Sample records for solar-pumped iodine laser

  1. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from April 1, 1985 to Sept. 30, 1985 under NASA grant NAS1-441 entitled direct solar pumped iodine laser amplifier. During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator was carried out before the amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period following completion of the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) the radiation characteristics of solar simulator and the parametric characteristics of photodissociation iodine laser continuously pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  2. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator were carried out before amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period after completing the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) a 10 W CW iodine laser pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling to predict the time to lasing threshold, lasing time, and energy output of solar-pumped iodine laser; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  3. Solar-pumped photodissociation iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Weaver, W. R.; Humes, D. H.; Williams, M. D.; Lee, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    The scientific feasibility of a solar-pumped iodine photodissociation laser for space applications is under investigation. Recently, a 2-W CW output for more than one hour was achieved using n-C3F7I vapor as the laser material and a vortex-stabilized argon arc as the light source.

  4. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon

    1990-01-01

    The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200 solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.

  5. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Stock, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to identify the optimum conditions for amplification of the center's Vortek solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. A modeling effort was also pursued to explain the experimental results in the theoretical work. The amplification measurement of the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier is the first amplification experiment on the continuously pumped amplifier. The small signal amplification of 5 was achieved for the triple pass geometry of the 15 cm long solar simulator pumped amplifier at the n-C3F7I pressure of 20 torr, at the flow velocity of 6 m/sec and at the pumping intensity of 1500 solar constants. The XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator, which was developed in the previous research, was employed as the master oscillator for the amplification measurement. In the theoretical work, the rate equations of the amplifier was established and the small signal amplification was calculated for the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. The amplification calculated from the kinetic equations with the previously measured rate coefficients reveals very large disagreement with experimental measurement. Moreover, the optimum condition predicted by the kinetic equation is quite discrepant with that measured by experiment. This fact indicates the necessity of study in the measurement of rate coefficients of the continuously pumped iodine laser system.

  6. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1987-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from March 1, 1987 to September 30, 1987 under NASA grant NAG1-441 entitled 'Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier'. During this period Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals have been tested for the solar-simulator pumped cw laser, and loss mechanisms of the laser output power in a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser also have been identified theoretically. It was observed that the threshold pump-beam intensities for both Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals were about 1000 solar constants, and the cw laser operation of the Nd:Cr:GSGG crystal was more difficult than that of the Nd:YAG crystal under the solar-simulator pumping. The possibility of the Nd:Cr:GSGG laser operation with a fast continuously chopped pumping was also observed. In addition, good agreement between the theoretical calculations and the experimental data on the loss mechanisms of a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser at various fill pressures and various lasants was achieved.

  7. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Kim, Khong Hon; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator was developed which will be incorporated into the Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) system. The developed XeCl laser produces output energy of about 60 mJ per pulse. The pulse duration was about 10 nsec. The kinetic model for the solar-pumped laser was refined and the algorithm for the calculation of a set of rate equations was improved to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the calculation. The improved algorithm was applied to explain the existing experimental data taken from a flashlamp pumped iodine laser for three kinds of lasants, i-C3F7I, n-C4F9I, and t-C4F9I. Various solid laser materials were evaluated for solar-pumping. The materials studied were Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, and Cr:Nd:GSGG crystals. The slope efficiency of 0.17 percent was measured for the Nd:YLF near the threshold pump intensity which was 211 solar constants (29W/sq cm). The threshold pump intensity of the Nd:YAG was measured to be 236 solar constants (32W/sq cm) and the near-threshold slope efficiency was 0.12 percent. True CW laser operation of Cr:Nd:GSGG was possible only at pump intensities less than or equal to 1,500 solar constants (203 W/sq cm). This fact was attributed to the high thermal focusing effect of the Cr:Nd:GSGG rod.

  8. Optically (solar) pumped oxygen-iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, O. B.; Zhevlakov, A. P.; Yur'ev, M. S.

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of theoretical and experimental studies demonstrating the possibility of developing an oxygen-iodine laser (OIL) with direct optical pumping of molecular oxygen involving inter-molecular interaction with charge transfer from donor molecule (buffer gas) to acceptor molecule (oxygen). This interaction lifts degeneracy of the lower energy states of molecular oxygen and increases its absorption cross section in the visible spectral region and the UV Herzberg band, where high quantum yield of singlet oxygen is achieved (QY ˜ 1 and QY ˜ 2, respectively) at the same time. A pulse-periodic optical pump sources with pulse energy of ˜50 kJ, pulse duration of ˜25 ?s, and repetition rate of ˜10 Hz, which are synchronized with the mechanism of singlet oxygen generation, are developed. This allows implementation of a pulse-periodic oxygen-iodine laser with an efficiency of ˜25%, optical efficiency of ˜40%, and parameter L/ T ˜ 1/1.5, where T is the thermal energy released in the laser active medium upon generation of energy L. It is demonstrated that, under direct solar pumping of molecular oxygen, the efficiency parameter of the OIL can reach L/ T ˜ 1/0.8 in a wide range of scaling factors.

  9. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

    1986-01-01

    In order to evaluate the feasibility of the solar pumped dye laser, the parametric study of a dye laser amplifier pumped by a solar simulator and flashlamp was carried out, and the amplifier gains were measured at various pump beam irradiances on the dye cell. Rhodamine 6G was considered as a candidate for the solar pumped laser because of its good utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. The measurement shows that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye. The work to construct a kinetic model algorithm which predicts the output parameter of laser was progressed. The kinetic model was improved such that there is good agreement between the theoretical model and experimental data for the systems defined previously as flashlamp pumped laser oscillator, and the long path length solar pumped laser.

  10. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In H.; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser which was developed earlier for an iodine laser oscillator was modified in order to increase the output pulse energy of XeCl laser so that the iodine laser output energy could be increased. The electrical circuit of the XeCl laser was changed from a simple capacitor discharge circuit of the XeCl laser to a Marx system. Because of this improvement the output energy from the XeCl laser was increased from 60 mj to 80 mj. Subsequently, iodine laser output energy was increased from 100 mj to 3 mj. On the other hand, the energy storage capability and amplification characteristics of the Vortek solar simulator-pumped amplifier was calculated expecting the calculated amplification factor is about 2 and the energy extraction efficiency is 26 percent due to the very low input energy density to the amplifier. As a result of an improved kinetic modeling for the iodine solar simulator pumped power amplifier, it is found that the I-2 along the axis of the tube affects seriously the gain profile. For the gas i-C3F7I at the higher pressures, the gain will decrease due to the I-2 as the pumping intensity increases, and at these higher pressures an increase in flow velocity will increase the gain.

  11. Low threshold solar-pumped iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Solar-pumped lasing of i-C3F7I and n-C4F9I at lower solar concentrations (170 solar constants) and longer gain lengths than previous solar lasers is demonstrated, with potential application to the lasing needs of space. Two xenon arc solar simulators provide an AM0 spectrum over the 60-cm gain length, and output pulse energies of 70 mJ and an average power of 550 mW are achieved. Low pressure lasing times of 600 ms are reached, and the observed 0.074 percent slope efficiency could approach the 0.2 percent maximum theoretical efficiency. Due to less quenching of I(asterisk), n-C4F9I is found to be a superior lasant to i-C3F7I.

  12. Amplified spontaneous emission in solar-pumped iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Yong S.; Hwang, In H.; Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1992-01-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from a long pulse, solar-simulating radiation pumped iodine laser amplifier is studied. The ASE threshold pump intensity is almost proportional to the inverse of the laser gain length when the gas pressure is constant in the laser tube.

  13. A long-pulse amplifier for solar-pumped iodine lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, I. H.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of a photodissociation iodine-laser amplifier pumped with a solar-simulating radiation were studied. Under long-pulse energy extraction, an energy amplification of about three and an energy storage time of longer than 500 microseconds were observed for a one meter long, 10 mm i.d. amplifier tube. The effects of elevated temperatures resulted in little reduction of the amplifier gain. These results confirm that developing an efficient chain of oscillator-amplifiers for a high-power solar-pumped iodine laser is indeed feasible.

  14. Beam profile measurement of a solar-pumped iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, Russell J.

    1986-01-01

    Beam profile measurements have been made as a function of time within the laser pulse and C2F5I pressure. Measurements indicate that the profile is determined directly by the optical excitation volume, produced by the solar simulator, and that media distortion plays a minor role compared to the build up of quenching species during the lasing pulse.

  15. Design and chemical synthesis of iodine-containing molecules for application to solar-pumped I* lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiner, Christopher S.

    1986-01-01

    Research is directed toward the design and synthesis of new media for solar-pumped I* lasers. Since the most effective existing lasants are perfluoroalkyl iodides, a strategy was proposed for the development of improved materials of this type with absorption maxima at 300 nm. Absorption spectra were synthesized and measured for prototypical species containing iodine bound to boron, iron, and cobalt.

  16. Directly solar-pumped iodine laser for beamed power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. H.; Meador, W. E.; Lee, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach for development of a 50-kW directly solar-pumped iodine laser (DSPIL) system as a space-based power station was made using a confocal unstable resonator (CUR). The CUR-based DSPIL has advantages, such as performance enhancement, reduction of total mass, and simplicity which alleviates the complexities inherent in the previous system, master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) configurations. In this design, a single CUR-based DSPIL with 50-kW output power was defined and compared to the MOPA-based DSPIL. Integration of multiple modules for power requirements more than 50-kW is physically and structurally a sound approach as compared to building a single large system. An integrated system of multiple modules can respond to various mission power requirements by combining and aiming the coherent beams at the user's receiver.

  17. A 50-kW Module Power Station of Directly Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. H.; Lee, J. H.; Meador, W. E.; Conway, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conceptual design of a 50 kW Directly Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser (DSPIL) module was developed for a space-based power station which transmits its coherent-beam power to users such as the moon, Martian rovers, or other satellites with large (greater than 25 kW) electric power requirements. Integration of multiple modules would provide an amount of power that exceeds the power of a single module by combining and directing the coherent beams to the user's receiver. The model developed for the DSPIL system conservatively predicts the laser output power (50 kW) that appears much less than the laser output (93 kW) obtained from the gain volume ratio extrapolation of experimental data. The difference in laser outputs may be attributed to reflector configurations adopted in both design and experiment. Even though the photon absorption by multiple reflections in experimental cavity setup was more efficient, the maximum secondary absorption amounts to be only 24.7 percent of the primary. However, the gain volume ratio shows 86 percent more power output than theoretical estimation that is roughly 60 percent more than the contribution by the secondary absorption. Such a difference indicates that the theoretical model adopted in the study underestimates the overall performance of the DSPIL. This fact may tolerate more flexible and radical selection of design parameters than used in this design study. The design achieves an overall specific power of approximately 5 W/kg and total mass of 10 metric tons.

  18. Solar pumped laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.; Weaver, W. R. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pumped laser is described in which the lasant is a gas that will photodissociate and lase when subjected to sunrays. Sunrays are collected and directed onto the gas lasant to cause it to lase. Applications to laser propulsion and laser power transmission are discussed.

  19. Perfluorobutyl iodides as gain media for a solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabibi, Bagher M.; Lee, Min H.; Lee, Ja H.; Weaver, Willard R.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of t-C4F9I and n-C4F9I as gain media for a space-based solar-pumped iodine photodissociation laser is investigated experimentally. The optically coupled flashlamp/amplifier-tube apparatus described by Hwang et al. (1986) is employed, driving the amplifier with 4-microsec 4.2-mJ TEM(00) pulses from a flashlamp-pumped laser oscillator; the variation of amplification with energy-extraction time was monitored by inserting a delay of up to 1 msec between the firing of the two flashlamps and measuring the delay between the optical pulses. The results are presented graphically and briefly characterized. The performance of t-C4F9I is found to be better than that of n-C4F9I (or n-C3F7I), with an absorption band shifted toward the visible (for improved utilization of solar radiation), higher gain (by a factor of 2) at all delay times, and better chemical reversibility. The gain did not depend significantly on temperature in any of the iodides.

  20. Laser Doppler velocimetry for continuous flow solar-pumped iodine laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabibi, Bagher M.; Lee, Ja H.

    1991-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) system was employed to measure the flow velocity profile of iodide vapor inside laser tubes of 36 mm ID and 20 mm ID. The LDV, which was operated in the forward scatter mode used a low power (15 mW) He-Ne laser beam. Velocity ranges from 1 m/s was measured to within one percent accuracy. The flow velocity profile across the laser tube was measured and the intensity of turbulence was determined. The flow of iodide inside the laser tube demonstrated a mixture of both turbulence and laminar flow. The flowmeter used for the laser system previously was calibrated with the LDV and found to be in good agreement.

  1. Design and chemical synthesis of iodine-containing molecules for application to solar-pumped I* lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiner, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    The design and chemical synthesis of new media for solar pumped iodine molecule lasers are explored. In an effort to prepare an iodo fluorocarbon compound absorbing strongly at 300 nm or above, the synthesis of perfluoro allylic iodides was investigated. These compounds furnish especially stable allylic radicals upon photodissociation. The desired red shift is anticipated in the absorption maximum could correlate with increasing radical stability. This expectation was based upon the analysis, previously reported, of the structures and absorption maxima of compounds studied earlier. A previously unknown substance was prepared, a prototypical target molecule, perfluoro-3-iodocyclopent-1-ene. It was obtained by reaction of perfluorocyclopentene with sulfur trioxide under the influence of antimony pentafluoride catalyst, followed by treatment of the resulting allylic fluorosulfonate with sodium iodide in sulfoland solvent. Preliminary data indicate that the absorption maximum for the iodo fluorocarbon is not shifted significantly to longer wavelength. It is not certain whether this result reflects an unexpected influence of the cyclic structure upon the position of the absorption maximum.

  2. Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

  3. Solar-pumped solid-state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Weksler, M.; Shwartz, J.

    1988-06-01

    Results are presented for direct solar pumping of a ND:YAG rod laser. Stable CW output of more than 60 W was obtained with a slope efficiency exceeding 2 percent. A compound parabolic concentrator, designed to increase the solar radiation coupled into the laser rod, was used in these experiments. The results are consistent with predictions based on a simple solar-pumped laser model, which is also presented. Using this model, it is shown that existing laser materials with broad-band absorption characteristics (e.g., alexandrite and Nd:Cr:GSGG) have a potential for better than 10 percent overall conversion efficiency when solar pumped.

  4. Theoretical studies of solar-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Fong, Z. S.

    1985-01-01

    The power output of a black body solar-pumped laser as a function of time (computer graphic solutions) and under steady state conditions (analytic conditions); computer analyses of polymerization using lasers; and metallic sodium as a laser medium were studied.

  5. Long gain length solar pumped box laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    A solar pumped laser has its lasing path lengthened by forming a square loop in the lasing path by means of bending mirrors. Solar radiation is collected and concentrated into a donut shaped intensity pattern. This intensity pattern is directed onto the lasing path such that there is a maximum fit of the solar intensity pattern to the square loop laser cavity.

  6. Solar pumped lasers and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ja H.

    Since 1980, NASA has been pursuing high power solar lasers as part of the space power beaming program. Materials in liquid, solid, and gas phases have been evaluated against the requirements for solar pumping. Two basic characteristics of solar insolation, namely its diffuse irradiance and 5800 K blackbody-like spectrum, impose rather stringent requirements for laser excitation. However, meeting these requirements is not insurmountable as solar thermal energy technology has progressed today, and taking advantage of solar pumping lasers is becoming increasingly attractive. The high density photons of concentrated solar energy have been used for mainly electric power generation and thermal processing of materials by the DOE Solar Thermal Technologies Program. However, the photons can interact with materials through many other direct kinetic paths, and applications of the concentrated photons could be extended to processes requiring photolysis, photosynthesis, and photoexcitation. The use of solar pumped lasers on Earth seems constrained by economics and sociopolitics. Therefore, prospective applications may be limited to those that require use of quantum effects and coherency of the laser in order to generate extremely high value products and services when conventional and inexpensive means are ineffective or impossible. The new applications already proposed for concentrated solar photons, such as destruction of hazardous waste, production of renewable fuel, production of fertilizer, and air/water pollution controls, may benefit from the use of inexpensive solar pumped laser matched with the photochemical kinetics of these processes.

  7. Research on solar pumped liquid lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Kurzweg, U. H.; Cox, J. D.; Weinstein, N. H.

    1983-01-01

    A solar pumped liquid laser that can be scaled up to high power (10Mw CW) for space applications was developed. Liquid lasers have the inherent advantage over gases in that they provide much higher lasant densities and thus high power densities. Liquids also have inherent advantages over solids in that they have much higher damage thresholds and are much cheaper to produce for large scale applications. Among the liquid laser media that are potential candidates for solar pumping, the POC13:Nd(3+):ZrC14 liquid was chosen for its high intrinsic efficiency as well as its relatively good stability against decomposition due to protic contamination. The development and testing of the laser liquid and the development of a large solar concentrator to pump the laser was emphasized. The procedure to manufacture the laser liquid must include diagnostic tests of the solvent purity (from protic contamination) at various stages in the production process.

  8. Research on solar pumped liquid lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, J. D.; Kurzweg, U. H.; Weinstein, N. H.; Schneider, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    A solar pumped liquid laser that can be scaled up to high power (10 mW CW) for space applications was developed. Liquid lasers have the advantage over gases in that they provide much higher lasant densities and thus high-power densities. Liquids also have advantages over solids in that they have much higher damage thresholds and are much cheaper to produce for large scale applications. Among the liquid laser media that are potential candidates for solar pumping, the POC13: Nd sup 3+:ZrC14 liquid was chosen for its high intrinsic efficiency and its relatively good stability against decomposition due to protic contamination. The development of a manufacturing procedure and performance testing of the laser, liquid and the development of an inexpensive large solar concentrator to pump the laser are examined.

  9. Theoretcial studies of solar-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Fong, Z. S.

    1984-01-01

    A method of pumping a COhZ laser by a hot cavity was demonstrated. The cavity, heated by solar radiation, should increase the efficiency of solar pumped lasers used for energy conversion. Kinetic modeling is used to examine the behavior of such a COhZ laser. The kinetic equations are solved numerically vs. time and, in addition, steady state solutions are obtained analytically. The effect of gas heating filling the lower laser level is included. The output power and laser efficiency are obtained as functions of black body temperature and gas ratios (COhZ-He-Ar) and pressures. The values are compared with experimental results.

  10. Scaling studies of solar pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Chang, J.

    1985-01-01

    A progress report of scaling studies of solar pumped lasers is presented. Conversion of blackbody radiation into laser light has been demonstrated in this study. Parametric studies of the variation of laser mixture composition and laser gas temperature were carried out for CO2 and N2O gases. Theoretical analysis and modeling of the system have been performed. Reasonable agreement between predictions in the parameter variation and the experimental results have been obtained. Almost 200 mW of laser output at 10.6 micron was achieved by placing a small sapphire laser tube inside an oven at 1500 K the tube was filled with CO2 laser gas mixture and cooled by longitudinal nitrogen gas flow.

  11. Preliminary conceptual design and weight of a one-megawatt space-based laser power station utilizing a solar-pumped iodine lasant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.; Walker, G. H.; Williams, M. D.; Schuster, G. L.; Conway, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a space-based solar-pumped iodide laser emitting 1 MW of laser power for space-to-space power transmission is described. A near-parabolic solar collector focuses sunlight onto the t-C4F9I lasant within a transverse-flow optical cavity. Using waste heat, a thermal system supplies compressor and auxiliary power. The major system components are designed with weight estimates assigned. In particular, it is found that laser efficiency is not a dominant weight factor, the dominant factor being the laser transmission optics. The station mass is 92,000 kg, requiring approximately eight Shuttle flights to LEO, where an orbital transfer vehicle can transport it to the final altitude of 6378 km.

  12. Solar pumped continuous wave carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yesil, O.; Christiansen, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar pumped laser concept, gain has been measured in a CO2-He laser medium optically pumped by blackbody radiation. Various gas mixtures of CO2 and He have been pumped by blackbody radiation emitted from an electrically heated oven. Using a CO2 laser as a probe, an optical gain coefficient of 1.8 x 10 to the -3rd/cm has been measured at 10.6 microns for a 9:1 CO2-He mixture at an oven temperature of about 1500 K, a gas temperature of about 400 K and a pressure of about 1 torr. This corresponds to a small signal gain coefficient when allowance is made for saturation effects due to the probe beam, in reasonable agreement with a theoretical value.

  13. Theoretical studies of solar pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, Wynford L.

    1990-01-01

    One concept for collecting solar energy is to use large solar collectors and then use lasers as energy converters whose output beams act as transmission lines to deliver the energy to a destination. The efficiency of the process would be improved if the conversion could be done directly using solar pumped lasers, and the possibility of making such lasers is studied. There are many applications for such lasers, and these are examined. By including the applications first, the requirements for the lasers will be more evident. They are especially applicable to the Space program, and include cases where no other methods of delivering power seem possible. Using the lasers for conveying information and surveillance is also discussed. Many difficulties confront the designer of an efficient system for power conversion. These involve the nature of the solar spectrum, the method of absorbing the energy, the transfer of power into laser beams, and finally, the far field patterns of the beams. The requirements of the lasers are discussed. Specific laser configurations are discussed. The thrust is into gas laser systems, because for space applications, the laser could be large, and also the medium would be uniform and not subject to thermal stresses. Dye and solid lasers are treated briefly. For gas lasers, a chart of the various possibilities is shown, and the various families of gas lasers divided according to the mechanisms of absorbing solar radiation and of lasing. Several specific models are analyzed and evaluated. Overall conclusions for the program are summarized, and the performances of the lasers related to the requirements of various applications.

  14. Theoretical studies of solar-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of the absorption and emission characteristics of molecules required to develop materials for solar-pumped lasers are addressed. These characteristics are described in terms of the Franck Condon factors, which are calculated from the molecular wave functions. Wave functions for vibrational levels in the lower and upper electronic states of I2 and NSe are calculated numerically and methods of checking errors discussed. Errors arise when the vibrational quantum numbers are high; but, using a calculated rather than measured value of the dissociation energy, wave functions up to the fiftieth vibrational level are obtained. A numerical method of evaluating the wave functions is given, which should be more accurate in the region of electronic transitions during absorption. Franck Condon factors, plotted versus the wavelength of the absorbed photons, are shown, and a check on the Franck Condon factors is made using the vibrational sum rule.

  15. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang; Xiong, Sheng-jun; Liu, Xiao-long; Han, Wei-hua

    2014-12-01

    In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc. On the other hand, solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable resources, the average intensity of solar irradiation on the earth is 1353W/m2, and it is even higher in space. Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr. The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character. This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

  16. Theoretical studies of solar-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Possible types of lasers were surveyed for solar power conversion. The types considered were (1) liquid dye lasers, (2) vapor dye lasers, and (3) nondissociative molecular lasers. These are discussed.

  17. Solar-pumped solid state Nd lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Zapata, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solid state neodymium lasers are considered candidates for space-based polar-pumped laser for continuous power transmission. Laser performance for three different slab laser configurations has been computed to show the excellent power capability of such systems if heat problems can be solved. Ideas involving geometries and materials are offered as potential solutions to the heat problem.

  18. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  19. Direct solar pumping of semiconductor lasers: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Neal G.

    1991-01-01

    The primary goals of the feasibility study are the following: (1) to provide a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of pumping semiconductor lasers in space directly focused sunlight; and (2) to identify semiconductor laser structures expected to operate at the lowest possible focusing intensities. It should be emphasized that the structures under consideration would provide direct optical-to-optical conversion of sunlight into laser light in a single crystal, in contrast to a configuration consisting of a solar cell or battery electrically pumping a current injection laser. With external modulation, such lasers may prove to be efficient sources for intersatellite communications. We proposed to develop a theoretical model of semiconductor quantum-well lasers photopumped by a broadband source, test it against existing experimental data where possible, and apply it to estimating solar pumping requirements and identifying optimum structures for operation for operation at low pump intensities. This report outlines our progress toward these goals. Discussion of several technical details are left to the attached summary abstract.

  20. Efficiency and threshold pump intensity of CW solar-pumped solid-state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, I.H. (Hampton Univ., VA (United States). Dept. of Physics); Lee, J.H. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on the efficiencies and threshold pump intensities of various solid-state laser materials that have been estimated to compare their performance characteristics as direct solar-pumped CW lasers. Among the laser materials evaluated in this research, alexandrite has the highest slope efficiency of about 12.6%; however, it does not seem to be practical for solar-pumped laser application because of its high threshold pump intensity. Cr:Nd:GSGG is the most promising for solar-pumped lasing. Its threshold pump intensity is about 100 air-mass-zero (AMO) solar constants and its slope efficiency is about 12% when thermal deformation is completely prevented.

  1. Low-threshold solar-pumped laser using C2F5I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.; Weaver, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Solar-pumped lasing was achieved with pentafluoroethyl iodide, C2F5I, a new alkyl-iodide. Output power and energy of 350 mW and 45 mJ were achieved. This lasant was found to have the lowest lasing threshold of any solar-pumped gas laser to date at approximately 100 solar constants. Such low threshold enables the use in space of simple, trough solar collectors.

  2. Passive Q-switching of high-power solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Idit Pe'Er; Nir Naftali; Dov Abramovic; Yoram Noter; Amnon Yogev

    1997-01-01

    High power lasers operating at high repetition rates at the kilohertz regime are attractive for a variety of applications. Such high repetition rates can be achieved by Q-switching a cw laser using either an acousto-optic, an electro-optic or a passive Q-switch. Since passive Q-switching needs no external electric circuit, it may be valuable for solar pumped lasers to be used

  3. Analysis of Nd3+:glass, solar-pumped, high-powr laser systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, L. E.; Williams, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    The operating characteristics of Nd(3+):glass lasers energized by a solar concentrator were analyzed for the hosts YAG, silicate glass, and phosphate glass. The modeling is based on the slab zigzag laser geometry and assumes that chemical hardening methods for glass are successful in increasing glass hardness by a factor of 4. On this basis, it was found that a realistic 1-MW solar-pumped laser might be constructed from phosphate glass 4 sq m in area and 2 mm thick. If YAG were the host medium, a 1-MW solar-pumped laser need only be 0.5 sq m in area and 0.5 cm thick, which is already possible. In addition, Nd(3+) doped glass fibers were found to be excellent solar-pumped laser candidates. The small diameter of fibers eliminates thermal stress problems, and if their diameter is kept small (10 microns), they propagate a Gaussian single mode which can be expanded and transmitted long distances in space. Fiber lasers could then be used for communications in space or could be bundled and the individual beams summed or phase-matched for high-power operation.

  4. Performance of passive Q-switched, solar-pumped, high-power Nd:YAG lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoram Noter; Nir Naftali; Idit Pe'Er; Amnon Yogev; Mordechai Lando; Yehoshua Shimony

    1997-01-01

    Q-switched, solar-pumped, high power Nd:YAG lasers are attractive for a variety of applications requiring high instantaneous peak power density. The Q-switching can be obtained by an acousto-optic, electro-optic or passive device. Passive Q-switching seems an excellent choice for space as well as for other applications since it neither requires an external driver nor an electrical power supply. In recent years

  5. Intensity and absorbed-power distribution in a cylindrical solar-pumped dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    The internal intensity and absorbed-power distribution of a simplified hypothetical dye laser of cylindrical geometry is calculated. Total absorbed power is also calculated and compared with laboratory measurements of lasing-threshold energy deposition in a dye cell to determine the suitability of solar radiation as a pump source or, alternatively, what modifications, if any, are necessary to the hypothetical system for solar pumping.

  6. High power CW iodine laser pumped by solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Lee, Min H.; Weaver, Willard R.

    1987-01-01

    An iodine photodissociation laser was pumped by a long Ar arc as the solar simulator to produce a 10-W CW output. Continuous lasing for 1 h was achieved with a flow of the laser material n-C3F7I. The 10-W CW output is the highest produced to date and establishes the feasibility of developing a solar-pumped laser for space power transmission.

  7. Experimental study of solar pumped laser for magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, T.; Ohkubo, T.; Uchida, S.; Yoshida, K.; Bagheri, B.; Funatsu, T.; Mabuti, A.; Oyama, A.; Nakagawa, K.; Oishi, T.; Daito, K.; Nakatsuka, M.; Yoshida, M.; Motokoshi, S.; Sato, Y.; Baasandash, C.; Nakayama, N.; Okamoto, Y.; Yanagaidani, K.

    2008-05-01

    24.4 W of laser output has been obtained by sun-pumped, Cr-codoped Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic. The water-cooled laser rod was pumped with a Fresnel lens focusing the natural sunlight. By using the advantages of the Fresnel lenses, the maximum output for unit area of sunlight was 18.7 W/m2. Direct concentrated solar illumination was used to pump a 9mm-diameter, 100mm length rod of Cr:Nd:YAG, which was obtained 9%-14% slope efficiency for the laser output. We have analyzed the Cr:YAG laser medium and found it to be an excellent high-power laser candidate for direct solar-pumping schemes which enhances the laser output about 1.8 times more than Nd:YAG.

  8. Efficient solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser by a double-stage light-guide\\/V-groove cavity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joana Almeida; Dawei Liang

    2011-01-01

    Since the first reported Nd:YAG solar laser, researchers have been exploiting parabolic mirrors and heliostats for enhancing laser output performance. We are now investigating the production of an efficient solar-pumped laser for the reduction of magnesium from magnesium oxide, which could be an alternative solution to fossil fuel. Therefore both high conversion efficiency and excellent beam quality are imperative. By

  9. Flashlamp-pumped iodine monobromide laser characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, L. E.; De Young, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The operating characteristics of a flashlamp-pumped IBr laser were investigated to evaluate its suitability for solar-pumped laser applications. A peak power of 350 W/sq cm at 2.7 microns was achieved at 12-torr IBr pressure. At 500-J flashlamp energy, the IBr output saturated; a gain of 0.17% per cm was measured for IBr. Neon was found to be effective for enhancing the recombination of the photodissociation products. With neon as a buffer gas, the laser pulse length was extended to 53 microsec. The termination of the laser pulse, within the flashlamp pulse, is thought to be due to the temperature rise in the gas. Increasing the IBr initial temperature decreased the lasing output. At 300 C, output dropped to approximately one-half the room temperature value. The dominant quencher is thought to be atomic iodine. IBr was found to couple better to the flashlamp energy than C3F7I.

  10. Solar Pumped Solid State Lasers for Space Solar Power: Experimental Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Carrington, Connie K.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Green, Jason J. A.; Laycock, Rustin L.

    2003-01-01

    We outline an experimentally based strategy designed to lead to solar pumped solid state laser oscillators useful for space solar power. Our method involves solar pumping a novel solid state gain element specifically designed to provide efficient conversion of sunlight in space to coherent laser light. Kilowatt and higher average power is sought from each gain element. Multiple such modular gain elements can be used to accumulate total average power of interest for power beaming in space, e.g., 100 kilowatts and more. Where desirable the high average power can also be produced as a train of pulses having high peak power (e.g., greater than 10(exp 10 watts). The modular nature of the basic gain element supports an experimental strategy in which the core technology can be validated by experiments on a single gain element. We propose to do this experimental validation both in terrestrial locations and also on a smaller scale in space. We describe a terrestrial experiment that includes diagnostics and the option of locating the laser beam path in vacuum environment. We describe a space based experiment designed to be compatible with the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). We anticipate the gain elements will be based on low temperature (approx. 100 degrees Kelvin) operation of high thermal conductivity (k approx. 100 W/cm-K) diamond and sapphire (k approx. 4 W/cm-K). The basic gain element will be formed by sequences of thin alternating layers of diamond and Ti:sapphire with special attention given to the material interfaces. We anticipate this strategy will lead to a particularly simple, robust, and easily maintained low mass modelocked multi-element laser oscillator useful for space solar power.

  11. Identification and properties of molecular systems of potential use in solar-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micha, D. A.; Oehrn, N. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The concepts and computational tools of theortical chemistry are used to investigate molecular properties needed in direct solar-pumped lasers. Compounds of the type RR'CXY, with R and R' organic groups, and X and Y halide atoms were identified as likely candidates because of their highly enhanced absorption coefficients over compounds with a single halide atom. The use of a combination of vibrational excitation followed by electronic excitation to enhance quantum yields at certain wavelengths is indicated. A self-consistent eikonal approximation to state-to-state transitions was tested for CH3I and is useful for other problems involving electronic energy and charge transfer. An approach to calculate potential energy surfaces and transition dipoles was developed which is based on the generation of eigenstates of the nonrelativisitc Hamiltonian followed by incorporation of the spin-orbit coupling by configuration interaction.

  12. Silicon photovoltaic cells coupled with solar-pumped fiber lasers emitting at 1064 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko; Iizuka, Hideo; Mizuno, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Ito, Hiroshi; Kajino, Tsutomu; Ichiki, Akihisa; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2014-07-01

    We have designed silicon (Si) photovoltaic (PV) cells coupled with solar-pumped fiber lasers (SPFLs), by considering the unique illumination conditions for PV cells: (1) monochromatic (1064 nm) and normal incidence, (2) large intensity, and (3) small area. We have revealed that a multilayered bandpass filter formed on the front surface of a PV cell equipped with a diffuse reflector on the back surface sufficiently traps the illumination. This, in turn, allows us to use a thin Si wafer to eliminate the detrimental effect of the series resistance in the cell under intense illumination, along with a small lateral size that is suitable for direct connection with an SPFL. Simulated conversion efficiency of the newly designed 20 ?m-thick Si PV cell with the 14-layerd bandpass filter and Lambertian back reflector is 61% under normally incident 1064 nm illumination at 1 kW/cm2, which is twice as high as that of a conventional surface-textured Si solar cell of 75 ?m in thickness.

  13. A model for the kinetics of a solar-pumped long path laser experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, L. V.; Wilson, J. W.; Deyoung, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    A kinetic model for a solar-simulator pumped iodine laser system is developed and compared to an experiment in which the solar simulator output is dispersed over a large active volume (150 cu cm) with low simulator light intensity (approx. 200 solar constants). A trace foreign gas which quenches the upper level is introduced into the model. Furthermore, a constant representing optical absorption of the stimulated emission is introduced, in addition to a constant representing the scattering at each of the mirrors, via the optical cavity time constant. The non-uniform heating of the gas is treated as well as the pressure change as a function of time within the cavity. With these new phenomena introduced into the kinetic model, a best reasonable fit to the experimental data is found by adjusting the reaction rate coefficients within the range of known uncertainty by numerical methods giving a new bound within this range of uncertainty. The experimental parameters modeled are the lasing time, laser pulse energy, and time to laser threshold.

  14. Preliminary design and cost of a 1-megawatt solar-pumped iodide laser space-to-space transmission station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Walker, G. H.; Williams, M. D.; Schuster, G. L.; Conway, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a space-based solar pumped iodide laser emitting 1 megawatt of laser power for space-to-space power transmission is described. A near parabolic solar collector focuses sunlight onto the t-C4F9I (perfluoro-t butyl iodide) lasant within a transverse flow optical cavity. Using waste heat, a thermal system was designed to supply compressor and auxiliary power. System components were designed with weight and cost estimates assigned. Although cost is very approximate, the cost comparison of individual system components leads to valuable insights for future research. In particular, it was found that laser efficiency was not a dominant cost or weight factor, the dominant factor being the laser cavity and laser transmission optics. The manufacturing cost was approx. two thirds of the total cost with transportation to orbit the remainder. The flowing nonrenewable lasant comprised 20% of the total life cycle cost of the system and thus was not a major cost factor. The station mass was 92,000 kg without lasant, requiring approx. four shuttle flights to low Earth orbit where an orbital transfer vehicle will transport it to the final altitude of 6378 km.

  15. Scalable chemical oxygen - iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Adamenkov, A A; Bakshin, V V; Vyskubenko, B A; Efremov, V I; Il'in, S P; Ilyushin, Yurii N; Kolobyanin, Yu V; Kudryashov, E A; Troshkin, M V [Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-31

    The problem of scaling chemical oxygen - iodine lasers (COILs) is discussed. The results of experimental study of a twisted-aerosol singlet oxygen generator meeting the COIL scalability requirements are presented. The energy characteristics of a supersonic COIL with singlet oxygen and iodine mixing in parallel flows are also experimentally studied. The output power of {approx}7.5 kW, corresponding to a specific power of 230 W cm{sup -2}, is achieved. The maximum chemical efficiency of the COIL is {approx}30%.

  16. Experimental study of solar pumped laser for magnesium-hydrogen energy cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yabe; T. Ohkubo; S. Uchida; K. Yoshida; B. Bagheri; T. Funatsu; A. Mabuti; A. Oyama; K. Nakagawa; T. Oishi; K. Daito; M. Nakatsuka; M. Yoshida; S. Motokoshi; Y. Sato; C. Baasandash; N. Nakayama; Y. Okamoto; K. Yanagaidani

    2008-01-01

    24.4 W of laser output has been obtained by sun-pumped, Cr-codoped Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic. The water-cooled laser rod was pumped with a Fresnel lens focusing the natural sunlight. By using the advantages of the Fresnel lenses, the maximum output for unit area of sunlight was 18.7 W\\/m2. Direct concentrated solar illumination was used to pump a 9mm-diameter, 100mm length

  17. Development of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser with production of atomic iodine in a chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Censky, M; Spalek, O; Jirasek, V; Kodymova, J [Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Jakubec, I [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Czech Academy of Sciences, Rez (Czech Republic)

    2009-11-30

    The alternative method of atomic iodine generation for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (COIL) in chemical reactions with gaseous reactants is investigated experimentally. The influence of the configuration of iodine atom injection into the laser cavity on the efficiency of the atomic iodine generation and small-signal gain is studied. (lasers)

  18. Overview of iodine generation for oxygen-iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirásek, Vít.

    2012-01-01

    A review of the methods for generation of iodine for oxygen-iodine lasers (OIL) is presented. The chemical and physical methods for production of both atomic (AI) and molecular (MI) iodine have been searched in order to improve the efficiency and/or technology of OILs. These trials were motivated by the estimations that a substantial part of singlet oxygen (SO) could be saved with these methods and the onset of the laser active medium will be accelerated. Vapour of MI can be generated by the evaporation of solid or pressurized liquid I2, or synthesized in situ by the reaction of Cl2 with either HI or CuI2. The chemical methods of generation of AI are based on the substitution of I atom in a molecule of HI or ICl by another halogen atom produced usually chemically. The discharge methods include the dissociation of various iodine compounds (organic iodides, I2, HI) in the RF, MW, DC-pulsed or DC-vortex stabilized discharge. Combined methods use discharge dissociation of molecules (H2, F2) to gain atoms which subsequently react to replace AI from the iodine compound. The chemical methods were quite successful in producing AI (up to the 100% yield), but the enhancement of the laser performance was not reported. The discharge methods had been subsequently improving and are today able to produce up to 0.4 mmol/s of AI at the RF power of 500 W. A substantial enhancement of the discharge- OIL performance (up to 40%) was reported. In the case of Chemical-OIL, the enhancement was reported only under the conditions of a low I2/O2 ratio, where the "standard" I2 dissociation by SO is slow. The small-signal gain up to 0.3 %/cm was achieved on the supersonic COIL using the HI dissociated in the RF discharge. Due to the complicated kinetics of the RI-I-I2-SO system and a strong coupling with the gas flow and mixing, the theoretical description of the problem is difficult. It, however, seems that we can expect the major improvement of the OIL performance for those systems, where the SO yield is rather low (DOIL) or for the high-pressure COIL, where the quenching processes are important and the shortage of the distance needed for the preparation of active media is essential.

  19. Multikilowatt supersonic chemical oxygen iodine laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juergen Handke; Wolfgang O. Schall; Willy L. Bohn; Lutz V. Entress-Fuersteneck; Karin Gruenewald; G. R. Kwirandt; Anke Werner

    1996-01-01

    The chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) is an attractive candidate for efficient power scaling at short wavelengths. High specific power output from supersonic operation leads to compact devices. The German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) started experimental investigations of a multikilowatt supersonic COIL at its Lampoldshausen rocket test site in 1994. The excited oxygen is produced by a rotating disk generator.

  20. Comparison between the perfomance of Nd:YAG, Nd/Cr:GSGG and Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic lasers with quasi-solar pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouadjemine, R.; Louhibi, D.; Kellou, A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in laser materials, such as Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic with a broad absorption spectrum in the visible, have been applied to achieve highly-efficient and low-cost optical pumping by conventional sources. Our simulator based on the implementation of a mathematical model under Matlab Simulink allowed us to show the correlation between the characteristics of the laser mode of operation (such as Relaxation, Quasi-continuous wave (QCW), Continuous wave, Burst, Q-switched) and the various physical parameters of the oscillator. This model was applied to the Nd:YAG crystal, Nd/Cr:GSGG crystal and Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic. The simulation results demonstrated that Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic is an excellent candidate for solar and quasi-solar pumping, as its pumping efficiency exceeds by a factor of four that of the Nd:YAG crystal medium, and by a factor of two that of Nd/Cr:GSGG crystal. A pumping by a light guide was considered in this simulation.

  1. A model for a continuous-wave iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, In H.; Tabibi, Bagher M.

    1990-01-01

    A model for a continuous-wave (CW) iodine laser has been developed and compared with the experimental results obtained from a solar-simulator-pumped CW iodine laser. The agreement between the calculated laser power output and the experimental results is generally good for various laser parameters even when the model includes only prominent rate coefficients. The flow velocity dependence of the output power shows that the CW iodine laser cannot be achieved with a flow velocity below 1 m/s for the present solar-simulator-pumped CW iodine laser system.

  2. Output Power Enhancement of a Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser by Predissociated Iodine Injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masamori Endo; Daichi Sugimoto; Hideo Okamoto; Kenzo Nanri; Taro Uchiyama; Shuzaburo Takeda; Tomoo Fujioka

    2000-01-01

    Output power enhancement of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) by an injection of predissociated iodine was studied. Iodine molecules were dissociated into atoms by the microwave discharge prior to injection. It was determined that predissociation caused a negative effect on the output power enhancement when this technique was applied to a conventional supersonic COIL@. Model calculations revealed that the existence

  3. Gain and continuous-wave laser power enhancement with a secondary discharge to predissociate molecular iodine

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    molecular iodine in an electric oxygen-iodine laser G. F. Benavides,1 J. W. Zimmerman,2 B. S. Woodard,2 D. L and 38% enhancement in continuous-wave laser power on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine through the addition of a secondary discharge to predissociate the molecular iodine in an electric oxygen-iodine laser

  4. Satellite Power System (SPS) laser studies. Volume 2: Meteorological effects on laser beam propagation and direct solar pumped lasers for the SPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1980-01-01

    The primary emphasis of this research activity was to investigate the effect of the environment on laser power transmission/reception from space to ground. Potential mitigation techniques to minimize the environment effect by a judicious choice of laser operating parameters was investigated. Using these techniques, the availability of power at selected sites was determined using statistical meteorological data for each site.

  5. Solar-simulator-pumped atomic iodine laser kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, H. W.; Raju, S.; Shiu, Y. J.

    1983-01-01

    The literature contains broad ranges of disagreement in kinetic data for the atomic iodine laser. A kinetic model of a solar-simulator-pumped iodine laser is used to select those kinetic data consistent with recent laser experiments at the Langley Research Center. Analysis of the solar-simulator-pumped laser experiments resulted in the following estimates of rate coefficients: for alkyl radical (n-C3F7) and atomic iodine (I) recombination, 4.3 x 10 to the 11th power (1.9) + or - cu cm/s; for n-C3F7I stabilized atomic iodine recombination (I + I) 3.7 x 10 to the -32nd power (2.3) + or -1 cm to the 6th power/s; and for molecular iodine (I2) quenching, 3.1 x 10 to the -11th power (1.6) + or - 1 cu cm/s. These rates are consistent with the recent measurements.

  6. Laser fluorescence complex for online iodine-129 and iodine-127 detection in gaseous media using a tunable diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.; Sobolevsky, I. V.; Kondrashov, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    This letter reports on the development of a laser fluorescence complex for high-sensitivity real-time selective detection of 127I and 129I molecular iodine isotopologues in gaseous media. A diode laser tunable in the range of 631–638?nm is used as an excitation source of molecular iodine fluorescence. Sensitivities of detection of molecular iodine isotopologues and boundary relations for simultaneous detection of 127I and 129I were evaluated. It is shown that practical realization of the methods for the detection of molecular iodine isotopologues using a developed laser fluorescence complex provides an opportunity to control these isotopologues in gaseous technological media formed during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and in the atmospheric air.

  7. Systematic development of the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser David L. Carrolla

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    1 Systematic development of the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser David L. Carrolla , Gabriel have led to continued improvements in the hybrid Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system molecular iodine injection and partially pre-dissociated iodine are presented. A gain of 0.17% cm-1

  8. A portable iodine stabilized helium-neon laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard P. Layer

    1980-01-01

    A newly designed iodine stabilized helium-neon (He-Ne) laser is described which is stable to 3 x 10 to the -13th (1000-s sample time) but which exhibits an intensity dependent shift of about 8 kHz\\/W-sq cm. Closer agreement between dissimilar lasers is attained when the internal power densities are approximately equal.

  9. Output Power Enhancement of a Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser by Predissociated Iodine Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Sugimoto, Daichi; Okamoto, Hideo; Nanri, Kenzo; Uchiyama, Taro; Takeda, Shuzaburo; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2000-02-01

    Output power enhancement of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) by an injection of predissociated iodine was studied. Iodine molecules were dissociated into atoms by the microwave discharge prior to injection. It was determined that predissociation caused a negative effect on the output power enhancement when this technique was applied to a conventional supersonic COIL@. Model calculations revealed that the existence of atomic iodine at the plenum caused the dissipation of stored energy. It was demonstrated that decreasing the mixing point pressure was crucial to obtain output power enhancement by the predissociation technique. For this purpose, a low-pressure transonic mixing scheme with a grid nozzle array was developed. A 9% enhancement of output power was demonstrated.

  10. Investigation of the excited state iodine lifetime in the photodissociation of perfluoroalkyl iodides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, Stephen H.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of prospective laser materials for a space-based solar pumped laser system over the past decade has resulted in the identification of the iodine photodissociation laser as that system best suited to solar-pumped high energy operation. The active medium for the solar-pumped iodine photodissociation laser is from the family of perfluoroalkyl iodides. These lasants have the general form C(n)F(2n + 1)I, often abbreviated as RI. These iodides are known to exhibit photodissociaiton of the C-I bond when irradiated by near UV photons. The focus was on the experimental determination of the lifetime of the excited iodine atom following photodissociation of C4F9I, and also to monitor fluorescence from the iodine molecule at 500 nm to determine if I2 is being produced in the process. Photodissociation is achieved using an XeCl excimer laser with an output wavelength of 308 nm. The XeCl beam is focused into the middle of a cylindrical quartz cell containing the lasant. The laser pulse is detected with a fast risetime photomultiplier tube as it exits the cell. Other aspects of the investigation are discussed.

  11. Demonstration of an iodine laser pumped by an air-helium electric discharge

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Demonstration of an iodine laser pumped by an air-helium electric discharge B. S. Woodard, J. W and a continuous-wave laser on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine using the energy transferred to I(2 P1W in a supersonic flow cavity. Keywords: electric oxygen iodine laser, electric discharge, singlet oxygen, active

  12. Development of the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser David L. Carrolla

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Development of the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser David L. Carrolla , Joseph T. Verdeyena ABSTRACT In the hybrid electric discharge Oxygen-Iodine laser (ElectricOIL), the desired O2(a1. As the development of this type of iodine laser continues, the roles of oxygen atoms and NO/NO2 are found to be very

  13. Gain recovery in an electric oxygen-iodine laser J. W. Zimmerman,1,a

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Gain recovery in an electric oxygen-iodine laser J. W. Zimmerman,1,a G. F. Benavides,2 A. D. Palla online 14 January 2009 Recent investigations of an electric oxygen-iodine laser system have shown American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.3064163 The electrically driven oxygen-iodine laser Electri

  14. Mixing effects in postdischarge modeling of electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser experiments

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Mixing effects in postdischarge modeling of electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser experiments; accepted 16 May 2006; published online 26 July 2006 In an electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser, laser action at 1315 nm on the I 2 P1/2 I 2 P3/2 transition of atomic iodine is obtained by a near resonant

  15. Discharge-driven electric oxygen-iodine laser superlinear enhancement via increasing g0L

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Discharge-driven electric oxygen-iodine laser superlinear enhancement via increasing g0L G. F the development of an electric oxygen-iodine laser with higher output using a larger product of gain and gain length, g0L. A factor of 4.4 increase in laser power output on the 1315 nm atomic iodine transition

  16. Recent Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser Experiments and Modeling David L. Carrolla

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Recent Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser Experiments and Modeling David L. Carrolla , Gabriel F and modeling have led to a continuing evolution of the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system. A new with BLAZE-V shows that an iodine pre-dissociator can have a dramatic impact upon gain and laser performance

  17. Enhanced performance of an electric oxygen-iodine laser D. L. Carrolla

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Enhanced performance of an electric oxygen-iodine laser D. L. Carrolla , G. F. Benavidesa,b , J. W and modeling have led to continued enhancements in the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system. This continuous wave (cw) laser operating on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine is pumped by the production

  18. Spatial and recovery measurements of gain in an electric oxygen-iodine laser

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Spatial and recovery measurements of gain in an electric oxygen- iodine laser G. F. Benavidesa ABSTRACT Recent investigations of an Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser system have shown that computational oxygen-iodine laser kinetics rates. Understanding of this kinetic process should enable us to accommodate

  19. Evolution of the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser David L. Carrolla

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Evolution of the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser David L. Carrolla , Gabriel F. Benavidesa and modeling have led to a continuing evolution of the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system. This continuous wave (cw) laser operating on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine is pumped by the production

  20. XeCl laser pumped iodine laser using t-C4F9I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, In Heon; Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1989-01-01

    An iodine photodissociation laser using t-C4F9I as the active material was pumped by a XeCl laser. An iodine laser output energy of 3 mJ with pulse duration of 25 ns was obtained when the pumping pulse energy was 80 mJ, the iodine pressure was 70 torr, and the reflectance of the output mirror was 85 percent. The high pumping efficiency and low threshold pump power achieved in this experiment are attributable to the high absorption cross section at the pump laser wavelength (308 nm) of the iodide used.

  1. Parameters of an electric-discharge generator of iodine atoms for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Azyazov, V N; Vorob'ev, M V; Voronov, A I; Kupryaev, Nikolai V; Mikheev, P A; Ufimtsev, N I [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-31

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used for measuring the concentration of iodine molecules at the output of an electric-discharge generator of atomic iodine. Methyl iodide CH{sub 3}I is used as the donor of atomic iodine. The fraction of iodine extracted from CH{sub 3}I in the generator is {approx}50%. The optimal operation regimes are found in which 80%-90% of iodine contained in the output flow of the generator was in the atomic state. This fraction decreased during the iodine transport due to recombination and was 20%-30% at the place where iodine was injected into the oxygen flow. The fraction of the discharge power spent for dissociation was {approx}3%. (elements of laser setups)

  2. Spectral properties of iodine cells for laser standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabina, Jan; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; Du Burck, Frédéric; Chiodo, Nicola; Chea, Erick; Holá, Miroslava; ?íp, Ond?ej; Lazar, Josef

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this work is oriented towards preparation and spectral properties evaluation of optical frequency references for laser standards - molecular iodine cells. These references represent the crucial part of setups for practical realization of the meter unit - highly stable laser standards. Furthermore, not only in the most precise laboratory instruments, but also in less demanding interferometric measuring setups the frequency stabilization of the lasers throught the absorption in suitable media ensure the direct traceability to the fundamental standard of length. A set of absorption cells filled with different amounts of molecular iodine (different saturation pressure point of absorption media) was prepared and an agreement between expected and resulting spectral properties of these cells was observed and evaluated. The usage of borosilicate glass instead of common fused silica as a material for cells bodies represents an approach to simplify the manufacturing technology process and also reduces the overall cell costs. A great care must be taken to control/avoid the risk of absorption media contamination by impurities releasing from the cell walls. We introduce an iodine purity and spectral properties evaluation method based on measurement of linewidth of the hyperfine transitions. The proposed method was used for verification of great iodine purity of manufactured cells by comparison of spectral properties with cells traditionally made of fused silica glass with well known iodine purity. The results confirmed a great potential of proposed approaches.

  3. Chemical kinetics of discharge-driven oxygen-iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azyazov, Valeriy N.; Kabir, Md. Humayun; Antonov, Ivan O.; Heaven, Michael C.

    2007-05-01

    Oxygen-iodine lasers that utilize electrical discharges to produce O II(a1?) are currently being developed. The discharge generators differ from those used in chemical oxygen-iodine lasers in that they produce significant amounts of atomic oxygen and traces of ozone. As a consequence of these differences, the chemical kinetics of the discharge laser are markedly different from those of a conventional chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). The reactions of O with iodine include channels that are both beneficial and detrimental to the laser. The beneficial reactions result in the dissociation of I II while the detrimental processes cause direct and indirect removal of I(2P 1/2) (denoted I*, the upper level of the laser). We have examined kinetic processes relevant to the laser through studies of photo-initiated reactions in N IIO/CO II/I II mixtures. The reactions have been monitored using absorption spectroscopy, laser induced fluorescence and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. It has been established that deactivation of I* by O atoms is a critical energy loss process. We have determined a rate constant of (1.2+/-0.1)×10 -11 cm 3 s -1 for this reaction. As part of this effort the branching fraction for the formation of O II(a) from the reaction of O(1D) with N IIO was determined to be 0.38. This result has implications for lasers based on photolysis of O 3/N IIO/I II mixtures and the formation of O II(a) in the upper atmosphere.

  4. Molecular Iodine Fluorescence Using a Green Helium-Neon Laser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Excitation of molecular iodine vapor with a green (543.4 nm) helium-neon laser produces a fluorescence spectrum that is well suited for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. Application of standard evaluation techniques to the spectrum yields ground electronic-state molecular parameters in good agreement with literature…

  5. Iodine photodissociation laser with an intracavity space - time light modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kachalin, G N; Pevny, S N; Pivkin, A N; Safronov, A S [Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-31

    A scheme of an iodine laser with two different intracavity space - time modulators based on electrooptic PLZT ceramics is experimentally studied. It is shown that lasing can occur in different angular directions with the use of both modulators. The output laser energy is 10 mJ with a pulse duration of 200 {mu}s and a beam divergence of 6.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} rad. The laser field of view (5.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} rad) consists of a discrete set of 8 Multiplication-Sign 8 directions. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  6. Chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) technology and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, Edward A.; Truesdell, Keith A.

    2004-09-01

    In the late 1960's researchers realized that producing a population inversion in a moving medium could be used to generate high-energy laser beams. The first lasers to scale to the 10 kW size with good beam quality were supersonic flows of N2 - CO2, emitting radiation from the CO2 at 10.6 microns. In the 1970's gas dynamic CO2 lasers were scaled to hundreds of kilowatts and engineered into a KC-135 aircraft. This aircraft (The Airborne Laser Laboratory) was used to shoot down Sidewinder AIM-9B missiles in the early 1980"s. During this same time period (1970-1990) hydrogen fluoride and deuterium fluoride lasers were scaled to the MW scale in ground-based facilities. In 1978, the Iodine laser was invented at the Air Force Research Laboratory and scaled to the 100 kW level by the early 1990"s. Since the 60s, the DOD Chemical Laser development efforts have included CO2, CO, DF, HF, and Iodine. Currently, the DOD is developing DF, HF, and Iodine lasers, since CO2 and CO have wavelengths and diffraction limitations which make them less attractive for high energy weapons applications. The current military vision is to use chemical lasers to prove the principles and field ground and air mounted laser systems while attempting to develop weight efficient solid-state lasers at the high power levels for use in future Strategic and Tactical situations. This paper describes the evolution of Chemical Oxygen Iodine Lasers, their selection for use in the Airborne Laser (ABL), and the Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL). COIL was selected for these early applications because of its power scalability, its short wavelength, its atmospheric transmittance, and its excellent beam quality. The advantages and challenges are described, as well as some of the activities to improve magazine depth and logistics supportability. COIL lasers are also potentially applicable to mobile ground based applications, and future space based applications, but challenges exist. In addition, COIL is being considered for civil commercial applications in the US and overseas.

  7. Enhancement of electric oxygen-iodine laser performance using larger mode volume resonators

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Enhancement of electric oxygen-iodine laser performance using larger mode volume resonators Brian S iodine via a 100% increase in the resonator mode volume. O2 a1 is produced by a single rf.4130, 140.4780, 230.5750. The electrically driven oxygen-iodine laser (Electric- OIL) that was first

  8. Frequency stabilization of an external cavity diode laser to molecular iodine at 657.483 nm

    E-print Network

    Shy,Jow-Tsong

    Frequency stabilization of an external cavity diode laser to molecular iodine at 657.483 nm Hui iodine has a broad spectrum of absorption lines from the near infrared to the dissociation limit at 499 to iodine at 633 nm. Most member states of the Convention du Mètre have adopted such lasers as the national

  9. Super-linear Enhancement of the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser David L. Carrolla

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Super-linear Enhancement of the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser David L. Carrolla , Brian S. Woodardb., Urbana, Illinois, 61801, United States ABSTRACT Continuing experiments with Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser output on the 1315-nm transition of atomic iodine. The peak output power observed was 538 W. Keywords

  10. Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser Performance Enhancement using Larger Discharge and Resonator Mode Volumes

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser Performance Enhancement using Larger Discharge and Resonator Mode transition of atomic iodine for only a 50% increase in gain length (5.1 cm to 7.6 cm), flow rates that significantly higher power was available in the electric oxygen-iodine laser gas flow which could be extracted

  11. Enhancement of electric oxygen-iodine laser performance using a rectangular discharge and longer gain length

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Enhancement of electric oxygen-iodine laser performance using a rectangular discharge and longer transition of atomic iodine via a 50% increase in gain length, flow rates, and discharge power. O2 a 1 of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3269811 The electrically driven oxygen-iodine laser Electri- cOIL that was first

  12. Iodine stabilization of a diode laser in the optical communication band

    E-print Network

    Shy,Jow-Tsong

    Iodine stabilization of a diode laser in the optical communication band Hsiang-Chen Chui and Sen September 23, 2004 The iodine molecule has frequently been used as a frequency reference from the green-harmonic signal of a 197.2-THz 1520.25-nm distributed-feedback diode laser to the absorption lines of the iodine

  13. Gain and continuous-wave laser power enhancement with a multiple discharge electric oxygen-iodine laser

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Gain and continuous-wave laser power enhancement with a multiple discharge electric oxygen-iodine transition of atomic iodine via an increase in flow rates and pressure using multiple discharges in an electric oxygen-iodine laser. O2 a 1 is produced by two parallel radio-frequency-excited electric

  14. Frequency tuning of a CW atomic iodine laser via the Zeeman effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Kelly; J. K. McIver; R. F. Shea; G. D. Hager

    1991-01-01

    A continuously operating, C3F7I photolytic 1.315-?m atomic iodine laser has been used to make the first precise observations of frequency tuning of an atomic iodine laser by means of the Zeeman effect. Application of a uniform magnetic field to the gain region of the photolytic iodine laser causes the laser to operate at different frequencies as a function of the

  15. Oxygen assisted iodine atoms production in an RF discharge for a cw oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheyev, Pavel A.; Demyanov, Andrey V.; Ufimtsev, Nikolay I.; Kochetov, Igor V.; Azyazov, Valeriy N.; Napartovich, Anatoly P.

    2015-02-01

    Results of experiments and modeling of CH3I dissociation in a 40 MHz RF discharge in a discharge chamber of original design to produce iodine atoms for cw oxygen-iodine laser are presented. In experiments a substantial increase in CH3I dissociation efficiency due to addition of oxygen into Ar:CH3I mixture was observed. Complete CH3I dissociation in Ar:CH3I:O2 mixture occurred at 200 W discharge power. Fraction of discharge power spent on iodine atoms production was equal to 16% at 0.17 mmol/s CH3I flow rate. The rate of carbon atoms production as a function of molecular oxygen and water contents in CH3I:Ar mixtures was studied with the help of numerical modeling. It was found that addition of water vapor resulted in increase while addition of molecular oxygen and HI in decrease of the rate of carbon atoms production. Due to diffusion most of carbon atoms had enough time to deposit on the walls of the discharge chamber. However, contrary to the situation in a DC discharge, in the RF discharge accumulation of carbon on the walls of the discharge chamber did not hamper discharge stability and iodine production, as it was observed in our experiments.

  16. XeCl laser pumped iodine laser using t-C4F9I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, In Heon; Han, Kwang S.

    1989-01-01

    An iodine photodissociation laser using t-C4F9I as the active material was pumped by an XeCl laser. An iodine laser output energy of 3 mJ with pulse duration of 25 ns was obtained when the pumping pulse energy was 80 mJ, the iodide pressure was 70 torr, and the reflectance of the output mirror was 85 percent. The high pumping efficiency and low threshold pump power achieved in this experiment are attributable to the high absorption cross section at the pump laser wavelength (308 nm) of the iodide used.

  17. Nuclear-driven flashlamp pumping of the atomic iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a study of the atomic iodine laser pumped with nuclear- excited XeBr fluorescence. Preliminary experiments, conducted in the TRIGA reactor investigated the fluorescence of the excimer XeBr under nuclear pumping with {sup 10}B and {sup 3}He, for use as a flashlamp gas to stimulate the laser. These measurements included a determination of the fluorescence efficiency (light emitted in the wavelength region of interest, divided by energy deposited in the gas) of XeBr under nuclear pumping, with varying excimer mixtures. Maximum fluorescence efficiencies were approximately 1%. In order to better understand XeBr under nuclear excitation, a kinetics model of the system was prepared. The model generated the time-dependant concentrations of 20 reaction species for three pulse sizes, a TRIGA pulse, a fast burst reactor pulse, and an e-beam pulse. The modeling results predicted fluorescence efficiencies significantly higher (peak efficiencies of approximately 10%) than recorded in the fluorescence experiments. The cause of this discrepancy was not fully determined. A ray tracing computer model was also prepared to evaluate the efficiency with which nuclear-induced fluorescence generated in one cavity of a laser could be coupled into another cavity containing an iodine lasant. Finally, an experimental laser cell was constructed to verify that nuclear-induced XeBr fluorescence could be used to stimulate a laser. Lasing was achieved at 1.31 micron in the TRIGA using C{sub 3}F{sub 7}I, a common iodine lasant. Peak laser powers were approximately 20 mW. Measured flashlamp pump powers at threshold agreed well with literature values, as did lasant pressure dependency on laser operation.

  18. Plasma chemical oxygen-iodine laser: problems of development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, Andrei A.; Napartovich, Anatoly P.; Yuryshev, Nikolai N.

    2002-05-01

    Great success has been obtained in the R&D of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) operating on the electronic transition of the iodine atom, which gets an excitation from the energy donor -singlet delta oxygen (SDO). The latter is normally produced in a chemical SDO generator using very toxic and dangerous chemicals, which puts a limit for civilian applications of COIL that is still a very unique apparatus. Totally new non-chemical SDO generator is needed to allow oxygen-iodine laser to achieve its full potential as a non-hazardous efficient source of high-power laser radiation. There was interest in producing SDO in electric discharge plasma since the 50's long before COIL appearing. The idea of using SDO as a donor for iodine laser was formulated in the 70's. However, the injection of iodine molecules into a low- pressure self-sustained discharge did not result in iodine lasing. One of the main factors that could prevent from lasing in many experiments is a rather high threshold yield approximately 15 percent at 300K, which is needed for obtaining an inversion population. An analysis of different attempts of producing SDO in different kinds of electric discharge plasma has been done which demonstrates that high yield at gas pressure of practical interest for modern COIL technology can be obtained only in non-self sustained electric discharge plasma. The reason is that the value of relatively low reduced electrical field strength E/N approximately 1E-16 V.cm2, which is an order of magnitude less than that for the self-sustained discharge, is extremely important for the efficient SDO production. Although different kinds of non-self sustained discharges can be used for SDO production, we got started experiments with e-beam sustained discharge in gas mixtures containing oxygen. High specific input energy up to approximately 3 - 5 kJ/ has been experimentally obtained. Theoretical calculations have been done for different experimental conditions indicating a feasibility of reasonable SDO yield. Experimental and theoretical research of self-sustained electric discharge in SDO produced in a chemical generator, which is very important for getting plasma-chemical kinetic data needed for an estimation of SDO yield, is also discussed.

  19. Iodine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the amount depends on the iodine in the soil where they grew and in any fertilizer that ... babies. People living in regions with iodine-deficient soils who eat mostly local foods. These soils produce ...

  20. Iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In descending order, Chile, Japan and the United States have the largest iodine reserves. Chile produces iodine from iodate minerals while Japan and the United States produce it from sodium iodide solutions found in underground iodide solutions. Iodine is also produced from subterranean brines in Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkmenista, Indonesia and Uzbekistan. In 2005, iodine prices increased sharply to US$19 to US$23 then leveled off at US$23 to US$25.

  1. Highly efficient cw chemical oxygen-iodine laser with transsonic iodine injection and a nitrogen buffer gas

    SciTech Connect

    Boreysho, A S; Barkan, A B; Vasil'ev, D N; Evdokimov, I M; Savin, A V [D. F. Ustinov Voenmekh Baltic State Technical University, Laser Systems Ltd., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-30

    Methods of increasing the efficiency of low-pressure chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COILs) with transsonic injection of molecular iodine, in which nitrogen is used as a buffer gas, are studied. A two-layer gas-dynamic model is used for a parametric analysis of physicochemical processes occurring in the transsonic iodine injector and in the COIL resonator, including mixing and generation of radiation. The 3D-RANS computer simulation software is used to study the flow structures resulting from an injection of iodine-containing flow into the transsonic zone of the oxygen nozzle. Experiments with a 10-kW modified laser have resulted in a chemical efficiency of 31.5% for a lasing power of 13.5 kW. The results of experimental studies of the cryosorption COIL exhaust system are presented. (lasers)

  2. Overview on the chemical oxygen-iodine laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodymová, Jarmila

    2007-05-01

    The "Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser" (COIL) has passed through a tremendous development from the first milliwatt to a multi-kilowatt power, and thus offered a great opportunity for investigations in the COIL technology based on a multidisciplinary science. This overview has been aimed at a demonstration of enormous endeavor of the international COIL community in the last years to bring this laser system soon to the end-users by a focusing on advanced concepts of the hardware design, improvement and scaling-up the existing facilities. The overall COIL technology is considered as a sequence of the coexistent technologies of main laser components with a mutual impact: a technology of the singlet oxygen generator, gasdynamic mixing and expansion nozzle, energy extraction and optical resonator, and the exhaust and pressure recovery system. Advanced concepts of the named technologies based on inherent supporting research disciplines - a computational modeling, kinetic studies and diagnostic techniques - are briefly described. A critical insight into the COIL performance via an energy flow, energy losses, power extraction, and a chemical efficiency of this laser system utilizes the established heuristic phenomenology. The paper ends with a reference to developed projects and suggested potential applications of the chemical oxygen-iodine laser technology.

  3. Experimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine Laser

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Experimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine of the electric discharge iodine laser continues, the role of oxygen atoms downstream of the discharge region of atomic iodine where the O2(a1 ) was produced in a flowing electric discharge. Excess atomic oxygen

  4. Molecular Iodine Spectra and Laser Stabilization by Frequency-Doubled 1534 nm Diode Laser Wang-Yau CHENG, Jow-Tsong SHY, Tyson LIN1

    E-print Network

    Shy,Jow-Tsong

    Molecular Iodine Spectra and Laser Stabilization by Frequency-Doubled 1534 nm Diode Laser Wang harmonic radiation of a 1543 nm diode laser, several predicted rovibronic transitions of molecular iodine communications. [DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.44.3055] KEYWORDS: 1550nm, iodine molecule, DWDM, diode laser, optical

  5. Cutting Performance of a Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser William P. Latham, James A. Rothenflue, and Charles A. Helms

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Cutting Performance of a Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser William P. Latham, James A. Rothenflue. Green Street Urbana,IL 61801 . Abstract Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) is a member of the class cutting and drilling. Chemical Oxygen- Iodine Laser (COIL) technology has received considerable interest

  6. Continuous-wave laser oscillation on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine pumped by O2,,a1

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Continuous-wave laser oscillation on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine pumped by O2,,a11/2 I 2 P3/2 transition of atomic iodine is conventionally obtained by a near-resonant energy nm transition of atomic iodine where the O2 a1 used to pump the iodine was produced by a radio

  7. Theoretical studies of solar-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Fong, Z. S.

    1984-01-01

    In any lasing medium the emission wavelength should be chosen where there is little self absorption. As emission and absorption spectra for metallic vapors did not seem available, therefore, estimates were made of these cross sections for sodium vapor as functions of wavelength. Although absolute values were not obtained, information on where the emission wavelength should occur became evident. The method of obtaining quantities proportional to the cross sections versus wavelength is outlined. A further comparison based on alternative expressions for the absorption and emission cross sections over a limited wavelength range is made.

  8. Results of 2D numerical simulations of subnanosecond iodine laser interaction with an al foil target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Lebo; V. B. Rozanov; I. V. Popov; V. F. Tishkin; K. Rohlena

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a theoretical study and 2D numerical simulations of the interaction of subnanosecond iodine\\u000a laser pulses with an Al-foil target. The target and laser parameters correspond to the experimental conditions of the “PERUN”\\u000a iodine laser facility (IP, Prague: pulse energy <50 J, ?300 psec, focal spot d ?100 µm; target: Al foil of thickness 30

  9. Theoretical study of a new energy extraction scheme of a chemically pumped pulsed iodine laser amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Endo; K. Kodama; Y. Handa; T. Uchiyama

    1993-01-01

    A new energy extraction scheme of a chemically pumped pulsed large-scale iodine laser based on a high-pressure pulsed singlet oxygen generator is proposed. In previous investigations only low-pressure oxygen generators have been considered. Since they require a high iodine density for an efficient amplifier operation, the lifetime of the stored energy is correspondingly small and thus only small-sized iodine amplifiers

  10. Injectant mole-fraction imaging in compressible mixing flows using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Abbitt, John D., III; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for imaging the injectant mole-fraction distribution in nonreacting compressible mixing flow fields. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, is induced by a broadband argon-ion laser and collected using an intensified charge-injection-device array camera. The technique eliminates the thermodynamic dependence of the iodine fluorescence in the compressible flow field by taking the ratio of two images collected with identical thermodynamic flow conditions but different iodine seeding conditions.

  11. Investigation of laser-induced iodine fluorescence for the measurement of density in compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, J. C., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence is an attractive nonintrusive approach for measuring molecular number density in compressible flows although this technique does not produce a signal that is directly related to the number density. Saturation and frequency detuned excitation are explored as means for minimizing the quenching effect using iodine as the molecular system because of its convenient absorption spectrum. Saturation experiments indicate that with available continuous wave laser sources of Gaussian transverse intensity distribution only partial saturation could be achieved in iodine at the pressures of interest in gas dynamics. Using a fluorescence lineshape theory, it is shown that for sufficiently large detuning of a narrow bandwidth laser from a molecular transition, the quenching can be cancelled by collisional broadening over a large range of pressures and temperatures. Experimental data obtained in a Mach 4.3 underexpanded jet of nitrogen seeded with iodine for various single mode argon laser detunings from a strong iodine transition at 5145 A are discussed.

  12. A 12-kW continuous-wave chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Boreysho, A S; Mal'kov, V M; Savin, Aleksandr V; Vasil'ev, D N; Evdokimov, I M; Trilis, A V; Strakhov, S Yu [Institute of Laser Instruments and Technologies, D F Ustinov 'VOENMEKh' Baltic State Technical University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2003-04-30

    A 12-kW continuous-wave chemical oxygen-iodine laser, provided with an original jet-type singlet oxygen generator, is developed and tested. The experimental and numerical techniques applied for the diagnostics and mathematical simulation of processes in the laser active medium are introduced. Some of the calculation and experimental results are presented. (lasers)

  13. The research of Iodine pool pressure of chemical oxygen-iodine laser in non-equilibrium condition and its automatic control system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Songqing; Qu, Pubo; Ren, Weiyan

    2013-05-01

    In the working process of chemical oxy-iodigenne laser(COIL), the change of iodine pool pressure is complicated. As a result, it causes some mis-judgements, such as the damage of heater and the leakage of iodine steam. Further more, when the heater electric circuit is in a single working status, and after the heater switch is on or off, there exists a buffer time for the stabilization of iodine pool pressure, which is a relatively long time, and the minimum buffer pressure exceeds to 19 torr . Of course, it increases the preparing time for steady operation of laser, and reduces the quality of laser beam. In this paper, we study the iodine pool pressure of COIL in non-equilibrium condition, and analyze the mutation and the serious buffer phenomenon of iodine steam pressure. At the same time, we design an automatic control system for iodine pool pressure, which consists of five modules, such as data collection, automatic control, manual control, heater electric circuit, and the setting and display of pressure. This system uses two kinds of heater electric circuits, in this way, the serious buffer phenomenon of iodine pool pressure is effectively avoided. As a result, the maximal buffer pressure reduces to 4 torr, this makes sure that the iodine steam pressure is suitable for the operation of COIL, which produces a good condition for the steady operation of laser system and an excellent laser output.

  14. Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser System

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen-Iodine/2) transition of atomic iodine has been obtained by a near resonant energy transfer from O2(a1 ) produced using a low-pressure oxygen/helium/nitric oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser

  15. Excitation spectrum of the iodine molecule induced by laser radiation in the 15 780-15 815 cm-1 region

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    529 Excitation spectrum of the iodine molecule induced by laser radiation in the 15 780-15 815 cm-1 region : « Complement to the Atlas of the iodine molecule spectrum » S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc and R. Vetter the Atlas of the absorption spectrum of the iodine molecule (Editions C.N.R.S., 1978), the excitation

  16. Identification of a solar pumping installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annabi, M.; Slama, N. B.; Kachoukh, M.; Ksouri, M.; Perard, J.

    1980-12-01

    The process identification of a solar pumping facility is discussed in view of its importance to pump power supply optimization. A method for process identification based on the measurement of the short circuit current, open circuit voltage and in-charge current and voltage of the photovoltaic cell in order to determine the cell illumination and junction temperature is presented, and the determination of pump efficiency from measurements of generator power and actual pumping power is indicated. An application of the method to the identification of the parameters of the Hendi Zitoun pumping station is presented. The optimization of generator power on the basis of the information gained from process identification is then illustrated by the use of a chopper-type static converter installed between the solar panel and the load to optimize the power supplied by providing a constant voltage at a constant junction temperature, and varying the voltage with the temperature.

  17. Cutting performance of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser on aerospace and industrial materials William P. Latham, Kip R. Kendrick, James A. Rothenflue

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Cutting performance of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser on aerospace and industrial materials William Lab, 104 5. Wright St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 ABSTRACT A chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was used:YAG lasers are used for such applications. More recently, the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has

  18. g... production in flowing ArO2 surface-wave microwave discharges: Possible use for oxygen-iodine laser excitation

    E-print Network

    Guerra, Vasco

    O2,,a 1 g... production in flowing Ar­O2 surface-wave microwave discharges: Possible use for oxygen-iodine be effectively used for the oxygen-iodine laser excitation. It is demonstrated that at pressures higher than 10 chemical oxygen-iodine laser operates on the electronic transition of the iodine atom at 1315 nm, where

  19. A 10-watt CW photodissociation laser with IODO perfluoro-tert-butane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabibi, Bagher; Venable, Demetrius D.

    1989-01-01

    NASA has been investigating the feasibility of direct solar-pumped laser systems for power beaming in space. Among the various gas, liquid, and solid laser systems being proposed as candidates for solar-pumped lasers, the iodine photodissociation gas laser has demonstrated its potential for space application. Of immediate attention is the determination of system requirements and the choice of lasants to improve the system efficiency. The development of an efficient iodine laser depends on the availability of a suitable iodide which has favorable laser kinetics, chemically reversibility, and solar energy utilization. Among the various alkyliodide lasants comparatively tested in a long-pulse system, perfluoro- tert-butyl iodide, T-C4F9I, was found to be the best. However, the operating conditions for the laser medium in a continuously pumped and continuous-flow iodine laser differ considerably from those in the pulsed regime. The results of the continuous wave (CW)) laser performance from t-C4F9I are reported. Perfluoro- n-propyl iodide, n-C3F7I is used for comparison because of its universal use in photodissociation iodine lasers.

  20. Temperature measurement in a compressible flow field using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mcdaniel, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    The thermometric capability of a two-line fluorescence technique using iodine seed molecules in air is investigated analytically and verified experimentally in a known steady compressible flow field. Temperatures ranging from 165 to 295 K were measured in the flowfield using two iodine transitions accessed with a 30-GHz dye-laser scan near 543 nm. The effect of pressure broadening on temperature measurement is evaluated.

  1. Combined iodine-125 plaque irradiation and indirect ophthalmoscope laser therapy of choroidal malignant melanomas: Comparison with iodine-125 and cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy alone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Augsburger; Markus Kleineidam; Donald Mullen

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied the short-term impact of combined episcleral iodine-125 plaque radiotherapy and argon laser treatment in a series of 24 patients with choroidal malignant melanoma. All patients underwent plaque therapy prior to their initial laser session. All laser treatments were performed with an indirect ophthalmoscope argon green laser, using low-power, long-duration exposures. The endpoint of laser therapy was a

  2. Lasers '91; Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Lasers and Applications, San Diego, CA, Dec. 9-13, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, F. J.; Harris, D. G.

    The present conference discusses advances in SDIO laser research, X-ray laser photopumping, efficient X-ray lasers, line-selected operation of HF/DF lasers, Monte Carlo simulations of RF excited SF6 discharge, amplified spontaneous emission in solar-pumped iodine laser, efficient optical parametric converters for blue-green laser sources, novel narrowband filters, and sub-Poissonian lasers and masers. Also discussed are ultrafast light modulation by induced frequency shift, performance predictions for 3D lidar imaging systems, imaging techniques for pulse-Doppler lidar, spatial frequency mixing in photorefractive crystals, sideband generation with electrooptic modulators, a high energy density self-sustained CO2 laser, Nd:YAG laser welding of Al alloys, laser processes for integrating substrate fabrication, laser interactions with matter, resonators and propagation, solid-state lasers, Faraday filters, excimer lasers, far-IR lasers, laser spectroscopy, dye lasers, nuclear-pumped lasers, and lasers in medicine.

  3. LASERS: Efficient chemical oxygen — iodine laser with a high total pressure of the active medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagidullin, M. V.; Nikolaev, V. D.; Svistun, M. I.; Khvatov, N. A.; Heiger, G. D.; Madden, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    A new concept of obtaining a high total pressure of the active medium of a chemical oxygen — iodine laser (OIL) is proposed and verified. The nozzle unit of the laser consists of the alternating vertical arrays of cylindrical nozzles to produce high-pressure nitrogen jets, plane slotted nozzles for the flow of O2(1?) oxygen, and vertical arrays of cylindrical nozzles to inject the N2 — I2 mixture between the first two streams. For a molar chlorine flow rate of 39.2 mmol s-1, the output power was 700 W and the chemical efficiency was 19.7 %. The combined use of the ejector nozzle unit proposed to obtain the active medium and a super-sonic diffuser allows a significant simplification of the ejection system for the exhaust active medium of the OIL.

  4. Planar temperature measurement in compressible flows using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1991-01-01

    A laser-induced iodine fluorescence technique that is suitable for the planar measurement of temperature in cold nonreacting compressible air flows is investigated analytically and demonstrated in a known flow field. The technique is based on the temperature dependence of the broadband fluorescence from iodine excited by the 514-nm line of an argon-ion laser. Temperatures ranging from 165 to 245 K were measured in the calibration flow field. This technique makes complete, spatially resolved surveys of temperature practical in highly three-dimensional, low-temperature compressible flows.

  5. Numerical study of He/CF{sub 3}I pulsed discharge used to produce iodine atom in chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jiao; Wang Yanhui; Wang Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Duo Liping; Li Guofu [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-04-15

    The pulsed discharge for producing iodine atoms from the alkyl and perfluoroalky iodides (CH{sub 3}I, CF{sub 3}I, etc.) is the most efficient method for achieving the pulse operating mode of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model is developed to study the characteristics of pulsed discharge in CF{sub 3}I-He mixture. By solving continuity equation, momentum equation, Poisson equation, Boltzmann equation, and an electric circuit equation, the temporal evolution of discharge current density and various discharge products, especially the atomic iodine, are investigated. The dependence of iodine atom density on discharge parameters is also studied. The results show that iodine atom density increases with the pulsed width and pulsed voltage amplitude. The mixture ratio of CF{sub 3}I and helium plays a more significant role in iodine atom production. For a constant voltage amplitude, there exists an optimal mixture ratio under which the maximum iodine atom concentration is achieved. The bigger the applied voltage amplitude is, the higher partial pressure of CF{sub 3}I is needed to obtain the maximum iodine atom concentration.

  6. Active medium gain study of electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobyanin, Yuriy; Adamenkov, Yuriy; Vyskubenko, Boris; Goryachev, Leonid; Ilyin, Sergey; Kalashnik, Anatoliy; Rakhimova, Tatiana; Rogozhnikov, Georgiy

    2007-05-01

    The paper reports on experimental studies of the active medium gain in supersonic electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser (DOIL) based on traveling mw discharge. The measurements have included: absolute concentration, yield, and energy efficiency of production of SO in pure oxygen and oxygen-helium mixes at an oxygen partial pressure 3 to 15 Torr. For the gas flow to get rid of atomic oxygen, both heterogeneous mercury oxide coatings of the tube walls and homogeneous additives to the work mix, such as nitrogen oxide, have been used. The active medium of DOIL was formed using a nozzle array of the type of ejector sized as 10*50 mm2. The singlet oxygen-helium mix was supplied through three rows of sonic cylindrical nozzles, while the iodine-carrier gas mix - through two rows of supersonic conical nozzles with a half-opening angle of 10°(arc). The gas-phase iodine was produced in a quartz cell filled with iodine crystals. Room-temperature iodine vapors were picked up with a carrier gas (nitrogen or helium) and thus delivered into the nozzle array. The active medium was investigated by the high-resolution laser diode spectroscopy approach that used the laser type Vortex 6025 purchased from New Focus, Inc. The laser medium gain factor was determined by the intra-cavity approach having a sensitivity about 1*10 -6 cm -1. The static temperature of the medium was determined from the measurements of gain half-width. The gain of the active medium of electric-discharge OIL has been investigated. The DOIL in use was operating on a mix composed as O II:He=1:1 at a total pressure of 6 Torr and flowrate - about 1 mmol/s. With helium as an iodine carrier gas at a flowrate ~3 mmol/s, we have recorded a positive gain in the DOIL medium.

  7. Production of resonator optics for the 1315 nm oxygen iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniglia, C. K.; Pond, B.

    1988-01-01

    The design of mirror coatings for the oxygen iodine laser was complicated by the need for an alignment beam. Dual wavelength reflectors were required. A 2:1 stack design was a possible solution, which could be conveniently monitored in reflection. The achievement of particular phase shifts was a more difficult task and required the use of thin corrective layers.

  8. High-performance chemical oxygen-iodine laser using nitrogen diluent for commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, D.L.; King, D.M.; Fockler, L.; Stromberg, D.; Solomon, W.C.; Sentman, L.H.; Fisher, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    A chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL), the VertiCOIL device, was transferred from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) and made operational. The performance of the high-power VertiCOIL laser was measured with nitrogen diluent. New nozzle designs were investigated and implemented to optimize nitrogen performance. Nitrogen diluent chemical efficiencies of 23% were achieved; these are the highest reported chemical efficiencies with room-temperature nitrogen diluent. A long duration, high chemical efficiency test was demonstrated with nitrogen diluent; a chemical efficiency of 18.5% at 30 mmol/s of chlorine was maintained for 45 min. The highest performance was obtained with new iodine injector blocks and a larger throat height. The new iodine injector blocks moved the injectors closer to the throat by 0.7 cm and the throat height was increased from 0.897 to 1.151 cm (0.353 to 0.453 in). The performance enhancements were in qualitative agreement with the system design predictions of the Blaze II chemical laser model. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics calculations using the general aerodynamic simulation program code confirmed the principle design change of moving the iodine injectors closer to throat. Several researchers have suggested that COIL has a significant future as an industrial laser and have identified decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of nuclear facilities as an important market for COIL.

  9. Possibility of separating the isotopes 127 I and 129 I with the aid of a photodissociation iodine laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Andreeva; S. V. Kuznetsova; A. I. Maslov; I. I. Sobel'man; E. A. Yukov

    1983-01-01

    A method for separating iodine isotopes is proposed, based on the large difference between the rate constants of the excited I*(2P1\\/2) and unaxclted iodine atoms with radicals CF3 and with Cl2 molecules, and on the possibility of selectively acting on the127I atoms in the states2P1\\/2 and2P3\\/2 by radiation from a photodissociation R127I iodine laser (? = 1.315 µm). The possibility

  10. Gain and continuous-wave laser oscillation on the 1315 nm atomic iodine transition pumped by an air-helium electric discharge

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Gain and continuous-wave laser oscillation on the 1315 nm atomic iodine transition pumped by an air on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine using the energy transferred to I 2 P1/2 from O2 a1 produced American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2957678 The classical chemical oxygen iodine laser COIL re

  11. Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers `95, eds. V.J. Corcoran and T.A. Goldman, STS Press, McLean VA, 1996, pp. 225-231. OPTIMIZING HIGH PRESSURE CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASERS

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Press, McLean VA, 1996, pp. 225-231. OPTIMIZING HIGH PRESSURE CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASERS David L laser model was baselined to existing oxygen-iodine research assessment and device improvement chemical* by N2. I. Introduction The typical chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) utilizes an energy transfer from

  12. Effects of chemical kinetics of the performance of the atomic iodine laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, G.A.; Truby, F.K.

    1980-01-01

    Model calculations show that chemical reactions which take place in the active medium of a photolytically pumped iodine laser limit the efficiency with which pump photons are utilized and convert significant amounts of the starting material RI to the unwanted by-products R/sub 2/ and I/sub 2/. Laser- and rf-discharge-based methods for regenerating starting materials from by-products are evaluated experimentally. For economical operation of large iodine laser systems, CF/sub 3/I is presently the best starting material, and a pulsed rf-discharge technique is presently the best one for chemical regeneration. The absorbed energy required to regenerate one CF/sub 3/I molecule using pulsed rf-discharge techniques is 5.8 eV.

  13. 40 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 36, NO. 1, JANUARY 2000 High-Performance Chemical OxygenIodine Laser

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Oxygen­Iodine Laser Using Nitrogen Diluent for Commercial Applications D. L. Carroll, D. M. King, L. Fockler, D. Stromberg, W. C. Solomon, L. H. Sentman, and C. H. Fisher Abstract--A chemical oxygen­iodine; these are the highest reported chemical effi- ciencies with room-temperature nitrogen diluent. A long duration, high

  14. Similarity criteria in calculations of the energy characteristics of a cw oxygen - iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mezhenin, A V; Azyazov, V N

    2012-12-31

    The calculated and experimental data on the energy efficiency of a cw oxygen - iodine laser (OIL) are analysed based on two similarity criteria, namely, on the ratio of the residence time of the gas mixture in the resonator to the characteristic time of extraction of the energy stored in singlet oxygen td and on the gain-to-loss ratio {Pi}. It is shown that the simplified two-level laser model satisfactorily predicts the output characteristics of OILs with a stable resonator at {tau}{sub d} {<=} 7. Efficient energy extraction from the OIL active medium is achieved in the case of {tau}{sub d} = 5 - 7, {Pi} = 4 - 8. (lasers)

  15. 326 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUMELECTRONICS, VOL. QE-18, NO. 3, MARCH 1982 CW Iodine Ion Laser Excited by an Electron Beam

    E-print Network

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    326 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUMELECTRONICS, VOL. QE-18, NO. 3, MARCH 1982 CW Iodine Ion Laser Excited iodine. This is the first time that a CW iodine ion laser has been ob- tained using electron beam excitation. The 6p' 3D2 and 6p' 3D1iodine ion levels are 0.23 and 0.51 eV below the He' ground state at 24

  16. Chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) technology and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward A. Duff; Keith A. Truesdell

    2004-01-01

    In the late 1960's researchers realized that producing a population inversion in a moving medium could be used to generate high-energy laser beams. The first lasers to scale to the 10 kW size with good beam quality were supersonic flows of N2 - CO2, emitting radiation from the CO2 at 10.6 microns. In the 1970's gas dynamic CO2 lasers were

  17. Improvement in Suppression of Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Light With Iodine Absorption Cells for Filtered Rayleigh Scattering Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.; Buggele, Alvin E

    1997-01-01

    Filtered Rayleigh scattering using iodine absorption cells is an effective technique for obtaining density, temperature, and velocity measurements in high speed confined flows. By tuning a single frequency laser to a strong iodine absorption line, stray scattered laser light can be greatly suppressed. For example, the minimum transmission predicted by an iodine absorption model calculation is less than 10(exp -5) at the 18788.44/cm line using a 200 mm absorption cell containing iodine vapor at 0.46 T. Measurements obtained by other researches using a CW Nd:YAG laser agree with the model calculations. However, measurements made by us and by others using Q-switched, injection-seeded, frequency doubled Nd:YAG lasers only show minimum transmission of about 3 x 10(exp -3). This greatly reduces the applicability of the filtered Rayleigh scattering technique using these lasers in experiments having large amounts of stray scattered laser light. The purposes of the present study are to characterize the spectrum of the excess light transmitted by the iodine cell and to make changes to the laser to reduce the transmitted laser light. Transmission data as a function of laser frequency for the iodine absorption line at 18788.44/cm are presented. A planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer was used to characterize the frequency spectrum of the light passed through the cell. Measurements taken with the laser tuned to the center of the iodine absorption line show the light transmitted through the iodine cell to have a component with a bandwidth of about 40 GHz. This is probably caused by other modes in the laser that exist in spite of the single frequency injection beam. A second broadband component was also observed, possibly caused by the laser flash lamps or by fluorescence. An intracavity etalon was installed in the laser oscillator cavity to suppress the 40 GHz component. Measurements taken with the etalon tuned to the injection frequency showed a reduction in the transmitted laser light. This improvement allows the iodine cell to block significantly more of the stray laser light in filtered Rayleigh scattering experiments. Examples are given of filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements showing the effect of the etalon on measurements taken in a Mach 3 flow in the NASA Lewis 4 inch by 10 inch supersonic wind tunnel.

  18. Nuclear-driven flashlamp pumping of the atomic iodine laser. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a study of the atomic iodine laser pumped with nuclear- excited XeBr fluorescence. Preliminary experiments, conducted in the TRIGA reactor investigated the fluorescence of the excimer XeBr under nuclear pumping with {sup 10}B and {sup 3}He, for use as a flashlamp gas to stimulate the laser. These measurements included a determination of the fluorescence efficiency (light emitted in the wavelength region of interest, divided by energy deposited in the gas) of XeBr under nuclear pumping, with varying excimer mixtures. Maximum fluorescence efficiencies were approximately 1%. In order to better understand XeBr under nuclear excitation, a kinetics model of the system was prepared. The model generated the time-dependant concentrations of 20 reaction species for three pulse sizes, a TRIGA pulse, a fast burst reactor pulse, and an e-beam pulse. The modeling results predicted fluorescence efficiencies significantly higher (peak efficiencies of approximately 10%) than recorded in the fluorescence experiments. The cause of this discrepancy was not fully determined. A ray tracing computer model was also prepared to evaluate the efficiency with which nuclear-induced fluorescence generated in one cavity of a laser could be coupled into another cavity containing an iodine lasant. Finally, an experimental laser cell was constructed to verify that nuclear-induced XeBr fluorescence could be used to stimulate a laser. Lasing was achieved at 1.31 micron in the TRIGA using C{sub 3}F{sub 7}I, a common iodine lasant. Peak laser powers were approximately 20 mW. Measured flashlamp pump powers at threshold agreed well with literature values, as did lasant pressure dependency on laser operation.

  19. Liquid-jet O2(1Delta) generator for chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagidullin, Marsel V.

    1995-03-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical study of the liquid jet O2(1(Delta) ) generator in P.N. Lebedev Institute Samara Branch are presented. This study includes hydrodynamic and gasdynamic effects, heat and mass transfer, droplet generation and separation. The dependence of O2(1(Delta) ) and Cl2 yields on geometrical and physical parameters of generator are presented. High O2(1(Delta) ) yield and operation of small scale subsonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser up to 100 torr of active gas pressure in jet liquid generator have been achieved. Counterflowing jet liquid O2(1(Delta) ) generator is a very perspective for high power supersonic oxygen-iodine laser without water vapor trap and droplet separator.

  20. REVIEW: Excited states in the active media of oxygen — iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azyazov, V. N.

    2009-11-01

    A review of investigations of kinetic processes in active media oxygen — iodine lasers (OILs) performed in the last decade is presented. The mechanisms of pumping and quenching of electronically and vibrationally excited O2 and I2 molecules are considered, and dissociation mechanisms of I2 in the active medium of the OIL are analysed. The values of kinetic constants of processes proceeding in the active media of OILs are recommended.

  1. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Chemical oxygen-iodine laser utilizing low-strength hydrogen peroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolai P. Vagin; A. F. Konoshenko; P. G. Kryukov; D. Kh Nurligareev; V. S. Pazyuk; V. N. Tomashov; Nikolai N. Yuryshev

    1984-01-01

    Efficient operation of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser was achieved using low-strength (50%) hydrogen peroxide. An output power of 5 W was obtained when the chlorine consumption was 1.2 mmol\\/sec. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Abstract Text Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database:

  2. Active medium gain study of electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuriy Kolobyanin; Yuriy Adamenkov; Boris Vyskubenko; Leonid Goryachev; Sergey Ilyin; Anatoliy Kalashnik; Tatiana Rakhimova; Georgiy Rogozhnikov

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports on experimental studies of the active medium gain in supersonic electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser (DOIL) based on traveling mw discharge. The measurements have included: absolute concentration, yield, and energy efficiency of production of SO in pure oxygen and oxygen-helium mixes at an oxygen partial pressure 3 to 15 Torr. For the gas flow to get rid of atomic

  3. Problems of development of oxygen-iodine laser with electric discharge production of singlet delta oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, Andrei A.; Napartovich, Anatoly P.; Yuryshev, Nikolai N.

    2002-09-01

    Great success has been obtained in the R&D of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) operating on the electronic transition of the iodine atom, which gets an excitation from the energy donor -singlet delta oxygen (SDO). The latter is normally produced in a chemical SDO generator using very toxic and dangerous chemicals, which puts a limit for civilian applications of COIL that is still a very unique apparatus. Totally new non-chemical SDO generator is needed to allow oxygen-iodine laser to achieve its full potential as a non-hazardous efficient source of high-power laser radiation. There was interest in producing SDO in electric discharge plasma since the 50's long before COIL appearing. The idea of using SDO as a donor for iodine laser was formulated in the 70's. However, the injection of iodine molecules into a low- pressure self-sustained discharge did not result in iodine lasing. One of the main factors that could prevent from lasing in many experiments is a rather high threshold yield ~15% at 300K, which is needed for obtaining an inversion population. An analysis of different attempts of producing SDO in different kinds of electric discharge plasma has been done which demonstrates that high yield at gas pressure of practical interest (p > 10 Torr) for modern COIL technology can be obtained only in non-self sustained electric discharge plasma. The reason is that the value of relatively low reduced electrical field strength E/N ~10-16 V.cm2, which is an order of magnitude less than that for the self-sustained discharge, is extremely important for the efficient SDO production. Although different kinds of non-self sustained discharges can be used for SDO production, we got started experiments with e-beam sustained discharge in gas mixtures containing oxygen. High specific input energy up to ~3 - 5 kJ/l. atm [O2] has been experimentally obtained. Theoretical calculations have been done for different experimental conditions indicating a feasibility of reasonable SDO yield. Experimental and theoretical research of self-sustained electric discharge in SDO produced in a chemical generator, which is very important for getting plasma-chemical kinetic data needed for an estimation of SDO yield, is also discussed.

  4. Orbital debris removal analysis using the airborne laser chemical oxgyen iodine laser located at the AMOS site on Maui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Dent, William V.

    2000-10-01

    In 1995, the NASA Project ORION investigated the feasibility of orbital debris removal using ground-based sensors and lasers (Ref. 1). This study focused on high peak-power pulsed lasers capable of initiating plasma blow-off impulse. The conclusions drawn by this study indicated that a neodymium glass laser might represent the most cost effective and technologically viable solution. Large, repetitively pulsed neodymium glass lasers have been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). However, the goal of ICF is to focus the high power laser beams on a small, stationary target at very close range. The orbital debris removal problem requires the mating of a high power laser to large diameter optics equipped with laser guide star adaptive optics. The target is a rapidly moving object located many hundreds of kilometers in distance. Since the conclusion of that study, the Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) program, utilizing a continuous wave Chemical Oxygen- Iodine Laser (COIL), has progressed dramatically. This program integrates a high average power COIL with large diameter optics, which are adaptively controlled to correct for atmospheric turbulence. The target of the Airborne Laser is a rapidly ascending ballistic missile located hundreds of kilometers in range. The similarities between the Airborne Laser and the orbital debris removal mission motivate the examination of ABL COIL technology and its associated optical hardware for the orbital debris removal mission.

  5. Similarity criteria in calculations of the energy characteristics of a cw oxygen - iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhenin, A. V.; Azyazov, V. N.

    2012-12-01

    The calculated and experimental data on the energy efficiency of a cw oxygen - iodine laser (OIL) are analysed based on two similarity criteria, namely, on the ratio of the residence time of the gas mixture in the resonator to the characteristic time of extraction of the energy stored in singlet oxygen td and on the gain-to-loss ratio ?. It is shown that the simplified two-level laser model satisfactorily predicts the output characteristics of OILs with a stable resonator at ?d <= 7. Efficient energy extraction from the OIL active medium is achieved in the case of ?d = 5 - 7, ? = 4 - 8.

  6. Unstable resonators of high-power chemical oxygen-iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Savin, A V; Strakhov, S Yu; Druzhinin, S L [Institute of Laser Instruments and Technologies, D F Ustinov 'VOENMEKh' Baltic State Technical University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-09-30

    Configurations of unstable resonators are considered depending on the basic parameters of a high-power chemical oxygen-iodine laser and the design of an unstable resonator is proposed which provides the compensation of the inhomogeneity of the small-signal gain downstream of the active medium, a high energy efficiency, and stability to intracavity aberrations. The optical scheme of this resonator is presented and its properties are analysed by simulating numerically the kinetics of the active medium and resonator itself in the diffraction approximation. (laser beams and resonators)

  7. Active-medium inhomogeneities and optical quality of radiation of supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Boreysho, A S; Druzhinin, S L; Lobachev, V V; Savin, A V; Strakhov, S Yu; Trilis, A V [Institute of Laser Instruments and Technologies, D F Ustinov 'VOENMEKh' Baltic State Technical University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2007-09-30

    Optical inhomogeneities of the active medium of a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) and their effect on the radiation parameters are studied in the case when an unstable resonator is used. Classification of optical inhomogeneities and the main factors affecting the quality of COIL radiation are considered. The results of numerical simulation of a three-dimensional gas-dynamic active medium and an unstable optical resonator in the diffraction approximation are presented. The constraints in the fabrication of large-scale COILs associated with a deterioration of the optical quality of radiation are determined. (lasers)

  8. Improvement in suppression of pulsed Nd:YAG laser light with iodine absorption cells for filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.; Buggele, Alvin E.

    1997-11-01

    Filtered Rayleigh scattering using iodine absorption cells is an effective technique for obtaining density, temperature, and velocity measurements in high speed confined flows. By tuning a single frequency laser to a strong iodine absorption line, stray scattered laser light can be greatly suppressed. For example, the minimum transmission predicted by an iodine absorption model calculation is less than 10-5 at the 18788.44 cm-1 line using a 200 mm absorption cell containing iodine vapor at 0.46 T. Measurements obtained by other researches using a CW Nd:YAG laser agree with the model calculations. However, measurements made by us and by others using Q-switched, injection-seeded, frequency doubled Nd:YAG lasers only show minimum transmission of about 3 X 10-3. This greatly reduces the applicability of the filtered Rayleigh scattering technique using these lasers in experiments having large amounts of stray scattered laser light. The purposes of the present study are to characterize the spectrum of the excess light transmitted by the iodine cells and to make changes to the laser to reduce the transmitted laser light. Transmission data as a function of laser frequency for the iodine absorption line at 18788.44 cm-1 are presented. A planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer was used to characterize the frequency spectrum of the light passed through the iodine cell to have a component with a bandwidth of about 40 GHz. This is probably caused by other modes in the laser that exist in spite of the single frequency injection beam A second broadband component was also observed, possibly caused by the laser flash lamps or by fluorescence. An intracavity etalon was installed in the laser oscillator cavity to suppress the 40 GHz component. Measurements taken with the etalon tuned to the injection frequency showed a reduction in the transmitted laser light. This improvement allows the iodine cell to block significantly more of the stray laser light in filtered Rayleigh scattering experiments. Examples are given of filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements showing the effect of the etalon on measurements taken in a Mach 3 flow in the NASA Lewis 4 inch by 10 inch supersonic wind tunnel.

  9. GENETIC ALGORITHMS AND OPTIMIZING CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Carroll

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first known application of the genetic algorithm (GA) technique for optimizing the performance of a laser system (chemical, solid-state, or gaseous). The effects of elitism, single point and uniform crossover, creep mutation, different random number seeds, population size, niching and the number of children per pair of parents on the performance of the GA

  10. Continuous-wave laser oscillation in subsonic flow on the 1315 nm atomic iodine transition pumped by electric discharge produced O2,,a 1

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Continuous-wave laser oscillation in subsonic flow on the 1315 nm atomic iodine transition pumped in subsonic flow on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine using the energy transferred to I 2 P1/2 from O2 density and lower the temperature of the continuous gas flow to shift the equilibrium of atomic iodine

  11. Test bed for a high throughput supersonic chemical oxygen - iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, Gaurav; Mainuddin; Rajesh, R; Varshney, A K; Dohare, R K; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, V K; Kumar, Ashwani; Verma, Avinash C; Arora, B S; Chaturvedi, M K; Tyagi, R K; Dawar, A L

    2011-05-31

    The paper reports the development of a test bed for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser based on a high throughput jet flow singlet oxygen generator (JSOG). The system provides vertical singlet oxygen extraction followed by horizontal orientation of subsequent subsystems. This design enables the study of flow complexities and engineering aspects of a distributed weight system as an input for mobile and other platform-mounted systems developed for large scale power levels. The system under consideration is modular and consists of twin SOGs, plenum and supersonic nozzle modules, with the active medium produced in the laser cavity. The maximal chlorine flow rate for the laser is {approx}1.5 mole s{sup -1} achieving a typical chemical efficiency of about 18%. (lasers)

  12. A unified planar measurement technique for compressible flows using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1992-01-01

    A unified laser-induced fluorescence technique for conducting planar measurements of temperature, pressure and velocity in nonreacting, highly compressible flows has been developed, validated and demonstrated. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, was induced by an argon-ion laser and collected using a liquid-nitrogen cooled CCD camera. In the measurement technique, temperature is determined from the fluorescence induced with the laser operated broad band. Pressure and velocity are determined from the shape and position of the fluorescence excitation spectrum which is measured with the laser operated narrow band. The measurement approach described herein provides a means of obtaining accurate, spatially-complete maps of the primary flow field parameters in a wide variety of cold supersonic and transonic flows.

  13. Quantitative characterization of a nonreacting, supersonic combustor flowfield using unified, laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mcdaniel, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    A calibrated, nonintrusive optical technique, laser-induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) was used to quantify the steady, compressible flowfield of a nonreacting, supersonic combustor. The combustor was configured with single and staged, transverse-air injection into a supersonic-air freestream behind a rearward-facing step. Pressure, temperature, two-velocity components, and injectant mole fraction were measured with high spatial resolution in the three-dimensional flowfields. These experimental results provide a benchmark set of data for validation of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes being developed to model supersonic combustor flowfields.

  14. Comparing the efficiency of supersonic oxygen-iodine laser with different mixing designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyskubenko, Boris A.; Adamenkov, A. A.; Bakshin, V. V.; Efremov, V. I.; Ilyin, S. P.; Kolobyanin, Yu. V.; Krukovsky, I. M.; Kudryashov, E. A.; Moiseyev, V. B.

    2003-11-01

    The paper presents experimental studies of supersonic oxygen-iodine laser (OIL) using twisted-flow singlet oxygen generator (SOG) over a wide range of the singlet oxygen pressures and the buffer gas flow rates. The experiments used different designs of the nozzle unit and mixing system for singlet oxygen and iodine gas with the carrier gas (such as nitrogen or helium). For a wide range of the key parameters, the study looked at the efficiency of supersonic OIL with variation of the singlet oxygen pressure. The measurements were made for different positions of the iodine injection plane with respect to the critical cross-section (both in the subsonic part of the nozzle and in the supersonic flow). The gas pressure at the nozzle unit entry was varied from 50 to 250 Torr. The total pressure loss have been found for different mixing designs. Experimental curves are given for energy performance and chemical efficiency of the supersonic OIL as a function of the key parameters. Comparison is made between the calculated and experimental data. For the optimum conditions of OIL operation, chemical efficiency of 25-30% has been achieved.

  15. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) for the dismantlement of nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallada, Marc R.; Seiffert, Stephan L.; Walter, Robert F.; Vetrovec, John

    2000-05-01

    The dismantlement of obsolete nuclear facilities is a major challenge for both the US Department of Energy and nuclear power utilities. Recent demonstrations have shown that lasers can be highly effective for size reduction cutting, especially for the efficient storage and recycling of materials. However, the full benefits of lasers can only be realized with high average power beams that can be conveniently delivered, via fiber optics, to remote and/or confined areas. Industrial lasers that can meet these requirements are not available now or for the foreseeable future. However, a military weapon laser, a Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL), which has been demonstrated at over a hundred kilo Watts, could be adapted to meet these needs and enable entirely new industrial applications. An 'industrialized' COIL would enable rapid sectioning of thick and complex structures, such as glove boxes, reactor vessels, and steam generators, accelerating dismantlement schedules and reducing worker hazards. The full advantages of lasers in dismantlement could finally be realized with a portable COIL which is integrated with sophisticated robotics. It could be built and deployed in less than two years, breaking the paradigm of labor-intensive dismantlement operations and cutting processing times and costs dramatically.

  16. Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '98, ed. V.J. Corcoran, STS Press, McLean VA, 1999, in press. PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH POWER CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASER

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    , 1999, in press. PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH POWER CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASER USING NITROGEN DILUENT D was maintained for 45 minutes. The highest performance was obtained with new iodine injector blocks and a larger throat height. The new iodine injector blocks moved the injectors closer to the throat by 0.7 cm

  17. Enhancement of the efficiency and control of emission parameters of an unstable-resonator chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Boreisho, A S; Lobachev, V V; Savin, A V; Strakhov, S Yu; Trilis, A V [Institute of Laser Instruments and Technologies, D F Ustinov 'VOENMEKh' Baltic State Technical University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-31

    The outlook is considered for the development of a high-power supersonic flowing chemical oxygen-iodine laser operating as an amplifier and controlled by radiation from a master oscillator by using an unstable resonator with a hole-coupled mirror. The influence of the seed radiation intensity, the coupling-hole diameter, the active-medium length, and the magnification factor on the parameters of laser radiation is analysed. It is shown that the use of such resonators is most advisable in medium-power oxygen-iodine lasers for which classical unstable resonators are inefficient because of their low magnification factors. The use of unstable resonators with a hole-coupled mirror and injection provides the control of radiation parameters and a considerable increase in the output power and brightness of laser radiation. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  18. Optical resonator with nonuniform magnification for improving beam uniformity of chemical oxygen iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kenan; Sun, Yang; Huai, Ying; Jia, Shuqin; Chen, Xi; Jin, Yuqi

    2015-02-01

    Unstable resonator with nonuniform magnification for improving the beam uniformity of chemical oxygen iodine lasers is explored for the first time. The magnification of the resonator is a function of the radial coordinate of the polar coordinate system on the front mirror surface. A resonator was designed to have a lower magnification at the center of the resonator than at the edge. The resonator consists of two aspherical mirrors. Method for designing the resonator is given. The energy conservation law and the aplanatic condition were used to derive the designing principle of the two aspherical mirrors. The design result was fitted to polynomial form which is suitable for manufacturing. Numerical experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of the resonator. The computation was based on coupled simulation of wave optics model and computational fluid mechanics model. Results proved the effectiveness of the design method. The design tends to enhance the intensity near the center of the output beam and cripple that near the edge. Further analysis revealed that this effect is induced because rays of light are reflected more densely at the center of the pupil than at the edge. Therefore, this design affords for a potential approach for improving the near field uniformity of chemical oxygen iodine lasers.

  19. Singlet oxygen generator for a solar powered chemically pumped iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of solid phase endoperoxides as a means to produce single-delta oxygen in the gas phase in concentrations useful to chemical oxygen-iodine lasers was investigated. The 1,4 - endoperoxide of ethyl 3- (4-methyl - 1-naphthyl) propanoate was deposited over an indium-oxide layer on a glass plate. Single-delta oxygen was released from the endoperoxide upon heating the organic film by means of an electrical discharge through the conductive indium oxide coating. The evolution of singlet-delta oxygen was determined by measuring the dimol emission signal at 634 nm. Comparison of the measured signal with an analytic model leads to two main conclusions: virtually all the oxygen being evolved is in the singlet-delta state and in the gas phase, and there is no significant quenching other than energy pooling on the time scale of the experiment (approximately 10 msec). The use of solid phase endoperoxide as a singlet-delta oxygen generator for an oxygen-iodine laser appears promising.

  20. Using a copper-vapor laser (578.2?nm) in a new method of laser fluorescence for molecular iodine isotopes to detect gases in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.; Simanovsky, I. G.; Suganeev, S. V.

    2014-09-01

    This letter deals with the development of a new laser method for simultaneously detecting 127I2, 127I129I and 129I2 in gaseous media, which, in contrast with existing methods, does not require tuning of the laser wavelength. The method is based on exciting fluorescence in iodine isotopologues using copper-vapor laser radiation (578.2?nm) and registering the separate spectral fluorescence line intensities. This method allows high-sensitivity real-time monitoring of isotopologues of molecular iodine-129 and iodine-127 in technological media generated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, in gaseous emissions from the purification systems of radiochemical plants and in the natural atmosphere.

  1. Laser Raman studies of molecular interactions with phosphatidylcholine multilayers. I. Effect of iodine-iodide system.

    PubMed

    Loshchilova, E; Karvaly, B

    1977-06-01

    The interactions of iodine, iodide and triiodide with phosphatidylcholine multilayers have been investigated in order to find supporting data for conduction mechanisms of iodine-doped bimolecular lipid membranes. On the basis of order-disorder parameters it can be concluded that phospholipid multilayers interact with iodine rather than with its ionic forms. No evidence for the existence of triiodide chains in iodine-doped multilayers has been found. Consequently, the resistance-lowering effect of iodine must be based upon direct iodine-lipid interaction and iodine penetration rather than upon ion transport processes. PMID:880730

  2. Output power enhancement of all gas-phase iodine laser by addition of hydrocarbon gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, T.; Nakamura, T.; Endo, M.

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we studied the output power enhancement of an all gas-phase iodine laser (AGIL) by the addition of hydrocarbon gases. Enhancement is expected because hydrocarbon gases might scavenge Cl atoms, which are strong quenchers of the upper state of the laser medium, I(2 P 1/2). In AGILs, suppression of the Cl atom concentration is the key to improving the efficiency of the operation of the laser because Cl atoms are inherently generated by the self-annihilation of the energy donor, NCl(a1 ?). We found that the addition of CH4 gave the best results, because of its high scavenging rate constant and inertness to I(2 P 1/2). An enhancement of 10% was observed in the output power when CH4 was added at a flow rate twice that of NCl3. On the other hand, when C2H4 or C2H2 were added at the same flow rate as that of CH4, the output power reduced despite their fast removal rate of Cl atoms. The reason for the reduced output power was that the unsaturated bonds scavenged not only the Cl atoms but also the H atoms, resulting in a low density of H atoms, and this decelerated the production of NCl(a1 ?). The observed laser characteristics could reasonably be explained by numerical model calculations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful output power enhancement of an AGIL using a chemical agent.

  3. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ColZoque C9, suppZe'ment au nO1l, Tome 41, novembre 1980, page C9-449 A POTENTIAL ATOMIC IODINE LASER PUMPED BY ELECTRICALLY GENERATED 'A OXYGEN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -449 A POTENTIAL ATOMIC IODINE LASER PUMPED BY ELECTRICALLY GENERATED 'A OXYGEN G. Fournier, J. Bonnet and D effect after mixing with iodine. Various collision proces- ses of electrons with molecules limit temperature. The usual atomic iodine laser However, that efficiency in ordinary dis- I 2 ~ 1 2+ I 2 ~ 3 / 2at

  4. Regeneration of basic hydrogen peroxide for chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hano, Masami; Wakita, Syuhei; Uno, Masaharu; Endo, Masamori; Nanri, Kenzo; Takeda, Shuzaburo; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2003-11-01

    Regeneration of Basic Hydrogen Peroxide (BHP) for Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) has been studied. The apparatus is an electrolyte H2O2 generator, which is composed of anode chamber, cathode chamber with gas diffusion electrode and cation exchange membrane. BHP containing 5 to 10 weight percent (wt%) of H2O2 is supplied to the apparatus and the change in the H2O2 concentration is measured for various operational conditions. A 5.11wt% BHP is regenerated with current efficiency of 92% and a 10.4wt% BHP is regenerated with current efficiency of 73%. It is found that the BHP flow rate and temperature of the BHP are critical to obtain high current efficiency.

  5. New concepts of the chemistry of electric-discharge oxygen-iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlins, Wilson T.; Lee, Seonkyung; Hicks, Adam J.; Konen, Ian M.; Oakes, David B.; Plumb, Emily P.; Davis, Steven J.

    2011-03-01

    The chemistry of electric discharge driven oxygen iodine lasers (EOIL) has long been believed to have O2(a1?g) as the sole energy carrier for excitation of the lasing state I(2P1/2), and O(3P) as the primary quencher of this state. In many sets of experimental measurements over a wide range of conditions, we have observed persistent evidence to the contrary. In this paper, we review our experimental data base in both room-temperature discharge-flow measurements and EOIL reactor results, in comparison to model predictions and kinetics analysis, to identify the missing production and loss terms in the EOIL reaction mechanism. The analysis points to a significantly higher level of understanding of this energetic chemical system, which can support advanced concepts in power scaling investigations.

  6. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser with a cryosorption vacuum pump with different buffer gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingxiu; Fang, Benjie; Sang, Fengting; Geng, Zicai; Li, Yongzhao; JIn, Yuqi

    2015-02-01

    A traditional pressure recovery system is the major obstacle to mobile chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) for its huge volume. A cryosorption vacuum pump was used as the pressure recovery system for different buffer gases. It made COIL become a flexible, quiet and pressure-tight. Experiments were carried out on a verti- COIL, which was designed for N2 and energized by a square-pipe jet singlet oxygen generator (JSOG). The output power with CO2 was 27.3% lower than that with N2, but the zeolite bed showed an adsorption capacity threefold higher for CO2 than for N2 in the continuous operation. The great volume efficiency interested researchers.

  7. Experimental investigation of a supersonic swept ramp injector using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Planar measurements of injectant mole fraction and temperature have been conducted in a nonreacting supersonic combustor configured with underexpanded injection in the base of a swept ramp. The temperature measurements were conducted with a Mach 2 test section inlet in streamwise planes perpendicular to the test section wall on which the ramp was mounted. Injection concentration measurements, conducted in cross flow planes with both Mach 2 and Mach 2.9 free stream conditions, dramatically illustrate the domination of the mixing process by streamwise vorticity generated by the ramp. These measurements, conducted using a nonintrusive optical technique (laser-induced iodine fluorescence), provide an accurate and extensive experimental data base for the validation of computation fluid dynamic codes for the calculation of highly three-dimensional supersonic combustor flow fields.

  8. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Enhancement of the efficiency and control of emission parameters of an unstable-resonator chemical oxygen—iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreisho, A. S.; Lobachev, V. V.; Savin, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Yu; Trilis, A. V.

    2007-07-01

    The outlook is considered for the development of a high-power supersonic flowing chemical oxygen—iodine laser operating as an amplifier and controlled by radiation from a master oscillator by using an unstable resonator with a hole-coupled mirror. The influence of the seed radiation intensity, the coupling-hole diameter, the active-medium length, and the magnification factor on the parameters of laser radiation is analysed. It is shown that the use of such resonators is most advisable in medium-power oxygen—iodine lasers for which classical unstable resonators are inefficient because of their low magnification factors. The use of unstable resonators with a hole-coupled mirror and injection provides the control of radiation parameters and a considerable increase in the output power and brightness of laser radiation.

  9. Electrode system for electric-discharge generation of atomic iodine in a repetitively pulsed oxygen - iodine laser with a large active volume

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, I G; Podlesnykh, S V; Firsov, K N [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-03

    Possibilities for increasing the active medium volume of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (CCOIL) with a pulsed electric-discharge generation of atomic iodine are studied. The reasons are analysed of the low stability of the transverse self-sustained volume discharge in electrode systems with metal cathodes under the conditions of the electric energy input into gas-discharge plasma that are typical for CCOILs: low pressure of mixtures containing a strongly electronegative component, low voltage of discharge burning, low specific energy depositions, and long duration of the current pulse. An efficient electrode system is elaborated with the cathode based on an anisotropically-resistive material, which resulted in a stable discharge in the mixtures of iodide (CH{sub 3}I, n-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}I, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}I) with oxygen and nitrogen at the specific energy depositions of {approx}5 J L{sup -1}, pressures of 10 - 25 Torr, and mixture volume of 2.5 L. (lasers)

  10. Subwavenumber charge-coupled device spectrometer calibration using molecular iodine laser-induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Joseph G. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Hernandez-Diaz, Carlos; Williamson, J. Charles [Department of Chemistry, Willamette University, Salem, Oregon 97301 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Spectrometers configured with charge-coupled devices (CCD) or other array-based detectors require calibration to convert from the pixel coordinate to a spectral coordinate. A CCD calibration method well suited for Raman spectroscopy has been developed based on the 514.5 nm Ar{sup +} laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrum of room-temperature molecular iodine vapor. Over 360 primary and secondary I{sub 2} LIF calibration lines spanning 510-645 nm were identified as calibrant peaks using an instrumental resolution of 1 cm{sup -1}. Two instrument calibration functions were evaluated with these peaks: a second-order polynomial and a function derived from simple optomechanical considerations. The latter function provided better fitting characteristics. Calibration using I{sub 2} LIF was tested with measurements of both laser light scattering and Raman spectra. The I{sub 2} LIF reference spectra and the signal spectra were recorded simultaneously, with no cross talk, by separating the two signals spatially along the vertical axis of the CCD imager. In this way, every CCD image could be independently calibrated. An accuracy and a precision of {+-}0.05 cm{sup -1} were achieved with this calibration technique.

  11. Broadband femtosecond OPCPA system driven by the single-shot narrow-band iodine photodissociation laser SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, O.; Tur?i?ová, H.; Smrž, M.; Huynh, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Straka, P.

    2012-09-01

    A two-stage optical parametric amplifier driven by a frequency-tripled beam from the high-energy iodine laser system SOFIA was built. This single-shot Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse-Amplification facility (OPCPA) and the system synchronizing the pump and signal pulses are described in detail. The chirped seed pulse of a Ti:sapphire oscillator running at the central wavelength of 800 nm is amplified in the two-stage (LBO and KDP) optical parametric amplifier over 108 times. The amplified spectral bandwidth of 68 nm corresponds to the pulse duration of 14 fs when a transform-limited pulse is assumed. This implies a compressed pulse of TW power. Systematic gain measurements reveal a good match with the theoretical predictions. Signal and idler beam fluence profiles are presented. The suitability of the iodine photo-dissociation laser as a pump source for the OPCPA technique is thus proved for the first time experimentally. A distinctive feature of the iodine laser is its very narrow gain bandwidth (<0.1 cm-1) and, therefore, the conventional chirped-pulse amplification technique does not lead to pulse durations at the femtosecond level.

  12. Iodine Deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other organs working as they should. What is Iodine Deficiency? Iodine is an element that is needed ... risk for iodine deficiency. How do you diagnose iodine deficiency? Iodine deficiency is diagnosed across populations and ...

  13. Frequency-modulation saturation spectroscopy of molecular iodine hyperfine structure near 640 nm with a diode laser source

    E-print Network

    V. M. Khodakovskiy; V. I. Romanenko; I. V. Matsnev; R. A. Malitskiy; A. M. Negriyko; L. P. Yatsenko

    2009-12-16

    In a frequency-modulation spectroscopy experiment, using the radiation from a single frequency diode laser, the spectra of molecular iodine hyperfine structure near 640 nm were recorded on the transition $B^3\\Pi_{0_u^{+}}-X^1\\Sigma^+_{g}$. The frequency reference given by the value of the modulation frequency (12.5 MHz in given experiment) allows determination of the frequency differences between hyperfine components with accuracy better than 0.1 MHz using the fitting procedure in experiment with only one laser.

  14. Frequency-modulation saturation spectroscopy of molecular iodine hyperfine structure near 640 nm with a diode laser source

    E-print Network

    Khodakovskiy, V M; Matsnev, I V; Malitskiy, R A; Negriyko, A M; Yatsenko, L P

    2009-01-01

    In a frequency-modulation spectroscopy experiment, using the radiation from a single frequency diode laser, the spectra of molecular iodine hyperfine structure near 640 nm were recorded on the transition $B^3\\Pi_{0_u^{+}}-X^1\\Sigma^+_{g}$. The frequency reference given by the value of the modulation frequency (12.5 MHz in given experiment) allows determination of the frequency differences between hyperfine components with accuracy better than 0.1 MHz using the fitting procedure in experiment with only one laser.

  15. Flowfield measurements in a model scramjet combustion using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, J. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary designs were completed for an iodine mixing chamber and the optical setup to be used with a modified wind tunnel in obtaining accurate, spatially resolved measurements of variables in the flowfield of a model nonreacting scramjet combustor. Schematics of the iodine-seeded wind tunnel and a sketch of the charcoal filter for removing the iodine are included along with a cutaway section of the laboratory.

  16. Singlet oxygen generation in gas discharge for oxygen-iodine laser pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopaev, D. V.; Braginsky, O. V.; Klopovsky, K. S.; Kovalev, A. S.; Mankelevich, Yu. A.; Popov, N. A.; Rakhimov, A. T.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Vasilieva, A. N.

    2004-09-01

    The possibility of development of effective discharged singlet oxygen (SO) generator (DSOG) for oxygen-iodine laser (OIL) is studied in detail. Researches of kinetics of oxygen atoms and oxygen molecules in the lowest metastable singlet states have been carried out in the different discharges and its afterglow (DC discharges, E-beam controlled discharge and RF discharges) in both CW and pulsed mode in a wide range of conditions (pressures, gas mixtures, energy deposits etc.). The models developed for all the discharges have allowed us to analyze SO generation and loss mechanisms and to find out the key-parameters controlling the highest SO yield. It is shown that in addition to spatial plasma uniformity at low E/N and high specific energy deposit per oxygen molecule, DSOG must be oxygen atom free to avoid fast three-body quenching of SO by atomic oxygen with increasing pressure and thereby to provide pressure scaling (in tens Torrs) for applying to real OIL systems.

  17. Computer-controlled multi-parameter mapping of 3D compressible flowfields using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, James M.; Victor, Kenneth G.; Mcdaniel, James C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-controlled technique, using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence, for measuring complex compressible flowfields is presented. A new laser permits the use of a planar two-line temperature technique so that all parameters can be measured with the laser operated narrowband. Pressure and temperature measurements in a step flowfield show agreement within 10 percent of a CFD model except in regions close to walls. Deviation of near wall temperature measurements from the model was decreased from 21 percent to 12 percent compared to broadband planar temperature measurements. Computer-control of the experiment has been implemented, except for the frequency tuning of the laser. Image data storage and processing has been improved by integrating a workstation into the experimental setup reducing the data reduction time by a factor of 50.

  18. Radioactive Iodine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscles, and other organs working normally. Why is iodine used in some thyroid gland treatment? Iodine is ... it is concentrated as iodide. What is radioactive iodine (rai)? Iodine, in the form of iodide, is ...

  19. Analytic study of the chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides - atomic iodine donors - in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser: 2. Limiting parameters of the branching chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, Tamara L; Kuznetsova, S V; Maslov, Aleksandr I; Sorokin, Vadim N [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-31

    The final stages in the development of a branching chain decomposition reaction of iodide in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) are analysed. Approximate expressions are derived to calculate the limiting parameters of the chain reaction: the final degree of iodide decomposition, the maximum concentration of excited iodine atoms, the time of its achievement, and concentrations of singlet oxygen and iodide at that moment. The limiting parameters, calculated by using these expressions for a typical composition of the active medium of a pulsed COIL, well coincide with the results of numerical calculations. (active media)

  20. Quantitative measurement of transverse injector and free stream interaction in a nonreacting SCRAMJET combustor using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mcdaniel, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary quantitative study of the compressible flowfield in a steady, nonreacting model SCRAMJET combustor using laser-induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) is reported. Measurements of density, temperature, and velocity were conducted with the calibrated, nonintrusive, optical technique for two different combustor operating conditions. First, measurements were made in the supersonic flow over a rearward-facing step without transverse injection for comparison with calculated pressure profiles. The second configuration was staged injection behind the rearward-facing step at an injection dynamic pressure ratio of 1.06. These experimental results will be used to validate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes being developed to model supersonic combustor flowfields.

  1. Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser Diluted by CO2/N2 Buffer Gases with a Cryosorption Vacuum Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingxiu; Sang, Fengting; Jin, Yuqi; Fang, Benjie; Chen, Fang; Geng, Zicai; Li, Yongzhao

    2008-11-01

    Experiments were carried out on a verti-chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL), which was designed for N2 and energized by a square-pipe jet singlet oxygen generator (JSOG). A cryosorption vacuum pump was used as the pressure recovery system for CO2 and N2 buffer gases. The output power with CO2 was 27.3% lower than that with N2, but the zeolite bed showed an adsorption capacity threefold higher for CO2 than for N2 in the continuous operation with a Cl2 flow rate of 155 mmol/s and a total flow rate of 430±3 mmol/s.

  2. Planar measurement of flow field parameters in a nonreacting supersonic combustor using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1990-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical technique, laser-induced iodine fluorescence, has been used to obtain planar measurements of flow field parameters in the supersonic mixing flow field of a nonreacting supersonic combustor. The combustor design used in this work was configured with staged transverse sonic injection behind a rearward-facing step into a Mach 2.07 free stream. A set of spatially resolved measurements of temperature and injectant mole fraction has been generated. These measurements provide an extensive and accurate experimental data set required for the validation of computational fluid dynamic codes developed for the calculation of highly three-dimensional combustor flow fields.

  3. Strong-field control of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in iodine vapor with shaped ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, Martin; Shapiro, Evgeny A.; Milner, Valery

    2012-06-01

    Extensive work has been done to investigate molecular dynamics in weak laser fields. In contrast, our understanding of molecular behavior and the possibilities to control it with strong laser pulses is still limited. In this work, we investigate the process of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) in iodine vapor for different strong-field regimes. Saturation of the CARS signal with increasing pulse intensities is observed and studied both experimentally and theoretically. We show that it is possible to overcome this saturation by implementing different schemes of coherent control based on the technique of femtosecond pulse shaping. Optimal regimes for enhancing molecular CARS response to strong-field excitation are proposed and demonstrated, paving the way to more efficient nonlinear spectroscopy.

  4. 2D gasdynamic simulation of the kinetics of an oxygen-iodine laser with electric-discharge generation of singlet oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Chukalovsky, A. A.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Klopovsky, K. S.; Mankelevich, Yu. A.; Proshina, O. V. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    The kinetic processes occurring in an electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser are analyzed with the help of a 2D (r, z) gasdynamic model taking into account transport of excited oxygen, singlet oxygen, and radicals from the electric discharge and their mixing with the iodine-containing gas. The main processes affecting the dynamics of the gas temperature and gain are revealed. The simulation results obtained using the 2D model agree well with the experimental data on the mixture gain. A subsonic oxygen-iodine laser in which singlet oxygen is generated by a 350 W transverse RF discharge excited in an oxygen flow at a pressure P = 10 Torr and the discharge tube wall is covered with mercury oxide is simulated. The simulated mixing system is optimized in terms of the flow rate and the degree of preliminary dissociation of the iodine flow. The optimal regime of continuous operation of a subsonic electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser is found.

  5. Laser and solar-photovoltaic space power systems comparison. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.; Stripling, J.; Enderson, T. M.; Humes, D. H.; Davis, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of total system cost is made between solar photovoltaic and laser/receiver systems. The laser systems assume either a solar-pumped CO2 blackbody transfer laser with MHD receiver or a solar pumped liquid neodymium laser with a photovoltaic receiver. Total system costs are less for the laser systems below 300 km where drag is significant. System costs are highly dependent on altitude.

  6. Design investigation of solar powered lasers for space applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Taussig; C. Bruzzone; D. Quimby; L. Nelson; W. Christiansen; S. Neice; P. Cassady; A. Pindroh

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of solar powered lasers for continuous operation in space power transmission was investigated. Laser power transmission in space over distances of 10 to 100 thousand kilometers appears possible. A variety of lasers was considered, including solar-powered GDLs and EDLs, and solar-pumped lasers. An indirect solar-pumped laser was investigated which uses a solar-heated black body cavity to pump the

  7. Carrier envelope phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser and iodine spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Feng

    2006-10-30

    the carrier envelope offset frequency and the repetition rate to the respective reference frequencies. The stability reaches 100mHz for the carrier envelope offset frequency and 10mHz for the repetition rate for a period of up to an hour. Doppler free iodine...

  8. Oxygen discharge and post-discharge kinetics experiments and modeling for the electric oxygen-iodine laser system.

    PubMed

    Palla, A D; Zimmerman, J W; Woodard, B S; Carroll, D L; Verdeyen, J T; Lim, T C; Solomon, W C

    2007-07-26

    Laser oscillation at 1315 nm on the I(2P1/2)-->I(2P3/2) transition of atomic iodine has been obtained by a near resonant energy transfer from O2(a1Delta) produced using a low-pressure oxygen/helium/nitric oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels of complexity to the singlet oxygen generator (SOG) kinetics which are not encountered in a classic purely chemical O2(a1Delta) generation system. The advanced model BLAZE-IV has been introduced to study the energy-transfer laser system dynamics and kinetics. Levels of singlet oxygen, oxygen atoms, and ozone are measured experimentally and compared with calculations. The new BLAZE-IV model is in reasonable agreement with O3, O atom, and gas temperature measurements but is under-predicting the increase in O2(a1Delta) concentration resulting from the presence of NO in the discharge and under-predicting the O2(b1Sigma) concentrations. A key conclusion is that the removal of oxygen atoms by NOX species leads to a significant increase in O2(a1Delta) concentrations downstream of the discharge in part via a recycling process; however, there are still some important processes related to the NOX discharge kinetics that are missing from the present modeling. Further, the removal of oxygen atoms dramatically inhibits the production of ozone in the downstream kinetics. PMID:17461557

  9. Output power enhancement of an amine-based all gas-phase iodine laser by addition of methane gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Taizo; Nakamura, Tomonari; Endo, Masamori

    2010-09-01

    Output power enhancement of an all gas-phase iodine laser (AGIL) by addition of hydrocarbon gases is studied. It is expected because hydrocarbon gases might scavenge Cl atoms, which are strong quencher of the upper state of the laser medium, I(2P1/2). In AGILs, suppression of the Cl atom concentration is the key to improving the efficiency of laser operation because Cl atoms are inherently generated by the self-annihilation of the energy donor, NCl(a1?). We found that the addition of CH4 gave the best results because of its high scavenging rate constant and inertness to I(2P1/2). An enhancement of 10% was observed in the output power when CH4 was added at a flow rate twice that of NCl3. On the other hand, when C2H4 or C2H2 were added at the same flow rate as that of CH4, the output power reduced despite their fast removal rate of Cl atoms. The reason for the reduced output power was that the unsaturated bonds scavenged not only the Cl atoms but also the H atoms, resulting in a low density of H atoms, and this decelerated the production of NCl(a1?). The observed laser characteristics could be reasonably explained by numerical model calculations.

  10. Reduced dimer production in solar-simulator-pumped continuous wave iodine lasers based on model simulations and scaling and pumping studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costen, Robert C.; Heinbockel, John H.; Miner, Gilda A.; Meador, Willard E., Jr.; Tabibi, Bagher M.; Lee, Ja H.; Williams, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical rate equation model for a continuous wave iodine laser with longitudinally flowing gaseous lasant is validated by approximating two experiments that compare the perfluoroalkyl iodine lasants n-C3F7I and t-C4F9I. The salient feature of the simulations is that the production rate of the dimer (C4F9)2 is reduced by one order of magnitude relative to the dimer (C3F7)2. The model is then used to investigate the kinetic effects of this reduced dimer production, especially how it improves output power. Related parametric and scaling studies are also presented. When dimer production is reduced, more monomer radicals (t-C4F9) are available to combine with iodine ions, thus enhancing depletion of the laser lower level and reducing buildup of the principal quencher, molecular iodine. Fewer iodine molecules result in fewer downward transitions from quenching and more transitions from stimulated emission of lasing photons. Enhanced depletion of the lower level reduces the absorption of lasing photons. The combined result is more lasing photons and proportionally increased output power.

  11. Iodine poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Iodine is a naturally occurring chemical. Small amounts are needed for good health. However, large doses can ... Children are especially sensitive to the effects of iodine. NOTE: Iodine is found in certain foods. However, ...

  12. Data acquisition and control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) for a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haijun; Li, Guofu; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Fengting; Kang, Yuanfu; Li, Liucheng; Wang, Yuanhu; Tang, Shukai; Yu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a pulsed chemical oxygen -iodine laser (PCOIL) has been developed. It is implemented by an industrial control computer?a PLC, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the valve and transmitter. The system is capable of handling 200 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, display, safety measures and control of various valves. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a PCOIL. The DACS system has been programmed using software programmable logic controller (PLC). Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.

  13. Three-block model of the kinetics of vibrationally excited I{sub 2}(X) molecules in the active media of oxygen - iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pichugin, S Yu [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-30

    A three-block model of the kinetics of vibrationally excited I{sub 2}(X) molecules in the active media of chemical oxygen - iodine lasers is developed. Instead of the system of equations describing a change in the concentrations of I{sub 2}(X, u) (u=0 - 47) molecules, this model uses equations for the total concentrations of iodine molecules belonging to the blocks of vibrational levels with u {<=} 10, u = 11 - 24, and u {>=} 25. Effective deactivation rate constants of I{sub 2}(X, 11 {<=} u {<=} 24) molecules are found for laser media of different compositions. The results of calculations performed using the proposed model agree with experimental data and are close to the parameters calculated previously by using the total system of equations for populations of individual vibrational levels of I{sub 2}(X, u). (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. Zeeman effects in the hyperfine structure of atomic iodine photodissociation laser emission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, W. C.; Kasper, J. V. V.

    1972-01-01

    Observation of hyperfine structure in laser emission from CF3I and C2F5I photodissociation lasers. Constant magnetic fields affect the time behavior of the emission by changing the relative gains of the hyperfine transitions. Time-varying fields usually present in photodissociation lasers further complicate the emission.

  15. Analytic study of the chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides - atomic iodine donors - in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser: 1. Criteria for the development of the branching chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, Tamara L; Kuznetsova, S V; Maslov, Aleksandr I; Sorokin, Vadim N [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-02-28

    The scheme of chemical processes proceeding in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is analysed. Based on the analysis performed, the complete system of differential equations corresponding to this scheme is replaced by a simplified system of equations describing in dimensionless variables the chain dark decomposition of iodides - atomic iodine donors, in the COIL active medium. The procedure solving this system is described, the basic parameters determining the development of the chain reaction are found and its specific time intervals are determined. The initial stage of the reaction is analysed and criteria for the development of the branching chain decomposition reaction of iodide in the COIL active medium are determined. (active media)

  16. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  17. Design investigation of solar powered lasers for space applications. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Taussig; C. Bruzzone; D. Quimby; L. Nelson; W. Christiansen

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of solar powered lasers for continuous operation in space power transmission was investigated. Laser power transmission in space over distances of 10 to 100 thousand kilometers appears possible. A variety of lasers was considered, including solar-powered GDLs and EDLs, and solar-pumped lasers. An indirect solar-pumped laser was investigated which uses a solar-heated black body cavity to pump the

  18. Effect of intense background radiation on the sensitivity of a laser receiver with an iodine active quantum filter

    SciTech Connect

    Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K ['Astrofizika' Research and Production Association (Russian Federation); Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-04-30

    The effect of background light on the sensitivity of a laser receiver with an iodine active quantum filter ({lambda}=1.315 {mu}m) was theoretically and experimentally investigated. Upon the reception of a 40-ns pulsed signal against the background of 2.5-fold attenuated radiation of a pulsed light source with a brightness temperature of 4 x 10{sup 4} K, the sensitivity of this receiver for a signal-to-noise ratio of three and a diffraction-limited acceptance angle was experimentally shown to be equal to 20 photons, which exceeds the quantum limit by about a factor of two. This is consistent with the results of theoretical treatment and suggests that upon the detection of optical signals against the background of the solar disk, the sensitivity of this receiver should decrease by only 12%. This receiver was compared with a receiver employing a photomultiplier of the visible range. Upon the reception of optical signals with the same parameters against the background of the solar disk and an interference filter with a transmission band width of 5 nm, the sensitivity of a receiver equipped with an FEU-115 photomultiplier was shown to be equal to about 1400 photons for a signal-to-noise ratio of three. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  19. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) for the dismantlement of nuclear facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc R. Hallada; Stephan L. Seiffert; Robert F. Walter; John Vetrovec

    2000-01-01

    The dismantlement of obsolete nuclear facilities is a major challenge for both the US Department of Energy and nuclear power utilities. Recent demonstrations have shown that lasers can be highly effective for size reduction cutting, especially for the efficient storage and recycling of materials. However, the full benefits of lasers can only be realized with high average power beams that

  20. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH TARGETS Tomographic imaging of a target directly irradiated in experiments on the Iskra-5 iodine laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, S. V.; Garanin, R. V.; Garanin, Sergey G.; Zhidkov, N. V.; Oreshkov, O. V.; Potapov, S. V.; Suslov, N. A.; Frolova, N. V.

    2010-12-01

    We set forth the data of experiments involving direct microtarget irradiation by the 12 second-harmonic beams (? = 0.66 ?m) of iodine laser radiation carried out on the Iskra-5 facility. For microtargets we employed glass shells ~500 ?m in diameter with ~1-?m thick walls, which were filled with a DT mixture at a pressure pDT approx 3-4 atm. In one of these experiments, a tomographic image of the microtarget was recorded from the images obtained using pinhole cameras, which were arranged along seven different directions. The pinhole images were acquired in the X-ray radiation with photon energies above 1.5 keV. The procedure used for reconstructing the volume luminosity of the microtarget is described. An analysis of the tomographic image suggests that the compressed microtarget domain possesses a complex asymmetric shape; 20-30 ?m sized structural elements being clearly visible. The resultant data set allowed us to estimate the initial nonuniformity of microtarget surface irradiation by the laser radiation. The rms nonuniformity of microtarget irradiance was estimated at ~60 %.

  1. Picosecond dynamics of reactions in the liquid phase: studies of iodine photodissociation and development of new laser techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, M.A.

    1985-09-01

    Iodine photodissociation and recombination was studied as a model for processes common to chemical reaction in the liquid phase. Picosecond transient absorption measurements from 1000 to 295 nm were used to monitor the dynamics in a variety of solvents. Most of the atoms which undergo geminate recombination were found to do so in less than or equal to 15 ps, in agreement with the results of existing molecular dynamics simulations. Vibrational relaxation times vary from approx.15 ps near the middle of the ground state well to approx.150 ps for complete relaxation to v = 0. The prediction of strong resonant vibrational energy transfer to chlorinated methane solvents was not supported, but some evidence for this mechanism was found for alkane solvents. Current theory is unable to explain the large variation (65 to 2700 ps) of the excited A'-state lifetime in various solvents. The 10-Hz amplified, synchronously-pumped dye laser which was used in these studies is described and characterized. SERS (Stimulated Electronic Raman Scattering) and difference frequency mixing were used in the generation of the infrared and far-infrared, respectively. 54 refs., 38 figs., 3 tabs. (WRF)

  2. Laser Optogalvanic Analysis in a Radiofrequency Plasma: Detection of Iodine Atoms and Molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuan Yao; Sean P. McGlynn; Rama C. Mohanty

    1999-01-01

    The optogalvanic effect (OGE) may be used to detect specific species in a plasma (ions, atoms, radicals, or molecules) by selective laser excitation of the plasma. The plasma itself is merely the reservoir of electronically excited, ionized, and atomized species. Compared with conventional ICP-AES, OGE has many advantages: no external detector, zero background, no interferences, and greater versatility. Since the

  3. Carrier phases for iodine in the Allende meteorite and their associated Xe-129(r)/I-127 ratios - A laser microprobe study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the carrier phases of iodine in the Allende meteorite and their associated Xe-129(r)/I-127 ratios, obtained using a new high-sensitivity low-blank mass spectrometer coupled with a low-blank laser extraction system. Two types of experiments were performed: a survey of the Xe-129(r) amounts in unirradiated specimens of fine-grained assemblages and individual coarse mineral grains, and a study of the relationship between chlorine and iodine in irradiated samples of the inclusions, in which the Xe-129(r)/I-127 ratios were determined for various minerals. As a by-product of these measurements, the Ar-40/Ar-39 ages were obtained along with some results on trapped Xe components. A schematic diagram of the new mass spectrometer system is included.

  4. Generation of singlet oxygen for an oxygen-iodine laser in a radio-frequency discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Braginskii, O V; Vasil'eva, A N; Klopovskii, K S; Kovalev, A S; Lopaev, D V; Mankelevich, Yu A; Popov, N A; Rakhimov, Aleksandr T; Rakhimova, T V [D.V. Skobel'tsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-01-31

    The generation of singlet oxygen (SO) in a radio-frequency discharge (13.56 MHz) in the gas flow was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The oxygen pressure was varied from 2 to 20 Torr and the energy deposition in gas from 10 to 2000 J mmol{sup -1}. The saturation of the SO concentration with increasing the energy deposition was shown to arise from the three-body process of SO quenching by atomic oxygen. Removing atomic oxygen allowed a 2.5-fold increase in the ultimate SO concentration at the discharge output. For an oxygen pressure of 15 Torr, the SO fraction amounts to 10%. (active media. lasers)

  5. Planar Laser-Induced Iodine Fluorescence Measurements in Rarefied Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Eric; McDaniel, James C.

    2005-01-01

    A planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique is discussed and applied to measurement of time-averaged values of velocity and temperature in an I(sub 2)-seeded N(sub 2) hypersonic free jet facility. Using this technique, a low temperature, non-reacting, hypersonic flow over a simplified model of a reaction control system (RCS) was investigated. Data are presented of rarefied Mach 12 flow over a sharp leading edge flat plate at zero incidence, both with and without an interacting jet issuing from a nozzle built into the plate. The velocity profile in the boundary layer on the plate was resolved. The slip velocity along the plate, extrapolated from the velocity profile data, varied from nearly 100% down to 10% of the freestream value. These measurements are compared with results of a DSMC solution. The velocity variation along the centerline of a jet issuing from the plate was measured and found to match closely with the correlation of Ashkenas and Sherman. The velocity variation in the oblique shock terminating the jet was resolved sufficiently to measure the shock wave thickness.

  6. Sensitized energy transfer for organic solar cells, optical solar concentrators, and solar pumped lasers

    E-print Network

    Reusswig, Philip David

    2014-01-01

    The separation of chromophore absorption and excitonic processes, such as singlet exciton fission and photoluminescence, offers several advantages to the design of organic solar cells and luminescent solar concentrators ...

  7. The development and deployment of a ground-based, laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the in situ detection of iodine monoxide radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Thurlow, M. E., E-mail: thurlow@huarp.harvard.edu; Hannun, R. A.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J. G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Co, D. T. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States) [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center and Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States); O'Brien, A. S. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States) [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Hanisco, T. F. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States) [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 614, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer. Of particular interest are the roles IO plays in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments and in depletion episodes of ozone and mercury in the Arctic polar spring. This paper describes a ground-based instrument that measures IO at mixing ratios less than one part in 10{sup 12}. The IO radical is measured by detecting laser-induced fluorescence at wavelengths longer that 500 nm. Tunable visible light is used to pump the A{sup 2}?{sub 3/2} (v{sup ?} = 2) ? X{sup 2}?{sub 3/2} (v{sup ?} = 0) transition of IO near 445 nm. The laser light is produced by a solid-state, Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser at 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced fluorescence instrument performs reliably with very high signal-to-noise ratios (>10) achieved in short integration times (<1 min). The observations from a validation deployment to the Shoals Marine Lab on Appledore Island, ME are presented and are broadly consistent with in situ observations from European Coastal Sites. Mixing ratios ranged from the instrumental detection limit (<1 pptv) to 10 pptv. These data represent the first in situ point measurements of IO in North America.

  8. The development and deployment of a ground-based, laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the in situ detection of iodine monoxide radicals.

    PubMed

    Thurlow, M E; Co, D T; O'Brien, A S; Hannun, R A; Lapson, L B; Hanisco, T F; Anderson, J G

    2014-04-01

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer. Of particular interest are the roles IO plays in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments and in depletion episodes of ozone and mercury in the Arctic polar spring. This paper describes a ground-based instrument that measures IO at mixing ratios less than one part in 10(12). The IO radical is measured by detecting laser-induced fluorescence at wavelengths longer that 500 nm. Tunable visible light is used to pump the A(2)?3/2 (v(') = 2) ? X(2)?3/2 (v(?) = 0) transition of IO near 445 nm. The laser light is produced by a solid-state, Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser at 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced fluorescence instrument performs reliably with very high signal-to-noise ratios (>10) achieved in short integration times (<1 min). The observations from a validation deployment to the Shoals Marine Lab on Appledore Island, ME are presented and are broadly consistent with in situ observations from European Coastal Sites. Mixing ratios ranged from the instrumental detection limit (<1 pptv) to 10 pptv. These data represent the first in situ point measurements of IO in North America. PMID:24784629

  9. The Development and Deployment of a Ground-Based, Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument for the In Situ Detection of Iodine Monoxide Radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurlow, M. E.; Co, D. T.; O'Brien, A. S.; Hannun, R. A.; Lapson, L. B.; Hanisco, T. F.; Anderson, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer. Of particular interest are the roles IO plays in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments and in depletion episodes of ozone and mercury in the Arctic polar spring. This paper describes a ground-based instrument that measures IO at mixing ratios less than one part in 1012. The IO radical is measured by detecting laser-induced fluorescence at wavelengths longer that 500 nm. Tunable visible light is used to pump the A23/2 (v = 2) ? X23/2 (v = 0) transition of IO near 445 nm. The laser light is produced by a solid-state, Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser at 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced fluorescence instrument performs reliably with very high signal-to-noise ratios (>10) achieved in short integration times (<1 min). The observations from a validation deployment to the Shoals Marine Lab on Appledore Island, ME are presented and are broadly consistent with in situ observations from European Coastal Sites. Mixing ratios ranged from the instrumental detection limit (<1 pptv) to 10 pptv. These data represent the first in situ point measurements of IO in North America.

  10. The development and deployment of a ground-based, laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the in situ detection of iodine monoxide radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurlow, M. E.; Co, D. T.; O'Brien, A. S.; Hannun, R. A.; Lapson, L. B.; Hanisco, T. F.; Anderson, J. G.

    2014-04-01

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer. Of particular interest are the roles IO plays in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments and in depletion episodes of ozone and mercury in the Arctic polar spring. This paper describes a ground-based instrument that measures IO at mixing ratios less than one part in 1012. The IO radical is measured by detecting laser-induced fluorescence at wavelengths longer that 500 nm. Tunable visible light is used to pump the A2?3/2 (v' = 2) ? X2?3/2 (v? = 0) transition of IO near 445 nm. The laser light is produced by a solid-state, Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser at 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced fluorescence instrument performs reliably with very high signal-to-noise ratios (>10) achieved in short integration times (<1 min). The observations from a validation deployment to the Shoals Marine Lab on Appledore Island, ME are presented and are broadly consistent with in situ observations from European Coastal Sites. Mixing ratios ranged from the instrumental detection limit (<1 pptv) to 10 pptv. These data represent the first in situ point measurements of IO in North America.

  11. Use of an iodine active quantum filter for image intensification

    SciTech Connect

    Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K ['Astrofizika' Research and Production Association (Russian Federation); Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-05-31

    Intensification of the image brightness using an iodine active quantum filter is studied experimentally. The image brightness was intensified by a factor of 3000 while preserving the diffraction-limited resolution. The obtained results suggest the possibility of using an iodine active quantum filter in laser ranging and laser probing. (lasers and amplifiers)

  12. Generation of iodine L-shell X-rays under excitation of large CF{sub 3}I clusters by femtosecond laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gordienko, Vyacheslav M; Dzhidzhoev, M S; Zhvaniya, I A; Pribytkov, Andrei V; Trubnikov, Dmitrii N; Fedorov, D O

    2012-11-30

    The use of clusters of polyatomic molecules with a relatively low ionisation energy ({approx}10 eV) is proposed for the efficient production of X-ray radiation. We have observed for the first time the generation of characteristic X-ray radiation due to L transitions in iodine atoms under the high-intensity femtosecond laser irradiation of molecular CF{sub 3}I clusters, which were a small admixture to Ar carrier gas. The X-ray conversion efficiency amounts to {approx}10{sup -6} (for a yield of {approx}10{sup 7} photons per pulse), which is an order of magnitude higher than the efficiency we obtained in the case of argon clusters under comparable conditions. (letters)

  13. Solar pumping: An introduction and update on the technology, performance, costs, and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Roy; McNelis, Bernard; Derrick, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    Although the number of units in the field is still small, solar photovoltaic (PV) powered pumping systems offer many advantages over the more traditional technologies. Because there are few moving parts, maintenance is reduced to a minimum, and reliability is very high. Also, because the time of greatest water demand usually coincides with the maximum daily solar energy, the available pumping power is well matched to the demand. This guide is written for the potential user to give a simple background to PV pumping technology and to help to identify the situations in which solar pumping should be considered. The early chapters act as a guide to those unfamiliar with PV pumping, illustrating typical applications, and reviewing current technology. Following this are sections dealing with the range of currently available equipment and examining experience in the field. The final four sections cover the practical aspects of choosing a pumping system. This includes site evaluation and system sizing, a simple methodology for an economic assessment, and advice on procurement, installation, and maintenance.

  14. Iodine Investigators!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Chemical Society

    2009-01-01

    In this activity on page 7 of the PDF, learners use iodine to identify foods that contain starch. Compare the starch content of a ripe banana, an overripe banana, milk, and flour mixed with water. Use this experiment to introduce learners to starch and how our bodies use starch to break down nutrients during digestion.
    Safety notes: DO NOT eat any tested foods or the iodine. Wear goggles. Follow the safety tips on the bottom of page 7 as well as Milli's safety tips on page 5.

  15. Iodine in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - iodine ... Iodine is needed for the normal metabolism of cells. Metabolism is the process of converting food into energy. Humans need iodine for normal thyroid function, and for the production ...

  16. Absolute frequency measurement of the iodine-stabilized Ar+ at 514.6 nm using a femtosecond optical frequency comb.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Absolute frequency measurement of the iodine-stabilized Ar+ laser at 514.6 nm using a femtosecond laser frequency comb generator. The measured frequency at an iodine pressure of 0.12 Pa is 67.3(0.75) k frequency comb transfer oscillator. Secondary laser frequency references based on iodine absorption lines

  17. Dependence of the molecular iodine B-state predissociation induced by a femtosecond laser pulse on pulse phase modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kostyukevich, Yu I; Umanskii, Stanislav Ya [N N Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-31

    The processes of pumping and laser-induced predissociation of B-states of the I{sub 2} molecule under the action of femtosecond laser pulses are considered theoretically. An analytical formula is derived, which describes the dependence of the predissociation on such parameters of femtosecond pulses as spectral chirp, spectral width and delay time between pulses. The formula is used to calculate numerically the dependence of the predissociation yield on the parameters of the phase modulation of the pump pulse and coupling pulse.

  18. Iodine volatility. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  19. Possibility of separating the isotopes ¹²⁷I and ¹²⁹I with the aid of a photodissociation iodine laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Andreeva; S. V. Kuznetsova; A. I. Maslov; I. I. Sobelman; E. A. Yukov

    1983-01-01

    A method for separating iodine isotopes is proposed, based on the large difference between the rate constants of the excited I*(²P \\/SUB 1\\/2\\/ ) and unexcited iodine atoms with radicals CFâ and with C1â molecules, and on the possibility of selectively acting on the ¹²⁷I atoms in the states ²P \\/SUB 1\\/2\\/ and ²P \\/SUB 3\\/2\\/ by radiation from a

  20. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Share: Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  1. The {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {yields} {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} laser transition in atomic iodine and the problem of search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K ['Astrofizika' Research and Production Association (Russian Federation); Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-31

    It is proposed to search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) at a wavelength of 1.315 {mu}m of the laser {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {yields} {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transition in the atomic iodine, which can be used for this purpose as the natural frequency reference. The search at this wavelength is promising because active quantum filters (AQFs) with the quantum sensitivity limit have been developed for this wavelength, which are capable of receiving laser signals, consisting of only a few photons, against the background of emission from a star under study. In addition, high-power iodine lasers emitting diffraction-limited radiation at 1.315 {mu}m have been created, which highly developed ETI also can have. If a ETI sends in our direction a diffraction-limited 10-ns, 1-kJ laser pulse with the beam diameter of 10 m, a receiver with an AQF mounted on a ten-meter extra-atmospheric optical telescope can detect this signal at a distance of up to 300 light years, irrespective of the ETI position on the celestial sphere. The realisation of the projects for manufacturing optical telescopes of diameter 30 m will increase the research range up to 2700 light years. A weak absorption of the 1.315-{mu}m radiation in the Earth atmosphere (the signal is attenuated by less than 20%) allows the search for ETI signals by using ground telescopes equipped with adaptive optical systems. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  2. The atmospheric chemistry of iodine monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Laszlo, B.; Huie, R.E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The possible role of iodine on tropospheric ozone arid, more recently, stratospheric ozone has been of considerable interest. There have been, however relatively few experimental determination of the chemistry of the important radical, IO. Laser flash photolysis with two-wavelength transient absorption experiments were performed on N{sub 2}O/I{sub 2}+X{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures (X{sub 2} = halogen) at room temperature and total pressure between 8 and 80 kPa. An extended IO absorption spectrum, experimental rate coefficients of IO+IO, IO+O({sup 3}P), IO+BrO, BrO+I and IO+ClO reactions will be presented. Preliminary results show the atmospheric importance of reaction between alkylperoxy radicals and iodine atoms or iodine monoxide radicals. These reactions seem to be important tropospheric iodine sinks.

  3. Frequency locking to the center of a 532 nm iodine absorption line by using stimulated Brillouin

    E-print Network

    Eloranta, Edwin W.

    Frequency locking to the center of a 532 nm iodine absorption line by using stimulated Brillouin a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser to the center of line 1109 of the iodine absorption spectrum is described provides a probe signal that lies on the edge of line 1105 of the iodine spectrum. We adjust the frequency

  4. Recombination of photodissociated iodine: A time-resolved x-ray-diffraction study

    E-print Network

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    Recombination of photodissociated iodine: A time-resolved x-ray-diffraction study M. Wulff European-ray-diffraction experiment is presented that aims to study the recombination of laser-dissociated iodine molecules dissolved. INTRODUCTION The iodine photodissociation and recombination in solu- tions has been studied for 70 years

  5. [Iodine deficiency during pregnancy ].

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O

    2005-09-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient, it would be administered every day with our diet. The main role of this micronutrient is the synthesis of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones are related with brain development and metabolic regulation. Iodine deficit is related with goitre, and an important problem "diseases related with iodine deficiency", including high rate of neonatal mortality, decrease of intelligence, delayed of growth, high rate of aborts and congenital abnormalities.A risk group is pregnant women. Some authors have been demonstrated the utility of iodine supplementation during pregnancy. A systematic review of Cochrane group has shown that iodine supplementation during pregnancy decreased neonatal mortality RR 0.71 (0.56-0.9), and decrease the incidence of cretinism in children under 4 years RR 0.27 (0.12-0.6). As final recommendations, a program in pregnant women must be development to treat with iodine such as we make with folic acid. Pills with iron and iodine (1 mg iron and 25 ug iodine) have been demonstrated better results that pills with iodine. Tablets are the main presentation due to the role of the women in our Society and the work time. Programs of iodine enriched salt have been demonstrated a follow up of 50%. PMID:16386080

  6. Lasers '85; Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference, Las Vegas, NV, Dec. 2-6, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    The present conference on laser technology development encompasses issues in such areas as VUV and X-ray lasers; optical phase conjugation and nonlinear optics; laser applications in medicine; methods for optical processing; laser and nonlinear spectroscopy; ultrashort-pulse lasers and their applications; frequency selection in pulsed lasers; and interactions between laser beams, material surfaces, and material volumes. Also treated are laser applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative program, chemical laser design and performance, the lasing of biophysical materials, laser diagnostics in fluids and plasma, semiconductor laser diodes and arrays, solid state lasers, radiation- and solar-pumped lasers, laser cavities and propagation, remote sensing with lasers and fiber-optics, coupled resonators and diode lasers, industrial applications of lasers, excimer lasers, optoelectronics, CO/sub 2/ lasers, fiber-optic sensors, alexandrite lasers, free electron lasers, and IR and visible wavelength lasers.

  7. [Iodine nutrition and thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Wu, Lian; Yu, Jian-chun; Kang, Wei-ming; Ma, Zhi-qiang

    2013-08-01

    Iodine, an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland, is widely but unevenly distributed in the earth's environment. Great difference exists in the iodine nutritional status of populations residing in different region. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can injure the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency tigers endemic goiter, cretinism, and hyperthyroidism, while iodine excess can result in high iodine goiter, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism; also, iodine deficiency or excess may affect the histological type of thyroid cancer. In 1996, China began to implement the universal salt iodization policy, which has basically eliminated the iodine deficiency disorders nationwide; however, it also caused the changes in the spectra of other thyroid diseases including iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, autoimmune thyroid disease, and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Individualized iodine nutritional status assessment for the populations, particularly those with thyroid diseases, will be beneficial. PMID:23987479

  8. Laser satellite power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walbridge, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

  9. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  10. Spaceborne Photonics Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, D. D.; Farrukh, U. O.; Han, K. S.; Hwang, I. H.; Jalufka, N. W.; Lowe, C. W.; Tabibi, B. M.; Lee, C. J.; Lyons, D.; Maclin, A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes in chronological detail the development of the Spaceborne Photonics Institute as a sustained research effort at Hampton University in the area of optical physics. This provided the research expertise to initiate a PhD program in Physics. Research was carried out in the areas of: (1) modelling of spaceborne solid state laser systems; (2) amplified spontaneous emission in solar pumped iodine lasers; (3) closely simulated AM0 CW solar pumped iodine laser and repeatedly short pulsed iodine laser oscillator; (4) a materials spectroscopy and growth program; and (5) laser induced fluorescence and atomic and molecular spectroscopy.

  11. Deep well solar pump

    SciTech Connect

    Vanek, J.

    1990-02-06

    This patent describes, in a pump having a source of gas under pressure, and a gas operated pump, a mechanism periodically injecting gas from the source of gas into the gas operated pump. It comprises: a long period pendulum turning towards a first position by gravity, an injection valve connected between the source of gas under pressure and the gas operated pump, a linkage between the pendulum and the injection valve. The linkage opening the injection valve when the pendulum is in the first position, an impulse tube connected between the injection valve and the gas operated pump, a member having a surface adjacent to the first position of the pendulum, and an elastic impulse bladder connected to the impulse tube adjacent to the surface so that inflation of the impulse bladder on the opening of the injection valve forces the impulse bladder against the pendulum urging the pendulum against the force of gravity toward a second position.

  12. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  13. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  14. Radioactive iodine uptake

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the testing center so that the amount of radioactivity in the thyroid gland can be measured. This ... The amount of radioactivity is very small, and there have been no documented side effects. The amount of iodine used is less than ...

  15. Laser satellite power systems: concepts and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Walbridge, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by a laser beam. The laser SPS is an alternative to the microwave SPS. Lasers and how they work are described, as are the types of lasers - electric discharge, direct and indirect solar pumped, free electron, and closed-cycle chemical - that are candidates for application in a laser SPS. The advantages of a laser SPS over the microwave alternative are pointed out. One such advantage is that, for the same power delivered to the utility busbar, land requirements for a laser system are much smaller (by a factor of 21) than those for microwave system. The four laser SPS concepts that have been presented in the literature are described and commented on. Finally key issues for further laser SPS research are discussed.

  16. Iodine in Texas Soils.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

    1939-01-01

    LT BKAKY. A Ik M COLLEGE, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 579 OCTOBER 1939 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY IODINE IN TEXAS SOILS AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE... OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] soil Cen 2.2, 1.7 lb U to I tota an *. Iodine was determined in over 400 samples of soil from various xrts of Texas. When the geographical divisions of the state are -ranged...

  17. HWVP Iodine Trap Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Leland L.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2004-09-24

    This report details our assessment of the chemistry of the planned Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) off-gas system and its impact on the applicability of known iodine removal and control methods. To predict the gaseous species in the off-gas system, we completed thermodynamic calculations to determine theoretical equilibrium concentrations of the various potential chemical species. In addition, we found that HWVP pilot-plant experiments were generally consistent with the known chemistry of the individual elements present in the off gas. Of the known trapping techniques for radioiodine, caustic scrubbing and silver-containing sorbents are, in our opinion, the most attractive methods to reduce the iodine concentration in the HWVP melter off gas (MOG) after it has passed through the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. These two methods were selected because they (1) have demonstrated retention factors (RFs), ratio of amount in and amount out, of 10 to 1000, which would be sufficient to reduce the iodine concentration in the MOG to below regulatory limits; (2) are simple to apply; (3) are resistant to oxidizing gases such as NOx; (4) do not employ highly hazardous or highly corrosive agents; (5) require containment vessels constructed or common materials; (6) have received extensive laboratory development; (7) and the radioactive wastes produced should be easy to handle. On the basis of iodine trapping efficiency, simplicity of operation, and waste management, silver sorbents are superior to caustic scrubbing, and, or these sorbents, we prefer the silver zeolites. No method has been fully demonstrated, from laboratory-scale through pilot-plant testing, to be an effective iodine trap at the low iodine concentration (2 x 10-11 mol I/L) expected in the MOG of the HWVP in the presence of the other gaseous off gas components. In terms of compatibility of the trapping technology with the components in the MOG, there is some question about the resistance of the silver zeolite's aluminosilicate matrix to the fluoride component in the off gas. The caustic scrubber has no compatibility problems with the MOG off gas; however, the acidic components such as CO2 will increase the volume of waste produced and could affect the efficiency of the iodine trapping. To apply these gaseous iodine trapping technologies to the HWVP, further development work would be required. Neither method has been demonstrated at the very low iodine concentrations that exist in the off gas, which are 0.01% to 1% of the found in nuclear fuel dissolver off gases for which these technologies were developed. Furthermore, the large excess of other reactive and trappable gases in the HWVP off gas imposes a heavy load on the trapping medium, could impede iodine trapping, and could have deleterious effects on the trapping medium itself. For silver zeolites, other trappable gases such as chlorine, which are in gross excess of the iodine in the off gas, will compete for the active sites in the silver zeolite. In applying a silver zeolite to the HWVP, 99-9% of the silver would be used to trap chlorine with less than 0.1% of the silver employed in the zeolite bed used for iodine trapping. It is also difficult to predict what will happen when the aluminosilicate framework of the zeolite is exposed to the reactive gas, HF, which is also present in the off gas and is known to attack silicates. In the case of caustic scrubbing, because of the low iodine concentration in the off gas, essentially all of the caustic will be used for CO2 removal, a small fraction for chlorine and fluorine removal, and a trace amount for iodine removal. NO2, which should exist largely as NO, will not be removed.

  18. HWVP Iodine Trap Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leland L. Burger; Randall D. Scheele

    2004-01-01

    This report details our assessment of the chemistry of the planned Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) off-gas system and its impact on the applicability of known iodine removal and control methods. To predict the gaseous species in the off-gas system, we completed thermodynamic calculations to determine theoretical equilibrium concentrations of the various potential chemical species. In addition, we found that

  19. Iodine Clock Reaction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site allows the user to vary initial solution concentration and temperature for the iodine clock reaction. A simulation of the reaction lets reaction times be measured. The data can then be used to determine the order of reaction for the various components.

  20. Adsorption of iodine from COIL waste gas on soaked coal-based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junbo; Hao, Shan; Gao, Liping

    2014-04-01

    The chemical oxygen–iodine laser (COIL) has wide application prospects in military, industrial and medical treatment fields as a second generation gas chemical laser to follow the first HF/DF chemical laser. However, a COIL releases large amounts of gas, such as helium, oxygen, chlorine and iodine. Chlorides have a serious corrosive effect on the system, especially iodine vapor crystallization, which seriously endangers the normal use of vacuum systems, and radioactive methyl iodide, which is hazardous to operators and pollutes the environment. The use of soaked coal-based activated carbon as an adsorbent for removing methyl iodine is proposed, while it is proposed that coal-based activated carbon is an effective adsorbent for removing stable iodine. The research conducted in this work shows that iodine residues are less than 0.5 ?g ml?1 after the adsorption treatment and the decontamination factor of the coal-based activated carbon for removing stable iodine is more than 1000. Using this method can achieve the purpose of removing harmful iodine, satisfy the requirements for engineering applications, and also be applied to other nuclear power plant flue gas treatments.

  1. An iodine hypersonic wind tunnel for the study of nonequilibrium reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham-Van-diep, G. C.; Muntz, E. P.; Weaver, D. P.; Dewitt, T. G.; Bradley, M. K.; Erwin, D. A.; Kunc, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    A pilot scale hypersonic wind tunnel operating on pure iodine vapor has been designed and tested. The wind tunnel operates intermittently with a run phase lasting approximately 20 minutes. Successful recirculation of the iodine used during the run phase has been achieved but can be improved. Relevant issues regarding the full scale facility's design and operation, and the use of iodine as a working gas are discussed. Continuous wave laser induced fluorescence was used to monitor number densities within the plume flowfield, while pulsed laser induced fluorescence was used in an initial attempt to measure vibrational energy state population distributions. Preliminary nozzle flow calculations based on finite rate chemistry are presented.

  2. Hypervalent Iodine Reagents in Organic Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Jeff S.

    Hypervalent Iodine Reagents in Organic Synthesis Andrew T. Parsons March 23, 2007 #12;Outline · Background · Iodine(III) reagents · Iodine(V) reagents · Conclusions #12;Hypervalent Iodine: An Introduction Zhdankin, V. V.; Stang, P. J. Chem. Rev. 2002, 102, 2523-2584. · Hypervalent iodine: Species that exceed

  3. Bioassay for iodine-125

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.Y.; Chu, R.Y.L. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City (USA) Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The use of the volatile form of iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) in clinics and laboratories often imposes the responsibility of bioassay on nuclear medicine personnel. The authors reviewed several methods with respect to regulations and guidelines. Urinalysis is sufficiently sensitive when performed within two days of accidental ingestion; however, an action level cannot be set unambiguously. In vivo measurement is preferred. Discussion of this method was illustrated by the calibration of their detector system.

  4. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  5. [Iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents].

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive iodine isotopes may be released to air to a varying degree during accidents with nuclear reactors. Iodine tablets, taken before or shortly after such release, protect against intake of radioactive iodine isotopes, but not against other radionuclides. Iodine prophylaxis can be a relevant countermeasure in Norway and will be implemented according to recommendations from the Crisis Committee for Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. The Chernobyl accident confirmed that the risk for radiogenic thyroid cancer is much higher for foetuses and children and adolescents under 18 years. An epidemiological study showed that intake of iodine tablets could reduce the risk for thyroid cancer by a factor of three. For children, the WHO has therefore recommended a 10 mGy avertable dose to the thyroid. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority acknowledge the WHO guidelines and advise that the first priority of all emergency preparedness planning for potential releases that can cause dispersion of radioactive iodine, should be given to the protection of pregnant and breast-feeding women, newborns and children under 18 years. Iodine tablets should be taken immediately (preferably not later than a few hours) in situations where inhalation of radioactive iodine may occur. It should be underlined that iodine prophylaxis is one of several emergency countermeasures; other measures are sheltering and evacuation. The latter two countermeasures will protect not only from intake of radioactive iodine, but also against other radionuclides that may be released. Based on the present risk assessment in Norway, iodine tablets have been distributed to the counties north of Salten. In addition, there is an emergency stockpile of iodine tablets in Oslo. PMID:17205086

  6. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at different times after exposure as an indicator of thyroid function. Cell damage is assessed by postmortem histopathologic examination. The intent of this endeavor is to relate radiation dose, T4 concentration in the blood stream and cellular damage. This information will help better understand the dose response relationship of thyroid cells exposed to ionizing radiation.

  7. Criteria for the evaluation of laser solar energy converter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Assuming that a parabolic insolation-collection mirror-based solar pumped laser has a collector and heat emitter whose weights are proportional to their areas, and that the weight of the laser is negligible by comparison, the output power/unit weight can be expressed in terms of the efficiencies and working temperatures of the system. This ratio appears to be several times higher for an IBr laser than for one operating on C3F7I, because the solar utilization efficiency is greater for the former despite its lower working temperature.

  8. Optical frequency references for laser interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabina, Jan; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; du Burck, Frédéric; Chiodo, Nicola; ?íp, Ond?ej; Lazar, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Optical frequency references for laser standards based on molecular iodine absorption cells represent one of the most used tool for frequency stabilization of lasers operating in a visible spectral range. In the industry oriented laser measurements and similar laser interferometry applications performed at atmospheric conditions, a refractive index of air plays a role of main uncertainty contributor. In these cases there is no need to use technologically complicated and expensive iodine references made of pure fused silica with precise pressure control of absorpbing media. A set of iodine cells made of borosilicate glass was filled with certain amount of absorbing media to define the saturation point of iodine inside. A combination of these two approaches (pyrex material and controlled saturation pressure of iodine) allows us to simplify the laser stabilization setup (there is no need of additional iodine pressure level control) and reduce the overall reference's costs with ensuring of sufficient frequency stability of the system at the same time. Spectral properties of manufactured cells were tested by hyperfine transitions linewidth measurement and comparison with results from traditional fused silica cells was done to investigate the long-term iodine purity inside the references. As the transitions linewidth method shows a very high sensitivity to iodine purity level, this method is proposed to be an alternative approach in investigation of contamination in iodine absorption cells where traditionally used techniques - laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and absolute frequency shifts measurement - can not be used.

  9. Hypothyroidism following iodine-131 therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, M.T.

    1982-02-01

    A teaching editorial dealing with the hypothyroidism side effect of Iodine-131 radiotherapy is presented. The author reviews two articles in this issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine on the subject, discusses Graves' disease, Iodine 125 radiotherapy, and the patient-physician relationship when dealing with the problem. (JMT)

  10. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  11. Retention of iodine in yttria stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouchon, M. A.; Döbeli, M.; Degueldre, C.

    1999-01-01

    The diffusion behavior of iodine in yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was investigated as a function of the temperature. Iodine implantation was performed in this cubic solid solution by irradiating material samples with 1 MeV iodine ions. The distribution of iodine was evaluated by using TRIM computer calculation and measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) using 5 MeV 4He particle. The iodine profile was quantified after successive temperature steps. At each step the maximum temperature was held for 2 h. It was found, that the iodine profile remained unchanged up to 1373 K. At 1573 K iodine diffused significantly. The iodine profile was measurable up to 1773 K. Even at this high temperature a significant iodine retention is observed. The diffusion coefficient of iodine (3.5 ± 1.4 × 10 -15 cm 2 s -1) is of the same order as the temperature extrapolated data of iodine in monoclinic/tetragonal zirconia.

  12. Resonance Raman/iodine Moessbauer investigation of the starch-iodine structure: aqueous solution and iodine vapor preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Teitelbaum, R.C.; Ruby, S.L.; Marks, T.J.

    1980-05-07

    The structure of the blue-black iodine complex of amylose (the linear, helical component of starch), prepared either from iodine and iodide in aqueous solution or from crystalline amylose and iodine vapor, has been studied by resonance Raman and iodine-129 Moessbauer spectroscopy. In both cases it is concluded that the identity of the major chromophore is essentially the same: the pentaiodide (I/sub 5//sup -/) anion. For the material prepared from iodine vapor, the iodide required for I/sub 5//sup -/ formation is produced by hydrolysis or alcoholysis of iodine. The other product of this reaction, a hypoiodite, has been assigned in the iodine Moessbauer spectrum.

  13. Iodine Tagging Velocimetry in a Mach 10 Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balla, Robert Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    A variation on molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) [1] designated iodine tagging velocimetry (ITV) is demonstrated. Molecular iodine is tagged by two-photon absorption using an Argon Fluoride (ArF) excimer laser. A single camera measures fluid displacement using atomic iodine emission at 206 nm. Two examples ofMTVfor cold-flowmeasurements areN2OMTV [2] and Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging [3]. These, like most MTV methods, are designed for atmospheric pressure applications. Neither can be implemented at the low pressures (0.1- 1 Torr) in typical hypersonic wakes. Of all the single-laser/singlecamera MTV approaches, only Nitric-Oxide Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence-based MTV [4] has been successfully demonstrated in a Mach 10 wake. Oxygen quenching limits transit times to 500 ns and accuracy to typically 30%. The present note describes the photophysics of the ITV method. Off-body velocimetry along a line is demonstrated in the aerothermodynamically important and experimentally challenging region of a hypersonic low-pressure near-wake in a Mach 10 air wind tunnel. Transit times up to 10 µs are demonstrated with conservative errors of 10%.

  14. Linking iodine with autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, N R; Rasooly, L; Saboori, A M; Burek, C L

    1999-01-01

    A great deal of circumstantial evidence has linked iodine with the rising incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis in the United States. In our investigations, we have shown directly that T cells from humans with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis proliferate in the presence of iodinated but not in the presence of noniodinated human thyroglobulin. Moreover, the proliferative response is restored when the thyroglobulin is iodinated artificially in vitro. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, we found evidence that the presence of iodine induces a number of stereochemical changes in the conformation of the molecule, resulting in the loss of some antigenic determinants and the appearance of others. One prominent determinant was associated with the iodine-containing amino acid thyroxine. Both the number and position of the iodine substituents determine the precise specificity of this epitope. A new model for the study of the role of iodine in inducing thyroid autoimmunity has become available in the form of the nonobese diabetic (NOD)-H2(h4) mouse. This animal develops autoimmune thyroiditis spontaneously but in relatively low prevalence. However, if iodine is added to the drinking water, the prevalence and severity of the thyroid lesions increase markedly. The immune response is specific for thyroglobulin, both in terms of the antibody response and T-cell proliferation. In fact, the appearance of lesions can be predicted by the presence of thyroglobulin-specific IgG2b antibody. The disease, moreover, can be transferred adoptively, using spleen cells from iodine-fed donors treated in vitro with iodinated thyroglobulin. The effects of iodine feeding are greater in conventional animals compared with those maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions. Based on T-cell proliferation, it appears that the NOD-H2(h4) strain of mice has innately a greater response to murine thyroglobulin than do other mouse strains and that the proliferation is increased even more by feeding iodine. We suggest, therefore, that the presence of iodine increases the autoantigenic potency of thyroglobulin, a major pathogenic antigen in the induction of autoimmune thyroiditis. This animal model provides a unique opportunity for investigating in detail the mechanisms by which an environmental agent can trigger a pathogenic autoimmune response in a susceptible host. PMID:10502541

  15. Original article Iodine nutrition in ewes : effects of low to high iodine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Iodine nutrition in ewes : effects of low to high iodine intake on iodine content; In a first experiment, 2 groups of 46 and 47 multiparous ewes received diets which provided an iodine intake inorganic iodine (Pit) was less affected by the I intake during lactation than during preg- nancy

  16. Proceedings of the eighth international symposium on gas flow and chemical lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Orza, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers. Topics covered include: excimer lasers, short wavelength lasers, chemical oxygen iodine lasers, CO{sub 2}, CO and NO{sub 2} lasers, gas-dynamic lasers, optics, laser-matter interactions, and laser applications.

  17. Femtosecond Time-Resolved Resonance-Enhanced CARS of Gaseous Iodine at Room Temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping He; Rong-Wei Fan; Yuan-Qin Xia; Xin Yu; Yong Yao; De-Ying Chen

    2011-01-01

    Time-resolved resonance-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is applied to investigate molecular dynamics in gaseous iodine. 40 fs laser pulses are applied to create and monitor the high vibrational states of iodine at room temperature (corresponding to a vapor pressure as low as about 35 Pa) by femtosecond time-resolved CARS. Depending on the time delay between the probe pulse and

  18. [Contact dermatitis caused by PVP-iodine].

    PubMed

    Böckers, M; Bork, K

    1986-07-11

    Allergic contact dermatitis to PVP iodine is rare. Such an occurrence in a 81-year-old woman is reported. Extensive blistering dermatitis developed after local application of a PVP iodine solution. As in all previously described cases of allergic contact dermatitis from PVP iodine, it was a reaction not to the PVP but the free iodine. More important than contact reactions are hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxic crises due to percutaneous or transmucous absorption of iodine or iodide in susceptible persons. PMID:3732060

  19. Crystalline passive shutter for iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenishin, A. S.; Kiselev, V. M.; Krutova, L. I.; Lukin, Alexandre V.; Sandulenko, V. A.

    1994-08-01

    Results of the investigations of the new passive shutter on the base of yttrium-aluminum garnet activated by vanadium ions (V3+) are presented. Wide absorption band (1.2 - 1.4 (mu) ) with maximum on the wavelength 1.34 (mu) corresponds to the electron-vibration transition 3A2 - 3T2 of ions V3+.

  20. Lithium-iodine pacemaker cell

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.A.; Snyder, S.E.; DeVan, T.; Harney, M.J.; Harney, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium-iodine pacemaker cell is described as supplied by several manufacturers. The features of each design are discussed along with their effect on energy density, self-discharge and shape of the discharge curve. Differences in performance characteristics are related to morphology of the lithium iodine electrolyte and to the form of the cathode. A new, high-drain cell is mentioned which can supply 60 /mu/a/cm/sup 2/. 10 refs.

  1. The Seebeck coefficient of iodine

    E-print Network

    Perez-Fernandez, Domingo Miguel

    1968-01-01

    THE SEEBECK COEFFICIENT OF IODINE A Thesis By DOMINGO M. PEREZ-F~EZ Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1968 Major Subject...; Physics THE SEEBECK COEFFICIENT OF IODINE A Thesis By DOMINGO M. PEREZ-FERNANDEZ Approved as to style and content by: ( airman of Co ittee) (Member) (Head of Depa ment) (Member) ( ember) (Member) (Member) January 1968 ACKNONLEDGEMENTS...

  2. Molecular Structure of Iodine pentafluoride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-10

    Iodine pentafluoride was discovered in 1871 by G. Gore. Iodine pentafluoride has square pyrimidal trigonal geometry and is either a colorless gas or liquid at room temperature. The molecule is volatile yet is considered a mild fluorinating agent in comparison with the other halogen fluorides. Since it can be handled in a glass container, it is used in organic chemistry as an agent in the production of alkyl iodides, which in turn are used to synthesize other alkylated organic compounds.

  3. Development of an online method for quantification of maritime molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine containing inorganic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Sven; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of iodine is important in multiple ways. The focus lies on the ability to influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, i.e. by destruction of ozone, and the formation of iodine oxide particles (IOP), i.e. the influence on condensation nuclei (CCN). Using a variation of techniques, like differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS), the reactive iodine species of atomic iodine (I), molecular iodine (I2), iodine monoxide (IO) and iodine dioxide (OIO) have all been detected in the atmosphere from Antarctica to the equatorial marine boundary layer (MBL). In the past few years there have been active research on IO, especially after revealing significant levels in open ocean measurements, OIO and higher iodine oxides. In addition to atmospheric measurements, significant developments in laboratory kinetics, photochemistry and heterogeneous chemistry of iodine species have been accomplished. [1] Here we introduce an online-method for detecting gaseous molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine-containing inorganic compounds such as HOI, which is a further development of the technique used by Carpenter et al. [2]. The method is based on selective photolytic dissociation of the analytes, followed by oxidization and particle formation of the iodine compounds. The particles are than size-segregated and detected by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system. Initial IOP forming is performed in a reaction chamber providing specific wavelengths according to corresponding bond dissociation thresholds. Atmospheric samples can also be pre concentrated by diffusion denuder (with ? Cyclodextrin modified and immobilised silica coating) [3-5] and afterwards released by thermodesorption. First attempts of quantification are carried out by external calibration using an iodine diffusion source and aqueous solution of hypoiodic acid [6]. Preliminary results will be shown. [1] Saiz-Lopez, A.; Plane, J. M.C.; Baker, A. R.; Carpenter, L. J., von Glasow, R.; Gómez Martín, J. C.; McFiggans, G.; Saunders, R. W.; Chem. Rev., 2012, 112, 1773 1804 [2] Carpenter, L. J.; MacDonald, S. M.; Shaw, M. D.; Kumar, R.; Saunders, R.W.; Parthipan, R.; Wilson, J.; Plane, J. M. C.; Nature Geoscience, 2013, 6, 108 111 [3] Huang, R. J.; Hoffmann, T.; Anal. Chemistry, 2009, 81, 1777 1783 [4] Liu, M.; Da, S. L.; Feng, Y. Q.; Li, L. S.; Anal. Chim. Acta, 2005, 533, 89 95. [5] Tsai, M.-Y.; Hsu, C. C.; Chen, P. H.; Lin, C. S.; Chen, A.; Surface Science, 2011, 257, 8640-8646. [6] Muntean, N.; Thuy, L. B.; Kály-Kullai, K.; Wittmann, M.; Noszticzius, Z.; Onel, L.; Furrow, S. D.; J. Phys. Chem. A, 2012, 116, 6630 6642

  4. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  5. PRODUCTION OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHLYER,D.J.

    2001-08-08

    Probably the most widely used cyclotron produced radiohalogen is I-123. It has gradually replaced I-131 as the isotope of choice for diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals containing radioiodine. It gives a much lower radiation dose to the patient and the gamma ray energy of 159 keV is ideally suited for use in a gamma camera. The gamma ray will penetrate tissue very effectively without excessive radiation dose. For this reason, it has in many instances replaced the reactor produced iodine-131 (Lambrecht and Wolf 1973). A great number of radiopharmaceuticals have been labeled using I-123 and the number is increasing. One of the most promising uses of I-123 is in the imaging of monoclonal antibodies to localize and visualize tumors. However, preclinical and clinical experiences with radiolabeled antibodies have not realized the expectations regarding specificity and sensitivity of tumor localization with these agents. It appears that much of the administered activity is not associated with the tumor site and only a small fraction actually accumulates there. Work continues in this area and tumor-associated antigens can be targets for specific antibody reagents.

  6. Original article Iodine nutrition in ewes. 2. Effects of low to high iodine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Iodine nutrition in ewes. 2. Effects of low to high iodine intake by ewes on the iodine (I) levels. Dietary I contents (mg/kg dry matter [DM]) in pregnancy and lactation, respectively inorganic iodine (PII) of lambs from birth to d42 of life was affected by ewe I intake, except for groups

  7. Natural iodine in a clay formation: Implications for iodine fate in geological disposals

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Natural iodine in a clay formation: Implications for iodine fate in geological disposals F. Corresponding author: f.claret@brgm.fr To be submitted to Geochimica Acta Abstract Iodine is one of the most to considerable debate. The present study aims at providing new insights into this aspect of the iodine problem

  8. [Thyroid homeostasis in animals with iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Fabri, Z I

    1988-01-01

    The content of total iodine, its hormonal and nonhormonal fractions as well the level of protein-bound iodine in blood and basic tissue targets in representatives of 4 classes of animals: Esox lucius L., Rana esculenta, Streptopelia decaocto Priv., Lepus europaeus Pall. inhabiting the mountain regions with iodine deficiency in environment and in the lowlands of Transcarpathia with higher iodine provision have been investigated. A considerable decrease of general and hormone iodine level in the animal tissues of the mountain area accompanied by the suppression of the thyroid function has been stated. The utilization of thyroid hormones under the iodine deficiency condition is increased in the majority of cases and the level of protein-bound iodine is lowered that testifies to the transition of animal organism in the iodine-deficient areas to the lower level of thyroid homeostasis. PMID:3265636

  9. The Absorption Spectrum of Iodine Vapour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlow, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described which presents some molecular parameters of iodine molecule by studying iodine spectrum. Points out this experiment can be conducted by sixth form students in high school laboratories. (PS)

  10. Towards graphene iodide: iodination of graphite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimek, Petr; Klímová, Kate?ina; Sedmidubský, David; Jankovský, Ond?ej; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zden?k

    2014-11-01

    Halogenated graphene derivatives are interesting owing to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we present various methods for the synthesis of iodinated graphene derivatives by the iodination of graphite oxides prepared according to either the Hummers or Hofmann method. Both graphite oxides were iodinated by iodine or hydroiodic acid under reflux or in an autoclave at elevated temperatures (240 °C) and pressures (over 100 bar). The influence of both graphite oxide precursors on the properties of resulting iodinated graphenes was investigated by various techniques, including SEM, SEM-EDS, high-resolution XPS, FTIR, STA, and Raman spectroscopy. Electrical resistivity was measured by a standard four point technique. In addition, the electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Although the iodinated graphenes were structurally similar, they had remarkably different concentrations of iodine. The most highly iodinated graphenes (iodine concentration above 30 wt%) exhibited relatively high C/O ratios, confirming high degrees of reduction. Iodine is incorporated in the form of covalent bonds to carbon atoms or as polyiodide anions non-covalently bonded through the charge transfer reaction with the graphene framework. Iodinated graphenes with such properties could be used as the starting material for further chemical modifications or as flame-retardant additives.Halogenated graphene derivatives are interesting owing to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we present various methods for the synthesis of iodinated graphene derivatives by the iodination of graphite oxides prepared according to either the Hummers or Hofmann method. Both graphite oxides were iodinated by iodine or hydroiodic acid under reflux or in an autoclave at elevated temperatures (240 °C) and pressures (over 100 bar). The influence of both graphite oxide precursors on the properties of resulting iodinated graphenes was investigated by various techniques, including SEM, SEM-EDS, high-resolution XPS, FTIR, STA, and Raman spectroscopy. Electrical resistivity was measured by a standard four point technique. In addition, the electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Although the iodinated graphenes were structurally similar, they had remarkably different concentrations of iodine. The most highly iodinated graphenes (iodine concentration above 30 wt%) exhibited relatively high C/O ratios, confirming high degrees of reduction. Iodine is incorporated in the form of covalent bonds to carbon atoms or as polyiodide anions non-covalently bonded through the charge transfer reaction with the graphene framework. Iodinated graphenes with such properties could be used as the starting material for further chemical modifications or as flame-retardant additives. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05219f

  11. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  12. Perchlorate, iodine and the thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    In pharmacologic doses, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodine uptake and subsequently decreases thyroid hormone production. Although pharmacologic doses may be used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, recent literature has focussed on the detection of low levels of perchlorate in the environment, groundwater and foodstuffs and their potential adverse effects on human thyroid function. This is of particular concern to the developing foetus and infant, whose normal neurodevelopment depends on adequate iodine intake for the production of thyroid hormones. Further research is needed to clarify the potential health effects of low-level chronic environmental perchlorate exposure. The health impact of environmental perchlorate may be dependent upon adequate iodine intake and should be interpreted in combination with other environmental exposures that are also potential thyroidal endocrine disruptors. PMID:20172477

  13. Laser Welding in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1989-01-01

    Solidification type welding process experiments in conditions of microgravity were performed. The role of convection in such phenomena was examined and convective effects in the small volumes obtained in the laser weld zone were observed. Heat transfer within the weld was affected by acceleration level as indicated by the resulting microstructure changes in low gravity. All experiments were performed such that both high and low gravity welds occurred along the same weld beam, allowing the effects of gravity alone to be examined. Results indicate that laser welding in a space environment is feasible and can be safely performed IVA or EVA. Development of the hardware to perform the experiment in a Hitchhiker-g platform is recomended as the next step. This experiment provides NASA with a capable technology for welding needs in space. The resources required to perform this experiment aboard a Shuttle Hitchhiker-pallet are assessed. Over the four year period 1991 to 1994, it is recommended that the task will require 13.6 manyears and $914,900. In addition to demonstrating the technology and ferreting out the problems encountered, it is suggested that NASA will also have a useful laser materials processing facility for working with both the scientific and the engineering aspects of materials processing in space. Several concepts are also included for long-term optimization of available solar power through solar pumping solid state lasers directly for welding power.

  14. Prostatorectal fistula associated with iodine seed radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Mouli; R. Sharifi; P. Ray; G. Baumgartner; P. Guinan

    1983-01-01

    We report 4 cases of prostatorectal fistula following 125iodine interstitial radiotherapy. While 125iodine interstitial radiotherapy has become a popular form of treatment for localized prostate cancer, it is not without potential serious complications. Transurethral resection may be contraindicated before or after 125iodine therapy for prostate tumor.

  15. The Many Paths of Hypervalent Iodine Reactions

    E-print Network

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    The Many Paths of Hypervalent Iodine Reactions Ryan McFadden Stoltz Literature Group Meeting June! In Outline I. What is Hypervalency? A. The Martin-Arduengo Notation B. Bonding in Hypervalent Iodine Compounds C. A Brief History of IBX and DMP II. Oxidation Chemistry of Hypervalent Iodine A. Oxidations

  16. 5, 2564, 2008 Iodine speciation and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 5, 25­64, 2008 Iodine speciation and cycling in lakes B. S. Gilfedder et al. Title Page Discussions Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Iodine­64, 2008 Iodine speciation and cycling in lakes B. S. Gilfedder et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  17. 7, 9951016, 2007 Iodine and Bromine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 995­1016, 2007 Iodine and Bromine speciation in snow B. S. Gilfedder et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Iodine and Bromine speciation in snow and the effect of elevation B. S.gilfedder@ugc.uni-heidelberg.de) 995 #12;ACPD 7, 995­1016, 2007 Iodine and Bromine speciation in snow B. S. Gilfedder et al. Title Page

  18. 8, 79778008, 2008 Iodine speciation in

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 8, 7977­8008, 2008 Iodine speciation in rain, snow and aerosols B. S. Gilfedder et al. Title.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Iodine speciation in rain, snow and aerosols and possible transfer of organically bound iodine species from aerosol to droplet phases B. S. Gilfedder 1

  19. 8, 29532976, 2008 Iodine release from

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 2953­2976, 2008 Iodine release from sea-ice A. Saiz-Lopez and C. S. Boxe Title Page.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions A mechanism for biologically-induced iodine­2976, 2008 Iodine release from sea-ice A. Saiz-Lopez and C. S. Boxe Title Page Abstract Introduction

  20. Sublimation of Iodine at Various Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, Ilya A.

    2005-01-01

    Various phenomena that are observed in the process of heating solid iodine in closed vessels at different pressures and temperatures are described. When solid iodine is heated in an evacuated ampoule where the pressure is less than 10(super -3), no noticeable color appears and immediate condensation of tiny iodine crystals is visible higher up on…

  1. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  2. Iodine Deficiency Disorder and Clinical Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto IITAKA

    2004-01-01

    Most iodine is present in marine sediment, and large amounts are contained in marine algae and saltwater fish. Thus, there is a risk of iodine defi- ciency in the interior of continents and in countries where marine products are not consumed. Because of the large amounts of algae consumption, iodine deficiency never develops in Japan. According to the World Health

  3. [Prophylaxis iodine deficit: information support].

    PubMed

    Dzhatdoeva, F A; Gerasimov, G A; Syrtsova, L E; Polesski?, V A; Rasova, L K; Krasil'shchikov, M I

    2011-01-01

    An insufficient intake of micronutrients has massive and permanent nature and influence negatively to health, growth and vitality of the entire nation. One-third part of Russian schoolchildren suffer from deficiency of iron and iodine. Every year in Russia 215,000 children are born with brain damages associated with iodine deficiency. Raising the public awareness regarding the risks and prevention of micronutrient deficiency is the key issue of public health and nutrition. The study which included 4500 respondents in the Urals Federal District showed 2-4-fold increase awareness of the respondents in different positions after the communication campaign for prevention of micronutrient deficiency. PMID:21692351

  4. Advanced prototype automated iodine monitor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The technique of detecting and measuring parts-per-million concentrations of aqueous iodine by direct spectrophotometric means is discussed, and development of a prototype Automated Iodine Monitoring/Controller System (AIMS) is elaborated. The present effort is directed primarily toward reducing the power requirement and the weight of the AIMS. Other objectives include determining the maximum concentration of iodine that can be dissolved in an alcohol solution, and in an aqueous potassium iodide solution. Also discussed are the effects of a no flow condition on iodine measurements and the effect of pH on spectrophotometric iodine determinations.

  5. An innovative approach for iodine supplementation using iodine-rich phytogenic food.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huan-Xin; Liu, Hui-Ping; Li, De-Wang; Ye, Mingli; Pan, Lehua; Xia, Tian-Hong

    2014-08-01

    Iodine, as one of the essential trace elements for human body, is very important for the proper function of thyroid gland. In some regions, people are still suffering from iodine deficiency disorder (IDD). How to provide an effective and cost-efficient iodine supplementation has been a public health issue for many countries. In this review, a novel iodine supplementation approach is introduced. Different from traditional iodine salt supplement, this approach innovatively uses cultivated iodine-rich phytogenic food as the supplement. These foods are cultivated using alga-based organic iodine fertilizer. The feasibility, mechanics of iodine absorption of plants from soil and the bioavailability of iodine-rich phytogenic food are further discussed. PMID:24504625

  6. Absolute frequency measurement of iodine lines with a femtosecond optical synthesizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Holzwarth; A. Yu. Nevsky; M. Zimmermann; Th. Udem; T. W. Hänsch; J. von Zanthier; H. Walther; J. C. Knight; W. J. Wadsworth; P.St.J. Russell; M. N. Skvortsov; S. N. Bagayev

    2001-01-01

    .   We have used a single laser femtosecond optical frequency synthesizer together with a widely tunable Nd:YAG laser to measure\\u000a the absolute frequency of several absorption lines in molecular iodine around 532 nm. The use of two different repetition\\u000a frequencies allows us to determine the number of modes used for the frequency measurement unambiguously. The lines also provide\\u000a data for the

  7. Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Layer Device Simulation Using the 3D, unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Madden

    2007-01-01

    The time-dependent, chemically reacting, viscous fluid dynamics within the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) flowfield are simulated using the unsteady, laminar, multi-component Navier-Stokes equations. The solutions of these equations are generated within simulations of COIL hardware at standard operating conditions; conditions predicted in previous simulations to be unsteady. These current simulations ascertain the effect of the flow unsteadiness upon the laser

  8. Exploding conducting film laser pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Ware, K.D.; Jones, C.R.

    1984-04-27

    The 342-nm molecular iodine and the 1.315-..mu..m atomic iodine lasers have been optically pumped by intense light from exploding-metal-film discharges. Brightness temperatures for the exploding-film discharges were approximately 25,000 K. Although lower output energies were achieved for such discharges when compared to exploding-wire techniques, the larger surface area and smaller inductance inherent in the exploding-film should lead to improved efficiency for optically-pumped gas lasers.

  9. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  10. Hypervalent Iodine in Synthesis. 90. A Mild and Efficient Method for the Iodination of Pyrazoles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Ping Cheng; Zhen-Chu Chen; Qin-Guo Zheng

    2003-01-01

    The combined reagent of iodobenzene diacetate (or polymer-supported iodobenzene diacetate) with iodine was used as an effective iodinating agent of pyrazoles to the corresponding 4-iodopyrazole derivatives at room temperature with high yields.

  11. Effect of iodine disinfectant source and water quality parameters on soluble iodine speciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Joann; Hurst, Charles; Barkley, Robert; Dunham, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Investigations of iodine species distribution of various aqueous solutions of iodine disinfectants and water from equilibrated suspensions of triodide and pentaiodide resins were done at the University of Colorado for the Center for Space Environmental Health during 1992 and 1993. Direct measurements of three individual iodine species: I(-), I2 and I3(-), were made. In addition three measures of total titratable iodine species were used. It has been found that I2 and I3(-) solutions produce a significant fraction of the non-disinfecting species iodine I(-), ranging from 50 to 80% of added iodine, respectively, at pH values of approximately 5. Correspondingly, I2 solutions produce more than twice the concentration of disinfecting iodine species per mass iodine dose than I3(-) solutions. Both I(-) and I2 species were found in aqeuous extracts of pentaiodide resin, although no soluble species were detected with triiodide resin.

  12. Iodine loss from iodised salt on heating.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, A; Maharda, N S; Ambardar, V K; Dham, D N; Magdum, M; Sankar, R

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders constitute a major public health problem in India. The national IDD control programme (NIDDCP) relies solely on iodine supplementation through fortification of common salt with potassium iodate. However, data regarding iodine loss due to high temperatures of cooking procedure is scarce. Using iodometric titration methods, we calculated iodine content of iodised salt samples subjected to incremental heat up to 350 degree Celsius. The results of the study indicate a gradual but minimal loss of iodine content from the iodised salt samples when subjected to high temperature with a maximum loss noticed being 18.5% at 350 degree Celsius. We conclude that there is minimal loss of iodine from the salt fortified with potassium iodate when subjected to heating (temperature normally attained during cooling process). PMID:10771934

  13. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible. PMID:15703706

  14. Iodine prophylaxis and nuclear accidents.

    PubMed

    Frani?, Z

    1999-06-01

    Due to high volatility and environmental mobility, radioactive isotopes of iodine pose a serious risk in the acute phases of a nuclear accident. The critical organ for iodine is the thyroid. A number of studies dealing with thyroid protection from exposure to radioiodine have shown that radioiodine uptake by the thyroid can be effectively blocked by administration of stable iodine, usually in the form of potassium iodide (KI) pills. However, unless perfectly timed, this protective action may be counterproductive. The International Atomic Energy Agency recommends potassium iodide prophylaxis in cases when an avertable thyroid dose by protective action exceeds 100 mGy. This paper reviews experiences and practices with potassium iodide in the thyroid protection. This kind of information should serve as the basis for discussion and decision making on KI prophylactic programmes in nuclear emergency situations in Croatia. If Croatia adopts such programme, it will still have to develop the most effective way of KI stockpiling and distribution or predistribution. PMID:10566200

  15. Disposal of radioactive iodine in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Defield, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of space disposal of iodine waste from nuclear power reactors is investigated. The space transportation system utilized relies upon the space shuttle, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen orbit transfer vehicle, and a solid propellant final stage. The iodine is assumed to be in the form of either an iodide or an iodate, and calculations assume that the final destination is either solar orbit or solar system escape. It is concluded that space disposal of iodine is feasible.

  16. IODINE--ITS REMOVAL FROM GAS STREAMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geldart

    1960-01-01

    S>I¹³⁵ removal from reactors is important because it is a health ; hazard and a precursor of Xe¹³⁵. Since iodine is a readily condensable ; vapor, its removal presents problems, e.g., aerosol or dust particles in air will ; absorb iodine vapcr. Therefore, the choice of a suitable iodine treatment system ; must be made bearing in mind the possible

  17. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated...

  1. Detection of iodine monoxide in the tropical free troposphere

    E-print Network

    Detection of iodine monoxide in the tropical free troposphere Barbara Dixa , Sunil Baidara 19, 2012) Atmospheric iodine monoxide (IO) is a radical that catalytically destroys heat trapping implications for our understanding of iodine sources. Surprisingly, the IO concentration remains elevated

  2. Current challenges in meeting global iodine requirements.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Creswell J; Jooste, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a global problem of immense magnitude afflicting 2 billion of the world's population. The adverse effects of iodine deficiency in humans, collectively termed iodine deficiency disorders, result from decreased thyroid hormone production and action, and vary in severity from thyroid enlargement (goiter) to severe, irreversible brain damage, termed endemic cretinism. Thyroid hormone is essential throughout life, but it is critical for normal brain development in the fetus and throughout childhood. During pregnancy, maternal thyroid hormone production must increase by 25-50% to meet maternal-fetal requirements. The principal sources of iodine in the diet include milk and dairy products, seafoods and foods with added iodized salt. Vegetables, fruits and cereals are generally poor sources of iodine because most of our soils and water supplies are deficient in iodine. The accepted solution to the problem is Universal Salt Iodization where all salt for human and animal consumption is iodized at a level of 20-40 µg/g. In principle, mandatory fortification represents the most effective public health strategy where safety and efficacy can be assured and there is a demonstrated need for the nutrient in the population. Voluntary fortification of salt and other foods has many limitations and few benefits. Iodine supplementation is a useful, but expensive, inefficient and unsustainable strategy for preventing iodine deficiency. The current worldwide push to decrease salt intake to prevent cardiovascular disease presents an entirely new challenge in addressing iodine deficiency in both developing and developed countries. PMID:25825304

  3. Automated iodine monitor system. [for aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of a direct spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water was established. An iodine colorimeter, was built to demonstrate the practicality of this technique. The specificity of this method was verified when applied to an on-line system where a reference solution cannot be used, and a preliminary design is presented for an automated iodine measuring and controlling system meeting the desired specifications. An Automated iodine monitor/controller system based on this preliminary design was built, tested, and delivered to the Johnson Space Center.

  4. Interaction of povidone-iodine compounds, phagocytic cells, and microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Van den Broek, P J; Buys, L F; Van Furth, R

    1982-01-01

    The interaction between povidone-iodine, phagocytic cells, and microorganisms was studied. Three preparations of povidone-iodine were investigated: commercially available povidone-iodine solution Betadine, pure high-molecular-weight povidone-iodine as used in Betadine, and a low-molecular-weight povidone-iodine. Low concentrations of povidone-iodine (approximately 0.005%) have considerable activity in vitro. The concentrations used clinically (0.1 to 20%) are toxic for granulocytes and monocytes. Leukocytes reduce the in vitro microbicidal activity of povidone-iodine. No differences of any importance were found between the three preparations of povidone-iodine. PMID:7181472

  5. A resonance Raman/iodine Moessbauer investigation of the starch-iodine structure: aqueous solution and iodine vapor preparations. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Teitelbaum, R.C.; Ruby, S.L.; Marks, T.J.

    1980-03-05

    The structure of the blue-black iodine complex of amylose (the linear, helical component of starch) prepared either from iodine and iodide in aqueous solution or from crystalline amylose and iodine vapor, has been studied by resonance Raman and iodine-129 Moessbauer spectroscopy. In both cases it is concluded that the identity of the major chromophore is essentially the same: the pentaiodide (I(5-1)) anion. For the material prepared from iodine vapor, the iodide required for (I(5-1)) formation is produced by hydrolysis or alcoholysis of iodine. The other product of this reaction, a hypoiodite, has been assigned in the iodine Moessbauer spectrum.

  6. Oriented grain growth in ZnO thin films by Iodine doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Deepu; Vattappalam, Sunil C.; Mathew, Sunny; Augustine, Simon

    2015-02-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption Reaction (SILAR) method. Oriented grain growth in Iodine doped ZnO thin films were studied. The oriented grain growth in samples was studied by comparing the peak intensities from X-ray diffraction data and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that oriented grain growth significantly enhanced by Iodine doping. When the oriented grain growth increases, crystallinity of the thin film improves, resistance and band gap decrease. ZnO thin films having good crystallinity with preferential (002) orientation is a prerequisite for the fabrication of devices like UV diode lasers, acoustic- optic devices etc. A possible mechanism for the oriented grain growth is also investigated. It is inferred that creation of point defects is responsible for the enhanced oriented grain growth in ZnO thin films when doped with iodine.

  7. Thyroid Cancer Following Exposure to Radioactive Iodine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob Robbins; Arthur B. Schneider

    2000-01-01

    Although external radiation is a well-known cause of human thyroid cancer, the risk from exposure of the thyroid gland to internal radiation is not well defined. This is of practical importance because of the extensive use of radioactive iodine in medical practice and the potential for release of iodine radionuclides into the environment. The purpose of this review is to

  8. Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

    2009-03-01

    A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

  9. The geochemistry of iodine — a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Fuge; Christopher C. Johnson

    1986-01-01

    Iodine has long been recognised as an important element environmentally. Despite this there are many gaps in our knowledge of its geochemistry and even where information is available much of this is based on old data which, in the light of recent data, are suspect.Iodine forms few independent minerals and is unlikely to enter most rock-forming minerals. In igneous rocks

  10. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock…

  11. Iodine deficiency disorders in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kiyu, A; Tambi, Z; Ahmad, Y

    1998-12-01

    The state of Sarawak in Malaysia has a high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). This has been revealed through a review of goitre surveys that were carried out in the State from the early 1970s to the 1990s. The primary cause was low iodine intake. Contributory factors were low iodine content in the soil and water as well as high cassava consumption. Virtual elimination of IDD is one of the nutritional goals of the IDD prevention and control programs. The strategies adopted include the iodination of coarse salt, which is sold in the market by shopkeepers and also provided free from government health clinics; legislation requiring that salt sold in IDD-gazetted areas must be iodised; and the use of iodinators to iodise water supplied by the gravity-feed system to villages and boarding schools in rural areas. The indicators used in the monitoring and evaluation of the program include the availability of iodised salt in the market and households, iodine levels in water supply that had been fitted with iodinators, goitre volume measured by ultrasound, and urinary iodine excretion among school children. PMID:24393680

  12. Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Button, Suzanne; Rayman, Margaret P

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is required for adequate thyroid hormone production, which is essential for brain development, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Milk is the principal source of iodine in UK diets, and while small studies in Europe have shown organic milk to have a lower iodine concentration than conventional milk, no such study has been conducted in Britain. In view of the increasing popularity of organic milk in the UK, we aimed to compare the iodine concentration of retail organic and conventional milk and to evaluate regional influences in iodine levels. Samples of organic milk (n 92) and conventional milk (n 80), purchased from retail outlets in sixteen areas of the UK (southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland), were analysed for iodine using inductively coupled plasma MS. The region of origin of the milk was determined from information on the label. Organic milk was 42·1 % lower in iodine content than conventional milk (median iodine concentration 144·5 v. 249·5 ng/g; P < 0·001). There was no difference in the iodine concentration of either conventional or organic milk by area of purchase. However, a difference was seen in iodine concentration of organic milk by region of origin (P < 0·001). The lower iodine concentration of organic milk has public-health implications, particularly in view of emerging evidence of iodine deficiency in UK population sub-groups, including pregnant women. Individuals who choose organic milk should be aware that their iodine intake may be compromised and should ensure adequate iodine intake from alternative sources. PMID:21781365

  13. Immobilization of iodine in soil-water systems and its relation to iodine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Iodine tends to accumulate in thyroid, and radioactive 131I and 129I are threatening to human health both short-term and long-term, respectively. It is thus important to understand iodine behavior in surface environments. Possible iodine species are I-, IO3-, I2, and organo-iodine species. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) connected to ICP-MS were used to determine iodine species in soil and pore water, respectively. Soil and pore water samples were collected at depths of 0 to 12 cm near a tube well in Yoro, Chiba, Japan, where surface soil is flooded with brine containing iodine of 5.8 mg/L. Soil samples were also collected at depths of 0 to 90 cm in Yakushima Island, Kagoshima, Japan. The soil samples were frozen, and iodine K-edge XANES were measured at BL01B1, SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan). Soil samples were buried into resin and prepared as thin sections, and mapping of iodine in soil grain was obtained using ?-XRF analysis at BL37XU, SPring-8. HPLC-ICP-MS, equipped with anion exchange or size exclusion column, was used to determine iodine species in pore water. Yoro: The depth profile of iodine concentration in soil correlates quite well with that of organic carbon content. XANES spectra are almost identical to that of humic substances at any depth (Fig. 1). Iodine mapping shows that iodine exists in organic matter more than clay minerals and iron rich mineral. Iodine in pore water exists as I- and organic iodine bound to dissolved humic substances at 0-6 cm, and mainly as I- at 9-12 cm, respectively. Thus, iodine tends to be bound to organic materials in soil as organic iodine, where as iodine in pore water exists mainly as I-. Yakushima: Iodine concentration is higher in volcanic ash soil layer (25-55 cm) than surface organic rich soil layer (0-25 cm). XANES spectrum of volcanic ash soil was different from those of reference materials (Fig. 1). Volcanic ash soil in Yakushima contains imogolite and allophane. Iodide has greater affinity to imogolite than ferrihydrite[1]. It is suggested that clay minerals, such as imogolite, are also important to retain iodine especially in volcanic ash soils. [1] Yu et al. 1996, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60, 4945-4956. Fig. 1 XANES spectra of standard materials and soil samples.

  14. Production of iodine atoms by RF discharge decomposition of CF3I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirásek, Vít; Schmiedberger, Josef; ?enský, Miroslav; Kodymová, Jarmila

    2011-03-01

    Generation of atomic iodine by dissociation of CF3I in a RF discharge was studied experimentally in a configuration ready for direct use of the method in an oxygen-iodine laser. The discharge was ignited between coaxial electrodes with a radial distance of 3.5 mm in a flowing mixture of 0.1-0.9 mmol s-1 of CF3I and 0.5-6 mmol s-1 of buffer gas (Ar, He) at a pressure of 2-3 kPa. The discharge stability was improved by different approaches so that the discharge could be operated up to a RF source limit of 500 W without sparking. The gas leaving the discharge was injected into the subsonic or supersonic flow of N2 and the concentration of generated atomic iodine and gas temperature were measured downstream of the injection. An inhomogeneous distribution of the produced iodine atoms among the injector exit holes was observed, which was attributed to a different gas residence time corresponding to each hole. The dissociation fraction was better with pure argon as a diluting gas than in the mixture of Ar-He, although the variation in the Ar flow rate had no significant effect on CF3I dissociation. The dissociation fraction calculated from the atomic iodine concentration measured several centimetres downstream of the injection was in the range 7-30% when the absorbed electric energy ranged from 200 to 4000 J per 1 mmol of CF3I. The corresponding values of the fraction of power spent on the dissociation decreased from 8% to 2% and the energy cost for one iodine atom increased from 30 to 130 eV. Due to a possible high rate of the atomic iodine loss by recombination after leaving the discharge, these values were considered as lower limits of those achieved in the discharge.

  15. Fluorescence analysis of iodinated acetophenone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Crivelaro, F; Oliveira, M R S; Lima, S M; Andrade, L H C; Casagrande, G A; Raminelli, C; Caires, A R L

    2015-03-15

    In the present paper the synthesis and optical characterization of iodinated acetophenone, 4-hydroxy-3-iodoacetophenone and 4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodoacetophenone obtained from 4-hydroxyacetophenone, were carried out. The optical features of iodinated molecules were determined by performing the UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and thermal lens spectroscopies. The results showed that the optical properties of the 4-hydroxyacetophenone is altered when the iodine atom is inserted, as substituent, in the aromatic ring. Although it was determined that the optical feature was changed when one iodine atom was inserted in the aromatic ring (4-hydroxy-3-iodoacetophenone), the results revealed that emission behavior was strongly altered when two iodine atoms (4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodoacetophenone) were acting as substituents: the fluorescence quantum efficiency increases approximately 60%. PMID:25554953

  16. Atmospheric Oxidation of Iodinated Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, J. J.; Wine, P. H.; Nicovich, J. M.; Huskey, D. T.; Allen, J. E.; Piety, C. A.; McKee, M. L.; Wallington, T. J.; Hurley, M. D.; Javadi, M. S.; Nielsen, O. J.

    2007-12-01

    Iodinated hydrocarbons are emitted from natural, mostly oceanic, sources. The high fluxes of these species (dominated by methyl iodide, but including larger species as well) and their short photochemical lifetime imply potentially significant impacts on the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. Recently, we have employed a variety of experimental and theoretical methods to study the oxidation of organic iodides under atmospheric conditions. Compounds studied include a model compound, CF3CH2I, as well as ethyl and propyl iodides. While our studies have generally involved Cl-atom initiated processes, many of the results can be generalized to OH-initiated attack. General concepts to be discussed, in the context of the atmospheric behavior of these species, include: 1) The rates of destruction of iodinated organics via reaction with Cl-atom, and a comparison with other loss processes; 2) Oxidation pathways and end-product distributions, with a focus on the formation of alkenes from decomposition of beta-iodoalkyl radicals; and the mechanism of the reaction of alpha-iodoalkyl radicals with molecular oxygen; and 3) The reversible formation of Cl / iodoalkane adducts, and the subsequent chemistry of these species.

  17. Thermochemistry of small iodine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulková, K.; Federi?, J.; Louis, F.; Cantrel, L.; Demovi?, L.; ?ernušák, I.

    2013-11-01

    We present a systematic study of the thermochemistry for a set of iodine species relevant to atmospheric chemistry. The reactions include H, O and I atoms and H2, OH, HI, I2, iodine monoxide, hypoiodous acid (HOI) and H2O species. The calculations presented were performed using completely renormalized coupled cluster theory including single, double and non-iterative triple substitutions in conjunction with the ANO-RCC basis sets developed for scalar relativistic calculations. The second-order spin-free Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian was used to account for the scalar relativistic effects. The calculations also included spin-orbit corrections and semi-core correlation contributions. The resulting reaction enthalpies and Gibbs energies at 298 K have been compared with the experimental data. On the basis of a set of selected reactions we suggest an updated value for ? f H298K° of HOI based on the set of isogyric reactions: -69.0 ± 3.7 kJ mol-1.

  18. Urinary Iodine Clearance following Iodinated Contrast Administration: A Comparison of Euthyroid and Postthyroidectomy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Janice D.; Tsang, James F.; Scoggan, Kylie A.; Leslie, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To compare iodine clearance following iodinated contrast administration in thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and euthyroid individuals. Methods. A convenience population (6 thyroidectomised thyroid cancer patients and 7 euthyroid controls) was drawn from patients referred for iodinated contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) studies. Subjects had sequential urine samples collected up to 6 months (50 samples from the thyroidectomised and 63 samples from the euthyroid groups). t-tests and generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used to test for group differences in urinary iodine creatinine ratios. Results. Groups had similar urinary iodine creatinine ratios at baseline, with a large increase 2 weeks following iodinated contrast (P = 0.005). Both groups had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline by 4 weeks, with no significant group differences overall or at any time point. Conclusions. Thyroidectomised patients did not have a significantly different urinary iodine clearance than euthyroid individuals following administration of iodinated contrast. Both had a return of urinary iodine creatinine ratios to baseline within 4 weeks. PMID:25478285

  19. Current iodine nutrition status and awareness of iodine deficiency in tuguegarao, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Jeong, Jee-Yeong; Seok, Kwang-Hyuk; Lee, Andrew S; Oak, Chul Ho; Kim, Ghi Chan; Jeong, Chae-Kyeong; Choi, Sung In; Afidchao, Pablo M; Choi, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is one of the countries where adequate iodine status has been achieved. However, iodine deficiency still remains an important public health problem in this country. In this study, we evaluated iodine nutrition status and investigated an awareness status of iodine deficiency targeting high school students of Tuguegarao, Philippines. A total of 260 students provided samples for urinary iodine analysis, among which 146 students completed thyroid volume measurement by ultrasonography and answering the questionnaires. The median urinary iodine level was 355.3?µg/L and only 3.8% of the students were in the range of iodine deficiency status according to the ICCIDD criteria. Although 62.3% of students answered that they can list problems resulting from iodine deficiency, a majority of students (70.5%) were unable to identify problems other than goiter. They did not appreciate that adequate iodine levels are important during pregnancy and for development of children. 33.6% of students answered that they did not use iodized salt and the biggest reason was that they did not find it necessary. Based on these results, we suggest that a future strategy should be focused on vulnerable groups to completely eliminate iodine deficiency, including women at their reproductive ages and during pregnancy. PMID:25374598

  20. Current Iodine Nutrition Status and Awareness of Iodine Deficiency in Tuguegarao, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Seok, Kwang-Hyuk; Lee, Andrew S.; Oak, Chul Ho; Kim, Ghi Chan; Jeong, Chae-Kyeong; Choi, Sung In; Afidchao, Pablo M.; Choi, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is one of the countries where adequate iodine status has been achieved. However, iodine deficiency still remains an important public health problem in this country. In this study, we evaluated iodine nutrition status and investigated an awareness status of iodine deficiency targeting high school students of Tuguegarao, Philippines. A total of 260 students provided samples for urinary iodine analysis, among which 146 students completed thyroid volume measurement by ultrasonography and answering the questionnaires. The median urinary iodine level was 355.3?µg/L and only 3.8% of the students were in the range of iodine deficiency status according to the ICCIDD criteria. Although 62.3% of students answered that they can list problems resulting from iodine deficiency, a majority of students (70.5%) were unable to identify problems other than goiter. They did not appreciate that adequate iodine levels are important during pregnancy and for development of children. 33.6% of students answered that they did not use iodized salt and the biggest reason was that they did not find it necessary. Based on these results, we suggest that a future strategy should be focused on vulnerable groups to completely eliminate iodine deficiency, including women at their reproductive ages and during pregnancy. PMID:25374598

  1. [Characteristics of iodine uptake and accumulation by vegetables].

    PubMed

    Hong, Chun-Lai; Weng, Huan-Xin; Yan, Ai-Lan; Xie, Ling-Li

    2007-10-01

    With seaweed iodine and KI as exogenous iodine sources, a pot experiment was conducted to study the characteristics of iodine uptake and accumulation by pakchoi cabbage, celery, capsicum, and radish. The results showed that the iodine content in the edible parts of test vegetables increased with increasing amount of exogenous iodine, but the iodine accumulation rate differed with the kinds of vegetables, in the order of pakchoi > celery > radish > capsicum. The majority of iodine was accumulated in roots, with lesser amount transferred to shoots. The distribution of iodine in vegetables was commonly in the order of root > leaf > stem > fruit, but the iodine in radish is lower in its rhizome than in its shoot. Low concentrations (0-25 mg x kg(-1)) of exogenous iodine had little effects on the growth of vegetables, while high concentrations (> or = 50 mg x kg(-1)) of it had inhibitory effects, resulting in a decreased vegetable biomass. The sensitivity of test vegetables to the adverse effect of exogenous iodine was in the order of capsicum > pachoi > celery > radish. Compared with seaweed iodine, KI decreased the biomass of first cutting significantly (P < 0.05), but for the second cutting, little difference was observed between these two iodine sources. The uptake and accumulation of these two iodine sources by vegetables also differed with cuttings, i.e., the first cutting vegetables absorbed more KI, while the second cutting vegetables absorbed more seaweed iodine (P < 0.05), suggesting that seaweed iodine had a longer efficacy than KI. PMID:18163316

  2. Iodine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by mouth. Preventing soreness and swelling inside the mouth, caused by chemotherapy treatments for cancer, when applied directly to the affected area. Foot ulcers associated with diabetes, when applied directly to ...

  3. Thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Laurent; Gaona, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    A critical evaluation has been made of the thermodynamic properties reported in the literature for 43 organic iodine compounds in the solid, liquid, or ideal gas state. These compounds include aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic iodides, iodophenols, iodocarboxylic acids, and acetyl and benzoyl iodides. The evaluation has been made on the basis of carbon number systematics and group additivity relations, which also allowed to provide estimates of the thermodynamic properties of those compounds for which no experimental data were available. Standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 °C and 1 bar and heat capacity coefficients are reported for 13 crystalline, 29 liquid, and 39 ideal gas organic iodine compounds, which can be used to calculate the corresponding properties as a function of temperature and pressure. Values derived for the standard molal Gibbs energy of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of these crystalline, liquid, and ideal gas organic iodine compounds have subsequently been combined with either solubility measurements or gas/water partition coefficients to obtain values for the standard partial molal Gibbs energies of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of 32 aqueous organic iodine compounds. The thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds calculated in the present study can be used together with those for aqueous inorganic iodine species to predict the organic/inorganic speciation of iodine in marine sediments and petroleum systems, or in the near- and far-field of nuclear waste repositories.

  4. Selective iodine imaging using lanthanum K fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Rutt, B K; Cunningham, I A; Fenster, A

    1983-01-01

    Time-dependent subtraction techniques have tremendously improved the visualization of iodinated vessels. These techniques suffer from motion artifacts, however, since the mask image is acquired several seconds prior to the contrast image. A K-edge subtraction technique for selectively imaging iodine using the characteristic x rays from a lanthanum secondary target is presented. The K alpha lines of lanthanum closely straddle the K edge of iodine. A prepatient iodine filter will alter the ratio of K alpha 1 to K alpha 2 intensities; by subtracting two images made with different K alpha 1/K alpha 2 ratios, iodinated structures can be isolated. Since the method requires no mask image, motion artifacts are reduced. Preliminary images acquired with an image intensifier/photodiode array detector system are shown. Theoretical performance of this method is compared to other iodine-selective imaging techniques on the basis of exposure and dose. The feasibility of using lanthanum K fluorescence for rapid clinical iodine-selective imaging is discussed. PMID:6361506

  5. Method and apparatus for removing iodine from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H. (Monroeville, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing iodine-131 and iodine-125 from a liquid sodium reactor coolant. Non-radioactive iodine is dissolved in hot liquid sodium to increase the total iodine concentration. Subsequent precipitation of the iodine in a cold trap removes both the radioactive iodine isotopes as well as the non-radioactive iodine.

  6. Computation of iodine species concentrations in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Flanagan, David T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    During an evaluation of the use of iodine as a water disinfectant and the development of methods for measuring various iodine species in water onboard Space Freedom, it became necessary to compute the concentration of the various species based on equilibrium principles alone. Of particular concern was the case when various amounts of iodine, iodide, strong acid, and strong base are added to water. Such solutions can be used to evaluate the performance of various monitoring methods being considered. The authors of this paper present an overview of aqueous iodine chemistry, a set of nonlinear equations which can be used to model the above case, and a computer program for solving this system of equations using the Newton-Raphson method. The program was validated by comparing results over a range of concentrations and pH values with those previously presented by Gottardi for a given pH. Use of this program indicated that there are multiple roots to many cases and selecting an appropriate initial guess is important. Comparison of program results with laboratory results for the case when only iodine is added to water indicates the program gives high pH values for the iodine concentrations normally used for water disinfection. Extending the model to include the effects of iodate formation results in the computer pH values being closer to those observed, but the model with iodate does not agree well for the case in which base is added in addition to iodine to raise the pH. Potential explanations include failure to obtain equilibrium conditions in the lab, inaccuracies in published values for the equilibrium constants, and inadequate model of iodine chemistry and/or the lack of adequate analytical methods for measuring the various iodine species in water.

  7. Consensus statement on iodine deficiency disorders in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    But, Betty; Chan, C W; Chan, Fredriech; Chan, K W; Cheng, Anna W F; Cheung, Patrick; Choi, K L; Chow, C B; Chow, Francis C C; Eastman, Creswell; Fok, T F; Fung, L M; Gomes, Cynthia; Huen, K F; Ip, T P; Kung, Annie W C; Lam, Karen S L; Lam, Y Y; Lao, Terence; Lee, C Y; Lee, K F; Leung, Jenny; Leung, N K; Li, Dominic; Li, June; Lo, K W; Lo, Louis; Ng, K L; Siu, S C; Tam, Sidney; Tan, Kathryn C B; Tiu, S C; Tse, H Y; Tse, Winnie; Wong, Gary; Wong, Shell; Wong, William; Yeung, Vincent T F; Young, Rosie; Yu, C M; Yu, Richard

    2003-12-01

    This article reviews the available data on the study of iodine deficiency disorders in Hong Kong and to discuss the approach towards preventing such disorders in Hong Kong. The importance of iodine and iodine deficiency disorders is described, and the available data on the dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine concentration in different populations of Hong Kong are summarised and discussed. Dietary iodine insufficiency among pregnant women in Hong Kong is associated with maternal goitrogenesis and hypothyroxinaemia as well as neonatal hypothyroidism. Borderline iodine deficiency exists in the expectant mothers in Hong Kong. Women of reproductive age, and pregnant and lactating women should be made aware and educated to have an adequate iodine intake, such as iodised salt, as an interim measure. A steering group involving all stakeholders should be formed to advise on the strategy of ensuring adequate iodine intake, including universal iodisation of salt in Hong Kong. Continuous surveillance of iodine status in the Hong Kong population is necessary. PMID:14660812

  8. Effect of chronic douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine on iodine absorption and thyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-07-01

    Daily vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine in 12 euthyroid volunteers for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum total iodine concentration and urine iodine excretion. The increase in serum total iodine was associated with a marked decrease in 24-hour /sup 123/I uptake by the thyroid and a small but significant increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. However, values for serum TSH never rose above the normal range. No significant changes in serum thyroxine (T4), free T4 index (FTI), or triiodothyronine concentrations were observed, although serum T4 and FTI did decrease slightly during treatment. The findings suggest that iodine is absorbed across the vaginal mucosa and that the subsequent increase in serum total iodine does induce subtle increases in serum TSH concentration. There was no evidence, however, of overt hypothyroidism in these euthyroid women.

  9. A novel concept to derive iodine status of human populations from frequency distribution properties of a hair iodine concentration.

    PubMed

    Prejac, J; Višnjevi?, V; Drmi?, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N; Mom?ilovi?, B

    2014-04-01

    Today, human iodine deficiency is next to iron the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries, respectively. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine that reflects the very recent iodine exposure, whereas some long term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Population (n870) hair iodine (IH) respective median was 0.499?gg(-1) (0.482 and 0.508?gg(-1)) for men and women, respectively, suggesting no sex related difference. We studied the hair iodine uptake by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy and excess. We estimated the overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration is below 0.15?gg(-1). Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.15-2.0?gg(-1) (r(2)=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0?gg(-1) and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Hair appears to be a valuable and robust long term biological indicator tissue for assessing the iodine body status. We propose adequate iodine status to correspond with the hair iodine (IH) uptake saturation of 0.565-0.739?gg(-1) (55-65%). PMID:24629671

  10. Exploding conducting film laser pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Ware, Kenneth D. (San Diego, CA); Jones, Claude R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    Exploding conducting film laser optical pumping apparatus. The 342-nm molecular iodine and the 1.315-.mu.m atomic iodine lasers have been optically pumped by intense light from exploding-metal-film discharges. Brightness temperatures for the exploding-film discharges were approximately 25,000 K. Although lower output energies were achieved for such discharges when compared to exploding-wire techniques, the larger surface area and smaller inductance inherent in the exploding-film should lead to improved efficiency for optically-pumped gas lasers.

  11. Electrical measurements on the system tetrahydrofuran–polytetrahydrofuran–iodine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Cataldo

    2001-01-01

    The ‘gel electrolyte’ composed of polytetrahydrofuran (POLYTHF), tetrahydrofuran (THF) and iodine has been prepared by heating near to the ceiling temperature the iodine solution in THF or by electrolyzing the iodine–THF solutions at room temperature. In both cases, the freshly prepared systems iodine–THF and POLYTHF–THF–iodine have been characterized by several electrical measurements in AC and DC current. The conductivity of

  12. Theoretical studies of solar lasers and converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The research described consisted of developing and refining the continuous flow laser model program including the creation of a working model. The mathematical development of a two pass amplifier for an iodine laser is summarized. A computer program for the amplifier's simulation is included with output from the simulation model.

  13. Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Babad, Harry (Richland, WA); Strachan, Denis M. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M.sub.2 O.3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. 6SiO.sub.2.2MX, where M=alkali metal; X=I.sup.- or IO.sub.3.sup.-) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800.degree. to 1100.degree. C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite.

  14. Thermal iodine release of surface-implanted iodine in zirconia and its affect on hull disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossard, F.; Chevarier, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Sainsot, Ph.; Crusset, D.; Jaffrezic, H.

    2000-06-01

    During the reactor processing fission products, among which iodine is one, are implanted by recoil inside the Zircaloy cladding tube, most of them being distributed within the first 2 ?m. At the same time, oxidation of the cladding tubes occurs and therefore in the waste disposal phase zirconia will act as the first migration barrier. In order to analyse the mechanisms involved in iodine migration, stable and radioactive iodine atoms were introduced in oxidised zirconium samples by means of ion implantation at the near surface (mean range around 50 nm). Iodine thermal-release was measured either by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) or ?-spectroscopy.

  15. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. 415.430...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. The...

  16. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. 415.430...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. The...

  17. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. 415.430...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. The...

  18. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. 415.430...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. The...

  19. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. 415.430...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory. The...

  20. Teaching the Rovibronic Spectroscopy of Molecular Iodine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2007-01-01

    The rovibronic spectroscopy of molecular iodine provides a clearer understanding of the electronic potential parameters of various systems to the undergraduate students. The technique also helps them to test the various other quantum mechanical concepts.

  1. Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  2. The Electronic Spectrum of Iodine Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Ian J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents equations and techniques for calculating and interpreting many of the spectroscopically important parameters associated with the ground and second excited states of the iodine molecule. (Author/CS)

  3. A solar simulator-pumped gas laser for the direct conversion of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. R.; Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Most proposed space power systems are comprised of three general stages, including the collection of the solar radiation, the conversion to a useful form, and the transmission to a receiver. The solar-pumped laser, however, effectively eliminates the middle stage and offers direct photon-to-photon conversion. The laser is especially suited for space-to-space power transmission and communication because of minimal beam spread, low power loss over large distances, and extreme energy densities. A description is presented of the first gas laser pumped by a solar simulator that is scalable to high power levels. The lasant is an iodide C3F7I that as a laser-fusion driver has produced terawatt peak power levels.

  4. Iodine - Its possible role in tropospheric photochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Chameides; D. D. Davis

    1980-01-01

    A detailed study of the photochemistry of iodine and its oxides indicates that iodine species may play an important role in the tropospheric photochemical system. Methyl iodide, often observed in the marine troposphere with an average concentration of 5-10 ppt, is photolyzed and thereby produces I atoms. Chemical interactions with O3, HxOy, and NOx cause I to be converted to

  5. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle manually controlled readily automated to start and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is bed provides highly concentrated biocide source when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  6. Absence of bacterial resistance to povidone iodine.

    PubMed Central

    Houang, E T; Gilmore, O J; Reid, C; Shaw, E J

    1976-01-01

    Povidone iodine is now being increasingly used in hospitals as an antiseptic. The possible habituation of bacteria to iodine was studied by serial passage of two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two strains of Escherichia coli, two strains of Klebsiella aerogenes, and one strain of Serratia marcescens in subinhibitory concentrations. After 20 passages, no significant change was observed in the minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal bactericidal concentration, and killing times between parent strains and 20th subcultures under standardized conditions. PMID:821972

  7. Study of iodine diffusion in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, E.; van der Berg, N. G.; Malherbe, J. B.; Kuhudzai, R. J.; Botha, A. J.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.

    2010-10-01

    Diffusion of iodine in 6H-SiC and polycrystalline CVD-SiC was investigated using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and electron microscopy. A fluence of 1 × 10 16 cm -2 of 127I + was implanted with an energy of 360 keV at room temperature, producing an amorphous surface layer of approximately 220 nm thickness. The implantation profile reached an atomic density of approximately 1.3% at the projected range of about 95 nm. Broadening of the implantation profile and iodine loss through the front surface during isochronal and isothermal vacuum annealing was determined. At a temperature of 1100 °C no iodine loss was observed after 120 h and a diffusion coefficient of less than 10 -21 m 2 s -1 was extracted from the analysis of profile widths. Relatively strong broadening occurred after 60 h annealing at 1200 °C with the iodine profile extending beyond 300 nm into the bulk, accompanied by a surprisingly modest iodine loss through the surface. Electron microscopic studies reveal a drastic restructuring of the surface region at this temperature, indicating possible chemical reactions between iodine and silicon carbide.

  8. Intraperitoneal povidone-iodine in experimental peritonitis.

    PubMed Central

    Lagarde, M C; Bolton, J S; Cohn, I

    1978-01-01

    Two experimental models were utilized to study the efficacy of intraperitoneal povidone-iodine in an established peritonitis. In both models, there was a 100% mortality in the povidone-iodine treated group. In laboratories which have reported favorable results, the animals were treated before peritonitis was allowed to develop. Clinical studies with povidone-iodine lavage have used dilute solutions which did not remain in the infected space. The effectiveness of this method was probably due to mechanical continuous irrigation. Our toxicity studies showed povidone-iodine to be fatal in normal animals in dosages exceeding 4.0 ml/kg. However, a dose of 2.0 ml/kg, which was nontoxic in normal animals, was fatal in animals with peritonitis. This study strongly suggests that the intraperitoneal administration of povidone-iodine can be fatal when the animal is compromised by peritonitis. The mechanism of this effect is unclear. On the basis of these studies, the intraperitoneal administration of povidone-iodine cannot be recommended for therapy of peritonitis. PMID:646500

  9. Noise-immune laser receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit

    SciTech Connect

    Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K ['Astrofizika' Research and Production Association (Russian Federation); Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    We consider the operation principles of noise-immune near-IR receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit, in which active quantum filters based on iodine photodissociation quantum amplifiers and iodine lasers are used. The possible applications of these devices in laser location, laser space communication, for the search for signals from extraterrestrial civilisations and sending signals to extraterrestrial civilisations are discussed. (invited paper)

  10. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Macelroy, R. D.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodine was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

  11. Maternal Iodine Status and Thyroid Volume during Pregnancy: Correlation with Neonatal Iodine Intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. A. Smyth; A. M. T. HETHERTON; D. F. SMITH; M. RADCLIFF; C. O'HERLIHY

    1997-01-01

    Differences in pregnancy-associated alterations in thyroid vol- ume and urinary iodine (UI) excretion have been attributed to geographical variations in dietary iodine intake. In this study, ultrasound-measured thyroid volume and UI excretion were as- sessed during the 3 trimesters of pregnancy, at delivery, and at 6 weeks postpartum. Urine specimens also were obtained from moth- ers and both breast- and

  12. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-10-15

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect.

  13. Effects of Increased Iodine Intake on Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China. PMID:25309781

  14. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  15. Design of TEM00 mode side-pumped Nd:YAG solar laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Joana; Liang, Dawei

    2014-12-01

    An alternative solar laser pumping approach is here proposed to improve substantially TEM00 mode solar laser power. The solar radiation is both collected and concentrated by four Fresnel lenses, and redirected towards a laser head by four plane folding mirrors. A secondary concentrator with four semi-cylindrical fused silica lenses is designed to compress the highly concentrated solar radiation to a Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. Optimum pumping conditions and laser resonator parameters are found through ZEMAX© and LASCAD© numerical analysis. The proposed design offers a uniform absorbed pump distribution along the laser rod which has a minimum in its central region, reducing considerably thermal lensing effects. High order mode laser power of 83 W is numerically attained with a short symmetric laser resonant cavity, leading to high collection efficiency of 20.8 W/m2 for side-pumped Nd:YAG solar laser. Large spatial overlap between the pumped volume and the fundamental mode volume is found for an asymmetric laser resonator with concave end mirrors of large radius of curvature. 47.4 W TEM00 laser output power is numerically achieved, leading to a solar laser beam brightness figure of merit of 32 W. This value is 16.8 times more than the previous record for solar-pumped laser.

  16. Construction of an inexpensive molecular Iodine spectrometer using a self developed Pohl wavemeter around 670 nm wavelength

    E-print Network

    Barthwal, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    We describe construction of an inexpensive Iodine Spectrometer with a home made Iodine vapour cell and a self developed wavemeter based on Pohl Interferometer, around 670 nm wavelength.This can be easily realised in an undergraduate teaching laboratory to demonstrate use of a diode laser interferometry using a Pohl interferometer and measurement of wavelength using image processing techniques.Visible alternative to the IR diode lasers, 670 nm diode laser used here give chance to undergraduate students to perform comprehensive though illustrative atomic physics experiments including the Zeeman effect, the Hanle effect, Magneto Optic Rotation (MOR) effect with a little tweaking in the present spectrometer. The advantage of the spectrometer is its ease of construction with readily available optics, electronics, evacuation and glass blowing facilities and easy analysis algorithm to evaluate the wavelength. The self developed algorithm of raster scanning and circular averaging gives the researcher insight into the...

  17. Iodine Supplementation: Usage “with a Grain of Salt”

    PubMed Central

    Prete, Alessandro; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    Iodine supplementation through salt iodization is a worldwide, effective strategy for preventing iodine deficiency-related problems. Its safety and efficacy profile has been extensively investigated, and benefits far outweigh the potential iodine-induced risks. Moreover, iodine supplementation during pregnancy in order to avoid brain damage in the newborn is considered a mainstay of preventive medicine. Exposure to high amounts of iodine is actually well tolerated in most cases and can be unrecognized. Nevertheless, at-risk individuals may develop thyroid dysfunction even when they are exposed to increases in iodine intake universally considered as safe. Iodine-induced thyroid disorders include thyroid autoimmunity, thyrotoxicosis, iodine-induced goiter, and hypothyroidism. Moreover, a relationship between iodine intake and histotype distribution of differentiated thyroid cancer has been observed, with a progressive shift from follicular to papillary thyroid cancer. To date, evaluating iodine status in a clinical setting has limitations, and assessing the actual risk for each individual can be challenging, since it is influenced by personal history, genetics, and environmental factors. In conclusion, iodine supplementation programs need to be continued and strengthened, but iodine should be used “with a grain of salt,” because a growing number of susceptible individuals will be exposed to the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid disorders. PMID:25873950

  18. Chamber studies of atmospheric iodine chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxmann, J.; Nájera, J.; Schmitt, S.; Bleicher, S.; Pöhler, D.; Horbanski, M.; Platt, U.; Zetzsch, C.; Bloss, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    Iodine chemistry has been shown to occur through much of the marine boundary layer (MBL). It leads to significant impacts upon atmospheric oxidising capacity, ozone levels and particle number concentration; however, there are major uncertainties in our knowledge of the iodine chemical reaction system, which limit our ability to accurately quantify these impacts using atmospheric models. In this work we report the results of novel atmospheric simulation chamber experiments, to study aspects of the fast gas-phase inorganic iodine oxide chemistry. We consider two specific issues here: First, in the presence of moderate levels of NO2, most current models predict that most active iodine should exist as INO3 (whose lifetime is controlled primarily by photolysis) and that levels of IO and OIO should be minimal. This is in contrast to observations from recent field measurements from semi-polluted coastal MBL locations which find significant levels of IO in the presence of NOx. Explanations include possible reactions of INO3 with I or O3 regenerating IO, or errors in the INO3 photochemical parameters. Second, while ozone loss is almost universally cited as a reason to study atmospheric iodine chemistry, calculations of the actual ozone destruction rate which results from a given iodine source term are rather uncertain - as we do not have quantitative understanding of the fate of the many potential iodine oxide species formed. This limits our ability to predict the steady state IO levels which will exist in equilibrium with a given iodine source term, and the resulting ozone loss rate. Recent field measurements in the MBL struggle to reconcile the observed IO with the measured iodine sources - indicating that additional sources exist, or alternatively that the model representation of the gas-phase iodine sink via higher iodine oxides is incorrect. We report the results from experiments performed in a 3.5 m3 indoor PTFE atmospheric simulation chamber located at BayCEER. Iodine species were produced from the controlled addition of a range of precursor molecules (I2, CH2I2, CH3I), photolysed using a solar simulator. I atoms and IO radicals were monitored using resonance fluorescence (the first such chamber measurements performed) and cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Experiments across a range of conditions were used to investigate the IOx-O3-NOx system. The data suggest that INO3 photolysis is rapid, dominating removal in the MBL and reducing the need for additional INO3 reactions to explain the field data, and determine the in situ chemical ozone removal rate resulting from a given iodine source strength / production rate. These results are considered in the context of previous laboratory and chamber studies, and their consequences for interpretation of atmospheric field data are discussed.

  19. Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light-water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled, and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 16 refs.

  20. [Iodine deficiency: current situation and future prospects].

    PubMed

    De Benoist, Bruno; Delange, François

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is a major public health problem worldwide. WHO estimates that 740 million people are currently affected by goitre. The consequences of iodine deficiency on health are the results of hypothyroidism and the main one is impaired development of foetal brain. IDD is the first cause of preventable brain damage in children. The recommended strategy to correct IDD rests upon salt iodisation. Over the last 20 years, the international community mobilised to eliminate IDD under the leadership of WHO, Unicef and ICCIDD. It resulted in remarkable progress in IDD control, especially in Africa and in South East Asia where the endemic is the most severe. It is estimated that 68% of the populations of affected countries have currently access to iodised salt. However, out of the 130 affected countries, about 30 have no programme. Besides, salt quality control and monitoring of population iodine status are still weak in many countries, thus exposing the population to an excessive iodine intake and subsequently to the risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism. In addition, IDD is re-emerging in some countries, especially in Eastern Europe after it had disappeared. In order to reach the goal of IDD elimination, it is important to insist on the sustainability of salt iodisation programmes, which implies an increased commitment of both health authorities and representatives of the salt industry. PMID:11943633

  1. Effects of the air pressure on the wave-packet dynamics of gaseous iodine molecules at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rongwei; He, Ping; Chen, Deying; Xia, Yuanqin; Yu, Xin; Wang, Jialing; Jiang, Yugang

    2013-02-01

    Based on ultrafast laser pulses, time-resolved resonance enhancement coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (RE-CARS) is applied to investigate wave-packet dynamics in gaseous iodine. The effects of air pressure on the wave-packet dynamics of iodine molecules are studied at pressures ranging from 1.5 Torr to 750 Torr. The RE-CARS signals are recorded in a gas cell filled with a mixture of about 0.3 Torr iodine in air buffer gas at room temperature. The revivals and fractional revival structures in the wave-packet signal are found to gradually disappear with rising air pressure up to 750 Torr, and the decay behaviors of the excited B-state and ground X-state become faster with increasing air pressure, which is due to the collision effects of the molecules and the growing complexity of the spectra at high pressures.

  2. Dynamics of production of iodine atoms by dissociation of iodides in a pulsed self-sustained discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Vagin, Nikolai P; Kochetov, Igor' V; Napartovich, A P; Yuryshev, Nikolai N

    2013-07-31

    Absorption at the laser transition has been used for the first time to assess the evolution of concentration of iodine atoms in a pulsed self-sustained discharge in mixtures of iodides with a buffer gas such as molecular nitrogen and helium. Dynamics of the iodine atom production is studied by the method of absorption spectroscopy. The dissociation of C{sub n}F{sub 2n+1}I and CnH{sub 2n+1}I (n = 1, 2) iodides is investigated. The energy required to produce atomic iodine is evaluated. The experimental data obtained for CF{sub 3}I are compared with the results of numerical simulations, their reasonable agreement being demonstrated. (active media)

  3. Iodination of EGF 1. 1 mCi 125

    E-print Network

    Pike, Linda J.

    Iodination of EGF Materials 1. 1 mCi 125 I (from Amersham, IMS 30) 2. 0.25 M PO4 buffer, pH 7.5 3 55 iodination tube Procedure Do the iodination in the fume hood with tube clamped to ring stand ml buffer through it). 6. Apply iodination mixture (1 ml) to top. Collect 1 ml flow through at bottom

  4. The Ozone-Iodine-Chlorate Clock Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T. P.; Monteiro, Emily V.; Pereira, Juliano R. T.; Faria, Roberto B.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions. PMID:24386257

  5. Workshop on iodine releases in reactor accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Principal conclusions from the workshop can be summarized: Observed environmental releases of iodine from actual reactor accidents are several factors of 10 smaller than those predicted by licensing bases. The presence of water apparently prevents large fractions of iodine released from fuel from being airborne, either inside or outside containments or other enclosures. There is evidence that with fuel overheating in a loss-of-coolant accident iodine will be released mainly as cesium iodide, a thermodynamically stable substance which dissolves in water. Exaggerated estimates of potential accident releases can contribute to unfounded actions by public officials and unwarranted physical and mental stress damage to the public. Ten presentations were made at the workshop. These presentations are summarized and the viewographs used are given in this document. Separate abstracts were prepared for three presentations. (DCL)

  6. Multiple-photon laser-induced fluorescence. [HS and DS radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Tiee, J.J.; Ferris, M.J.; Loge, G.W.; Wampler, F.B.; Hartford, A.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of multiple-photon laser-induced fluorescence has been used to study the spectroscopy and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and free radicals. Among the species investigated were iodine atoms (I), carbon monoxide (CO), molecular iodine (I/sub 2/), and HS and DS radicals. 7 figures.

  7. Congenital Hypothyroidism Caused by Excess Prenatal Maternal Iodine Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Kara J.; Boston, Bruce A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Sesser, David; Snyder, David; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pino, Sam; LaFranchi, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    We report the cases of 3 infants with congenital hypothyroidism detected with the use of our newborn screening program, with evidence supporting excess maternal iodine ingestion (12.5 mg/d) as the etiology. Levels of whole blood iodine extracted from their newborn screening specimens were 10 times above mean control levels. Excess iodine ingestion from nutritional supplements is often unrecognized. PMID:22841183

  8. The Behaviour ofIodine in the Terrestrial Environment.

    E-print Network

    The Behaviour ofIodine in the Terrestrial Environment. An Investigation of the Possible Roskilde, Denmark Febtuary 1990 #12;1 Risø-M-2851 THE BEHAVIOUR OF IODINE IN THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT influence the migration behaviour of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is stated that the organic

  9. TESTS ON ABSORBERS FOR IODINE AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Morris; C. H. Rumary

    1963-01-01

    A room (volume = 1,500 m³) was used as the working volume in which ; low iodine concentrations for test purposes were generated. Various carbons, gas ; coke, copper and silver metal, wet scrubbers, filters, and double systems ; (absorber + filter) were tested for their iodine removal properties. Although ; the iodine concentration in the room decreased with time

  10. Redox Transformations and Transport of Cesium and Iodine

    E-print Network

    Redox Transformations and Transport of Cesium and Iodine (-1, 0, +5) in Oxidizing and Reducing, to study the redox chemistry (I) and transport (Cs, I) of cesium and iodine in a field setting. Injection of iodide (I- ) into an oxic zone of the aquifer resulted in oxidation of I- to molecular iodine (I2

  11. Iodine Doped P3AT Structure 5.1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Winokur, Michael

    105 Chapter 5 Iodine Doped P3AT Structure 5.1 Introduction Compared with undoped P3ATs, only by the Osaka group [62,134--137]. Although the work associated with this thesis deals solely with iodine vapor \\Gamma 4 , AsF \\Gamma 6 , p­TS and Iodine) in P3ATs with side chain lengths ranging from butyl

  12. SEMI-AUTOMATED DETERMINATION OF HORMONAL IODINE WITHOUT INCINERATION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SEMI-AUTOMATED DETERMINATION OF HORMONAL IODINE WITHOUT INCINERATION G. CABELLO M.C. MICHEL.B.I. is a good clinical test which permits the detection of most thyroid malfunctions; however, iodinated therapy dif- ficulties inusing it for the study of thyroid function. The determination of hormonal iodine

  13. Iodine evolution from nuclear fuel dissolver solutions by air sparging

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.G.; Holland, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    Iodine removal rates were measured from air-sparged nitric acid solutions in experiments designed to simulate part of the iodine recovery system in an advanced fuel reprocessing flowsheet. Variables studied were temperature, sparge rate, and iodine and acid concentrations. Experimental mass transfer coefficients were determined and compared to results based on correlations available in the literature.

  14. Facile Oxidative Rearrangements Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Fateh V; Rehbein, Julia; Wirth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic substituents migrate in a novel oxidative cyclization mediated by iodine(III) reagents. 4-Arylbut-3-enoic acids are cyclized and rearranged to 4-arylfuran-2(5H)-ones by hypervalent iodine compounds in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Other ring sizes are also accessible. The mechanism of the reaction is described in detail, and calculations highlight the cationic nature of the intermediates in the rearrangement. The fast access to heavily substituted furanones is used for the synthesis of biologically active derivatives. PMID:24551514

  15. Equilibria in trialkylarsine oxide-iodine solutions

    E-print Network

    Kolar, Frank Lee

    1966-01-01

    ]ect: Chemistry EQUILIBRIA IN TRIALKYLARSINE OXIDE-IODINE SOLUTIONS A Thesis Frank Lee Kolar Approved as to style and content by: ~a Chairman of C mit ee Head of Department member member iamb r :day 1966 ACKNOWLZDGZMENTS I would like to express my.... Absorption spectra, concentrations given in Table I. )5 ~ Fig. 3b. Absorption spectra, concentrations given in Table II. TABLE III The Calculation of 6 for the System Tri-n-octylarsine -1 at 45' C. by the Bose-Drape Equation Oxide-Iodine Spectral...

  16. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend its useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle was manually controlled in demonstration, readily automated to start and stop according to signals and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is that regeneration bed provides highly concentrated biocide source (200 mg/L) when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  17. Iododerma following topical povidone-iodine application.

    PubMed

    Aliagaoglu, Cihangir; Turan, Hakan; Uslu, Esma; Albayrak, Hulya; Yazici, Serkan; Kaya, Ertugrul

    2013-10-01

    A 43-year-old male patient presented with two well-demarcated, elevated plaques, measuring 4?cm in diameter, with yellow-black crusts over it that appeared 3?d earlier. With the help of history, physical examination and histopathological features, the patient was diagnosed with iododerma secondary to topical povidone-iodine use. Iododerma develops frequently after oral or intravenous but rarely after topical use of iodine. Its pathogenesis is not well-known though it is widely believed that it is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:23560395

  18. Femtosecond Time-Resolved Resonance-Enhanced CARS of Gaseous Iodine at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ping; Fan, Rong-Wei; Xia, Yuan-Qin; Yu, Xin; Yao, Yong; Chen, De-Ying

    2011-04-01

    Time-resolved resonance-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is applied to investigate molecular dynamics in gaseous iodine. 40 fs laser pulses are applied to create and monitor the high vibrational states of iodine at room temperature (corresponding to a vapor pressure as low as about 35 Pa) by femtosecond time-resolved CARS. Depending on the time delay between the probe pulse and the pump/Stokes pulse pairs, the high vibrational states both on the electronically ground states and the excited states can be detected as oscillations in the CARS transient signal. It is proved that the femtosecond time-resolved CARS technique is a promising candidate for investigating the molecular dynamics of a low concentration system and can be applied to environmental and atmospheric monitoring measurements.

  19. Natural iodine and iodine-129 in mammalian thyroids and environmental samples taken from locations in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P. Brauer; J. K. Soldat; H. Tenny; R. S. Jr. Strebin

    1973-01-01

    From symposium on enviromnental surveillance around nuclear ; installation; Warsaw, Poland (5 Nov 1973). Bovine and other mammalian thyroids, ; air, precipitation, water, grass, and milk samples from selected locations were ; analyzed for their natural iodine and iodine-129 content. Particle filters and ; activated charcoal beds were used to collect the particulate and gaseous iodine ; fractions from the

  20. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 ?g iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs. PMID:23818889

  1. Iodine flow rate measurement for COIL with the chemical iodine generator based on absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weili; Zhang, Yuelong; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Mingxiu; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting

    2015-02-01

    A dual-components absorption method based on absorption spectroscopy was described in the paper. It can easily eliminate the influence of the serious contamination and aerosol scattering on IFR measurement by utilizing the absorptions of iodine vapor and chlorine on two different wavelengths respectively. According to the character that there is no other gaseous product in the reaction besides iodine vapor, IFR in real time can be obtained by the connections of the pressure and the flow rate among chlorine remainder, iodine vapor, and the buffer gas. We used this method to measure IFR for the first time at the exit of a chemical iodine generator. The average of IFR is coincident with that calculated by chemical weighting mass.

  2. Source And Sink Of Iodine For Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed system for controlling concentration of iodine in potable water exploits temperature dependence of equilibrium partition of iodine between solution in water and residence in ion-exchange resin. Used to maintain concentration of iodine sufficient to kill harmful microbes, but not so great to make water unpalatable. Requires little attention, yet controls concentration of iodine more precisely than iodination and deiodination by manual techniques. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, system has terrestrial applications in regions where water must be kept potable, resupply difficult, and system must operate largely unattended.

  3. Metal catalyst-free direct ?-iodination of ketones with molecular iodine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maddali L. N. Rao; Deepak N. Jadhav

    2006-01-01

    Ketones are directly converted to the corresponding ?-iodoketones in good yields with molecular iodine under metal catalyst-free conditions. A significant difference in the reactivities was observed for aliphatic and aromatic ketones; whereas aliphatic ketones reacted smoothly at room temperature giving a mixture of 1-iodo, 3-iodo and 1,3-diiodoketones with predominant formation of the 3-iodo product, the ?-iodination of aromatic ketones proceeded

  4. Micromethod for the Rapid Determination of Serum Protein-Bound Iodine and Total Serum Iodine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Gardiner; Arthur Bums

    A modification is presentedof the chloric acid method for the rapid determination of serum protein-bound iodine and total serum iodine requiring less than 0.5 ml. serum for duplicate determinations. The time required for the entire procedure is lessthan two hours. Byadjusting the amountsof reagents used and by varying the time of digestion, the need for constant and continuoussupervisionis eliminated. 'IE1HEDETERMINATION

  5. Arthur von Hubl and the Iodine Value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iodine value is still one of the most commonly applied indices in fatty acid chemistry. Its introduction was a milestone in analyzing fats and oils as well as describing their structure-property relationships, although it can be considered largely outdated because modern analytical methods such...

  6. Radioactive iodine separations and waste forms development.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J.; Rademacher, David

    2010-04-01

    Reprocessing nuclear fuel releases gaseous radio-iodine containing compounds which must be captured and stored for prolonged periods. Ag-loaded mordenites are the leading candidate for scavenging both organic and inorganic radioiodine containing compounds directly from reprocessing off gases. Alternately, the principal off-gas contaminant, I2, and I-containing acids HI, HIO3, etc. may be scavenged using caustic soda solutions, which are then treated with bismuth to put the iodine into an insoluble form. Our program is focused on using state-of-the-art materials science technologies to develop materials with high loadings of iodine, plus high long-term mechanical and thermal stability. In particular, we present results from research into two materials areas: (1) zeolite-based separations and glass encapsulation, and (2) in-situ precipitation of Bi-I-O waste forms. Ag-loaded mordenite is either commercially available or can be prepared via a simple Ag+ ion exchange process. Research using an Ag+-loaded Mordenite zeolite (MOR, LZM-5 supplied by UOP Corp.) has revealed that I2 is scavenged in one of three forms, as micron-sized AgI particles, as molecular (AgI)x clusters in the zeolite pores and as elemental I2 vapor. It was found that only a portion of the sorbed iodine is retained after heating at 95o C for three months. Furthermore, we show that even when the Ag-MOR is saturated with I2 vapor only roughly half of the silver reacted to form stable AgI compounds. However, the Iodine can be further retained if the AgI-MOR is then encapsulated into a low temperature glass binder. Follow-on studies are now focused on the sorption and waste form development of Iodine from more complex streams including organo-iodine compounds (CH3I). Bismuth-Iodate layered phases have been prepared from caustic waste stream simulant solutions. They serve as a low cost alternative to ceramics waste forms. Novel compounds have been synthesized and solubility studies have been completed using competing groundwater anions (HCO3-, Cl- and SO42-). Distinct variations in solubility were found that related to the structures of the materials.

  7. Additional studies for the spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Previous work in iodine spectroscopy is briefly reviewed. Continued studies of the direct spectrophotometric determination of aqueous iodine complexed with potassium iodide show that free iodine is optimally determined at the isosbestic point for these solutions. The effects on iodine determinations of turbidity and chemical substances (in trace amounts) is discussed and illustrated. At the levels tested, iodine measurements are not significantly altered by such substances. A preliminary design for an on-line, automated iodine monitor with eventual capability of operating also as a controller was analyzed and developed in detail with respect single beam colorimeter operating at two wavelengths (using a rotating filter wheel). A flow-through sample cell allows the instrument to operate continuously, except for momentary stop flow when measurements are made. The timed automatic cycling of the system may be interrupted whenever desired, for manual operation. An analog output signal permits controlling an iodine generator.

  8. Iodine Revolatilization in a Grand Gulf Loca

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    The TRENDS models are applied at each time step to each control volume. Significant amounts of water occur only in the wetwell and drywell sump (the refueling pool is not a factor, as discussed earlier). In Fig. 2, we show the radiolytic acid production feeding into each of these pools. Since the water is initially neutral and no chemical additives are present, the acid additions are the major factors affecting pH. In Fig. 3, we see the downward trend of pH resulting from these acid additions. The conversion of iodide (I{sup {minus}}) to molecular iodine (I{sub 2}) is most noticeable in the wetwell, since this is the repository of most iodide and HCl. Gradually, during the transient small amounts of more volatile iodine are formed. While iodide remains the dominant form, noticeable amounts of I{sub 2} and intermediate species are created. Once produced in water, some I{sub 2} is free to evaporate into airspace. Fig. 4 indicates the increase in all airborne iodine throughout the transient. This is compared to the MELCOR result for CsI aerosol, which decreases dramatically due to containment sprays. The I{sub 2} in the airspace can be vented to the enclosure building or the environment. In the present accident sequence, the only path to the environment was through the SGTS, which was assumed to operate as in MELCOR. However, both are dwarfed by the MELCOR gaseous release during the first 12 h because MELCOR does not model spray washout of gaseous iodine. Steadily increasing throughout the transient, the revolatilization release is eventually more than an order-or-magnitude higher than the MELCOR aerosol release. Also, 99% of iodine flowing directly through the SGTS was retained in filters. The remaining 1% was released to the environment. In addition, a small flow bypassing the SGTS filters vented directly into the environment. The total released from these two paths is shown in Fig. 5.

  9. The effects of iodine level and source on iodine carry-over in eggs and body tissues of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Röttger, Anna S; Halle, Ingrid; Wagner, Hubertus; Breves, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven; Flachowsky, Gerhard

    2012-10-01

    In the presented study the effect of different iodine (I) levels and sources in hen feed on the iodine concentration of different tissues, blood serum, and eggs of laying hens was studied. For this purpose, two experiments were conducted with 30 laying hens each. In these experiments feed was enriched with KI and Ca(IO(3))(2), respectively, at 0 (Control), 0.25, 0.5, 2.5 and 5 mg I/kg feed, resulting a analysed iodine level from 0.44 to 4.20 mg/kg feed. After four weeks experimental feeding the iodine concentrations of thyroid glands, blood, meat, liver, abdominal fat and eggs were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The experimental treatment did not affect hen performance. The iodine supplementation significantly increased the iodine concentration of eggs (144-1304 ?g/kg), thyroid glands (3367-5975 ?g/g), blood serum (16-67 ?g/kg) and liver (13-43 ?g/kg). Meat (about 14 ?g I/kg) and abdominal fat (about 12 ?g I/kg) were not significantly affected by iodine treatment. Comparative regression analyses showed that at a similar iodine intake, the supply via KI resulted in significantly higher iodine deposition into eggs than Ca(IO(3))(2). Due to the high carry-over of iodine into eggs, eggs may considerably contribute to the iodine supply of the consumers. PMID:22962946

  10. Theoretical studies of solar lasers and converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.

    1988-01-01

    The previously constructed one dimensional model for the simulated operation of an iodine laser assumed that the perfluoroalkyl iodide gas n-C3F7I was incompressible. The present study removes this simplifying assumption and considers n-C3F7I as a compressible fluid.

  11. Iodine stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy reactor cladding: iodine chemistry (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidky, P. S.

    1998-07-01

    This review covers chemical aspects of the iodine stress corrosion cracking (ISCC) pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) failures which have occurred in some reactors with UO 2 fuel in unlined Zircaloy tubes. The cracking mechanism is discussed in relation to chemical factors. Cesium and iodine are released as fission products and form CsI but its dissociation iodine pressure p(I) is many orders of magnitude greater than chemical thermodynamic calculations predict, due to radiolysis. This enhanced p(I) can form ZrI 4 in regions where Zr is exposed (not protected by surface scale) and a van Arkel vapour transport reaction then causes rapid Zr transport from localised cladding areas, i.e. pitting, which later becomes a crack site. Requirements are a critical strain rate (which cracks protective scale), iodine pressure and time, i.e. a power ramp. Factors include that a stress caused by a power ramp may relax before the required gap chemistry is achieved and that a ramp also releases short-lived I and Cs fission products which add to the iodine pressure available.

  12. Engineering planetary lasers for interstellar communication. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1988-01-01

    Transmitting large amounts of data efficiently among neighboring stars will vitally support any eventual contact with extrasolar intelligence, whether alien or human. Laser carriers are particularly suitable for high-quality, targeted links. Space laser transmitter systems designed by this work, based on both demonstrated and imminent advanced space technology, could achieve reliable data transfer rates as high as 1 kb/s to matched receivers as far away as 25 pc, a distance including over 700 approximately solar-type stars. The centerpiece of this demonstration study is a fleet of automated spacecraft incorporating adaptive neural-net optical processing active structures, nuclear electric power plants, annular momentum control devices, and ion propulsion. Together the craft sustain, condition, modulate, and direct to stellar targets an infrared laser beam extracted from the natural mesospheric, solar-pumped, stimulated CO2 emission recently discovered at Venus. For a culture already supported by mature interplanetary industry, the cost of building planetary or high-power space laser systems for interstellar communication would be marginal, making such projects relevant for the next human century. Links using high-power lasers might support data transfer rates as high as optical frequencies could ever allow. A nanotechnological society such as we might become would inevitably use 10 to the 20th power b/yr transmission to promote its own evolutionary expansion out of the galaxy.

  13. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  14. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Richard B.

    2007-05-01

    A fluorescent clock reaction is described that is based on the principles of the Landolt iodine reaction but uses the potent fluorescence quenching properties of triiodide to abruptly extinguish the ultraviolet fluorescence of optical brighteners present in liquid laundry detergents. The reaction uses easily obtained household products. One variation illustrates the sequential steps and mechanisms of the reaction; other variations maximize the dramatic impact of the demonstration; and a variation that uses liquid detergent in the Briggs Rauscher reaction yields a striking oscillating luminescence. The iodine fluorescence quenching clock reaction can be used in the classroom to explore not only the principles of redox chemistry and reaction kinetics, but also the photophysics of fluorescent pH probes and optical quenching.

  15. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  16. Air Density Measurements in a Mach 10 Wake Using Iodine Cordes Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balla, Robert J.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2012-01-01

    An exploratory study designed to examine the viability of making air density measurements in a Mach 10 flow using laser-induced fluorescence of the iodine Cordes bands is presented. Experiments are performed in the NASA Langley Research Center 31 in. Mach 10 air wind tunnel in the hypersonic near wake of a multipurpose crew vehicle model. To introduce iodine into the wake, a 0.5% iodine/nitrogen mixture is seeded using a pressure tap at the rear of the model. Air density was measured at 56 points along a 7 mm line and three stagnation pressures of 6.21, 8.62, and 10.0 MPa (900, 1250, and 1450 psi). Average results over time and space show rho(sub wake)/rho(sub freestream) of 0.145 plus or minus 0.010, independent of freestream air density. Average off-body results over time and space agree to better than 7.5% with computed densities from onbody pressure measurements. Densities measured during a single 60 s run at 10.0 MPa are time-dependent and steadily decrease by 15%. This decrease is attributed to model forebody heating by the flow.

  17. Development of safe infrared gas lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainuddin; Singhal, Gaurav; Tyagi, R. K.; Maini, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    Infrared gas lasers find application in numerous civil and military areas. Such lasers are therefore being developed at different institutions around the world. However, the development of chemical infrared gas lasers such as chemical oxygen iodine lasers (COIL) involves the use of several hazardous chemicals. In order to exploit full potential of these lasers, one must take diligent care of the safety issues associated with the handling of these chemicals and the involved processes. The present paper discusses the safety aspects to be taken into account in the development of these infrared gas lasers including various detection sensors working in conjunction with a customized data acquisition system loaded with safety interlocks for safe operation. The developed safety schemes may also be implemented for CO2 gas dynamic laser (GDL) and hydrogen fluoride-deuterium fluoride (HF-DF) Laser.

  18. Determination of normal human intrathyroidal iodine in Caracas population.

    PubMed

    Zabala, José; Carrión, Nereida; Murillo, Miguel; Quintana, Mercedes; Chirinos, José; Seijas, Nelly; Duarte, Leopoldo; Brätter, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the determination of iodine content in healthy thyroid samples on male population from Caracas, Venezuela. Contribution to establish a baseline of iodine content in thyroid glands and hence to compare the iodine thyroid concentration of the Venezuelan population with other countries is also our objective. Male post-mortem individual samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometric flow injection method, based on the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. The median intrathyroidal iodine concentration was 1443+/-677 microg/g (wet weight), ranging from 419 to 3430 microg/g, which corresponds to a median of total iodine content of 15+/-8 mg (ranging from 4 to 37). These results were higher than those values reported in the literature. No correlation of iodine content with age or weight of the healthy gland was found. PMID:19203711

  19. Enhanced electrical and optical properties of iodine doped LDPE films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreelatha, K.; Predeep, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to dope Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) with iodine and to study the effect of iodine doping on the optical band gap of LDPE films. The DC conductivity measurements and UV/Vis spectral studies are employed to characterize the samples. Iodine treatment induces colour change in the polymer film which supports the interaction between iodine molecules and polyethylene chains. I2 molecule links the polymer chains electronically and provides conducting path ways by forming DA complexes. The absorption band of complex films has extended to the visible and near infrared region of the spectrum. Further there are discernible shifts found in the energy gap and band edge towards lower energies on doping with iodine. This is essentially due to the formation of strong DA complexes upon iodine doping which improves the conducting behaviour.

  20. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  1. IODINATION OF BACTERIA: A BACTERICIDAL MECHANISM

    PubMed Central

    Klebanoff, Seymour J.

    1967-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase, iodide, and H2O2 have a bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli. Myeloperoxidase can be replaced in this system by lactoperoxidase or by a guinea pig leukocyte particulate preparation, H2O2 by an H2O2-generating system such as glucose and glucose oxidase, and iodide by thyroxine or triiodothyronine. The bactericidal effect was high at pH 5.0 and fell as the pH was increased. Preincubation of myeloperoxidase, iodide, and H2O2 for 30 min before the addition of the bacteria largely prevented the bactericidal effect. Thus, the organisms must be present in the reaction mixture during iodide oxidation for maximum killing, which suggests the involvement of labile intermediates of iodide oxidation rather than the more stable end products of oxidation such as iodine. Iodination of the bacteria by the myeloperoxidase-iodide-H2O2 system was demonstrated chemically and radioautographically. Iodination and the bactericidal effect were similarly affected by changes in experimental conditions in all the parameters tested (effect of preincubation, pH, and inhibitors). Phagocytosis of bacteria by guinea pig leukocytes was associated with the conversion of iodide to a trichloroacetic acid-precipitable form. Iodide was localized radioautographically in the cytoplasm of human leukocytes which contained ingested bacteria. Iodide fixation was not observed in the absence of phagocytosis or in the presence of Tapazole. PMID:4964565

  2. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  3. Gaseous and Particulate Iodine in the Marine Atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jarvis L. Moyers; Robert A. Duce

    1972-01-01

    Sixty gaseous iodine samples collected from a 20-meter tower on the windward shore of Oahu, Hawaii, during the summer of 1969 showed that the concentration of gaseous iodine ranged from 5 to 20 ng\\/m a. Particulate samples collected simultaneously with the gaseous samples showed that the atmospheric concentrations of gaseous iodine in marine air are 2-4 times the concentration of

  4. Short wavelength chemical laser development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, S. P.; Duncan, W. A.; Graves, B. R.; Perram, Glen; Jones, C. R.

    1992-07-01

    Short wavelength chemical lasers (SWCL) operating in the near infrared are becoming candidates for strategic missions. Chemical lasers which operate at short wavelengths at or near the visible are discussed. These lasers offer potential brightness enhancements which will be required for future high energy laser systems. Recent progress in basic research and efforts to demonstrate lasing are reviewed. Several systems are described and a critique of recent reports of chemically generated gain in the BiF(A-x) and Na2(B-x) systems is presented. New chemistries for providing singlet electronic states of NF and NCl from halogen azides provide new opportunities for energy extraction schemes based on energy pooling. A new concept for utilizing vibrational excitation in the lasant species to enhance the excitation rate for iodine monofluoride and the development of new facilities for laser demonstration efforts are discussed.

  5. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent melt attack.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section 862...Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section 862...Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to...

  8. Postulated Human Sperm Count Decline May Involve Historic Elimination of Juvenile Iodine Deficiency: A New Hypothesis

    E-print Network

    Hess, Rex A.

    Postulated Human Sperm Count Decline May Involve Historic Elimination of Juvenile Iodine Deficiency, historic dietary iodination, and an animal model where neonatal goitrogen administration causes counts. We present the hypothesis with a supporting study extending the model to include iodine

  9. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section 862...Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to...

  10. Hypervalent Iodine Reagents Very Important Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201310897

    E-print Network

    Müller, Peter

    Hypervalent Iodine Reagents Very Important Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201310897 Structural Reevaluation of the Electrophilic Hypervalent Iodine Reagent for Trifluoromethylthiolation Supported* Abstract: Hypervalent iodine l3 -benziodoxoles are common electrophilic transfer reagents known

  11. Iodine Transfer Copolymerization of Vinylidene Fluoride and -Trifluoromethacrylic acid in Emulsion process without any surfactants

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Iodine Transfer Copolymerization of Vinylidene Fluoride and - Trifluoromethacrylic acid.1002/pola.23525 #12;2 Iodine Transfer Copolymerization of Vinylidene Fluoride and - Trifluoromethacrylic VDF and TFMA stand for vinylidene fluoride and -trifluoromethacrylic acid, respectively) by iodine

  12. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section 862...Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section 862...Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to...

  14. Medical effects of iodine disinfection products in spacecraft water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Janik, Daniel S.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Various iodination products (IDPs), including iodinated and iodine-induced new compounds, will be present in the iodine-disinfected water that is expected to be used by crews on the NASA Space Station and on long duration missions. The metabolic intermediaries created by such a process may be more important to crew health than the parent IDPs, and reclamation and recycling may be expected to produce additional products. These medical effects may be expressed in crews as hypersensitivity, allergic, acute toxic, and chronic toxic reactions, as well as modifications of immune system response.

  15. Eliminated risk of iodine contrast cancellation with multibin spectral CT.

    PubMed

    Yveborg, Moa; Persson, Mats; Crafoord, Joakim; Danielsson, Mats; Bornefalk, Hans

    2013-07-21

    This note compares the extent of contrast cancellation induced by iodinated contrast agents in energy integrating and photon counting multibin CT images. The contrast between a hypodense target and soft tissue is modeled for the two systems for a range of iodine concentrations and tube voltages. In energy integrating systems, we show that the contrast vanishes for low concentrations of iodine whereas the same effect is not seen in multibin systems. We conclude that it is the ability of multibin systems to apply weighting schemes post-acquisition that allows the operator to eliminate the risk of contrast cancellation between iodinated targets and the background. PMID:23807652

  16. Recent experiences with iodine water disinfection in Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.; Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.; Slezak, Terry N.

    1990-01-01

    Microbial proliferation in the STS potable water system is prevented by maintaining a 2-5 ppm iodine residual. The iodine is added to fuel cell water by an iodinated ion exchange resin in the Microbial Check Valve (MCV). Crew comments indicated excessive iodine in the potable water. To better define the problem, a method of in-flight iodine analysis was developed. Inflight analysis during STS-30 and STS-28 indicated iodine residuals were generally in the 9-13 ppm range. It was determined that the high iodine residual was caused by MCV influent temperatures in excess of 120 F. This is well above the MCV operating range of 65-90 F. The solution to this problem was to develop a resin suitable for the higher temperatures. Since 8 months were required to formulate a MCV resin suitable for the higher temperatures, a temporary solution was necessary. Two additional MCV's were installed on the chilled and ambient water lines leading into the galley to remove the excess iodine. These reduced the iodine residual to 3-4 ppm during STS-33, STS-34, STS-36 and STS-32. A high-temperature resin was formulated and initially flown on STS-31.

  17. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (<1kW) and high power (>10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  18. Intraperitoneal noxythiolin and povidone-iodine in experimental peritonitis*

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, O. J. A.; Houang, Elizabeth T.; Reid, Claire; Shaw, Elizabeth J.

    1978-01-01

    The efficacy of intraperitoneal noxythiolin and povidone-iodine was compared in mice and rats with induced Gram-negative peritonitis. Noxythiolin 1% solution reduced the mortality of mice from 65 to 41% (P<0·1) but was ineffective in rats. Povidone-iodine (6·0-7·5 mg available iodine/kg body weight) significantly reduced the mortality of both mice (P<0·001) and rats (P<0.01) in treated animals compared to matched controls. The mortality rate of rats treated with povidone-iodine was significantly less than those treated with noxythiolin (P<0·01).

  19. Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Jazan region of southwestern KSA from May to November 2010. A total of 311 children, aged 6–13 years, drawn from 12 schools, were selected by a three-stage cluster random sampling method. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted to determine the presence or absence of goiter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Chi square and independent t-tests were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Out of 360 selected children, 311 were examined. There were 131 males (42%) and 180 females (58%). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the study group was 421 ?g/L. The study population proportion with UIC > 300 ?g/L was 74% with a higher proportion among males and urban populations. The proportion of children with UIC of 100–300 ?g/L was only 21% and was significantly higher among females compared with males (p < 0.001). Only about 3% of the children had a median UIC less than 50 ?g/L. The prevalence of total goiter rate (TGR) among the sample of schoolchildren in Jazan was 11%, with significant variations between rural and urban populations and by gender. Conclusions The present study demonstrates a remarkable achievement in Universal Salt Iodization (USI) and IDD elimination goals in the Jazan area. However, UIC levels reflect excessive iodine intake and may put the population at risk of adverse health consequences like iodine-induced hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid diseases. PMID:23167286

  20. Iodine Complexes in Inert Solvents. II. Complexes of Iodine with Some Aromatic Ethers and Biphenyl in Carbon Tetrachloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. D. de Maine

    1957-01-01

    Characteristic constants and absorption spectra are given for anisole, p-dimethoxy-benzene, o- and p-methoxy-biphenyl, and biphenyl complexes with iodine, as determined in carbon tetrachloride solution near room temperature. Three absorption maxima are found for the anisole-iodine complex: at 4900 A, 3450 A, and 2950 A. The band near 4900 A is attributed to a modified iodine transition, while the two ultraviolet

  1. Method for the simultaneous preparation of Radon-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Astatine-211, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed (East Setauket, NY); Lambrecht, Richard M. (Quogue, NY)

    1987-01-01

    A method for simultaneously preparing Radon-211, Astatine-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123 in a process that includes irradiating a fertile metal material then using a one-step chemical procedure to collect a first mixture of about equal amounts of Radon-211 and Xenon-125, and a separate second mixture of about equal amounts of Iodine-123 and Astatine-211.

  2. Efficient single-longitudinal-mode Nd:YAG laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID A. DRAEGERT

    1972-01-01

    A continuous TEM00power of more thanfrac{1}{2}W has been obtained from a single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Nd:YAG laser pumped with a 1-kW tungsten-iodine lamp. Spatial hole burning, the cause of multilongitudinal mode (MLM) oscillation, was eliminated by placing the rod between two quarter-wave plates. The resulting laser mode had a spatially uniform light intensity along the axis of the laser rod. The linearly

  3. Prolonged iodine clearance with a depletion regimen for thyroid carcinoma: concise communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Maruca; S. Santner; K. Miller; R. J. Santen

    1984-01-01

    Prior studies suggested iodine depletion as a means of enhancing radioiodine uptake into metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Accordingly the authors have measured inorganic iodine clearance, total body iodine, tumor and total-body retention of radioactive iodine before and during a diet-and-diuretic regimen designed to induce iodine depletion. Total-body iodine decreased by 25% to 66%. The amount of radioiodine taken up

  4. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Beahm, Edward C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Shockley, William E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  5. A study of the electrical resistivity of the perylene-iodine complex for various ratios of perylene to iodine

    E-print Network

    Miller, Bruce Melville

    1964-01-01

    A STUDY OF THE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF THE PERYLENE-IODINE COMPLEX FOR VARIOUS RATIOS OF PERYLENE TO IODINE A Thesis Bruce Melville Miller Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AlkN University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1964 Ma5or Subjects Physics A STUDY OF THE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF THE PERYLENE-IODINE COMPLEX FOR VARIOUS RATIOS OF PERYLENE TO IODINE A Thesis By Bruce Melville Miller roved as style and content bye 'rman...

  6. Absolute frequency measurement for the emission transitions of molecular iodine in the 982 - 985 nm range

    SciTech Connect

    Matyugin, Yu A; Ignatovich, S M; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Nesterenko, M I; Okhapkin, M V; Pivtsov, V S; Skvortsov, Mikhail N; Bagaev, Sergei N [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-31

    We report high-precision frequency measurements of the separate hyperfine structure (HFS) components of the emission B - X system transitions of {sup 127}I{sub 2} molecules in the 982 - 985 nm range. To resolve the HFS of the emission lines, advantage was taken of the method of three-level laser spectroscopy. The function of exciting radiation was fulfilled by the second harmonic of a cw Nd : YAG laser, and the probe radiation in the 968 - 998 nm range was generated by an external-cavity diode laser. The output Nd : YAG laser frequency was locked to an HFS component of the absorption transition and the probing laser radiation to the emission transition component. When both frequencies were locked to HFS components with a common upper level, the output diode laser frequency was precisely equal to the emission transition frequency. The output frequency of the thus stabilised diode laser was measured with the help of a femtosecond optical frequency synthesiser based on a Ti : sapphire laser. We present the results of the absolute frequency measurements of 20 HFS components belonging to six vibrational - rotational transitions of the B - X system of iodine [R56(32 - 48)a1, P58(32 - 48)a1, P85(33 - 48)a1, R87(33 - 48a1, R88(33 - 48)a10] and all 15 components of the R86(33 - 48) line. The relative measurement uncertainty is equal to 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} and is determined by the frequency instability of the diode laser radiation.

  7. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Iodine capture is an important aspect of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Off-gas Sigma Team (Jubin 2011, Pantano 2011). Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: • Decontamination factors were achieved that exceed reasonably conservative estimates for DFs needed for used fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.S. to meet regulatory requirements for I-129 capture. • Silver utilizations approached or exceeded 100% for high inlet gas iodine concentrations, but test durations were not long enough to approach 100% silver utilization for lower iodine concentrations. • The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined for both low iodine concentrations (under 10 ppmv) and for higher iodine concentrations (between 10-50 ppmv); the depth increases over time as iodine is sorbed. • These sorbents capture iodine by chemisorption, where the sorbed iodine reacts with the silver to form very non-volatile AgI. Any sorbed iodine that is physisorbed but not chemically reacted with silver to form AgI might not be tightly held by the sorbent. The portion of sorbed iodine that tends to desorb because it is not chemisorbed (reacted to form AgI) is small, under 1%, for the AgZ tests, and even smaller, under 0.01%, for the silver-functionalized Aerogel.

  8. Controlled iodine release from polyurethane sponges for water decontamination.

    PubMed

    Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Harik, Oshrat; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Domb, Abraham J

    2013-12-28

    Iodinated polyurethane (IPU) sponges were prepared by immersing sponges in aqueous/organic solutions of iodine or exposing sponges to iodine vapors. Iodine was readily adsorbed into the polymers up to 100% (w/w). The adsorption of iodine on the surface was characterized by XPS and SEM analyses. The iodine loaded IPU sponges were coated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), in order to release iodine in a controlled rate for water decontamination combined with active carbon cartridge, which adsorbs the iodine residues after the microbial inactivation. The EVA coated IPU were incorporated in a water purifier and tested for iodine release to water and for microbial inactivation efficiency according to WQA certification program against P231/EPA for 250l, using 25l a day with flow rate of 6-8min/1l. The antimicrobial activity was also studied against Escherichia coli and MS2 phage. Bacterial results exceeded the minimal requirement for bacterial removal of 6log reduction throughout the entire lifespan. At any testing point, no bacteria was detected in the outlet achieving more than 7.1 to more than 8log reduction as calculated upon the inlet concentration. Virus surrogate, MS2, reduction results varied from 4.11log reduction under tap water, and 5.11log reduction under basic water (pH9) to 1.32 for acidic water (pH5). Controlled and stable iodine release was observed with the EVA coated IPU sponges and was effective in deactivating the bacteria and virus present in the contaminated water and thus, these iodinated PU systems could be used in water purification to provide safe drinking water. These sponges may find applications as disinfectants in medicine. PMID:24096017

  9. Iodine deficiency, other trace elements, and goitrogenic factors in the etiopathogeny of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD).

    PubMed

    Thilly, C H; Vanderpas, J B; Bebe, N; Ntambue, K; Contempre, B; Swennen, B; Moreno-Reyes, R; Bourdoux, P; Delange, F

    1992-01-01

    Severe goiter, cretinism, and the other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) have their main cause in the lack of availability of iodine from the soil linked to a severe limitation of food exchanges. Apart from the degrees of severity of the iodine deficiency, the frequencies and symptomatologies of cretinism and the other IDD are influenced by other goitrogenic factors and trace elements. Thiocyanate overload originating from consumption of poorly detoxified cassava is such that this goitrogenic factor aggravates a relative or a severe iodine deficiency. Very recently, a severe selenium deficiency has also been associated with IDD in the human population, whereas in animals, it has been proven to play a role in thyroid function either through a thyroidal or extrathyroidal mechanism. The former involves oxidative damages mediated by free radicals, whereas the latter implies an inhibition of the deiodinase responsible for the utilization of T4 into T3. One concludes that: 1. Goiter has a multifactorial origin; 2. IDD are an important public health problem; and 3. IDD are a good model to study the effects of other trace elements whose actions in many human metabolisms have been somewhat underestimated. PMID:1375059

  10. Precise measurements of hyperfine components in the spectrum of molecular iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Absolute wave numbers with a typical uncertainty of 1 MHz (95% confidence) were measured for 102 hyperfine-structure components of {sup 127}I{sub 2}. The data cover the range 560-656 nm, with no gaps over 50 cm{sup -1}. The spectra were observed using Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy with tunable cw laser. The laser was locked to selected iodine components and its wave number measured with a high precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. Accuracy is confirmed by good agreement of 9 of the lines with previous results from other laboratories. These measurements provide a well-distributed set of precise reference lines for this spectral region.

  11. Iodine nutrition: iodine content of iodized salt in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Liu, Yining; Dyke, Jason V

    2008-02-15

    Adequacy of iodine nutrition in the United States has lately been of concern. A major source of dietary iodine for the U.S. population is iodized salt. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) recommends 60-100 mg Kl/kg salt, equivalent to 46-76 mg l/kg salt. All U.S. iodized salt contains 45 mg l/kg according to labels. We collected samples of table salt from freshly opened containers from U.S. volunteers. A sample was sent to us when the can was first purchased. Subsets of volunteers sent further samples when the salt container became half-empty through normal use and a further final sample when the container was nearly finished. We also looked at iodine distribution homogeneity within individual containers, loss of iodine from salt upon exposure to humidity and sunlight, and upon short-term heating (dry and in solution) as may be encountered in cooking. Measurements were made in 0.01% w/v salt solutions by induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with 72Ge as an internal standard. The median and mean (+/-sd) I content in freshly opened top-of-the-can salt samples was 44.1 and 47.5 +/- 18.5 mg/kg (n=88, range 12.7-129 mg l/kg) and geometric mean and standard deviation of 44.70 and 1.41. Forty-seven of 88 samples fell below the USFDA recommended I content while 6 exceeded it. The homogeneity in a single can of salt varied greatly: in 5 samples taken from the same container from different depths, the iodine content varied by as little as 1.2x (8.3% coefficient of variance (CV)) to as much as 3.3x (49.3% CV) from one container/brand to another. Iodine is significantly lost upon high humidity storage but light or dry heat has little effect. There is much recent literature on iodine sufficiency and uptake inhibitors; there is also much misinformation and disinformation. We review the relevant literature and discuss our results with reference to the United States. PMID:18351111

  12. On-line computer controlled cw dye laser spectrometer for laser isotope separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Stuke; E. E. Marinero

    1978-01-01

    An on-line cw dye laser multichannel spectrometer is described, which can be controlled by FORTRAN. Automatic tuning of a\\u000a dye laser to the wavelength of maximum excitation selectivity for photochemical isotope separation is achieved. Applying the\\u000a system to the selective photoaddition of iodine chloride ICl to acetylene, an enrichment factor of37Cl in the photoproduct C2H2ICl of ?=1005 was obtained. Both

  13. Salt fortification with iodine: Sudan situation analysis.

    PubMed

    Izzeldin, S H; Crawford, M A; Ghebremeskel, K

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute a severe public health problem in Sudan. IDD affects children and women throughout life. More than 2 out of 10 school age children have goiter. The prevalence reaches 40% in some regions of the country. Several interventional measures were introduced to control the IDD problem. While the situation with regard to production and supply of iodized salt was thus deteriorating, an Emergency Food Security and Nutrition Assessment Survey (EFSNA) revealed that the prevalence of IDD among adult women, as reflected in the presence of visible goiter, was as high as 25.5%. We have conducted a situation analysis survey in the Republic of Sudan to review the prevailing situation and suggest a benchmark that would help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementations. SWOT analysis, questionnaire, focus groups discussion beside a combination of rapid assessment approach and qualitative method were used to critically evaluate the salt iodization situation in the country and assess the prevailing IDD situation in and propose a plan of action to overcome the bottlenecks. The survey concluded that Iodine deficiency affects children and women all through Sudan. The prevalence is even greater in some regions of the country and there is no supportive policy environment for successful universal salt iodization. To overcome this aggravated situation Sudan will need to conduct a baseline study to provide data on the prevalence of IDD, geographic distribution, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to iodine deficiency. This will provide a benchmark that will help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementation. The study recommended a set of actions to the government to overcome the prevailing situation and strengthening the current policy and implementation. PMID:19326717

  14. Staging in polyacetylene-iodine conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baughman, R. H.; Murthy, N. S.; Miller, G. G.; Shacklette, L. W.

    1983-07-01

    Evidence is presented for the existence of highly conducting polyacetylene complexes with structures related to high-stage graphite, as well as structures related to first-stage graphite. X-ray diffraction measurements on polyacetylene-iodine complexes indicate equatorial lines at 7.7-8.0 and 13.8-14.3 Å. The shorter spacing arises in part from a structure in which iodine-rich planes alternate with planes of polyacetylene chains. The longer spacing, which disappears upon atmospheric exposure, is consistent with a structure analogous to third-stage graphite in which dopant-rich planes are separated by three close-packed planes of polyacetylene chains. The third-stage complex can be viewed as a perturbation of the structure of undoped polyacetylene, with the region between dopant layers consisting essentially of a one unit cell thickness of the parent polymer structure. Packing calculations for this model, in which a linear column of anions (I3- and/or I5-) displaces either every chain or every other chain in the dopant-rich layer, provide an interlayer spacing which is equal to that observed. Evidence consistent with third-stage structures (with both fractional occupation and complete occupation of the dopant plane) is also found by reexamination of published sorption data, which provides slope changes at close to the calculated limiting compositions for these structures [(CHI0.056)x and (CHI0.13)x]. However, a first-stage structure with alternating dopant arrays and polymer chains in the dopant plane [for which (CHI0.13)x is calculated] provides a better explanation for the second slope change, as well as for the composition obtained under dynamic vacuum, (CHI0.14)x. These results for iodine complexes are compared with those derived for the group VA halide complexes of polyacetylene.

  15. The addition of iodine to tetramethylammonium iodide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, H.W.; Fleischer, M.

    1953-01-01

    The system tetramethylammonium iodide-iodine-toluene has been studied by the solubility method at 6 and at 25??. The compounds (CH3)4NI3, (CH3)4NI5 and (CH3)4NI11 were found to be stable phases at both temperatures. In addition, the compound (CH3)4NI10 was found at 6?? and the compound (CH3)4NI9 at 25??. The dissociation pressures of the compounds at these temperatures were calculated from the solubility data.

  16. Viscosity of high-temperature iodine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Steve H.; Kunc, Joseph A.

    1991-01-01

    The viscosity coefficient of iodine in the temperature range 500 - 3000 K is calculated. Because of the low dissociation energy of the I2 molecules, the dissociation degree of the gas increases quickly with temperature, and I + I2 and I + I collisions must be taken into account in calculation of viscosity at temperatures greater than 1000 deg. Several possible channels for atom-atom interaction are considered, and the resulting collision integrals are averaged over all the important channels. It is also shown that the rigid-sphere model is inaccurate in predictions of the viscosity.

  17. [Effects of cooking methods on iodine content in iodized salt].

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Zhou, R; Wang, G

    1998-11-30

    Effects of cooking methods and variety of foods on the retention of iodine content in food with iodized salt were studied. Vegetables from market and usual cooking methods were selected, including procedures of various cooking methods. The samples were fixed by potassium carbonate, ashed with zinc sulfate at 550 degrees C, then determined by colorimetric method with Ce-As-I catalytical reaction. The different cooking methods had different effects on the retention of iodine, in general, the retention of iodine by stewing of steaming was higher than by stir-frying. The effect of various vegetables on the retention of iodine was also different. The retention of iodine after stir-frying was 84.2%, 56.9%, 44.5%, 36.6% for fruit-bearing vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and beans. The retention of iodine after stewing was 66.1%, 53.4%, 47.0%, and 43.2% for fruit-bearing vegetables, roots, beans and meat. The stability of organic iodine in food is higher than that of inorganic iodine. PMID:11939033

  18. Evidence of reactive iodine chemistry in the Arctic boundary layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anoop S. Mahajan; Marvin Shaw; Hilke Oetjen; Karen E. Hornsby; Lucy J. Carpenter; Lars Kaleschke; Xiangshan Tian-Kunze; James D. Lee; Sarah J. Moller; Peter Edwards; Roisin Commane; Trevor Ingham; Dwayne E. Heard; John M. C. Plane

    2010-01-01

    Although it has recently been established that iodine plays an important role in the atmospheric chemistry of coastal Antarctica, where it occurs at levels which cause significant ozone (O3) depletion and changes in the atmospheric oxidising capacity, iodine oxides have not previously been observed conclusively in the Arctic boundary layer (BL). This paper describes differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) observations

  19. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  20. FDA Approves Lenvatinib for Radioactive Iodine-Refractory Thyroid Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved lenvatinib (Lenvima) to treat some patients with the most common type of thyroid cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The approval is for patients with DTC whose disease has progressed following radioactive iodine therapy (radioactive iodine-refractory disease).

  1. On the role of iodine in ozone depletion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Solomon; Rolando R. Garcia; A. R. Ravishankara

    1994-01-01

    Ozone depletions in the lower stratosphere outside of polar regions are difficult to explain using only local chlorine and bromine chemistry. We speculate that iodine chemistry in combination with trends in anthropogenic chlorine and bromine may also be a factor in determining the widespread current depletion of lower stratospheric ozone. We also speculate on a related role for iodine in

  2. Iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents. Concern for the neonate?

    PubMed

    Delange, F

    2001-05-01

    The Professor F. Delange has a substantial experience, since the last decade, in implementing universal salt iodization in a lot of countries, and assessing its impact on iodine deficiency disorders. He comments here the published results of D.E. Hindié et al. concerning the side effects of stable iodine overload on thyroid structure in the young rat (N. Colas-Linhart). PMID:11441947

  3. Zeeman Splitting of the Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Line of Iodine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kineo Tsukada

    1956-01-01

    Zeeman patterns of the nuclear Quadrupole resonance line of I127 were studied with a single crystal of iodine at medium and weak magnetic fields. The asymmetry parameter of coupling, eta, and the angle between bond axis of the iodine molecule and crystallographic c axis, \\\\varphi, were determined from the pattern at a medium magnetic field of about 120 gauss. The

  4. Spark plasma sintering of iodine-bearing apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gallet, S.; Campayo, L.; Courtois, E.; Hoffmann, S.; Grin, Yu.; Bernard, F.; Bart, F.

    2010-05-01

    The high chemical durability of iodine-bearing apatite makes it strongly prospective for conditioning of radioactive iodine. The synthesis and consolidation of iodine-bearing compounds require low temperatures to avoid iodine volatilization. Spark plasma sintering therefore appears to be a suitable process because of its shorter treatment time and lower sintering temperature compared with other processes such as HUP or HIP. Two alternatives were examined: SPS sintering of iodine-bearing apatite powder and SPS reacting of a stoichiometric lead iodide and lead phosphovanadate powder mixture. The degree of densification and the microstructure of bulk materials in both cases are described and compared. Reactive sintering appears to involve a three-stage mechanism: (i) PbI 2 coalescence, (ii) solid-state iodoapatite synthesis and consolidation and, (iii) iodoapatite consolidation in the presence of a liquid phase. The SPS reacted products reveal the finest and most homogeneous microstructure, and a density exceeding 96%.

  5. Advanced water iodinating system. [for potable water aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, R. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water stores aboard manned spacecraft must remain sterile. Suitable sterilization techniques are needed to prevent microbial growth. The development of an advanced water iodinating system for possible application to the shuttle orbiter and other advanced spacecraft, is considered. The AWIS provides a means of automatically dispensing iodine and controlling iodination levels in potable water stores. In a recirculation mode test, simulating application of the AWIS to a water management system of a long term six man capacity space mission, noniodinated feed water flowing at 32.2 cu cm min was iodinated to 5 + or - ppm concentrations after it was mixed with previously iodinated water recirculating through a potable water storage tank. Also, the AWIS was used to successfully demonstrate its capability to maintain potable water at a desired I2 concentration level while circulating through the water storage tank, but without the addition of noniodinated water.

  6. Irradiation of choroidal melanoma with iodine 125 ophthalmic plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, S.; Rotman, M.; Fairchild, R.G.; Albert, D.M.; Atkins, H.L.; Chan, B.

    1980-08-01

    Radioactive iodine 125 is a low-energy ..gamma.. isotope with physical characteristics suitable for irradiation of intraocular tumors. Metal ophthalmic applicators have been designed to shield vital ocular structures while allowing irradiation of the tumor. We compared the radiation effects of iodine 125 and cobalt 60. The Greene melanoma was transplanted into the suprachoroidal space of rabbits. The tumor then grew as an intraocular mass, was irradiated, and was followed up for two months before enucleation. Histopathologic examiation defined the extent of the radiation damage to the tumor and other ocular structures from the iodine 125 and from the cobalt 60. The eye irradiated with iodine 125 suffered minimal radiation damage, whereas the tumor was sterilized. The eye irradiated with cobalt 60 showed substantial radiation damage, and the melanoma was incompletely treated. Our results support the use of iodine 125 in treating intraocular tumors. More research is needed as to optimum total dose and dose rate.

  7. Chemistry of fission product iodine in light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Bell, J.T.; Campbell, D.O.; Lorenz, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Control of fission product iodine in LWRs have been based on the assumption that the bulk of the iodine is uncombined chemically. Recent studies, however, have indicated that fission product iodine released from LWR fuel rods with defected cladding is combined chemically with electropositive species. Thermodynamic studies indicate that the most likely form of the iodine is cesium iodide. In most cases, the chemical form of the radioiodine in the vapor phase is determined by reactions in the aqueous phase. Studies of aqueous iodine chemistry indicate that the predominant dissolved species are iodide and iodate ions in relative concentrations determined by the redox conditions involved. Moreover, volatile species over the aqueous system can be maintained at very low levels. Work performed to date suggests that the dominant chemical form of radioiodine to be controlled in a reactor containment building (excluding aerosols) is methyl iodide, albeit at low concentration.

  8. Use of Lugol's iodine in oral cancer diagnosis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Petruzzi, Massimo; Lucchese, Alberta; Baldoni, Edoardo; Grassi, Felice Roberto; Serpico, Rosario

    2010-11-01

    Early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) still represents an important challenge for clinicians and patients. Vital staining such as toluidine blue and Lugol's iodine solution, are routinely used in the OSCC detection but few data exist about the last one. A literature review is made to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Lugol's iodine solution in OSCC detection and in its margins demarcation. A review was made of the studies published between 1990 and 2010 in relation to the application of Lugol's iodine for OSCC detection and a better definition of its margins. Data obtained point to the utility and the safety of Lugol's iodine when employed for detection and margins delineation of OSCC and dysplasia. All the studies consulted found the Lugol's iodine to be effective, cheap and easy to use and they emphasized its importance in clinical practice. There is need for larger controlled, randomized studies with carefully selected and standardized outcome measures and patients. PMID:20729139

  9. Project LOCOST: Laser or Chemical Hybrid Orbital Space Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, Alan; Kost, Alicia; Lampshire, Gregory; Larsen, Rob; Monahan, Bob; Wright, Geoff

    1990-01-01

    A potential mission in the late 1990s is the servicing of spacecraft assets located in GEO. The Geosynchronous Operations Support Center (GeoShack) will be supported by a space transfer vehicle based at the Space Station (SS). The vehicle will transport cargo between the SS and the GeoShack. A proposed unmanned, laser or chemical hybrid orbital space transfer vehicle (LOCOST) can be used to efficiently transfer cargo between the two orbits. A preliminary design shows that an unmanned, laser/chemical hybrid vehicle results in the fuel savings needed while still providing fast trip times. The LOCOST vehicle receives a 12 MW laser beam from one Earth orbiting, solar pumped, iodide Laser Power Station (LPS). Two Energy Relay Units (ERU) provide laser beam support during periods of line-of-sight blockage by the Earth. The baseline mission specifies a 13 day round trip transfer time. The ship's configuration consist of an optical train, one hydrogen laser engine, two chemical engines, a 18 m by 29 m box truss, a mission-flexible payload module, and propellant tanks. Overall vehicle dry mass is 8,000 kg. Outbound cargo mass is 20,000 kg, and inbound cargo mass is 6,000 kg. The baseline mission needs 93,000 kg of propellants to complete the scenario. Fully fueled, outbound mission mass is 121,000 kg. A regeneratively cooled, single plasma, laser engine design producing a maximum of 768 N of thrust is utilized along with two traditional chemical engines. The payload module is designed to hold 40,000 kg of cargo, though the baseline mission specifies less. A proposed design of a laser/chemical hybrid vehicle provides a trip time and propellant efficient means to transport cargo from the SS to a GeoShack. Its unique, hybrid propulsion system provides safety through redundancy, allows baseline missions to be efficiently executed, while still allowing for the possibility of larger cargo transfers.

  10. In-situ analyses of triiodide formation in an iodine-free electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells using electro-diffuse-reflection spectroscopy (EDRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Seok-Jun; Bialecka, Katarzyna Anna; Kang, Moon-Sung; Hinsch, Andreas; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2015-02-01

    An in-situ analysis of I3- formation in an iodine-free electrolyte is carried out using electro-diffuse-reflection spectroscopy (EDRS). Using EDRS, a monochromatic blue laser source irradiates the photo-anode at an incident angle of 45°. The intensity of scattered light is varied by modulating the cell potential. This novel EDRS method enables the detection of variations in I3- concentration in the vicinity of the TiO2 layer even without adding iodine into the electrolyte. Thus, the formation and existence of I3- in an iodine-free electrolyte is empirically revealed for the first time. Interestingly, EDRS results for NaI-free electrolytes show no significant peaks for the I3- formation, confirming electron transport occurs without forming I3- in the elelctrolyte. It is hypothesized that electrons directly propagate through the iodide media by forming diiodide radicals under the harsh electrolyte conditions in which no I2 or NaI are added. Additionally, J-V curves and a.c. impedance are measured to determine the effects of iodine concentration for the iodine-free electrolyte. In conclusion, the EDRS method is to be used for the development of alternative redox couples by examining their transport phenomena for future DSSCs.

  11. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation) in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status) during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion). No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account. PMID:23060737

  12. Excessive iodine intake during pregnancy in Somali refugees.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Ismail A R; Ruth, Laird J; Creeke, Paul I; Gnat, Danielle; Abdalla, Fathia; Seal, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and excess are both associated with adverse health consequences, with fetuses, children and pregnant women being most vulnerable to the devastating effects of severe deficiency. It is often assumed that the iodine status of a population if displaced or in a remote or emergency situation is low. However, there is little evidence available to support this assumption, especially among long-term food-aid-dependent pregnant women. An effectiveness trial of a prenatal multiple-micronutrient supplement that contained 150 µg day(-1) iodine was conducted in two refugee camps in the North Eastern Province of Kenya in 2002. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in a subsample of pregnant women attending antenatal care in Dagahaley (control camp) (n = 74) and Ifo (intervention camp) (n = 63). There was no significant difference in median UIC between the two camps (P = 0.118). The combined median UIC was 730 µg L(-1) (interquartile range, 780) (5.77 µmol L(-1)) and exceeded the upper safe limit of 500 µg L(-1) (3.95 µmol L(-1)) for pregnant women (P < 0.001), indicating excessive iodine intake. About 20% of the study subjects had 'more than adequate' urinary iodine, while over 71% had excessive UIC. Salt iodine content varied between 5.1 and 80.1 ppm in the five market salt samples analysed. In conclusion, excessive iodine intake was evident in the Dadaab refugee camps. Further research needs to be conducted to investigate the source of excess iodine, to determine the measures needed to address excessive iodine intake and to reconsider the World Health Organization/World Food Programme/United Nations Children's Fund guidance on supplementation of vulnerable groups in emergencies. PMID:22250295

  13. Regioselective Iodination of Arenes Using Iodine\\/NaBO3 · 4H2O System in Ionic Liquid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sachin V. Bhilare; Amol R. Deorukhkar; Nitin B. Darvatkar; Manikrao M. Salunkhe

    2008-01-01

    A mild, efficient, and simple protocol was developed for iodination of arenes and heterocyclic compounds with molecular iodine catalyzed by sodium perborate in ionic liquid. The methodology offered iodoarenes in good to excellent yields at room temperature. The protocol proved to be highly selective, as a single isomer was formed exclusively in most of the substrates.

  14. Revisiting History: Encountering Iodine Then and Now--A General Chemistry Laboratory to Observe Iodine from Seaweed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, M. Farooq

    2009-01-01

    The history of the discovery of iodine is retold using brown-colored seaweed found commonly along the ocean shore. The seaweed is ashed at a low temperature and the iodides are extracted into boiling water. The iodides are oxidized in acidic medium. Solvent extraction of iodine by oxidation of iodides as well as simple aqueous extraction of iodide…

  15. Marine aerosol formation from biogenic iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Colin D; Jimenez, Jose L; Bahreini, Roya; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H; Hämeri, Kaarle; Pirjola, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Jennings, S Gerard; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2002-06-01

    The formation of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei--from which marine clouds originate--depends ultimately on the availability of new, nanometre-scale particles in the marine boundary layer. Because marine aerosols and clouds scatter incoming radiation and contribute a cooling effect to the Earth's radiation budget, new particle production is important in climate regulation. It has been suggested that sulphuric acid derived from the oxidation of dimethyl sulphide is responsible for the production of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei. It was accordingly proposed that algae producing dimethyl sulphide play a role in climate regulation, but this has been difficult to prove and, consequently, the processes controlling marine particle formation remains largely undetermined. Here, using smog chamber experiments under coastal atmospheric conditions, we demonstrate that new particles can form from condensable iodine-containing vapours, which are the photolysis products of biogenic iodocarbons emitted from marine algae. Moreover, we illustrate, using aerosol formation models, that concentrations of condensable iodine-containing vapours over the open ocean are sufficient to influence marine particle formation. We suggest therefore that marine iodocarbon emissions have a potentially significant effect on global radiative forcing. PMID:12050661

  16. Earth's Volatiles History and Cycles: the Case of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, H.; Marocchi, M.; Munsch, P.; Auzende, A.; Raepsaet, C.; Mezouar, M.; Testemale, D.; Kubsky, S.; Carriere, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2011-12-01

    Among the volatile elements present in our solar system, iodine is involved in mechanisms of primary importance during planet's evolution. The different isotopic signatures of 129Xe/132Xe for mantle and atmosphere between the Earth and Mars may reflect an early fractionation of xenon with respect to iodine. The role of fluids and more especially water is seriously envisaged to generate such a fractionation because whereas iodine is hydrophilic, xenon is not. Therefore iodine's early degassing with a water-rich fluid from a magma ocean is a good hypothesis to explain iodine, but also chlorine and bromine losses during early differentiation stages of the Earth. It was also shown that iodine is involved in natural ozone destruction in the Earth's atmosphere. Today we are able to detect iodine in volcanic emissions. The intensive subduction-zones volcanic degassing may explain the presence of iodine in the atmosphere if degassed together with water. The combination of synchrotron X-Ray characterization with diamond anvil cells, applied as magmatic and mantelic reactors to simulate pressure and temperature conditions of the planet interiors allows: (1) the characterization of fluids (aqueous, melt, supercritic) existing in the Earth; (2) element transfers via such fluids from depths to planets surfaces. Here, we have experimentally monitored iodine degassing from high pressure hydrous melts in situ in diamond anvil cells DAC by measuring iodine partitioning between aqueous fluids and hydrous melts during decompression. DAC experiments have been combined with high energy Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence at the beam lines Id27 and FAME from ESRF. Partition coefficients (D(I)fluid/melt = (I)fluid/(I)melt ) have been measured in situ from 500 to 900 °C and from 0.1 to 1.8 GPa. First results show that they are ranging from 1.9 (1.4 GPa) to 60 (0.1 GPa) and seem to tend to unity close to total miscibility between melts and aqueous fluids. At low pressure conditions (lower than 0.5 GPa) iodine partition coefficients are higher than those of bromine [Bureau et al., 2010, CGA 74, 3839-3850] confirming the higher affinity of iodine for water. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis of iodine early magmatic degassing process to generate I fractionation from Xe. They may also be useful to explain the bulk Earth's halogen elements abundances.

  17. Iodine containing species in the remote marine boundary layer: A link to oceanic phytoplankton

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Steve

    Iodine containing species in the remote marine boundary layer: A link to oceanic phytoplankton S. C 2011; revised 8 September 2011; accepted 12 September 2011; published 18 October 2011. [1] Iodine) in the gas phase and soluble iodine species, i.e. iodide, iodate and an unidentified organic iodine species

  18. Sorption and transport of iodine species in sediments from the Savannah River and Hanford Sites

    E-print Network

    Hu, Qinhong "Max"

    Sorption and transport of iodine species in sediments from the Savannah River and Hanford Sites 2005; accepted 3 May 2005 Abstract Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental cycling of iodine is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic

  19. Viability and growth of walleye larvae/juveniles following antiviral iodine treatment for viral

    E-print Network

    Viability and growth of walleye larvae/juveniles following antiviral iodine treatment for viral://www.thefishsite.com/articles/306/detection-of-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus #12;Antiviral Treatment: Iodine · Iodine compounds adult females caught from the Maumee River, Ohio. Iodine treatment was for 15, 30, and 180 min

  20. Deficiencies of sodium and iodine in grazing sheep in northern China

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Deficiencies of sodium and iodine in grazing sheep in northern China DG Masters JR Lindsay SX Yu DX ; results are presented here for sodium and potassium in saliva and iodine in milk. The table shows farms produced milk with an iodine level below or close to the level that indicates an inadequate iodine

  1. A SEMI-AUTOMATED METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOTAL IODINE IN MILK

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A SEMI-AUTOMATED METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOTAL IODINE IN MILK G. AUMONT Institut National. La limite de détection peut être estimée à 2 pg I/kg. The iodine content of milk is closely related to iodine intake (Miller ei al.. 1975). The determina- tion of total iodine in milk could therefore

  2. MILK IODINE RESIDUES AFTER A POST-MILKING IODOPHOR TEAT-DIPPING

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MILK IODINE RESIDUES AFTER A POST-MILKING IODOPHOR TEAT-DIPPING G AUMONT INRA, Laboratoire des have became the major sources of dietary iodine for humans in the UK (wenlock et a/ 1 g82), in the USA within the dairy farmer's ability to control the iodine content of bulk tank milk is the iodine

  3. ccsd00003162, Raman spectroscopy of iodine-doped double-walled carbon

    E-print Network

    ccsd­00003162, version 1 ­ 26 Oct 2004 Raman spectroscopy of iodine-doped double-walled carbon) Abstract We present a Raman spectroscopy study of iodine-intercalated (p-type doped) double-walled car- bon the spectral moment method. The changes in the Raman spectrum upon iodine doping are analysed. Poly-iodine

  4. Control of the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid Oscillating Reaction by Illumination

    E-print Network

    Epstein, Irving R.

    Control of the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid Oscillating Reaction by Illumination Alberto P, Massachusetts 02454-9110 ReceiVed April 1, 1999 Abstract: We show that illumination of the chlorine dioxide-iodine, in which iodine atoms produced by photodissociation of molecular iodine initiate reduction of chlorine

  5. Side-pumped continuous-wave Cr:Nd:YAG ceramic solar laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, D.; Almeida, J.; Guillot, E.

    2013-05-01

    To clarify the advantages of Cr:Nd:YAG ceramics rods in solar-pumped lasers, a fused silica light guide with rectangular cross-section is coupled to a compound V-shaped cavity within which a 7 mm diameter 0.1 at.% Cr:1.0 at.% Nd:YAG ceramic rod is uniformly pumped. The highly concentrated solar radiation at the focal spot of a 2 m diameter stationary parabolic mirror is transformed into a uniform pump radiation by the light guide. Efficient pump light absorption is achieved by pumping uniformly the ceramic rod within the V-shaped cavity. Optimum pumping parameters and solar laser output powers are found through ZEMAX© non-sequential ray-tracing and LASCAD© laser cavity analysis codes. 33.6 W continuous-wave laser power is measured, corresponding to 1.32 times enhancement over our previous results with a 4 mm diameter Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. High slope efficiency of 2.6 % is also registered. The solar laser output performances of both the ceramic and the single-crystal rods are finally compared, revealing the relative advantage of the Cr:Nd:YAG rod in conversion efficiency. Low scattering coefficient of 0.0018 cm-1 is deduced for the ceramic rod. Heat load is considered as a key factor affecting the ceramic laser output performance.

  6. Feasibility of Iodine and Bromine analysis in Genesis AloS collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Burnett, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Comparison of solar, meteoritic and terrestrial elemental abundances provides understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system. Yet, the majority of the solar abundances are based on meteoritic values [1-6]. As a continuation of our noble gas measurements of the Solar Wind (SW) [7] we attempted to evaluate the possibility of SW-iodine and SW-bromine analyses in the Genesis Solar Wind Aluminum on Sapphire collectors (AloS) using the conversions: 127I(n,??)128Xe, 79Br(n,??)80Kr and 81Br(n,??)82Kr. To estimate the extent of terrestrial halogen contamination in Genesis collectors, several flown fragments of AloS were submerged in methanol (for 1 hour and for 48 hours), rinsed, dried, sealed under vacuum in fused quartz ampoules and irradiated at the Missouri University Research Reactor receiving fluence ˜ 2E+19 thermal neutrons/cm2. Single step laser extraction using 1064 nm laser ablation of 0.7 cm2 area demonstrated clear signature of solar wind as indicated by 129Xe/132Xe = 1.045 ± 0.005, while 128Xe/132Xe = 1.01 ± 0.03 had a 12-fold excess compared to the solar value. Longer washing apparently reduces iodine contamination 4 times, implying that it is surface correlated. Krypton analysis showed 17% excess in 82Kr and 3-fold excess in 80Kr in agreement with their production ratio. A longer 48-hour washing reduced Br contamination 50 times. In order to better separate SW halogens from ubiquitous terrestrial contamination we employed a depth-profiling of AloS using 266 nm laser ablation. Laser beam power was increased in 12 consecutive steps using a combination of controlled defocusing and attenuation by a polarizing beamsplitter. Depth profile analysis revealed that terrestrial halogen contamination is present at the surface and at the interface between Al and sapphire substrate and is more pronounced for iodine, as indicated by 128Xe/132Xe ratio that is higher than atmospheric and solar wind values in all 12 rasters. While washing procedure reduced surface contamination, it did not affect iodine and bromine associated with the interface. Thus, cleaner Si-based Genesis collectors could be more suitable for SW halogen analyses. Our first results suggest that determination of solar iodine and bromine is potentially feasible, considering the possibility of analyzing larger collector areas irradiated with higher neutron fluence in order to improve counting statistics of the measurements. Supported by NASA grant NNX07AM76G. [1] Anders E. and Ebihara M. 1982. GCA 46:2363-2380. [2] Anders E. and Grevesse N. 1989. GCA 53:197-214. [3] Cameron A. G. W. 1968. in Origin and distribution of the elements (Ahrens L. H., ed.), Pergamon, Oxford:125-143. [4] Cameron A. G. W. 1973. Space Science Revues 15:121-146. [5] Suess H. E. and Urey H. C. 1956. Revisions of Modern Physics 28:53-74. [6] Lodders K. 2010. in: Principles and Perspectives in Cosmochemistry. 379-417. [7] Meshik A. et all. 2011. 74th Meteoritical Society Meeting, Abstract#5471.

  7. Iodine oxide in the global marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados-Roman, C.; Cuevas, C. A.; Hay, T.; Fernandez, R. P.; Mahajan, A. S.; Royer, S.-J.; Galí, M.; Simó, R.; Dachs, J.; Großmann, K.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Saiz-Lopez, A.

    2014-08-01

    Emitted mainly by the oceans, iodine is a halogen compound important for atmospheric chemistry due to its high ozone depletion potential and effect on the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of iodine oxide (IO) measurements in the open marine boundary layer (MBL) made during the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation. Results show IO mixing ratios ranging from 0.4 to 1 pmol mol-1 and, complemented with additional field campaigns, this dataset confirms through observations the ubiquitous presence of reactive iodine chemistry in the global marine environment. We use a global model with organic (CH3I, CH2ICl, CH2I2 and CH2IBr) and inorganic (HOI and I2) iodine ocean emissions to investigate the contribution of the different iodine source gases to the budget of IO in the global MBL. In agreement with previous estimates, our results indicate that, globally averaged, the abiotic precursors contribute about 75% to the iodine oxide budget. However, this work reveals a strong geographical pattern in the contribution of organic vs. inorganic precursors to reactive iodine in the global MBL.

  8. Aging and iodine loading of silver-functionalized aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, S.H.; Jubin, R.T.; Anderson, K.K.; Walker, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6223, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Engineered silver-functionalized silica aerogels are being investigated for their potential application in off-gas treatment at a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. Reprocessing will release several key volatile radionuclides, including iodine-129. To achieve regulatory compliance, iodine-129 must be removed from any off-gas stream prior to environmental discharge. Ag{sup 0}-functionalized aerogels have been demonstrated to have high iodine-capture capacity, high porosity, and potential for conversion into a waste form. Capture materials used in off-gas treatment may be exposed to a heated, high-humidity, acidic gas stream for months. Extended exposure to this stream could affect sorbent performance. It was the aim of this study to evaluate what impacts might be observed when Ag{sup 0}-functionalized aerogels prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were contacted with a dry air stream for up to 6 months and then used to adsorb iodine from a synthetic off-gas stream. Results demonstrate that there is some loss of iodine-capture capacity caused by aging, but that this loss is not as marked as for aging of more traditional iodine sorbents, such as silver-impregnated mordenite. Specifically, aging silver-functionalized aerogel under a dry air stream for up to 6 months can decrease its iodine capacity from 41 wt% to 32 wt%. (authors)

  9. AGING AND IODINE LOADING OF SILVER-FUNCTIONALIZED AEROGELS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, Stephanie H [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Anderson, Kaara K [ORNL; Walker Jr, Joseph Franklin [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Engineered silver-functionalized silica aerogels are being investigated for their application in off-gas treatment at a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. Reprocessing will release several key volatile radionuclides, including iodine-129. To achieve regulatory compliance, iodine-129 must be removed from any off-gas stream prior to environmental discharge. Silver-functionalized aerogels have been demonstrated to have high iodine capture capacity, high porosity and potential for conversion into a waste form. Capture materials used in off-gas treatment may be exposed to a heated, high humidity, acidic gas stream for months. Extended exposure to this stream could affect sorbent performance. It was the aim of this study to evaluate what impacts might be observed when Ag0-functionalized aerogels prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were contacted with a dry air stream for up to 6 months and then used to adsorb iodine from a synthetic off-gas stream. Results demonstrate that there is some loss of iodine capture capacity caused by aging, but that this loss is not as marked as for aging of more traditional iodine sorbents, such as silver-impregnated mordenite. Specifically, aging silver-functionalized aerogel under a dry air stream for up to 6 months can decrease its iodine capacity from 41wt% to 32wt%.

  10. Effect of different cooking methods on iodine losses.

    PubMed

    Rana, Ritu; Raghuvanshi, Rita Singh

    2013-12-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is a public health problem in India. It is because of poor iodine availability to the body either due to loss of iodine from iodized salt or due to cooking. Since there is lack of scientific evidence on loss of iodine during different cooking methods, present study was undertaken to study the effect of different cooking methods on iodine losses. Methods used were boiling, roasting, shallow frying, deep frying, pressure cooking and microwave cooking. The loss of iodine ranged from 6.58% to 51.08%. Minimum losses were found during shallow frying where cooking time of salt was 1 min and 15 s and maximum during pressure cooking where cooking time of salt was 26 min. Losses during boiling, roasting, deep frying and microwave cooking were found to be 40.23%, 10.57%, 10.40% and 27.13% respectively. From the obtained results, authors have concluded that the loss of iodine depends upon type of cooking method and time of addition of salt during cooking. PMID:24426037

  11. Hyperparathyroidism after radioactive iodine therapy for Graves disease

    SciTech Connect

    Esselstyn, C.B. Jr.; Schumacher, O.P.; Eversman, J.; Sheeler, L.; Levy, W.J.

    1982-11-01

    The association of external ionizing radiation to the head and neck and the subsequent development of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands has been documented in recent years. This also has been demonstrated experimentally in animals. Despite the numbers of patients with Graves disease who have been treated with radioactive iodine, there are no reports in the literature of parathyroid surgery for hyperparathyroidism secondary to earlier treatment with radioactive iodine for Graves disease. This report describes the operative and pathologic findings in four patients with hyperparathyroidism. These patients had previously been treated with radioactive iodine for Graves disease. The pathologic findings at surgery included in three cases a single enlarged hyperplastic gland consistent with a parathyroid adenoma. One patient had hyperplasia of all four glands. The two largest glands and halves of the two remaining glands were removed. In a long-term follow-up of children and adolescents treated with radioactive iodine for Graves disease, Levy and Schumacher found calcium elevations in 10 of 159 patients. The increased incidence of hyperparathyroidism following radioactive iodine treatment for Graves disease in children and adolescents would seem several times higher than normal. Whether adults who have radioactive iodine treatment for Graves disease have a similar increase incidence is not known. Meanwhile it would seem reasonable to suggest that patients whose hyperthyroidism is treated with radioactive iodine should have their serum calcium levels determined at 5-year intervals.

  12. Iodinated contrast media oxidation by nonthermal plasma: The role of iodine as a tracer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirra Gur-Reznik; Sara P. Azerrad; Yana Levinson; Lilly Heller-Grossman; Carlos G. Dosoretz

    2011-01-01

    The oxidation of trace pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater desalination streams by nonthermal plasma (NTP) was evaluated. Brines from a two stage-RO pilot plant process as well as two sources of tertiary effluents, ultrafiltrated secondary effluents and membrane biological reactor effluents, were comparatively tested with ultra-pure water. The non-ionic and ionic iodinated contrast media (ICM) compounds, iopromide (IOPr) and diatrizoate (DTZ),

  13. Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide

    DOEpatents

    Mysels, Karol J. (La Jolla, CA)

    1979-01-01

    The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

  14. Iodine chemistry in the troposphere and its effect on ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Fernandez, R. P.; Ordóñez, C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Gómez Martín, J. C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.

    2014-08-01

    Despite potential influence of iodine chemistry on the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere, reactive iodine distributions and their impact on tropospheric ozone remain nearly unexplored aspects of the global atmosphere. Here we present a comprehensive global modelling experiment aimed at estimating lower and upper limits of the inorganic iodine burden and its impact on tropospheric ozone. Two sets of simulations without and with the photolysis of IxOy oxides (i.e., I2O2, I2O3 and I2O4) were conducted to define the range of inorganic iodine loading, partitioning and impact in the troposphere. Our results show that the most abundant daytime iodine species throughout the middle to upper troposphere is atomic iodine, with an annual average tropical abundance of (0.15-0.55) pptv. We propose the existence of a "tropical ring of atomic iodine" that peaks in the tropical upper troposphere (∼11-14 km) at the Equator and extends to the sub-tropics (30° N-30° S). Annual average daytime I / IO ratios larger than 3 are modelled within the tropics, reaching ratios up to ∼20 during vigorous uplift events within strong convective regions. We calculate that the integrated contribution of catalytic iodine reactions to the total rate of tropospheric ozone loss (IOxLoss) is 2-5 times larger than the combined bromine and chlorine cycles. IOxLoss cycles, without and with IxOy photolysis, represent approximately (17-27)%, (8-14)% and (11-27)% of the tropical annual ozone loss for the marine boundary layer (MBL), free troposphere (FT) and upper troposphere (UT), respectively. Our results indicate that iodine is the second strongest ozone depleting family throughout the global marine UT and in the tropical MBL. We suggest (i) iodine sources and its chemistry need to be included in global tropospheric chemistry models, (ii) experimental programs designed to quantify the iodine budget in the troposphere should include a strategy for the measurement of atomic I, and (iii) laboratory programs are needed to characterize the photochemistry of higher iodine oxides to determine their atmospheric fate since they can potentially dominate halogen-catalysed ozone destruction in the troposphere.

  15. Photoconductivity of iodine-doped single crystals of phthalocyanine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis P Xavier; George J Goldsmith

    1995-01-01

    Single crystals of metal-free phthalocyanine (H2Pc) and of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) were grown in the presence of iodine vapour. The presence of iodine enhances the spectral\\u000a dependence of photoconductivity of H2Pc in the visible region but of CuPc in the near-IR region. The dark current is decreased but the photocurrent is increased\\u000a by one order of magnitude in iodine-doped H2Pc

  16. Iodine chemistry in the troposphere and its effect on ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Fernandez, R. P.; Ordóñez, C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Gómez Martín, J. C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the potential influence of iodine chemistry on the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere, reactive iodine distributions and their impact on tropospheric ozone remain almost unexplored aspects of the global atmosphere. Here we present a comprehensive global modelling experiment aimed at estimating lower and upper limits of the inorganic iodine burden and its impact on tropospheric ozone. Two sets of simulations without and with the photolysis of IxOy oxides (i.e. I2O2, I2O3 and I2O4) were conducted to define the range of inorganic iodine loading, partitioning and impact in the troposphere. Our results show that the most abundant daytime iodine species throughout the middle to upper troposphere is atomic iodine, with an annual average tropical abundance of (0.15-0.55) pptv. We propose the existence of a "tropical ring of atomic iodine" that peaks in the tropical upper troposphere (~11-14 km) at the equator and extends to the sub-tropics (30° N-30° S). Annual average daytime I / IO ratios larger than 3 are modelled within the tropics, reaching ratios up to ~20 during vigorous uplift events within strong convective regions. We calculate that the integrated contribution of catalytic iodine reactions to the total rate of tropospheric ozone loss (IOx Loss) is 2-5 times larger than the combined bromine and chlorine cycles. When IxOy photolysis is included, IOx Loss represents an upper limit of approximately 27, 14 and 27% of the tropical annual ozone loss for the marine boundary layer (MBL), free troposphere (FT) and upper troposphere (UT), respectively, while the lower limit throughout the tropical troposphere is ~9%. Our results indicate that iodine is the second strongest ozone-depleting family throughout the global marine UT and in the tropical MBL. We suggest that (i) iodine sources and its chemistry need to be included in global tropospheric chemistry models, (ii) experimental programs designed to quantify the iodine budget in the troposphere should include a strategy for the measurement of atomic I, and (iii) laboratory programs are needed to characterize the photochemistry of higher iodine oxides to determine their atmospheric fate since they can potentially dominate halogen-catalysed ozone destruction in the troposphere.

  17. The Rotational Spectrum of Iodine Dioxide, OIO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.; Cohen, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    The rotational spectra of OIO in its ground vibrational and first excited bending states have been observed for the first time. OIO was formed initially from the products of a microwave discharge in O2 passing over molecular iodine and later with greater yield in a DC discharge through a mixture of O2 and I2 vapor. OIO is an asymmetric prolate rotor (kappa = -0.690) with a (sup 2)B(sub 1) electronic ground state. Over 550 ground state transitions and over 160 transitions of the excited bending state have been included in the fits. The resulting parameters are well determined and will be compared to those recently published for OBrO and OClO. These will be interpreted in terms of the molecular geometry, harmonic force field, and electronic structure.

  18. Electron-collision cross sections for iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311 (United States); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Hargreaves, L.R.; Jones, D.B.; Murrie, R.; Brunton, J.R. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Brunger, M.J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Hoshino, M. [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Sophia University, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Buckman, S.J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    We present results from a joint experimental and theoretical study of elastic electron scattering from atomic iodine. The experimental results were obtained by subtracting known cross sections from the measured data obtained with a pyrolyzed mixed beam containing a variety of atomic and molecular species. The calculations were performed using both a fully relativistic Dirac B-spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method and an optical model potential approach. Given the difficulty of the problem, the agreement between the two sets of theoretical predictions and the experimental data for the angle-differential and the angle-integrated elastic cross sections at 40 eV and 50 eV is satisfactory.

  19. The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders Among School Children in Metekel Zone, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Girma, Kibatu; Nibret, Endalkachew; Gedefaw, Molla

    2014-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone. Methods A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 and July 2012. One school containing 750 children aged between 6 and 18 years was randomly selected. Two hundred students from this school were selected by systematic random sampling. Physical examination was made according to WHO goiter classification system; 50 salt samples from households to which the sampled children belonged were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits and titration; a casual urine sample (5 ml) was taken from 30 children to measure urinary iodine spectrophotometrically, and 5 ml venous blood sample were collected from 37 children to measure thyroid relevant blood constituents using ELISA. Results The total goiter prevalence was 39.5%; 60% of the salt samples contained no iodine. The median urinary iodine concentration ranged from 20.54 – 62.2 (39.9 µg/L). School children who were assessed for thyroid hormones showed 18.92% elevated and 27.03% suppressed TSH levels. Conclusion The study demonstrated that iodine deficiency is still a severe public health problem in Metekel Zone. There is a need to further strengthen the existing controlling and monitoring system in order to achieve proper elimination of IDDs in the community. PMID:24795511

  20. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus: dose response to iodine and chlorhexidine and effect of iodine challenge on antibiotic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Azizoglu, Reha Onur; Lyman, Roberta; Anderson, Kevin L

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive organism that is frequently associated with clinical or subclinical mastitis. The use of germicidal teat dips is one of the measures taken by the dairy industry to control mastitis. Iodine and chlorhexidine compounds are commonly used disinfectants in teat dips. We determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of iodine for 37 isolates of Staph. aureus and observed variations in MIC. Seven of these Staph. aureus isolates were selected as genotype group representatives based on their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Dose responses against iodine and chlorhexidine were determined for the 7 genotype group representatives. The response of these isolates to iodine varied significantly, whereas all isolates were susceptible to chlorhexidine, even at concentrations as low as 0.0002%. We also evaluated whether exposure of Staph. aureus to sublethal levels of iodine influenced subsequent antibiotic susceptibility. No differences in antibiotic susceptibility of Staph. aureus were observed among cultures grown in brain heart infusion broth with and without supplemental iodine. The observed variation in iodine dose responses of Staph. aureus may have implications for the occurrence of Staph. aureus mastitis on dairy farms. PMID:23261384

  1. Blue-green single-frequency laser based on intracavity frequency doubling of a diode-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are important for many applications including iodine precision spectroscopy, optical frequency standards, 1019-1027 (2003). 2. W.-Y. Cheng, L. Chen, T.H. Yoon, J.L. Hall, J. Ye," Sub-Doppler molecular-iodine, "Room temperature CW laser action of Y2SiO5:Yb3+ , Er3+ at 1.57 µm," Opt. Commun. 107, 61-64 (1994). 13

  2. [Study on consequences of radioactive iodine pollution and iodine prophylaxis after the Czernobyl accident in the Krakow region].

    PubMed

    Szybi?ski, Z; Rybakowa, M; Stanuch, H; Wi?niowski, Z; Korzeniowska, D

    1991-01-01

    Program of investigations of effects of radiation and iodine prophylaxis undertaken after Czarnobyl accident in Kraków region had to be modified due to goiter endemy in this region. These modifications included: 1) Division of the region into 3 areas (voivodship Nowy Sacz, urban voivodship Kraków and area of Kielce and Swietokrzyskie mountains). 2) Study on iodine uptake in food and urinary secretion. 3) Examination of iodine level in drinking water, add an attempt of calculation of radiation dose absorbed by thyroid. Characterization of selected areas, principles of selection of study groups are presented as well as organizational details and methods of data collection. PMID:1364475

  3. The Effect of Povidone-Iodine (Betadine) on Serum Protein-Bound Iodine, When Used as a Surgical Preparation on Intact Skin

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, H. P.; Hawks, G. H.; O'Sullivan, M.; Shaw, M.

    1964-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether the use of povidone-iodine (Betadine) as a skin disinfectant prior to surgery would affect the protein-bound iodine (PBI) and so invalidate this parameter of thyroid function. Ninety-seven consecutive patients were chosen who had no thyroid disease and who had not recently been exposed to iodine in any form. Their serum PBI levels were determined before and after a wide variety of surgical operations. Povidone-iodine was used as a skin disinfectant in the operating room in all cases. Care was taken to avoid contact of the povidone-iodine with the mucous membranes. No significant change in the protein-bound iodine could be detected and it was concluded that there could be no objection to the use of povidone-iodine on the ground of its possible effect on the protein-bound iodine. PMID:14158542

  4. Ion exchange determines iodine-131 concentration in aqueous samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairman, W. D.; Sedlet, J.

    1967-01-01

    Inorganic radioiodide in aqueous media is analyzed by separating the radioactive iodine-131 as the iodide ion on a silver chloride column. The activity in the final precipitate may be determined by beta or gamma counting.

  5. Chemistry and mass transport of iodine in containment

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Shockley, W.E.; Daish, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    TRENDS is a computer code for modeling behavior of iodine in containment. It tracks both chemical and physical changes and features such as calculation of radiation dose rates in water pools , radiolysis effects, hydrolysis, and deposition/revaporization on aerosols and structural surfaces. Every attempt has been made to account for all significant processes. Reaction rate constants for iodine hydrolysis and radiolysis were obtained by a variable algorithm that gives values closely modeling experimental data. TRENDS output provides the distribution of iodine in containment and release from containment as a function of time during a severe accident sequence. Initial calculations with TRENDS have shown that the amount of volatile iodine released from containment is sensitive to the value of the liquid-gas (evaporation) mass transport coefficient for I/sub 2/. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Tuning the photophysical and redox properties of metallocorroles by iodination.

    PubMed

    Vestfrid, Jenya; Goldberg, Israel; Gross, Zeev

    2014-10-01

    Facile procedures were developed for selective iodination of aluminum and gallium corroles; crystallographic characterization shows that the main structural aspects are not changed (the macrocycle remains planar). Absorption maxima are red-shifted by 3-5 nm/iodine, singlet lifetimes are reduced to <80 ps, and emissions from long-lived excited states come into effect. The iodinated corroles display prompt fluorescence, phosphorescence, and delayed thermal fluorescence, all at room temperature. The effect on redox potentials appears to be additive for each additional iodine and, surprisingly, is practically identical to that of the other three halides. The conclusions of this work are of large importance for the design of metallocorroles that are best suited for the various applications where metallocorroles are used as catalysts and photosensitizers. PMID:25244591

  7. Regioselective C2 sulfonylation of indoles mediated by molecular iodine.

    PubMed

    Katrun, Praewpan; Mueangkaew, Charoensak; Pohmakotr, Manat; Reutrakul, Vichai; Jaipetch, Thaworn; Soorukram, Darunee; Kuhakarn, Chutima

    2014-02-21

    A facile and general method for regioselective C2 sulfonylation reaction of indoles mediated by iodine is described. The 2-sulfonylated products were obtained up to 96% yield under mild reaction conditions (room temperature, 2 h). PMID:24475946

  8. Iodine-131 behavior during the TMI-2 accident. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, C.A.; Thomas, C.D. Jr.; Ritzman, R.L.; Tooper, F.

    1981-09-01

    Iodine is one of the elements that are closely watched relative to any release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant because in an accident it might account for 25% of total health effects, and contribute 40% more toward health effects than any other single isotope. The question is whether iodine is released to the environment in proportion to its availability in the core. Data from the accident at TMI-2 shows that contrary to expectations, licensing codes, and design basis, only very small amounts of iodine escaped to the environment from the reactor containment and auxiliary buildings. The major portion of the iodine apparently has been dissolved and retained in water in the various systems and in the water that is free in the containment.

  9. Study on gold concentrate leaching by iodine-iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai-xia; Sun, Chun-bao; Li, Shao-ying; Fu, Ping-feng; Song, Yu-guo; Li, Liang; Xie, Wen-qing

    2013-04-01

    Gold extraction by iodine-iodide solution is an effective and environment-friendly method. In this study, the method using iodine-iodide for gold leaching is proved feasible through thermodynamic calculation. At the same time, experiments on flotation gold concentrates were carried out and encouraging results were obtained. Through optimizing the technological conditions, the attained high gold leaching rate is more than 85%. The optimum process conditions at 25°C are shown as follows: the initial iodine concentration is 1.0%, the iodine-to-iodide mole ratio is 1:8, the solution pH value is 7, the liquid-to-solid mass ratio is 4:1, the leaching time is 4 h, the stirring intensity is 200 r/mim, and the hydrogen peroxide consumption is 1%.

  10. 1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING (LEFT BACKGROUND), AND TWIN COTTAGES (UPPER RIGHT) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  11. Supplemental iodine as a key to reproduction in pandas?

    PubMed

    Milewski, Antoni V; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2012-06-01

    Pandas are endemic to iodine-poor environments and appear to be specialized for a goitrogenic staple diet. In particular, the importance of thiocyanate in bamboos might possibly have been overlooked in captive breeding programs. Although excreted in urine, thiocyanate first antagonizes absorption of iodine by the thyroid (of parent, fetus and suckling juveniles) and the mammary glands. In livestock and humans, subclinical deficiency of iodine is known to result in reproductive problems (including retardation of the fetus and suckling infant) even where the mother appears to be unaffected beyond slight hyperplasia of the thyroid and subtle hypothyroidism as reflected by levels of thyroid hormones. We suggest that the possibilities of iodine deficiency or excess should be carefully considered wherever the reproductive rates of pandas are unsatisfactory. PMID:22691201

  12. IODINE CATALYZED ESTERIFICATION OF CELLULOSE USING REDUCED LEVELS OF SOLVENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel method for the preparation of cellulose acetate is described herein, involving the concurrent use of iodine and acetic anhydride. The method is simple, rapid, efficient, and solvent-less. With this method, cellulose acetates have been synthesized....

  13. Release and transformations of inorganic iodine by marine macroalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Rosie; Baker, Alex R.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hughes, Claire; Kloareg, Bernard; Malin, Gill

    2009-04-01

    A number of field and laboratory studies on the impact of marine macroalgae on dissolved inorganic iodine speciation are presented. Within tidally isolated rock pools, the brown macroalga Fucus serratus was found to both release stored iodide and to facilitate the reduction of iodate to iodide. In contrast, no discernible changes in iodine speciation were observed in rock pools containing green macroalgae of the genus Ulva. Incubation experiments confirmed that the macroalgae Laminaria digitata, F. serratus and Kallymenia antarctica release iodide, though the rate of release varied between species and between specimens of the same species. Application of oxidative stress by treatment with cell wall derived oligoguluronate elicitors increased the efflux of iodide by L. digitata approximately 20-fold. The release of iodide by macroalgae may impact upon the formation of volatile iodine species (molecular iodine and iodocarbons) that are of importance in the coastal atmosphere.

  14. Static electricity of polymers reduced by treatment with iodine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermann, A. M.; Landel, R. F.; Rembaum, A.

    1967-01-01

    Treating organic polymers with iodine improves the electrical conductivity. Diffusion enables products of desired properties to be custom formulated. This eliminates a buildup of static electricity and the need for fillers or bound metal salts.

  15. Postsurgical contact dermatitis due to povidone iodine: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    de la Cuadra-Oyanguren, J; Zaragozá-Ninet, V; Sierra-Talamantes, C; Alegre de Miquel, V

    2014-04-01

    We present 7 cases of postsurgical contact dermatitis due to povidone iodine. The diagnosis was based on the clinical manifestations, the history of exposure, the site of the lesions, and the results of patch tests. This type of dermatitis can develop in the area of surgery or at distant sites exposed to povidone iodine during the surgical intervention. Patch tests with 10% povidone iodine in petrolatum were positive in all patients. Based on the results of the same tests in a control group, we recommend the use of petrolatum rather than water as the vehicle for the diagnosis of this form of contact dermatitis. Repeated open application tests with a commercially available solution of povidone iodine were negative. We conclude that the presence of the solution under occlusion during surgery is necessary both for the symptoms to develop and for the diagnosis to be made. This condition may be underdiagnosed. PMID:24661954

  16. An ultra-stable iodine-based frequency reference for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Doeringshoff, Klaus; Keetman, Anja; Reggentin, Matthias; Kovalchuk, Evgeny; Peters, Achim

    2012-07-01

    Future space missions require for ultra-stable optical frequency references. Examples are the gravitational wave detector LISA/eLISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), the SpaceTime Asymmetry Research (STAR) program, the aperture-synthesis telescope Darwin and the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) follow on mission exploring Earth's gravity. As high long-term frequency stability is required, lasers stabilized to atomic or molecular transitions are preferred, also offering an absolute frequency reference. Frequency stabilities in the 10 ^{-15} domains at longer integration times (up to several hours) are demonstrated in laboratory experiments using setups based on Doppler-free spectroscopy. Such setups with a frequency stability comparable to the hydrogen maser in the microwave domain, have the potential to be developed space compatible on a relatively short time scale. Here, we present the development of ultra-stable optical frequency references based on modulation-transfer spectroscopy of molecular iodine. Noise levels of 2\\cdot10 ^{-14} at an integration time of 1 s and below 3\\cdot10 ^{-15} at integration times between 100 s and 1000 s are demonstrated with a laboratory setup using an 80 cm long iodine cell in single-pass configuration in combination with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and standard optical components and optomechanic mounts. The frequency stability at longer integration times is (amongst other things) limited by the dimensional stability of the optical setup, i.e. by th pointing stability of the two counter-propagating beams overlapped in the iodine cell. With the goal of a future space compatible setup, a compact frequency standard on EBB (elegant breadboard) level was realized. The spectroscopy unit utilizes a baseplate made of Clearceram-HS, a glass ceramics with an ultra-low coefficient of thermal expansion of 2\\cdot10 ^{-8} K ^{-1}. The optical components are joint to the baseplate using adhesive bonding technology, which was developed in a cooperation of HTWG Konstanz and Astrium Friedrichshafen. This setup ensures a higher long-term frequency stability due to enhanced pointing stability. Also, it takes into account space mission related criteria such as compactness, robustness, MAIVT and environmental influences (shock, vibration and thermal tests). The assembly-integration technology was already successfully environmentally tested and demonstrated in a previous setup of a compact fiber-coupled heterodyne interferometer, which serves as a demonstrator for the optical readout of the LISA gravitational reference sensor. We present first measurements of the EBB setup and a first design of an iodine frequency standard on engineering model (EM) level. The EM-setup is based on the EBB experience, but features smaller dimensions by using a multipass iodine cell and less optical components. Financial support by the German Space Agency DLR with funds provided by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) under grant number 50 QT 1102 is highly appreciated.

  17. New techniques for iodine-125 radiotherapy of intraocular tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, S.; Fairchild, R.G.; Salanitro, P.

    1987-01-01

    Low-energy radiation sources, such as iodine-125, are suitable for treating choroidal melanoma because of their physical characteristics. Iodine-125 emits x-rays and gamma-rays between 27 and 35 keV. Gold plaques can direct radiation toward the tumor and minimize radiation to normal ocular structures. Effective treatment requires the cooperation of the ophthalmologist, radiotherapist, and radiation physicist. The preparation of the radioactive plaque and methods for its accurate surgical placement are detailed.

  18. Radiation-induced iodine migration in silver zeolite beds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    The radiation stability of iodine-loaded, silver-exchanged zeolite (AgX) was evaluated under dynamic flow conditions. Three tests were conducted in which 1-in.-deep beds of 10 x 16 mesh AgX beads were loaded to approximately 6 mg ¹³¹I-tagged elemental iodine per mg AgX over a 1-h period. Test conditions included an intense radiation field (absorbed dose rate of approximately 1.5 x 10⁷

  19. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  20. Origin of electronic transport of lithium phthalocyanine iodine crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Noritake; Oda, Masato; Shinozuka, Yuzo [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, Wakayama University, 930 Sakaedani, Wakayama (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    The electronic structures of Lithium Phthalocyanine Iodine are investigated using density functional theory. Comparing the band structures of several model crystals, the metallic conductivity of highly doped LiPcI{sub x} can be explained by the band of doped iodine. These results reveal that there is a new mechanism for electronic transport of doped organic semiconductors that the dopant band plays the main role.