and thermogravimetric analysis. The results show that multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can be effectively doped by iodine and exchange electrons with iodine. Iodine atoms form charged polyiodide chains inside tubes of different inner diameter, which is similar to the iodine-doped single-wall carbon nanotubes (I-SWNTs), but can not intercalate

Weiya Zhou; Sishen Xie; Lianfeng Sun; Dongsheng Tang; Yubao Li; Zuqin Liu; Lijie Ci; Xiaoping Zou; Gang Wang; Pingheng Tan; Xiaoli Dong; Bo Xu; Boru Zhao

2002-01-01

423

Iodine Deficiency Mitigates Growth Retardation and Osteopenia in Selenium-Deficient Rats1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium deficiency is associated with impaired bone metabolism and osteopenia in rats. However, it is not known how combined selenium and iodine deficiency affects bone metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the effect of selenium and iodine deficiency on bone metabolism in 2nd-generation selenium- and iodine-deficient rats. Selenium- deficient (Se? ), iodine-deficient (I? ), selenium- and iodine-deficient (Se? \\/I? ), and control

Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes; Dominique Egrise; Marleen Boelaert; Serge Goldman; Sylvain Meuris

424

Stable and radioiodine concentrations in cow milk: dependence on iodine intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

For testing the potential use of stable iodine as a countermeasure to reduce radioiodine transfer to milk, concentrations of stable iodine and radioiodine in the milk of dairy cows fed different amounts of stable iodine were measured. The results indicated that, compared to a normal average stable iodine intake ofabout 20mgd?1 for cows, low iodine dietary intake (<1.5mgd?1) resulted in

G. Voigt; P. Kiefer

2007-01-01

425

Bovine Staphylococcus aureus: dose response to iodine and chlorhexidine and effect of iodine challenge on antibiotic susceptibility.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive organism that is frequently associated with clinical or subclinical mastitis. The use of germicidal teat dips is one of the measures taken by the dairy industry to control mastitis. Iodine and chlorhexidine compounds are commonly used disinfectants in teat dips. We determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of iodine for 37 isolates of Staph. aureus and observed variations in MIC. Seven of these Staph. aureus isolates were selected as genotype group representatives based on their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Dose responses against iodine and chlorhexidine were determined for the 7 genotype group representatives. The response of these isolates to iodine varied significantly, whereas all isolates were susceptible to chlorhexidine, even at concentrations as low as 0.0002%. We also evaluated whether exposure of Staph. aureus to sublethal levels of iodine influenced subsequent antibiotic susceptibility. No differences in antibiotic susceptibility of Staph. aureus were observed among cultures grown in brain heart infusion broth with and without supplemental iodine. The observed variation in iodine dose responses of Staph. aureus may have implications for the occurrence of Staph. aureus mastitis on dairy farms. PMID:23261384

Azizoglu, Reha Onur; Lyman, Roberta; Anderson, Kevin L

2012-12-20

426

Pediatric renal iodine-123 orthoiodohippurate dosimetry.  

PubMed

Radiation exposure to the kidney from iodine-123 orthoiodohippurate ([123I]OIH) and any associated [124I]OIH contamination may vary by a factor of several hundred depending upon the health of the kidney. Calculations of kidney dose were made for patients with the following renal states: normal, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), obstruction, and renal transplant. The dosimetry was based on a minimum practical administered activity (MPAA) of 200 microCi for pediatric patients and 500 microCi for adults. High-grade obstruction of recent onset and severe ATN are the only disease processes which could result in high exposures, and this is due primarily to the contribution of 124I. For selected cases, OIH labeled with pure 123I should be very seriously considered. PMID:3900309

Marcus, C S; Kuperus, J H

1985-10-01

427

Electron-collision cross sections for iodine  

SciTech Connect

We present results from a joint experimental and theoretical study of elastic electron scattering from atomic iodine. The experimental results were obtained by subtracting known cross sections from the measured data obtained with a pyrolyzed mixed beam containing a variety of atomic and molecular species. The calculations were performed using both a fully relativistic Dirac B-spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method and an optical model potential approach. Given the difficulty of the problem, the agreement between the two sets of theoretical predictions and the experimental data for the angle-differential and the angle-integrated elastic cross sections at 40 eV and 50 eV is satisfactory.

Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311 (United States); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Hargreaves, L.R.; Jones, D.B.; Murrie, R.; Brunton, J.R. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Brunger, M.J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Hoshino, M. [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Sophia University, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Buckman, S.J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

2011-04-15

428

Xenon ion laser-induced fluorescence using a visible tunable diode laser near 680 nm  

SciTech Connect

Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements have been performed for the first time in a low temperature (T{sub e}{approx_equal}0.6 eV) Xe plasma using a tunable diode laser in the visible range of wavelengths. The transition in Xe II involved the ({sup 3}P{sub 1})5d[3]{sub 7/2} metastable state and the excitation wavelength was found to be 680.570{+-}0.001 nm (air). LIF measurements of I{sub 2} in a room temperature iodine gas cell were used to monitor the wavelength of the laser during the measurements.

Severn, Greg; Lee, Dongsoo; Hershkowitz, Noah [Department of Physics, University of San Diego, San Diego, California 92110 (United States); Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2007-11-15

429

Lasers '81  

SciTech Connect

Progress in lasers is discussed. The subjects addressed include: excimer lasers, surface spectroscopy, modern laser spectroscopy, free electron lasers, cavities and propagation, lasers in medicine, X-ray and gamma ray lasers, laser spectroscopy of small molecules and clusters, optical bistability, excitons, nonlinear optics in the X-ray and gamma ray regions, collective atomic phenomena, tunable IR lasers, far IR/submillimeter lasers, and laser-assisted collisions. Also treated are: special applications, multiphoton processes in atoms and small molecules, nuclear pumped lasers, material processing and applications, polarization, high energy lasers, laser chemistry, IR molecular lasers, laser applications of collision and dissociation phenomena, solid state laser materials, phase conjugation, advances in laser technology for fusion, metal vapor lasers, picosecond phenomena, laser ranging and geodesy, and laser photochemistry of complex molecules.

Collins, C.B.

1982-01-01

430

Studies on iodine content in daily diets, particularly elderly people's diets.  

PubMed

Poland represents moderate degree of severity of iodine deficiency. In 1997 a national program has been introduced of obligatory iodine prophylaxis including the iodination of household salt. In order to assess the extent of iodine consumption, the assessment were carried out on iodine content in average Polish diets with regard elderly people's diets. The aim of the study was also to analyse the composition of supplements allowed for trade in Poland, with regard to iodine content in these products. The assessment of iodine content in Polish diets was performed on the basis of the data of the household budgets and the data of iodine content in food products (without kitchen salt). The calculated iodine content in average Polish daily diets (adults and children) ranged from 40.4 microg to 50.7 microg. The iodine content in elderly people's diets was 75.5 microg/daily diets. In all studied diets the amount of iodine coming from food products, not taking into account iodinated salt, was insufficient for the realization of Polish RDA for this element. It shows that iodination of kitchen salt in Poland is necessary. Moreover on the Polish market exist supplements including iodine (20-200 microg iodine in tablet). PMID:12166366

Kunachowicz, H; Stos, K; Stibilj, V; Szponar, L; Okolska, G; Wojtasik, A; Ratkovska, B

2002-01-01

431

Accurate frequency control of an internal-mirror He-Ne laser by means of a radiation-heating system.  

PubMed

Radiation heating enables fast temperature control. I applied radiation heating to the oscillation frequency control of an internal-mirror He-Ne laser. The laser system has a fast frequency response, and its oscillation frequency is offset-locked in an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser by a phase-lock loop circuit. The frequency discrepancy ? between the master and the slave lasers is less than 10(-13) with a 100-s gate time. PMID:21060448

Ishikawa, J

1995-09-20

432

An ultra-stable iodine-based frequency reference for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future space missions require for ultra-stable optical frequency references. Examples are the gravitational wave detector LISA/eLISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), the SpaceTime Asymmetry Research (STAR) program, the aperture-synthesis telescope Darwin and the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) follow on mission exploring Earth's gravity. As high long-term frequency stability is required, lasers stabilized to atomic or molecular transitions are preferred, also offering an absolute frequency reference. Frequency stabilities in the 10 ^{-15} domains at longer integration times (up to several hours) are demonstrated in laboratory experiments using setups based on Doppler-free spectroscopy. Such setups with a frequency stability comparable to the hydrogen maser in the microwave domain, have the potential to be developed space compatible on a relatively short time scale. Here, we present the development of ultra-stable optical frequency references based on modulation-transfer spectroscopy of molecular iodine. Noise levels of 2\\cdot10 ^{-14} at an integration time of 1 s and below 3\\cdot10 ^{-15} at integration times between 100 s and 1000 s are demonstrated with a laboratory setup using an 80 cm long iodine cell in single-pass configuration in combination with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and standard optical components and optomechanic mounts. The frequency stability at longer integration times is (amongst other things) limited by the dimensional stability of the optical setup, i.e. by th pointing stability of the two counter-propagating beams overlapped in the iodine cell. With the goal of a future space compatible setup, a compact frequency standard on EBB (elegant breadboard) level was realized. The spectroscopy unit utilizes a baseplate made of Clearceram-HS, a glass ceramics with an ultra-low coefficient of thermal expansion of 2\\cdot10 ^{-8} K ^{-1}. The optical components are joint to the baseplate using adhesive bonding technology, which was developed in a cooperation of HTWG Konstanz and Astrium Friedrichshafen. This setup ensures a higher long-term frequency stability due to enhanced pointing stability. Also, it takes into account space mission related criteria such as compactness, robustness, MAIVT and environmental influences (shock, vibration and thermal tests). The assembly-integration technology was already successfully environmentally tested and demonstrated in a previous setup of a compact fiber-coupled heterodyne interferometer, which serves as a demonstrator for the optical readout of the LISA gravitational reference sensor. We present first measurements of the EBB setup and a first design of an iodine frequency standard on engineering model (EM) level. The EM-setup is based on the EBB experience, but features smaller dimensions by using a multipass iodine cell and less optical components. Financial support by the German Space Agency DLR with funds provided by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) under grant number 50 QT 1102 is highly appreciated.

Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Doeringshoff, Klaus; Keetman, Anja; Reggentin, Matthias; Kovalchuk, Evgeny; Peters, Achim

2012-07-01

433

Non-equilibrium Ta plasmas produced by fast pulsed lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Nd:YAG laser, 9ns pulse width, 30Hz repetition rate, a maximum pulse density of 1010W\\/cm2 and an iodine laser, 400ps pulse, operating in single pulse width with a maximum power density of 1016W\\/cm2, are employed to produce pulsed plasmas in vacuum. A comparison of the results obtained for the ablation of tantalum targets is presented, including the ablation yields, the

L. Torrisi; S. Gammino

2006-01-01

434

Treatment of non-toxic multinodular goiter with radioactive iodine  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen patients with large non-toxic multinodular goiters were treated with 20 to 100 mCi (740 to 3700 MBq) of radioactive iodine (iodine-131). In seven, the goiter had recurred after a partial thyroidectomy and four of these had had two operations. Eight had symptoms of respiratory obstruction, two had dysphagia, and the others sought treatment for cosmetic reasons. After administration of iodine-131, there was a significant decrease in goiter size in 11 of the 14 patients, and all those with obstructive symptoms showed improvement. No significant local side effects occurred, but hypothyroidism and Graves' disease each occurred once during follow-up from one to 13 years. Radioactive iodine in doses of 20 to 100 mCi is an effective, safe therapeutic alternative in patients with large non-toxic multinodular goiter, particularly when there is recurrence following surgery or when there are contraindications to surgery.

Kay, T.W.; d'Emden, M.C.; Andrews, J.T.; Martin, F.I.

1988-01-01

435

Uncertainties in gas-phase atmospheric iodine chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive chemical mechanism for gas-phase iodine, to be used for modelling tropospheric chemistry. The mechanism has been compiled from evaluated data and individual literature studies, where available; a number of key processes have not been studied experimentally or theoretically and in these cases estimations have been made. The uncertainty associated with these assumptions is evaluated. We analyze the mechanism using a box-model under a variety of boundary layer scenarios - representative of environments where iodine species have been observed - to study the response of the chemical system to changes in the kinetic parameters of selected reactions. We focus in particular on key species such as IO, OIO, INO3 and I2Oy and the impact of iodine chemistry on ozone formation and HOx levels. The results indicate that the chemical system is most sensitive to reactions leading to comparatively stable iodine compounds, which should be a focus of future laboratory studies.

Sommariva, R.; Bloss, W. J.; von Glasow, R.

2012-09-01

436

Supplemental iodine as a key to reproduction in pandas?  

PubMed

Pandas are endemic to iodine-poor environments and appear to be specialized for a goitrogenic staple diet. In particular, the importance of thiocyanate in bamboos might possibly have been overlooked in captive breeding programs. Although excreted in urine, thiocyanate first antagonizes absorption of iodine by the thyroid (of parent, fetus and suckling juveniles) and the mammary glands. In livestock and humans, subclinical deficiency of iodine is known to result in reproductive problems (including retardation of the fetus and suckling infant) even where the mother appears to be unaffected beyond slight hyperplasia of the thyroid and subtle hypothyroidism as reflected by levels of thyroid hormones. We suggest that the possibilities of iodine deficiency or excess should be carefully considered wherever the reproductive rates of pandas are unsatisfactory. PMID:22691201

Milewski, Antoni V; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

2012-06-01

437

Chemistry and mass transport of iodine in containment  

SciTech Connect

TRENDS is a computer code for modeling behavior of iodine in containment. It tracks both chemical and physical changes and features such as calculation of radiation dose rates in water pools , radiolysis effects, hydrolysis, and deposition/revaporization on aerosols and structural surfaces. Every attempt has been made to account for all significant processes. Reaction rate constants for iodine hydrolysis and radiolysis were obtained by a variable algorithm that gives values closely modeling experimental data. TRENDS output provides the distribution of iodine in containment and release from containment as a function of time during a severe accident sequence. Initial calculations with TRENDS have shown that the amount of volatile iodine released from containment is sensitive to the value of the liquid-gas (evaporation) mass transport coefficient for I/sub 2/. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Shockley, W.E.; Daish, S.R.

1988-01-01

438

National Intercomparison of Activity Measurements with Iodine-131.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To coordinate the isotope measurements in India and to make these measurements traceable to the national Primary Standards, a national intercomparison of activity measurements with the radioisotope iodine-131 was organized. This is the first intercomparis...

P. K. ivastava S. Kamboj

1982-01-01

439

Sorption/desorption behavior of iodine on graphite. [HTGR  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program was undertaken to extend the data on the sorption and desorption of iodine on graphite to more realistic high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating conditions. This was accomplished by heating compacts of H-451 or S-2020 graphite at 250 to 1000/sup 0/C in continuously flowing helium (at atmospheric pressure) that contained iodine at pressures of 10/sup -6/ Pa (10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -1/ to 10/sup -6/ bar). Equilibrium adsorption data were generally well-behaved and reproducible with the H-451 graphite. Type S-2020 graphite sorbed more iodine, especially in the temperature range 700 to 800/sup 0/C. Although desorption appeared to initiate as reversible sorption, the rate of loss of iodine decreased with time. During desorption from the S-2020 graphite at 700 and 800/sup 0/C, a temporary plateau was reached that was sensitive to helium flow and pressure.

Lorenz, R.A.; Dyer, F.F.; Towns, R.L.

1982-11-01

440

1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING (LEFT BACKGROUND), AND TWIN COTTAGES (UPPER RIGHT) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

441

Transition of Iodine Analysis to Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Funding was received from NA-22 to investigate transitioning iodine isotopic analyses to an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system. The present method uses gas-phase chemistry followed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). It was anticipated...

J. E. Delmore

2010-01-01

442

Passivated iodine pentoxide oxidizer for potential biocidal nanoenergetic applications.  

PubMed

Iodine pentoxide (I2O5), also known as diiodine pentoxide, is a strong oxidizer which has been recently proposed as an iodine-rich oxidizer in nanoenergetic formulations, whose combustion products lead to molecular iodine as a biocidal agent. However, its highly hygroscopic nature hinders its performance as a strong oxidizer and an iodine releasing agent and prevents its implementation. In this work, we developed a gas phase assisted aerosol spray pyrolysis which enables creation of iron oxide passivated I2O5. Transmission electron microscopy elemental imaging as well as temperature-jump mass spectrometry confirmed the core shell nature of the material and the fact that I2O5 could be encapsulated in pure unhydrated form. Combustion performance finds an optimal coating thickness that enables combustion performance similar to a high performing CuO based thermite. PMID:23988006

Feng, Jingyu; Jian, Guoqiang; Liu, Qing; Zachariah, Michael R

2013-09-16

443

Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs  

SciTech Connect

We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland.

Wollman, S.H.; Ekholm, R.

1981-06-01

444

Hypervalent iodine-catalyzed oxylactonization of ketocarboxylic acids to ketolactones.  

PubMed

The hypervalent iodine-catalyzed oxylactonization of ketocarboxylic acids to ketolactones was achieved in the presence of iodobenzene (10 mol%), p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (20 mol%) and meta-chloroperbenzoic acid as a stoichiometric co-oxidant. PMID:19376702

Uyanik, Muhammet; Yasui, Takeshi; Ishihara, Kazuaki

2009-04-05

445

Electron-Stimulated Desorption of Iodine Atoms from KI(100): An Energy and Temperature Dependent Study  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of neutral atomic iodine from single crystals of KI(100) using time-of-flight laser resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy and quadrupole mass spectrometry. The measured iodine velocty distributions have thermal and non-thermal components. The yield of the thermal component increases with increasing substrate temperature, whereas the yield of the non-thermal component decreases slightly with temperature. The ESD rate for the thermal component decreases with increasing pulse-width, unlike the rate for the non-thermal component, which is independent of pulse-width. Measurements of ESD yields vs. incident electron energy indicate a threshold of ~5.5 eV. The data collectively indicated that non-thermal ESD of KI involves exciton decay at the surface. The temperature and pulse-width dependence of the thermal component is consistent with thermally assisted decay of bulk self-trapped excitons, H-center diffusion and trapping at metastable defects.

Alexandrov, Alexandr B.; Piacentini, Mario; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Sieger, Matthew T.; Zema, N.; Orlando, Thomas M.

2000-04-20

446

Iodine losses in iodised salt following different storage methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine retention in three types of iodised salt viz., powdered salt, white crystal and brown crystal salt was estimated at\\u000a an interval of 15 days following commonly practised storage methods i.e., glass jar with lid, plastic jar with lid, earthernware\\u000a pot with lid, cut open salt packet and salt pack as it is. Highest percent retention of iodine irrespective of

S. Jayashree; R. K. Naik

2000-01-01

447

Iodine Oxide Thermite Reactions: Physical and Biological Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the potential for some thermite-like material reactions to kill bacteria spores. Iodine oxides and silver oxides react vigorously with metals like aluminum, tantalum, and neodymium. These reactions theoretically produce temperatures as high as 8000K, leading to vaporization of the reactants, producing very hot iodine and\\/or silver gases. We performed a series of computations and experiments to characterize these

Rod Russell; Michelle Pantoya; Stephan Bless; William Clark

2009-01-01

448

REMOVAL OF IODINE VAPOUR FROM AIR BY METALLIC COPPER  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>The adsorption of iodine vapor by metallic copper was studied under ; dynamic and static conditions at ambient temperature. In the dynamic experiments ; two types of wire mesh and a ring packing were used. Inlet iodine concentrations ; of 0.5 mu g\\/m³ to 50 mg\\/m³, inlet loadings of up to 10⁴ ; monolayers, and air velocities of 1 to

J. B. Morris; R. A. Stinchcombe; M. D. Gray; D. H. Logsdail

1962-01-01

449

RETENTION OF IODINE IN PROCESS SOLUTIONS BY MERCURIC SALTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the complexing agents tried, Hg(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Pb(II), Bi(III), ; and Ag(I), only Hg(II) was effective in preventing the evolution of iodine from a ; simulated dissolver solution by air sparging. The presence of 10⁻⁴ Hg(NO\\/; sub 3\\/) in simulated dissolver solution effectlvely prevented the ; evolution of iodine by vigorous air sparging in all process steps prior to

Holm

1951-01-01

450

Blood and urine iodine levels in patients with gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we aimed to investigate whether there is any relationship between gastric cancer and iodine concentrations\\u000a in blood and urine in the northeast Anatolia region, where iodine deficiency is common. A total of 56 patients, diagnosed\\u000a as gastric cancer and 25 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The methods used were based on the Sandell-Kolthoff\\u000a reaction. The

Mine Gulaboglu; Leyla Yildiz; Mustafa Gul; Fehmi Celebi; Kemal Peker

2006-01-01

451

Two-photon electron detachment of negative iodine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have calculated two-photon electron detachment cross sections of the 5p shell of negative iodine in the photon energy region 0-1 Ryd. The results cover the region from the two-photon ionisation threshold of I- at 0.12 Ryd to well above the one-photon ionisation threshold of neutral iodine at about 0.8 Ryd. They demonstrate the importance of many-electron screening effects

A. L'Huillier; G. Wendin

1988-01-01

452

Separation of iodine from mercury containing scrubbing solutions  

DOEpatents

Radioactive iodines can be recovered from a nitric acid scrub solution containing mercuric nitrate by passing a current through the scrub solution to react the iodine with the mercuric nitrate to form mercuric iodate which precipitates out. The mercuric iodate can then be reacted to recover the radioiodine for further processing into a form suitable for long-term storage and to recover the mercury for recycling.

Burger, Leland L. (Richland, WA); Scheele, Randall D. (Kennewick, WA)

1979-01-01

453

Recycle of iodine-loaded silver mordenite by hydrogen reduction  

SciTech Connect

In 1977 and 1978, workers at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) developed and tested a process for the regeneration and reuse of silver mordenite, AgZ, used to trap iodine from the dissolver off-gas stream of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. We were requested by the Airborne Waste Management Program Office of the Department of Energy to perform a confirmatory recycle study using repeated loadings at about 150/sup 0/C with elemental iodine, each followed by a drying step at 300/sup 0/C, then by iodine removal using elemental hydrogen at 500/sup 0/C. The results of our study show that AgZ can be recycled. There was considerable difficulty in stripping the iodine at 500/sup 0/C.; however, this step went reasonably well at 550/sup 0/C or slightly higher, with no apparent loss in the iodine-loading capacity of the AgZ. Large releases of elemental iodine occurred during the drying stage and the early part of the stripping stage. Lead zeolite, which was employed in the original design to trap the HI produced, is ineffective in removal of I/sub 2/. The process needs modification to handle the iodine. Severe corrosion of the stainless steel components of the system resulted from the HI-I/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O mixture. Monel or other halogen-resistant materials need to be examined for this application. Because of difficulty with the stripping stage and with corrosion, the experiments were terminated after 12 cycles. Thus, the maximum lifetime (cycles) of recycle AgZ has not been determined. Mechanistic studies of iodine retention by silver zeolites and of the behavior of silver atoms on the reduction stage would be of assistance in optimizing silver mordenite recycle.

Burger, L.L.; Scheele, R.D.

1982-11-01

454

Influence of knowledge on iodine content in foodstuffs and prophylactic usage of iodized salt on urinary iodine excretion and thyroid volume of adults in southern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Thyroid volume, urinary iodine excretion as well as personal nutritional knowledge and individual iodine prophylaxis were determined during a health education program on iodine deficiency and prophylaxis in 1992. Participants were 472 male and 568 female (mean age 27.7 years) students and employees of five universities in the southern part of Germany. The study aimed to clarify the relationship

C. C. Metges; W. Greil; R. Grtner; M. Rafferzeder; J. Linseisen; A. Woerl; G. Wolfram

1996-01-01

455

Sources of iodine in the tropical marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of halogens in the chemical processes of the marine boundary layer has long been recognized, although many uncertainties remain. The role of iodine is particularly uncertain, especially with regard to its atmospheric sources. In this work, iodine chemistry in the tropical marine boundary layer was studied using a one dimensional model constrained to measured fluxes of iodinated hydrocarbons. The concentrations of iodocarbons were simultaneously measured in marine air and water during the RHaMBLe cruise, which took place in May-June 2007 around the Cape Verde archipelago. The sea-air fluxes of selected iodocarbons calculated from these measurements were used in a 1-D model to calculate the atmospheric concentrations of inorganic iodine species in the marine boundary layer at the latitude of Cape Verde (17 degrees N). The model was a revised version of MISTRA, with an updated module of gas-phase inorganic and DMS chemistry, and included the new iodine aqueous-phase chemical mechanism developed by Pechtl et al. (2007). The model results were qualitatively compared with the observations of IO taken at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory during a previous campaign. The model was then used to determine the role of the measured iodocarbons as sources of iodine in the marine boundary layer and to study their impact on the concentration of tropospheric ozone.

Sommariva, R.; von Glasow, R.; Jones, C. E.; Hornsby, K. E.; Carpenter, L. J.; McFiggans, G.

2009-04-01

456

Successful Efforts Toward Elimination Iodine Deficiency Disorders in India  

PubMed Central

Iodine deficiency (ID) is the world's single most important preventable cause of brain damage and mental retardation. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) is a public health problem in 130 countries, affecting 13% of the world population. The simplest solution to prevent the IDD is to consume iodized common salt every day. In India, significant progress has been achieved toward elimination of IDD, in the last 30 years. Satisfactory levels of urinary iodine excretion and iodine content of salt have been documented by the research surveys conducted by research scientists. The results indicate that we are progressing toward elimination of IDD. IDD is due to a nutritional deficiency, which is prima-rily that of iodine, in soil and water. IDD is known to re-appear if the IDD Control Program is not sustained. To ensure that the population continues to have intake of adequate amount of iodine, there is a need of i) periodic surveys to assess the magnitude of the IDD with respect to impact of iodized salt (IS) intervention; ii) strengthening the health and nutrition education activities to create demand for IS and iii) development of a monitoring information system (MIS) for ensuring that the adequately IS is available to the beneficiaries.