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Sample records for solid state cells

  1. High temperature solid state storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, Jesse R.; Kallianidis, Milton; Kelsey, G. Stephen

    1983-01-01

    A completely solid state high temperature storage cell comprised of a solid rechargeable cathode such as TiS.sub.2, a solid electrolyte which remains solid at the high temperature operating conditions of the cell and which exhibits high ionic conductivity at such elevated temperatures such as an electrolyte comprised of lithium iodide, and a solid lithium or other alkali metal alloy anode (such as a lithium-silicon alloy) with 5-50% by weight of said anode being comprised of said solid electrolyte.

  2. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  3. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  4. Improved Fabrication Of Cathodes For Solid-State Li Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1995-01-01

    Utilization of cathode material increased. Improved composite-cathode/polymer-electrolyte units for solid-state lithium secondary electrochemical cells fabricated in modified version of original method of fabrication. Further development of units may lead to increases in energy and power densities and in cycle lives of rechargeable lithium cells.

  5. Novel Low Temperature Solid State Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chonglin; Nash, Patrick; Liu, Jian; Collins, Gregory

    2009-12-15

    We have successfully fabricated (PrBa)Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} and (LaBa)Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+{deleta}} epitaxial thin film on various single crystal substrates. Physical and electrochemical properties characterizations were carried out. Highly conductive oxygen-deficient double perovskite LnBaCo2O5+? thin films were grown on single crystal (001) SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), (001) MgO, (001) LaAlO{sub 3} and (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate by pulsed laser deposition. Microstructure studies from synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy. High temperature transport properties was carried in different atmosphere (O{sub 2},Air, N{sub 2}) up to ~900K. Resistance response of (LaBa)Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} epitaxial thin film was characterized in oxygen, nitrogen and 4% hydrogen over a wide range of temperature from 400�C up to 800�C. To determine the electrode performance and oxygen exchange kinetics of PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}}, multi-layered thin film based half cell was deposited on LaAlO{sub 3}(001) substrate. The temperature dependence of the resistance of this half ?cell structure was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) within different temperature and gas environments. Anode supported fuel cells, with GCO:YSZ multilayer thin film as electrolyte and PBCO thin film as electrode, are fabricated on tape casted NiO/YSZ substrate. Full cell performance is characterized up to 800�C.

  6. Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; West, William

    2008-01-01

    All-solid-state electrochemical power cells have been fabricated and tested in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments for use in environments as hot as 500 C. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus, and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal and oil wells, processing furnaces, and combustion engines. In the state-of-the-art predecessors of the present solid-state power cells, fully packaged molten eutectic salts are used as electrolytes. The molten-salt-based cells can be susceptible to significant amounts of self-discharge and corrosion when used for extended times at elevated temperatures. In contrast, all-solid-state cells such as the present ones are expected to be capable of operating for many days at temperatures up to 500 C, without significant self-discharge. The solid-state cell described here includes a cathode made of FeS2, an electrolyte consisting of a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and Li4SiO4, and an anode made of an alloy of Li and Si (see figure). The starting material for making the solid electrolyte is a stoichiometric mixture of Li3PO4, SiO2, and Li3CO2. This mixture is ball-milled, then calcined for two hours at a temperature of 1,100 C, then placed in a die atop the cathode material. Next, the layers in the die are squeezed together at a pressure between 60 and 120 MPa for one hour at a temperature of 600 C to form a unitary structure comprising the solid electrolyte and cathode bonded together. Finally, the lithium-alloy anode is pressure-bonded to the solid electrolyte layer, using an intermediate layer of pure lithium. In one test of a cell of this type, a discharge rate of about 1 mA per gram of cathode material was sustained for 72 hours at a temperature of about 460 C. This is about three times the discharge rate required to support some of the longer duration Venus-exploration mission scenarios.

  7. Perovskite enhanced solid state ZnO solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, L.; Briscoe, J.; Dunn, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper will report on the design, fabrication and testing of a solid-state perovskite enhanced ZnO solar cell. The p-type perovskite material used is bismuth ferrite (BFO) which has an absorption range within the blue range of the visible light spectrum. The solid state solar cell, was sensitized with N719 dye and used a CuSCN hole conductor. A disadvantage of ZnO is its poor chemical stability in acidic and corrosive environments. As chemical solution techniques were used in depositing BFO, a buffer method using an aminosilane ((3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane or H2N(CH2)3Si(OCH3)3)) coating was used to provide a protective coating on the ZnO nanorods before the BFO film was spin coated onto the ZnO nanorods. The photovoltaic performance of the solar cells were tested using a Keithley 2400 source meter under 100mW/cm2, AM 1.5G simulated sunlight, where improvements in Jsc and efficiency were observed. The BFO was able to harness more electrons and also acted as a buffer from electron recombination.

  8. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh; Jim Powers

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed for April 2003--September 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid oxide Fuel Cell Program''. During this reporting period, the conceptual system design activity was completed. The system design, including strategies for startup, normal operation and shutdown, was defined. Sealant and stack materials for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack were identified which are capable of meeting the thermal cycling and degradation requirements. A cell module was tested which achieved a stable performance of 0.238 W/cm{sup 2} at 95% fuel utilization. The external fuel processor design was completed and fabrication begun. Several other advances were made on various aspects of the SOFC system, which are detailed in this report.

  9. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-06-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

  10. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh

    2006-07-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID-STATE DRIVERS FOR THE NIF PLASMA ELECTRODE POCKELS CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, F; Arnold, P A; McHale, G B; James, G; Brown, G; Cook, E G; Hickman, B C

    2008-05-14

    Large aperture Plasma Electrode Pockels Cells (PEPC) are an enabling technology in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Pockels cell allows the NIF laser to take advantage of multipass amplifier architecture, thus reducing costs and physical size of the facility. Each Pockels cell comprises four 40-cm x 40-cm apertures arranged in a 4 x 1 array. The combination of the Pockels cell and a thin-film polarizer, configured in a 4 x 1 array, form an optical switch that is key to achieving multi-pass operation. Solid-state Plasma Pulse Generators (PPGs) and high current high voltage solid-state Switch Pulse Generators (SPGs) have been developed for use in the PEPC. The solid-state plasma pulse generators initiate and maintain plasma within the cells; each pulser is capable of delivering 60J of energy to each plasma channel. Deployment of the solid-state PPGs has been completed in NIF. The MOSFET-switched SPG is capable of delivering a requisite fast rise time, 17kV flattop pulse to the cells nonlinear crystals. A complete software and hardware control system has been developed and is currently being tested for use on the solid-state SPGs. Also a transmission line modeling, development, and testing effort is in process, in support of NIFs Advanced Radiographic Capabilities (ARC). Work is scheduled for completion by the end of the calendar year.

  12. All-solid-state, semiconductor-sensitized nanoporous solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hodes, Gary; Cahen, David

    2012-05-15

    Despite the rapid increase in solar cell manufacturing capacity (~50 GW(p) in 2011), maintaining this continued expansion will require resolving some major fabrication issues. Crystalline Si, the most common type of cell, requires a large energy input in the manufacturing process, which results in an energy payback time of years. CdTe/CdS thin film cells, which have captured around 10% of the global market, may not be sustainable for very large-scale use because of limited Te availability. Thus, research in this field is emphasizing cells that are energy efficient and inexpensive and use readily available materials. The extremely thin absorber (ETA) cell, the subject of this Account, is one of these new generation cells. Since the active light absorber in an ETA cell is no more than tens of nanometers thick, the direct recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes in the absorber should not compete as much with charge removal in the form of photocurrent as in thicker absorber materials. As a result, researchers expect that poorer quality semiconductors can be used in an ETA cell, which would expand the choice of semiconductors over those currently in use. We first describe the ETA cell, comparing and contrasting it to the dye-sensitized cell (DSC) from which it developed and describing its potential advantages and disadvantages. We then explain the mechanism(s) of operation of the ETA cell, which remain controversial: different ETA cells most likely operate by different mechanisms, particularly in their photovoltage generation. We then present a general description of how we prepare ETA cells in our laboratory, emphasizing solution methods to form the various layers and solution treatments of these layers to minimize manufacturing costs. This is followed by a more specific discussion of the various layers and treatments used to make and complete a cell with emphasis on solution treatments that are important in optimizing cell performance and explaining the

  13. Long-Term Operation Tests of Organic Solid-State Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiokawa, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Hiramoto, Masahiro

    The long-term operation tests of two types of solid-state organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, p-n heterojunction type cells and p-i-n junction type cells, were performed. In both cells, a drastic decrease in photocurrent within 1 h was observed in air. This rapid decrease was revealed to be caused by oxygen molecules which act as a electron trap in the electron transporting organic layer. Initial decrease of photocurrent was effectively suppressed under high vacuum (10-7 Torr). In the case of a p-n type cell, the decrease in short-circuit photocurrent was only 15% even under prolonged light irradiation of 260 h.

  14. Proton conducting membranes for high temperature fuel cells with solid state water free membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A water free, proton conducting membrane for use in a fuel cell is fabricated as a highly conducting sheet of converted solid state organic amine salt, such as converted acid salt of triethylenediamine with two quaternized tertiary nitrogen atoms, combined with a nanoparticulate oxide and a stable binder combined with the converted solid state organic amine salt to form a polymeric electrolyte membrane. In one embodiment the membrane is derived from triethylenediamine sulfate, hydrogen phosphate or trifiate, an oxoanion with at least one ionizable hydrogen, organic tertiary amine bisulfate, polymeric quaternized amine bisulfate or phosphate, or polymeric organic compounds with quaternizable nitrogen combined with Nafion to form an intimate network with ionic interactions.

  15. Recovering degraded quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by applying electrical pulses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Huang, Xuezhen

    2013-01-01

    We discovered a method of applying forward pulsed bias to recover the degradation of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Up to 30.7% of the power conversion efficiency (η) of a degraded poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based DSSC was recovered by a double-pulse. The recovered η remained higher than that before the double-pulse treatment for at least 28 days. It is deduced that the blocking of ion-transport channels in the quasi-solid-state electrolyte causes degradation of the DSSCs. This study will shed light on the efficiency enhancement and long-term stability of quasi-solid-state DSSCs. PMID:23545782

  16. In situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy of electrochemical cells: batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Frédéric; Leskes, Michal; Grey, Clare P

    2013-09-17

    Electrochemical cells, in the form of batteries (or supercapacitors) and fuel cells, are efficient devices for energy storage and conversion. These devices show considerable promise for use in portable and static devices to power electronics and various modes of transport and to produce and store electricity both locally and on the grid. For example, high power and energy density lithium-ion batteries are being developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles where they improve the efficiency of fuel use and help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To gain insight into the chemical reactions involving the multiple components (electrodes, electrolytes, interfaces) in the electrochemical cells and to determine how cells operate and how they fail, researchers ideally should employ techniques that allow real-time characterization of the behavior of the cells under operating conditions. This Account reviews the recent use of in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a technique that probes local structure and dynamics, to study these devices. In situ NMR studies of lithium-ion batteries are performed on the entire battery, by using a coin cell design, a flat sealed plastic bag, or a cylindrical cell. The battery is placed inside the NMR coil, leads are connected to a potentiostat, and the NMR spectra are recorded as a function of state of charge. (7)Li is used for many of these experiments because of its high sensitivity, straightforward spectral interpretation, and relevance to these devices. For example, (7)Li spectroscopy was used to detect intermediates formed during electrochemical cycling such as LixC and LiySiz species in batteries with carbon and silicon anodes, respectively. It was also used to observe and quantify the formation and growth of metallic lithium microstructures, which can cause short circuits and battery failure. This approach can be utilized to identify conditions that promote dendrite formation and whether different electrolytes and additives can help

  17. In-situ, non-destructive acoustic characterization of solid state electrolyte cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Robert D.; Sakamoto, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Solid-state electrolytes such as cubic Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) can enable solid-state batteries, metallic lithium anodes and higher voltage cathodes. However, the stability of cubic LLZO is affected by current density. In beta alumina solid electrolyte, microstructural failure was caused by Na dendrite penetration, and was shown to be a function of the fracture toughness, KIC. The relationship between dendrite penetration and KIC indicates electronic failure is related to creation of microstructural damage, and the microstructural damage may be used as an indicator of imminent electronic failure. To monitor microstructural damage during cycling, we developed a non-invasive, in-situ cell monitoring apparatus to help to correlate mechanical stability with Li-ion current density in LLZO. A pulse-echo transducer was integrated into all solid-state Li-LLZO-Li cells. The capability enables the characterization of microscopic inhomogeneities through the careful measurement of changes to the elastic moduli. The elastic moduli and fracture toughness have been previously reported for dense (>99%) specimens, but monitoring of the relative change in moduli during cycling has not been explored. In this study, an acoustic monitoring method is presented to monitor LLZO specimens during cycling.

  18. Thiourea-succinonitrile based polymer matrix for efficient and stable quasi solid state dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Rakhi; Jauhari, Himanshi; Saxena, Kanchan

    2016-05-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are considered to be emerging alternatives to the low cost indoor photovoltaic technologies. However, to make the application of these cells economically feasible, the stability of the cells need to be enhanced. This can be achieved by employing solid or quasi solid state electrolytes to reduce the leakage and sealing problems in DSSCs. In the present work, a gel state electrolyte composition was successfully prepared using thiourea and solid state ionic conductor succinonitrile along with other components. The composition has been used for the fabrication of quasi solid state DSSCs using Eosin B as the sensitizer material. The cells fabricated exhibited consistent photovoltaic properties even after 24 hours of storage under ambient conditions without sealing. The present work therefore, demonstrates a rapid and simple preparation of electrolyte medium for quasi solid state DSSCs.

  19. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOEpatents

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich; Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich

    2002-04-30

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  20. Biomass-derived carbon quantum dot sensitizers for solid-state nanostructured solar cells.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Joe; Marinovic, Adam; Sevilla, Marta; Dunn, Steve; Titirici, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    New hybrid materials consisting of ZnO nanorods sensitized with three different biomass-derived carbon quantum dots (CQDs) were synthesized, characterized, and used for the first time to build solid-state nanostructured solar cells. The performance of the devices was dependent on the functional groups found on the CQDs. The highest efficiency was obtained using a layer-by-layer coating of two different types of CQDs. PMID:25704873

  1. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  2. Charge separation in solid-state dye-sensitized heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, U.; Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Moser, J.E.; Haque, S.A.; Durrant, J.R.; Graetzel, M.; Klug, D.R.

    1999-08-18

    Dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells are presently under intensive investigation, as they offer an attractive alternative to conventional p--n junction devices. Solid-state versions have been described where the electrolyte present in the pores of the malodorous oxide film is replaced by a large band gap p-type semiconductor. In this way, a solid-state heterojunction of very large contact area is formed. Light is absorbed by the dye that is located at the interface. Upon excitation, the dye injects electrons into the conduction band of the oxide and is regenerated by hole injection into the p-type conductor. High incident photon-to-electric current conversion efficiencies have been achieved recently with a cell consisting of a dye-derivatized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film contacted by a new organic hole conductor. The great advantage of such systems with regard to conventional p--n junctions is that only majority carriers are involved in the photoelectric conversion process. Moreover, these are generated by the dye precisely at the site of the junction where the electric field is maximal, enhancing charge separation. Photoelectric conversion by conventional solar cells involves minority carriers whose lifetime is restricted due to recombination. As they are generated throughout the semiconductor and away from the junction, expensive high-purity materials are required in order to maintain the minority carrier diffusion length at a level where current losses are avoided. While the dynamics of photoinduced redo processes in photoelectrochemical systems have been studied in great detail, little is known about the electron-transfer dynamics in solid-state sensitized junctions. Here the authors report for the first time on the direct observation of photoinduced, interfacial charge separation across a dye-sensitized solid-state heterojunction by means of picosecond transient absorption laser spectroscopy.

  3. Lead-free solid-state organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Feng; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Cao, Duyen Hanh; Chang, Robert P. H.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2014-06-01

    Lead-free solution-processed solid-state photovoltaic devices based on methylammonium tin iodide (CH3NH3SnI3) perovskite semiconductor as the light harvester are reported. Featuring an optical bandgap of 1.3 eV, the CH3NH3SnI3 perovskite material can be incorporated into devices with the organic hole-transport layer spiro-OMeTAD and show an absorption onset at 950 nm, which is significantly redshifted compared with the benchmark CH3NH3PbI3 counterpart (1.55 eV). Bandgap engineering was implemented by chemical substitution in the form of CH3NH3SnI3-xBrx solid solutions, which can be controllably tuned to cover much of the visible spectrum, thus enabling the realization of lead-free solar cells with an initial power conversion efficiency of 5.73% under simulated full sunlight. Further efficiency enhancements are expected following optimization and a better fundamental understanding of the internal electron dynamics and corresponding interfacial engineering. The reported CH3NH3SnI3-xBrx perovskite solar cells represent a step towards the realization of low-cost, environmentally friendly solid-state solar cells.

  4. Enhanced performance with bismuth ferrite perovskite in ZnO nanorod solid state solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Leonard; Briscoe, Joe; Dunn, Steve

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports for the first time the use of perovskite bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3 or BFO) on ZnO-based solid state solar cells using only chemical solution methods for materials synthesis. As ZnO has poor chemical stability in acidic and corrosive environments, a buffer method using aminosilane ((3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or H2N(CH2)3Si(OC2H5)3)) coating was used to provide a protective coating on the ZnO nanorods. The aminosilane layer was removed after BFO coating. The solid state solar cells, sensitized by N719, used CuSCN as the hole conductor and were tested under 100 mW cm-2, AM 1.5G simulated sunlight. The photovoltaic performance showed current density improvement from 0.64 mA cm-2 to 1.4 mA cm-2 and efficiencies from 0.1% to 0.38% when comparing between ZnO and ZnO/BFO solar cells. The observed ca. 400% improved performance is shown to result from BFO's role as an electron blocking layer.This paper reports for the first time the use of perovskite bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3 or BFO) on ZnO-based solid state solar cells using only chemical solution methods for materials synthesis. As ZnO has poor chemical stability in acidic and corrosive environments, a buffer method using aminosilane ((3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or H2N(CH2)3Si(OC2H5)3)) coating was used to provide a protective coating on the ZnO nanorods. The aminosilane layer was removed after BFO coating. The solid state solar cells, sensitized by N719, used CuSCN as the hole conductor and were tested under 100 mW cm-2, AM 1.5G simulated sunlight. The photovoltaic performance showed current density improvement from 0.64 mA cm-2 to 1.4 mA cm-2 and efficiencies from 0.1% to 0.38% when comparing between ZnO and ZnO/BFO solar cells. The observed ca. 400% improved performance is shown to result from BFO's role as an electron blocking layer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00911h

  5. Ceramic distribution members for solid state electrolyte cells and method of producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J. (Inventor); Galica, Leo M. (Inventor); Losey, Robert W. (Inventor); Suitor, Jerry W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A solid state electrolyte cells apparatus and method of producing is disclosed. The apparatus can be used for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing feedstock or as a fuel cell for reacting fluids. Cells can be stacked so that fluids can be introduced and removed from the apparatus through ceramic distribution members having ports designed for distributing the fluids in parallel flow to and from each cell. The distribution members can also serve as electrodes to membranes or as membrane members between electrodes. The distribution member design does not contain any horizontal internal ports which allows the member to be thin. A method of tape casting in combination with an embossing method allows intricate radial ribs and bosses to be formed on each distribution member. The bosses serve as seals for the ports and allow the distribution members to be made without any horizontal internal ports.

  6. Method of producing ceramic distribution members for solid state electrolyte cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J. (Inventor); Galica, Leo M. (Inventor); Losey, Robert W. (Inventor); Suitor, Jerry W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A solid state electrolyte cells apparatus and method of producing is disclosed. The apparatus can be used for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing feedstock or as a fuel cell for reacting fluids. Cells can be stacked so that fluids can be introduced and removed from the apparatus through ceramic distribution members having ports designed for distributing the fluids in parallel flow to and from each cell. The distribution members can also serve as electrodes to membranes or as membrane members between electrodes, The distribution member design does not contain any horizontal internal ports which allows the member to be thin. A method of tape casting in combination with an embossing method allows intricate radial ribs and bosses to be formed on each distribution member. The bosses serve as seals for the ports and allow the distribution members to be made without any horizontal internal ports.

  7. All-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Chung, In; Lee, Byunghong; He, Jiaqing; Chang, Robert P H; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-05-24

    Dye-sensitized solar cells based on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) are promising low-cost alternatives to conventional solid-state photovoltaic devices based on materials such as Si, CdTe and CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se(2) (refs 1, 2). Despite offering relatively high conversion efficiencies for solar energy, typical dye-sensitized solar cells suffer from durability problems that result from their use of organic liquid electrolytes containing the iodide/tri-iodide redox couple, which causes serious problems such as electrode corrosion and electrolyte leakage. Replacements for iodine-based liquid electrolytes have been extensively studied, but the efficiencies of the resulting devices remain low. Here we show that the solution-processable p-type direct bandgap semiconductor CsSnI(3) can be used for hole conduction in lieu of a liquid electrolyte. The resulting solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells consist of CsSnI(2.95)F(0.05) doped with SnF(2), nanoporous TiO(2) and the dye N719, and show conversion efficiencies of up to 10.2 per cent (8.51 per cent with a mask). With a bandgap of 1.3 electronvolts, CsSnI(3) enhances visible light absorption on the red side of the spectrum to outperform the typical dye-sensitized solar cells in this spectral region. PMID:22622574

  8. Solid-state configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid-state phased array systems concepts developed for the solar power satellite (SPS) are described. In both concepts, the beam was centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. Also discussed are results of solid state studies.

  9. Higher Efficiency for Quasi-Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Under Low Light Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desilva, Ajith; Bandara, T. M. W. J.; Fernado, H. D. N. S.; Fernando, P. S. L.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Jayasundara, W. J. M. J. S. R.; Furlani, M.; Mellander, B.-E.

    2014-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), lower cost solar energy conversion devices are alternative green energy source. The liquid based electrolyte DSSCs have higher efficiencies with many practical issues while the quasi-solid-state DSSCs resolve the key problems but efficiencies are relatively low. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based gel polymer electrolytes were fabricated as DSSCs by incorporating ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate plasticizers and tetrapropylammonium iodide salt. A thin layer of electrolyte was sandwiched between the TiO2 anode (sensitized with N719 dye) and the Pt counter electrode. The electrolyte had an ionic conductivity of 2.6 mS/cm at 25 degrees of Celsius. DSSCs incorporating this gel electrolyte revealed Vsc circuit, Jsc, fill factor (FF) and efficiency values of 0.71 V, 11.8 mA, 51 percent and 4.2 percent respectively under 1 sun irradiation. The efficiency of the cell increased with decreasing solar irradiance achieving up to 10 percent efficiency and 80 percent FF at low irradiance values. This work uncovers that quasi-solid state DSSCs can reach efficiencies close to that of liquid electrolytes based cells.

  10. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  11. Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Zueqian

    2010-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

  12. The Organic Solid State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)

  13. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  14. Free Energies of Formation Measurements on Solid-State Electrochemical Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollino, J. A.; Aronson, S.

    1972-01-01

    A simple experiment is proposed that can provide the student with some insight into the chemical properties of solids. It also demonstrates the relationship between the Gibbs free energy of formation of an ionic solid and the emf of an electrochemical cell. (DF)

  15. NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca Solid-State High-Temperature Battery Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical study have demonstrated the promise of all-solid-state, high-temperature electrochemical battery cells based on NiF2 as the active cathode material, CaF2 doped with NaF as the electrolyte material, and Ca as the active anode material. These and other all-solid-state cells have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments that must operate in environments much hotter than can be withstood by ordinary commercially available batteries. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus (where the mean surface temperature is about 450 C), and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal wells and oil wells. All-solid-state high-temperature power cells are sought as alternatives to other high-temperature power cells based, variously, on molten anodes and cathodes or molten eutectic salt electrolytes. Among the all-solid-state predecessors of the present NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca cells are those described in "Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells" (NPO-44396), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 5 (May 2008), page 40. In those cells, the active cathode material is FeS2, the electrolyte material is a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and LiSiO4, and the active anode material is Li contained within an alloy that remains solid in the intended high operational temperature range.

  16. High Efficiency Forster Resonance Energy Transfer in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mor, Gopal K.; Basham, James; Paulose, Maggie; Kim, Sanghoon; Varghese, Oomman K.; Vaish, Amit; Yoriya, Sorachon; Grimes, Craig A.

    2010-07-14

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SS-DSCs) offer the potential to make low cost solar power a reality, however their photoconversion efficiency must first be increased. The dyes used are commonly narrow band with high absorption coefficients, while conventional photovoltaic operation requires proper band edge alignment significantly limiting the dyes and charge transporting materials that can be used in combination. We demonstrate a significant enhancement in the light harvesting and photocurrent generation of SS-DSCs due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films are sensitized with red/near IR absorbing SQ-1 acceptor dye, subsequently intercalated with Spiro-OMeTAD blended with a visible light absorbing DCM-pyran donor dye. The calculated Förster radius is 6.1 nm. The donor molecules contribute a FRET-based maximum IPCE of 25% with a corresponding excitation transfer efficiency of approximately 67.5%.

  17. Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6 V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Takahiro; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2014-08-01

    Designing a lithium ion battery (LIB) with a three-dimensional device structure is crucial for increasing the practical energy storage density by avoiding unnecessary supporting parts of the cell modules. Here, we describe the superior secondary battery performance of the bulk all-solid-state LIB cell and a multilayered stacked bipolar cell with doubled cell potential of 6.5 V, for the first time. The bipolar-type solid LIB cell runs its charge/discharge cycle over 200 times in a range of 0.1-1.0 C with negligible capacity decrease despite their doubled output cell potentials. This extremely high performance of the bipolar cell is a result of the superior battery performance of the single cell; the bulk all-solid-state cell has a charge/discharge cycle capability of over 1500 although metallic lithium and LiFePO4 are employed as anodes and cathodes, respectively. The use of a quasi-solid electrolyte consisting of ionic liquid and Al2O3 nanoparticles is considered to be responsible for the high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. This paper presents the effective applications of SiO2, Al2O3, and CeO2 nanoparticles and various Li+ conducting ionic liquids for the quasi-solid electrolytes and reports the best ever known cycle performances. Moreover, the results of this study show that the bipolar stacked three-dimensional device structure would be a smart choice for future LIBs with higher cell energy density and output potential. In addition, our report presents the advantages of adopting a three-dimensional cell design based on the solid-state electrolytes, which is of particular interest in energy-device engineering for mobile applications.

  18. Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6 V

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Takahiro; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    Designing a lithium ion battery (LIB) with a three-dimensional device structure is crucial for increasing the practical energy storage density by avoiding unnecessary supporting parts of the cell modules. Here, we describe the superior secondary battery performance of the bulk all-solid-state LIB cell and a multilayered stacked bipolar cell with doubled cell potential of 6.5 V, for the first time. The bipolar-type solid LIB cell runs its charge/discharge cycle over 200 times in a range of 0.1–1.0 C with negligible capacity decrease despite their doubled output cell potentials. This extremely high performance of the bipolar cell is a result of the superior battery performance of the single cell; the bulk all-solid-state cell has a charge/discharge cycle capability of over 1500 although metallic lithium and LiFePO4 are employed as anodes and cathodes, respectively. The use of a quasi-solid electrolyte consisting of ionic liquid and Al2O3 nanoparticles is considered to be responsible for the high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. This paper presents the effective applications of SiO2, Al2O3, and CeO2 nanoparticles and various Li+ conducting ionic liquids for the quasi-solid electrolytes and reports the best ever known cycle performances. Moreover, the results of this study show that the bipolar stacked three-dimensional device structure would be a smart choice for future LIBs with higher cell energy density and output potential. In addition, our report presents the advantages of adopting a three-dimensional cell design based on the solid-state electrolytes, which is of particular interest in energy-device engineering for mobile applications. PMID:25124398

  19. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  20. Bragg stack-functionalized counter electrode for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Tae; Prosser, Jacob H; Kim, Dong Jun; Kim, Jong Hak; Lee, Daeyeon

    2013-05-01

    A highly reflective counter electrode is prepared through the deposition of alternating layers of organized mesoporous TiO(2) (om-TiO(2)) and colloidal SiO(2) (col-SiO(2)) nanoparticles. We present the effects of introducing this counter electrode into dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) for maximizing light harvesting properties. The om-TiO(2) layers with a high refractive index are prepared by using an atomic transfer radical polymerization and a sol-gel process, in which a polyvinyl chloride-g-poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate graft copolymer is used as a structure-directing agent. The col-SiO(2) layers with a low refractive index are prepared by spin-coating commercially available silica nanoparticles. The properties of the Bragg stack (BS)-functionalized counter electrode in DSSCs are analyzed by using a variety of techniques, including spectroscopic ellipsometry, SEM, UV/Vis spectroscopy, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and intensity modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy measurements, to understand the critical factors contributing to the cell performance. When incorporated into DSSCs that are used in conjunction with a polymerized ionic liquid as the solid electrolyte, the energy conversion efficiency of this solid-state DSSC (ssDSSC) approaches 6.6 %, which is one of the highest of the reported N719 dye-based ssDSSCs. Detailed optical and electrochemical analyses of the device performance show that this assembly yields enhanced light harvesting without the negative effects of charge recombination or electrolyte penetration, which thus, presents new possibilities for effective light management. PMID:23576320

  1. Optimizations of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancardo, Matteo; West, Keld; Krebs, Frederik C.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper we report on an attempt to substitute the liquid-electrolyte in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (LC) by quasi-solid-state constructions (SC) adopting organic/inorganic gels as well as a novel dye comprised of a conjugated polymer covalently linked to a ruthenium complex that can be bound to a TiO2 anatase electrode. Gel polymer electrolytes are prepared by incorporating liquid electrolytes into a polymer matrix such as poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) using a gelling solvent such as propylene carbonate (PC). Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) fabricated using the former gel electrolytes and standard sensitizing dye such as cis-bis(thiocyano) ruthenium(II)-bis-2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylate (N3) exhibit an encouraging short circuit current densitie (Jsc) of 4.45 mA cm-2 with open circuit voltages (Voc) of 495 mV. In the novel dye the conjugated polymer provides light harvesting and hole conduction while the ruthenium complex binds to the anatase electrode providing efficient charge carrier separation and injection into the anatase electrode.

  2. Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-03-30

    The article discusses solid state lighting technologies. This topic was covered in two previous ASHRAE Journal columns (2010). This article covers advancements in technologies and the associated efficacies. The life-cycle, energy savings and market potential of these technologies are addressed as well.

  3. Solid-State Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of solid-state devices and their functions. The course contains four study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work…

  4. Efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells by including inverse opals with controlled layer thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hanbin; Shah, Said Karim; Abbas, Mamatimin; Ly, Isabelle; Rivera, Thomas; Almeida, Rui M.; Hirsch, Lionel; Toupance, Thierry; Ravaine, Serge

    2016-09-01

    The photoconversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells can be enhanced by the incorporation of light management nanostructures such as photonic crystals. Here, we present a facile route to incorporate titania inverse opals into solid state dye sensitized solar cells and report photoconversion efficiency enhancements of up to 56% compared with a model system without the inverse opal. Our approach is based on the precise design of titania inverse opals with a predetermined thickness that can be controlled at the individual layer level. By choosing an inverse opal exhibiting a photonic bandgap which overlaps the absorption bands of the dye, our results show that there is an optimal thickness of the inverse opal structure for maximum efficiency enhancement of the cell. This is the first experimental proof that the thickness of a titania inverse opal plays a pivotal role in cell efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells.

  5. Solid-State 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Cellulose in the Cell Walls of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, R. H.; Davies, L. M.; Harris, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance was used to characterize the molecular ordering of cellulose in a cell-wall preparation containing mostly primary walls obtained from the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Proton and 13C spin relaxation time constants showed that the cellulose was in a crystalline rather than a paracrystalline state or amorphous state. Cellulose chains were distributed between the interiors (40%) and surfaces (60%) of crystallites, which is consistent with crystallite cross-sectional dimensions of about 3 nm. Digital resolution enhancement revealed signals indicative of triclinic and monoclinic crystalline forms of cellulose mixed in similar proportions. Of the five nuclear spin relaxation processes used, proton rotating-frame relaxation provided the clearest distinction between cellulose and other cell-wall components for purposes of editing solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. PMID:12226303

  6. Solid State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Titan-CW Ti:sapphire (titanium-doped sapphire) tunable laser is an innovation in solid-state laser technology jointly developed by the Research and Solid State Laser Divisions of Schwartz Electro-optics, Inc. (SEO). SEO is producing the laser for the commercial market, an outgrowth of a program sponsored by Langley Research Center to develop Ti:sapphire technology for space use. SEO's Titan-CW series of Ti:sapphire tunable lasers have applicability in analytical equipment designed for qualitative analysis of carbohydrates and proteins, structural analysis of water, starch/sugar analyses, and measurements of salt in meat. Further applications are expected in semiconductor manufacture, in medicine for diagnosis and therapy, and in biochemistry.

  7. Tunable solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerling, R.; Budgor, A.B.; Pinto, A.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on solid state lasers. Topics considered at the conference included transition-metal-doped lasers, line-narrowed alexandrite lasers, NASA specification, meteorological lidars, laser materials spectroscopy, laser pumped single pass gain, vibronic laser materials growth, crystal growth methods, vibronic laser theory, cross-fertilization through interdisciplinary fields, and laser action of color centers in diamonds.

  8. Solid State Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May - 31 July 1996. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional Support provided by the Army, DARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

  9. Solid State Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May-31 July 1995. The topics covered are: Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and analog device technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional Support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA and NIST.

  10. Solid state research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWhorter, Alan L.

    1995-02-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May through 31 July 1994. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

  11. Solid state research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1994-11-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 August through 31 October 1994. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

  12. Solid-state proton conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Exploratory cell research and fundamental processes study in solid state electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smyrl, W.H.; Owens, B.B.; White, H.S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science)

    1990-06-01

    Last year this program demonstrated that alternative to lithium had some merit on which to base new polymer electrolyte batteries and other electrochemical devices. We reported that Na, Zn, and Cu electrolytes have modest conductivities at 100{degree}C. Some preliminary cell cycling data were reported with V{sub 6}O{sub 13} insertion cathodes, and the successful cell cycling suggested that N{sup +}, Zn{sup +2} could be inserted and removed reversibly in the cathode material. Also, thin-film polymer cathodes were shown by impedance measurements to have three characteristic regions of behavior. Each region had different controlling processes with relaxation time constants that could be separated with careful manipulation of film thickness, morphology, and charging level. The present report gives results of the continuation of these studies. In particular, the sodium system was studied more intensively with conductivity measurements on sodium triflate in poly(ethyleneoxide)(PEO), and cell studies with V{sub 6}O{sub 13} and poly(pyrrole)(PPY) cathodes. The impedance work was concluded and several directions of new work in that area were identified. The insertion studies with single crystal V{sub 6}O{sub 13} were concluded on this program and transferred to NSF funding. 29 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Sensitivity-enhanced solid-state NMR detection of expansin's target in plant cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Caporini, Marc A.; Rosay, Melanie; Zhong, Linghao; Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Hong, Mei

    2013-08-29

    Structure determination of protein binding to noncrystalline macromolecular assemblies such as plant cell walls (CWs) poses a significant structural biology challenge. CWs are loosened during growth by expansin proteins, which weaken the noncovalent network formed by cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins, but the CW target of expansins has remained elusive because of the minute amount of the protein required for activity and the complex nature of the CW. Using solid-state NMR spectroscopy, combined with sensitivity-enhancing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and differential isotopic labeling of expansin and polysaccharides, we have now determined the functional binding target of expansin in the Arabidopsis thaliana CW. By transferring the electron polarization of a biradical dopant to the nuclei, DNP allowed selective detection of 13C spin diffusion from trace concentrations of 13C, 15N-labeled expansin in the CW to nearby polysaccharides. From the spin diffusion data of wild-type and mutant expansins, we conclude that to loosen the CW, expansin binds highly specific cellulose domains enriched in xyloglucan, whereas more abundant binding to pectins is unrelated to activity. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate short 13C-13C distances of 4–6 Å between a hydrophobic surface of the cellulose microfibril and an aromatic motif on the expansin surface, consistent with the observed NMR signals. DNP-enhanced 2D 13C correlation spectra further reveal that the expansin-bound cellulose has altered conformation and is enriched in xyloglucan, thus providing unique insight into the mechanism of CW loosening. DNP-enhanced NMR provides a powerful, generalizable approach for investigating protein binding to complex macromolecular targets.

  15. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  16. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  17. Solid state thermal engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wayman, C.M.

    1981-01-27

    An improved solid state thermal engine utilizes as a drive member a braided belt fabricated from a memory alloy such as nickel-titanium and nickel-titanium ternary alloys, copper-zinc and copper-zinc ternary alloys, and the like. The braided belt is mounted on a set of pulleys to provide passage through a hot zone where the belt contracts and develops tension, and through a cold zone where it relaxes and stretches. Since more energy is delivered by contraction than is required for relaxation, positive work output results with an efficiency of between onefifth and one-third of the carnot cycle.

  18. Solid state devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Solid State Device research program is directed toward developing innovative devices for space remote and in-situ sensing, and for data processing. Innovative devices can result from the standard structures in innovative materials such as low and high temperature superconductors, strained layer superlattices, or diamond films. Innovative devices can also result from innovative structures achieved using electron tunneling or nanolithography in standard materials. A final step is to use both innovative structures and innovative materials. A new area of emphasis is the miniaturization of sensors and instruments molded by using the techniques of electronic device fabrication to micromachine silicon into micromechanical and electromechanical sensors and actuators.

  19. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  20. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  1. Block Copolymer Electrolytes: Thermodynamics, Ion Transport, and Use in Solid- State Lithium/Sulfur Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teran, Alexander Andrew

    Nanostructured block copolymer electrolytes containing an ion-conducting block and a modulus-strengthening block are of interest for applications in solid-state lithium metal batteries. These materials can self-assemble into well-defined microstructures, creating conducting channels that facilitate ion transport. The overall objective of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding of the behavior of salt-containing block copolymers, and evaluate their potential for use in solid-state lithium/sulfur batteries. Anionically synthesized polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) copolymers doped with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt were used as a model system. This thesis investigates the model system on several levels: from fundamental thermodynamic studies to bulk characterization and finally device assembly and testing. First, the thermodynamics of neat and salt-containing block copolymers was studied. The addition of salt to these materials is necessary to make them conductive, however even small amounts of salt can have significant effects on their phase behavior, and consequently their iontransport and mechanical properties. As a result, the effect of salt addition on block copolymer thermodynamics has been the subject of significant interest over the last decade. A comprehensive study of the thermodynamics of block copolymer/salt mixtures over a wide range of molecular weights, compositions, salt concentrations and temperatures was conducted. Next, the effect of molecular weight on ion transport in both homopolymer and copolymer electrolytes were studied over a wide range of chain lengths. Homopolymer electrolytes show an inverse relationship between conductivity and chain length, with a plateau in the infinite molecular weight limit. This is due to the presence of two mechanisms of ion conduction in homopolymers; the first mechanism is a result of the segmental motion of the chains surrounding the salt ions, 2 creating a liquid

  2. Solid state heat engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, J.S.

    1981-12-15

    A compact solid state turbine heat engine can be devised by pairing the nitinol elements. Each element is characterized by being in thermal contact with at least one hot water and one cold water bath and mechanically coupled to at least one driven pulley and driver pulley. A second nitinol element is similarly configured with a driver pulley, driven pulley, hot and cold water bath. The driver pulley associated with the first nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the second nitinol element. Similarly, the driver pulley of the second nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the first nitinol element. The paired nitinol elements form a compound solid state turbine engine wherein each nitinol element lies in a single plane and wherein the engine may be combined with a plurality of such pairs for increased power output. The nitinol elements may also incorporate a snubber to limit the strain on the element and the engine may further incorporate a variable radius pulley to increase the efficiency of mechanical conversion.

  3. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  4. Identification of lipid and saccharide constituents of whole microalgal cells by ¹³C solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Alexandre A; Genard, Bertrand; Zito, Francesca; Tremblay, Réjean; Warschawski, Dror E; Marcotte, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are unicellular organisms in which plasma membrane is protected by a complex cell wall. The chemical nature of this barrier is important not only for taxonomic identification, but also for interactions with exogenous molecules such as contaminants. In this work, we have studied freshwater (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and marine (Pavlova lutheri and Nannochloropsis oculata) microalgae with different cell wall characteristics. C. reinhardtii is covered by a network of fibrils and glycoproteins, while P. lutheri is protected by small cellulose scales, and the picoplankton N. oculata by a rigid cellulose wall. The objective of this work was to determine to what extent the different components of these microorganisms (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) can be distinguished by ¹³C solid-state NMR with an emphasis on isolating the signature of their cell walls and membrane lipid constituents. By using NMR experiments which select rigid or mobile zones, as well as ¹³C-enriched microalgal cells, we improved the spectral resolution and simplified the highly crowded spectra. Interspecies differences in cell wall constituents, storage sugars and membrane lipid compositions were thus evidenced. Carbohydrates from the cell walls could be distinguished from those incorporated into sugar reserves or glycolipids. Lipids from the plasmalemma and organelle membranes and from storage vacuoles could also be identified. This work establishes a basis for a complete characterization of phytoplankton cells by solid-state NMR. PMID:25065670

  5. Solid state electrolyte systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  6. Solid state television camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a solid state television camera using a new charge-coupled imaging device are reported. An RCA charge-coupled device arranged in a 512 by 320 format and directly compatible with EIA format standards was the sensor selected. This is a three-phase, sealed surface-channel array that has 163,840 sensor elements, which employs a vertical frame transfer system for image readout. Included are test results of the complete camera system, circuit description and changes to such circuits as a result of integration and test, maintenance and operation section, recommendations to improve the camera system, and a complete set of electrical and mechanical drawing sketches.

  7. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The rationale, analysis, design, breadboarding and testing of the incremental functional requirements are reported that led to the development of prototype 1 and 5 Amp dc and 1 Amp ac solid state power controllers (SSPC's). The SSPC's are to be considered for use as a replacement of electro-mechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 Vdc. They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small guage wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, unboard testing, and power management and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability.

  8. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  9. Ionic conductivity measurement in magnesium aluminate spinel and solid state galvanic cell with magnesium aluminate electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myongjai

    This thesis work is about the experimental measurement of electronic and ionic conductivities in the MgAl2O4 spinel at 500˜600°C range and exploring the fundamental origin of solid-state galvanic cell behavior in the cell of Al|MgAl2O4|Mg, Al|MgAl2O 4|C, and Mg|MgAl2O4|C, in which at least one metal electrode in common with the composition of the electrolyte. For the electronic conductivity measurement, we have used the ion-blocking Gold and Carbon electrodes which are inert with both Mg and Al ions to suppress the ionic conduction from the total conduction. DC polarization method was used to measure the conduction through Au|MgAl2O4|Au and C|MgAl2O4|C specimens. The measured electrical conductivity using Au|MgAl2O4|Au and C|MgAl2O4|C specimens showed 10-9.3 ˜ 10-8.4 (O·cm) -1 at 600˜720°C range following the Arrhenius-type relation. These conductivity data are in agreement with reported data obtained from Pt and Ag ion-blocking electrodes deposited on MgAl2O4 specimens. For the ionic conductivity measurement, we have used the non-blocking Al and Mg electrodes for Al and Mg ionic conductivities, respectively. Ionic conductivity measurement of Al and Mg in separate manner has not been reported yet. In both Al|MgAl2O4|Al and Mg|MgAl2O 4|Mg specimens, gradual increase of conduction was observed once at the initial period before it reaches the steady state conduction. By DC method on the range of 580˜650°C, steady state Al ionic conductivity was measured from Al|MgAl2O4|Al specimen showing 10 -7.7 ˜ 10-6.8 (O·cm)-1 with the activation energy of 1.9eV in sigma = sigma0 exp-QRT formula. There was no difference in the conductivity by the change of the atmosphere from 5%H2 + 95%N2 mixed gas to pure Ar gas. So it was confirmed that the oxygen defect chemistry did not play a role. For Mg ionic conductivity Mg|MgAl2O4|Mg specimen was used and the measured conductivity shows 10-6.7 ˜ 10-4.4 (O·cm)-1 at 400˜550°C with the activation energy of 1.44eV at Ar gas

  10. All-solid-state supercapacitor using a Nafion ® polymer membrane and its hybridization with a direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyung-Won; Ahn, Hyo-Jin; Sung, Yung-Eun

    An all-solid-state supercapacitor is fabricated and optimized using a Nafion ® membrane and an ionomer. The device shows good capacitance (ca. 200 F g -1) as demonstrated by cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and charge-discharge curves. The supercapacitor exhibits a relatively stable capacitance during l0,000 cycles of operation. A hybrid system comprising a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and an all-solid-state supercapacitor has been designed and tested. It is confirmed that the power discharged by the supercapacitor is transferred effectively to the DMFC. The power of the hybrid is immediately improved by 30% compared with that of a DMFC alone operating at 25 °C. The possibilities of using this system for high energy and high instantaneous power devices and integrated fabrication processes are discussed.

  11. Solid electrolyte cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A solid electrolyte cell including a body of solid ionized gas-conductive electrolyte having mutually spaced surfaces and on which is deposited a multiplicity of mutually spaced electrodes is described. Strips and of bare substances are interposed between electrodes, so that currents of ionic gas may be established between the electrodes via the bare strips, whereby electrical resistance for the cells is lowered and the gas conductivity is enhanced.

  12. A Solid State Pyranometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  13. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Solid state power controllers (SSPC's) are to be considered for use as replacements of electromechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 v(dc). They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near the utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small gauge wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, onboard testing, power management, and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability. Conventional systems require the heavy gage load wiring and the control wiring to be routed from the bus to the load to other remote relay contacts, switches, sensors, etc. and to the circuit breaker located in the flight engineer's compartment for purposes of manual reset.

  14. Solid state laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rines, Glen A. (Inventor); Moulton, Peter F. (Inventor); Harrison, James (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable, injection-seeded, dispersion-compensated, dispersively-pumped solid state laser includes a lasing medium; a highly reflective mirror; an output coupler; at least one isosceles Brewster prism oriented to the minimum deviation angle between the medium and the mirror for directing light of different wavelengths along different paths; means for varying the angle of the highly reflective mirror relative to the light from at least one Brewster angle for selecting a predetermined laser operating wavelength; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the lasing medium; a laser injection seeding port disposed between the dispersion compensation apparatus and one of the mirror and coupler and including a reflective surface at an acute non-Brewster angle to the laser beam for introducing a seed input; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the laser medium including opposite chirality optical elements; the lasing medium including a pump surface disposed at an acute angle to the laser beam to define a discrete path for the pumping laser beam separate from the pumped laser beam.

  15. Stable, High-Efficiency Pyrrolidinium-Based Electrolyte for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Tong; Wang, Ye Feng; Zeng, Jing Hui

    2015-09-30

    We synthesized a series of pyrrolidinium based dicationic ionic crystals with high melting point and good thermal stability. Research on the crystal structure shows that there are ordered three-dimensional ionic channels in these crystals which is favorable for the ionic conductor to achieve high conductivity and diffusion coefficient. These ionic crystals are applied to electrolyte as matrix in dye sensitized solar cells, and the influence of crystal structure (including the alkylene chain separating two pyrrolidinium rings and anion) versus the device performances are studied by steady-state voltammography, current-voltage trace, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. As the solid state electrolyte, an optimized efficiency of 6.02% have achieved under full sunlight irradiation using ionic crystal [C6BEP][TFSI]2. And the device based on this solid electrolyte shows the excellent long-term stability, maintaining 92% of the initial efficiency after 960 h. This study elucidates fundamental the structure of dicationic crystal and provide useful clues for further improvement of solid-state electrolytes in DSSC. PMID:26336080

  16. The Photovoltaic Performances of PVdF-HFP Electrospun Membranes Employed Quasi-Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Gnana kumar, G; Balanay, Mannix P; Nirmala, R; Kim, Dong Hee; Raj kumar, T; Senthilkumar, N; Kim, Ae Rhan; Yoo, Dong Jin

    2016-01-01

    The PVdF-HFP nanofiber membranes with different molecular weight were prepared by electrospinning technique and were investigated as solid state electrolyte membranes in quasi solid state dye sensitized solar cells (QS-DSSC). The homogeneously distributed and fully interconnected nanofibers were obtained for all of the prepared PVdF-HFP electrospun membranes and the average fiber diameters of fabricated membranes were dependent upon the molecular weight of polymer. The thermal stability of electrospun PVdF-HFP membrane was decreased with a decrement of molecular weight, specifying the high heat transfer area of small diameter nanofibers. The QS-DSSC fabricated with the lower molecular weight PVdF-HFP electrospun nanofiber membrane exhibited the power conversion efficiency of 1 = 5.38%, which is superior over the high molecular weight membranes and is comparable with the liquid electrolyte. Furthermore, the electrospun PVdF-HFP membrane exhibited long-term durability over the liquid electrolyte, owing to the higher adsorption and retention efficiencies of liquid electrolyte in its highly porous and interconnected nanofibers. Thus the proposed electrospun PVdF-HFP membrane effectively tackled the volatilization and leakage of liquid electrolyte and provided good photoconversion efficiency associated with an excellent stability, which constructs the prepared electrospun membranes as credible solid state candidates for the application of QS-DSSCs. PMID:27398491

  17. Development of materials for solid state electrochemical sensors and fuel cell applications. Final report, September 30, 1995--December 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bobba, R.; Hormes, J.; Young, V.; Baker, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The intent of this project was two fold: (1) to develop new ionically conducting materials for solid state gas phase sensors and fuel cells and (2) to train students and create an environment conducive to Solid State Ionics research at Southern University. The authors have investigated the electrode-electrolyte interfacial reactions, defect structure and defect stability in some perovoskite type solid electrolyte materials and the effect of electrocatalyst and electrolyte on direct hydrocarbon and methanol/air fuel cell performance using synchrotron radiation based Extended X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (EXAFS), surface analytical and Impedance Spectroscopic techniques. They have measured the AC impedance and K edge EXAFS of the entire family of rare earth dopants in Cerium Oxide to understand the effect of dopants on the conductivity and its impact on the structural properties of Cerium Oxide. All of the systems showed an increase in the conductivity over undoped ceria with ceria doped Gd, Sm and Y showing the highest values. The conductivity increased with increasing ionic radius of the dopant cation. The authors have measured the K edge of the EXAFS of these dopants to determine the local structural environment and also to understand the nature of the defect clustering between oxygen vacancies and trivalent ions. The analysis and the data reduction of these complex EXAFS spectra is in progress. Where as in the DOWCs, the authors have attempted to explore the impact of catalyst loadings on the performance of direct oxidation of methanol fuel cells. Their initial measurements on fuel cell performance characteristics and EXAFS are made on commercial membranes Pt/Ru/Nafion 115, 117 and 112.

  18. Flexible and compressible Goretex-PEDOT membrane electrodes for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mozer, Attila J; Panda, Dillip Kumar; Gambhir, Sanjeev; Romeo, Tony C; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Wallace, Gordon G

    2010-02-01

    A porous, flexible electrode based on a PTFE (Teflon) membrane (Goretex) coated with a metallic current collector and a conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) has been developed for applications in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Its low sheet resistance and compressibility make it an ideal electrode on uneven TiO(2) surfaces with high efficiency and reproducibility. The porous nature of the electrode enables the feed-through of reactants and treatment agents, which opens up exciting opportunities to interface these photoelectrochemical devices with electrocatalytic, energy conversion, and storage systems. Postfabrication bonding of the photoanode and the Goretex-Au-PEDOT electrode is demonstrated. PMID:19902936

  19. TiO2 micro/nano-composite structured electrodes for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhai, Jin; Tan, Shuxin; Wang, Lifang; Jiang, Lei; Zhu, Daoben

    2006-05-01

    Micro/nano-composite TiO2 porous films are prepared in a nutshell by the electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) method, and are applied to dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) successfully. Considering that micro/nano-composite structures based on the EHD technique are better for the filling of ionic liquid and quasi-solid-state electrolytes than liquid state electrolytes, a fill factor (ff) of 78.9% and a total photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of 6.4% for ionic liquid electrolyte and an ff of 75.3% and an η of 5.3% for quasi-solid-state electrolyte are obtained. Moreover, this kind of composite hierarchical structure may be of benefit for light collection because of strong light scattering. In order to obtain optimized devices, we probe into the influence of adding an amount of polymer on the photovoltaic performance, and find that by changing the concentration of the polymer during the EHD process the specific surface area of the films changes, which leads to different photovoltaic behaviour of solar cells.

  20. Exploring the heterogeneous interfaces in organic or ruthenium dye-sensitized liquid- and solid-state solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Soo; Song, Inwoo; Lim, Jong Chul; Song, In Young; Siva, Ayyanar; Park, Taiho

    2012-06-27

    The interfacial properties were systematically investigated using an organic sensitizer (3-(5'-{4-[(4-tert-butyl-phenyl)-p-tolyl-amino]-phenyl}-[2,2']bithiophenyl-5-yl)-2-cyano-acrylic acid (D)) and inorganic sensitizer (bis(tetrabutylammonium) cis-bis(thiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylato) ruthenium(II) (N719)) in a liquid-state and a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). For liquid-DSCs, the faster charge recombination for the surface of D-sensitized TiO2 resulted in shorter diffusion length (LD) of ∼3.9 μm than that of N719 (∼7.5 μm), limiting the solar cell performance at thicker films used in liquid-DSCs. On the other hand, for solid-DSCs using thin TiO2 films (∼ 2 μm), D-sensitized device outperforms the N719-sensitized device in an identical fabrication condition, mainly due to less perfect wetting ability of solid hole conductor into the porous TiO2 network, inducing the dye monolayer act as an insulation layer, while liquid electrolyte is able to fully wet the surface of TiO2. Such insulation effect was attributed to the fact that the significant increase in recombination resistance (from 865 to 4,400 Ω/cm(2)) but shorter electron lifetime (from 10.8 to 0.8 ms) when compared to liquid-DSCs. Higher recombination resistance for solid-DSCs induced the electron transport-limited situation, showing poor performance of N719-sensitized device which has shorter electron transport time and similar LD (2.9 μm) with D-sensitized device (3.0 μm). PMID:22658859

  1. Scattering-layer-induced energy storage function in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-03-01

    Photo-self-charging cells (PSCs) are compact devices with dual functions of photoelectric conversion and energy storage. By introducing a scattering layer in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, two-electrode PSCs with highly compact structure were obtained. The charge storage function stems from the formed ion channel network in the scattering layer/polymer electrolyte system. Both the photoelectric conversion and the energy storage functions are integrated in only the photoelectrode of such PSCs. This design of PSC could continuously output power as a solar cell with considerable efficiency after being photo-charged. Such PSCs could be applied in highly-compact mini power devices.

  2. Scattering-layer-induced energy storage function in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-01-01

    Photo-self-charging cells (PSCs) are compact devices with dual functions of photoelectric conversion and energy storage. By introducing a scattering layer in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, two-electrode PSCs with highly compact structure were obtained. The charge storage function stems from the formed ion channel network in the scattering layer/polymer electrolyte system. Both the photoelectric conversion and the energy storage functions are integrated in only the photoelectrode of such PSCs. This design of PSC could continuously output power as a solar cell with considerable efficiency after being photo-charged. Such PSCs could be applied in highly-compact mini power devices. PMID:25829547

  3. Differentiating Metastatic and Non-metastatic Tumor Cells from Their Translocation Profile through Solid-State Micropores.

    PubMed

    Ali, Waqas; Ilyas, Azhar; Bui, Loan; Sayles, Bailey; Hur, Yeun; Kim, Young-Tae; Iqbal, Samir M

    2016-05-17

    Cancer treatment, care, and outcomes are much more effective if started at early stages of the disease. The presence of malignant cancer cells in human samples such as blood or biopsied tissue can be used to reduce overtreatment and underdiagnosis as well as for prognosis monitoring. Reliable quantification of metastatic tumor cells (MTCs) and non-metastatic tumor cells (NMTCs) from human samples can help in cancer staging as well. We report a simple, fast, and reliable approach to identify and quantify metastatic and non-metastatic cancer cells from whole biological samples in a point-of-care manner. The metastatic (MDA MB-231) and non-metastatic (MCF7) breast cancer cells were pushed through a solid-state micropore made in a 200 nm thin SiO2 membrane while measuring current across the micropore. The cells generated very distinctive translocation profiles. The translocation differences stemmed from their peculiar mechanophysical properties. The detection efficiency of the device for each type of tumor cells was ∼75%. MTCs showed faster translocation (36%) and 34% less pore blockage than NMTCs. The micropore approach is simple, exact, and quantitative for metastatic cell detection in a lab-on-a chip setting, without the need for any preprocessing of the sample. PMID:27035212

  4. Lead Iodide Perovskite Sensitized All-Solid-State Submicron Thin Film Mesoscopic Solar Cell with Efficiency Exceeding 9%

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hui-Seon; Lee, Chang-Ryul; Im, Jeong-Hyeok; Lee, Ki-Beom; Moehl, Thomas; Marchioro, Arianna; Moon, Soo-Jin; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Yum, Jun-Ho; Moser, Jacques E.; Grätzel, Michael; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    We report on solid-state mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells employing nanoparticles (NPs) of methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3)PbI3 as light harvesters. The perovskite NPs were produced by reaction of methylammonium iodide with PbI2 and deposited onto a submicron-thick mesoscopic TiO2 film, whose pores were infiltrated with the hole-conductor spiro-MeOTAD. Illumination with standard AM-1.5 sunlight generated large photocurrents (JSC) exceeding 17 mA/cm2, an open circuit photovoltage (VOC) of 0.888 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.62 yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7%, the highest reported to date for such cells. Femto second laser studies combined with photo-induced absorption measurements showed charge separation to proceed via hole injection from the excited (CH3NH3)PbI3 NPs into the spiro-MeOTAD followed by electron transfer to the mesoscopic TiO2 film. The use of a solid hole conductor dramatically improved the device stability compared to (CH3NH3)PbI3 -sensitized liquid junction cells. PMID:22912919

  5. Multifunctional graphene incorporated polyacrylamide conducting gel electrolytes for efficient quasi-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jialong; Tang, Qunwei; Li, Ru; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin; Yang, Peizhi

    2015-06-01

    Pursuit of a high efficiency and stability has been a persistent objective for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Here we launch a strategy of synthesizing graphene implanted polyacrylamide (PAAm-G) conducting gel electrolytes for quasi-solid-state QDSCs. With an aim of elevating the dosage of S2-/Sx2- redox couples and therefore charge-transfer ability, both osmotic press across the PAAm-G and capillary force within the three-dimensional micropores are utilized as driving forces. A promising power conversion efficiency of 2.34% is recorded for the QDSCs by optimizing graphene dosage in the conducting gel electrolyte. The enhanced conversion efficiency of solar cell is attributed to the expanded catalytic area from counter electrolyte/electrolyte interface to both interface and the conducting gel electrolyte.

  6. A HIGH CURRENT, HIGH VOLTAGE SOLID-STATE PULSE GENERATOR FOR THE NIF PLASMA ELECTRODE POCKELS CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P A; Barbosa, F; Cook, E G; Hickman, B C; Akana, G L; Brooksby, C A

    2007-07-27

    A high current, high voltage, all solid-state pulse modulator has been developed for use in the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell (PEPC) subsystem in the National Ignition Facility. The MOSFET-switched pulse generator, designed to be a more capable plug-in replacement for the thyratron-switched units currently deployed in NIF, offers unprecedented capabilities including burst-mode operation, pulse width agility and a steady-state pulse repetition frequency exceeding 1 Hz. Capable of delivering requisite fast risetime, 17 kV flattop pulses into a 6 {Omega} load, the pulser employs a modular architecture characteristic of the inductive adder technology, pioneered at LLNL for use in acceleration applications, which keeps primary voltages low (and well within the capabilities of existing FET technology), reduces fabrication costs and is amenable to rapid assembly and quick field repairs.

  7. Comparison of celery (Apium graveolens L.) collenchyma and parenchyma cell wall polysaccharides enabled by solid-state (13)C NMR.

    PubMed

    Zujovic, Zoran; Chen, Da; Melton, Laurence D

    2016-02-01

    Collenchyma cells with their thickened walls are one of specific mechanical support tissues for plants, while parenchyma cells are thin walled and serve multiple functions. The parenchyma tissue is what you enjoy eating, while collenchyma, because of its fibrous nature, is not so attractive. Celery is a useful model for comparing the cell walls (CWs) of the two cell types such as collenchyma and parenchyma. However, to date, the structural characteristics of collenchyma and parenchyma cell walls from the same plant have not been compared. Monosaccharide composition suggested the collenchyma cell walls contained less pectin but more hemicellulose in comparison to parenchyma. High-resolution solid-state NMR spectra of highly mobile pectins revealed that the arabinan signals were more evident in the collenchyma spectrum, while galactan showed a much stronger resonance in the parenchyma spectrum. In addition, methyl esterified and non-esterified galacturonic acid signals were observed in parenchyma CWs, but only the latter one appeared in the collenchyma. The ratio of cellulose surface/interior obtained from CP/MAS spectra for collenchyma suggested the cellulose microfibrils were ~2.4 nm, while in the parenchyma, these were somewhat larger. X-ray diffraction indicated the size of the cellulose microfibrils were the same for both types of CWs. PMID:26717549

  8. POSS-Based Electrolyte for Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells at Sub-Zero Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lv, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    To expand the application of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) to low temperatures, it is necessary to develop new solid electrolytes with low glass transition temperature (Tg). The Tg is regulated by varying the length of alkyl chain that is connected with the nitrogen atom in the imidazolium ring linked to the polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The Tg as low as -8.8 °C is achieved with the POSS grafted with methyl-substituted imidazolium. The effect of alkyl group on the conductivity, Tg, and photovoltaic performance has also been investigated. The conductivity and power conversion efficiency increase with the alkyl length, while the Tg first increases and then decreases with the alkyl length. Among the synthesized POSS-based ionic conductors, the POSS grafted with the methyl-substituted imidazolium yields the highest power conversion efficiency of 6.98% at RT due to its highest conductivity, and the efficiency (6.52%) is still good at -4 °C, as its Tg (-8.8 °C) is lower than the working temperature (-4 °C). This finding suggests that the POSS-based solid electrolyte is promising for subzero-temperature applications of ssDSSCs. PMID:26860035

  9. High power solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, H.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the following subjects: trends in materials processing with laser radiation; slabs and high power systems; glasses and new crystals; solid state lasers at HOYA Corp.; lamps, resonators and transmission; glasses as active materials for high average power solid state lasers; flashlamp pumped GGG-crystals; alexandrite lasers; designing telescope resonators; mode operation of neodymium: YAG lasers; intracavity frequency doubling with KTP crystal and thermal effects in cylinder lasers.

  10. Conducting gel electrolytes with microporous structures for efficient quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shuangshuang; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    Conducting gel electrolytes from poly(acrylic acid)-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/polyaniline (PAA-CTAB/PANi) and poly(acrylic acid)-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/polypyrrole (PAA-CTAB/PPy) are synthesized under driving forces of both osmotic pressure and capillary force within microporous PAA-CTAB matrix. The as-synthesized PAA-CTAB/PANi or PAA-CTAB/PPy can extend the reduction reaction of triiodides from gel electrolyte/Pt counter electrode interface to both interface and three-dimensional framework of conducting gel electrolyte due to the electrical conduction of PANi or PPy toward reflux electrons (electrons from external circuit to Pt counter electrode). The enhanced kinetics for triiodides → iodide conversion is promising in elevating photovoltaic performances of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Driving forces by both osmotic pressure across PAA-CTAB matrix and capillary force presenting in micropores can elevate the loading of PANi or PPy incorporated liquid electrolyte in per unit volume, leading to further enhancement in charge transfer and electrocatalytic activity. The total power conversion efficiencies of 7.11% and 6.39% are recorded in the solar cells with PAA-CTAB/PANi and PAA-CTAB/PPy electrolytes under one sun irradiation, respectively, whereas it is 6.07% for the cell device with pure PAA-CTAB gel electrolyte. Electrical and electrochemical characterizations reveal that the electrical conduction and electrocatalytic performances have been significantly enhanced by incorporating electrical conducting PANi or PPy into microporous PAA-CTAB matrix. The concept opens a new approach of fabricating efficient polymer gel electrolytes for robust quasi-solid-state DSSC applications.

  11. Solid-state NMR Reveals the Carbon-based Molecular Architecture of Cryptococcus neoformans Fungal Eumelanins in the Cell Wall*

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Itin, Boris; Casadevall, Arturo; Stark, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Melanin pigments protect against both ionizing radiation and free radicals and have potential soil remediation capabilities. Eumelanins produced by pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans fungi are virulence factors that render the fungal cells resistant to host defenses and certain antifungal drugs. Because of their insoluble and amorphous characteristics, neither the pigment bonding framework nor the cellular interactions underlying melanization of C. neoformans have yielded to comprehensive molecular-scale investigation. This study used the C. neoformans requirement of exogenous obligatory catecholamine precursors for melanization to produce isotopically enriched pigment “ghosts” and applied 2D 13C-13C correlation solid-state NMR to reveal the carbon-based architecture of intact natural eumelanin assemblies in fungal cells. We demonstrated that the aliphatic moieties of solid C. neoformans melanin ghosts include cell-wall components derived from polysaccharides and/or chitin that are associated proximally with lipid membrane constituents. Prior to development of the mature aromatic fungal pigment, these aliphatic moieties form a chemically resistant framework that could serve as the scaffold for melanin synthesis. The indole-based core aromatic moieties show interconnections that are consistent with proposed melanin structures consisting of stacked planar assemblies, which are associated spatially with the aliphatic scaffold. The pyrrole aromatic carbons of the pigments bind covalently to the aliphatic framework via glycoside or glyceride functional groups. These findings establish that the structure of the pigment assembly changes with time and provide the first biophysical information on the mechanism by which melanin is assembled in the fungal cell wall, offering vital insights that can advance the design of bioinspired conductive nanomaterials and novel therapeutics. PMID:25825492

  12. Optical description of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. I. Measurement of layer optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moule, Adam J.; Snaith, Henry J.; Kaiser, Markus; Klesper, Heike; Meerholz, Klaus; Huang, David M.; Graetzel, Michael

    2009-10-01

    The efficiency of a photovoltaic device is limited by the portion of solar energy that can be captured. We discuss how to measure the optical properties of the various layers in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SDSC). We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to determine the complex refractive index of each of the various layers in a SDSC. Each of the ellipsometry fits is used to calculate a transmission spectrum that is compared to a measured transmission spectrum. The complexities of pore filling on the fitting of the ellipsometric data are discussed. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy is shown to be an effective method for determining pore filling in SDSC layers. Accurate effective medium optical constants for each layer are presented and the material limits under which these optical constants can be used are discussed.

  13. Thermal properties of solid-state Pt/TiO2/Ti emf cells studied by microcalorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakabay, Ömer; Achhab, Mhamed El; Schierbaum, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    We have studied the temperature dependence of generated current during hydrogen-to-water oxidation over Pt/TiO2/Ti layer structures in which the oxide is grown by high-voltage electrochemical anodization of a titanium foil. The platinum contact is prepared using a paste process. We found that the generator effect breaks down completely at temperatures above 65 °C. By means of an isothermally operated microcalorimeter setup, the temperature dependence of the reaction was determined under flow conditions and evaluated in a thermodynamic constant-volume approach. Three different regimes can be distinguished between 1 and 157.3 °C in which the rate of reaction is controlled by either the activation energy of the reaction, the pore diffusion or the film diffusion. Based on the data, the thermal properties of solid-state Pt/TiO2/Ti emf cells are explained.

  14. Development of Dye-Sensitized Solid-State ZnO/D149/CuSCN Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghe, C. S. K.; Jayaweera, E. N.; Kumara, G. R. A.; Bandara, H. M. N.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.

    2014-11-01

    Dye-sensitized solid-state solar cells (DSSC) based on n-type ZnO and p-type CuSCN have been fabricated with highest recorded power conversion efficiency. The working electrode of the cell is composed of D149 dye-coated ZnO-based interconnected nanoparticulate (20 nm) mesoporous layer with ZnO-based dense layer which was prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates. CuSCN deposition was carried out according to the previously reported procedure which ensures enhanced p-type conductivity of CuSCN. The surface morphologies of the ZnO dense layer, ZnO porous layer and CuSCN layer have been visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cells were fabricated with the configuration of FTO/ZnO dense layer/ZnO porous layer/D149/CuSCN/Graphite/Cr-coated FTO. Then the cells were characterized using I-V data as functions of the dense layer resistance (which is proportional to the thickness of the dense layer) and the porous layer thicknesses. The optimum dense layer is found to have 1500 Ω/□ sheet resistance. The cell with porous layer thickness of 9 μm at this dense layer resistance shows the maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.28%. The solar cell parameters of this optimized cell are an open circuit voltage of 0.55 V, a fill factor of 0.51 and a short-circuit current density of 8.2 mA cm-2.

  15. Imidazolium-based Block Copolymers as Solid-State Separators for Alkaline Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykaza, Jacob Richard

    In this study, polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) diblock copolymers were explored as solid-state polymer separators as an anion exchange membrane (AEM) for alkaline fuel cells AFCs and as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) for lithium-ion batteries. Polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) block copolymers are a distinct set of block copolymers that combine the properties of both ionic liquids (e.g., high conductivity, high electrochemical stability) and block copolymers (e.g., self-assembly into various nanostructures), which provides the opportunity to design highly conductive robust solid-state electrolytes that can be tuned for various applications including AFCs and lithium-ion batteries via simple anion exchange. A series of bromide conducting PIL diblock copolymers with an undecyl alkyl side chain between the polymer backbone and the imidazolium moiety were first synthesized at various compositions comprising of a PIL component and a non-ionic component. Synthesis was achieved by post-functionalization from its non-ionic precursor PIL diblock copolymer, which was synthesized via the reverse addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique. This PIL diblock copolymer with long alkyl side chains resulted in flexible, transparent films with high mechanical strength and high bromide ion conductivity. The conductivity of the PIL diblock copolymer was three times higher than its analogous PIL homopolymer and an order of magnitude higher than a similar PIL diblock copolymer with shorter alkyl side chain length, which was due to the microphase separated morphology, more specifically, water/ion clusters within the PIL microdomains in the hydrated state. Due to the high conductivity and mechanical robustness of this novel PIL block copolymer, its application as both the ionomer and AEM in an AFC was investigated via anion exchange to hydroxide (OH-), where a maximum power density of 29.3 mW cm-1 (60 °C with H2/O2 at 25 psig (172 kPa) backpressure) was achieved. Rotating disk

  16. Solid state lithium-iodine primary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Sekido, S.; Ninomiya, Y.; Sotomura, T.

    1984-01-10

    A solid-state primary cell comprising a lithium anode, an iodine cathode containing a charge transfer complex and a solid lithium iodide electrolyte doped with a 1-normal-alkyl-pyridinium iodide. The anode surface can be coated with LiOH or Li/sub 3/N. The iodine cathode comprises a complex of iodine and 1-normal-alkyl-pyridinium iodide and preferably contains titanium dioxide powder, alumina gel powder or silica gel powder admixed with the complex.

  17. Solid state electrochemical composite

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2009-06-30

    Provided is a composite electrochemical device fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems including oxygen generation system.

  18. Solid-state NMR for bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Courtney; Cegelski, Lynette

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria associate with surfaces and one another by elaborating an extracellular matrix to encapsulate cells, creating communities termed biofilms. Biofilms are beneficial in some ecological niches, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of serious and chronic infectious diseases. New approaches and quantitative measurements are needed to define the composition and architecture of bacterial biofilms to help drive the development of strategies to interfere with biofilm assembly. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is uniquely suited to the examination of insoluble and complex macromolecular and whole-cell systems. This article highlights three examples that implement solid-state NMR to deliver insights into bacterial biofilm composition and changes in cell-wall composition as cells transition to the biofilm lifestyle. Most recently, solid-state NMR measurements provided a total accounting of the protein and polysaccharide components in the extracellular matrix of an Escherichia coli biofilm and transformed our qualitative descriptions of matrix composition into chemical parameters that permit quantitative comparisons among samples. We present additional data for whole biofilm samples (cells plus the extracellular matrix) that complement matrix-only analyses. The study of bacterial biofilms by solid-state NMR is an exciting avenue ripe with many opportunities and we close the article by articulating some outstanding questions and future directions in this area.

  19. Modern solid state laser materials

    SciTech Connect

    Krupke, W.F.

    1984-06-20

    This document contains visual aids used in an invited talk entitled Modern Solid State Laser Materials, presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) held in Anaheim, California, on June 20, 1984. Interest at LLNL in solid state lasers focuses on evaluating the potential of solid state laser media for high average power applications, including inertial fusion power production. This talk identifies the relevant bulk material parameters characterizing average power capacity and uses chromium and neodymium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nd:Cr:GSGG) as an example of a laser material with improved laser properties relative to Nd:YAG (plausible large-scale growth, more efficient spectral coupling to xenon flashlamp radiation, reduced stimulated emission cross section, adequate thermal shock and optical damage threshold parameters, etc.). Recently measured spectroscopic, kinetic, and thermo-mechanical properties of Nd:Cr:GSGG are given.

  20. Solid-state devices for detection of DNA, protein biomarkers and cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar, Waseem

    Nanobiotechnology and BioMEMS have had tremendous impact on biosensing in the areas of cancer cell detection and therapeutics, disease diagnostics, proteomics and DNA analysis. Diseases are expressed on all levels including DNA, protein, cell and tissue. Therefore it is very critical to develop biosensors at each level. The power of the nanotechnology lies in the fact that we can fabricate devices on all scales from micro to nano. This dissertation focuses on four areas: 1) Development of nanopore sensors for DNA analysis; 2) Development of micropore sensors for early detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood; 3) Synthesis of nano-textured substrates for cancer isolation and tissue culture applications; 4) Fabrication of nanoscale break-junctions. All of these sensors are fabricated using standard silicon processing techniques. Pulsed plasma polymer deposition is also utilized to control the density of the biosensor surface charges. These devices are then used for efficient detection of DNA, proteins and cells, and can be potentially used in point-of-care systems. Overall, our designed biosensing platforms offer improved selectivity, yield and reliability. Novel approaches to nanopore shrinking are simple, reliable and do not change the material composition around the pore boundary. The micropores provide a direct interface to distinguish CTCs from normal cell without requiring fluorescent dyes and surface functionalization. Nano-textured surfaces and break-junctions can be used for enhanced adhesion of cells and selective detection of proteins respectively.

  1. Q-switched all-solid-state lasers and application in processing of thin-film solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liangqing; Wang, Feng

    2009-08-01

    Societal pressure to renewable clean energy is increasing which is expected to be used as part of an overall strategy to address global warming and oil crisis. Photovoltaic energy conversion devices are on a rapidly accelerating growth path driven by government, of which the costs and prices lower continuously. The next generation thin-film devices are considered to be more efficiency and greatly reduced silicon consumption, resulting in dramatically lower per unit fabrication costs. A key aspect of these devices is patterning large panels to create a monolithic array of series-interconnected cells to form a low current, high voltage module. This patterning is accomplished in three critical scribing processes called P1, P2, and P3. All-solid-state Q-switched lasers are the technology of choice for these processes, due to their advantages of compact configuration, high peak-value power, high repeat rate, excellent beam quality and stability, delivering the desired combination of high throughput and narrow, clean scribes. The end pumped all-solid-state lasers could achieve 1064nm IR resources with pulse width of nanoseconds adopting acoustic-optics Q-switch, shorter than 20ns. The repeat rate is up to 100kHz and the beam quality is close to diffraction limit. Based on this, 532nm green lasers, 355nm UV lasers and 266nm DUV lasers could be carried out through nonlinear frequency conversion. Different wave length lasers are chose to process selective materials. For example, 8-15 W IR lasers are used to scribe the TCO film (P1); 1-5 W green lasers are suitable for scribing the active semiconductor layers (P2) and the back contact layers (P3). Our company, Wuhan Lingyun Photo-electronic System Co. Ltd, has developed 20W IR and 5W green end-pumped Q-switched all-solid-state lasers for thin-film solar industry. Operating in high repeat rates, the speed of processing is up to 2.0 m/s.

  2. Solid-state lithium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  3. Synthesis, photophysics of two new perylene bisimides and their photovoltaic performances in quasi solid state dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikroyannidis, John A.; Stylianakis, Minas M.; Roy, M. S.; Suresh, P.; Sharma, G. D.

    Two new symmetrical compounds A and P based on perylene-anthracene and perylene-pyrene, respectively, were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, TGA and TMA. These compounds contained tert-butyl groups which enhanced their solubility, decomposed above 400 °C and gave char yields of 46-65% at 800 °C in N 2. Compound A showed significantly higher glass transition temperature (124 °C) than P (75 °C). Their absorption spectra were broad with longer wavelength absorption at 467-525 nm and optical band gap of 2.05 eV. The solutions of the compounds emitted green-yellow light with maximum at 555 nm, while their films were not photoluminescent. The compound A shows better photovoltaic response than compound P. Quasi solid state dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been fabricated employing compound A as sensitizer and polymer sol gel as electrolyte and characterized through the current-voltage characteristics in dark as well as under illumination and electrochemical impedance spectra. We found that the Al 2O 3 modification of TiO 2 layer significantly improves the dye absorption resulting in enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE) (from 1.15 to 2.13%) which is attributed to the increase in electron lifetime and reduction in back transfer of electrons. Finally, the TiO 2 has been incorporated into the polymer electrolyte gel to improve the power conversion efficiency (3.42%) of the quasi solid state DSSC. The faster electron diffusion in the device, the high ionic conductivity and the low activation energy of the polymer electrolyte are also responsible for enhanced PCE, when TiO 2 nano-particles are incorporated in the polymer electrolyte.

  4. The Pythagorean Theorem and the Solid State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Brenda S.; Splittgerber, Allan G.

    2005-01-01

    Packing efficiency and crystal density can be calculated from basic geometric principles employing the Pythagorean theorem, if the unit-cell structure is known. The procedures illustrated have applicability in courses such as general chemistry, intermediate and advanced inorganic, materials science, and solid-state physics.

  5. Si solid-state quantum dot-based materials for tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan; Hao, Xiaojing; Di, Dawei; Lin, Dong

    2012-03-01

    The concept of third-generation photovoltaics is to significantly increase device efficiencies whilst still using thin-film processes and abundant non-toxic materials. A strong potential approach is to fabricate tandem cells using thin-film deposition that can optimise collection of energy in a series of cells with decreasing band gap stacked on top of each other. Quantum dot materials, in which Si quantum dots (QDs) are embedded in a dielectric matrix, offer the potential to tune the effective band gap, through quantum confinement, and allow fabrication of optimised tandem solar cell devices in one growth run in a thin-film process. Such cells can be fabricated by sputtering of thin layers of silicon rich oxide sandwiched between a stoichiometric oxide that on annealing crystallise to form Si QDs of uniform and controllable size. For approximately 2-nm diameter QDs, these result in an effective band gap of 1.8 eV. Introduction of phosphorous or boron during the growth of the multilayers results in doping and a rectifying junction, which demonstrates photovoltaic behaviour with an open circuit voltage ( V OC) of almost 500 mV. However, the doping behaviour of P and B in these QD materials is not well understood. A modified modulation doping model for the doping mechanisms in these materials is discussed which relies on doping of a sub-oxide region around the Si QDs.

  6. Fluorescence imaging of electrical activity in cardiac cells using an all-solid-state system.

    PubMed

    Entcheva, Emilia; Kostov, Yordan; Tchernev, Elko; Tung, Leslie

    2004-02-01

    Tracking spatial and temporal determinants of cardiac arrhythmogenesis at the cellular level presents challenges to the optical mapping techniques employed. In this paper, we describe a compact system combining two nontraditional low-cost solutions for excitation light sources and emission filters in fluorescence measurements of transmembrane potentials, Vm, or intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i in cardiac cell networks. This is the first reported use of high-power blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs), to excite cell monolayers stained with Vm - (di-8-ANEPPS) or [Ca2+]i - (Fluo-3) sensitive dyes. In addition, we use simple techniques for fabrication of suitable thin emission filters with uniform properties, no auto-fluorescence, high durability and good flexibility for imaging Vm or [Ca2+]i. The battery-operated LEDs and the fabricated emission filters, integrated with a fiber-optic system for contact fluorescence imaging, were used as tools to characterize conduction velocity restitution at the macro-scale. The versatility of the LEDs for illumination is further emphasized through 1) demonstration of their usage for epi-illumination recordings at the single-cell level, and 2) demonstration of their unique high-frequency light modulation ability. The LEDs showed excellent stability as excitation light sources for fluorescence measurements; acceptable signal-to-noise ratio and negligible cell photodamage and indicator dye photobleaching were observed. PMID:14765706

  7. Solid-State Selective 13C Excitation and Spin Diffusion NMR to Resolve Spatial Dimensions in Plant Cell Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Foston, M.; Katahira, R.; Gjersing, E.; Davis, M. F.; Ragauskas, A. J.

    2012-02-15

    The average spatial dimensions between major biopolymers within the plant cell wall can be resolved using a solid-state NMR technique referred to as a {sup 13}C cross-polarization (CP) SELDOM (selectively by destruction of magnetization) with a mixing time delay for spin diffusion. Selective excitation of specific aromatic lignin carbons indicates that lignin is in close proximity to hemicellulose followed by amorphous and finally crystalline cellulose. {sup 13}C spin diffusion time constants (T{sub SD}) were extracted using a two-site spin diffusion theory developed for {sup 13}C nuclei under magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions. These time constants were then used to calculate an average lower-limit spin diffusion length between chemical groups within the plant cell wall. The results on untreated {sup 13}C enriched corn stover stem reveal that the lignin carbons are, on average, located at distances {approx}0.7-2.0 nm from the carbons in hemicellulose and cellulose, whereas the pretreated material had larger separations.

  8. Solid-state Ru-dye solar cells using polypyrrole as a hole conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervini, Raoul; Cheng, Yibing; Simon, George

    2004-01-01

    Polypyrrole (Ppy) was prepared by a photoelectropolymerization technique using different current densities on Ru-dye sensitized titanium dioxide nanoporous films. Solar cells were constructed using gold as the counter electrode with Ppy acting as the hole conductor and current-voltage characteristics were measured revealing initial efficiencies of 0.06%. Time-current profiles and x-ray photoelectron data confirmed that Ppy growth occurs within the TiO2 pores and not at the extreme surface. Efficiency measurements of solar cells increased over one month and stabilized to nearly 1% this phenomenon being attributed to the intercalation of Li+ ions during the preparation step, which involved a dedoping process at a reduced potential and a soaking in LiClO4 solution.

  9. Solid-state radioluminescent compositions

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Gill, John T.; Hawkins, Daniel B.; Renschler, Clifford L.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Smith, Henry M.

    1991-01-01

    A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

  10. Solid-state dimer method for calculating solid-solid phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Penghao; Henkelman, Graeme; Sheppard, Daniel; Rogal, Jutta

    2014-05-07

    The dimer method is a minimum mode following algorithm for finding saddle points on a potential energy surface of atomic systems. Here, the dimer method is extended to include the cell degrees of freedom for periodic solid-state systems. Using this method, reaction pathways of solid-solid phase transitions can be determined without having to specify the final state structure or reaction mechanism. Example calculations include concerted phase transitions between CdSe polymorphs and a nucleation and growth mechanism for the A15 to BCC transition in Mo.

  11. Nano-porous solid-state photovoltaic cell sensitized with tannin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennakone, K.; Kumara, G. R. R. A.; Wijayantha, K. G. U.; Kottegoda, I. R. M.; Perera, V. P. S.; Aponsu, G. M. L. P.

    1998-01-01

    Tannin and related polyphenolic substances strongly surface chelate with 0268-1242/13/1/021/img1 sensitizing nano-porous films of 0268-1242/13/1/021/img1 to the visible spectrum. The photovoltaic cell nano-porous n-0268-1242/13/1/021/img3-CuI generates highly stable photovoltages. The result is explained as the effectiveness of the 0268-1242/13/1/021/img4-tannin complex on the surface of 0268-1242/13/1/021/img1 in preventing short-circuiting across the 0268-1242/13/1/021/img1/CuI barrier.

  12. Solid state 1H NMR studies of cell wall materials of potatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Huiru; Belton, Peter S.; Ng, Annie; Waldron, Keith W.; Ryden, Peter

    1999-04-01

    Cell wall materials from potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum) prepared by two different methods have been studied using NMR proton relaxation times. Spin lattice relaxation in both the rotating and laboratory frames as well as transverse relaxation have been measured over a range of temperatures and hydration levels. It was observed that the sample prepared using a DMSO extraction showed anomalous behaviour of spin lattice relaxation in the laboratory frame probably due to residual solvent in the sample. Spin lattice relaxation in the laboratory frame is the result of hydroxymethyl rotation and another unidentified high frequency motion. In the rotating frame relaxation is adequately explained by hydroxymethyl rotation alone. In neither experiment is methyl group rotation observed, calculation suggests that this is due to the low density of methyl groups in the sample. Non-freezing water in potato cell walls, α-cellulose and pectin was found about 0.2, 0.04 and 0.18 g per gram dry matter, indicating preferable hydration of pectin compared to cellulose. The effects of hydration are most noticeable in the measurements that reflect low frequency motions, particularly transverse relaxation, where both second moments and the relative intensity of signals arising from immobile material are reduced by hydration.

  13. Fabrication of solid state dye sensitized solar cells utilizing vapor phase polymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hole conducting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorenko, Kenneth H.

    There is a need for sustainable and renewable energy sources that can be used in both grid and off-grid structured systems. Photovoltaic devices have been used to generate electrical energy by capturing and converting photons from the sun. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have gained attention due to their consistent energy generation during indirect sunlight. Furthermore, DSSC can be applied as a flexible device and gain benefits from the low cost roll to roll manufacturing. With this in mind, we have taken steps toward optimizing a DSSC device for use as a solid state solar cell using conducting polymers. Typically DSSC use a liquid electrolyte as a hole conducting layer used to direct the separation of electron -- hole pairs. This liquid electrolyte comes with problems that can be subverted using conducting polymers. Poly(3,4 -- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), is a conducting thiophene that is tailored to have enhanced conductivity. We show that a vapor phase polymerization (VPP) of PEDOT can be used as a hole conducting layer in a solid state DSSC device. To this end we have investigated the electrical properties of the VPP PEDOT films in order to understand how the morphology and conductive domains relate to a polymers conductivity. Using 4 point probe we have measure the sheet resistance of the film, as well as how the films resistance is altered during stress tests. Scanning electron microscopy has been utilized to compare morphologies of different PEDOT films and see how surface morphology impacts the conductance measured. Using conductive atomic force microscopy we can look at the conductive domains between VPP PEDOT and PEDOT:PSS films. We saw that conductive domains of the VPP PEDOT are not only more conductive but also much larger in size and widespread throughout the film. We show that there is formation of PEDOT through optical spectroscopy and structural characterization such as UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction. When

  14. Enhancement of the photoproperties of solid-state TiO2|dye|CuI cells by coupling of two dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirimanne, P. M.; Senevirathna, M. K. I.; Premalal, E. V. A.; Pitigala, P. K. D. D. P.

    2006-06-01

    The electronic coupling of a natural pigment extracted from pomegranate fruits (rich with cyanin and exist as flavylium at natural PH) with an organic dye mercurochrome enhanced the performance of solid-state TiO2|dye|CuI-type photovoltaic cells sensitized from pomegranate pigments or mercurochrome individually.

  15. Water-polysaccharide interactions in the primary cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana from polarization transfer solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    White, Paul B; Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Hong, Mei

    2014-07-23

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are hydrated under functional conditions, but the molecular interactions between water and polysaccharides in the wall have not been investigated. In this work, we employ polarization transfer solid-state NMR techniques to study the hydration of primary-wall polysaccharides of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. By transferring water (1)H polarization to polysaccharides through distance- and mobility-dependent (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings and detecting it through polysaccharide (13)C signals, we obtain information about water proximity to cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins as well as water mobility. Both intact and partially extracted cell wall samples are studied. Our results show that water-pectin polarization transfer is much faster than water-cellulose polarization transfer in all samples, but the extent of extraction has a profound impact on the water-polysaccharide spin diffusion. Removal of calcium ions and the consequent extraction of homogalacturonan (HG) significantly slowed down spin diffusion, while further extraction of matrix polysaccharides restored the spin diffusion rate. These trends are observed in cell walls with similar water content, thus they reflect inherent differences in the mobility and spatial distribution of water. Combined with quantitative analysis of the polysaccharide contents, our results indicate that calcium ions and HG gelation increase the amount of bound water, which facilitates spin diffusion, while calcium removal disrupts the gel and gives rise to highly dynamic water, which slows down spin diffusion. The recovery of spin diffusion rates after more extensive extraction is attributed to increased water-exposed surface areas of the polysaccharides. Water-pectin spin diffusion precedes water-cellulose spin diffusion, lending support to the single-network model of plant primary walls in which a substantial fraction of the cellulose surface is surrounded by pectins. PMID:24984197

  16. Solid state cell with alkali metal halo-alkali thiocyanate electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B. M.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1980-02-26

    A novel electrochemical cell is disclosed utilizing: (A) an anode which contains an alkali metal as an anode-active material; (B) a cathode and (C) an electrolyte comprising an electrolytically effective amount of one or more compounds having the formula: (Ax)ma'scn wherein a is an alkali metal, X is a halogen, a' is an alkali metal and 0.1 < or = N < or = 10. Preferred systems include lithium-containing anodes, lithium-containing electrolytes and cathodes which contain cathode-active material selected from the group consisting of cathode-active sulfurs, halogens, halides, chromates, phosphates, oxides and chalcogenides, especially those chalcogenides of the empirical formula mzm wherein M is one or more metals selected from the group consisting of iron, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum and vanadium, Z is one or more chalcogens selected from the group consisting of oxygen, sulfur, selenium and tellurium, and M is a numerical value between about 1.8 and about 3.2.

  17. Characterisation of platinum-based fuel cell catalyst materials using 195Pt wideline solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Rees, Gregory J; Orr, Simon T; Barrett, Laurence O; Fisher, Janet M; Houghton, Jennifer; Spikes, Geoffrey H; Theobald, Brian R C; Thompsett, David; Smith, Mark E; Hanna, John V

    2013-10-28

    This study demonstrates the utility of the novel Field Sweep Fourier Transform (FSFT) method for acquiring wideline (195)Pt NMR data from various sized Pt nanoparticles, Pt-Sn intermetallics/bimetallics used to catalyse oxidative processes in fuel cell applications, and various other related Pt3X alloys (X = Al, Sc, Nb, Ti, Hf and Zr) which can facilitate oxygen reduction catalysis. The (195)Pt and (119)Sn NMR lineshapes measured from the PtSn intermetallic and Pt3Sn bimetallic systems suggest that these are more ordered than other closely related bimetallic alloys; this observation is supported by other characterisation techniques such as XRD. From these reconstructed spectra the mean number of atoms in a Pt nanoparticle can be accurately determined, along with detailed information regarding the number of atoms present effectively in each layer from the surface. This can be compared with theoretical predictions of the number of Pt atoms in these various layers for cubo-octahedral nanoparticles, thereby providing an estimate of the particle size. A comparison of the common NMR techniques used to acquire wideline data from the I = 1/2 (195)Pt nucleus illustrates the advantages of the automated FSFT technique over the Spin Echo Height Spectroscopy (SEHS) (or Spin Echo Integration Spectroscopy (SEIS)) approach that dominates the literature in this area of study. This work also presents the first (195)Pt NMR characterisation of novel small Pt13 nanoclusters which are diamagnetic and thus devoid of metallic character. This unique system provides a direct measure of an isotropic chemical shift for these Pt nanoparticles and affords a better basis for determining the actual Knight shift when compared to referencing against the primary IUPAC shift standard (1.2 M Na2PtCl6(aq)) which has a very different local chemical environment. PMID:24013445

  18. Strongly coupled metal oxide nanorod arrays with graphene nanoribbons and nanosheets enable novel solid-state hybrid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junwu; Xi, Jiangbo; Xu, Yangyang; Yang, Shihe; Jin, Yunxia; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical capacitors and rechargeable batteries are still limited in applications by the low energy and power densities they can deliver, respectively, holding back their deployment in electric vehicles. Here we develop a type of solid-state hybrid cells (SHCs) composed of graphene nanoribbons and nanosheets-coated metal oxide nanorod arrays ((MOx/GNR)@GNS). GNR and GNS are deposited on the surface of MOx nanorod arrays to improve the electron transport characteristic, and thus enhance the energy storage performance. The (MOx/GNR)@GNS-based SHCs can achieve a maximum volumetric energy density of 0.9 mWh cm-3, and still retain 0.4 mWh cm-3 even at 0.1 W cm-3. The energy storage performance is much better than the electrochemical capacitors reported previously, and can even rival the commercial Li thin-film battery but with a significantly higher power density, lower cost and higher safety. Also demonstrated is the good long-term cycle life with only ∼17% loss after 2500 cycles. These salient features make the (MOx/GNR)@GNS composites-based SHCs a strong contender for electrochemical energy storage.

  19. XANES: Solid state mineral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Researchers in the field of mineral physics have become aware of new analytical techniques for studying the electronic structure of solids; one such technique is the X ray absorption fine structure (XFAS) method. In this technique the fine structure of the X ray K-edge, for example, can b e employed as a critical probe of t h e intricacies of a crystal structure (P. A. Lee, P. H. Citrin, P. Eisenberger, and B. M. Kincaid, Rev. Mod. Phys., 53, 799, 1981).A similar, related technique, X ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), is a relatively unknown method of studying the electronic structure of solids. XANES is new, and due to its complex nature, data on all but very simple solids have not yet been applied rigorously. Among the first XANES results on minerals is the recent study reported by G. Knapp, B. Veal, H. Pan, and T. Klipper (Solid State Comm. 44, 1343, 1982) on perovskites, magnesiowustites, and other 3d oxides in the zircon and spinel groups. The interpretation of these results is still semiquantitative, being based on ground state and basic selection rule considerations. The results show, however, a strong correlation between near-edge spectra and crystal structure.

  20. Solid-state membrane module

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard; Taylor, Dale M.

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  1. Solid-state membrane module

    SciTech Connect

    Hinklin, Thomas Ray; Lewinsohn, Charles Arthur

    2015-06-30

    A module for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture comprising planar solid-state membrane units, each membrane unit comprising planar dense mixed conducting oxides layers, planar channel-free porous support layers, and one or more planar intermediate support layers comprising at least one channeled porous support layer. The porosity of the planar channeled porous support layers is less than the porosity of the planar channel-free porous support layers.

  2. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  3. Radiation sensitive solid state switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutto, R. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A mechanically operable solid state switch suited for use in achieving a variable circuit-switching function is described. This switch is characterized by an annular array of photoresponsive switching devices, disposed in communication with an included source of radiation, and a plurality of interchangeable, mechanically operable interrupter disks. Each disk has a predetermined pattern of transparent and opaque portions. Operative displacement of each disk serves to make and break selected electrical circuits through the photo responsive devices of said array.

  4. Sensitivity-enhanced solid-state NMR detection of expansin’s target in plant cell walls

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Caporini, Marc A.; Rosay, Melanie; Zhong, Linghao; Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Hong, Mei

    2013-01-01

    Structure determination of protein binding to noncrystalline macromolecular assemblies such as plant cell walls (CWs) poses a significant structural biology challenge. CWs are loosened during growth by expansin proteins, which weaken the noncovalent network formed by cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins, but the CW target of expansins has remained elusive because of the minute amount of the protein required for activity and the complex nature of the CW. Using solid-state NMR spectroscopy, combined with sensitivity-enhancing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and differential isotopic labeling of expansin and polysaccharides, we have now determined the functional binding target of expansin in the Arabidopsis thaliana CW. By transferring the electron polarization of a biradical dopant to the nuclei, DNP allowed selective detection of 13C spin diffusion from trace concentrations of 13C, 15N-labeled expansin in the CW to nearby polysaccharides. From the spin diffusion data of wild-type and mutant expansins, we conclude that to loosen the CW, expansin binds highly specific cellulose domains enriched in xyloglucan, whereas more abundant binding to pectins is unrelated to activity. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate short 13C-13C distances of 4–6 Å between a hydrophobic surface of the cellulose microfibril and an aromatic motif on the expansin surface, consistent with the observed NMR signals. DNP-enhanced 2D 13C correlation spectra further reveal that the expansin-bound cellulose has altered conformation and is enriched in xyloglucan, thus providing unique insight into the mechanism of CW loosening. DNP-enhanced NMR provides a powerful, generalizable approach for investigating protein binding to complex macromolecular targets. PMID:24065828

  5. Solid State Memory Study Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R.

    1994-01-01

    Existing and future solid state nonvolatile memory technologies are described and evaluated in this report. Solid state memory technologies can offer size, speed, power, weight, and ruggedness advantages over conventional moving media storage technologoies such as disk or tape. This technology list is a broad sampling of past, present, emerging, and future solid state memory technologies.

  6. Solid-state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1981-01-07

    A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  7. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  8. Solid-State Personal Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    This document is a web site page, and a data sheet about Personal protection (i.e., space suits) presented to the Radiation and Micrometeoroid Mitigation Technology Focus Group meeting. The website describes the work of the PI to improve solid state personal radiation dosimetry. The data sheet presents work on the active personal radiation detection system that is to provide real-time local radiation exposure information during EVA. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.

  9. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1990-07-03

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counter electrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films. 4 figs.

  10. Solid state nuclear track detection

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, S.A.; Bull, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a basic work on the technique variously known as 'nuclear track analysis', 'track-etch technique', or 'solid state nuclear tract detection'. This has greatly expanded in range, scope and depth since the early 1960's, soon after its discovery, until there is hardly a field now in which it has not found an actual or potential use. Such applications range from archaeology, geology, space physics, medicine and biology to reactor physics and nuclear physics-to name but a few.

  11. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-12-07

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  12. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1990-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  13. Solid-state array cameras.

    PubMed

    Strull, G; List, W F; Irwin, E L; Farnsworth, D L

    1972-05-01

    Over the past few years there has been growing interest shown in the rapidly maturing technology of totally solid-state imaging. This paper presents a synopsis of developments made in this field at the Westinghouse ATL facilities with emphasis on row-column organized monolithic arrays of diffused junction phototransistors. The complete processing sequence applicable to the fabrication of modern highdensity arrays is described from wafer ingot preparation to final sensor testing. Special steps found necessary for high yield processing, such as surface etching prior to both sawing and lapping, are discussed along with the rationale behind their adoption. Camera systems built around matrix array photosensors are presented in a historical time-wise progression beginning with the first 50 x 50 element converter developed in 1965 and running through the most recent 400 x 500 element system delivered in 1972. The freedom of mechanical architecture made available to system designers by solid-state array cameras is noted from the description of a bare-chip packaged cubic inch camera. Hybrid scan systems employing one-dimensional line arrays are cited, and the basic tradeoffs to their use are listed. PMID:20119094

  14. Contamination and solid state welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-05-01

    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Solid state photochemistry of polycarbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Rembaum, A.; Moacanin, J.

    1978-01-01

    The quantum yield of photoFries rearrangement in a polycarbonate film has been analyzed as a function of temperature and humidity on the basis of previously reported (Koyler and Mann, 1977) experimental data. Results indicate that in the homogeneous amorphous phase, photoFries rearrangement is a concerted process proceeding either from the pi star reversed arrow n singlet, in which case it must be subject to considerable self quenching, or from a triplet, presumably the first triplet since the lifetime of higher triplets is expected to be very short in the solid phase. If the parent excited state is the first triplet, chain scission is possibly an independent process, probably occurring from the pi star reversed arrow n singlet. Evidence of chain scission on photodegradation in the solid state includes loss of C-O and C-C bond intensities revealed in the Fourier transform infrared spectra, gel permeation chromotography elution profiles of degraded film samples dissolved in CHCl3, and a decrease in tensile strength and T sub g as photodegradation proceeds. Chain scission is apparently inhibited as photoFries products accumulate.

  16. Solid state Raman image amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmes, Lonnie K.; Murray, James T.; Austin, William L.; Powell, Richard C.

    1998-07-01

    Lite Cycles has developed a new type of eye-safe, range-gated, lidar sensing element based on Solid-state Raman Image Amplification (SSRIA) in a solid-state optical crystal. SSRIA can amplify low-level infrared images with gains greater than 106 with the addition of only quantum-limited noise. The high gains from SSRIA can compensate for low quantum efficiency detectors and can reduce the need for detector cooling. The range-gate of SSRIA is controlled by the pulsewidth of the pump laser and can be as short as 30 - 100 cm for nanosecond pulses and less than 5 mm if picosecond pulses are used. SSRIA results in higher SNR images throughout a broad range of incident light levels, in contrast to the increasing noise factor with reduced gain in image intensified CCDs. A theoretical framework for the optical resolution of SSRIA is presented and it is shown that SSRIA can produce higher resolution than ICCDs. SSRIA is also superior in rejecting unwanted sunlight background, further increasing image SNR, and can be used for real-time optical signal processing. Applications for military use include eye-safe imaging lidars that can be used for autonomous vehicle identification and targeting.

  17. Metal Halide Solid-State Surface Treatment for High Efficiency PbS and PbSe QD Solar Cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crisp, R. W.; Kroupa, D. M.; Marshall, A. R.; Miller, E. M.; Zhang, J.; Beard, M. C.; Luther, J. M.

    2015-04-24

    We developed a layer-by-layer method of preparing PbE (E = S or Se) quantum dot (QD) solar cells using metal halide (PbI2, PbCl2, CdI2, or CdCl2) salts dissolved in dimethylformamide to displace oleate surface ligands and form conductive QD solids. The resulting QD solids have a significant reduction in the carbon content compared to films treated with thiols and organic halides. We find that the PbI2 treatment is the most successful in removing alkyl surface ligands and also replaces most surface bound Cl- with I-. The treatment protocol results in PbS QD films exhibiting a deeper work function and bandmore » positions than other ligand exchanges reported previously. The method developed here produces solar cells that perform well even at film thicknesses approaching a micron, indicating improved carrier transport in the QD films. We demonstrate QD solar cells based on PbI2 with power conversion efficiencies above 7%.« less

  18. Metal Halide Solid-State Surface Treatment for High Efficiency PbS and PbSe QD Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, R. W.; Kroupa, D. M.; Marshall, A. R.; Miller, E. M.; Zhang, J.; Beard, M. C.; Luther, J. M.

    2015-04-24

    We developed a layer-by-layer method of preparing PbE (E = S or Se) quantum dot (QD) solar cells using metal halide (PbI2, PbCl2, CdI2, or CdCl2) salts dissolved in dimethylformamide to displace oleate surface ligands and form conductive QD solids. The resulting QD solids have a significant reduction in the carbon content compared to films treated with thiols and organic halides. We find that the PbI2 treatment is the most successful in removing alkyl surface ligands and also replaces most surface bound Cl- with I-. The treatment protocol results in PbS QD films exhibiting a deeper work function and band positions than other ligand exchanges reported previously. The method developed here produces solar cells that perform well even at film thicknesses approaching a micron, indicating improved carrier transport in the QD films. We demonstrate QD solar cells based on PbI2 with power conversion efficiencies above 7%.

  19. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated

  20. Inexpensive solid state radiation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen; Hastings, Peter; Harrison, R. Giles; Nicoll, Keri

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity is of interest both within the geosciences community and to groups such as the emergency services who need to quickly assess the safety of an environment. Here we present a light weight and inexpensive detector based on solid state technology, that can be easily worn or carried, or used disposably. It responds to gamma radiation and other radioactive particles such as those from space weather and cosmic rays. Unlike traditional technology such as the Geiger counter, the detector can operate at low voltage without the need for step-up circuitry, and it can also distinguish different particle energies. It is suitable for monitoring background radioactivity from cosmic rays and radon as well as responding to higher radioactivity levels. We anticipate that the device will have a broad range of end users, from terrestrial to space applications.

  1. A compact solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Bhabana; Park, Eric D.; Stebbins, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    A compact laser producing green wavelength with a volume of < 8 cm3 and a weight of < 80 g finds its application in many fields from military to space based. We built a small solid-state laser that produces 1 mJ of energy per-pulse at a 1 - 20 Hz repetition rate. The laser is passively Q-switched using a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber to generate pulses <10 ns. A nonlinear crystal doubles the frequency to generate light at 523 nm. The laser is side-pumped by a single bar diode laser using a unique pump cavity to homogenize the pump intensity in the laser rod. The laser components can easily be modified to change the output wavelength from UV to mid IR.

  2. Study of solid state photomultiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, K. M.; Laviolette, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Available solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) detectors were tested under low-background, low temperature conditions to determine the conditions producing optimal sensitivity in a space-based astronomy system such as a liquid cooled helium telescope in orbit. Detector temperatures varied between 6 and 9 K, with background flux ranging from 10 to the 13th power to less than 10 to the 6th power photons/square cm-s. Measured parameters included quantum efficiency, noise, dark current, and spectral response. Experimental data were reduced, analyzed, and combined with existing data to build the SSPM data base included herein. The results were compared to analytical models of SSPM performance where appropriate models existed. Analytical models presented here were developed to be as consistent with the data base as practicable. Significant differences between the theory and data are described. Some models were developed or updated as a result of this study.

  3. High-efficiency GaAs and GaInP solar cells grown by all solid-state molecular-beam-epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report the initial results of GaAs and GaInP solar cells grown by all solid-state molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) technique. For GaAs single-junction solar cell, with the application of AlInP as the window layer and GaInP as the back surface field layer, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 26% at one sun concentration and air mass 1.5 global (AM1.5G) is realized. The efficiency of 16.4% is also reached for GaInP solar cell. Our results demonstrate that the MBE-grown phosphide-contained III-V compound semiconductor solar cell can be quite comparable to the metal-organic-chemical-vapor-deposition-grown high-efficiency solar cell. PMID:22040124

  4. Effects of counter electrodes on photovoltaic performance of all-solid-state TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Mingwei; Liu, Benjamin; Dong, Zhenhua; Dong, Zhenyu; Dong, Lifeng

    2015-03-01

    In order to analyse the effects of counter electrodes on photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), different electrodes were used as the counter electrodes for all-solid-state TiO2-based DSSCs. An inorganic solid-state electrolyte, CsSnI2.95F0.05, was selected to couple with N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays to fabricate the DSSCs. Fluorine doped tin oxide transparent conducting glass (FTO), platinum coated FTO (Pt/FTO), graphite coated FTO (graphite/FTO), and graphite coated common glass (graphite/glass) were investigated as the counter electrodes, and the cells composed of the corresponding electrodes above have power-conversion efficiencies of 2.17%, 9.84%, 7.62%, and 3.45%, respectively. Our findings indicate that due to its unique catalytic and conducting properties, graphite can replace both Pt and FTO as a counter electrode to reduce the fabrication cost of all-solid-state TiO2-based DSSCs.

  5. High-efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO(2)-coated ZnO nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chengkun; Wu, Jiamin; Desai, Umang V; Gao, Di

    2012-05-01

    Replacing the liquid electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with solid-state hole-transporting materials (HTMs) may solve the packaging challenge and improve the long-term stability of DSCs. The efficiencies of such solid-state DSCs (ss-DSCs), however, have been far below the efficiencies of their counterparts that use liquid electrolytes, primarily due to the challenges in filling HTMs into thick enough sensitized films based on sintered TiO(2) nanoparticles. Here we report fabrication of high-efficiency ss-DSCs using multilayer TiO(2)-coated ZnO nanowire arrays as the photoanodes. The straight channel between the vertically aligned nanostructures combined with a newly developed multistep HTM filling process allows us to effectively fill sensitized films as thick as 50 μm with the HTMs. The resulting ss-DSCs yield an average power conversion efficiency of 5.65%. PMID:22486787

  6. Comparative finite element analysis of the stress-strain states in three different bonded solid oxide fuel cell seal designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, K. S.; Koeppel, B. J.

    One of the critical issues in designing and fabricating a high performance planar solid oxide fuel cell (pSOFC) stack is the development of the appropriate materials and techniques for hermetically sealing the metal and ceramic components. A second critical issue is ensuring that the brittle ceramic cell constituents, i.e. the electrodes and electrolyte, exhibit high mechanical reliability by mitigating potential sources of thermal-mechanically induced stresses that can lead to fracture during operation and/or shutdown. A foil-based sealing approach is currently being developed that appears to offer good hermeticity and mechanical integrity, while minimizing the generation of high stresses in either of the joint's substrate materials. Based on the concept's viability, demonstrated in prior experimental work, numerical analyses were conducted to evaluate the behavior and benefits of the seal in a configuration prototypic of current pSOFC stack designs. This paper presents recent results from finite element (FE) simulations of a planar cell using the foil-based seal, along with companion analyses of the more conventionally employed glass-ceramic and brazed joints. The stresses and deformations of the components were evaluated at isothermal operating and shutdown temperatures. The results indicate that the foil seal is able to accommodate a significant degree of thermal mismatch strain between the metallic support structure and the ceramic cell via elastic deformations of the foil and plasticity in the foil-to-cell braze layer. Consequently the cell stresses in this type of seal are predicted to be much lower than those in the glass-ceramic and brazed designs, which is expected to lead to improved stack reliability. This ability to accommodate large thermal strain mismatches allows the design requirement of thermal expansion matching between ceramic and metal stack components to be relaxed and expands the list of candidate materials that can be considered for the

  7. Synergistic use of Knudsen effusion quadrupole mass spectrometry, solid-state galvanic cell and differential scanning calorimetry for thermodynamic studies on lithium aluminates

    SciTech Connect

    Rakshit, S.K. Naik, Y.P.; Parida, S.C.; Dash, Smruti; Singh, Ziley; Sen, B.K.; Venugopal, V.

    2008-06-15

    Three ternary oxides LiAl{sub 5}O{sub 8}(s), LiAlO{sub 2}(s) and Li{sub 5}AlO{sub 4}(s) in the system Li-Al-O were prepared by solid-state reaction route and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction method. Equilibrium partial pressure of CO{sub 2}(g) over the three-phase mixtures {l_brace}LiAl{sub 5}O{sub 8}(s)+Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(s)+5Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s){r_brace}, {l_brace}LiAl{sub 5}O{sub 8}(s)+5LiAlO{sub 2}(s)+2Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(s){r_brace} and {l_brace}LiAlO{sub 2}(s)+Li{sub 5}AlO{sub 4}(s)+2Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(s){r_brace} were measured using Knudsen effusion quadrupole mass spectrometry (KEQMS). Solid-state galvanic cell technique based on calcium fluoride electrolyte was used to determine the standard molar Gibbs energies of formations of these aluminates. The standard molar Gibbs energies of formation of these three aluminates calculated from KEQMS and galvanic cell measurements were in good agreement. Heat capacities of individual ternary oxides were measured from 127 to 868 K using differential scanning calorimetry. Thermodynamic tables representing the values of {delta}{sub f}H{sup 0}(298.15 K), S{sup 0}(298.15 K) S{sup 0}(T), C{sub p}{sup 0}(T), H{sup 0}(T), {l_brace}H{sup 0}(T)-H{sup 0}(298.15 K){r_brace}, G{sup 0}(T), {delta}{sub f}H{sup 0}(T), {delta}{sub f}G{sup 0}(T) and free energy function (fef) were constructed using second law analysis and FACTSAGE thermo-chemical database software. - Graphical abstract: Comparison of {delta}{sub f}G{sub m}{sup 0} of ternary oxides determined from KEQMS and solid-state galvanic cell techniques. (O) KEQMS, (9632;) solid-state galvanic cell and solid line: combined fit of both the experimental data.

  8. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  9. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  10. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  11. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-02-23

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating positive'' terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating negative'' terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  12. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  13. A solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell based on a novel ionic liquid gel and ZnO nanoparticles on a flexible polymer substrate.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di; Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Han, Dongxue; Zhang, Qixian; Niu, Li; Amaratunga, Gehan; Ryhanen, Tapani

    2008-10-22

    This paper describes a new strategy to make a full solid-state, flexible, dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on novel ionic liquid gel, organic dye, ZnO nanoparticles and carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film stamped onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The CNTs serve both as the charge collector and as scaffolds for the growth of ZnO nanoparticles, where the black dye molecules are anchored. It opens up the possibility of developing a continuous roll to roll processing for THE mass production of DSSCs. PMID:21832666

  14. Effect of Poly(Ether Urethane) Introduction on the Performance of Polymer Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan-Fang; Xiang, Wan-Chun; Fang, Shi-Bi; Chen, Shen; Zhou, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Lin, Yuan

    2009-12-01

    The introduction of poly(ether urethane) (PEUR) into polymer electrolyte based on poly(ethylene oxide), LiI and I2, has significantly increased the ionic conductivity by nearly two orders of magnitudes. An increment of I-3 diffusion coefficient is also observed. All-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells are constructed using the polymer electrolytes. It was found that PEUR incorporation has a beneficial effect on the enhancement of open circuit voltage Voc by shifting the band edge of TiO2 to a negative value. Scanning electron microscope images indicate the perfect interfacial contact between the TiO2 electrode and the blend electrolyte.

  15. Solid-state 13C NMR study of the mobility of polysaccharides in the cell walls of two apple cultivars of different firmness.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jovyn K T; Zujovic, Zoran D; Smith, Bronwen G; Johnston, Jason W; Schröder, Roswitha; Melton, Laurence D

    2014-03-11

    Solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to compare differences in mobility of the cell wall polysaccharides of 'Scifresh' and 'Royal Gala' apples after 20 weeks of storage. The texture of 'Scifresh' apples was markedly firmer than that of 'Royal Gala' at the end of storage. In a novel approach Two Pulse Phase Modulation (TPPM) decoupling was combined with cross polarisation (CP) and single pulse excitation (SPE) experiments. The resulting high resolution solid-state SPE spectra, unprecedented for apple cell walls, allowed a detailed insight into the physical and chemical properties of very mobile polysaccharides such as the arabinan and galactan side chains of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I). NMR showed that the cellulose rigidity was the same in the two cultivars, while arabinans were more mobile than galactans in both. Unexpectedly, arabinans in 'Scifresh' cell walls were more mobile than those in 'Royal Gala' which was unforeseen considering the greater firmness of the 'Scifresh' cultivar. PMID:24423413

  16. All-solid-state hybrid solar cells based on a new organometal halide perovskite sensitizer and one-dimensional TiO2 nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianhang; Qiu, Yongcai; Yan, Keyou; Zhong, Min; Mu, Cheng; Yan, He; Yang, Shihe

    2013-03-01

    A novel organometal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI2Br) is synthesized and used as a visible light absorber to sensitize one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) for all-solid-state hybrid solar cells. It achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.87% and an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.82 V, both higher than those of its analogue CH3NH3PbI3.A novel organometal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI2Br) is synthesized and used as a visible light absorber to sensitize one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) for all-solid-state hybrid solar cells. It achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.87% and an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.82 V, both higher than those of its analogue CH3NH3PbI3. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, characterization details, including additional SEM, TEM, EDS, XRD and photovoltaic characteristics of cells based on TiO2 NWAs with different film thickness. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00218g

  17. Fabrication and transfer assembly of microscale, solid-state light emitting diodes and solar cells for transparent and flexible electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueckner, Eric P.

    Efficiency metrics for some solid-state electronic materials systems have progressed to the point where theoretical limits are being approached. Gallium nitride-based lightemitting diodes and silicon solar cells, for example, have achieved such extraordinarily high performance metrics that only incremental improvements upon them are expected in the next decade of intense research. This pseudo-plateau in performance development means concentrated effort can now be placed on strategic implementation of these materials into platforms that fill a growing demand for high-performance consumer products. Such products have traditionally relied upon large-scale materials, but possibilities now exist for manipulating micro-scale, wafer-based devices in ways that promote improvements in areas of electrical current spreading, light absorption and extraction, and thermal management. To this end, my research has focused on routes to fabricating and assembling solid-state light-emitting diodes and solar cells of indium gallium nitride and single-crystalline silicon, respectively, in configurations which optimize characteristics of their performance. Specifically, I have worked, in collaboration with others, to achieve a processing strategy that creates dense arrays of indium gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on a silicon wafer of (111) orientation and assemble them onto transparent and flexible substrates. This work produced novel form factors for solid-state lighting where small, light-emitting devices were spatially distributed and integrated with color-converting phosphors in ways that controllably tuned their chromaticity. We also demonstrated that incredible passive heat dissipation with these micro-scale elements stemming naturally from their small size and integration with metal films serving dually as an electrically interconnecting medium. The cell design and etching strategies used were then transferred to a single-crystalline silicon system where small, ribbon

  18. Solid state potentiometric gaseous oxide sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachsman, Eric D. (Inventor); Azad, Abdul Majeed (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A solid state electrochemical cell (10a) for measuring the concentration of a component of a gas mixture (12) includes first semiconductor electrode (14) and second semiconductor electrode (16) formed from first and second semiconductor materials, respectively. The materials are selected so as to undergo a change in resistivity upon contacting a gas component, such as CO or NO. An electrolyte (18) is provided in contact with the first and second semiconductor electrodes. A reference cell can be included in contact with the electrolyte. Preferably, a voltage response of the first semiconductor electrode is opposite in slope direction to that of the second semiconductor electrode to produce a voltage response equal to the sum of the absolute values of the control system uses measured pollutant concentrations to direct adjustment of engine combustion conditions.

  19. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance Delphi SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Gary Blake; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; Karl Haltiner; Larry Chick; David Schumann; Jeff Weissman; Gail Geiger; Ralphi Dellarocco

    2006-12-31

    The following report details the results under the DOE SECA program for the period July 2006 through December 2006. Developments pertain to the development of a 3 to 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. This report details technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the SOFC Power System: Task 1 SOFC System Development; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant Components; Task 5 Project Management; and Task 6 System Modeling & Cell Evaluation for High Efficiency Coal-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System.

  20. Solid polymer electrolyte photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Skotheim, T.; Lundstrom, I.

    1982-04-01

    Solid photoelectrochemical cells are described based on PEO-KI/I/sub 2/ electrolytes, n-Si/Pt/PPy photoanodes, and conductive tin-oxide glass counter electrodes. The performance of the present devices is limited by a high series resistance in the polymer film. 22 refs.

  1. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas of research

  2. Passivation of PbS Quantum Dot Surface with l-Glutathione in Solid-State Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jumabekov, Askhat N; Cordes, Niklas; Siegler, Timothy D; Docampo, Pablo; Ivanova, Alesja; Fominykh, Ksenia; Medina, Dana D; Peter, Laurence M; Bein, Thomas

    2016-02-24

    Surface oxidation of quantum dots (QDs) is one of the biggest challenges in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), because it introduces surface states that enhance electron-hole recombination and degrade device performance. Protection of QDs from surface oxidation by passivating the surface with organic or inorganic layers can be one way to overcome this issue. In this study, solid-state QDSCs with a PbS QD absorber layer were prepared from thin mesoporous TiO2 layers by the successive ionic layer adsorption/reaction (SILAR) method. Spiro-OMeTAD was used as the organic p-type hole transporting material (HTM). The effects on the solar cell performance of passivating the surface of the PbS QDs with the tripeptide l-glutathione (GSH) were investigated. Current-voltage characteristics and external quantum efficiency measurements of the solar cell devices showed that GSH-treatment of the QD-sensitized TiO2 electrodes more than doubled the short circuit current and conversion efficiency. Impedance spectroscopy, intensity-modulated photovoltage and photocurrent spectroscopy analysis of the devices revealed that the enhancement in solar cell performance of the GSH-treated cells originates from improved charge injection from PbS QDs into the conduction band of TiO2. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay measurements show that passivation of the surface of QDs with GSH ligands increases the exciton lifetime in the QDs. PMID:26771519

  3. MgO-hybridized TiO{sub 2} interfacial layers assisting efficiency enhancement of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Nobuya; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2014-02-10

    Interfacial modification of a thin TiO{sub 2} compact layer (T-CL) by hybridization with MgO enhanced the quantum conversion efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) comprising a multilayer structure of transparent electrode/T-CL/dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO{sub 2}/hole conductor/metal counter electrode. The Mg(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} treatment was employed to introduce a MgO-TiO{sub 2} CL (T/M-CL), which enhanced the physical connection and conduction between the CL and mesoporous semiconductor layer as a consecutive interface, owing to the dehydration reaction of Mg(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}. The photocurrent density of ssDSSC was increased 33% by the T/M-CL compared with the T-CL, using an equivalent amount of adsorbed dye. The ssDSSC with the T/M-CL yielded the highest efficiency of 4.02% under irradiation at 100 mW cm{sup −2}. The electrical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge-transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) of the photoelectrode with T/M-CL was reduced by 300 Ω from the reference non-treated T-CL electrode. Characterized by the intrinsically low R{sub ct} of the compact layer, the T/M-CL is capable of improving the photovoltaic performance of solid-state sensitized mesoscopic solar cells.

  4. Cell-cell interactions on solid matrices.

    PubMed

    Louis, Nancy A; Daniels, Dionne; Colgan, Sean P

    2006-01-01

    Models to study molecular, biochemical, and functional responses in vitro generally incorporate an individual cell type or group of cells organized in a random fashion. Normal physiological responses in vivo require that individual cell types be oriented in an organized fashion with three-dimensional architecture and appropriately positioned cellular interfaces. Much recent progress has been made in the development and implementation of models to study cell-cell contact using substrate grown cells. Here, we summarize the use of membrane permeable supports to study functional responses in appropriately positioned cell types. These models incorporate two or more different cells cultured in physiologically positioned locales on solid substrates. Models incorporating nonadherent cells (e.g., leukocytes) in co-culture with such models also are discussed. Such models have been used extensively to discovery both cell-bound as well as soluble mediators of physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:16799188

  5. Solid state recorders for airborne reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.

    2003-08-01

    Solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice for meeting airborne ruggedized requirements for reconnaissance and flight test. The cost of solid state recorders have decreased over the past few years that they are now less expense than the traditional high speed tape recorders. CALCULEX, Inc manufactures solid state recorders called MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used on many different platforms such as F/A-22, Global Hawk, F-14, F-15, F-16, U-2, RF-4, and Tornado. This paper will discuss the advantages of using solid state recorders to meet the airborne reconnaissance requirement and the ability to record instrumentation data. The CALCULEX recorder has the ability to record sensor data and flight test data in the same chassis. This is an important feature because it eliminates additional boxes on the aircraft. The major advantages to using a solid state recorder include; reliability, small size, light weight, and power. Solid state recorders also have a larger storage capacity and higher bandwidth capability than other recording devices.

  6. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; George, Raymond A.; Shockling, Larry A.

    1993-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

    1993-04-06

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  8. Solid-oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D. C.; Ackerman, J. P.

    Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) systems offer significant advantages for a variety of fuels and applications. The simplicity and high efficiency of a direct reforming, contaminant-tolerant power system is advantageous for small natural gas or volatile liquid-fueled utility and industrial congeneration plants, as well as residential use. The further gain in efficiency from the incorporation of a bottoming cycle in large-scale plants is advantageous for coal-fueled utility baseload or industrial cogeneration facilities. Development of SOFC components is well advanced. The present effort focuses on improving cell life and performance as well as integration of cells into an array.

  9. Roles of Arginine and Lysine Residues in the Translocation of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide from 13C, 31P and 19F Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yongchao; Doherty, Tim; Waring, Alan J.; Ruchala, Piotr; Hong, Mei

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small cationic peptides that cross the cell membrane while carrying macromolecular cargoes. We use solid-state NMR to investigate the structure and lipid interaction of two cationic residues, Arg10 and Lys13, in the CPP penetratin. 13C chemical shifts indicate that Arg10 adopts a rigid β-strand conformation in the liquid-crystalline state of anionic lipid membranes. This behavior contrasts with all other residues observed so far in this peptide, which adopt a dynamic β-turn conformation with coil-like chemical shifts at physiological temperature. Low-temperature 13C-31P distances between the peptide and the lipid phosphates indicate that both the Arg10 guanidinium Cζ and the Lys13 Cε lie in close proximity to the lipid 31P (4.0 - 4.2 Å), proving the existence of charge-charge interaction for both Arg10 and Lys13 in the gel-phase membrane. However, since lysine substitution in CPPs are known to reduce their translocation ability, we propose that low temperature stabilizes both lysine and arginine interactions with the phosphates, whereas at high temperature the lysine-phosphate interaction is much weaker than the arginine-phosphate interaction. This is supported by the unusually high rigidity of the Arg10 sidechain and its β-strand conformation at high temperature. The latter is proposed to be important for ion pair formation by allowing close approach of the lipid headgroups to guanidinium sidechains. 19F and 13C spin diffusion experiments indicate that penetratin is oligomerized into β-sheets in gel-phase membranes. These solid-state NMR data indicate that guanidinium-phosphate interactions exist in penetratin, and guanidinium groups play a stronger structural role than ammonium groups in the lipid-assisted translocation of CPPs across liquid-crystalline cell membranes. PMID:19364134

  10. Solid-state NMR and Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Opella, Stanley J.

    2015-01-01

    The native environment for a membrane protein is a phospholipid bilayer. Because the protein is immobilized on NMR timescales by the interactions within a bilayer membrane, solid-state NMR methods are essential to obtain high-resolution spectra. Approaches have been developed for both unoriented and oriented samples, however, they all rest on the foundation of the most fundamental aspects solid-state NMR, and the chemical shift and homo- and hetero-nuclear dipole-dipole interactions. Solid-state NMR has advanced sufficiently to enable the structures of membrane proteins to be determined under near-native conditions in phospholipid bilayers. PMID:25681966

  11. A Novel Activated-Charcoal-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid for Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Outperforming Pt Electrode.

    PubMed

    Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Choi, Yun Seon; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-03-23

    Highly conductive mesoporous carbon structures based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and activated charcoal (AC) were synthesized by an enzymatic dispersion method. The synthesized carbon configuration consists of synchronized structures of highly conductive MWCNT and porous activated charcoal morphology. The proposed carbon structure was used as counter electrode (CE) for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The AC-doped MWCNT hybrid showed much enhanced electrocatalytic activity (ECA) toward polymer gel electrolyte and revealed a charge transfer resistance (RCT) of 0.60 Ω, demonstrating a fast electron transport mechanism. The exceptional electrocatalytic activity and high conductivity of the AC-doped MWCNT hybrid CE are associated with its synchronized features of high surface area and electronic conductivity, which produces higher interfacial reaction with the quasi-solid electrolyte. Morphological studies confirm the forms of amorphous and conductive 3D carbon structure with high density of CNT colloid. The excessive oxygen surface groups and defect-rich structure can entrap an excessive volume of quasi-solid electrolyte and locate multiple sites for iodide/triiodide catalytic reaction. The resultant D719 DSSC composed of this novel hybrid CE fabricated with polymer gel electrolyte demonstrated an efficiency of 10.05% with a high fill factor (83%), outperforming the Pt electrode. Such facile synthesis of CE together with low cost and sustainability supports the proposed DSSCs' structure to stand out as an efficient next-generation photovoltaic device. PMID:26911208

  12. Solid state phase transitions in linear transition metal polymers: Variations of the unit cell dimension in bisglyoximato nickel (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Michael C.

    1984-07-01

    The band structure of bisglyoximato nickel(II) has been studied as a function of the unit cell dimension ( c) in a staggered and an eclipsed chain conformation by means of crystal orbital (CO) calculations based on the tight-binding approximation. The crystal Hamiltonian is a semiempirical Hartree-Fock (HF) self-consistent field (SCF) operator developed in the framework of the INDO formalism. c has been modified in the interval between 3.0 and 4.2 Å, numbers that are typical for metallomacrocycles of the 3d series. The dispersion curves for metal 3d and ligand bands, the density of states distributions, charge reorganizations and the nature of intercell interactions are studied as a function of the separation between the bisglyoximato moieties. The width of the ligand bands is continuously reduced with increasing c values. This simple ε( k) pattern is not found for the “Ni 3d bands” of the low-dimensional material. The weak NiNi overlap in comparison to metal-ligand interactions of the intracell and intercell type leads to a complicated relation between the energetic width of the Ni 3d states and the unit cell dimension c. The character and the shape of the filled Ni 3d bands are analyzed in detail and are compared with the results of band structure calculations on one-dimensional materials with 5d centers (e.g. Krogmann's salt) that show broad dispersions for the metal bands. Physical phenomena in materials with injected (3d) holes, that must be expected as a result of the narrow metal bands, are shortly discussed. The interaction energies between atoms in neighbouring unit cells are decomposed into Coulomb, resonance and exchange contributions. The electrostatic potentials exceed the covalent resonance interactions as well as the exchange coupling. The interaction energy between the Ni centers is highly repulsive. General rules are formulated that give some insight into modification of the electronic structure of organometallic polymers in the 3d series as

  13. Solid state synthesis of calcium borohydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güler, H.; Gündoğmaz, G.; Kurtuluş, F.; Çelik, G.; Gacanoğlu, Ş. S.

    2011-11-01

    Calcium borohydroxyapatite was synthesized by the solid-state reaction of colemanite (Ca 2B 6O 11·5H 2O) and diamonium hydrogenphosphate ((NH 4) 2HPO 4) at 1200 °C for 12 h. X-ray diffraction pattern showed only the formation of calcium borohydroxyapatite. The experimental analysis assigned the chemical formula as Ca 10[(PO 4) 5.80(BO 3) 0.20](OH) 2. It was indexed in the hexagonal system with the refined unit cell parameters of a = 9.557(3) Å, c = 6.926(8) Å and space group P6 3/ m. The experimental results verified that if colemanite was used as a primary reactant for both calcium and boron source, the calcium borohydroxyapatite could be obtained.

  14. Solid-state light sources getting smart.

    PubMed

    Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2005-05-27

    More than a century after the introduction of incandescent lighting and half a century after the introduction of fluorescent lighting, solid-state light sources are revolutionizing an increasing number of applications. Whereas the efficiency of conventional incandescent and fluorescent lights is limited by fundamental factors that cannot be overcome, the efficiency of solid-state sources is limited only by human creativity and imagination. The high efficiency of solid-state sources already provides energy savings and environmental benefits in a number of applications. However, solid-state sources also offer controllability of their spectral power distribution, spatial distribution, color temperature, temporal modulation, and polarization properties. Such "smart" light sources can adjust to specific environments and requirements, a property that could result in tremendous benefits in lighting, automobiles, transportation, communication, imaging, agriculture, and medicine. PMID:15919985

  15. Concepts for future solid state lighting solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Malm, N.; Wirth, R.; Illek, S.; Steegmüller, U.

    2010-08-01

    In this contribution the relevant technological aspects of LED-based lamps for solid state lighting are discussed. In addition to general energy efficiency considerations improvements in LED chip technology and white light generation are presented.

  16. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.; Zarkadoula, E.; Todorov, I. T.; Geisler, T.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  17. Standards Development for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    To accelerate the development and implementation of needed standards for solid-state lighting products, DOE works closely with a network of standards-setting organizations and offers technical assistance and support

  18. The effect of coupled mass transport and internal reforming on modeling of solid oxide fuel cells part I: Channel-level model development and steady-state comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Kevin J.; Braun, Robert J.

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic modeling and analysis of solid oxide fuel cell systems can provide insight towards meeting transient response application requirements and enabling an expansion of the operating envelope of these high temperature systems. SOFC modeling for system studies are accomplished with channel-level interface charge transfer models, which implement dynamic conservation equations coupled with additional submodels to capture the porous media mass transport and electrochemistry of the cell. Many of these models may contain simplifications in order to decouple the mass transport, fuel reforming, and electrochemical processes enabling the use of a 1-D model. The reforming reactions distort concentration profiles of the species within the anode, where hydrogen concentration at the triple-phase boundary may be higher or lower than that of the channel altering the local Nernst potential and exchange current density. In part one of this paper series, the modeling equations for the 1-D and 'quasi' 2-D models are presented, and verified against button cell electrochemical and channel-level reforming data. Steady-state channel-level modeling results indicate a 'quasi' 2-D SOFC model predicts a more uniform temperature distribution where differences in the peak cell temperature and maximum temperature gradient are experienced. The differences are most prominent for counter-flow cell with high levels of internal reforming. The transient modeling comparison is discussed in part two of this paper series.

  19. Grating enhanced solid-state laser amplifiers

    DOEpatents

    Erlandson, Alvin C.; Britten, Jerald A.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. Such an invention, as disclosed herein, uses diffraction gratings to increase gain, stored energy density, and pumping efficiency of solid-state laser gain media, such as, but not limited to rods, disks and slabs. By coupling predetermined gratings to solid-state gain media, such as crystal or ceramic laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  20. Cellulose Structural Polymorphism in Plant Primary Cell Walls Investigated by High-Field 2D Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Yang, Hui; Kubicki, James D; Hong, Mei

    2016-06-13

    The native cellulose of bacterial, algal, and animal origins has been well studied structurally using X-ray and neutron diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and is known to consist of varying proportions of two allomorphs, Iα and Iβ, which differ in hydrogen bonding, chain packing, and local conformation. In comparison, cellulose structure in plant primary cell walls is much less understood because plant cellulose has lower crystallinity and extensive interactions with matrix polysaccharides. Here we have combined two-dimensional magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (solid-state NMR) spectroscopy at high magnetic fields with density functional theory (DFT) calculations to obtain detailed information about the structural polymorphism and spatial distributions of plant primary-wall cellulose. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation spectra of uniformly (13)C-labeled cell walls of several model plants resolved seven sets of cellulose chemical shifts. Among these, five sets (denoted a-e) belong to cellulose in the interior of the microfibril while two sets (f and g) can be assigned to surface cellulose. Importantly, most of the interior cellulose (13)C chemical shifts differ significantly from the (13)C chemical shifts of the Iα and Iβ allomorphs, indicating that plant primary-wall cellulose has different conformations, packing, and hydrogen bonding from celluloses of other organisms. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation experiments with long mixing times and with water polarization transfer revealed the spatial distributions and matrix-polysaccharide interactions of these cellulose structures. Celluloses f and g are well mixed chains on the microfibril surface, celluloses a and b are interior chains that are in molecular contact with the surface chains, while cellulose c resides in the core of the microfibril, outside spin diffusion contact with the surface. Interestingly, cellulose d, whose chemical shifts differ most significantly from those of

  1. Scalar operators in solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Boqin

    1991-11-01

    Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C{sub 60} is analyzed.

  2. Efficient Blue-Colored Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Enhanced Charge Collection by Using an in Situ Photoelectrochemically Generated Conducting Polymer Hole Conductor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hao, Yan; Holcombe, Thomas W; Boschloo, Gerrit; Johansson, Erik M J; Grätzel, Michael; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2016-05-18

    A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.5 % was achieved by efficiently incorporating a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based dye with a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenediothiophene) (PEDOT) hole-transporting material (HTM) that was formed in situ, compared with a PCE of 2.9 % for small molecular spiro-OMeTAD-based solid-state dye solar cells (sDSCs). The high PCE for PEDOT-based sDSCs is mainly attributed to the significantly enhanced charge-collection efficiency, as a result of the three-order-of-magnitude higher hole conductivity (0.53 S cm(-1) ) compared with that of the widely used low molecular weight HTM spiro-OMeTAD (3.5×10(-4)  S cm(-1) ). PMID:26919196

  3. An all-solid-state perovskite-sensitized solar cell based on the dual function polyaniline as the sensitizer and p-type hole-transporting material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yaoming; Han, Gaoyi; Chang, Yunzhen; Zhou, Haihan; Li, Miaoyu; Li, Yanping

    2014-12-01

    High performance dual function of polyaniline (PANI) with brachyplast structure is synthesized by using a two-step cyclic voltammetry (CV) approach onto the fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, which acts as the sensitizer and p-type hole-transporting material (p-HTM) for the all-solid-state perovskite-sensitized solar cell (ass-PSSC) due to its π-π* transition and the localized polaron. The ass-PSSC based on the PANI delivers a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 7.34%, and reduces from 7.34% to 6.71% after 1000 h, thereby 91.42% of the energy conversion efficiency is kept, indicating the device has a good long-term stability.

  4. Molecular Engineering of Potent Sensitizers for Very Efficient Light Harvesting in Thin-Film Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Yaoyao; Giordano, Fabrizio; Schreier, Marcel; Pellet, Norman; Hu, Yue; Yi, Chenyi; Robertson, Neil; Hua, Jianli; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Tian, He; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-08-31

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have shown significant potential for indoor and building-integrated photovoltaic applications. Herein we present three new D-A-π-A organic sensitizers, XY1, XY2, and XY3, that exhibit high molar extinction coefficients and a broad absorption range. Molecular modifications of these dyes, featuring a benzothiadiazole (BTZ) auxiliary acceptor, were achieved by introducing a thiophene heterocycle as well as by shifting the position of BTZ on the conjugated bridge. The ensuing high molar absorption coefficients enabled the fabrication of highly efficient thin-film solid-state DSSCs with only 1.3 μm mesoporous TiO2 layer. XY2 with a molar extinction coefficient of 6.66 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1) at 578 nm led to the best photovoltaic performance of 7.51%. PMID:27488265

  5. Synergistic use of Knudsen effusion quadrupole mass spectrometry, solid-state galvanic cell and differential scanning calorimetry for thermodynamic studies on lithium aluminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, S. K.; Naik, Y. P.; Parida, S. C.; Dash, Smruti; Singh, Ziley; Sen, B. K.; Venugopal, V.

    2008-06-01

    Three ternary oxides LiAl 5O 8(s), LiAlO 2(s) and Li 5AlO 4(s) in the system Li-Al-O were prepared by solid-state reaction route and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction method. Equilibrium partial pressure of CO 2(g) over the three-phase mixtures {LiAl 5O 8(s)+Li 2CO 3(s)+5Al 2O 3(s)}, {LiAl 5O 8(s)+5LiAlO 2(s)+2Li 2CO 3(s)} and {LiAlO 2(s)+Li 5AlO 4(s)+2Li 2CO 3(s)} were measured using Knudsen effusion quadrupole mass spectrometry (KEQMS). Solid-state galvanic cell technique based on calcium fluoride electrolyte was used to determine the standard molar Gibbs energies of formations of these aluminates. The standard molar Gibbs energies of formation of these three aluminates calculated from KEQMS and galvanic cell measurements were in good agreement. Heat capacities of individual ternary oxides were measured from 127 to 868 K using differential scanning calorimetry. Thermodynamic tables representing the values of Δ fH0(298.15 K), S0(298.15 K) S0( T), Cp0( T), H0( T), { H0( T)- H0(298.15 K)}, G0( T), Δ fH0( T), Δ fG 0( T) and free energy function (fef) were constructed using second law analysis and FACTSAGE thermo-chemical database software.

  6. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2008-04-01

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  7. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-10-09

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  8. Self-protecting solid state isolated switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Gooder, S. T.

    1974-01-01

    Solid state switch has following capabilities: (1) Hybrid or IC from compatible with direct mounting on solar array substrate; (2) Continuous signal is not required to hold it in either on or off state; (3) Separate signal lines for on and off control; (4) Electrically isolated from input signals; and (5) Current surges will not cause switch failure.

  9. Protect motors with solid-state overloads

    SciTech Connect

    Forsell, K.A. )

    1993-03-01

    Magnetic motor starters that rely on bimetal or melting alloy overload protection do not provide the flexibility of solid-state overload technology. The point is best illustrated by the number of different overload relay trip curves that describe tripping time as a function of motor current. Solid-state overloads have a trip curve for a cold start with three-phase current, and a family of trip curves for three-phase conditions where the overload and motor are already warm. An overload relay can also be described by its single-phase trip-time curves for cold and warm initial states. All thermal overloads have single phase trip curves that are similar in shape to their three-phase curves. Slower response to phase loss for motor loads less than locked rotor is inherent in thermal overload relay design. The paper describes the power source problem; single-phase problems; thermal overloads versus solid state; and thermal NEMA overload.

  10. Low molecular mass organogelator based gel electrolyte gelated by a quaternary ammonium halide salt for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhipeng; Zhang, Changneng; Fang, Xiaqin; Cai, Molang; Dai, Songyuan; Wang, Kongjia

    Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are fabricated using tetradodecylammonium bromide as a low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG) to form gel electrolyte with a high solution-to-gel transition temperature (T SG) of 75 °C to hinder flow and volatilization of the liquid. The steady-state voltammograms reveal that the diffusion of the I 3 - and I - in the gel electrolyte is hindered by the self-assembled network of the gel. An increased interfacial exchange current density (j 0) of 4.95 × 10 -8 A cm -2 and a decreased electron recombination lifetime (τ) of 117 ms reveal an increased electron recombination at the dyed TiO 2 photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the DSC after gelation. The results of the accelerated aging tests show that the gel electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cell can retain over 93% of its initial photoelectric conversion efficiency value after successive heating at 60 °C for 1000 h, and device degradation is negligible after one sun light soaking with UV cutoff filter for 1000 h.

  11. Modular nonvolatile solid state recorder (MONSSTR) update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.; Small, Martin B.; Beams, Tom

    2001-12-01

    Solid state recorders have begun replacing traditional tape recorders in fulfilling the requirement to record images on airborne platforms. With the advances in electro-optical, IR, SAR, Multi and Hyper-spectral sensors and video recording requirements, solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice. Solid state recorders provide the additional storage, higher sustained bandwidth, less power, less weight and smaller footprint to meet the current and future recording requirements. CALCULEX, Inc., manufactures a non-volatile flash memory solid state recorder called the MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used to record images from many different digital sensors on high performance aircraft such as the RF- 4, F-16 and the Royal Air Force Tornado. MONSSTR, with its internal multiplexer, is also used to record instrumentation data. This includes multiple streams of PCM and multiple channels of 1553 data. Instrumentation data is being recorded by MONSSTR systems in a range of platforms including F-22, F-15, F-16, Comanche Helicopter and US Navy torpedos. MONSSTR can also be used as a cockpit video recorder. This paper will provide an update of the MONSSTR.

  12. Isothermal Equation Of State For Compressed Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John

    1989-01-01

    Same equation with three adjustable parameters applies to different materials. Improved equation of state describes pressure on solid as function of relative volume at constant temperature. Even though types of interatomic interactions differ from one substance to another, form of equation determined primarily by overlap of electron wave functions during compression. Consequently, equation universal in sense it applies to variety of substances, including ionic, metallic, covalent, and rare-gas solids. Only three parameters needed to describe equation for given material.

  13. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  14. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  15. Solid state physics of transuranics

    SciTech Connect

    Terminello, L J; Allen, P G; Shuh, D K; Terry, J

    2000-08-22

    The experimental validation of first principals calculations of plutonium and its alloys is an important part of LLNL's science-based stockpile stewardship mission. This project has addressed this issue in the following ways. We have measured the electronic structure of U, Pu, and their alloys using valence band photoemission (PES), Soft X-Ray fluorescence (SXF), and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). In the long term, this will allow a direct comparison between calculated and measured density of electronic states, identifying the degree of f-electron localization in the alloys, and thus, permit selection of the best modeling code.

  16. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Gao; Yu-Sheng, Zhao; Si-Qi, Shi; Hong, Li

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51372228), the Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900), and the Shanghai Institute of Materials Genome from the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261200).

  17. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  18. Is solid state the future of lighting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    The rapid pace of solid state technological development over the past four decades has resulted in almost universal acceptance of the phrase "Moore's Law," whether it is used accurately to refer to the exponential increase in computer processor power or to refer to some more amorphous scope of rapid change. More recent breakthroughs in LED science and engineering have precipitated a vigorous discussion of the depth and pace with which solid state light sources will penetrate the $50-billion world-wide lighting market. This discussion has not two perspectives but many, and each perspective can provide valuable insight into key issues that will determine the role that solid state technology will play in the lighting market of 2020 and beyond.

  19. Solid state recording current meter conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wang, Lichen

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the conversion of an Endeco-174 current meter to a solid-state recording current meter. A removable solid-state module was designed to fit in the space originally occupied by an 8-track tape cartridge. The module contains a CPU and 128 kilobytes of nonvolatile CMOS memory. The solid-state module communicates with any terminal or computer using an RS-232C interface at 4800 baud rate. A primary consideration for conversion was to keep modifications of the current meter to a minimum. The communication protocol was designed to emulate the Endeco tape translation unit, thus the need for a translation unit was eliminated and the original data reduction programs can be used without any modification. After conversion, the data recording section of the current meter contains no moving parts; the storage capacity of the module is equivalent to that of the original tape cartridge.

  20. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  1. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  2. Solid-State Water Electrolysis with an Alkaline Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, YJ; Chen, G; Mendoza, AJ; Tighe, TB; Hickner, MA; Wang, CY

    2012-06-06

    We report high-performance, durable alkaline membrane water electrolysis in a solid-state cell. An anion exchange membrane (AEM) and catalyst layer ionomer for hydroxide ion conduction were used without the addition of liquid electrolyte. At 50 degrees C, an AEM electrolysis cell using iridium oxide as the anode catalyst and Pt black as the cathode catalyst exhibited a current density of 399 mA/cm(2) at 1.80 V. We found that the durability of the AEM-based electrolysis cell could be improved by incorporating a highly durable ionomer in the catalyst layer and optimizing the water feed configuration. We demonstrated an AEM-based electrolysis cell with a lifetime of > 535 h. These first-time results of water electrolysis in a solid-state membrane cell are promising for low-cost, scalable hydrogen production.

  3. Density functional theory in the solid state

    PubMed Central

    Hasnip, Philip J.; Refson, Keith; Probert, Matt I. J.; Yates, Jonathan R.; Clark, Stewart J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used in many fields of the physical sciences, but none so successfully as in the solid state. From its origins in condensed matter physics, it has expanded into materials science, high-pressure physics and mineralogy, solid-state chemistry and more, powering entire computational subdisciplines. Modern DFT simulation codes can calculate a vast range of structural, chemical, optical, spectroscopic, elastic, vibrational and thermodynamic phenomena. The ability to predict structure–property relationships has revolutionized experimental fields, such as vibrational and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, where it is the primary method to analyse and interpret experimental spectra. In semiconductor physics, great progress has been made in the electronic structure of bulk and defect states despite the severe challenges presented by the description of excited states. Studies are no longer restricted to known crystallographic structures. DFT is increasingly used as an exploratory tool for materials discovery and computational experiments, culminating in ex nihilo crystal structure prediction, which addresses the long-standing difficult problem of how to predict crystal structure polymorphs from nothing but a specified chemical composition. We present an overview of the capabilities of solid-state DFT simulations in all of these topics, illustrated with recent examples using the CASTEP computer program. PMID:24516184

  4. Structural color-tunable mesoporous bragg stack layers based on graft copolymer self-assembly for high-efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-08-01

    We present a facile fabrication route for structural color-tunable mesoporous Bragg stack (BS) layers based on the self-assembly of a cost-effective graft copolymer. The mesoporous BS layers are prepared through the alternating deposition of organized mesoporous-TiO2 (OM-TiO2) and -SiO2 (OM-SiO2) films on the non-conducting side of the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The OM layers with controlled porosity, pore size, and refractive index are templated with amphiphilic graft copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) backbones and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) side chains, i.e., PVC-g-POEM. The morphology and properties of the structural color-tunable mesoporous BS-functionalized electrodes are characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), spectroscopic ellipsometry, and reflectance spectroscopy. The solid-state DSSCs (ssDSSCs) based on a structural color-tunable mesoporous BS counter electrode with a single-component solid electrolyte show an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 7.1%, which is much greater than that of conventional nanocrystalline TiO2-based cells and one of the highest values for N719 dye-based ssDSSCs. The enhancement of η is due to the enhancement of current density (Jsc), attributed to the improved light harvesting properties without considerable decrease in fill factor (FF) or open-circuit voltage (Voc), as confirmed by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

  5. Determination of standard thermodynamic properties of daubreelite (FeCr2S4) in the system Ag-Cr-Fe-S by the solid state galvanic cells method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadchii, Evgeniy; Voronin, Mikhail; Osadchii, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Daubreelite is a common mineral in enstatite chondrites, but its thermodynamic properties have not been studied. This greatly complicates the study of the physico - chemical parameters of enstatite chondrites formation in their parent bodies. Analysis of the quaternary system Ag-Cr-Fe-S showed that at temperatures below 423 K can be stable phase association Ag2S + Cr2S3 + FeS2 + FeCr2S4, potential silver which can be defined in a completely solid state galvanic cell: (-) Pt | Ag | RbAg4I5 | Ag2S, Cr2S3, FeS2, FeCr2S4 | Pt (+), with a RbAg4I5 as a solid electrolyte with a specific conductivity of Ag+ ion. The overall potential forming process in the cell corresponds to a chemical reaction: 2Ag + Cr2S3 + FeS2 = Ag2S + FeCr2S4 Gibbs energy of this reaction is associated with the electromotive force of galvanic cells by fundamental equation of thermodynamics ΔrG =-nFE, where n = 2 - the number of electrons in the electrochemical process, F = 96485 C•mol-1 - Faraday constant, and E-electromotive force (emf) of galvanic cell in volts. Temperature dependence of the emf was determined in an electrochemical cell, a device which is described in detail in the works Osadchii and Chareev (2006), and Osadchii and Echmaeva (2007). The results were approximated by a linear dependence of E(T), which corresponds to the condition ΔrCp constant and equal to zero: E(mV)=76.32+0.2296•T, 339

  6. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  7. Solid State Lasers from an Efficiency Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    2007-01-01

    Solid state lasers have remained a vibrant area of research because several major innovations expanded their capability. Major innovations are presented with emphasis focused on the laser efficiency. A product of efficiencies approach is developed and applied to describe laser performance. Efficiency factors are presented in closed form where practical and energy transfer effects are included where needed. In turn, efficiency factors are used to estimate threshold and slope efficiency, allowing a facile estimate of performance. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical data are provided for common solid state laser materials.

  8. Membrane-Bound Dynamic Structure of an Arginine-Rich Cell-Penetrating Peptide, the Protein Transduction Domain of HIV TAT, from Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yongchao; Waring, Alan J.; Ruchala, Piotr; Hong, Mei

    2010-01-01

    The protein transduction domain of HIV-1 TAT, TAT(48-60), is an efficient cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) that diffuses across the lipid membranes of cells despite eight cationic Arg and Lys residues. To understand its mechanism of membrane translocation against the free energy barrier, we have conducted solid-state NMR experiments to determine the site-specific conformation, dynamics, and lipid interaction of the TAT peptide in anionic lipid bilayers. We found that TAT(48-60) is a highly dynamic and nearly random-coil peptide in the lipid bilayer, and inserts into the membrane-water interface near the glycerol backbone region. Arg-phosphate salt bridge interaction was revealed by short guanidinium-phosphate distances and restricted dynamics of the guanidinium. Together with the observation of strong peptide-water cross peaks in 1H spin diffusion spectra, these results indicate that TAT binding to the membrane-water interface is stabilized not only by electrostatic attraction to the anionic lipids, but also by intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the lipid phosphates and water, which may take the role of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in canonical secondary structures. The random-coil structure of TAT and another CPP, penetratin, suggests that the lack of amphipathic structure is essential for rapid translocation of these Arg-rich CPPs across the lipid membrane without causing permanent damages to the membrane integrity. PMID:20550193

  9. Determination of Gibbs Free Energy of Formation from Elements for Ca4Fe9O17 by Solid-state Galvanic Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Yu; Guo, Xing-Min

    2015-02-01

    Aiming to fill the thermodynamic blank in CaO-FeO-Fe2O3 system, the determination of the Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for ternary Ca4Fe9O17 was carried out using a solid-state galvanic cell with air and calcium zirconate material, respectively, as the reference electrode and electrolyte. The ternary system Ca2Fe2O5-CaFe2O4-Ca4Fe9O17 was selected as the measuring electrode and its equilibrium was confirmed. The essential thermodynamic data of Ca2Fe2O5 and CaFe2O4 were cited from the reassessed data from a previous investigation. The reversible electromotive forces of the cell were determined from 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 was derived and given by: The increment of enthalpy and entropy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 at 298 K (25 °C) are calculated to be and . The Ellingham diagram was developed in temperature range 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The oxygen potential of Ca4Fe9O17 was found to be slightly higher than CaFe2O4 and much higher than Ca2Fe2O5.

  10. In Vitro Mean Red Blood Cell Volume Change Induced by Diode Pump Solid State Low-Level Laser of 405 nm

    PubMed Central

    Jafar, Mohamad Suhaimi; Al-Gailani, Bassam T.; Ahmed, Naser Mahmoud; Suhaimi, Fatanah Mohamad; Suardi, Nursakinah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of low-level laser (LLL) doses on human red blood cell volume. The effects of exposure to a diode pump solid state (DPSS) (λ = 405 nm) laser were observed. Background data: The response of human blood to LLL irradiation gives important information about the mechanism of interaction of laser light with living organisms. Materials and methods Blood samples were collected into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-containing tubes, and each sample was divided into two equal aliquots, one to serve as control and the other for irradiation. The aliquot was subjected to laser irradiation for 20, 30, 40, or 50 min at a fixed power density of 0.03 W/cm2. Mean cell volume (MCV) and red blood cell (RBC) counts were measured immediately after irradiation using a computerized hemtoanalyzer. Results: Significant decrease in RBC volume (p < 0.05, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.05, respectively) was induced with variation in laser doses.The highest response was observed with an exposure time of 40 min. This result was reproduced in RBCs suspended in a buffered NaCl solution. In contrast to this finding, laser-induced RBC volume change was completely abolished by suspending RBCs in a solution containing a higher concentration of EDTA. Conclusions: It was suggested that LLL can reduce RBC volume possibly because of the increased free intracellular Ca+2 concentrations, which activate Ca+2-dependent K+ channels with consequent K+ ion efflux and cell shrinkage. PMID:26966989

  11. Cellulose-Pectin Spatial Contacts Are Inherent to Never-Dried Arabidopsis Primary Cell Walls: Evidence from Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Hong, Mei

    2015-07-01

    The structural role of pectins in plant primary cell walls is not yet well understood because of the complex and disordered nature of the cell wall polymers. We recently introduced multidimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to characterize the spatial proximities of wall polysaccharides. The data showed extensive cross peaks between pectins and cellulose in the primary wall of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), indicating subnanometer contacts between the two polysaccharides. This result was unexpected because stable pectin-cellulose interactions are not predicted by in vitro binding assays and prevailing cell wall models. To investigate whether the spatial contacts that give rise to the cross peaks are artifacts of sample preparation, we now compare never-dried Arabidopsis primary walls with dehydrated and rehydrated samples. One-dimensional (13)C spectra, two-dimensional (13)C-(13)C correlation spectra, water-polysaccharide correlation spectra, and dynamics data all indicate that the structure, mobility, and intermolecular contacts of the polysaccharides are indistinguishable between never-dried and rehydrated walls. Moreover, a partially depectinated cell wall in which 40% of homogalacturonan is extracted retains cellulose-pectin cross peaks, indicating that the cellulose-pectin contacts are not due to molecular crowding. The cross peaks are observed both at -20 °C and at ambient temperature, thus ruling out freezing as a cause of spatial contacts. These results indicate that rhamnogalacturonan I and a portion of homogalacturonan have significant interactions with cellulose microfibrils in the native primary wall. This pectin-cellulose association may be formed during wall biosynthesis and may involve pectin entrapment in or between cellulose microfibrils, which cannot be mimicked by in vitro binding assays. PMID:26036615

  12. Cellulose-Pectin Spatial Contacts Are Inherent to Never-Dried Arabidopsis Primary Cell Walls: Evidence from Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The structural role of pectins in plant primary cell walls is not yet well understood because of the complex and disordered nature of the cell wall polymers. We recently introduced multidimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to characterize the spatial proximities of wall polysaccharides. The data showed extensive cross peaks between pectins and cellulose in the primary wall of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), indicating subnanometer contacts between the two polysaccharides. This result was unexpected because stable pectin-cellulose interactions are not predicted by in vitro binding assays and prevailing cell wall models. To investigate whether the spatial contacts that give rise to the cross peaks are artifacts of sample preparation, we now compare never-dried Arabidopsis primary walls with dehydrated and rehydrated samples. One-dimensional 13C spectra, two-dimensional 13C-13C correlation spectra, water-polysaccharide correlation spectra, and dynamics data all indicate that the structure, mobility, and intermolecular contacts of the polysaccharides are indistinguishable between never-dried and rehydrated walls. Moreover, a partially depectinated cell wall in which 40% of homogalacturonan is extracted retains cellulose-pectin cross peaks, indicating that the cellulose-pectin contacts are not due to molecular crowding. The cross peaks are observed both at −20°C and at ambient temperature, thus ruling out freezing as a cause of spatial contacts. These results indicate that rhamnogalacturonan I and a portion of homogalacturonan have significant interactions with cellulose microfibrils in the native primary wall. This pectin-cellulose association may be formed during wall biosynthesis and may involve pectin entrapment in or between cellulose microfibrils, which cannot be mimicked by in vitro binding assays. PMID:26036615

  13. Effects of Humidity on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar; Mahapatra, Manoj K.; Wachsman, E. D.; Liu, Meilin; Gerdes, Kirk R.

    2015-03-17

    This report summarizes results from experimental studies performed by a team of researchers assembled on behalf of the Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program. Team participants employed a variety of techniques to evaluate and mitigate the effects of humidity in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode air streams on cathode chemistry, microstructure, and electrochemical performance.

  14. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objectives are to: (1) develop materials based on modifications of the state-of-the-art materials; (2) minimize or eliminate stability problems in the cathode, anode, and interconnect; (3) Electrochemically evaluate (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) the current state-of-the-art air electrode materials and cathode/electrolyte interfacial properties; (4) Develop accelerated electrochemical test methods to evaluate the performance of SOFCs under controlled and reproducible conditions; and (5) Develop and test materials for use in low-temperature SOFCs. The goal is to modify and improve the current state-of-the-art materials and minimize the total number of cations in each material to avoid negative effects on the materials properties. Materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabricatoin and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions.

  15. Entanglement and Squeezing in Solid State Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Yihuo; Gui Lulong

    2008-11-07

    We investigate the dynamics of a system consisting of a Cooper-pair box and two superconducting transmission line resonators. There exist both linear and nonlinear interactions in such a system. We show that single-photon entanglement state can be generated in a simple way in the linear interaction regime. In nonlinear interaction regime, we derive the Hamiltonian of degenerate three-wave mixing and propose a scheme for generating squeezed state of microwave using the three-wave mixing in solid state circuits. In the following, we design a system for generating squeezed states of nanamechanical resonator.

  16. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review.

    PubMed

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal-semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto-Peltier and Nernst-Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized. PMID:27519021

  17. Solid-state NMR imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    An accessory for use with a solid-state NMR spectrometer includes a special imaging probe with linear, high-field strength gradient fields and high-power broadband RF coils using a back projection method for data acquisition and image reconstruction, and a real-time pulse programmer adaptable for use by a conventional computer for complex high speed pulse sequences.

  18. Solid state lasers - The next 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1988-10-01

    Major advances in solid state laser technology historically have been preceded by advances in pumping technology. The helical lamp used to pump the early ruby lasers was superseded by the linear flashlamp now used to pump Nd:YAG lasers. The next advance in pumping technology is the diode laser array. The improvements in power and efficiency of the diode laser coupled with the fortuitous spectral overlap of the diode laser emission wavelength with the Nd ion absorption bands near 805 nm have led to a revolution in solid state laser capability. Progress has been rapid with new ions and wavelengths reported in the near infrared from 946 nm to 2010 nm. Frequency extension via nonlinear interactions has led to green and blue sources of coherent radiation. Linewidths of less than 10 kHz have been demonstrated. Overall electrical efficiencies of greater than 10% have been achieved. As diode laser sources decrease in cost, high average power diode laser pumped solid state laser sources will become available. Power levels exceeding 1 kW appear possible. Potential applications of these compact all solid state laser sources to spectroscopy, quantum noise limited sensors, astronomy, and materials processing will be discussed.

  19. Solid-state NMR imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Dieckman, Stephen L.; Ellingson, William A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for use with a solid-state NMR spectrometer includes a special imaging probe with linear, high-field strength gradient fields and high-power broadband RF coils using a back projection method for data acquisition and image reconstruction, and a real-time pulse programmer adaptable for use by a conventional computer for complex high speed pulse sequences.

  20. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal–semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto–Peltier and Nernst–Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized.

  1. Technique for improving solid state mosaic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saboe, J. M.

    1969-01-01

    Method identifies and corrects mosaic image faults in solid state visual displays and opto-electronic presentation systems. Composite video signals containing faults due to defective sensing elements are corrected by a memory unit that contains the stored fault pattern and supplies the appropriate fault word to the blanking circuit.

  2. Solar-pumped solid state Nd lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Zapata, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solid state neodymium lasers are considered candidates for space-based polar-pumped laser for continuous power transmission. Laser performance for three different slab laser configurations has been computed to show the excellent power capability of such systems if heat problems can be solved. Ideas involving geometries and materials are offered as potential solutions to the heat problem.

  3. Light activated solid-state opening switches

    SciTech Connect

    Petr, R.A.; Kachen, G.I.; Reilly, J.P.; Schaefer, R.B. ); Heyse, M.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Light-activated solid-state opening switches are shown to be a viable approach for switching inductive circuits. Measured photoswitch performance indicates that light-activated opening switches have the power density ratings needed to develop compact inductive power systems.

  4. Light activated solid-state opening switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petr, R. A.; Kachen, G. I.; Reilly, J. P.; Schaefer, R. B.; Heyse, M. W.

    1993-01-01

    The paper shows light-activated solid-state opening switches to be a viable approach for switching inductive circuits. Measured photoswitch performance indicates that light-activated opening switches have the power density ratings required to develop compact inductive power systems.

  5. SPS solid state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    Solid state dc-rf converters offer potential improvements in reliability, mass and low voltage operation, provided that anticipated efficiencies in excess of 80 percent can be realized. Field effect transistors offer the greatest potential in the SPS frequency band at 2.45 GHz. To implement this approach it is essential that means be found to sum the power of many relatively low power solid state sources in a low-loss manner, and that means be provided to properly control the phase of the outputs of the large number of solid state sources required. To avoid the power combining losses associated with circuit hybrids it was proposed that the power from multiple solid state amplifiers be combined by direct coupling of each amplifier's output to the radiating antenna structure. The selected power-combining antenna consists of a unique printed (metalized) microstrip circuit on a ceramic type dielectric substrate which is backed by a shallow lightweight aluminum cavity which sums the power of four microwave sources. The antenna behaves like two one-half wavelength slot-line antennas coupled together via their common cavity structure.

  6. Solid state, S-band, power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digrindakis, M.

    1973-01-01

    The final design and specifications for a solid state, S-band, power amplifier is reported. Modifications from a previously proposed design were incorporated to improve efficiency and meet input overdrive and noise floor requirements. Reports on the system design, driver amplifier, power amplifier, and voltage and current limiter are included along with a discussion of the testing program.

  7. Ionic gel electrolytes composite with SiO2 nanoparticles for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liguo; Liu, Taiyang; Wang, Chao

    2016-06-01

    Composite ionic gel electrolytes were facilely prepared by mixing ionic gel electrolytes with SiO2 nanoparticles. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) assembled with the composite ionic gel electrolytes exhibit the higher photovoltaic performance and better durability compared to the original DSSCs based on pure ionic gel electrolytes. In particular, the DSSC assembled with the electrolytes containing 0.15 g of SiO2 shows superior J SC (14.4 mA cm-2), V OC (0.67 V), fill factor (0.69) and power conversion efficiency (6.71 %) (measured at AM 1.5, light intensity of 100 mW/cm2). The electrochemical impedance spectra, SEM and conductivity were used to characterize the composite ionic gel electrolytes.

  8. Systems R-Fe-O (R=Ho, Er): Thermodynamic properties of ternary oxides using differential scanning calorimetry and solid-state electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Parida, S.C. . E-mail: sureshp@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Rakshit, S.K.; Dash, S.; Singh, Ziley; Sen, B.K.; Venugopal, V.

    2006-07-15

    The thermodynamic properties of three different types of ternary oxides RFeO{sub 3}(s), R{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}(s) and RFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}(s) (where R=Ho and Er) have been determined by calorimetric and solid-state galvanic cell methods. Heat capacities of RFeO{sub 3}(s) and R{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}(s) have been determined by differential scanning calorimetry from 130 to 860K. Heat capacity measurements from 130 to 860K revealed {lambda}-type anomalies for RFeO{sub 3}(s) and R{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}(s) compounds which are assigned due to magnetic order-disorder transitions. The oxygen chemical potentials corresponding to the three-phase equilibria involving these ternary oxides have been determined by using solid-state electrochemical cells. The standard molar Gibbs energies of formation of RFeO{sub 3}(s), R{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}(s) and RFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}(s) have been computed from the oxygen potential data. Based on the thermodynamic information, oxygen potential diagrams have been computed for the systems R-Fe-O (R=Ho and Er) at two different temperatures: T=1250 and 1450K. Thermodynamic functions like C{sub p,m}{sup o}, S{sub m}{sup o}, H{sup o}, G{sup o}, (H{sub T}{sup o}-H{sub 0}{sup o}), (H{sub T}{sup o}-H{sub 298.15K}{sup o}), -(G{sub T}{sup o}-H{sub 298.15K}{sup o})/T, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o}, and {delta}{sub f}G{sub m}{sup o} have been generated for the compounds RFeO{sub 3}(s) and R{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}(s) based on the experimental data obtained in this study and the available data in the literature.

  9. Solid-state fermentation of sweet sorghum to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kargi, F.; Curme, J.A.; Sheehan, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation of chopped sweet sorghum particles to ethanol was studied in static flasks using an ethanol tolerant yeast strain. The influence of various process parameters, such as temperature, yeast cell concentration, and moisture content, on the rate and extent of ethanol fermentation was investigated. Optimal values of these parameters were found to be 35 degrees C, 7 x 10/sup 8/ cells/g raw sorghum, and 70% moisture level, respectively. 25 references.

  10. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    DOEpatents

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  11. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terji

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  12. Solid State Processing of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Jurgen

    1998-03-01

    Glasses are generally produced from the undercooled liquid state by rapid quenching methods or quasi-statically at slow cooling by the effective control of heterogeneous nucleation. For metallic systems, the latter method has recently led to the development of multicomponent metallic glasses with large glass forming ability and a wide supercooled liquid region before crystallization. Large-scale bulk samples can now be produced by conventional casting techniques. These materials exhibit advanced engineering properties such as excellent wear behavior, almost theoretical strength and good corrosion resistance, and are highly processable at temperatures above the glass transition temperature. As an alternative to quenching or casting techniques, glass formation can also be achieved by solid state processing without passing through the liquid state. Therefore, mechanical alloying as a special form of solid state reaction technique and subsequent consolidation of the resulting powders above the glass transition temperature can be used to prepare bulk metallic glasses through the powder metallurgy route. This paper surveys results of studies regarding the factors governing glass formation by solid state processing. The thermal stability of mechanically alloyed powders is compared with data for melt quenched samples, showing that basically the same glassy state can be reached approaching it from the liquid or the solid state. Special emphasis is given to the glass forming ranges achievable by the different techniques, and to preparation of nanostructured composite materials based on glassy alloys. The results are discussed with respect to the influence of processing conditions, impurity effects and heterogeneous nucleation of crystalline phases. Examples for consolidated bulk samples from mechanically alloyed powders are presented and compared with data for cast bulk specimens.

  13. Reversible Sheet–Turn Conformational Change of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide in Lipid Bilayers Studied by Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yongchao; Mani, Rajeswari; Doherty, Tim; Waring, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-bound conformation of a cell-penetrating peptide, penetratin, is investigated using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The 13C chemical shifts of 13C, 15N-labeled residues in the peptide indicate a reversible conformational change from β-sheet at low temperature to coil-like at high temperature. This conformational change occurs for all residues examined between positions 3 and 13, at peptide/lipid molar ratios of 1:15 and 1:30, in membranes with 25–50% anionic lipids, and in both saturated DMPC/DMPG (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylchloline/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol) membranes and unsaturated POPC/POPG (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol) membranes. Thus, it is an intrinsic property of penetratin. The coil state of the peptide has C– H order parameters of 0.23–0.52 for Cα and Cβ sites, indicating that the peptide backbone is unstructured. Moreover, chemical shift anisotropy lineshapes are uniaxially averaged, suggesting that the peptide backbone undergoes uniaxial rotation around the bilayer normal. These observations suggest that the dynamic state of penetratin at high temperature is a structured turn instead of an isotropic random coil. The thermodynamic parameters of this sheet–turn transition are extracted and compared to other membrane peptides reported to exhibit conformational changes. We suggest that the function of this turn conformation may be to reduce hydrophobic interactions with the lipid chains and facilitate penetratin translocation across the bilayer without causing permanent membrane damage. PMID:18656895

  14. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  15. Highly repeatable all-solid-state polarization-state generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, X. Steve; Yan, Lianshan; Shi, Yongqiang

    2005-06-01

    We report an all solid-state polarization-state generator that uses magneto-optic polarization rotators. The device can generate either five or six distinctive polarization states uniformly across a Poincaré sphere with repeatability better than 0.1°. It is ideal for polarization analysis, swept-wavelength measurement, and monitoring of polarization-related parameters and signal-to-noise ratios of optical networks.

  16. Wide-Angle X-Ray Scattering and Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data Combined to Test Models for Cellulose Microfibrils in Mung Bean Cell Walls1

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Roger H.; Hill, Stefan J.; Harris, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    A synchrotron wide-angle x-ray scattering study of mung bean (Vigna radiata) primary cell walls was combined with published solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance data to test models for packing of (1→4)-β-glucan chains in cellulose microfibrils. Computer-simulated peak shapes, calculated for 36-chain microfibrils with perfect order or uncorrelated disorder, were sharper than those in the experimental diffractogram. Introducing correlated disorder into the models broaden the simulated peaks but only when the disorder was increased to unrealistic magnitudes. Computer-simulated diffractograms, calculated for 24- and 18-chain models, showed good fits to experimental data. Particularly good fits to both x-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance data were obtained for collections of 18-chain models with mixed cross-sectional shapes and occasional twinning. Synthesis of 18-chain microfibrils is consistent with a model for cellulose-synthesizing complexes in which three cellulose synthase polypeptides form a particle and six particles form a rosette. PMID:24154621

  17. Effect of calcination temperature on oxidation state of cobalt in calcium cobaltite and relevant performance as intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shancheng; He, Shoucheng; Chen, Han; Guo, Lucun

    2015-04-01

    Calcium cobaltite materials are synthesized by calcining the mixture of CaCO3 and Co3O4 with the Ca: Co ratio of 3:4. The reactivity of CaCO3 with Co3O4 is evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC), electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance as intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) cathode of as-prepared materials are characterized. The experiment results show that simultaneous decomposition of CaCO3 with calcium cobaltite formation occurs at 650-900 °C. The average valence for Co ions of calcium cobaltite increases with temperature in the range of 750-900 °C, involved in the formation of the compounds Ca3Co4O9 and Ca9Co12O28 at 800 and 900 °C, respectively. The performance of calcium cobaltite cathodes applied in IT-SOFCs is significantly effected by the oxidation state of cobalt ions. As a result, Ca9Co12O28 cathode has a lower area specific resistance (e.g. 41.8% lower at 800 °C) and higher peak power density (e.g. 45.0% higher at 800 °C) than the cathode of Ca3Co4O9.

  18. Multidimensional solid-state NMR studies of the structure and dynamics of pectic polysaccharides in uniformly 13C-labeled Arabidopsis primary cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Wang, Tuo; Salazar, Andre; Zabotina, Olga A.; Hong, Mei

    2012-07-08

    Plant cell wall (CW) polysaccharides are responsible for the mechanical strength and growth of plant cells; however, the high-resolution structure and dynamics of the CW polysaccharides are still poorly understood because of the insoluble nature of these molecules. Here, we use 2D and 3D magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (SSNMR) to investigate the structural role of pectins in the plant CW. Intact and partially depectinated primary CWs of Arabidopsis thaliana were uniformly labeled with 13C and their NMR spectra were compared. Recent 13C resonance assignment of the major polysaccharides in Arabidopsis thaliana CWs allowed us to determine the effects of depectination on the intermolecular packing and dynamics of the remaining wall polysaccharides. 2D and 3D correlation spectra show the suppression of pectin signals, confirming partial pectin removal by chelating agents and sodium carbonate. Importantly, higher cross peaks are observed in 2D and 3D 13C spectra of the depectinated CW, suggesting higher rigidity and denser packing of the remaining wall polysaccharides compared with the intact CW. 13C spin–lattice relaxation times and 1H rotating-frame spin–lattice relaxation times indicate that the polysaccharides are more rigid on both the nanosecond and microsecond timescales in the depectinated CW. Taken together, these results indicate that pectic polysaccharides are highly dynamic and endow the polysaccharide network of the primary CW with mobility and flexibility, which may be important for pectin functions. This study demonstrates the capability of multidimensional SSNMR to determine the intermolecular interactions and dynamic structures of complex plant materials under near-native conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Multifunctional Iodide-Free Polymeric Ionic Liquid for Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with a High Open-Circuit Voltage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Feng; Li, Chun-Ting; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Leu, Yow-An; Ezhumalai, Yamuna; Vittal, R; Chen, Ming-Chou; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2016-06-22

    A polymeric ionic liquid, poly(oxyethylene)-imide-imidazolium selenocyanate (POEI-IS), was newly synthesized and used for a multifunctional gel electrolyte in a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (QSS-DSSC). POEI-IS has several functions: (a) acts as a gelling agent for the electrolyte of the DSSC, (b) possesses a redox mediator of SeCN(-), which is aimed to form a SeCN(-)/(SeCN)3(-) redox couple with a more positive redox potential than that of traditional I(-)/I3(-), (c) chelates the potassium cations through the lone pair electrons of the oxygen atoms of its poly(oxyethylene)-imide-imidazolium (POEI-I) segments, and (d) obstructs the recombination of photoinjected electrons with (SeCN)3(-) ions in the electrolyte through its POEI-I segments. Thus, the POEI-IS renders a high open-circuit voltage (VOC) to the QSS-DSSC due to its functions of b-d and prolongs the stability of the cell due to its function of a. The QSS-DSSC with the gel electrolyte containing 30 wt % of the POEI-IS in liquid selenocyanate electrolyte exhibited a high VOC of 825.50 ± 3.51 mV and a high power conversion efficiency (η) of 8.18 ± 0.02%. The QSS-DSSC with 30 wt % POEI-IS retained up to 95% of its initial η after an at-rest stability test with the period of more than 1,000 h. PMID:27248206

  20. Lead antimony sulfide (Pb5Sb8S17) solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with an efficiency of over 4%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Cheng; Suriyawong, Nipapon; Aragaw, Belete Asefa; Shi, Jen-Bin; Chen, Peter; Lee, Ming-Way

    2016-04-01

    Lead antimony sulfides are rare in nature and relatively unexplored ternary semiconductors. This work investigates the photovoltaic performance of Pb-Sb-S quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Pb5Sb8S17 nanoparticles are grown on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes using the successive ionic layer adsorption reaction process. The synthesized Pb5Sb8S17 nanoparticles exhibit two attractive features for a good solar absorber material: a high optical absorption coefficient and a near optimal energy gap. Solid-state QDSCs are fabricated from the synthesized Pb5Sb8S17 nanoparticles using Spiro-OMeTAD as the hole-transporting material. The best cell yields a short-circuit current density Jsc of 11.92 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage Voc of 0.48 V, a fill factor FF of 30.7% and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.76% under 1sun. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectrum covers a spectral range of 350-800 nm with a maximal EQE = 65% at λ = 450 nm. At the reduced light intensity of 10% sun, the PCE increases to 4.14% with Jsc = 2.0 mA cm-2 (which could be normalized to 20 mA cm-2 under 1 sun). This PCE is 65% higher than the best previous result. The respectable PCE and Jsc indicate that Pb5Sb8S17 could be a potential candidate for a solar absorber material.

  1. Determination of Gibbs Free Energy of Formation from Elements for Ca4Fe9O17 by Solid-state Galvanic Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Yu; Guo, Xing-Min

    2014-09-01

    Aiming to fill the thermodynamic blank in CaO-FeO-Fe2O3 system, the determination of the Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for ternary Ca4Fe9O17 was carried out using a solid-state galvanic cell with air and calcium zirconate material, respectively, as the reference electrode and electrolyte. The ternary system Ca2Fe2O5-CaFe2O4-Ca4Fe9O17 was selected as the measuring electrode and its equilibrium was confirmed. The essential thermodynamic data of Ca2Fe2O5 and CaFe2O4 were cited from the reassessed data from a previous investigation. The reversible electromotive forces of the cell were determined from 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 was derived and given by: Δ_{{f}} G_{{m}}^{circ } ({{Ca}}4 {{Fe}}9 {{O}}_{17} ) = -6218.862 × 103 + 1247.762T + 31.32T ln T ± 2694({{J}} {{mol}}^{-1} ) The increment of enthalpy and entropy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 at 298 K (25 °C) are calculated to be Δ_{{f}} H_{{{{m}},298}}^{ circ } = -6209.529 × 103 ({{J}} {{mol}}^{-1} ) and Δ_{{f}} S_{{{{m}},298}}^{ circ } = -1038.009({{J}} {{mol}}^{-1} {{K}}^{-1} ) . The Ellingham diagram was developed in temperature range 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The oxygen potential of Ca4Fe9O17 was found to be slightly higher than CaFe2O4 and much higher than Ca2Fe2O5.

  2. Solid state mechanochemical processes for better electroceramics.

    PubMed

    Mamoru, Senna

    2014-01-01

    The present short overview focuses on the renovation of solid state processes toward phase pure and well-crystallized complex oxides centered on the electroceramic materials. Elevation of the reactivity and preservation of stoichiometry of the starting mixture or precursor are of universal importance. Mechanical activation, being considered as versatile, may also need reconsideration in view of contamination and process rationalization. After briefly reviewing mechanochemical processes for direct synthesis of complex oxides, solid state processes toward well crystallized fine particles of complex oxides are discussed by starting from mechanochemically derived precursors with subsequent optimized calcination. Case studies were cited from literatures for complex oxides, including author's own experimental studies mainly with BaBi(2)Ta(2)O(9) (BBT), Ba(Mg(1/3)Ta(2/3))O(3) (BMT) and KNbO(3) (KN). The substances discussed are mostly associated with ferroelectric materials, with a few exceptions of iron-containing magnetic materials. PMID:25286196

  3. Evolution of a solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, R. M.; Parker, J. M.; Allen, K. L.; Allmon, R. W.; Alviso, K. F.; Barty, C. P. J.; Bhachu, B. S.; Boley, C. D.; Burnham, A. K.; Combs, R. L.; Cutter, K. P.; Fochs, S. N.; Gonzales, S. A.; Hurd, R. L.; LaFortune, K. N.; Manning, W. J.; McClelland, M. A.; Merrill, R. D.; Molina, L.; Parks, C. W.; Pax, P. H.; Posey, A. S.; Rotter, M. D.; Roy, B. M.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Soules, T. F.; Webb, D. E.

    2007-04-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been developing compact solid state lasers since the 1990's. One of the first lasers to be developed utilized flashlamp pumped architecture and neodymium glass as the laser gain media. In the early 2000's, a diode pumped version of the original flashlamp pumped laser was designed and built, responding to the requirements that a laser system for the military be compact in both size and weight while creating significant power (~100 kW) for the missions envisioned. This paper will discuss the evolution of solid state lasers at LLNL and provide a glimpse into the types of capabilities that could be achieved in the near future.

  4. Solid-state-laser-rod holder

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, D.J.; Barnes, N.P.; Griggs, J.E.

    1981-08-11

    The disclosure relates to a solid state laser rod holder comprising Invar, copper tubing, and epoxy joints. Materials and coefficients of expansion of the components of the holder combine with the rod to produce a joint which will give before the rod itself will. The rod may be lased at about 70 to 80/sup 0/K and returned from such a temperature to room temperature repeatedly without its or the holder's destruction.

  5. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations continue of diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser oscillators and nonlinear processes using them as sources. Diode laser array pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:glass lasers have been demonstrated. Theoretical studies of non-planar oscillators have been advanced, producing new designs which should be more resistant to feedback and offer better frequency stability. A monolithic, singly resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator in MgO:LiNbO3 has been operated.

  6. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser oscillators and nonlinear processes were investigated. A new generation on nonplanar oscillator was fabricated, and it is anticipated that passive linewidths will be pushed to the kilohertz regime. A number of diode-pumped laser transitions were demonstrated in the rod configuration. Second-harmonic conversion efficiencies as high as 15% are routinely obtained in a servo-locked external resonant doubling crystal at 15 mW cw input power levels at 1064 nm.

  7. Pulsed solid state lasers for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertesz, Ivan; Danileiko, A. Y.; Denker, Boris I.; Kroo, Norbert; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.

    1994-02-01

    The effect on living tissues of different pulsed solid state lasers: Nd:YAG ((lambda) equals 1.06 micrometers ) Er:glass (1.54 micrometers ), Ho:YAG (2.1 micrometers ) and Er:YAG (2.94 micrometers ) is compared with the continuous wave Nd:YAG- and CO2-lasers used in operating theaters. Portable Er:glass- and Er:YAG-lasers are developed for surgery/cosmetics and HIV-safe blood testing.

  8. Solid state synthesis of poly(dichlorophosphazene)

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Christopher W.; Hneihen, Azzam S.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2001-01-01

    A method for making poly(dichlorophosphazene) using solid state reactants is disclosed and described. The present invention improves upon previous methods by removing the need for chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, eliminating complicated equipment and simplifying the overall process by providing a "single pot" two step reaction sequence. This may be accomplished by the condensation reaction of raw materials in the melt phase of the reactants and in the absence of an environmentally damaging solvent.

  9. A New All Solid State Approach to Gaseous Pollutant Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, V.; Tamstorf, K.

    1971-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratories have concentrated on the development of an all solid state gas sensor, by combining solid electrolyte (ion exchange membrane) technology with advanced thin film deposition processes. With the proper bias magnitude and polarity these miniature electro-chemical,cells show remarkable current responses for many common pollution gases. Current activity is now focused on complementing a multiple array (matrix) of these solid state sensors, with a digital electronic scanner device possessing "scan-compare-identify-alarm: capability. This innovative approach to multi-component pollutant gas analysis may indeed be the advanced prototype for the "third generation" class of pollution analysis instrumentation so urgently needed in the decade ahead.

  10. Structure and Dynamics of Brachypodium Primary Cell Wall Polysaccharides from Two-Dimensional 13C Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tuo; Salazar, Andre; Zabotina, Olga A.; Hong, Mei

    2014-04-10

    The polysaccharide structure and dynamics in the primary cell wall of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon are investigated for the first time using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). While both grass and non-grass cell walls contain cellulose as the main structural scaffold, the former contains xylan with arabinose and glucuronic acid substitutions as the main hemicellulose, with a small amount of xyloglucan (XyG) and pectins, while the latter contains XyG as the main hemicellulose and significant amounts of pectins. We labeled the Brachypodium cell wall with 13C to allow two-dimensional (2D) 13C correlation NMR experiments under magic-angle spinning. Well-resolved 2D spectra are obtained in which the 13C signals of cellulose, glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX), and other matrix polysaccharides can be assigned. The assigned 13C chemical shifts indicate that there are a large number of arabinose and xylose linkages in the wall, and GAX is significantly branched at the developmental stage of 2 weeks. 2D 13C–13C correlation spectra measured with long spin diffusion mixing times indicate that the branched GAX approaches cellulose microfibrils on the nanometer scale, contrary to the conventional model in which only unbranched GAX can bind cellulose. The GAX chains are highly dynamic, with average order parameters of 0.4. Biexponential 13C T1 and 1H T relaxation indicates that there are two dynamically distinct domains in GAX: the more rigid domain may be responsible for cross-linking cellulose microfibrils, while the more mobile domain may fill the interfibrillar space. This dynamic heterogeneity is more pronounced than that of the non-grass hemicellulose, XyG, suggesting that GAX adopts the mixed characteristics of XyG and pectins. Moderate differences in cellulose rigidity are observed between the Brachypodium and Arabidopsis cell walls