Sample records for solid-state nmr probe

  1. A LOW-E MAGIC ANGLE SPINNING PROBE FOR BIOLOGICAL SOLID STATE NMR AT 750 MHz

    PubMed Central

    McNeill, Seth A.; Gor’kov, Peter L.; Shetty, Kiran; Brey, William W.; Long, Joanna R.

    2009-01-01

    Crossed-coil NMR probes are a useful tool for reducing sample heating for biological solid state NMR. In a crossed-coil probe, the higher frequency 1H field, which is the primary source of sample heating in conventional probes, is produced by a separate low-inductance resonator. Because a smaller driving voltage is required, the electric field across the sample and the resultant heating is reduced. In this work we describe the development of a magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR probe utilizing a dual resonator. This dual resonator approach, referred to as “Low-E,” was originally developed to reduce heating in samples of mechanically aligned membranes. The study of inherently dilute systems, such as proteins in lipid bilayers, via MAS techniques requires large sample volumes at high field to obtain spectra with adequate signal-to-noise ratio under physiologically relevant conditions. With the Low-E approach, we are able to obtain homogeneous and sufficiently strong radiofrequency fields for both 1H and 13C frequencies in a 4 mm probe with a 1H frequency of 750 MHz. The performance of the probe using windowless dipolar recoupling sequences is demonstrated on model compounds as well as membrane embedded peptides. PMID:19138870

  2. Dynamics in a poly(ethylene oxide)-based nanocomposite polymer electrolyte probed by solid state NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shan Wong; Richard A. Vaia; Emmanuel P. Giannelis; David B. Zax

    1996-01-01

    Novel nanocomposite polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by intercalation of poly(ethylene oxide) into various layered silicates. In this work we use solid state NMR to probe dynamics associated with both the cations and the polymer over a broad temperature range. Spin-lattice relaxation studies reveal the influence of the polymer backbone dynamics on the 7Li+T1, and we discuss why such measurements

  3. Solid-state NMR imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa (Naperville, IL); Dieckman, Stephen L. (Elmhurst, IL); Ellingson, William A. (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for use with a solid-state NMR spectrometer includes a special imaging probe with linear, high-field strength gradient fields and high-power broadband RF coils using a back projection method for data acquisition and image reconstruction, and a real-time pulse programmer adaptable for use by a conventional computer for complex high speed pulse sequences.

  4. Probing the surface of platinum nanoparticles with 13CO by solid-state NMR and IR spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinayyigit, Solen; Lara, Patricia; Lecante, Pierre; Philippot, Karine; Chaudret, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    The synthesis and full characterization of platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) prepared by decomposition of the Pt(dba)2 complex in the presence of CO and H2 and stabilized either sterically by a polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone or chemically by a ligand, diphenylphosphinobutane, are reported. In these studies, 13CO was used as a probe molecule to investigate the surface of the particles, using IR and solid-state NMR spectroscopies with magic angle spinning (MAS-NMR). Three nanosystems with different sizes are described: Pt/PVP/13CO (monomodal: 1.2 nm), Pt/dppb/13CO (bimodal: 1.2 nm and 2.0 nm) and Pt/dppb/H2 (monomodal: 2.0 nm) NPs. Spectroscopic data suggest a modification of the electronic state of the nanoparticles between 1.2 nm and 2.0 nm which can be related to the presence of Knight shift.The synthesis and full characterization of platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) prepared by decomposition of the Pt(dba)2 complex in the presence of CO and H2 and stabilized either sterically by a polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone or chemically by a ligand, diphenylphosphinobutane, are reported. In these studies, 13CO was used as a probe molecule to investigate the surface of the particles, using IR and solid-state NMR spectroscopies with magic angle spinning (MAS-NMR). Three nanosystems with different sizes are described: Pt/PVP/13CO (monomodal: 1.2 nm), Pt/dppb/13CO (bimodal: 1.2 nm and 2.0 nm) and Pt/dppb/H2 (monomodal: 2.0 nm) NPs. Spectroscopic data suggest a modification of the electronic state of the nanoparticles between 1.2 nm and 2.0 nm which can be related to the presence of Knight shift. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis of the Pt(dba)2 precursor, TEM images of Pt/PVP/H2 and Pt/dppb/13CO NPs, further results from WAXS studies, solution NMR spectra of Pt/dppb/13CO NPs and MAS-NMR spectra of Pt/dppb/13CO and Pt/dppb/H2 NPs at 260 K. See DOI: 10.1039c3nr03948j

  5. Probing Conformational Disorder in Neurotensin by Two-Dimensional Solid-State NMR and Comparison to Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrike Heise; Sorin Luca; Bert L. de Groot; Helmut Grubmüller; Marc Baldus

    2005-01-01

    An approach is introduced to characterize conformational ensembles of intrinsically unstructured peptides on the atomic level using two-dimensional solid-state NMR data and their combination with molecular dynamics simulations. For neurotensin, a peptide that binds with high affinity to a G-protein coupled receptor, this method permits the investigation of the changes in conformational preferences of a neurotransmitter transferred from a frozen

  6. REDOR solid-state NMR as a probe of the membrane locations of membrane-associated peptides and proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lihui; Liang, Shuang; Sackett, Kelly; Xie, Li; Ghosh, Ujjayini; Weliky, David P.

    2015-04-01

    Rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) solid-state NMR is applied to probe the membrane locations of specific residues of membrane proteins. Couplings are measured between protein 13CO nuclei and membrane lipid or cholesterol 2H and 31P nuclei. Specific 13CO labeling is used to enable unambiguous assignment and 2H labeling covers a small region of the lipid or cholesterol molecule. The 13CO-31P and 13CO-2H REDOR respectively probe proximity to the membrane headgroup region and proximity to specific insertion depths within the membrane hydrocarbon core. One strength of the REDOR approach is use of chemically-native proteins and membrane components. The conventional REDOR pulse sequence with 100 kHz 2H ? pulses is robust with respect to the 2H quadrupolar anisotropy. The 2H T1's are comparable to the longer dephasing times (?'s) and this leads to exponential rather than sigmoidal REDOR buildups. The 13CO-2H buildups are well-fitted to A × (1 - e-??) where A and ? are fitting parameters that are correlated as the fraction of molecules (A) with effective 13CO-2H coupling d = 3?/2. The REDOR approach is applied to probe the membrane locations of the "fusion peptide" regions of the HIV gp41 and influenza virus hemagglutinin proteins which both catalyze joining of the viral and host cell membranes during initial infection of the cell. The HIV fusion peptide forms an intermolecular antiparallel ? sheet and the REDOR data support major deeply-inserted and minor shallowly-inserted molecular populations. A significant fraction of the influenza fusion peptide molecules form a tight hairpin with antiparallel N- and C-? helices and the REDOR data support a single peptide population with a deeply-inserted N-helix. The shared feature of deep insertion of the ? and ? fusion peptide structures may be relevant for fusion catalysis via the resultant local perturbation of the membrane bilayer. Future applications of the REDOR approach may include samples that contain cell membrane extracts and use of lower temperatures and dynamic nuclear polarization to reduce data acquisition times.

  7. A Modified Alderman-Grant Coil makes possible an efficient cross-coil probe for high field solid-state NMR of lossy biological samples.

    PubMed

    Grant, Christopher V; Yang, Yuan; Glibowicka, Mira; Wu, Chin H; Park, Sang Ho; Deber, Charles M; Opella, Stanley J

    2009-11-01

    The design, construction, and performance of a cross-coil double-resonance probe for solid-state NMR experiments on lossy biological samples at high magnetic fields are described. The outer coil is a Modified Alderman-Grant Coil (MAGC) tuned to the (1)H frequency. The inner coil consists of a multi-turn solenoid coil that produces a B(1) field orthogonal to that of the outer coil. This results in a compact nested cross-coil pair with the inner solenoid coil tuned to the low frequency detection channel. This design has several advantages over multiple-tuned solenoid coil probes, since RF heating from the (1)H channel is substantially reduced, it can be tuned for samples with a wide range of dielectric constants, and the simplified circuit design and high inductance inner coil provides excellent sensitivity. The utility of this probe is demonstrated on two electrically lossy samples of membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers (bicelles) that are particularly difficult for conventional NMR probes. The 72-residue polypeptide embedding the transmembrane helices 3 and 4 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) (residues 194-241) requires a high salt concentration in order to be successfully reconstituted in phospholipid bicelles. A second application is to paramagnetic relaxation enhancement applied to the membrane-bound form of Pf1 coat protein in phospholipid bicelles where the resistance to sample heating enables high duty cycle solid-state NMR experiments to be performed. PMID:19733108

  8. A Modified Alderman-Grant Coil makes possible an efficient cross-coil probe for high field solid-state NMR of lossy biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Christopher V.; Yang, Yuan; Glibowicka, Mira; Wu, Chin H.; Park, Sang Ho; Deber, Charles M.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2009-11-01

    The design, construction, and performance of a cross-coil double-resonance probe for solid-state NMR experiments on lossy biological samples at high magnetic fields are described. The outer coil is a Modified Alderman-Grant Coil (MAGC) tuned to the 1H frequency. The inner coil consists of a multi-turn solenoid coil that produces a B 1 field orthogonal to that of the outer coil. This results in a compact nested cross-coil pair with the inner solenoid coil tuned to the low frequency detection channel. This design has several advantages over multiple-tuned solenoid coil probes, since RF heating from the 1H channel is substantially reduced, it can be tuned for samples with a wide range of dielectric constants, and the simplified circuit design and high inductance inner coil provides excellent sensitivity. The utility of this probe is demonstrated on two electrically lossy samples of membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers (bicelles) that are particularly difficult for conventional NMR probes. The 72-residue polypeptide embedding the transmembrane helices 3 and 4 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) (residues 194-241) requires a high salt concentration in order to be successfully reconstituted in phospholipid bicelles. A second application is to paramagnetic relaxation enhancement applied to the membrane-bound form of Pf1 coat protein in phospholipid bicelles where the resistance to sample heating enables high duty cycle solid-state NMR experiments to be performed.

  9. Probing physical and chemical changes in cortical bone due to osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes by solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Donghua; Taylor, Amanda; Rendina, Beth; Smith, Brenda; Department of Physics Collaboration; Department of Nutritional Sciences Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 1.5 million fractures occur each year in the U.S. due to osteoporosis, which is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone micro-architecture. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes also significantly increases fracture risks, despite having a normal or even higher bone mineral density. Solid-state NMR has been applied to bone tissues from normal and disease-inflicted mouse models to study structural and chemical dynamics as the disease progresses. Proton relaxation experiments were performed to measure water populations in the bone matrix and pores. Collagen-bound water has strong influence on bone resilience, while water content in the pores reveals amount and size of pores from micro- to millimeter range. Other biochemical and atomic-scale structural alterations in the mineral and organic phases and their interface were investigated by proton, phosphorus, and carbon NMR spectroscopy. Experiments were designed to individually detect different types of phosphorus environments: near the mineral surface, similar to hydroxyapatite, and deficient of hydrogens due to substitution of the hydroxyl group by other ions. A new method was also developed for accurate quantification of each phosphorus species. Approximately 1.5 million fractures occur each year in the U.S. due to osteoporosis, which is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone micro-architecture. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes also significantly increases fracture risks, despite having a normal or even higher bone mineral density. Solid-state NMR has been applied to bone tissues from normal and disease-inflicted mouse models to study structural and chemical dynamics as the disease progresses. Proton relaxation experiments were performed to measure water populations in the bone matrix and pores. Collagen-bound water has strong influence on bone resilience, while water content in the pores reveals amount and size of pores from micro- to millimeter range. Other biochemical and atomic-scale structural alterations in the mineral and organic phases and their interface were investigated by proton, phosphorus, and carbon NMR spectroscopy. Experiments were designed to individually detect different types of phosphorus environments: near the mineral surface, similar to hydroxyapatite, and deficient of hydrogens due to substitution of the hydroxyl group by other ions. A new method was also developed for accurate quantification of each phosphorus species. The authors appreciate financial support for this project from the College of Human Sciences and the College of Arts and Sciences, Oklahoma State University.

  10. Dynamic nuclear polarization in biomolecular solid state NMR : methods and applications in peptides and membrane proteins

    E-print Network

    Bajaj, Vikram Singh

    2007-01-01

    Solid state NMR can probe structure and dynamics on length scales from the atomic to the supramolecular. However, low sensitivity limits its application in macromolecules. NMR sensitivity can be improved by dynamic nuclear ...

  11. Probing the Transmembrane Structure and Dynamics of Microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase by Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rui; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Zhang, Meng; Popovych, Nataliya; Hung, Ivan; Im, Sang-Choul; Gan, Zhehong; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is an essential redox partner of the cytochrome P450 (cyt P450) superfamily of metabolic enzymes. In the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells, such enzymes metabolize ?75% of the pharmaceuticals in use today. It is known that the transmembrane domain of CYPOR plays a crucial role in aiding the formation of a complex between CYPOR and cyt P450. Here we present the transmembrane structure, topology, and dynamics of the FMN binding domain of CYPOR in a native membrane-like environment. Our solid-state NMR results reveal that the N-terminal transmembrane domain of CYPOR adopts an ?-helical conformation in the lipid membrane environment. Most notably, we also show that the transmembrane helix is tilted ?13° from the lipid bilayer normal, and exhibits motions on a submillisecond timescale including rotational diffusion of the whole helix and fluctuation of the helical director axis. The approaches and the information reported in this study would enable further investigations on the structure and dynamics of the full-length NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and its interaction with other membrane proteins in a membrane environment. PMID:24853741

  12. Probing Membrane Topology of the Antimicrobial Peptide Distinctin by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy in Zwitterionic and Charged Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Verardi, Raffaello; Traaseth, Nathaniel J.; Shi, Lei; Porcelli, Fernando; Monfregola, Luca; De Luca, Stefania; Amodeo, Pietro; Veglia, Gianluigi; Scaloni, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Distinctin is a 47-residue antimicrobial peptide, which interacts with negatively charged membranes and is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Its primary sequence comprises two linear chains of 22 (chain 1) and 25 (chain 2) residues, linked by a disulfide bridge between Cys19 of chain 1 and Cys23 of chain 2. Unlike other antimicrobial peptides, distinctin in the absence of the lipid membrane has a well-defined three-dimensional structure, which protects it from protease degradation. Here, we used static solid-state NMR spectroscopy to study the topology of distinctin in lipid bilayers. We found that In mechanically aligned lipid bilayers (charged or zwitterionic) this heterodimeric peptide adopts an ordered conformation absorbed on the surface of the membrane, with the long helix (chain 2), approximately parallel to the lipid bilayer (?5° from the membrane plane) and the short helix (chain 1) forming a ?24° angle. Since at lipid-to-protein molar ratio of 50:1 the peptide does not disrupt the macroscopic alignment of either charged or zwitterionic lipid bilayers, it is possible that higher concentrations might be needed for the hypothesized pore formation, or alternatively, distinctin elicits its cell disruption action by other mechanisms. PMID:20719234

  13. Solid state NMR measurements of conformation and conformational

    E-print Network

    Weliky, David

    Solid state NMR measurements of conformation and conformational distributions in the membrane Lansing, MI, USA The solid state NMR lineshape of a protein backbone carbonyl nucleus is a general conformation in the distri- bution. These types of solid state NMR methodologies have been applied

  14. Effect of Ancillary Ligand on Electronic Structure as Probed by 51V Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for Vanadium-o-Dioxolene Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Goncharova-Zapata, Olga; Chatterjee, Pabitra B.; Hou, Guangjin; Quinn, Laurence L.; Li, Mingyue; Yehl, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    A series of vanadium(V) complexes with o-dioxolene (catecholato) ligands and an ancillary ligand, (N-(salicylideneaminato)ethylenediamine) (hensal), were investigated using 51V solid-state magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy (51V MAS NMR) to assess the local environment of the vanadium(V). The solid-state 51V NMR parameters of vanadium(V) complexes with a related potentially tetradentate ancillary ligand (N-salicylidene-N?-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine) (h2shed) were previously shown to be associated with the size of the HOMO-LUMO gap in the complex, and as such provide insights on the interaction between metal ion and ligand (P. B. Chatterjee, et al., Inorg. Chem 50 (2011) 9794). Our results show that the modification of the ancillary ligand does not impact the observed trend between complexes ranging from catechols with electron rich to electron poor substituents. However, the ancillary ligand does impact the size of the HOMO-LUMO separation in the parent complex and thus the solid-state vanadium NMR chemical shift of the unsubstituted vanadium complex. For these complexes significant changes observed in the isotropic shifts and more modest changes detected in the CQ reflect the electronic changes in the complex as the catechol is varied. However, no obvious trend was observed in the chemical shift anisotropies (?? and ??) with the variation in the catechol. The electronic changes in the coordination environment of the vanadium can be described using solid-state 51V NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24353476

  15. Lithium Polymer Electrolytes and Solid State NMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkeley, Emily R.

    2004-01-01

    Research is being done at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) developing new kinds of batteries that do not depend on a solution. Currently, batteries use liquid electrolytes containing lithium. Problems with the liquid electrolyte are (1) solvents used can leak out of the battery, so larger, more restrictive, packages have to be made, inhibiting the diversity of application and decreasing the power density; (2) the liquid is incompatible with the lithium metal anode, so alternative, less efficient, anodes are required. The Materials Department at GRC has been working to synthesize polymer electrolytes that can replace the liquid electrolytes. The advantages are that polymer electrolytes do not have the potential to leak so they can be used for a variety of tasks, small or large, including in the space rover or in space suits. The polymers generated by Dr. Mary Ann Meador's group are in the form of rod -coil structures. The rod aspect gives the polymer structural integrity, while the coil makes it flexible. Lithium ions are used in these polymers because of their high mobility. The coils have repeating units of oxygen which stabilize the positive lithium by donating electron density. This aids in the movement of the lithium within the polymer, which contributes to higher conductivity. In addition to conductivity testing, these polymers are characterized using DSC, TGA, FTIR, and solid state NMR. Solid state NMR is used in classifying materials that are not soluble in solvents, such as polymers. The NMR spins the sample at a magic angle (54.7') allowing the significant peaks to emerge. Although solid state NMR is a helpful technique in determining bonding, the process of preparing the sample and tuning it properly are intricate jobs that require patience; especially since each run takes about six hours. The NMR allows for the advancement of polymer synthesis by showing if the expected results were achieved. Using the NMR, in addition to looking at polymers, allows for participation on a variety of other projects, including aero-gels and carbon graphite mat en als. The goals of the polymer electrolyte research are to improve the physical properties of the polymers. This includes improving conductivity, durability, and expanding the temperature range over which it is effective. Currently, good conductivity is only present at high temperatures. My goals are to experiment with different arrangements of rods and coils to achieve these desirable properties. Some of my experiments include changing the number of repeat units in the polymer, the size of the diamines, and the types of coil. Analysis of these new polymers indicates improvement in some properties, such as lower glass transition temperature; however, they are not as flexible as desired. With further research we hope to produce polymers that encompass all of these properties to a high degree.

  16. Solid State OXYGEN17 NMR Studies of Hydrate in Biomolecules and Deuterium NMR Studies of Chain Dynamics in Crystalline bis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiming Zhang

    1993-01-01

    There are two parts in this dissertation. In part one (chapter II-V), solid state ^{17 }O (I = 5\\/2) NMR is established as a useful and complementary approach to ^2H NMR for studying dynamic disorder of water of hydration in biomolecules. A highly efficient probe is designed and constructed from available small components for conducting these experiments. This reliable probe

  17. Solid State NMR Studies of Amyloid Fibril Structure

    PubMed Central

    Tycko, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Current interest in amyloid fibrils stems from their involvement in neurodegenerative and other diseases and from their role as an alternative structural state for many peptides and proteins. Solid state NMR methods have the unique capability of providing detailed structural constraints for amyloid fibrils, sufficient for the development of full molecular models. In this article, recent progress in the application of solid state NMR to fibrils associated with Alzheimer’s disease, prion fibrils, and related systems is reviewed, along with relevant developments in solid state NMR techniques and technology. PMID:21219138

  18. Exploring large coherent spin systems with solid state NMR

    E-print Network

    Cho, HyungJoon, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    Solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) allows us to explore a large coherent spin system and provides an ideal test-bed for studying strongly interacting multiple-spin system in a large Hilbert space. In this thesis, ...

  19. Functional groups identified by solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is generally high in organic matter intensity so it is well suitable for 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Solid-state 13C NMR techniques used in characterizing organic matter and its components include, but are not limited to, cross-polarization /magic angle spinning (CP...

  20. The development of solid-state NMR of membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Most biological functions are carried out in supramolecular assemblies. As a result of their slow reorientation in solution, these assemblies have been resistant to the widely employed solution NMR approaches. The development of solid-state NMR to first of all overcome the correlation time problem and then obtain informative high-resolution spectra of proteins in supramolecular assemblies, such as virus particles and membranes, is described here. High resolution solid-state NMR is deeply intertwined with the history of NMR, and the seminal paper was published in 1948. Although the general principles were understood by the end of the 1950s, it has taken more than fifty years for instrumentation and experimental methods to become equal to the technical problems presented by the biological assemblies of greatest interest. It is now possible to obtain atomic resolution structures of viral coat proteins in virus particles and membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers by oriented sample solid-state NMR methods. The development of this aspect of the field of solid-state NMR is summarized in this review article.

  1. Probing the Transmembrane Structure and Topology of Microsomal Cytochrome-P450 by Solid-State NMR on Temperature-Resistant Bicelles

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Gildenberg, Melissa; Ahuja, Shivani; Im, Sang-Choul; Pearcy, Paige; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2013-01-01

    Though the importance of high-resolution structure and dynamics of membrane proteins has been well recognized, optimizing sample conditions to retain the native-like folding and function of membrane proteins for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or X-ray measurements has been a major challenge. While bicelles have been shown to stabilize the function of membrane proteins and are increasingly utilized as model membranes, the loss of their magnetic-alignment at low temperatures makes them unsuitable to study heat-sensitive membrane proteins like cytochrome-P450 and protein-protein complexes. In this study, we report temperature resistant bicelles that can magnetically-align for a broad range of temperatures and demonstrate their advantages in the structural studies of full-length microsomal cytochrome-P450 and cytochrome-b5 by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Our results reveal that the N-terminal region of rabbit cytochromeP4502B4, that is usually cleaved off to obtain crystal structures, is helical and has a transmembrane orientation with ~17° tilt from the lipid bilayer normal. PMID:23989972

  2. Probing the role of the ceramide acyl chain length and sphingosine unsaturation in model skin barrier lipid mixtures by (2)h solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stahlberg, Sören; Školová, Barbora; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K; Vogel, Alexander; Vávrová, Kate?ina; Huster, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    We investigated equimolar mixtures of ceramides with lignoceric acid and cholesterol as models for the human stratum corneum by differential scanning calorimetry and (2)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Our reference system consisted of lignoceroyl sphingosine (Cer[NS24]), which represents one of the ceramides in the human stratum corneum. Furthermore, the effect of ceramide acyl chain truncation to 16 carbons as in Cer[NS16] and the loss of the C4 trans double bond as in dihydroceramide Cer[NDS24] were studied. Fully relaxed (2)H NMR spectra were acquired for each deuterated component of each mixture separately, allowing the quantitative determination of the individual lipid phases. At skin temperature, the reference system containing Cer[NS24] is characterized by large portions of each component of the mixture in a crystalline phase, which largely restricts the permeability of the skin lipid barrier. The loss of the C4 trans double bond in Cer[NDS24] leads to the replacement of more than 25% of the crystalline phase by an isotropic phase of the dihydroceramide that shows the importance of dihydroceramide desaturation in the formation of the skin lipid barrier. The truncated Cer[NS16] is mostly found in the gel phase at skin temperature, which may explain its negative effect on the transepidermal water loss in atopic dermatitis patients. These significant alterations in the phase behavior of all lipids are further reflected at elevated temperatures. The molecular insights of our study may help us to understand the importance of the structural parameters of ceramides in healthy and compromised skin barriers. PMID:25870928

  3. PROTEIN STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS FROM SOLID STATE NMR DERIVED ORIENTATIONAL CONSTRAINTS

    E-print Network

    Aluffi, Paolo

    PROTEIN STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS FROM SOLID STATE NMR DERIVED ORIENTATIONAL CONSTRAINTS J. R. QUINE provides a great structural analysis problem. Several approaches to this problem have been made in the past is demonstrated over the previous analysis methods. #12; PROTEIN STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS FROM ORIENTATIONAL

  4. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  5. Pure-exchange solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    deAzevedo, E R; Bonagamba, T J; Schmidt-Rohr, K

    2000-01-01

    Three exchange nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are presented that yield (13)C NMR spectra exclusively of slowly reorienting segments, suppressing the often dominant signals of immobile components. The first technique eliminates the diagonal ridge that usually dominates two-dimensional (2D) exchange NMR spectra and that makes it hard to detect the broad and low off-diagonal exchange patterns. A modulation of the 2D exchange spectrum by the sine-square of a factor which is proportional to the difference between evolution and detection frequencies is generated by fixed additional evolution and detection periods of duration tau, yielding a 2D pure-exchange (PUREX) spectrum. Smooth off-diagonal intensity is obtained by systematically incrementing tau and summing up the resulting spectra. The related second technique yields a static one-dimensional (1D) spectrum selectively of the exchanging site(s), which can thus be identified. Efficient detection of previously almost unobservable slow motions in a semicrystalline polymer is demonstrated. The third approach, a 1D pure-exchange experiment under magic-angle spinning, is an extension of the exchange-induced sideband (EIS) method. A TOSS (total suppression of sidebands) spectrum obtained after the same number of pulses and delays, with a simple swap of z periods, is subtracted from the EIS spectrum, leaving only the exchange-induced sidebands and a strong, easily detected centerband of the mobile site(s). PMID:10617438

  6. Broadband solid-state MAS NMR of paramagnetic systems.

    PubMed

    Pell, Andrew J; Pintacuda, Guido

    2015-02-01

    The combination of new magnet and probe technology with increasingly sophisticated pulse sequences has resulted in an increase in the number of applications of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to paramagnetic materials and biomolecules. The interaction between the paramagnetic metal ions and the NMR-active nuclei often yields crucial structural or electronic information about the system. In particular the application of magic-angle spinning (MAS) has been shown to be crucial to obtaining resolution that is sufficiently high for studying complex systems. However such systems are generally extremely difficult to study as the shifts and shift anisotropies resulting from the same paramagnetic interaction broaden the spectrum beyond excitation and detection, and the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) shortens the lifetimes of the excited signals considerably. One specific area that has therefore been receiving significant attention in recent years, and for which great improvements have been seen, is the development of broadband NMR sequences. The development of new excitation and inversion sequences for paramagnetic systems under MAS has often made the difference between the spectrum being unobtainable, and a complete NMR study being possible. However the development of the new sequences must explicitly take account of the modulation of the anisotropic shift interactions due to the sample rotation, with the resulting spin dynamics often being complicated considerably. The NMR sequences can either be helped or hindered by MAS, with the efficiency of some pulse schemes being destroyed, and others being greatly enhanced. This review describes the pulse sequences that have recently been proposed for broadband excitation, inversion, and refocussing of the signal components of paramagnetic systems. In doing so we define exactly what is meant by "broadband" under spinning conditions, and what the perfect pulse scheme should deliver. We also give a unified description of the spin dynamics under MAS which highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the various schemes, and which can be used as guidance for future research in this area. All the reviewed pulse schemes are evaluated both with simulations and experimental data obtained on the battery material LiFe(0.5)Mn(0.5)PO(4) which is typical of the complexity of the paramagnetic systems that are currently under study. PMID:25669740

  7. Advances in solid-state NMR of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Foston, Marcus

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well-established analytical and enabling technology in biofuel research. Over the past few decades, lignocellulosic biomass and its conversion to supplement or displace non-renewable feedstocks has attracted increasing interest. The application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy has long been seen as an important tool in the study of cellulose and lignocellulose structure, biosynthesis, and deconstruction, especially considering the limited number of effective solvent systems and the significance of plant cell wall three-dimensional microstructure and component interaction to conversion yield and rate profiles. This article reviews common and recent applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy methods that provide insight into the structural and dynamic processes of cellulose that control bulk properties and biofuel conversion. PMID:24590189

  8. Dynamic disorder and solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, N. A.; Olszewski, M.

    2008-04-01

    The temperature dependences of the second moment (M2) and spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 and T1?) in solids with dynamic disorder have been investigated assuming that the potential barrier E for the moving atom (or molecule) is a stochastic function of time. It has been shown that the temperature dependences of M2, T1 and T1? exhibit a significant dependence on the kind of standard deviation of the distribution of E and on the form of the activation energy Eb at frequency ?0 describing the temporal fluctuations of E. The obtained results have been applied to the interpretation of the temperature transformations of the second moment of 1H NMR spectra of the diffusing water molecules in the mineral natrolite.

  9. Solid-State Dipolar INADEQUATE NMR Spectroscopy with a Large Double-Quantum Spectral Width

    E-print Network

    Hong, Mei

    Solid-State Dipolar INADEQUATE NMR Spectroscopy with a Large Double-Quantum Spectral Width Mei Hong Academic Press Key Words: solid-state NMR; INADEQUATE; double-quan- tum; C7; dipolar recoupling. Recently, solid-state homonuclear double-quantum NMR spec- troscopy has been increasingly employed to obtain

  10. Magic-angle spinning solid-state multinuclear NMR on low-field instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Morten K; Bakharev, Oleg; Jensen, Ole; Jakobsen, Hans J; Skibsted, Jørgen; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2014-01-01

    Mobile and cost-effective NMR spectroscopy exploiting low-field permanent magnets is a field of tremendous development with obvious applications for arrayed large scale analysis, field work, and industrial screening. So far such demonstrations have concentrated on relaxation measurements and lately high-resolution liquid-state NMR applications. With high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy being increasingly important in a broad variety of applications, we here introduce low-field magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state multinuclear NMR based on a commercial ACT 0.45 T 62 mm bore Halbach magnet along with a homebuilt FPGA digital NMR console, amplifiers, and a modified standard 45 mm wide MAS probe for 7 mm rotors. To illustrate the performance of the instrument and address cases where the low magnetic field may offer complementarity to high-field NMR experiments, we demonstrate applications for (23)Na MAS NMR with enhanced second-order quadrupolar coupling effects and (31)P MAS NMR where reduced influence from chemical shift anisotropy at low field may facilitate determination of heteronuclear dipole-dipole couplings. PMID:24291330

  11. Solid state thermostat has integral probe and circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Compact, reliable thermostat provides a temperature readout signal and a continuous temperature-control output for temperature monitoring by automatic checkout equipment or telemetry systems. It employs a solid state circuit in a housing rigidly attached to a thermistor probe.

  12. Microcoils and microsamples in solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports on microcoils are reviewed. The first part of the review includes a discussion of how the geometries of the sample and coil affect the NMR signal intensity. In addition to derivation of the well-known result that the signal intensity increases as the coil size decreases, the prediction that dilution of a small sample with magnetically inert matter leads to better sensitivity if a tiny coil is not available is given. The second part of the review focuses on the issues specific to solid-state NMR. They include realization of magic-angle spinning (MAS) using a microcoil and harnessing of such strong pulses that are feasible only with a microcoil. Two strategies for microcoil MAS, the piggyback method and magic-angle coil spinning (MACS), are reviewed. In addition, MAS of flat, disk-shaped samples is discussed in the context of solid-state NMR of small-volume samples. Strong RF irradiation, which has been exploited in wide-line spectral excitation, multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS), and dipolar decoupling experiments, has been accompanied by new challenges regarding the Bloch-Siegert effect, the minimum time resolution of the spectrometer, and the time scale of pulse transient effects. For a possible solution to the latter problem, recent reports on active compensation of pulse transients are described. PMID:23083521

  13. Solid-State NMR Studies of Chemically Lithiated CF.

    PubMed

    Leifer, N D; Johnson, V S; Ben-Ari, R; Gan, H; Lehnes, J M; Guo, R; Lu, W; Muffoletto, B C; Reddy, T; Stallworth, P E; Greenbaum, S G

    2010-01-01

    Three types of fluorinated carbon, all in their original form and upon sequential chemical lithiations via n-butyllithium, were investigated by (13)C and (19)F solid-state NMR methods. The three starting CF(x) materials [where x = 1 (nominally)] were fiber based, graphite based, and petroleum coke based. The aim of the current study was to identify, at the atomic/molecular structural level, factors that might account for differences in electrochemical performance among the different kinds of CF(x). Differences were noted in the covalent F character among the starting compounds and in the details of LiF production among the lithiated samples. PMID:20676233

  14. Solid-State NMR Studies of Chemically Lithiated CFx

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, N. D.; Johnson, V. S.; Ben-Ari, R.; Gan, H.; Lehnes, J. M.; Guo, R.; Lu, W.; Muffoletto, B. C.; Reddy, T.; Stallworth, P. E.; Greenbaum, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Three types of fluorinated carbon, all in their original form and upon sequential chemical lithiations via n-butyllithium, were investigated by 13C and 19F solid-state NMR methods. The three starting CFx materials [where x = 1 (nominally)] were fiber based, graphite based, and petroleum coke based. The aim of the current study was to identify, at the atomic/molecular structural level, factors that might account for differences in electrochemical performance among the different kinds of CFx. Differences were noted in the covalent F character among the starting compounds and in the details of LiF production among the lithiated samples. PMID:20676233

  15. A Hall effect angle detector for solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamone, Salvatore; Dorsch, André; Johannessen, Ole G.; Naik, Manoj V.; Madhu, P. K.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new method for independent monitoring of the angle between the spinning axis and the magnetic field in solid-state NMR. A Hall effect magnetic flux sensor is fixed to the spinning housing, so that a change in the stator orientation leads to a change in the angle between the Hall plane and the static magnetic field. This leads to a change in the Hall voltage generated by the sensor when an electric current is passed through it. The Hall voltage may be measured externally by a precision voltmeter, allowing the spinning angle to be measured non-mechanically and independent of the NMR experiment. If the Hall sensor is mounted so that the magnetic field is approximately parallel to the Hall plane, the Hall voltage becomes highly sensitive to the stator orientation. The current angular accuracy is around 10 millidegrees. The precautions needed to achieve higher angular accuracy are described.

  16. Recrystallized S-layer protein of a probiotic Propionibacterium: structural and nanomechanical changes upon temperature or pH shifts probed by solid-state NMR and AFM.

    PubMed

    de sa Peixoto, Paulo; Roiland, Claire; Thomas, Daniel; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Le Guellec, Rozenn; Parayre, Sandrine; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Jan, Gwénaël; Guyomarc'h, Fanny

    2015-01-13

    Surface protein layers (S layers) are common constituents of the bacterial cell wall and originate from the assembly of strain-dependent surface layer proteins (Slps). These proteins are thought to play important roles in the bacteria's biology and to have very promising technological applications as biomaterials or as part of cell-host cross-talk in probiotic mechanism. The SlpA from Propionibacterium freudenreichii PFCIRM 118 strain was isolated and recrystallized to investigate organization and assembly of the protein using atomic force microscopy and solid-state (1)H and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance. SlpA was found to form hexagonal p1 monolayer lattices where the protein exhibited high proportions of disordered regions and of bound water. The lattice structure was maintained, but softened, upon mild heating or acidification, probably in relation with the increasing mobilities of the disordered protein regions. These results gave structural insights on the mobile protein regions exposed by S layer films, upon physiologically relevant changes of their environmental conditions. PMID:25479375

  17. Solid-State NMR Determination of 13 CR Chemical Shift Anisotropies

    E-print Network

    Hong, Mei

    Solid-State NMR Determination of 13 CR Chemical Shift Anisotropies for the Identification: A solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the site-resolved identification of the secondary structure of solid peptides and proteins is presented. This technique exploits the correlation

  18. Investigations of adsorption sites on oxide surfaces using solid-state NMR and TPD-IGC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombeck, Rebecca A.

    The number and chemical identity of reactive sites on surfaces of glass affects the processing, reliability, and lifetime of a number of important commercial products. Surface site densities, distributions, and structural identities are closely tied to the formation and processing of the glass surface, and exert a direct influence on strength and coating performance. The surface of a glass sample may vary markedly from the composition and chemistry of the bulk glass. We are taking a physicochemical approach to understanding adsorption sites on pristine multicomponent glass fibers surfaces, directly addressing the effect of processing on surface reactivity. This project aimed to understand the energy distributions of surface adsorption sites, the chemical/structural identity of those sites, and the relationship of these glasses to glass composition, thermal history, and in future work, surface coatings. We have studied the bulk and surface structure as well as the surface reactivity of the glass fibers with solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, inverse gas chromatography (IGC), and computational chemistry methods. These methods, solid-state NMR and IGC, typically require high surface area materials; however, by using probe molecules for NMR experiments or packing a column at high density for IGC measurements, lower surface area materials, such as glass fibers, can be investigated. The glasses used within this study were chosen as representative specimens of fibers with potentially different reactive sites on their surfaces. The two glass compositions were centered around a nominal E-glass, which contains very little alkali cations and mainly alkaline earth cations, and wool glass, which contains an abundance of alkali cations. The concentration of boron was varied from 0 to 8 mole % in both fiber compositions. Fibers were drawn from each composition at a variety of temperatures and draw speeds to provide a range of glass samples with varying diameters and thermal histories. The bulk structural features in both compositions of glass fibers were identified using high-resolution 29Si, 27Al, and 11B magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopic measurements. In multi-component glasses, the determination of silicon, aluminum, and boron distributions becomes difficult due to the competitive nature of the network-modifying oxides among the network-forming oxides. In pure silicates, 29Si MAS NMR can often resolve resonances arising from silicate tetrahedron having varying numbers of bridging oxygens. In aluminoborosilicate glasses, aluminum is present in four-, five-, and six- coordination with oxygen as neighbors. The speciation of the aluminum can be determined using 27Al MAS NMR. The fraction of tetrahedral boron species in the glass fibers were measured using 11B MAS NMR, which is typically used to study the short-range structure of borate containing glasses such as alkali borate, borosilicate, and aluminoborosilicate glasses. While solid-state NMR is a powerful tool for elucidating bonding environments and coordination changes in the glass structure, it cannot quantitatively probe low to moderate surface area samples due to insufficient spins. Chemical probes either physisorbed or chemisorbed to the fiber's surface can increase the surface selectivity of NMR for analysis of samples with low surface areas and provide information about the local molecular structure of the reactive surface site. Common chemical probe molecules contain NMR active nuclei such as 19F or may be enriched with 13C. A silyating agent, (3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)dimethylchlorosilane (TFS), reacts with reactive surface hydroxyls, which can be quantified by utilizing the NMR active nucleus (19F) contained in the probe molecule. The observed 19F MAS NMR peak area is integrated and compared against a standard of known fluorine spins (concentration), allowing the number of reactive hydroxyl sites to be quantified. IGC is a method used to study the surface properties of a material by examining the retention behavior of a probe molecule. The I

  19. Strategies for solid-state NMR investigations of supramolecular assemblies with large subunit sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Pascal; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Shi, Chaowei; Lange, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state NMR is a versatile tool to study structure and dynamics of insoluble and non-crystalline biopolymers. Supramolecular protein assemblies are formed by self-association of multiple copies of single small-sized proteins. Because of their high degree of local order, solid-state NMR spectra of such systems exhibit an unusually high level of resolution, rendering them an ideal target for solid-state NMR investigations. Recently, our group has solved the structure of one particular supramolecular assembly, the type-iii-secretion-system needle. The needle subunit comprises around 80 residues. Many interesting supramolecular assemblies with unknown structure have subunits larger in size, which requires development of tailored solid-state NMR strategies to address their structures. In this "Perspective" article, we provide a view on different approaches to enhance sensitivity and resolution in biological solid-state NMR with a focus on the possible application to supramolecular assemblies with large subunit sizes.

  20. Using low-E resonators to reduce RF heating in biological samples for static solid-state NMR up to 900 MHz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Gor’kov; Eduard Y. Chekmenev; Conggang Li; Myriam Cotten; Jarrod J. Buffy; Nathaniel J. Traaseth; Gianluigi Veglia; William W. Brey

    2007-01-01

    RF heating of solid-state biological samples is known to be a destabilizing factor in high-field NMR experiments that shortens the sample lifetime by continuous dehydration during the high-power cross-polarization and decoupling pulses. In this work, we describe specially designed, large volume, low-E15N–1H solid-state NMR probes developed for 600 and 900MHz PISEMA studies of dilute membrane proteins oriented in hydrated and

  1. Solid-state NMR Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement Immersion Depth Studies in Phospholipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shidong; Maltsev, Sergey; Emwas, A-H; Lorigan, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    A new approach for determining the membrane immersion depth of a spin-labeled probe has been developed using paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) in solid-state NMR spectroscopy. A DOXYL spin label was placed at different sites of 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PSPC) phospholipid bilayers as paramagnetic moieties and the resulting enhancements of the longitudinal relaxation (T1) times of 31P nuclei on the surface of the bilayers were measured by a standard inversion recovery pulse sequence. The 31P NMR spin-lattice relaxation times decrease steadily as the DOXYL spin label moves closer to the surface as well as the concentration of the spin-labeled lipids increase. The enhanced relaxation vs. the position and concentration of spin-labels indicate that PRE induced by the DOXYL spin label are significant to determine longer distances over the whole range of the membrane depths. When these data were combined with estimated correlation times ?c, the r?6–weighted, time-averaged distances between the spin labels and the 31P nuclei on the membrane surface were estimated. The application of using this solid-state NMR PRE approach coupled with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) may be a powerful method for measuring membrane protein immersion depth. PMID:20851650

  2. Coherent and stochastic averaging in solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevzorov, Alexander A.

    2014-12-01

    A new approach for calculating solid-state NMR lineshapes of uniaxially rotating membrane proteins under the magic-angle spinning conditions is presented. The use of stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) allows one to account for both coherent sample rotation and stochastic motional averaging of the spherical dipolar powder patterns by uniaxial diffusion of the spin-bearing molecules. The method is illustrated via simulations of the dipolar powder patterns of rigid samples under the MAS conditions, as well as the recent method of rotational alignment in the presence of both MAS and rotational diffusion under the conditions of dipolar recoupling. It has been found that it is computationally more advantageous to employ direct integration over a spherical grid rather than to use a full angular basis set for the SLE solution. Accuracy estimates for the bond angles measured from the recoupled amide 1H-15N dipolar powder patterns have been obtained at various rotational diffusion coefficients. It has been shown that the rotational alignment method is applicable to membrane proteins approximated as cylinders with radii of approximately 20 Å, for which uniaxial rotational diffusion within the bilayer is sufficiently fast and exceeds the rate 2 × 105 s-1.

  3. Investigating gabapentin polymorphism using solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dempah, Kassibla E; Barich, Dewey H; Kaushal, Aditya M; Zong, Zhixin; Desai, Salil D; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Kirsch, Lee; Munson, Eric J

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy (SSNMR), coupled with powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), was used to identify the physical forms of gabapentin in samples prepared by recrystallization, spray drying, dehydration, and milling. Four different crystalline forms of gabapentin were observed: form I, a monohydrate, form II, the most stable at ambient conditions, form III, produced by either recrystallization or milling, and an isomorphous desolvate produced from desolvating the monohydrate. As-received gabapentin (form II) was ball-milled for 45 min in both the presence and absence of hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC). The samples were then stored for 2 days at 50°C under 0% relative humidity and analyzed by 13C SSNMR and PXRD. High-performance liquid chromatography was run on the samples to determine the amount of degradation product formed before and after storage. The 1HT1 values measured for the sample varied from 130 s for the as-received unstressed material without HPC to 11 s for the material that had been ball-milled in the presence of HPC. Samples with longer 1HT1 values were substantially more stable than samples that had shorter T1 values. Samples milled with HPC had detectable form III crystals as well. These results suggest that SSNMR can be used to predict gabapentin stability in formulated products. PMID:23180225

  4. Structural studies of proteins by paramagnetic solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroniec, Christopher P.

    2015-04-01

    Paramagnetism-based nuclear pseudocontact shifts and spin relaxation enhancements contain a wealth of information in solid-state NMR spectra about electron-nucleus distances on the ?20 Å length scale, far beyond that normally probed through measurements of nuclear dipolar couplings. Such data are especially vital in the context of structural studies of proteins and other biological molecules that suffer from a sparse number of experimentally-accessible atomic distances constraining their three-dimensional fold or intermolecular interactions. This perspective provides a brief overview of the recent developments and applications of paramagnetic magic-angle spinning NMR to biological systems, with primary focus on the investigations of metalloproteins and natively diamagnetic proteins modified with covalent paramagnetic tags.

  5. Arabidopsis thalianafrom Polarization Transfer Solid-State NMR

    SciTech Connect

    White, Paul B [Ames Laboratory; Wang, Tuo [Ames Laboratory; Park, Yong Bum [Pennsylvania State University; Cosgrove, Daniel J [Pennsylvania State University; Hong, Mei [Ames Laboratory

    2014-07-23

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are hydrated under functional conditions, but the molecular interactions between water and polysaccharides in the wall have not been investigated. In this work, we employ polarization transfer solid-state NMR techniques to study the hydration of primary-wall polysaccharides of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. By transferring water 1H polarization to polysaccharides through distance- and mobility-dependent 1H–1H dipolar couplings and detecting it through polysaccharide 13C signals, we obtain information about water proximity to cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins as well as water mobility. Both intact and partially extracted cell wall samples are studied. Our results show that water–pectin polarization transfer is much faster than water–cellulose polarization transfer in all samples, but the extent of extraction has a profound impact on the water–polysaccharide spin diffusion. Removal of calcium ions and the consequent extraction of homogalacturonan (HG) significantly slowed down spin diffusion, while further extraction of matrix polysaccharides restored the spin diffusion rate. These trends are observed in cell walls with similar water content, thus they reflect inherent differences in the mobility and spatial distribution of water. Combined with quantitative analysis of the polysaccharide contents, our results indicate that calcium ions and HG gelation increase the amount of bound water, which facilitates spin diffusion, while calcium removal disrupts the gel and gives rise to highly dynamic water, which slows down spin diffusion. The recovery of spin diffusion rates after more extensive extraction is attributed to increased water-exposed surface areas of the polysaccharides. Water–pectin spin diffusion precedes water–cellulose spin diffusion, lending support to the single-network model of plant primary walls in which a substantial fraction of the cellulose surface is surrounded by pectins.

  6. QUANTITATIVE SOLID-STATE 13C NMR SPECTROSCOPY OF ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS IN LOWLAND RICE SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spin counting on solid-state **13C cross-polarization (CP) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two humic fractions isolated from tropical lowland soils showed that only 32-81% of potential **13C NMR signal was detected. The observability of **13C NMR signal (Cobs) was higher in the mobile h...

  7. A software framework for analysing solid-state MAS NMR data.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Tim J; Fogh, Rasmus H; Boucher, Wayne; Higman, Victoria A; Eisenmenger, Frank; Bardiaux, Benjamin; van Rossum, Barth-Jan; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Laue, Ernest D

    2011-12-01

    Solid-state magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR of proteins has undergone many rapid methodological developments in recent years, enabling detailed studies of protein structure, function and dynamics. Software development, however, has not kept pace with these advances and data analysis is mostly performed using tools developed for solution NMR which do not directly address solid-state specific issues. Here we present additions to the CcpNmr Analysis software package which enable easier identification of spinning side bands, straightforward analysis of double quantum spectra, automatic consideration of non-uniform labelling schemes, as well as extension of other existing features to the needs of solid-state MAS data. To underpin this, we have updated and extended the CCPN data model and experiment descriptions to include transfer types and nomenclature appropriate for solid-state NMR experiments, as well as a set of experiment prototypes covering the experiments commonly employed by solid-sate MAS protein NMR spectroscopists. This work not only improves solid-state MAS NMR data analysis but provides a platform for anyone who uses the CCPN data model for programming, data transfer, or data archival involving solid-state MAS NMR data. PMID:21953355

  8. Solid State FT-IR and (31)P NMR Spectral Features of Phosphate Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid-state spectroscopic techniques, including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and solid-state 31P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopies, are powerful tools for evaluating metal speciation and transformation mechanisms of P compounds in the environment. Studie...

  9. Methodology and applications of high resolution solid-state NMR to structure determination of proteins

    E-print Network

    Lewandowski, Józef Romuald

    2008-01-01

    A number of methodological developments and applications of solid-state NMR for assignment and high resolution structure determination of microcrystalline proteins and amyloid fibrils are presented. Magic angle spinning ...

  10. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Study of Phosphate Sorption Mechanisms on Aluminum (Hydr)oxides

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Study of Phosphate Sorption Mechanisms on Aluminum (Hydr)oxides Wei the mechanism of phosphate sorption on aluminum hydroxides under different environ- mental conditions, including

  11. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization-Enhanced Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of GNNQQNY Nanocrystals and Amyloid Fibrils

    E-print Network

    Debelouchina, Galia Tzvetanova

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) utilizes the inherently larger polarization of electrons to enhance the sensitivity of conventional solid-state NMR experiments at low temperature. Recent advances in instrumentation ...

  12. Dipolar recoupling in solid state NMR by phase alternating pulse sequences

    E-print Network

    Lin, J.

    We describe some new developments in the methodology of making heteronuclear and homonuclear recoupling experiments in solid state NMR insensitive to rf-inhomogeneity by phase alternating the irradiation on the spin system ...

  13. Solid-State NMR Characterization of Gas Vesicle Structure

    E-print Network

    Sivertsen, Astrid C.

    Gas vesicles are gas-filled buoyancy organelles with walls that consist almost exclusively of gas vesicle protein A (GvpA). Intact, collapsed gas vesicles from the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae were studied by solid-state ...

  14. Solid state NMR: The essential technology for helical membrane protein structural characterization

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Timothy A.; Ekanayake, Vindana; Paulino, Joana; Wright, Anna

    2014-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy of helical membrane proteins has been very challenging on multiple fronts. The expression and purification of these proteins while maintaining functionality has consumed countless graduate student hours. Sample preparations have depended on whether solution or solid-state NMR spectroscopy was to be performed – neither have been easy. In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that membrane mimic environments influence the structural result. Indeed, in these recent years we have rediscovered that Nobel laureate, Christian Anfinsen, did not say that protein structure was exclusively dictated by the amino acid sequence, but rather by the sequence in a given environment (Anfinsen, 1973) [106]. The environment matters, molecular interactions with the membrane environment are significant and many examples of distorted, non-native membrane protein structures have recently been documented in the literature. However, solid-state NMR structures of helical membrane proteins in proteoliposomes and bilayers are proving to be native structures that permit a high resolution characterization of their functional states. Indeed, solid-state NMR is uniquely able to characterize helical membrane protein structures in lipid environments without detergents. Recent progress in expression, purification, reconstitution, sample preparation and in the solid-state NMR spectroscopy of both oriented samples and magic angle spinning samples has demonstrated that helical membrane protein structures can be achieved in a timely fashion. Indeed, this is a spectacular opportunity for the NMR community to have a major impact on biomedical research through the solid-state NMR spectroscopy of these proteins. PMID:24412099

  15. Solid state NMR and LVSEM studies on the hardening of latex modified tile mortar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rottstegge, J. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Arnold, M. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Herschke, L. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Glasser, G. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Wilhelm, M. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Spiess, H.W. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)]. E-mail: spiess@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Hergeth, W.D. [Wacker Polymer Systems GmbH and Co. KG, Johannes Hess Strasse 24, D-84483 Burghausen (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Construction mortars contain a broad variety of both inorganic and organic additives beside the cement powder. Here we present a study of tile mortar systems based on portland cement, quartz, methyl cellulose and different latex additives. As known, the methyl cellulose stabilizes the freshly prepared cement paste, the latex additive enhances final hydrophobicity, flexibility and adhesion. Measurements were performed by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and low voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) to probe the influence of the latex additives on the hydration, hardening and the final tile mortar properties. While solid state NMR enables monitoring of the bulk composition, scanning electron microscopy affords visualization of particles and textures with respect to their shape and the distribution of the different phases. Within the alkaline cement paste, the poly(vinyl acetate) (VAc)-based latex dispersions stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were found to be relatively stable against hydrolysis. The influence of the combined organic additives methyl cellulose, poly(vinyl alcohol) and latexes stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) on the final silicate structure of the cement hydration products is small. But even small amounts of additives result in an increased ratio of ettringite to monosulfate within the final hydrated tile mortar as monitored by {sup 27}Al NMR. The latex was found to be adsorbed to the inorganic surfaces, acting as glue to the inorganic components. For similar latex water interfaces built up by poly(vinyl alcohol), a variation in the latex polymer composition results in modified organic textures. In addition to the networks of the inorganic cement and of the latex, there is a weak network build up by thin polymer fibers, most probably originating from poly(vinyl alcohol). Besides the weak network, polymer fibers form well-ordered textures covering inorganic crystals such as portlandite.

  16. A Solid-State NMR Experiment: Analysis of Local Structural Environments in Phosphate Glasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stanley E.; Saiki, David; Eckert, Hellmut; Meise-Gresch, Karin

    2004-01-01

    An experiment that can be used to directly study the local chemical environments of phosphorus in solid amorphous materials is demonstrated. The experiment aims at familiarizing the students of chemistry with the principles of solid-state NMR, by having them synthesize a simple phosphate glass, and making them observe the (super 31)P NMR spectrum,…

  17. Optimized multiple quantum MAS lineshape simulations in solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, William J.; Davis, Michael C.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2009-10-01

    The majority of nuclei available for study in solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance have half-integer spin I>1/2, with corresponding electric quadrupole moment. As such, they may couple with a surrounding electric field gradient. This effect introduces anisotropic line broadening to spectra, arising from distinct chemical species within polycrystalline solids. In Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) experiments, a second frequency dimension is created, devoid of quadrupolar anisotropy. As a result, the center of gravity of peaks in the high resolution dimension is a function of isotropic second order quadrupole and chemical shift alone. However, for complex materials, these parameters take on a stochastic nature due in turn to structural and chemical disorder. Lineshapes may still overlap in the isotropic dimension, complicating the task of assignment and interpretation. A distributed computational approach is presented here which permits simulation of the two-dimensional MQMAS spectrum, generated by random variates from model distributions of isotropic chemical and quadrupole shifts. Owing to the non-convex nature of the residual sum of squares (RSS) function between experimental and simulated spectra, simulated annealing is used to optimize the simulation parameters. In this manner, local chemical environments for disordered materials may be characterized, and via a re-sampling approach, error estimates for parameters produced. Program summaryProgram title: mqmasOPT Catalogue identifier: AEEC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3650 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 73 853 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C, OCTAVE Computer: UNIX/Linux Operating system: UNIX/Linux Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes RAM: Example: (1597 powder angles) × (200 Samples) × (81 F2 frequency pts) × (31 F1 frequency points) = 3.5M, SMP AMD opteron Classification: 2.3 External routines: OCTAVE ( http://www.gnu.org/software/octave/), GNU Scientific Library ( http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/), OPENMP ( http://openmp.org/wp/) Nature of problem: The optimal simulation and modeling of multiple quantum magic angle spinning NMR spectra, for general systems, especially those with mild to significant disorder. The approach outlined and implemented in C and OCTAVE also produces model parameter error estimates. Solution method: A model for each distinct chemical site is first proposed, for the individual contribution of crystallite orientations to the spectrum. This model is averaged over all powder angles [1], as well as the (stochastic) parameters; isotropic chemical shift and quadrupole coupling constant. The latter is accomplished via sampling from a bi-variate Gaussian distribution, using the Box-Muller algorithm to transform Sobol (quasi) random numbers [2]. A simulated annealing optimization is performed, and finally the non-linear jackknife [3] is applied in developing model parameter error estimates. Additional comments: The distribution contains a script, mqmasOpt.m, which runs in the OCTAVE language workspace. Running time: Example: (1597 powder angles) × (200 Samples) × (81 F2 frequency pts) × (31 F1 frequency points) = 58.35 seconds, SMP AMD opteron. References:S.K. Zaremba, Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata 73 (1966) 293. H. Niederreiter, Random Number Generation and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods, SIAM, 1992. T. Fox, D. Hinkley, K. Larntz, Technometrics 22 (1980) 29.

  18. Suppressing background signals in solid state NMR via the Electronic Mixing-Mediated Annihilation (EMMA) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollica, Giulia; Ziarelli, Fabio; Tintaru, Aura; Thureau, Pierre; Viel, Stéphane

    2012-05-01

    A simple procedure to effectively suppress background signals arising from various probe head components (e.g. stator, rotors, inserts) in solid state NMR is presented. Similarly to the ERETIC™ method, which uses an electronic signal as an internal standard for quantification, the proposed scheme is based on an electronically generated time-dependent signal that is injected into the receiver coil of the NMR probe head during signal acquisition. More specifically, the line shape, width and frequency of this electronic signal are determined by deconvoluting the background signal in the frequency domain. This deconvoluted signal is then converted into a time-dependent function through inverse Fourier Transform, which is used to generate the shaped pulse that is fed into the receiver coil during the acquisition of the Free Induction Decay. The power of the shaped pulse is adjusted to match the intensity of the background signal, and its phase is shifted by 180° with respect to the receiver reference phase. This so-called Electronic Mixing-Mediated Annihilation (EMMA) methodology is demonstrated here with a 13C Single Pulse Magic Angle Spinning spectrum of an isotopically enriched 13C histidine solid sample recorded under quantitative conditions.

  19. Solid state (47,49)Ti, (87)Sr and (137)Ba NMR characterisation of mixed barium/strontium titanate perovskites.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Christel; Veautier, Delphine; Smith, Mark E; Babonneau, Florence; Belleville, Philippe; Sanchez, Clément

    2004-01-01

    Solid state (47,49)Ti, (137)Ba, (87)Sr NMR spectra have been recorded on BaxSrl-xTiO3 (0 solid state NMR shows great potential for characterising such systems since the quadrupolar parameters are very sensitive to any geometric deformation around the studied nucleus. (47,49)Ti NMR powder lineshapes appear strongly influenced by the presence of even a small amount of barium (or strontium) in the coordination second sphere of the probed titanium site: substitution of strontium by barium induces the broadening of the peaks, due to quadrupolar effects, while the isotropic chemical shift increases. (137)Ba NMR spectra exhibit a distribution of the quadrupolar interaction, that could be tentatively quantified, CQ increasing with the amount of strontium. Preliminary results were also obtained on (87)Sr NMR showing behaviour comparable to (137)Ba NMR, i.e. a broadening of the peaks due to an increasing quadrupolar interaction with the amount of barium distorting the environment of the strontium sites. PMID:15388178

  20. Probe DNA-Cisplatin Interaction with Solid-State Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Ying; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Pengye; Bai, Xuedong; Shan, Xinyan; Lu, Xinghua; Nanopore Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of DNA-cisplatin interaction is essential for clinical application and novel drug design. As an emerging single-molecule technology, solid-state nanopore has been employed in biomolecule detection and probing DNA-molecule interactions. Herein, we reported a real-time monitoring of DNA-cisplatin interaction by employing solid-state SiN nanopores. The DNA-cisplatin interacting process is clearly classified into three stages by measuring the capture rate of DNA-cisplatin adducts. In the first stage, the negative charged DNA molecules were partially discharged due to the bonding of positive charged cisplatin and forming of mono-adducts. In the second stage, forming of DNA-cisplatin di-adducts with the adjacent bases results in DNA bending and softening. The capture rate increases since the softened bi-adducts experience a lower barrier to thread into the nanopores. In the third stage, complex structures, such as micro-loop, are formed and the DNA-cisplatin adducts are aggregated. The capture rate decreases to zero as the aggregated adduct grows to the size of the pore. The characteristic time of this stage was found to be linear with the diameter of the nanopore and this dynamic process can be described with a second-order reaction model. We are grateful to Laboratory of Microfabrication, Dr. Y. Yao, and Prof. R.C. Yu (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for technical assistance.

  1. Enhancement of solid-state proton NMR via SPINOE with laser-polarized xenon

    E-print Network

    Xin Zhou; Jun Luo; Xian-ping Sun; Xi-zhi Zeng; Shang-wu Ding; Mai-li Liu; Ming-sheng Zhan

    2004-01-07

    We have first successfully transferred the 129Xe polarization of natural isotopic composition to the proton of solid-state 1HCl via Spin Polarization-Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE), by mixing the hyperpolarized 129Xe gas and the 1HCl gas and then cooling them to their condensated state in a flow system. The solid-state enhanced factor of the NMR signal of 6 for 1H was observed, and the equation of solid-state polarization enhancement via cross relaxation has also been theoretically deduced. Using this equation, the theoretically calculated enhancement is in agreement with the measured value within error. Also, this technique is maybe useful to establish a solid state NMR quantum computer.

  2. Solid-state NMR studies of Ziegler-Natta and metallocene catalysts.

    PubMed

    Tijssen, Koen C H; Blaakmeer, E S Merijn; Kentgens, Arno P M

    2015-01-01

    Ziegler-Natta catalysts are the workhorses of polyolefin production. However, although they have been used and intensively studied for half a century, there is still no comprehensive picture of their mechanistic operation. New techniques are needed to gain more insight in these catalysts. Solid-state NMR has reached a high level of sophistication over the last few decades and holds great promise for providing a deeper insight in Ziegler-Natta catalysis. This review outlines the possibilities for solid-state NMR to characterize the different components and interactions in Ziegler-Natta and metallocene catalysts. An overview is given of some of the expected mechanisms and the resulting polymer microstructure and other characteristics. In the second part of this review we present studies that have used solid-state NMR to investigate the composition of Ziegler-Natta and metallocene catalysts or the interactions between their components. PMID:25957882

  3. Solid-state NMR studies of the adsorption of acetylene on platinum/alumina catalysts 

    E-print Network

    Lambregts, Marsha Jo Lupher

    1991-01-01

    SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES OF THE ADSORPTION OF ACETYLENE ON PLATINUM/ALUMINA CATALYSTS A Thesis by MARSHA JO LUPHER LAMBREGTS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Chemistry SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES OF THE ADSORPTION OF ACETYLENE ON PLATINUM/ALUMINA CATALYSTS A Thesis by MARSHA JO LUPHER LAMBREGTS Approved as to style and content by: ames F. Haw...

  4. (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR studies on albendazole and cyclodextrin albendazole complexes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M João G; García, A; Leonardi, D; Salomon, Claudio J; Lamas, M Celina; Nunes, Teresa G

    2015-06-01

    (13)C and (15)N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were recorded from albendazole (ABZ) and from ABZ:?-cyclodextrin, ABZ:methyl-?-cyclodextrin, ABZ:hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin and ABZ:citrate-?-cyclodextrin, which were prepared by the spray-drying technique. ABZ signals were typical of a crystalline solid for the pure drug and of an amorphous compound obtained from ABZ:cyclodextrin samples. Relevant spectral differences were correlated with chemical interaction between ABZ and cyclodextrins. The number and type of complexes revealed a strong dependence on the cyclodextrin group substituent. Solid-state NMR data were consistent with the presence of stable inclusion complexes. PMID:25843843

  5. Proteorhodopsin: characterisation of 2D crystals by electron microscopy and solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Shastri, Sarika; Vonck, Janet; Pfleger, Nicole; Haase, Winfried; Kuehlbrandt, Werner; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2007-12-01

    Proteorhodopsin (PR) a recent addition to retinal type 1 protein family, is a bacterial homologue of archaeal bacteriorhodopsin. It was found to high abundance in gamma-proteobacteria in the photic zone of the oceans and has been shown to act as a photoactive proton pump. It is therefore involved in the utilisation of light energy for energy production within the cell. Based on data from biodiversity screens, hundreds of variants were discovered worldwide, which are spectrally tuned to the available light at different locations in the sea. Here, we present a characterisation of 2D crystals of the green variant of proteorhodopsin by electron microscopy and solid state NMR. 2D crystal formation with hexagonal protein packing was observed under a very wide range of conditions indicating that PR might be also closely packed under native conditions. A low-resolution 2D projection map reveals a ring-shaped oligomeric assembly of PR. The protein state was analysed by 15N MAS NMR on lysine, tryptophan and methionine labelled samples. The chemical shift of the protonated Schiff base was almost identical to non-crystalline preparations. All residues could be cross-polarised in non-frozen samples. Lee-Goldberg cross-polarisation has been used to probe protein backbone mobility. PMID:17964280

  6. Solid-State 17O NMR Study of Benzoic Acid Adsorption On Metal Oxide Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Chen, Banghao [ORNL; Jiao, Jian [ORNL; Parsons, Williams [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state 17O NMR spectra of 17O-labeled benzoic and anisic acids are reported and benzoic acid is used to probe the surface of metal oxides. Complexes formed when benzoic acid is dry-mixed with mesoporous silica, and nonporous titania and alumina are characterized. Chemical reactions with silica are not observed. The nature of benzoic acid on silica is a function of the water content of the oxide. The acid disperses in the pores of the silica if the silica is in equilibrium with ambient laboratory humidity. The acid displays high mobility as evidenced by a liquid-like, Lorentzian resonance. Excess benzoic acid remains as the crystalline hydrogen-bonded dimer. Benzoic acid reacts with titania and alumina surfaces in equilibrium with laboratory air to form the corresponding titanium and aluminum benzoates. In both materials the oxygen of the 17O-labeled acid is bound to the metal, showing the reaction proceeds by bond formation between oxygen deficient metal sites and the oxygen of the carboxylic acid. 27Al MAS NMR confirms this mechanism for the reaction on alumina. Dry mixing of benzoic acid with alumina rapidly quenches pentacoordinate aluminum sites, excellent evidence that these sites are confined to the surface of the alumina particles.

  7. What Can Solid State NMR Contribute To Our Understanding of Protein Folding?

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kan-Nian; Tycko, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Complete understanding of the folding process that connects a structurally disordered state of a protein to an ordered, biochemically functional state requires detailed characterization of intermediate structural states with high resolution and site specificity. While the intrinsically inhomogeneous and dynamic nature of unfolded and partially folded states limits the efficacy of traditional x-ray diffraction and solution NMR in structural studies, solid state NMR methods applied to frozen solutions can circumvent the complications due to molecular motions and conformational exchange encountered in unfolded and partially folded states. Moreover, solid state NMR methods can provide both qualitative and quantitative structural information at the site-specific level, even in the presence of structural inhomogeneity. This article reviews relevant solid state NMR methods and their initial applications to protein folding studies. Using either chemical denaturation to prepare unfolded states at equilibrium or a rapid freezing apparatus to trap non-equilibrium, transient structural states on a sub-millisecond time scale, recent results demonstrate that solid state NMR can contribute essential information about folding processes that is not available from more familiar biophysical methods. PMID:20542371

  8. Solid State OXYGEN-17 NMR Studies of Hydrate in Biomolecules and Deuterium NMR Studies of Chain Dynamics in Crystalline bis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huiming

    1993-01-01

    There are two parts in this dissertation. In part one (chapter II-V), solid state ^{17 }O (I = 5/2) NMR is established as a useful and complementary approach to ^2H NMR for studying dynamic disorder of water of hydration in biomolecules. A highly efficient probe is designed and constructed from available small components for conducting these experiments. This reliable probe generates intense RF fields with modest RF power and has a good signal to noise ratio (chapter II). Since ^{17 }O has a large quadrupolar coupling constant (Qcc ~ 7 MHz), a density operator formalism including the 2^{rm nd}-order quadrupolar Hamiltonian is developed for analysing excitation of ^{17} O solid state NMR signals for the +1/2 to -1/2 transition. A simple phase cycling echo sequence is developed for reducing the distortion caused by non-uniform excitation and the resultant patterns are compared with experimental spectra (chapter III). To analyze the lineshape of the central transition determined by the motionally averaged 2^{rm nd}-order quadrupolar perturbation, a 4 ^{rm th}-rank order parameter formalism for the fast motion limit (tau _{rm c} < 10^{-5} s) is developed. It is based on angular momentum coupling theory and requires a maximum of 31 order parameters. By a principal axis transformation, this number can be reduced to 8. To study slower motion, we established an adiabatic intermediate exchange theory for tau_ {rm c} ~ 10^{-5} s. The powder patterns calculated from these theories show good agreement when compared to the experimental spectra of several hydrates which undergo simple dynamics (chapter VI-V). In part two (chapter VI), solid state ^2H NMR is applied to explore phase transition related to chain dynamics in (Cd(CH_3CH _2CH_2CH _2NH_3)_2) Cl_4. This layered structure is a crystalline model of a lipid bilayer and was studied from 120K to 350K. Full order tensors for all sites labeled except for C^{(3)} were systematically measured. We find that changes in the chain dynamics are associated with the occurrence of phase transitions. For T < 120K, we find that the chain has an approximately all trans configuration with small "vibration" increasing in amplitude from the polar "head" of the chain to its hydrophilic "tail". For T > 200K, rapid, large amplitude dynamics of the chain vector caused by gauche-trans isomerization leads to significant tilting of the average chain direction. The order tensors are nonaxial showing the absence of axial rotation which is seen in the rotator phase of paraffins and the liquid crystal phase of lipids. In the range of 120K-200K, the symmetry of the dynamics decreases but substantial population of gauche isomers persists. However, the isomerization rate is slow on the ^2H NMR time scale of 10^{-5} s and spectral narrowing is due largely to small amplitude vibrations. The order tensors calculated from x-ray data or the usual "fixed" lattice rotational-isomeric model differ distinctly from the experimental tensors. We propose a flexible lattice model which successfully relates measured order tensors to the chain dynamics.

  9. Solid-state /sup 13/C NMR and X-ray diffraction of dermatan sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, W.T.; Taylor, M.G.; Stevens, E.S.; Morris, E.R.; Rees, D.A.

    1986-05-29

    Dermatan sulfate in the solid state has been studied by /sup 13/C CP/MAS nmr and X-ray diffraction in order to establish the ring conformation of the L-iduronate moiety. The solid state nmr spectrum is similar to the solution spectrum obtained previously, indicating that a ring conformation at least approximating to /sup 1/C/sub 4/ predominates in the solid state. X-ray powder diffraction data from the same sample indicate the presence of the 8-fold helix form previously observed by fiber diffraction, and interpreted in terms of a /sup 4/C/sub 1/ ring form. A likely explanation of the results is that a distorted /sup 1/C/sub 4/ L-iduronate ring conformation, not considered in the initial X-ray analysis, may emerge to provide a satisfactory interpretation of all available physical-chemical data.

  10. A stable amorphous statin: solid-state NMR and dielectric studies on dynamic heterogeneity of simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Teresa G; Viciosa, M Teresa; Correia, Natália T; Danède, F; Nunes, Rita G; Diogo, Hermínio P

    2014-03-01

    Statins have been widely used as cholesterol-lowering agents. However, low aqueous solubility of crystalline statins and, consequently, reduced biovailability require seeking for alternative forms and formulations to ensure an accurate therapeutic window. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the stability of amorphous simvastatin by probing molecular dynamics using two nondestructive techniques: solid-state NMR and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. Glassy simvastatin was obtained by the melt quench technique. (13)C cross-polarization/magic-angle-spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectra and (1)H MAS NMR spectra were obtained from 293 K up to 333 K (Tg ? 302 K). The (13)C spin-lattice relaxation times in the rotating frame, T1?, were measured as a function of temperature, and the correlation time and activation energy data obtained for local motions in different frequency scales revealed strong dynamic heterogeneity, which appears to be essential for the stability of the amorphous form of simvastatin. In addition, the (1)H MAS measurements presented evidence for mobility of the hydrogen atoms in hydroxyl groups which was assigned to noncooperative secondary relaxations. The complex dielectric permittivity of simvastatin was monitored in isochronal mode at five frequencies (from 0.1 to 1000 kHz), by carrying out a heating/cooling cycle allowing to obtain simvastatin in the supercooled and glassy states. The results showed that no dipolar moment was lost due to immobilization, thus confirming that no crystallization had taken place. Complementarily, the present study focused on the thermal stability of simvastatin using thermogravimetric analysis while the thermal events were followed up by differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. Overall, the results confirm that the simvastatin in the glass form reveals a potential use in the solid phase formulation on the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24499472

  11. High-resolution solid-state NMR of quadrupolar nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Oldfield; Hye Kyung C. Timken; Ben Montez; R. Ramachandran

    1985-01-01

    Quadrupolar nuclei are the most abundant nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-receptive nuclei in the Earth's crust, and in many amorphous materials of technological interest (such as zeolite catalysts, ceramics and alloys), and have thus been intensively studied1-7. Of particular interest is the ability to resolve and quantitate the various types of sites present in a given material. Here we present a

  12. Solid-state NMR and ESR studies of activated carbons produced from pecan shells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activated carbon from pecan shells has shown promise as an adsorbent in water treatment and sugar refining. However, the chemistry of the material is complex and not fully understood. We report here the application of solid state NMR and ESR to study the chemical structure, mobility, and pore volu...

  13. Chemical structure of soil organic matter in slickspots as investigated by advanced solid-state NMR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slickspot soils are saline, and knowledge of their humic chemistry would contribute to our limited understanding how salinity affects soil C and N stocks. We characterized humic acids (HAs) from slickspot soils with solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Expanding on previous use of cross...

  14. Solid-State NMR Study of Intercalated Species in Poly( -caprolactone)/Clay Nanocomposites

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Solid-State NMR Study of Intercalated Species in Poly( - caprolactone)/Clay Nanocomposites J of surfactant and polymer chains in intercalated poly( - caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites are characterized to the starting clay, the trans conformer population of the surfactant hydrocarbon chain in the nanocomposite

  15. Solid-state 13 C NMR analysis of size and density fractions

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    C) and lignin phenol analyses, to size and density fractions of sediments influenced by either mixed in this sediment appears to be dom- inated by lignin and black carbon whereas the source of the marine endmemberSolid-state 13 C NMR analysis of size and density fractions of marine sediments: Insight

  16. High-Resolution Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Characterization of Polymorphism in Cimetidine, a Pharmaceutical Compound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacilio, Julia E.; Tokarski, John T.; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Iuliucci, Robbie J.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy has many advantages as a tool to characterize solid-phase material that finds applications in polymer chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, biomolecular structure determination, and others, including the pharmaceutical industry. The technology associated with achieving high resolution…

  17. Investigation of Moisture Interaction with Cellulose Using Solid-State NMR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interaction of water with cellulose and its influence on the nuclear spin dynamics in Gossypium barbadense (Pima) cotton were investigated by 1H and 13C solid-state NMR techniques. 1H spin diffusion results indicate that water is present in multiple layers within the cotton fiber, each layer bei...

  18. 1H and 13C Solid-state NMR of Gossypium barbadense (Pima) Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interaction of water with cellulose and its influence on the nuclear spin dynamics in G. barbadense (Pima) cotton were investigated by 1H and 13C solid-state NMR techniques. 1H spin diffusion results from a Goldman-Shen experiment indicate that the water is multilayered. 1H MAS experiments pro...

  19. DHA and EPA Interaction with Raft Domains Observed With Solid-State 2 H NMR Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    DHA and EPA Interaction with Raft Domains Observed With Solid-State 2 H NMR Spectroscopy Jacob J, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6), with 22 carbons and 6 double bonds. However, their molecular modes of action and PDPC with a perdeuterated palmitoyl sn-1 chain, showed that DHA has a greater tendency than EPA

  20. Genetic algorithms and solid state NMR pulse sequences

    E-print Network

    Bechmann, Matthias; Sebald, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    The use of genetic algorithms for the optimisation of magic angle spinning NMR pulse sequences is discussed. The discussion uses as an example the optimisation of the C7 dipolar recoupling pulse sequence, aiming to achieve improved efficiency for spin systems characterised by large chemical shielding anisotropies and/or small dipolar coupling interactions. The optimised pulse sequence is found to be robust over a wide range of parameters, requires only minimal a priori knowledge of the spin system for experimental implementations with buildup rates being solely determined by the magnitude of the dipolar coupling interaction, but is found to be less broadbanded than the original C7 pulse sequence. The optimised pulse sequence breaks the synchronicity between r.f. pulses and sample spinning.

  1. Structural diversity of solid dispersions of acetylsalicylic acid as seen by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Policianova, Olivia; Brus, Jiri; Hruby, Martin; Urbanova, Martina; Zhigunov, Alexander; Kredatusova, Jana; Kobera, Libor

    2014-02-01

    Solid dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients are of increasing interest due to their versatile use. In the present study polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-metacrylamide] (pHPMA), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOx), and polyethylene glycol (PEG), each in three Mw, were used to demonstrate structural diversity of solid dispersions. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used as a model drug. Four distinct types of the solid dispersions of ASA were created using a freeze-drying method: (i) crystalline solid dispersions containing nanocrystalline ASA in a crystalline PEG matrix; (ii) amorphous glass suspensions with large ASA crystallites embedded in amorphous pHPMA; (iii) solid solutions with molecularly dispersed ASA in rigid amorphous PVP; and (iv) nanoheterogeneous solid solutions/suspensions containing nanosized ASA clusters dispersed in a semiflexible matrix of PEOx. The obtained structural data confirmed that the type of solid dispersion can be primarily controlled by the chemical constitutions of the applied polymers, while the molecular weight of the polymers had no detectable impact. The molecular structure of the prepared dispersions was characterized using solid-state NMR, wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By applying various (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(1)H correlation experiments combined with T1((1)H) and T1?((1)H) relaxation data, the extent of the molecular mixing was determined over a wide range of distances, from intimate intermolecular contacts (0.1-0.5 nm) up to the phase-separated nanodomains reaching ca. 500 nm. Hydrogen-bond interactions between ASA and polymers were probed by the analysis of (13)C and (15)N CP/MAS NMR spectra combined with the measurements of (1)H-(15)N dipolar profiles. Overall potentialities and limitations of individual experimental techniques were thoroughly evaluated. PMID:24417442

  2. 3D structure determination of the Crh protein from highly ambiguous solid-state NMR restraints.

    PubMed

    Loquet, Antoine; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Gardiennet, Carole; Blanchet, Christophe; Baldus, Marc; Nilges, Michael; Malliavin, Thérèse; Böckmann, Anja

    2008-03-19

    In a wide variety of proteins, insolubility presents a challenge to structural biology, as X-ray crystallography and liquid-state NMR are unsuitable. Indeed, no general approach is available as of today for studying the three-dimensional structures of membrane proteins and protein fibrils. We here demonstrate, at the example of the microcrystalline model protein Crh, how high-resolution 3D structures can be derived from magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR distance restraints for fully labeled protein samples. First, we show that proton-mediated rare-spin correlation spectra, as well as carbon-13 spin diffusion experiments, provide enough short, medium, and long-range structural restraints to obtain high-resolution structures of this 2 x 10.4 kDa dimeric protein. Nevertheless, the large number of 13C/15N spins present in this protein, combined with solid-state NMR line widths of about 0.5-1 ppm, induces substantial ambiguities in resonance assignments, preventing 3D structure determination by using distance restraints uniquely assigned on the basis of their chemical shifts. In the second part, we thus demonstrate that an automated iterative assignment algorithm implemented in a dedicated solid-state NMR version of the program ARIA permits to resolve the majority of ambiguities and to calculate a de novo 3D structure from highly ambiguous solid-state NMR data, using a unique fully labeled protein sample. We present, using distance restraints obtained through the iterative assignment process, as well as dihedral angle restraints predicted from chemical shifts, the 3D structure of the fully labeled Crh dimer refined at a root-mean-square deviation of 1.33 A. PMID:18284240

  3. Solid-state NMR in the analysis of drugs and naturally occurring materials.

    PubMed

    Paradowska, Katarzyna; Wawer, Iwona

    2014-05-01

    This article presents some of the solid-state NMR (SSNMR) techniques used in the pharmaceutical and biomedical research. Solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR provides structural information on powder amorphous solids for which single-crystal diffraction structures cannot be obtained. NMR is non-destructive; the powder sample may be used for further studies. Quantitative results can be obtained, although solid-state NMR spectra are not normally quantitative. As compared with other techniques, MAS NMR is insensitive and requires a significant amount of the powder sample (2-100mg) to fill the 1.3-7 mm ZrO2 rotor. This is its main drawback, since natural compounds isolated from plants, microorganisms or cell cultures are difficult to obtain in quantities higher than a few milligrams. Multinuclear MAS NMR routinely uses (1)H and (13)C nuclei, less frequently (15)N, (19)F, (31)P, (77)Se, (29)Si, (43)Ca or (23)Na. The article focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of SSNMR, the studies were aimed to control over manufacturing processes (e.g. crystallization and milling) investigation of chemical and physical stability of solid forms both as pure drug and in a formulated product. SSNMR is used in combination with some other analytical methods (DSC, XRD, FT-IR) and theoretical calculations of NMR parameters. Biologically active compounds, such as amino acids and small peptides, steroids and flavonoids were studied by SSNMR methods (part 4) providing valuable structural information. The SSNMR experiments performed on biopolymers and large natural products like proteins, cellulose and lipid layers are commented upon briefly in part 5. PMID:24173236

  4. Can one and two-dimensional solid-state NMR fingerprint zeolite framework topology?

    PubMed

    Martineau, Charlotte; Vial, Sandrine; Barth, Dominique; Quessette, Franck; Taulelle, Francis

    2015-02-01

    In this contribution, we have explored the potential and strength of one-dimensional (1D) (29)Si and two-dimensional (2D) (29)S-(29)Si and (29)Si-(17)O NMR as invariants of non-oriented graph for fingerprinting zeolite frameworks. 1D and 2D (29)Si NMR can indeed provide indications on the graph vertices, edges and allow the construction of the adjacency matrix, i.e. the set of connections between the graph vertices. From the structural data, hypothetical 1D (29)Si and 2D (29)Si-(29)Si NMR signatures for 193 of the zeolite frameworks reported in the Atlas of Zeolite Structures have been generated. Comparison between all signatures shows that thanks to the 1D (29)Si NMR data only, almost 20% of the known zeolite frameworks could be distinguished. Further NMR signatures were generated by taking into account 2D (29)Si-(29)Si and (29)Si-(17)O correlations. By sorting and comparison of all the NMR data, up to 80% of the listed zeolites could be unambiguously discriminated. This work indicates that (i) solid-state NMR data indeed represent a rather strong graph invariant for zeolite framework, (ii) despite their difficulties and costs (isotopic labeling is often required, the NMR measurements can be long), (29)Si and (17)O NMR measurements are worth being investigated in the frame of zeolites structure resolution. This approach could also be generalized to other zeolite-related materials containing NMR-measurable nuclides. PMID:25454465

  5. Synthesis, solid-state NMR, and magnetic characterization of h-GaN containing magnetic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdy, A. P.; Yesinowski, J. P.; Hanbicki, A. T.

    2005-05-01

    GaN crystals doped with Mn ions were synthesized by the alkali metal flux method. Mixtures of metals were premelted to form an alloy and the alloy was mixed with Na/K and heated to 800 °C under 1400 psi N2 in an alumina crucible. Up to 2 mol% Mn could be incorporated into the h-GaN lattice, and the products were characterized by solid state NMR, magnetometry, Raman spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. The solid state MAS NMR spectra (71Ga, 69Ga, 14N) of the most heavily doped material, which is a normal paramagnet, have broad peaks that are shifted appreciably to higher frequency from the hexagonal GaN chemical shift position, probably due to Knight shifts.

  6. Structural investigation of e-beam cured epoxy resins through solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Sabina; Spinella, Alberto; Caponetti, Eugenio; Dispenza, Clelia; Spadaro, Giuseppe

    2012-09-01

    In this paper the network structure of e-beam cured DGEBF based epoxy resins is investigated. Two epoxy systems, having different reactivity and cured in different process conditions, were analyzed through solid state NMR spectroscopy. The analysis shows that the more reactive system has higher cross-linking density and higher uniformity of network distribution. Similar information were obtained, in a previous work, on the same systems through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. It is worth noting that unlike DMTA tests, which interfere with the molecular structure of the analyzed material, due to the heating during the analysis itself, more reliable information, without any artefact, are obtained by solid state NMR, carried out at constant room temperature.

  7. Validation of the Single-Stranded Channel Conformation of Gramicidin A by Solid-State NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Kovacs; J. Quine; T. A. Cross

    1999-01-01

    The monovalent cation selective channel formed by a dimer of the polypeptide gramicidin A has a single-stranded, right-handed helical motif with 6.5 residues per turn forming a 4- angstrom diameter pore. The structure has been refined to high resolution against 120 orientational constraints obtained from samples in a liquid-crystalline phase lipid bilayer. These structural constraints from solid-state NMR reflect the

  8. A solid state NMR characterization of cross-linked polyaniline powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raji Mathew; Benjamin R Mattes; Matthew P Espe

    2002-01-01

    A detailed structural characterization of annealed polyaniline (PANI) powder samples has been carried out by using solid state NMR (SSNMR) and FT-IR. Comparing annealed PANI with PANI that has been chemically reduced to the leucoemeraldine base (LB) form, the 13C and 15N SSNMR and FT-IR data clearly show the conversion of the quinoid rings to benzenoid rings upon heating at

  9. Solid State NMR Measurements for Preliminary Lifetime Assessments in gamma-Irradiated and Thermally Aged Siloxane Elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, S C; Herberg, J L; Sawvel, A M; Maxwell, R S

    2004-11-29

    Siloxanes have a wide variety of applications throughout the aerospace industry which take advantage of their exceptional insulating and adhesive properties and general resilience. They also offer a wide range of tailorable engineering properties with changes in composition and filler content. They are, however, subject to degradation in radiatively and thermally harsh environments. We are using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to investigate changes in network and interfacial structure in siloxane elastomers and their correlations to changes in engineering performance in a series of degraded materials. NMR parameters such as transverse ( T{sub 2}) relaxation times, cross relaxation rates, and residual dipolar coupling constants provide excellent probes of changes crosslink density and motional dynamics of the polymers caused by multi-mechanism degradation. The results of NMR studies on aged siloxanes are being used in conjunction with other mechanical tests to provide insight into component failure and degradation kinetics necessary for preliminary lifetime assessments of these materials as well as into the structure-property relationships of the polymers. NMR and MRI results obtained both from high resolution NMR spectrometers as well as low resolution benchtop NMR screening tools will be presented.

  10. Solid State NMR Measurements for Preliminary Lifetime Assessments in (gamma)-Irradiated and Thermally Aged Siloxane Elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, S C; Herberg, J L; Sawvel, A M; Maxwell, R S

    2005-02-03

    Siloxanes have a wide variety of applications throughout the aerospace industry which take advantage of their exceptional insulating and adhesive properties and general resilience. They also offer a wide range of tailorable engineering properties with changes in composition and filler content. They are, however, subject to degradation in radiatively and thermally harsh environments. We are using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to investigate changes in network and interfacial structure in siloxane elastomers and their correlations to changes in engineering performance in a series of degraded materials. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters such as transverse (T{sub 2}) relaxation times, cross relaxation rates, and residual dipolar coupling constants provide excellent probes of changes crosslink density and motional dynamics of the polymers caused by multi-mechanism degradation. The results of NMR studies on aged siloxanes are being used in conjunction with other mechanical tests to provide insight into component failure and degradation kinetics necessary for preliminary lifetime assessments of these materials as well as into the structure-property relationships of the polymers. NMR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results obtained both from high resolution NMR spectrometers as well as low resolution benchtop NMR screening tools will be presented.

  11. Structures of Amyloid Fibrils and Protein Folding Intermediates: New Insights from Solid State NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tycko, Robert

    2009-03-01

    I will present recent results from two projects: (1) We are using a combination of solid state NMR techniques and electron microscopy techniques to develop full molecular models for amyloid fibrils formed by the beta-amyloid peptide of Alzheimer's disease and by other peptides and proteins. Amyloid fibrils are often polymorphic, so that the detailed molecular structure depends on growth conditions or other factors. I will describe two structural models for beta-amyloid fibrils with two distinct morphologies. I will also describe efforts to determine which fibril structure develops in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, and solid state NMR methods that contribute to our amyloid studies; (2) Structural properties of unfolded or partially folded states of proteins are not well understood. In principle, solid state NMR measurements on freeze-trapped samples can reveal site-specific, quantitative aspects of protein structures in unfolded states. I will describe experiments on thermodynamically unfolded states (i.e., denatured states) and on transient states that are trapped by freezing on the microsecond time scale. Both types of experiments reveal structural properties that are unanticipated and could not be detected by more conventional protein folding measurements.

  12. Mechanism of dilute-spin-exchange in solid-state NMR

    PubMed Central

    Lu, George J.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    In the stationary, aligned samples used in oriented sample (OS) solid-state NMR, 1H-1H homonuclear dipolar couplings are not attenuated as they are in magic angle spinning solid-state NMR; consequently, they are available for participation in dipolar coupling-based spin-exchange processes. Here we describe analytically the pathways of 15N-15N spin-exchange mediated by 1H-1H homonuclear dipolar couplings. The mixed-order proton-relay mechanism can be differentiated from the third spin assisted recoupling mechanism by setting the 1H to an off-resonance frequency so that it is at the “magic angle” during the spin-exchange interval in the experiment, since the “magic angle” irradiation nearly quenches the former but only slightly attenuates the latter. Experimental spectra from a single crystal of N-acetyl leucine confirm that this proton-relay mechanism plays the dominant role in 15N-15N dilute-spin-exchange in OS solid-state NMR in crystalline samples. Remarkably, the “forbidden” spin-exchange condition under “magic angle” irradiation results in 15N-15N cross-peaks intensities that are comparable to those observed with on-resonance irradiation in applications to proteins. The mechanism of the proton relay in dilute-spin-exchange is crucial for the design of polarization transfer experiments. PMID:24697432

  13. New methods and applications in solid-state NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei.

    PubMed

    Ashbrook, Sharon E; Sneddon, Scott

    2014-11-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has long been established as offering unique atomic-scale and element-specific insight into the structure, disorder, and dynamics of materials. NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei (I > (1)/2) are often perceived as being challenging to acquire and to interpret because of the presence of anisotropic broadening arising from the interaction of the electric field gradient and the nuclear electric quadrupole moment, which broadens the spectral lines, often over several megahertz. Despite the vast amount of information contained in the spectral line shapes, the problems with sensitivity and resolution have, until very recently, limited the application of NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state. In this Perspective, we provide a brief overview of the quadrupolar interaction, describe some of the basic experimental approaches used for acquiring high-resolution NMR spectra, and discuss the information that these spectra can provide. We then describe some interesting recent examples to showcase some of the more exciting and challenging new applications of NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei in the fields of energy materials, microporous materials, Earth sciences, and biomaterials. Finally, we consider the possible directions that this highly informative technique may take in the future. PMID:25296129

  14. Monitoring the Electrochemical Processes in the Lithium–Air Battery by Solid State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A multi-nuclear solid-state NMR approach is employed to investigate the lithium–air battery, to monitor the evolution of the electrochemical products formed during cycling, and to gain insight into processes affecting capacity fading. While lithium peroxide is identified by 17O solid state NMR (ssNMR) as the predominant product in the first discharge in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) based electrolytes, it reacts with the carbon cathode surface to form carbonate during the charging process. 13C ssNMR provides evidence for carbonate formation on the surface of the carbon cathode, the carbonate being removed at high charging voltages in the first cycle, but accumulating in later cycles. Small amounts of lithium hydroxide and formate are also detected in discharged cathodes and while the hydroxide formation is reversible, the formate persists and accumulates in the cathode upon further cycling. The results indicate that the rechargeability of the battery is limited by both the electrolyte and the carbon cathode stability. The utility of ssNMR spectroscopy in directly detecting product formation and decomposition within the battery is demonstrated, a necessary step in the assessment of new electrolytes, catalysts, and cathode materials for the development of a viable lithium–oxygen battery. PMID:24489976

  15. Resonator with reduced sample heating and increased homogeneity for solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Alexander; Priller, Uwe; Emsley, Lyndon; Engelke, Frank

    2008-03-01

    In the application of solid-state NMR to many systems, the presence of radiofrequency (rf) electric fields inside classical solenoidal coils causes heating of lossy samples. In particular, this is critical for proteins in ionic buffers. Rf sample heating increases proportional to frequency which may result in the need to reduce the rf pulse power to prevent partial or total sample deterioration. In the present paper, we propose a multifrequency-tunable NMR resonator where the sample is electrically shielded from the NMR coil by a conductive sheet that increases the magneto-electric ratio. Expressions for the B1 efficiency as function of magnetic and electric filling factors are derived that allow a direct comparison of different resonators. Rf efficiency, homogeneity, signal-to-noise, and rf sample heating are compared. NMR spectra at 700MHz on ethylene glycol, glycine, and a model protein were acquired to compare the resonators under realistic experimental conditions. PMID:18187352

  16. Membrane protein structural validation by oriented sample solid-state NMR: diacylglycerol kinase.

    PubMed

    Murray, Dylan T; Li, Conggang; Gao, F Philip; Qin, Huajun; Cross, Timothy A

    2014-04-15

    The validation of protein structures through functional assays has been the norm for many years. Functional assays perform this validation for water-soluble proteins very well, but they need to be performed in the same environment as that used for the structural analysis. This is difficult for membrane proteins that are often structurally characterized in detergent environments, although functional assays for these proteins are most frequently performed in lipid bilayers. Because the structure of membrane proteins is known to be sensitive to the membrane mimetic environment, such functional assays are appropriate for validating the protein construct, but not the membrane protein structure. Here, we compare oriented sample solid-state NMR spectral data of diacylglycerol kinase previously published with predictions of such data from recent structures of this protein. A solution NMR structure of diacylglycerol kinase has been obtained in detergent micelles and three crystal structures have been obtained in a monoolein cubic phase. All of the structures are trimeric with each monomer having three transmembrane and one amphipathic helices. However, the solution NMR structure shows typical perturbations induced by a micelle environment that is reflected in the predicted solid-state NMR resonances from the structural coordinates. The crystal structures show few such perturbations, especially for the wild-type structure and especially for the monomers that do not have significant crystal contacts. For these monomers the predicted and observed data are nearly identical. The thermostabilized constructs do show more perturbations, especially the A41C mutation that introduces a hydrophilic residue into what would be the middle of the lipid bilayer inducing additional hydrogen bonding between trimers. These results demonstrate a general technique for validating membrane protein structures with minimal data obtained from membrane proteins in liquid crystalline lipid bilayers by oriented sample solid-state NMR. PMID:24739155

  17. Correlation of solid-state NMR relaxation times to functional properties such as chemical stability and particle size

    E-print Network

    Dempah, Kassibla Elodie

    2013-05-31

    The purpose of the work presented in this dissertation was to investigate the correlation between the particle size of crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and their solid-state NMR (SSNMR) proton spin-lattice ...

  18. Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions in T-2 Toxin Studied Using Solution and Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Praveen; Shank, Roxanne A.; Montina, Tony; Goettel, James T.; Foroud, Nora A.; Hazendonk, Paul; Eudes, François

    2011-01-01

    The structure of T-2 toxin in the solid-state is limited to X-ray crystallographic studies, which lack sufficient resolution to provide direct evidence for hydrogen-bonding interactions. Furthermore, its solution-structure, despite extensive Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies, has provided little insight into its hydrogen-bonding behavior, thus far. Hydrogen-bonding interactions are often an important part of biological activity. In order to study these interactions, the structure of T-2 toxin was compared in both the solution- and solid-state using NMR Spectroscopy. It was determined that the solution- and solid-state structure differ dramatically, as indicated by differences in their carbon chemical shifts, these observations are further supported by solution proton spectral parameters and exchange behavior. The slow chemical exchange process and cross-relaxation dynamics with water observed between the hydroxyl hydrogen on C-3 and water supports the existence of a preferential hydrogen bonding interaction on the opposite side of the molecule from the epoxide ring, which is known to be essential for trichothecene toxicity. This result implies that these hydrogen-bonding interactions could play an important role in the biological function of T-2 toxin and posits towards a possible interaction for the trichothecene class of toxins and the ribosome. These findings clearly illustrate the importance of utilizing solid-state NMR for the study of biological compounds, and suggest that a more detailed study of this whole class of toxins, namely trichothecenes, should be pursued using this methodology. PMID:22069698

  19. Investigating fatty acids inserted into magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers using EPR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nusair, Nisreen A; Tiburu, Elvis K; Dave, Paresh C; Lorigan, Gary A

    2004-06-01

    This is the first time (2)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy and spin-labeled EPR spectroscopy have been utilized to probe the structural orientation and dynamics of a stearic acid incorporated into magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers or bicelles. The data gleaned from the two different techniques provide a more complete description of the bilayer membrane system. Both methods provided similar qualitative information on the phospholipid bilayer, high order, and low motion for the hydrocarbon segment close to the carboxyl groups of the stearic acid and less order and more rapid motion at the end towards the terminal methyl groups. However, the segmental order parameters differed markedly due to the different orientations that the nitroxide and C-D bond axes transform with the various stearic acid acyl chain conformations, and because of the difference in dynamic sensitivity between NMR and EPR over the timescales examined. 5-, 7-, 12-, and 16-doxylstearic acids spin-labels were used in the EPR experiments and stearic acid-d(35) was used in the solid-state NMR experiments. The influence of the addition of cholesterol and the variation of temperature on the fatty acid hydrocarbon chain ordering in the DMPC/DHPC phospholipid bilayers was also studied. Cholesterol increased the degree of ordering of the hydrocarbon chains. Conversely, as the temperature of the magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers increased, the order parameters decreased due to the higher random motion of the acyl chain of the stearic acid. The results indicate that magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers are an excellent model membrane system and can be used for both NMR and EPR studies. PMID:15140432

  20. The effects of cholesterol on magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers: a solid-state NMR and EPR spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun-Xia; Caporini, Marc A.; Lorigan, Gary A.

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents the first time that both solid-state NMR spectroscopy and EPR spectroscopy are used to study the effects of cholesterol on magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers (bicelles). Solid-state deuterium NMR spectroscopy was carried out using both chain perdeuterated 1,2-dimyristoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC-d 54) and a partially deuterated ?-[2,2,3,4,4,6- 2H 6]cholesterol (cholesterol-d 6). Also, EPR spectroscopy was carried out utilizing a 3?-doxyl-5?-cholestane (cholestane) spin probe incorporated into magnetically aligned bilayers to provide a more complete picture about the ordering and dynamics of the phospholipid and cholesterol molecules in the bicelle membrane system. The results demonstrate that cholesterol was successfully incorporated into the phospholipid bilayers. The molecular order parameters extracted directly from the 2H NMR spectra of both DMPC-d 54 and cholesterol-d 6 were compared to that from the EPR study of cholestane. The order parameters indicate that the sterol was motionally restricted, and that the DMPC had high order and low motion for the hydrocarbon segments close to the head groups of the phospholipids and less order and more rapid motion toward the terminal methyl groups. Both methods clearly indicate an overall increase in the degree of ordering of the molecules in the presence of cholesterol and a decrease in the degree of ordering at higher temperatures. However, EPR spectroscopy and 2H NMR spectroscopy exhibit different degrees of sensitivity in detecting the phospholipid molecular motions in the membrane. Finally, cholesterol increases the minimum alignment temperature necessary to magnetically align the phospholipid bilayers.

  1. Stacking structure of confined 1-butanol in SBA-15 investigated by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun-Chih; Chou, Hung-Lung; Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2009-10-12

    Understanding the complex thermodynamic behavior of confined amphiphilic molecules in biological or mesoporous hosts requires detailed knowledge of the stacking structures. Here, we present detailed solid-state NMR spectroscopic investigations on 1-butanol molecules confined in the hydrophilic mesoporous SBA-15 host. A range of NMR spectroscopic measurements comprising of (1)H spin-lattice (T(1)), spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation, (13)C cross-polarization (CP), and (1)H,(1)H two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy ((1)H,(1)H 2D NOESY) with the magic angle spinning (MAS) technique as well as static wide-line (2)H NMR spectra have been used to investigate the dynamics and to observe the stacking structure of confined 1-butanol in SBA-15. The results suggest that not only the molecular reorientation but also the exchange motions of confined molecules of 1-butanol are extremely restricted in the confined space of the SBA-15 pores. The dynamics of the confined molecules of 1-butanol imply that the (1)H,(1)H 2D NOESY should be an appropriate technique to observe the stacking structure of confined amphiphilc molecules. This study is the first to observe that a significant part of confined 1-butanol molecules are orientated as tilted bilayered structures on the surface of the host SBA-15 pores in a time-average state by solid-state NMR spectroscopy with the (1)H,(1)H 2D NOESY technique. PMID:19746482

  2. Application and Reliability of Solid-State NMR in Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    For the characterization of soil organic matter, a suite of analytical approaches are available. Chemical degradative methods involve an extraction scheme with which the soluble part of the mixture is isolated and analyzed by colorimetrical or chromatographic means. Macromolecular structures can be subjected to thermolytic or combined thermochemolytic degradation. Because secondary reactions (rearrangement, cracking, hydrogenation and polymerization) in a heterogeneous mixture cannot be excluded, it is obvious that conclusions regarding the original structure in the macromolecular phase have to be drawn with caution. A powerful alternative represents solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, allowing the examination of the bulk sample without major pre-treatment In environmental sciences, this technique mostly involves the isotope 13C to study the chemical composition of organic matter in soils, sediments or compost to study the temporal development of humic material or chemical alterations due to variation in environmental parameters. Due to its low sensibility solid-state 15N NMR studies on such samples are only found occasionally. The emphasis of solid-state NMR spectroscopy is not only to determine the gross chemical composition of the material under study via a chemical shift assignment but also a quantitative correlation between the different signal intensities and the relative contribution of the respective C or N types to the total organic C or N content. However, despite increasing popularity, this approach is still viewed as mysterious techniques, in particular with respect to quantification. Accordingly, the purpose of this review is to give a short overview on the possibilities and limitations of this technique in environmental science and in particular for the study of soil organic matter. In general, solid-state 13C NMR spectra of soil organic matter are obtained with the cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) technique. This technique increases the sensitivity of 13C by magnetization transfer from the 1H to the 13C spin system during a contact time tc. However, one has to bear in mind that some molecular properties may obscure quantification. Thus, for carbons with large C-H internuclear distances (bigger than four bonds, i.e in graphite structures) and for C in groups with high molecular mobility (i.e. gas) the proton-dipolar interactions are weakened and the polarization transfer may be incomplete. The observed intensity can also be affected by interactions of the protons with paramagnetic compounds. To circumvent this problem, the samples are often demineralized with hydrofluoric acid. Alternatively, the Bloch decay, a technique in which the 13C is directly excited is used. Here, on the other hand, one has to consider long relaxation times which may lead to saturation effects. Nevertheless, as it will be discussed within the presentation those quantification problems can be solved for most soil samples and then solid-state NMR spectroscopy represents a powerful tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Special techniques, such as dipolar dephasing or the proton spin relaxation editing can be used to extract additional information about chemical properties or mobility. A more detailed examination of the cross polarization behavior can be used to analyze the interaction of organic matter and paramagnetics but also for obtaining revealing properties on a molecular level. Applications involving isotopic labeling combined with both 13C and/or 15N NMR allows to follow the fate of a specific compound i.e. in a natural matrix and- if the enrichment is high enough - the use of 2D solid-state NMR techniques. In particular with respect to environmental chemistry, this combination of isotopic labeling with the use of corresponding NMR spectroscopy shows great potential for a better understanding of the kind of interaction between pollutants and natural organic matter.

  3. An active photoreceptor intermediate revealed by in situ photoirradiated solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Yuya; Hidaka, Tetsurou; Kawamura, Izuru; Nishio, Takudo; Ohsawa, Kazuhiro; Okitsu, Takashi; Wada, Akimori; Sudo, Yuki; Kamo, Naoki; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Naito, Akira

    2011-11-16

    A novel, to our knowledge, in situ photoirradiation system for solid-state NMR measurements is improved and demonstrated to successfully identify the M-photointermediate of pharaonis phoborhodopsin (ppR or sensory rhodopsin II), that of the complex with transducer (ppR/pHtrII), and T204A mutant embedded in a model membrane. The (13)C NMR signals from [20-(13)C]retinal-ppR and ppR/pHtrII revealed that multiple M-intermediates with 13-cis, 15-anti retinal configuration coexisted under the continuously photoirradiated condition. NMR signals observed from the photoactivated retinal provide insights into the process of photocycle in the ppR/pHtrII complex. PMID:22098758

  4. Spatially resolved solid-state 1H NMR for evaluation of gradient-composition polymeric libraries.

    PubMed

    Leisen, Johannes; Gomez, Ismael J; Roper, John A; Meredith, J Carson; Beckham, Haskell W

    2012-07-01

    Polyurethane libraries consisting of films with composition gradients of aliphatic polyisocyanate and hydroxy-terminated polyacrylate resin were characterized using methods of (1)H NMR microimaging (i.e., magnetic resonance imaging, (MRI)) and solid-state NMR. Molecular mobilities and underlying structural information were extracted as a function of the relative content of each of the two components. Routine NMR microimaging using the spin-echo sequence only allows investigations of transverse relaxation of magnetization at echo times >2 ms. A single-exponential decay was found, which is likely due to free, noncross-linked polymer chains. The mobility of these chains decreases with increasing content of the aliphatic polyisocyanate. The concept of a 1D NMR profiler is introduced as a novel modality for library screening, which allows the convenient measurement of static solid-state NMR spectra as a function of spatial location along a library sample that is repositioned in the rf coil between experiments. With this setup the complete transverse relaxation function was measured using Bloch decays and spin echoes. For all positions within the gradient-composition film, relaxation data consisted of at least three components that were attributed to a rigid highly cross-linked resin, an intermediate cross-linked but mobile constituent, and the highly mobile free polymer chains (the latter is also detectable by MRI). Analysis of this overall relaxation function measured via Bloch decays and spin echoes revealed only minor changes in the mobilities of the individual fractions. Findings with respect to the most mobile components are consistent with the results obtained by NMR microimaging. The major effect is the significant increase in the rigid-component fraction with the addition of the hydroxy-terminated polyacrylate resin. PMID:22676634

  5. Solid-state (17)O NMR and computational studies of C-nitrosoarene compounds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Zhu, Jianfeng; Mo, Xin; Wang, Ruiyao; Terskikh, Victor

    2010-04-14

    We report the first solid-state (17)O NMR determination of the (17)O quadrupole coupling (QC) tensor and chemical shift (CS) tensor for four (17)O-labeled C-nitrosoarene compounds: p-[(17)O]nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline ([(17)O]NODMA), SnCl(2)(CH(3))(2)([(17)O]NODMA)(2), ZnCl(2)([(17)O]NODMA)(2), and [(17)O]NODMA.HCl. The (17)O quadrupole coupling constants (C(Q)) observed in these C-nitrosoarene compounds are on the order of 10-15 MHz, among the largest values found to date for organic compounds. The (17)O CS tensor in these compounds exhibits remarkable sensitivity toward the nitroso bonding scheme with the chemical shift anisotropy (delta(11) - delta(33)) ranging from just 350 ppm in [(17)O]NODMA.HCl to over 2800 ppm in [(17)O]NODMA. This latter value is among the largest (17)O chemical shift anisotropies reported in the literature. These extremely anisotropic (17)O NMR interactions make C-nitrosoarene compounds excellent test cases that allow us to assess the detection limit of solid-state (17)O NMR. Our results suggest that, at 21.14 T, solid-state (17)O NMR should be applicable to all oxygen-containing organic functional groups. We also show that density functional theory (DFT) calculations can reproduce reasonably well the experimental (17)O QC and CS tensors for these challenging molecules. By combining quantum chemical calculations with experimental solid-state (17)O NMR results, we are able to determine the (17)O QC and CS tensor orientations in the molecular frame of reference for C-nitrosoarenes. We present a detailed analysis illustrating how magnetic field-induced mixing between individual molecular orbitals (MOs) contributes to the (17)O shielding tensor in C-nitrosoarene compounds. We also perform a Townes-Dailey analysis for the observed (17)O QC tensors and show that (17)O CS and QC tensors are intrinsically related through the pi bond order of the N horizontal lineO bond. Furthermore, we are able for the first time to examine the parallelism between individual (17)O and (15)N CS tensor components in C-nitrosoarenes. PMID:20307099

  6. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396-10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure-activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales. PMID:25578899

  7. Sensitivity and resolution enhancement of oriented solid-state NMR: application to membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, T; Mote, Kaustubh R; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2013-11-01

    Oriented solid-state NMR (O-ssNMR) spectroscopy is a major technique for the high-resolution analysis of the structure and topology of transmembrane proteins in native-like environments. Unlike magic angle spinning (MAS) techniques, O-ssNMR spectroscopy requires membrane protein preparations that are uniformly oriented (mechanically or magnetically) so that anisotropic NMR parameters, such as dipolar and chemical shift interactions, can be measured to determine structure and orientation of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers. Traditional sample preparations involving mechanically aligned lipids often result in short relaxation times which broaden the (15)N resonances and encumber the manipulation of nuclear spin coherences. The introduction of lipid bicelles as membrane mimicking systems has changed this scenario, and the more favorable relaxation properties of membrane protein (15)N and (13)C resonances make it possible to develop new, more elaborate pulse sequences for higher spectral resolution and sensitivity. Here, we describe our recent progress in the optimization of O-ssNMR pulse sequences. We explain the theory behind these experiments, demonstrate their application to small and medium size proteins, and describe the technical details for setting up these new experiments on the new generation of NMR spectrometers. PMID:24160761

  8. Toxin-induced conformational changes in a potassium channel revealed by solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Adam; Giller, Karin; Hornig, Sönke; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Pongs, Olaf; Becker, Stefan; Baldus, Marc

    2006-04-01

    The active site of potassium (K+) channels catalyses the transport of K+ ions across the plasma membrane-similar to the catalytic function of the active site of an enzyme-and is inhibited by toxins from scorpion venom. On the basis of the conserved structures of K+ pore regions and scorpion toxins, detailed structures for the K+ channel-scorpion toxin binding interface have been proposed. In these models and in previous solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies using detergent-solubilized membrane proteins, scorpion toxins were docked to the extracellular entrance of the K+ channel pore assuming rigid, preformed binding sites. Using high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy, here we show that high-affinity binding of the scorpion toxin kaliotoxin to a chimaeric K+ channel (KcsA-Kv1.3) is associated with significant structural rearrangements in both molecules. Our approach involves a combined analysis of chemical shifts and proton-proton distances and demonstrates that solid-state NMR is a sensitive method for analysing the structure of a membrane protein-inhibitor complex. We propose that structural flexibility of the K+ channel and the toxin represents an important determinant for the high specificity of toxin-K+ channel interactions.

  9. Solid-State NMR Studies of HIV-1 Capsid Protein Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yun; Ahn, Jinwoo; Concel, Jason; Byeon, In-Ja L.; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Yang, Jun; Polenova, Tatyana E.

    2010-02-17

    In mature HIV-1 virions, the 26.6 kDa CA protein is assembled into a characteristic cone-shaped core (capsid) that encloses the RNA viral genome. The assembled capsid structure is best described by a fullerene cone model that is made up from a hexameric lattice containing a variable number of CA pentamers, thus allowing for closure of tubular or conical structures. In this paper, we present a solid-state NMR analysis of the wild-type HIV-1 CA protein, prepared as conical and spherical assemblies that are stable and are not affected by magic angle spinning of the samples at frequencies between 10 and 25 kHz. Multidimensional homo- and heteronuclear correlation spectra of CA assemblies of uniformly 13C,15Nlabeled CA exhibit narrow lines, indicative of the conformational homogeneity of the protein in these assemblies. For the conical assemblies, partial residue-specific resonance assignments were obtained. Analysis of the NMR spectra recorded for the conical and spherical assemblies indicates that the CA protein structure is not significantly different in the different morphologies. The present results demonstrate that the assemblies of CA protein are amenable to detailed structural analysis by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

  10. Sensitivity and Resolution Enhancement in Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Bicelles

    PubMed Central

    Dvinskikh, Sergey V.; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Dürr, Ulrich H. N.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2007-01-01

    Magnetically aligned bicelles are becoming attractive model membranes to investigate the structure, dynamics, geometry, and interaction of membrane-associated peptides and proteins using solution- and solid-state NMR experiments. Recent studies have shown that bicelles are more suitable than mechanically aligned bilayers for multidimensional solid-state NMR experiments. In this work, we describe experimental aspects of the natural abundance 13C and 14N NMR spectroscopy of DMPC/DHPC bicelles. In particular, approaches to enhance the sensitivity and resolution and to quantify radio frequency heating effects are presented. Sensitivity of 13C detection using single pulse excitation, conventional cross-polarization (CP), ramp-CP, and NOE techniques are compared. Our results suggest that the proton decoupling efficiency of the FLOPSY pulse sequence is better than that of continuous wave decoupling, TPPM, SPINAL and WALTZ sequences. A simple method of monitoring the water proton chemical shift is demonstrated for the measurement of sample temperature and calibration of the radio-frequency-induced heating in the sample. The possibility of using 14N experiments on bicelles is also discussed. PMID:17084096

  11. Identification of lipid and saccharide constituents of whole microalgal cells by ¹³C solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Alexandre A; Genard, Bertrand; Zito, Francesca; Tremblay, Réjean; Warschawski, Dror E; Marcotte, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are unicellular organisms in which plasma membrane is protected by a complex cell wall. The chemical nature of this barrier is important not only for taxonomic identification, but also for interactions with exogenous molecules such as contaminants. In this work, we have studied freshwater (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and marine (Pavlova lutheri and Nannochloropsis oculata) microalgae with different cell wall characteristics. C. reinhardtii is covered by a network of fibrils and glycoproteins, while P. lutheri is protected by small cellulose scales, and the picoplankton N. oculata by a rigid cellulose wall. The objective of this work was to determine to what extent the different components of these microorganisms (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) can be distinguished by ¹³C solid-state NMR with an emphasis on isolating the signature of their cell walls and membrane lipid constituents. By using NMR experiments which select rigid or mobile zones, as well as ¹³C-enriched microalgal cells, we improved the spectral resolution and simplified the highly crowded spectra. Interspecies differences in cell wall constituents, storage sugars and membrane lipid compositions were thus evidenced. Carbohydrates from the cell walls could be distinguished from those incorporated into sugar reserves or glycolipids. Lipids from the plasmalemma and organelle membranes and from storage vacuoles could also be identified. This work establishes a basis for a complete characterization of phytoplankton cells by solid-state NMR. PMID:25065670

  12. Computer-intensive simulation of solid-state NMR experiments using SIMPSON.

    PubMed

    Tošner, Zden?k; Andersen, Rasmus; Stevensson, Baltzar; Edén, Mattias; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Conducting large-scale solid-state NMR simulations requires fast computer software potentially in combination with efficient computational resources to complete within a reasonable time frame. Such simulations may involve large spin systems, multiple-parameter fitting of experimental spectra, or multiple-pulse experiment design using parameter scan, non-linear optimization, or optimal control procedures. To efficiently accommodate such simulations, we here present an improved version of the widely distributed open-source SIMPSON NMR simulation software package adapted to contemporary high performance hardware setups. The software is optimized for fast performance on standard stand-alone computers, multi-core processors, and large clusters of identical nodes. We describe the novel features for fast computation including internal matrix manipulations, propagator setups and acquisition strategies. For efficient calculation of powder averages, we implemented interpolation method of Alderman, Solum, and Grant, as well as recently introduced fast Wigner transform interpolation technique. The potential of the optimal control toolbox is greatly enhanced by higher precision gradients in combination with the efficient optimization algorithm known as limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno. In addition, advanced parallelization can be used in all types of calculations, providing significant time reductions. SIMPSON is thus reflecting current knowledge in the field of numerical simulations of solid-state NMR experiments. The efficiency and novel features are demonstrated on the representative simulations. PMID:25093693

  13. Regenerated silk fibers: Structural studies and solid state NMR techniques for efficient multiple distance determinations in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liivak, Oskar

    2000-09-01

    Material Science is the science of understanding the relationship between the molecular level structure of a material and its macroscopic properties. Such research requires both the ability to determine molecular structure and the ability to control and modify the molecular structure. The present research into silks, especially the dragline silk from the spider Nephila clavipes , is occurring at a time when these two criteria are beginning to be met for proteins like spider silk. Genetic engineering has evolved to the point where material scientists have full control over the primary sequence of amino acids that comprise proteins. In addition, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques exist which allow us to probe molecular structure. This work applies solid state NMR to the study of the structure of silk fibers. In particular, we focus on techniques of fiber regeneration from solution. The purpose is not only to develop the techniques by which genetically engineered fibers could be spun into fibers for mass production but also as a tool into fundamental silk research. Results on these regenerated fibers show a correlation between the fraction of the silk's alanine residues which are in the ?-sheet conformation and the ultimate tensile strength of the fibers. In addition, in a clever mating of the fiber regeneration technique and the solid state NMR distance measurement experiment, rotational echo double resonance (REDOR), we investigate the supramolecular topology of the alanine ?-sheet crystals. Even though the REDOR technique has failings for the complicated ISn spin systems found in the silk samples, a qualitative analysis does indicate that the ?-sheet crystals are intermolecular. Finally, we investigate a new class of REDOR-like experiments which are designed to overcome the failings of REDOR in ISn spin systems. Experimental data is shown to validate these ideas. An alternate pulse sequence is also introduced and verified with experimental data. This pulse sequence highlights the similarities between multiple quantum NMR and REDOR. From this connection, we name this new class of experiments Multiple Quantum-REDOR. These experiments should allow for efficient simultaneous multiple distance determinations in proteins.

  14. Exploring connections between phase-modulated heteronuclear dipolar decoupling schemes in solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithu, Venus Singh; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K.

    2013-01-01

    We here show a commonality in the approach to the design of prominent phase-modulated schemes used for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state NMR. This concerns mainly two pulse phase modulation (TPPM), small phase incremental alternation (SPINAL), and swept-frequency TPPM (SWf-TPPM) schemes. SPINAL turns out to be a supercycled version of TPPM without any need for phase increments and yielding the same performance. This version of TPPM, called TPPM64, is hence easier to implement than SPINAL. We further compare TPPM64 with SWf-TPPM, another derivative of TPPM which has been shown to perform better than other contemporary heteronuclear dipolar decoupling schemes.

  15. Solid-state NMR study of geopolymer prepared by sol-gel chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yi-Ling; Hanna, John V.; Lee, Yuan-Ling; Smith, Mark E.; Chan, Jerry C. C.

    2010-12-01

    Geopolymers are a new class of materials formed by the condensation of aluminosilicates and silicates obtained from natural minerals or industrial wastes. In this work, the sol-gel method is used to synthesize precursor materials for the preparation of geopolymers. The geopolymer samples prepared by our synthetic route have been characterized by a series of physical techniques, including Fourier-transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and multinuclear solid-state NMR. The results are very similar to those obtained for the geopolymers prepared from natural kaolinite. We believe that our synthetic approach can offer a good opportunity for the medical applications of geopolymer.

  16. Efficient decoupling and recoupling in solid state NMR for quantum computation

    E-print Network

    Yamaguchi, F; Master, C P; Yamamoto, Y; Khaneja, N; Yamaguchi, Fumiko; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Master, Cyrus P.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Khaneja, Navin

    2004-01-01

    A scheme for decoupling and selectively recoupling large networks of dipolar-coupled spins is proposed. The scheme relies on a combination of broadband, decoupling pulse sequences applied to all the nuclear spins with a band-selective pulse sequence for single spin rotations or recoupling. The evolution-time overhead required for selective coupling is independent of the number of spins, subject to time-scale constraints, for which we discuss the feasibility. This scheme may improve the scalability of solid-state-NMR quantum computing architectures.

  17. Efficient decoupling and recoupling in solid state NMR for quantum computation

    E-print Network

    Fumiko Yamaguchi; Thaddeus D. Ladd; Cyrus P. Master; Yoshihisa Yamamoto; Navin Khaneja

    2004-11-15

    A scheme for decoupling and selectively recoupling large networks of dipolar-coupled spins is proposed. The scheme relies on a combination of broadband, decoupling pulse sequences applied to all the nuclear spins with a band-selective pulse sequence for single spin rotations or recoupling. The evolution-time overhead required for selective coupling is independent of the number of spins, subject to time-scale constraints, for which we discuss the feasibility. This scheme may improve the scalability of solid-state-NMR quantum computing architectures.

  18. Structural investigation of Lisinopril by powder X-ray diffraction and solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Xenia; Tripon, Carmen; Borodi, Gheorghe; Oprean, Lumini?a; Filip, Claudiu

    2009-08-01

    Structural studies on polycrystalline Lisinopril (N-N-[(s)-1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-L-lysil-L-proline) are performed by combined powder X-Ray diffraction and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The crystal structure of this drug, used primarily for the treatment of hypertension, has not yet been determined due to the impossibility of synthesizing single crystals of sufficient quality. It is shown here that valuable insights into the crystal and molecular structure of Lisinopril can be obtained on polycrystalline powder based on the complementary character of the information provided by the two techniques.

  19. Solid-state variable-temperature 1H MAS NMR studies on deuterated polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Hurosu, H; Ando, I; Wu, X

    1997-02-01

    Solid-state variable-temperature/magic angle spinning (VT/MAS) 1H NMR measurements were carried out on deuterated polyethylene. From these experimental results it was found that the 1H chemical shift induced by conformational and morphological changes of the polyethylene sample is within the linewidth of approximately 0.5 ppm. Furthermore, from MAS/dipolar decoupling experiments it was found that the resonance frequency of the proton varies linearly with the inverse square of the deuterium decoupling power. This experimental finding is discussed theoretically. PMID:9176937

  20. Structural modeling of Vpu from HIV-1 based on solid-state NMR observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, SeonJoo; Lim, GyuTae; Nam, Seungyoon; Lee, Jinhyuk

    2014-04-01

    Vpu is one of the accessory proteins of HIV-1, and is involved in viral particle release. Viral particle release is enhanced by two proposed functions of Vpu: (i) tetherin interaction and (ii) membrane polarization. Two Vpu functions in viral particle release are still controversial. Here, we investigated the proposed functions by extensive structural modeling of Vpu based on solid-state NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) observables. We found that Vpu can co-exist in two structural forms: left-handed and right-handed conformation. The co-existence of the two conformations provides a clue to reconcile the controversial issue of its two functions in virus particle release.

  1. Orientation and Dynamics of an Antimicrobial Peptide in the Lipid Bilayer by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Hong, Mei

    Orientation and Dynamics of an Antimicrobial Peptide in the Lipid Bilayer by Solid-State NMR of Microbiology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 USA ABSTRACT The orientation-spectrum bactericidal activity. 15 N NMR spectra of oriented ovispirin reconstituted into synthetic phospholipids show

  2. Chemical structure and heterogeneity differences of two lignins from loblolly pine as investigated by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced solid-state NMR was employed to investigate differences in chemical structure and heterogeneity between milled wood lignin (MWL) and residual enzyme lignin (REL). Wiley and conventional milled woods were also studied. The advanced NMR techniques included 13C quantitative direct polarization...

  3. High-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy in studies of conversions of hydrocarbons and alcohols on zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Alexander G.

    1999-07-01

    The review surveys advances in high-resolution solid-state 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy applied to studies of conversions of hydrocarbons and alcohols on zeolite catalysts of an acidic nature. The potential of NMR spectroscopy in studies of mechanisms of chemical reactions and analysis of compounds formed in situ is considered. The bibliography includes 134 references.

  4. A Solid-State NMR Study of Selenium Substitution into Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Kolmas, Joanna; Kuras, Marzena; Oledzka, Ewa; Sobczak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The substitution of selenium oxyanions in the hydroxyapatite structure was examined using multinuclear solid-state resonance spectroscopy (ssNMR). The study was supported by powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF). Samples of pure hydroxyapatite (HA300) and selenate (HA300-1.2SeO4) or selenite (HA300-1.2SeO3) substituted hydroxyapatites were synthesized using the standard wet method and heated at 300 °C to remove loosely bonded water. PXRD data showed that all samples are single-phase, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. The incorporation of selenite and selenate ions affected the lattice constants. In selenium-containing samples the concentration of Se was very similar and amounted to 9.55% and 9.64%, for HA300-1.2SeO4 and HA300-1.2SeO3, respectively. PXRD and ssNMR data showed that the selenite doping significantly decreases the crystallite size and crystallinity degree. 31P and 1H NMR experiments demonstrated the developed surface hydrated layer in all samples, especially in HA300-1.2SeO3. 1H NMR studies showed the dehydroxylation of HA during the selenium oxyanions substitution and the existence of hydrogen bonding in structural hydroxyl group channels. 1H?77Se cross polarization NMR experiments indicated that selenites and selenates are located in the crystal lattice and on the crystal surface. PMID:25997001

  5. Proton-Detected Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Bone with Ultrafast Magic Angle Spinning

    PubMed Central

    Mroue, Kamal H.; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Kumar Pandey, Manoj; Gong, Bo; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-01-01

    While obtaining high-resolution structural details from bone is highly important to better understand its mechanical strength and the effects of aging and disease on bone ultrastructure, it has been a major challenge to do so with existing biophysical techniques. Though solid-state NMR spectroscopy has the potential to reveal the structural details of bone, it suffers from poor spectral resolution and sensitivity. Nonetheless, recent developments in magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR technology have made it possible to spin solid samples up to 110?kHz frequency. With such remarkable capabilities, 1H-detected NMR experiments that have traditionally been challenging on rigid solids can now be implemented. Here, we report the first application of multidimensional 1H-detected NMR measurements on bone under ultrafast MAS conditions to provide atomistic-level elucidation of the complex heterogeneous structure of bone. Our investigations demonstrate that two-dimensional 1H/1H chemical shift correlation spectra for bone are obtainable using fp-RFDR (finite-pulse radio-frequency-driven dipolar recoupling) pulse sequence under ultrafast MAS. Our results infer that water exhibits distinct 1H?1H dipolar coupling networks with the backbone and side-chain regions in collagen. These results show the promising potential of proton-detected ultrafast MAS NMR for monitoring structural and dynamic changes caused by mechanical loading and disease in bone. PMID:26153138

  6. Structural Studies of Biomaterials Using Double-Quantum Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobny, G. P.; Long, J. R.; Karlsson, T.; Shaw, W.; Popham, J.; Oyler, N.; Bower, P.; Stringer, J.; Gregory, D.; Mehta, M.; Stayton, P. S.

    2003-10-01

    Proteins directly control the nucleation and growth of biominerals, but the details of molecular recognition at the protein-biomineral interface remain poorly understood. The elucidation of recognition mechanisms at this interface may provide design principles for advanced materials development in medical and ceramic composites technologies. Here, we describe both the theory and practice of double-quantum solid-state NMR (ssNMR) structure-determination techniques, as they are used to determine the secondary structures of surface-adsorbed peptides and proteins. In particular, we have used ssNMR dipolar techniques to provide the first high-resolution structural and dynamic characterization of a hydrated biomineralization protein, salivary statherin, adsorbed to its biologically relevant hydroxyapatite (HAP) surface. Here, we also review NMR data on peptides designed to adsorb from aqueous solutions onto highly porous hydrophobic surfaces with specific helical secondary structures. The adsorption or covalent attachment of biological macromolecules onto polymer materials to improve their biocompatibility has been pursued using a variety of approaches, but key to understanding their efficacy is the verification of the structure and dynamics of the immobilized biomolecules using double-quantum ssNMR spectroscopy.

  7. Nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) enhancement of 11B NMR spectra of borane adducts in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Ashbrook, Sharon E; Dowell, Nicholas G; Prokes, Ivan; Wimperis, Stephen

    2006-05-31

    A strong 11B {1H} nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) enhancement can be observed in solid-state 11B NMR spectra of borane adducts, yielding fractional enhancements, fI{S} = (I - I0)/I0, of the magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR signal of up to 155%. This is an interesting and unusual observation as 11B (spin I = 3/2) is a quadrupolar nucleus and the corresponding NOE is completely absent in solution. More generally, it shows that the NOE may have a wider role to play in solid-state NMR studies of dynamics than has been envisaged hitherto. PMID:16719446

  8. Solid-state 87Rb NMR study in powdered RbMnCl3.

    PubMed

    Woo, A J; Park, Y S; Jeong, S Y

    2000-01-01

    Structural phase transition at 290 K and the implication on the intermediate phase above 290 K in powdered RbMnCl3 are observed by using a solid-state 87Rb NMR spectroscopy. Quadrupole coupling constants (e2qQ/h), the asymmetry parameters (eta), and the relative peak intensities for two physically nonequivalent Rb sites, Rb(I) and Rb(II), are determined from nonlinear least-squares fits to the 87Rb NMR powder patterns in the temperature range from 260 to 330 K. Quadrupole coupling constants and the asymmetry parameters are examined for the detection of the phase transition resulting in a significant structural change in the Rb(II) site. In addition, changes in the relative peak intensity between the Rb(I) and Rb(II) sites seem to suggest the existence of an anomalous intermediate phase, which is complemented by the differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies. PMID:11235024

  9. Deuterium solid-state NMR study of the dynamics of molecules sorbed by zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Eckman, R.R.; Vega, A.J.

    1986-09-11

    The dynamics of small organic molecules sorbed by zeolite molecular sieves has been investigated by using solid-state deuterium NMR. The systems studied include methanol, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene sorbed by zeolites ZSM-5, mordenite, Y, and erionite. The dynamics of uptake or filling of the zeolite void volume has been observed. Intracrystalline molecular motion has been observed and used to characterize the molecular sieve effect. For example, a preferred diffusion of p-xylene in the straight channels of ZSM-5 has been observed, which tends to support the theory of molecular traffic control. The physical state of physisorbed species is described in the light of the deuterium NMR results. The behavior of sorbed molecules is characterized as that of surface-adsorbed species. The effects of site-selective adsorption and diffusion on the state of sorbed species is described.

  10. Solid state 13C NMR characterisation study on fourth generation Ziegler-Natta catalysts.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Harri; Liitiä, Tiina; Virkkunen, Ville; Leinonen, Timo; Helaja, Tuulamari; Denifl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this study, solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy was utilised to characterize and identify the metal-ester coordination in active fourth generation (phthalate) Ziegler-Natta catalysts. It is known that different donors affect the active species in ZN catalysts. However, there is still limited data available of detailed molecular information how the donors and the active species are interplaying. One of the main goals of this work was to get better insight into the interactions of donor and active species. Based on the anisotropy tensor values (?(11), ?(22), ?(33)) from low magic-angle spinning (MAS) (13)C NMR spectra in combination with chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) calculations (?(aniso) and ?), both the coordinative metal (Mg/Ti) and the symmetry of this interaction between metal and the internal donor in the active catalyst (MgCl(2)/TiCl(4)/electron donor) system could be identified. PMID:22425229

  11. A solid-state 55Mn NMR spectroscopy and DFT investigation of manganese pentacarbonyl compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Feindel, Kirk W.; Ooms, Kristopher J.; Wasylishen, Roderick E.

    2007-01-23

    Central transition 55Mn NMR spectra of several solid manganese pentacarbonyls acquired at magnetic field strengths of 11.75, 17.63, and 21.1 T are presented. The variety of distinct powder sample lineshapes obtained demonstrates the sensitivity of solid-state 55Mn NMR to the local bonding environment, including the presence of crystallographically unique Mn sites, and facilitates the extraction of the Mn chemical shift anisotropies, CSAs, and the nuclear quadrupolar parameters. The compounds investigated include molecules with approximate C4v symmetry, LMn(CO)5 (L ¼ Cl, Br, I, HgMn(CO)5, CH3) and several molecules of lower symmetry (L ¼ PhCH2, Ph3*nClnSn (n ¼ 1, 2, 3)). For these compounds, the Mn CSA values range from o100 ppm for Cl3SnMn(CO)5 to 1260 ppm for ClMn(CO)5. At 21.1 T the 55Mn NMR lineshapes are appreciably influenced by the Mn CSA despite the presence of significant 55Mn quadrupolar coupling constants that range from 8.0 MHz for Cl3SnMn(CO)5 to 35.0 MHz for CH3Mn(CO)5. The breadth of the solid-state 55Mn NMR spectra of the pentacarbonyl halides is dominated by the CSA at all three applied magnetic fields. DFT calculations of the Mn magnetic shielding tensors reproduce the experimental trends and the magnitude of the CSA is qualitatively rationalized using a molecular orbital, MO, interpretation based on Ramsey’s theory of magnetic shielding. In addition to the energy differences between symmetry-appropriate occupied and virtual MOs, the d-character of the Mn MOs is important for determining the paramagnetic shielding contribution to the principal components of the magnetic shielding tensor.

  12. Solid-state NMR analyses of the structure and dynamics of polymers in the different states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horii, Fumitaka; Kaji, Hironori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Kenji; Tai, Toshihiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent investigations of the structure and molecular motions of synthetic polymers in the different states, which were mainly carried out by solid-state 13C or 2H NMR spectroscopy. First, the crystalline-noncrystalline structure is characterized in detail for metallocene-catalyzed linear low density polyethylene, which was isothermally crystallized from the melt. Secondly, the characteristic chain conformation, the alternate trans and rapid trans-gauche exchange conformation, is revealed for the spacer methylene sequence in the frozen liquid crystalline region for thermotropic liquid crystalline polyurethane, which was crystallized from the isotropic phase through the nematic liquid crystalline phase. Thirdly, different types of splittings of CH resonance lines, which will be induced mainly by the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the triad sequence, are shown in the frozen solution states for poly(vinyl alcohol) samples with different tacticities. It is finally pointed out by solid-state 2H NMR analyses that both distributions in flip frequency and in flip angle should be taken into account for the precise characterization of the phenylene flip motion in glassy poly(ethylene terephthalate).

  13. Solid-state NMR studies of the prion protein H1 fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Heller, J.; Kolbert, A. C.; Larsen, R.; Ernst, M.; Bekker, T.; Baldwin, M.; Prusiner, S. B.; Pines, A.; Wemmer, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Conformational changes in the prion protein (PrP) seem to be responsible for prion diseases. We have used conformation-dependent chemical-shift measurements and rotational-resonance distance measurements to analyze the conformation of solid-state peptides lacking long-range order, corresponding to a region of PrP designated H1. This region is predicted to undergo a transformation of secondary structure in generating the infectious form of the protein. Solid-state NMR spectra of specifically 13C-enriched samples of H1, residues 109-122 (MKHMAGAAAAGAVV) of Syrian hamster PrP, have been acquired under cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning conditions. Samples lyophilized from 50% acetonitrile/50% water show chemical shifts characteristic of a beta-sheet conformation in the region corresponding to residues 112-121, whereas samples lyophilized from hexafluoroisopropanol display shifts indicative of alpha-helical secondary structure in the region corresponding to residues 113-117. Complete conversion to the helical conformation was not observed and conversion from alpha-helix back to beta-sheet, as inferred from the solid-state NMR spectra, occurred when samples were exposed to water. Rotational-resonance experiments were performed on seven doubly 13C-labeled H1 samples dried from water. Measured distances suggest that the peptide is in an extended, possibly beta-strand, conformation. These results are consistent with the experimental observation that PrP can exist in different conformational states and with structural predictions based on biological data and theoretical modeling that suggest that H1 may play a key role in the conformational transition involved in the development of prion diseases. PMID:8844854

  14. Structural insights into the binding of cardiac glycosides to the digitalis receptor revealed by solid-state NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Middleton; Saffron Rankin; Mikael Esmann; Anthony Watts

    2000-01-01

    Several biologically active derivatives of the cardiotonic steroid ouabain have been made containing NMR isotopes (13C, 2H, and 19F) in the rhamnose sugar and steroid moieties, and examined at the digitalis receptor site of renal Na+\\/K+-ATPase by a combination of solid-state NMR methods. Deuterium NMR spectra of 2H-labeled inhibitors revealed that the sugar group was only loosely associated with the

  15. Quantitative solid-state 13C NMR with signal enhancement by multiple cross polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert L.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    A simple new method is presented that yields quantitative solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) 13C NMR spectra of organic materials with good signal-to-noise ratios. It achieves long (>10 ms) cross polarization (CP) from 1H without significant magnetization losses due to relaxation and with a moderate duty cycle of the radio-frequency irradiation, by multiple 1-ms CP periods alternating with 1H spin-lattice relaxation periods that repolarize the protons. The new method incorporates previous techniques that yield less distorted CP/MAS spectra, such as a linear variation (“ramp”) of the radio-frequency field strength, and it overcomes their main limitation, which is T1? relaxation of the spin-locked 1H magnetization. The ramp of the radio-frequency field strength and the asymptotic limit of cross polarization makes the spectral intensity quite insensitive to the exact field strengths used. The new multiCP pulse sequence is a “drop-in” replacement for previous CP methods and produces no additional data-processing burden. Compared to the only reliable quantitative 13C NMR method for unlabeled solids previously available, namely direct-polarization NMR, the measuring time is reduced by more than a factor of 50, enabling higher-throughput quantitative NMR studies. The new multiCP technique is validated with 14-kHz MAS on amino-acid derivatives, plant matter, a highly aromatic humic acid, and carbon materials made by low-temperature pyrolysis.

  16. Quantitative solid-state 13C NMR with signal enhancement by multiple cross polarization.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert L; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    A simple new method is presented that yields quantitative solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) (13)C NMR spectra of organic materials with good signal-to-noise ratios. It achieves long (>10ms) cross polarization (CP) from (1)H without significant magnetization losses due to relaxation and with a moderate duty cycle of the radio-frequency irradiation, by multiple 1-ms CP periods alternating with (1)H spin-lattice relaxation periods that repolarize the protons. The new method incorporates previous techniques that yield less distorted CP/MAS spectra, such as a linear variation ("ramp") of the radio-frequency field strength, and it overcomes their main limitation, which is T1? relaxation of the spin-locked (1)H magnetization. The ramp of the radio-frequency field strength and the asymptotic limit of cross polarization makes the spectral intensity quite insensitive to the exact field strengths used. The new multiCP pulse sequence is a "drop-in" replacement for previous CP methods and produces no additional data-processing burden. Compared to the only reliable quantitative (13)C NMR method for unlabeled solids previously available, namely direct-polarization NMR, the measuring time is reduced by more than a factor of 50, enabling higher-throughput quantitative NMR studies. The new multiCP technique is validated with 14-kHz MAS on amino-acid derivatives, plant matter, a highly aromatic humic acid, and carbon materials made by low-temperature pyrolysis. PMID:24374751

  17. Cellular solid-state NMR investigation of a membrane protein using dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Caporini, Marc A; Im, Sang-Choul; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-01-01

    While an increasing number of structural biology studies successfully demonstrate the power of high-resolution structures and dynamics of membrane proteins in fully understanding their function, there is considerable interest in developing NMR approaches to obtain such information in a cellular setting. As long as the proteins inside the living cell tumble rapidly in the NMR timescale, recently developed in-cell solution NMR approaches can provide 3D structural information. However, there are numerous challenges to study membrane proteins inside a cell. Research in our laboratory is focused on developing a combination of solid-state NMR and biological approaches to overcome these challenges in order to obtain high-resolution structural insights into electron transfer processes mediated by membrane-bound proteins like mammalian cytochrome-b5, cytochrome-P450 and cytochrome-P450-reductase. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy for in-cell studies on a membrane-anchored protein. Our experimental results obtained from ¹³C-labeled membrane-anchored cytochrome-b5 in native Escherichia coli cells show a ~16-fold DNP signal enhancement. Further, results obtained from a 2D ¹³C/¹³C chemical shift correlation MAS experiment demonstrate the feasibility of suppressing the background signals from other cellular contents for high-resolution structural studies on membrane proteins. We believe that this study would pave new avenues for high-resolution structural studies on a variety of membrane-associated proteins and their complexes in the cellular context to fully understand their functional roles in physiological processes. PMID:25017802

  18. Solid State NMR Investigations of Chain Dynamics and Network Order in Model Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J P; Mayer, B P; Wilson, T S; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S

    2010-12-09

    This work is at a relatively early stage, however it has been demonstrated that we can reliably probe basic network architectures using the MQ-NMR technique. The initial results are in good agreement with what is known from standard network theory and will serve as a basis for the study of progressively increasing structural complexity in Siloxane network systems.

  19. Probing Access Resistance of Solid-state Nanopores with a Scanning Probe Microscope Tip.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Changbae; Rollings, Ryan; Li, Jiali

    2012-02-01

    An apparatus that integrates solid-state nanopore ionic current measurement with a Scanning Probe Microscope has been developed. When a micrometer-scale scanning probe tip is near a voltage biased nanometer-scale pore (10-100 nm), the tip partially blocks the flow of ions to the pore and increases the pore access resistance. The apparatus records the current blockage caused by the probe tip and the location of the tip simultaneously. By measuring the current blockage map near a nanopore as a function of the tip position in 3D space in salt solution, we estimate the relative pore resistance increase due to the tip, ?R/R(0), as a function of the tip location, nanopore geometry, and salt concentration. The amplitude of ?R/R(0) also depends on the ratio of the pore length to its radius as Ohm's law predicts. When the tip is very close to the pore surface, ~10 nm, our experiments show that ?R/R(0) depends on salt concentration as predicted by the Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations. Furthermore, our measurements show that ?R/R(0) goes to zero when the tip is about five times the pore diameter away from the center of the pore entrance. The results in this work not only demonstrate a way to probe the access resistance of nanopores experimentally, they also provide a way to locate the nanopore in salt solution, and open the door to future nanopore experiments for detecting single biomolecules attached to a probe tip. PMID:22393313

  20. Probing access resistance of solid-state nanopores with a scanning-probe microscope tip.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Changbae; Rollings, Ryan; Li, Jiali

    2012-02-01

    An apparatus that integrates solid-state nanopore ionic current measurement with a scanning-probe microscope is developed. When a micrometer-scale scanning-probe tip is near a voltage-biased nanometer-scale pore (10–100 nm), the tip partially blocks the flow of ions to the pore and increases the pore access resistance. The apparatus records the current blockage caused by the probe tip and the location of the tip simultaneously. By measuring the current blockage map near a nanopore as a function of the tip position in 3D space in salt solution, the relative pore resistance increases due to the tip and ?R/R0 is estimated as a function of the tip location, nanopore geometry, and salt concentration. The amplitude of ?R/R0 also depends on the ratio of the pore length to its radius as Ohm's law predicts. When the tip is very close to the pore surface, ?10 nm, experiments show that ?R/R0 depends on salt concentration as predicted by the Poisson and Nernst–Planck equations. Furthermore, the measurements show that ?R/R0 goes to zero when the tip is about five times the pore diameter away from the center of the pore entrance. The results in this work not only demonstrate a way to probe the access resistance of nanopores experimentally; they also provide a way to locate the nanopore in salt solution, and open the door to future nanopore experiments for detecting single biomolecules attached to a probe tip. PMID:22287084

  1. De novo determination of peptide structure with solid-state magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienstra, Chad M.; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; Jaroniec, Christopher P.; Hohwy, Morten; Reif, Bernd; McMahon, Michael T.; Tidor, Bruce; Lozano-Pérez, Tomás; Griffin, Robert G.

    2002-08-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-L-Met-L-Leu-L-Phe-OH was determined by using solid-state NMR (SSNMR). The set of SSNMR data consisted of 16 13C-15N distances and 18 torsion angle constraints (on 10 angles), recorded from uniformly 13C,15N- and 15N-labeled samples. The peptide's structure was calculated by means of simulated annealing and a newly developed protocol that ensures that all of conformational space, consistent with the structural constraints, is searched completely. The result is a high-quality structure of a molecule that has thus far not been amenable to single-crystal diffraction studies. The extensions of the SSNMR techniques and computational methods to larger systems appear promising.

  2. Proton decoupling and recoupling under double-nutation irradiation in solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kazuyuki; Wakisaka, Asato; Takegoshi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of 1H decoupling in magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR is studied under radiofrequency irradiation causing simultaneous nutations around a pair of orthogonal axes. Double-nutation with an arbitrary pair of nutation frequencies is implemented through modulation of the amplitude, phase, and frequency of the transmitting pulses. Similarity and difference of double-nutation decoupling and two-pulse phase-modulation decoupling schemes [A. E. Bennett, C. M. Rienstra, M. Auger, K. V. Lakshmi, and R. G. Griffin, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 6951-6958 (1995) and I. Scholz, P. Hodgkinson, B. H. Meier, and M. Ernst, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114510 (2009)] are discussed. The structure of recoupling bands caused by interference of the 1H spin nutation with sample spinning is studied by both experiments and numerical simulations.

  3. Characterization of water dynamics in frozen soils by solid-state deuteron NMR.

    PubMed

    Vugmeyster, Liliya; Do, Tien; Ostrovsky, Dmitry; Fu, Riqiang; Hagedorn, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    The presence of unfrozen water in soils at sub-freezing temperatures is important for biogeochemical processes as well as for the genesis of landscapes and survival of life. While several mechanisms can lead to the existence of liquid water at sub-freezing temperatures, this work focuses on the dynamical (entropic) contribution stemming from motions of water molecules at water-soil or water-ice interfaces. We demonstrate the utility of solid-state (2)H NMR methods for characterization of water dynamics in soils on various time scales. Using a sample from McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, we show the existence of dynamics spanning a milliseconds to picoseconds time scale range. Computational modeling allows for a quantitative description of the dynamics, which involves models such as an exchange between bound and free water, and changes in effective viscosity of water in the soil matrix. PMID:22578873

  4. Study of Multiple Rounds of Error Correction in Solid State NMR QIP

    E-print Network

    Ben Criger; Osama Moussa; Raymond Laflamme

    2011-03-22

    Methods to control errors will be essential for quantum information processing. It is widely believed that fault-tolerant quantum error correction is the leading contender to achieve this goal. Although the theory of fault-tolerant quantum error correction is very well understood, experimental implementation has been lagging. We study the feasibility of implementing repeated rounds of quantum error correction with refreshed ancillas in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In particular we study the procedure proposed for extracting entropy that consists of two stages; an error correcting code optimized to function at finite temperature, and an implementation of heat-bath algorithmic cooling to refresh the ancilla qubits. Two algorithms are presented which implement this method, one for performing tests on 4 qubits, the other for practical implementation on 6 qubits. The effects of imperfect implementation are examined in both the error correction and refreshing stages.

  5. Characterization of the Vibrio cholerae extracellular matrix: a top-down solid-state NMR approach.

    PubMed

    Reichhardt, Courtney; Fong, Jiunn C N; Yildiz, Fitnat; Cegelski, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are communities of bacterial cells surrounded by a self-secreted extracellular matrix. Biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae, the human pathogen responsible for cholera, contributes to its environmental survival and infectivity. Important genetic and molecular requirements have been identified for V. cholerae biofilm formation, yet a compositional accounting of these parts in the intact biofilm or extracellular matrix has not been described. As insoluble and non-crystalline assemblies, determinations of biofilm composition pose a challenge to conventional biochemical and biophysical analyses. The V. cholerae extracellular matrix composition is particularly complex with several proteins, complex polysaccharides, and other biomolecules having been identified as matrix parts. We developed a new top-down solid-state NMR approach to spectroscopically assign and quantify the carbon pools of the intact V. cholerae extracellular matrix using ¹³C CPMAS and ¹³C{(¹?N}, ¹?N{³¹P}, and ¹³C{³¹P}REDOR. General sugar, lipid, and amino acid pools were first profiled and then further annotated and quantified as specific carbon types, including carbonyls, amides, glycyl carbons, and anomerics. In addition, ¹?N profiling revealed a large amine pool relative to amide contributions, reflecting the prevalence of molecular modifications with free amine groups. Our top-down approach could be implemented immediately to examine the extracellular matrix from mutant strains that might alter polysaccharide production or lipid release beyond the cell surface; or to monitor changes that may accompany environmental variations and stressors such as altered nutrient composition, oxidative stress or antibiotics. More generally, our analysis has demonstrated that solid-state NMR is a valuable tool to characterize complex biofilm systems. PMID:24911407

  6. Solid state NMR method development and studies of biological and biomimetic nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yanyan

    2011-02-07

    This thesis describes application and development of advanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for complex materials, in particular organic-inorganic nanocomposites and thermoelectric tellurides. The apatite-collagen interface, essential for understanding the biomineralization process in bone and engineering the interface for controlled bio-mimetic synthesis and optimized mechanical properties, is buried within the nanocomposite of bone. We used multinuclear solid-state NMR to study the composition and structure of the interface. Citrate has been identified as the main organic molecule strongly bound to the apatite surface with a density of 1/(2 nm){sup 2}, covering 1/6 of the total surface area in bovine bone. Citrate provides more carboxylate groups, one of the key functional groups found to affect apatite nucleation and growth, than all the non-collagenous proteins all together in bone; thus we propose that citrate stabilizes apatite crystals at a very small thickness of {approx}3 nm (4 unit cells) to increase bone fracture tolerance. The hypothesis has been confirmed in vitro by adding citrate in the bio-mimetic synthesis of polymerhydroxyapatite nanocomposites. The results have shown that the size of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals decreases as increasing citrate concentration. With citrate concentrations comparable to that in body fluids, similar-sized nanocrystals as in bone have been produced. Besides the dimensions of the apatite crystals, the composition of bone also affects its biofunctional and macroscopic mechanical properties; therefore, our team also extended its effort to enhance the inorganic portion in our bio-mimetic synthesis from originally 15 wt% to current 50 wt% compared to 65 wt% in bovine bone, by using Lysine-Leucine hydroxyapatite nucleating diblock co-polypeptide, which forms a gel at very low concentration. In this thesis, various advanced solid state NMR techniques have been employed to characterize nanocomposites. Meanwhile, we have developed new methods to achieve broadband high resolution NMR and improve the accuracy of inter-nuclear distance measurements involving quadrupolar spins. Broadband high resolution NMR of spin-1/2 nuclei has been accomplished by the adaptation of the magic angle turning (MAT) method to fast magic angle spinning, termed fast MAT, by solving technical problems such as off resonance effects. Fast MAT separates chemical shift anisotropy and isotropic chemical shifts over a spectral range of {approx}1.8 {gamma}B{sub 1} without significant distortions. Fast MAT {sup 125}Te NMR has been applied to study technologically important telluride materials with spectra spreading up to 190 kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra is significantly improved by using echo-matched Gaussian filtering in offline data processing. The accuracy of the measured distances between spin-1/2 and quadrupolar nuclei with methods such as SPIDER and REAPDOR has been improved by compensating for the fast longitudinal quadrupolar relaxation on the sub-millisecond with a modified S{sub 0} pulse sequence. Also, the T1Q effect on the spin coherence and its spinning speed dependency has been explored and documented with analytical and numerical simulations as well as experimental measurements.

  7. Orientation and Dynamics of an Antimicrobial Peptide in the Lipid Bilayer by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru Yamaguchi; Daniel Huster; Alan Waring; Robert I. Lehrer; William Kearney; Brian F. Tack; Mei Hong

    2001-01-01

    The orientation and dynamics of an 18-residue antimicrobial peptide, ovispirin, has been investigated using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Ovispirin is a cathelicidin-like model peptide (NH2-KNLRRIIRKIIHIIKKYG-COOH) with potent, broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. 15N NMR spectra of oriented ovispirin reconstituted into synthetic phospholipids show that the helical peptide is predominantly oriented in the plane of the lipid bilayer, except for a small portion of

  8. Control of the Pump Cycle in Bacteriorhodopsin: Mechanisms Elucidated by Solid-State NMR of the D85N Mutant

    E-print Network

    Griffin, Robert G.

    Control of the Pump Cycle in Bacteriorhodopsin: Mechanisms Elucidated by Solid-State NMR of the D85 as an inward-driven hydroxyl pump (analogous to halorhodopsin) rather than an outward-driven proton pump. Third. INTRODUCTION Proton pumps create transmembrane electrochemical poten- tials that provide energy for cellular

  9. Multinuclear Solid-State NMR Studies of Polymers and Immobilized Sonogashira Catalysts for Cross-Coupling Reactions

    E-print Network

    Pope, Jacqueline Christine

    2014-08-28

    °C (ca. 600 °F). Interactions and reactions of H2O with the functional groups of the polymers are studied using D2O in combination with IR, 2H MAS, and 1H wideline solid-state NMR. Three different processes taking place during high-temperature steam...

  10. Cell wall changes in ripening kiwifruit: 13C solid state NMR characterisation of relatively rigid cell wall polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Newman; R. J. Redgwell

    2002-01-01

    Cell wall material was isolated from the outer pericarp of kiwifruit at harvest and at several ripening stages following a postharvest ethylene treatment. Solid state 13C NMR spectra showed no evidence for changes in the nature of the cellulose crystallites or the polysaccharides adhering to crystallite surfaces even in cell wall material isolated from fruits in which cell wall dissolution

  11. Frequency-swept pulse sequences for 19F heteronuclear spin decoupling in solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinod Chandran, C.; Madhu, P. K.; Wormald, Philip; Bräuniger, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Heteronuclear spin decoupling pulse sequences in solid-state NMR have mostly been designed and applied for irradiating 1H as the abundant nucleus. Here, a systematic comparison of different methods for decoupling 19F in rigid organic solids is presented, with a special emphasis on the recently introduced frequency-swept sequences. An extensive series of NMR experiments at different MAS frequencies was conducted on fluorinated model compounds, in combination with large sets of numerical simulations. From both experiments and simulations it can be concluded that the frequency-swept sequences SW f-TPPM and SW f-SPINAL deliver better and more robust spin decoupling than the original sequences SPINAL and TPPM. Whereas the existence of a large chemical shift anisotropy and isotropic shift dispersion for 19F does compromise the decoupling efficiency, the relative performance hierarchy of the sequences remains unaffected. Therefore, in the context of rigid organic solids under moderate MAS frequencies, the performance trends observed for 19F decoupling are very similar to those observed for 1H decoupling.

  12. Comparison among Magnus/Floquet/Fer expansion schemes in solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Takegoshi, K; Miyazawa, Norihiro; Sharma, Kshama; Madhu, P K

    2015-04-01

    We here revisit expansion schemes used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the calculation of effective Hamiltonians and propagators, namely, Magnus, Floquet, and Fer expansions. While all the expansion schemes are powerful methods there are subtle differences among them. To understand the differences, we performed explicit calculation for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling, cross-polarization, and rotary-resonance experiments in solid-state NMR. As the propagator from the Fer expansion takes the form of a product of sub-propagators, it enables us to appreciate effects of time-evolution under Hamiltonians with different orders separately. While 0th-order average Hamiltonian is the same for the three expansion schemes with the three cases examined, there is a case that the 2nd-order term for the Magnus/Floquet expansion is different from that obtained with the Fer expansion. The difference arises due to the separation of the 0th-order term in the Fer expansion. The separation enables us to appreciate time-evolution under the 0th-order average Hamiltonian, however, for that purpose, we use a so-called left-running Fer expansion. Comparison between the left-running Fer expansion and the Magnus expansion indicates that the sign of the odd orders in Magnus may better be reversed if one would like to consider its effect in order. PMID:25854235

  13. Intermediate Rate Atomic Trajectories of RNA by Solid State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Greg L.; Bardaro, Michael F.; Echodu, Dorothy C.; Drobny, Gary P.; Varani, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Many RNAs undergo large conformational changes in response to the binding of proteins and small molecules. However, when RNA functional dynamics occur in the ns-?s time scale they become invisible to traditional solution NMR relaxation methods. Residual dipolar couplings methods have revealed the presence of extensive ns-?s domain motions in HIV-1 TAR RNA, but this technique lacks information on the rates of motions. We have used solid-state deuterium NMR to quantitatively describe trajectories of key residues in TAR by exploiting the sensitivity of this technique to motions that occur in the ns-?s regime. Deuterium lineshape and relaxation data were used to model motions of residues within the TAR binding interface. The resulting motional models indicate that two functionally essential bases within the single stranded bulge sample both the free and Tat-bound conformations on the microsecond timescale in the complete absence of the protein. Thus, our results strongly support a conformational capture mechanism for recognition: the protein does not induce a new RNA structure, but instead captures an already-populated conformation. PMID:19994901

  14. Optimizing Oriented Planar-Supported Lipid Samples for Solid-State Protein NMR

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, Jan K.; Sykes, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    Sample orientation relative to the static magnetic field of an NMR spectrometer allows study of membrane proteins in the lipid bilayer setting. The straightforward preparation and handling of extremely thin mica substrates with consistent surface properties has prompted us to examine oriented phospholipid bilayer and hexagonal phases on mica. The spectral characteristics of oriented lipid samples formed on mica are as good as or better than those on glass. Nine solvents with varying dielectric constants were used to cast lipid films or for vesicle spreading; film characteristics were then compared, and static solid-state 31P-NMR was used to characterize the degree of orientation of the hydrated lipid species. Lipids with four headgroup chemistries were tested: 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA), and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). Solvent affected orientation of POPG, DOPA, and DOPE, but not POPC. Film characteristics varied with solvent, with ramifications for producing homogeneous oriented lipid samples. POPC was used to optimize the amount of lipid per substrate and compare hydration methods. POPG did not orient reproducibly, whereas POPG-POPC mixtures did. DOPA showed 1–2 oriented states depending upon hydration level and deposition method. DOPE formed an oriented hexagonal phase that underwent a reversible temperature-induced phase transition to the oriented bilayer phase. PMID:16085766

  15. Protein structure determination by high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy: application to microcrystalline ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Zech, Stephan G; Wand, A Joshua; McDermott, Ann E

    2005-06-22

    High-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy has become a promising method for the determination of three-dimensional protein structures for systems which are difficult to crystallize or exhibit low solubility. Here we describe the structure determination of microcrystalline ubiquitin using 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation spectroscopy under magic angle spinning conditions. High-resolution (13)C spectra have been acquired from hydrated microcrystals of site-directed (13)C-enriched ubiquitin. Inter-residue carbon-carbon distance constraints defining the global protein structure have been evaluated from 'dipolar-assisted rotational resonance' experiments recorded at various mixing times. Additional constraints on the backbone torsion angles have been derived from chemical shift analysis. Using both distance and dihedral angle constraints, the structure of microcrystalline ubiquitin has been refined to a root-mean-square deviation of about 1 A. The structure determination strategies for solid samples described herein are likely to be generally applicable to many proteins that cannot be studied by X-ray crystallography or solution NMR spectroscopy. PMID:15954766

  16. Frequency-swept pulse sequences for 19F heteronuclear spin decoupling in solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Chandran, C Vinod; Madhu, P K; Wormald, Philip; Bräuniger, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Heteronuclear spin decoupling pulse sequences in solid-state NMR have mostly been designed and applied for irradiating 1H as the abundant nucleus. Here, a systematic comparison of different methods for decoupling 19F in rigid organic solids is presented, with a special emphasis on the recently introduced frequency-swept sequences. An extensive series of NMR experiments at different MAS frequencies was conducted on fluorinated model compounds, in combination with large sets of numerical simulations. From both experiments and simulations it can be concluded that the frequency-swept sequences SWf-TPPM and SWf-SPINAL deliver better and more robust spin decoupling than the original sequences SPINAL and TPPM. Whereas the existence of a large chemical shift anisotropy and isotropic shift dispersion for 19F does compromise the decoupling efficiency, the relative performance hierarchy of the sequences remains unaffected. Therefore, in the context of rigid organic solids under moderate MAS frequencies, the performance trends observed for 19F decoupling are very similar to those observed for 1H decoupling. PMID:20729111

  17. Variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR study of the molecular structure of honeybee wax and silk.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tsunenori; Tamada, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the native-state crystal structure of beeswax from the Japanese bee, Apis cerana japonica, we determined the relationship between temperature and the 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift of methylene carbon of beeswax, with comparison to n-alkanes and polyethylene in the orthorhombic, monoclinic, or triclinic crystal form. Variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR observations of n-alkanes and polyethylene revealed that the chemical shifts of methylene carbon in the orthorhombic crystal form increased linearly with increasing temperature, that of the triclinic form decreased, and that of the monoclinic form was unaltered. These relations were compared with results of variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR observation of beeswax. Results clarified that the two crystal forms comprising the beeswax in the native state are orthorhombic and monoclinic. The variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR observations were also applied to interpret the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve of beeswax. They were used to clarify the structural changes of beeswax for widely various temperatures. For beeswax secreted by the Japanese bee, the transition from the orthorhombic form to the rotator phase occurred at 36 degrees C, that is from the crystalline to the intermediate state at 45 degrees C. Moreover, the variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR spectrum of honeybee silk in the native state was observed. Results demonstrated that the secondary structures of honeybee silk proteins in the native state comprised coexisting alpha-helix and beta-sheet conformations and that the amount of alpha-helices was greater. The alpha-helix content of honeybee silk was compared with that of hornet silk produced by Vespa larvae. PMID:19007807

  18. Sensitivity-enhanced solid-state NMR detection of expansin's target in plant cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Caporini, Marc A.; Rosay, Melanie; Zhong, Linghao; Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Hong, Mei

    2013-08-29

    Structure determination of protein binding to noncrystalline macromolecular assemblies such as plant cell walls (CWs) poses a significant structural biology challenge. CWs are loosened during growth by expansin proteins, which weaken the noncovalent network formed by cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins, but the CW target of expansins has remained elusive because of the minute amount of the protein required for activity and the complex nature of the CW. Using solid-state NMR spectroscopy, combined with sensitivity-enhancing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and differential isotopic labeling of expansin and polysaccharides, we have now determined the functional binding target of expansin in the Arabidopsis thaliana CW. By transferring the electron polarization of a biradical dopant to the nuclei, DNP allowed selective detection of 13C spin diffusion from trace concentrations of 13C, 15N-labeled expansin in the CW to nearby polysaccharides. From the spin diffusion data of wild-type and mutant expansins, we conclude that to loosen the CW, expansin binds highly specific cellulose domains enriched in xyloglucan, whereas more abundant binding to pectins is unrelated to activity. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate short 13C-13C distances of 4–6 Å between a hydrophobic surface of the cellulose microfibril and an aromatic motif on the expansin surface, consistent with the observed NMR signals. DNP-enhanced 2D 13C correlation spectra further reveal that the expansin-bound cellulose has altered conformation and is enriched in xyloglucan, thus providing unique insight into the mechanism of CW loosening. DNP-enhanced NMR provides a powerful, generalizable approach for investigating protein binding to complex macromolecular targets.

  19. Sensitivity-enhanced solid-state NMR detection of expansin's target in plant cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tuo [Ames Laboratory; Park, Yong Bum [Pennsylvania State University; Caporini, Marc A. [Bruker Biospin Corporation; Rosay, Melanie [Bruker Biospin Corporation; Zhong, Linghao [Pennsylvania State University; Cosgrove, Daniel J. [Pennsylvania State University; Hong, Mei [Ames Laboratory

    2013-08-29

    Structure determination of protein binding to noncrystalline macromolecular assemblies such as plant cell walls (CWs) poses a significant structural biology challenge. CWs are loosened during growth by expansin proteins, which weaken the noncovalent network formed by cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins, but the CW target of expansins has remained elusive because of the minute amount of the protein required for activity and the complex nature of the CW. Using solid-state NMR spectroscopy, combined with sensitivity-enhancing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and differential isotopic labeling of expansin and polysaccharides, we have now determined the functional binding target of expansin in the Arabidopsis thaliana CW. By transferring the electron polarization of a biradical dopant to the nuclei, DNP allowed selective detection of 13C spin diffusion from trace concentrations of 13C, 15N-labeled expansin in the CW to nearby polysaccharides. From the spin diffusion data of wild-type and mutant expansins, we conclude that to loosen the CW, expansin binds highly specific cellulose domains enriched in xyloglucan, whereas more abundant binding to pectins is unrelated to activity. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate short 13C-13C distances of 4–6 Å between a hydrophobic surface of the cellulose microfibril and an aromatic motif on the expansin surface, consistent with the observed NMR signals. DNP-enhanced 2D 13C correlation spectra further reveal that the expansin-bound cellulose has altered conformation and is enriched in xyloglucan, thus providing unique insight into the mechanism of CW loosening. DNP-enhanced NMR provides a powerful, generalizable approach for investigating protein binding to complex macromolecular targets.

  20. 1H to 13C Energy Transfer in Solid State NMR Spectroscopy of Natural Organic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berns, Anne E.; Conte, Pellegrino

    2010-05-01

    Cross polarization (CP) magic angle spinning (MAS) 13C-NMR spectroscopy is a solid state NMR technique widely used to study chemical composition of organic materials with low or no solubility in the common deuterated solvents used to run liquid state NMR experiments. Based on the magnetization transfer from abundant nuclei (with spin of 1 -2) having a high gyromagnetic ratio (?), such as protons, to the less abundant 13C nuclei with low ? values, 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy is often applied in environmental chemistry to obtain quantitative information on the chemical composition of natural organic matter (NOM) (Conte et al., 2004), although its quantitative assessment is still matter of heavy debates. Many authors (Baldock et al., 1997; Conte et al., 1997, 2002; Dria et al., 2002; Kiem et al., 2000; Kögel-Knabner, 2000; Preston, 2001), reported that the application of appropriate instrument setup as well as the use of special pulse sequences and correct spectra elaboration may provide signal intensities that are directly proportional to the amount of nuclei creating a NMR signal. However, many other papers dealt with the quantitative unsuitability of 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. Among those, Mao et al. (2000), Smernik and Oades (2000 a,b), and Preston (2001) reported that cross-polarized NMR techniques may fail in a complete excitation of the 13C nuclei. In fact, the amount of observable carbons via 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy appeared, in many cases, lower than that measured by a direct observation of the 13C nuclei. As a consequence, cross-polarized NMR techniques may provide spectra where signal distribution may not be representative of the quantitative distribution of the different natural organic matter components. Cross-polarization is obtained after application of an initial 90° x pulse on protons and a further spin lock pulse (along the y axis) having a fixed length (contact time) for both nuclei (1H and 13C) once the Hartmann-Hahn condition is matched. The Hartmann-Hahn condition can be expressed as ?HB1H = ?CB1C, where ?H and ?C are the gyromagnetic ratios of protons and carbons, whereas B1H and B1C are the 1H and 13C radio-frequency (r.f.) fields applied to the nuclei. The Hartmann-Hahn condition is affected by the H-C dipolar interaction strength (Stejskal & Memory, 1994). All the factors affecting dipolar interactions may mismatch the Hartmann-Hahn condition and prevent a quantitative representation of the NOM chemical composition (Conte et al., 2004). It has been reported that under low speed MAS conditions, broad matching profiles are centered around the Hartmann-Hahn condition....... With increasing spinning speed the Hartmann-Hahn matching profiles break down in a series of narrow matching bands separated by the rotor frequency (Stejskal & Memory, 1994). In order to account for the instability of the Hartmann-Hahn condition at higher rotor spin rates (>10 kHz), variable amplitude cross-polarization techniques (RAMP-CP) have been developed (Metz et al., 1996). So far, to our knowledge, the prevailing way used to obtain quantitative 13C-CPMAS NMR results was to optimize the 1H and 13C spin lock r.f. fields on simple standard systems such as glycine and to use those r.f. field values to run experiments on unknown organic samples. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evidence that the stability of the Hartmann-Hahn condition was different for different samples with a known structure. Moreover, Hartmann-Hahn profiles of four different humic acids (HAs) were also provided in order to show that the 1H/13C r.f. spin lock field strength must also be tested on the HAs prior to a quantitative evaluation of their 13C-CPMAS NMR spectra. Baldock, J.A., Oades, J.M., Nelson, P.N., Skene, T.M., Golchin, A. & Clarke, P., 1997. Assessing the extent of decomposition of natural organic materials using solid-state C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 35, 1061-1083. Conte, P., Piccolo, A., van Lagen, B., Buurman, P. & de Jager, P.A., 1997. Quantitative Aspects of So

  1. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 29 (2006) 132141 A solid-state 13

    E-print Network

    Frydman, Lucio

    2006-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 29 (2006) 132­141 A solid-state 13 C NMR analysis with rigid and mobile populations in these semi-crystalline aramides, a model that yielded a proper description of the spectra at all temperatures. To further probe this model the relaxation behavior

  2. Application of solid state NMR for the study of surface bound species and fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, Stacey

    Recent advances in solid state NMR have been utilized to study a variety of systems. These advancements have allowed for the acquisition of sequences previously only available for solution state detection. The protocol for the measurement of coals and other carbonaceous materials was updated to incorporate the recent advancements in fast magic angle spinning (MAS) and high magnetic fields. Argonne Premium Coals were used to test the sensitivity and resolution of the experiments preformed at high field and fast MAS. The higher field spectra were shown to be slightly less sensitive than the traditional lower field spectra, however, the new high field fast MAS spectra had better resolution. This increased resolution allowed for the separation of a variety of different functional groups, thereby allowing the composition of the coal to be determined. The use of 1 H detection allowed for 2D spectra of coals for the first time. These spectra could be filtered to examine either through-space or through-bond correlations. Indirect detection via 1 H was also pivotal in the detection of natural abundance 15 N spectra. Through-space and through-bond 2D spectra of natural abundance bulk species are shown with a sensitivity increase of 15 fold over traditional detection. This sensitivity enhancement allowed for the detection of natural abundance 15 N surface bound species in 2D, something that could not be acquired via traditional methods. The increased efficiency of the through-space magnetization transfer, Cross polarization, at fast MAS compared to the slower MAS rates is shown. The through-bond magnetization transfer via INEPT was examined and the effect of J-coupling is confirmed. Solid State NMR can be utilized to help improve catalytic interactions. Solid state NMR was used to examine the aldol condensation between p-nitrobenzaldehyde and acetone. The formation of a stable intermediate with p-nitrobenzaldehyde was found on the primary functionalized amine mesoporous nanoparticle when the reaction was done in hexane. When secondary amines were used to catalyze the reaction, the reactivity was increased and no intermediate was observed. When the solvent was changed from hexane to water, a dramatic increase in the reactivity of the primary amine was observed. The secondary amine was shown to have a large decrease in activity with the solvent change. The role of surface silanols in the catalysis with the mesoporous silica nanoparticles is also examined. Implementation of pulsed field gradient fields allowed for an examination of the diffusion of two different solvents , hexane and water, within the primary functionalized amine heterogeneous mesoporous catalyst system. The diffusion of the 2.7 nm pore sizes were compared to the diffusion in the 3.7 nm pores. In hexane the intra-pore diffusion in the smaller pores was slower than the larger pores, agreeing well with the low catalytic yield seen in the aldol reaction.

  3. DFT, FT-Raman, FT-IR, liquid and solid state NMR studies of 2,6-dimethoxyphenylboronic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özgür Alver; Cemal Parlak

    2010-01-01

    Possible stable forms and molecular structures of 2,6-dimethoxyphenylboronic acid (2,6-dmpba) were studied experimentally and theoretically using FT-IR, Raman, liquid–solid state NMR and XRD spectroscopic methods. FT-IR and Raman spectra were recorded in the region of 4000–200cm?1. 13C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning NMR and liquid phase 1H, 13C and HETCOR NMR spectra of 2,6-dmpba ((CH3O)2C6H3B(OH)2) were reported. The optimized geometric structures concerning

  4. Solid-state NMR and IRMS characterization of smouldered peat from ombrotrophic cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Rein, Guillermo; Gioacchini, Paola; Knicker, Heike; Ciavatta, Claudio; Miano, Teodoro M.

    2013-04-01

    Smouldering fires are slow, low temperature, flameless and the most persistent form of combustion of organic matter (OM) in porous form. Although smouldering fires of peatlands represent a large perturbation of the atmospheric chemistry, to date, most studies on smouldering focused on ignition, carbon (C) losses or emissions, whereas the literature still lacks understanding of the OM evolution following these events. The potential to track OM changes able to serve as new proxies for the identification of past fire events along peat cores is extremely important, especially considering that bogs are often used as natural archives of paleoenvironmental changes. In the present work we show preliminary results about solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectroscopy (IRMS) characterization of peat OM along three Sphagnum peat columns (26 cm deep) having different initial moisture contents (MC): 50% MC, 100% MC, and 200% MC. The 15N spectrum of fresh peat (FP) used as control shows, as expected, only an amide signal, which is in agreement with the 13C NMR spectrum where mainly signals of carbohydrates and alkyl C can be observed. Further signals can be observed in the aromatic region, most probably due to lignin derivatives. Following the smouldering event, selected peat samples from both the 50% and 100% MC series show, as expected, signals supporting the occurrence of fire. In detail, the 15N-signals between -200 and -250 ppm are typical for pyrrole or indole type N. This is in accordance with the 13C NMR spectra showing considerable intensity in the aromatic region, most likely from char residues. Isotopic signatures (i.e., ?13C and ?15N) show a very interesting behaviour. In detail, ?13C seems to be slightly affected by smouldering, although the information about vegetational changes are preserved, whereas the ?15N shows a trend positively correlated with the relative N enrichment observed in smouldered peat samples, as also supported by 15N NMR. While further research is in progress to find reliable proxies allowing reconstruction of ancient smouldering events along peat profiles, our data provide an additional important insight towards assessing palaeoenvironmental conditions and highlighting that smouldering fires may have been overlooked as the cause of molecular and chemical variations observed in peat cores. The present research was financed by the Italian PRIN program 2009 (2009NBHPWR - Project title: "Chemical and biomolecular indicators for reconstructing environmental changes in natural archives")

  5. Structure and dynamics of DNA and RNA oligonucleotides as studied using solution and solid state NMR. [NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, A.C.C.

    1992-01-01

    NMR experiments reveal that the base H8/H6 and H1[prime] protons of RNA have T[sub 1] relaxation times that are distinctly longer than those of DNA. NMR and circular dichroism experiments indicate that the segments of RNA maintain their A-form geometry even in the interior of DNA-RNA-DNA chimeric duplexes, suggesting that the relaxation times are correlated with the type of helix topology. Results from solid state [sup 2]H NMR experiments on the purine C-8 deuterium-labeled 12 base pair RNA duplex [r(CG*CG*A*A*UUGG*CG*)][sub 2] were compared with results obtained by other investigators on the 12 base pair DNA duplex [d(CG*CG*A*A*TTCG*CG*)][sub 2]. The motional amplitudes of DNA and RNA purines are similar at 0%-88% RH and their internal rates of motion are different at 0%-80% RH. The assumption that dodecameric oligonucleotides (12-mers) tumble isotropically in solution is often used when calculating proton-proton distances from NOE data. The authors have undertaken the task of testing the isotropic assumption using experimental NMR data. The authors have calculated the structure of [d(GCGTTTAAACGC)][sub 2] using both the isotropic assumption and the assumption that the duplex tumbles anisotropically in solution like a perfect cylinder. The resulting structures from both approaches are virtually indistinguishable. The isotropic assumption is valid for oligonucleotides 12 base pairs and shorter. The solution structure of the 12 base pair hybrid chimeric duplex [r(gcg)d(TATATACGC)][sub 2] has been solved using NMR techniques combined with distance geometry and NOE back-calculation methods. The structure is characterized by a dramatic bend of 52[degrees] in the helix axis. The location of the bend is not at the RNA-DNA step but occurs between the first and second residues of the DNA segment. The center of the DNA TATATA segment has a remarkably narrow minor groove that becomes very wide in the hybrid portions of the duplex.

  6. High-Resolution NMR of Quadrupolar Nuclei in the Solid State

    SciTech Connect

    Gann, Sheryl Lee

    1995-11-30

    This dissertation describes recent developments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for the most part involving the use of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) NMR to study quadrupolar nuclei. Chapter 1 introduces some of the basic concepts and theory that will be referred to in later chapters, such as the density operator, product operators, rotations, coherence transfer pathways, phase cycling, and the various nuclear spin interactions, including the quadrupolar interaction. Chapter 2 describes the theory behind motional averaging experiments, including DAS, which is a technique where a sample is spun sequentially about two axis oriented at different angles with respect to the external magnetic field such that the chemical shift and quadrupolar anisotropy are averaged to zero. Work done on various rubidium-87 salts is presented as a demonstration of DAS. Chapter 3 explains how to remove sidebands from DAS and magic-angle spinning (MAS) experiments, which result from the time-dependence of the Hamiltonian under sample spinning conditions, using rotor-synchronized {pi}-pulses. Data from these experiments, known as DAH-180 and MAH-180, respectively, are presented for both rubidium and lead salts. In addition, the applicability of this technique to double rotation (DOR) experiments is discussed. Chapter 4 concerns the addition of cross-polarization to DAS (CPDAS). The theory behind spin locking and cross polarizing quadrupolar nuclei is explained and a method of avoiding the resulting problems by performing cross polarization at 0{sup o} (parallel) with respect to the magnetic field is presented. Experimental results are shown for a sodium-23 compound, sodium pyruvate, and for oxygen-17 labeled L-akmine. In Chapter 5, a method for broadening the Hartmann-Hahn matching condition under MAS, called variable effective field cross-polarization (VEFCI?), is presented, along with experimental work on adamantane and polycarbonate.

  7. Calcination products of gibbsite studied by X-ray diffraction, XPS and solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Malki, A. [Laboratoire des structures, propriétés et interactions inter atomiques (LASPI2A), Faculté des sciences et technologies, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Mekhalif, Z.; Detriche, S.; Fonder, G. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Electrochimie des Surfaces, Facultés Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Boumaza, A., E-mail: charif_boumaza@yahoo.com [Laboratoire des structures, propriétés et interactions inter atomiques (LASPI2A), Faculté des sciences et technologies, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Djelloul, A. [Laboratoire des structures, propriétés et interactions inter atomiques (LASPI2A), Faculté des sciences et technologies, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria)

    2014-07-01

    The changes caused by heat treatment of gibbsite powder at 300–1473 K were studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra and {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR). XRD analysis indicates that the transformation sequence involves the formation of ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as an intermediate phase between ?- and ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The crystallite size of ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is as small as 10 nm. XPS analysis indicates that the ratio of aluminium atoms to oxygen atoms in ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} increases, whereas the expected ratio is observed in ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The percentage of AlO{sub 4} units in the transition aluminas follows the same behaviour as the ratio of Al/O. - Graphical abstract: The percentage of AlO{sub 4} units in transition aluminas follows the same behaviour as the ratio of Al/O. - Highlights: • Calcination products of gibbsite studied by XRD, XPS and solid-state NMR. • The crystallite size of ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is as small as 10 nm. • The Al/O atomic ratio determined by XPS is larger than 2/3 in ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The percentage of AlO{sub 4} in the aluminas follows the same behaviour as the Al/O atomic ratio.

  8. Distinguishing Polymorphs of the Semiconducting Pigment Copper Phthalocyanine by Solid-state NMR and Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shaibat, Medhat A.; Casabianca, Leah B.; Siberio-Pérez, Diana Y.; Matzger, Adam J; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2010-01-01

    Cu(II)(phthalocyanine) (CuPc) is broadly utilized as an archetypal molecular semiconductor and is the most widely used blue printing pigment. CuPc crystallizes in six different forms; the chemical and physical properties are substantially modulated by its molecular packing among these polymorphs. Despite the growing importance of this system, spectroscopic identification of different polymorphs for CuPc has posed difficulties. This study presents the first example of spectroscopic distinction of ?- and ?-forms of CuPc, the most widely used polymorphs, by solid-state NMR (SSNMR) and Raman spectroscopy. 13C high-resolution SSNMR spectra of ?- and ?-CuPc using very-fast magic angle spinning (VFMAS) at 20 kHz show that hyperfine shifts sensitively reflect polymorphs of CuPc. The experimental results were confirmed by ab initio chemical shift calculations. 13C and 1H SSNMR relaxation times of ?- and ?-CuPc under VFMAS also showed marked differences, presumably because of the difference in electronic spin correlation times in the two forms. Raman spectroscopy also provided another reliable method of differentiation between the two polymorphs. PMID:20225842

  9. Multinuclear Solid-State NMR and DFT Studies on Phosphanido-Bridged Diplatinum Complexes.

    PubMed

    Mastrorilli, Piero; Todisco, Stefano; Bagno, Alessandro; Gallo, Vito; Latronico, Mario; Fortuño, Consuelo; Gudat, Dietrich

    2015-06-15

    Multinuclear ((31)P, (195)Pt, (19)F) solid-state NMR experiments on (nBu4N)2[(C6F5)2Pt(?-PPh2)2Pt(C6F5)2] (1), [(C6F5)2Pt(?-PPh2)2Pt(C6F5)2](Pt-Pt) (2), and cis-Pt(C6F5)2(PHPh2)2 (3) were carried out under cross-polarization/magic-angle-spinning conditions or with the cross-polarization/Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence. Analysis of the principal components of the (31)P and (195)Pt chemical shift (CS) tensors of 1 and 2 reveals that the variations observed comparing the isotropic chemical shifts of 1 and 2, commonly referred to as "ring effect", are mainly due to changes in the principal components oriented along the direction perpendicular to the Pt2P2 plane. DFT calculations of (31)P and (195)Pt CS tensors confirmed the tensor orientation proposed from experimental data and symmetry arguments and revealed that the different values of the isotropic shieldings stem from differences in the paramagnetic and spin-orbit contributions. PMID:26001215

  10. Characterization of stratum corneum molecular dynamics by natural-abundance ¹³C solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Sebastian; Nowacka, Agnieszka; Bouwstra, Joke A; Sparr, Emma; Topgaard, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous potential for pharmaceutical applications, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular details that can contribute to increased permeability of the stratum corneum (SC). To investigate the influence of hydration and heating on the SC, we record the natural-abundance (13)C signal of SC using polarization transfer solid-state NMR methods. Resonance lines from all major SC components are assigned. Comparison of the signal intensities obtained with the INEPT and CP pulse sequences gives information on the molecular dynamics of SC components. The majority of the lipids are rigid at 32°C, and those lipids co-exist with a small pool of mobile lipids. The ratio between mobile and rigid lipids increases with hydration. An abrupt change of keratin filament dynamics occurs at RH?=?80-85%, from completely rigid to a structure with rigid backbone and mobile protruding terminals. Heating has a strong effect on the lipid mobility, but only a weak influence on the keratin filaments. The results provide novel molecular insight into how the SC constituents are affected by hydration and heating, and improve the understanding of enhanced SC permeability, which is associated with elevated temperatures and SC hydration. PMID:23626744

  11. Protein fold determined by paramagnetic magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Ishita; Nadaud, Philippe S; Helmus, Jonathan J; Schwieters, Charles D; Jaroniec, Christopher P

    2012-05-01

    Biomacromolecules that are challenging for the usual structural techniques can be studied with atomic resolution by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. However, the paucity of distance restraints >5 Å, traditionally derived from measurements of magnetic dipole-dipole couplings between protein nuclei, is a major bottleneck that hampers such structure elucidation efforts. Here, we describe a general approach that enables the rapid determination of global protein fold in the solid phase via measurements of nuclear paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs) in several analogues of the protein of interest containing covalently attached paramagnetic tags, without the use of conventional internuclear distance restraints. The method is demonstrated using six cysteine-EDTA-Cu(2+) mutants of the 56-residue B1 immunoglobulin-binding domain of protein G, for which ~230 longitudinal backbone (15)N PREs corresponding to distances of ~10-20 Å were obtained. The mean protein fold determined in this manner agrees with the X-ray structure with a backbone atom root-mean-square deviation of 1.8 Å. PMID:22522262

  12. Solid-state NMR studies of metal-free SOD1 fibrillar structures.

    PubMed

    Banci, Lucia; Blaževitš, Olga; Cantini, Francesca; Danielsson, Jens; Lang, Lisa; Luchinat, Claudio; Mao, Jiafei; Oliveberg, Mikael; Ravera, Enrico

    2014-06-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is present in the protein aggregates deposited in motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. ALS is a neurodegenerative disease that can be either sporadic (ca. 90%) or familial (fALS). The most widely studied forms of fALS are caused by mutations in the sequence of SOD1. Ex mortuo SOD1 aggregates are usually found to be amorphous. In vitro SOD1, in its immature reduced and apo state, forms fibrillar aggregates. Previous literature data have suggested that a monomeric SOD1 construct, lacking loops IV and VII, (apoSOD?IV-VII), shares the same fibrillization properties of apoSOD1, both proteins having the common structural feature of the central ?-barrel. In this work, we show that structural information can be obtained at a site-specific level from solid-state NMR. The residues that are sequentially assignable are found to be located at the putative nucleation site for fibrillar species formation in apoSOD, as detected by other experimental techniques. PMID:24719206

  13. Peptidelipid interactions of the -hairpin antimicrobial peptide tachyplesin and its linear derivatives from solid-state NMR

    E-print Network

    Hong, Mei

    are investigated to gain insight into the mechanism of antimicrobial activity. 31 P and 2 H NMR spectra­lipid interaction. 31 P and 2 H NMR are ideal probes for the peptide­lipid interactions. The 31 P chemical shift, and electrostatic perturbation to the membrane surface [1]. 2 H quadrupolar couplings complement 31 P NMR

  14. Structure and ionic interactions of organic-inorganic composite polymer electrolytes studied by solid-state NMR and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Joo, Chan Gyu; Bronstein, Lyudmila M; Karlinsey, Robert L; Zwanziger, Josef W

    2002-01-01

    Solid-state NMR studies of composite polymer electrolytes are reported. The materials consist of polyethylene oxide and an organic inorganic composite, together with a lithium salt, and are candidates for electrolytes in solid-state lithium ion batteries. Silicon and aluminum MAS and multiple quantum MAS are used to characterize the network character of the organic-inorganic composite, and spin diffusion measurements are used to determine the nanostructure of the polymer/composite blending. Multiple quantum spin counting is used to measure the ion aggregation. The NMR results are supported by Raman spectra, calorimetry, and impedance spectroscopy. From these experiments it is concluded that the composite suppresses polymer crystallization without suppressing its local mobility, and also suppresses the tendency for the ions to aggregate. This polymer composite thus appears very promising for application in lithium ion batteries. PMID:12469813

  15. Impact of reduction on the properties of metal bisdithiolenes: multinuclear solid-state NMR and structural studies on Pt(tfd)2 and its reduced forms.

    PubMed

    Tang, Joel A; Kogut, Elzbieta; Norton, Danielle; Lough, Alan J; McGarvey, Bruce R; Fekl, Ulrich; Schurko, Robert W

    2009-03-19

    Transition-metal dithiolene complexes have interesting structures and fascinating redox properties, making them promising candidates for a number of applications, including superconductors, photonic devices, chemical sensors, and catalysts. However, not enough is known about the molecular electronic origins of these properties. Multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy and first-principles calculations are used to examine the molecular and electronic structures of the redox series [Pt(tfd)(2)](z-) (tfd = S(2)C(2)(CF(3))(2); z = 0, 1, 2; the anionic species have [NEt(4)](+) countercations). Single-crystal X-ray structures for the neutral (z = 0) and the fully reduced forms (z = 2) were obtained. The two species have very similar structures but differ slightly in their intraligand bond lengths. (19)F-(195)Pt CP/CPMG and (195)Pt magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments are used to probe the diamagnetic (z = 0, 2) species, revealing large platinum chemical shielding anisotropies (CSA) with distinct CS tensor properties, despite the very similar structural features of these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to rationalize the large platinum CSAs and CS tensor orientations of the diamagnetic species using molecular orbital (MO) analysis, and are used to explain their distinct molecular electronic structures in the context of the NMR data. The paramagnetic species (z = 1) is examined using both EPR spectroscopy and (13)C and (19)F MAS NMR spectroscopy. Platinum g-tensor components were determined by using solid-state EPR experiments. The unpaired electron spin densities at (13)C and (19)F nuclei were measured by employing variable-temperature (13)C and (19)F NMR experiments. DFT and ab initio calculations are able to qualitatively reproduce the experimentally measured g-tensor components and spin densities. The combination of experimental and theoretical data confirm localization of unpaired electron density in the pi-system of the dithiolene rings. PMID:19236015

  16. Multiple acquisition of magic angle spinning solid-state NMR experiments using one receiver: Application to microcrystalline and membrane protein preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of proteins is a notoriously low-throughput technique. Relatively low-sensitivity and poor resolution of protein samples require long acquisition times for multidimensional NMR experiments. To speed up data acquisition, we developed a family of experiments called Polarization Optimized Experiments (POE), in which we utilized the orphan spin operators that are discarded in classical multidimensional NMR experiments, recovering them to allow simultaneous acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D experiments, all while using conventional probes with spectrometers equipped with one receiver. POE allow the concatenation of multiple 2D or 3D pulse sequences into a single experiment, thus potentially combining all of the aforementioned advances, boosting the capability of ssNMR spectrometers at least two-fold without the addition of any hardware. In this perspective, we describe the first generation of POE, such as dual acquisition MAS (or DUMAS) methods, and then illustrate the evolution of these experiments into MEIOSIS, a method that enables the simultaneous acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D spectra. Using these new pulse schemes for the solid-state NMR investigation of biopolymers makes it possible to obtain sequential resonance assignments, as well as distance restraints, in about half the experimental time. While designed for acquisition of heteronuclei, these new experiments can be easily implemented for proton detection and coupled with other recent advancements, such as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), to improve signal to noise. Finally, we illustrate the application of these methods to microcrystalline protein preparations as well as single and multi-span membrane proteins reconstituted in lipid membranes.

  17. Aspects of the chemical structure of soil organic materials as revealed by solid-state13C NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Baldock; J. M. Oades; A. G. Waters; X. Peng; A. M. Vassallo; M. A. Wilson

    1992-01-01

    Solid-state cross-polarisation\\/magic-angle-spinning3C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP\\/MAS13C NMR) spectroscopy was used to characterise semi-quantitatively the organic materials contained in particle size and density fractions isolated from five different mineral soils: two Mollisols, two Oxisols and an Andosol. The acquired spectra were analysed to determine the relative proportion of carboxyl, aromatic, O-alkyl and alkyl carbon contained in each fraction. Although similar types

  18. Structure of uniaxially aligned 13C labeled silk fibroin fibers with solid state 13C-NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Demura; Yasunobu Yamazaki; Tetsuo Asakura; Katsuaki Ogawa

    1998-01-01

    Carbon-13 isotopic labeling of B. mori silk fibroin was achieved biosynthetically with [1-13C] glycine in order to determine the carbonyl bond orientation angle of glycine sites with the silk fibroin. Angular dependence of 13C solid state NMR spectra of uniaxially oriented silk fibroin fiber block sample due to the carbonyl 13C chemical shift anisotropy was simulated according to the chemical

  19. Triple resonance experiments for aligned sample solid-state NMR of 13C and 15N labeled proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeraj Sinha; Christopher V. Grant; Sang Ho Park; Jonathan Miles Brown

    2007-01-01

    Initial steps in the development of a suite of triple-resonance 1H\\/13C\\/15N solid-state NMR experiments applicable to aligned samples of 13C and 15N labeled proteins are described. The experiments take advantage of the opportunities for 13C detection without the need for homonuclear 13C\\/13C decoupling presented by samples with two different patterns of isotopic labeling. In one type of sample, the proteins

  20. Solid state NMR spectroscopy investigation of the molecular structure of epoxy based materials cured in different conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, S.; Spinella, A.; Caponetti, E.; Sabatino, Maria Antonietta; Spadaro, G.

    2012-07-01

    In this work two epoxy resin model systems, whose monomers are typically used in structural composites, were thermally cured in different cure conditions in order to obtain different cross-linking densities. Their molecular structures were investigated through solid state NMR spectroscopy in order to correlate them to the cure process conditions used and the results were discussed in the light of the dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) performed.

  1. Solid-state 27Al MRI and NMR thermometry for catalytic applications with conventional (liquids) MRI instrumentation and techniques.

    PubMed

    Koptyug, Igor V; Sagdeev, Dmitry R; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Sagdeev, Renad Z

    2005-07-01

    Multidimensional images of Al2O3 pellets, cordierite monolith, glass tube, polycrystalline V2O5 and other materials have been detected by 27Al, 51V, and 23Na NMR imaging using techniques and instrumentation conventionally employed for imaging of liquids. These results demonstrate that, contrary to the widely accepted opinion, imaging of "rigid" solids does not necessarily require utilization of solid state NMR imaging approaches, pulse sequences and hardware even for quadrupolar nuclei which exhibit line widths in excess of 100 kHz, such as 51V in polycrystalline V2O5. It is further demonstrated that both 27Al NMR signal intensity and spin-lattice relaxation time decrease with increasing temperature and thus can potentially serve as temperature sensitive parameters for spatially resolved NMR thermometry. PMID:15949745

  2. Lipid-Protein Correlations in Nanoscale Phospholipid Bilayers by Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Kijac, Aleksandra; Shih, Amy Y.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Schulten, Klaus; Sligar, Stephen G.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanodiscs are an example of discoidal nanoscale lipid/protein particles that have been extremely useful for the biochemical and biophysical characterization of membrane proteins. They are discoidal lipid bilayer fragments encircled and stabilized by two amphipathic helical proteins named membrane scaffolding protein (MSP), ~10 nm in size. Nanodiscs are homogeneous, easily prepared with reproducible success, amenable to preparations with a variety of lipids, and stable under a range of temperatures. Here we present solid-state NMR (SSNMR) studies on lyophilized, rehydrated POPC Nanodiscs prepared with uniformly 13C, 15N-labeled MSP1D1 (?1-11 truncated MSP). Under these conditions, by SSNMR we directly determine the gel-to-liquid crystal lipid phase transition to be at 3 ± 2 °C. Above this phase transition, the lipid 1H signals have slow transverse relaxation, enabling filtering experiments as previously demonstrated for lipid vesicles. We incorporate this approach into two- and three-dimensional heteronuclear SSNMR experiments to examine the MSP1D1 residues interfacing with the lipid bilayer. These 1H-13C and 1H-13C-13C correlation spectra are used to identify and quantify the number of lipid-correlated and solvent-exposed residues by amino acid type, which furthermore is compared with molecular dynamics studies of MSP1D1 in Nanodiscs. This study demonstrates the utility of SSNMR experiments with Nanodiscs for examining lipid-protein interfaces and has important applications for future structural studies of membrane proteins in physiologically relevant formulations. PMID:20804175

  3. 2-Octyl thiophene based three ring mesogens: solid state (13)C NMR and XRD investigations.

    PubMed

    Veeraprakash, B; Lobo, Nitin P; Narasimhaswamy, T; Mandal, A B

    2015-07-22

    2-Octyl thiophene based three-ring mesogens namely 4-n-alkoxyphenyl 4-(5-n-octyl-2-thienyl)benzoates are synthesized by employing palladium acetate based direct arylation. The alkoxy terminal is varied with even carbons from C2 to C14 and enantiotropic polymesomorphism is noticed for all the homologs. Accordingly, phase sequence consisting of nematic, smectic A, smectic C and smectic B is seen for mesogens with terminal chains C6, C8, C10 and C12 on cooling the isotropic phase. For mesogens with C2, C4, C8 and C10 terminal alkoxy chains, the mesophase assignment from hot-stage optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry is further confirmed by variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction measurements. The appearance of smectic B phase is established by noticing sharp and intense peaks in both small-angle and wide-angle regions. For a representative mesogen, i.e. T10, high-resolution solid-state (13)C NMR investigations are carried out in all the phases, viz. nematic, smectic A, smectic C and smectic B phases. The orientational order parameters calculated from (13)C-(1)H dipolar couplings from 2D SAMPI-4 experiments are found to be 0.44, 0.67, 0.73 and 0.79 in nematic, smectic A, smectic C and smectic B mesophases for the center phenyl ring respectively. Remarkably, the thiophene order parameter in all mesophases is found to be higher than that of phenyl rings and is explained by considering the molecular shape, which has a terminal bend. Further, the mesogens are found to be photoemissive in chloroform solution with an emission band at ?410 nm. PMID:26166360

  4. 13C solid-state NMR analysis of heterogeneous structure of beeswax in native state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Tsunenori

    2005-12-01

    I investigated the molecular structure of natural wax from Japanese bees (Apis cerana japonica) in its native state (neither purified nor recrystallized) by 13C and 1H solid-state NMR. Two strong 13C peaks at 32.9 and 34.0 ppm were attributed to signals from internal-chain methylene carbons [int-(CH2)] in two types of crystal form. The peak at 32.9 ppm was assigned to an orthorhombic crystal form, and that at 34.0 ppm was assigned to a triclinic or monoclinic form. In both crystalline regions, bi-exponential decay of 13C spin-lattice relaxation [T1(C)] for the crystalline peaks due to chain diffusion was observed. 1H spin-lattice relaxation [T1(H)] values for protons of the CH3 group and for int-(CH2) in the crystalline and amorphous regions were identical; this was interpreted as being due to averaging of the T1(H) relaxation rates via spin diffusion. In contrast, although the T_{{1}_{\\rho}}(H) decay curves for protons of the CH3 group and for int-(CH2) in the amorphous and orthorhombic forms were almost identical, those of the triclinic or monoclinic forms were different. This unhomogeneous character of T_{{1}_{\\rho}}(H) was interpreted as resulting from differences in the molecular composition of each crystal form. Moreover, two components with long and short 1H spin-spin relaxation [T2(H)] values, arising from the mobile and rigid phases, respectively, were observed at above about -30 °C.

  5. Sodium ion effect on silk fibroin conformation characterized by solid-state NMR and generalized 2D NMR NMR correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Qing-Xia; Zhou, Ping

    2008-07-01

    In the present work, we investigated Na + ion effect on the silk fibroin (SF) conformation. Samples are Na +-involved regenerated silk fibroin films. 13C CP-MAS NMR demonstrates that as added [Na +] increases, partial silk fibroin conformation transit from helix-form to ?-form at certain Na + ion concentration which is much higher than that in Bombyx mori silkworm gland. The generalized two-dimensional NMR-NMR correlation analysis reveals that silk fibroin undergoes several intermediate states during its conformation transition process as [Na +] increase. The appearance order of the intermediates is followed as: helix and/or random coil ? helix-like ? ?-sheet-like ? ?-sheet, which is the same as that produced by pH decrease from 6.8 to 4.8 in the resultant regenerated silk fibroin films. The binding sites of Na + to silk fibroin might involve the carbonyl oxygen atom of certain amino acids sequence which could promote the formation of ?-sheet conformation. Since the Na +sbnd O bond is weak, the ability of Na + inducing the secondary structure transition is weaker than those of Ca 2+, Cu 2+ and even K +. It is maybe a reason why the sodium content is much lower than potassium in the silkworm gland.

  6. CHHC and [superscript 1]H–[superscript 1]H magnetization exchange: Analysis by experimental solid-state NMR and 11-spin density-matrix simulations

    E-print Network

    Aluas, Mihaela

    A protocol is presented for correcting the effect of non-specific cross-polarization in CHHC solid-state MAS NMR experiments, thus allowing the recovery of the [superscript 1]H–[superscript 1]H magnetization exchange ...

  7. Comprehensive solid-state NMR analysis reveals the effects of N-methylation on the molecular dynamics of glycine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Jiang, Limiao; Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Limin; Tang, Huiru

    2012-01-12

    Molecular dynamics of metabolites are important for their interactions and functions. To understand the structural dependence of molecular dynamics for N-methylated glycines, we comprehensively measured the (13)C and (1)H spin-lattice relaxation times for sarcosine, N,N-dimethylglycine, betaine, and betaine hydrochloride over a temperature range of 178-460 K. We found that the reorientations of methyl groups were observed for all these molecules, whereas reorientations of whole trimethylamine groups were detected in betaines. While similar rotational properties were observed for methyl groups in N,N-dimethylglycine and those in betaine, three methyl groups in betaine hydrochloride had different motional properties (E(a) ? 20.5 kJ/mol, ?(0) ? 1.85 × 10(-13) s; E(a) ? 13.9 kJ/mol, ?(0) ? 2.1 × 10(-12) s; E(a) ? 15.8 kJ/mol, ?(0) ? 1.1 × 10(-12) s). N,N-Dimethylglycine showed a phase transition at 348.5 K with changed relaxation behavior for methyl groups showing distinct E(a) and ?(0) values. The DIPSHIFT experiments showed that CH(3) and CH(2) moieties in these molecules had dipolar-dephasing curves similar to these moieties in alanine and glycine. The activation energies for CH(3) rotations positively correlated with the number of substituted methyl groups. These findings provided useful information for the structural dependence of molecular dynamics for N-methylated glycines and demonstrated solid-state NMR as a useful tool for probing the structure-dynamics relationships. PMID:22142308

  8. Chemical and nanometer-scale structure of kerogen and its change during thermal maturation investigated by advanced solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.; Fang, X.; Lan, Y.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Xu, L.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have used advanced and quantitative solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate structural changes in a series of type II kerogen samples from the New Albany Shale across a range of maturity (vitrinite reflectance R0 from 0.29% to 1.27%). Specific functional groups such as CH3, CH2, alkyl CH, aromatic CH, aromatic C-O, and other nonprotonated aromatics, as well as "oil prone" and "gas prone" carbons, have been quantified by 13C NMR; atomic H/C and O/C ratios calculated from the NMR data agree with elemental analysis. Relationships between NMR structural parameters and vitrinite reflectance, a proxy for thermal maturity, were evaluated. The aromatic cluster size is probed in terms of the fraction of aromatic carbons that are protonated (???30%) and the average distance of aromatic C from the nearest protons in long-range H-C dephasing, both of which do not increase much with maturation, in spite of a great increase in aromaticity. The aromatic clusters in the most mature sample consist of ???30 carbons, and of ???20 carbons in the least mature samples. Proof of many links between alkyl chains and aromatic rings is provided by short-range and long-range 1H-13C correlation NMR. The alkyl segments provide most H in the samples; even at a carbon aromaticity of 83%, the fraction of aromatic H is only 38%. While aromaticity increases with thermal maturity, most other NMR structural parameters, including the aromatic C-O fractions, decrease. Aromaticity is confirmed as an excellent NMR structural parameter for assessing thermal maturity. In this series of samples, thermal maturation mostly increases aromaticity by reducing the length of the alkyl chains attached to the aromatic cores, not by pronounced growth of the size of the fused aromatic ring clusters. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Applications of DNP and solid-state NMR for protein structure determination

    E-print Network

    Mayrhofer, Rebecca Maria

    2010-01-01

    Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) is a developing method for determining the structures and studying the dynamics and functions of biological molecules. This method is particularly ...

  10. High magnetic field solid-state NMR analyses by combining MAS, MQ-MAS, homo-nuclear and hetero-nuclear correlation experiments.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiongchao; Ideta, Keiko; Miyawaki, Jin; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Mochida, Isao; Yoon, Seong-Ho

    2012-04-01

    A general strategy of structural analysis of alumina silicate by combining various solid-state NMR measurements such as single pulse, multi-quantum magic angle spinning, double-quantum homo-nuclear correlation under magic angle spinning (DQ-MAS), and cross-polarization hetero-nuclear correlation (CP-HETCOR) was evaluated with the aid of high magnetic field NMR (800?MHz for (1) H Larmor frequency) by using anorthite as a model material. The high magnetic field greatly enhanced resolution of (27) Al in single pulse, DQ-MAS, and even in triple-quantum magic angle spinning NMR spectra. The spatial proximities through dipolar couplings were probed by the DQ-MAS methods for homo-nuclear correlations between both (27) Al-(27) Al and (29) Si-(29) Si and by CP-HETCOR for hetero-nuclear correlations between (27) Al-(29) Si in the anorthite framework. By combining various NMR methodologies, we elucidated detailed spatial correlations among various aluminum and silicon species in anorthite that was hard to be determined using conventional analytical methods at low magnetic field. Moreover, the presented approach is applicable to analyze other alumina-silicate minerals. PMID:22392761

  11. Synthesis and conformational study of silk model polypeptides [Ala-Gly] 12 by solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishi, Satoshi; Santos, Andres; Ishii, Osamu; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Kunieda, Shingo; Kimura, Hideaki; Shoji, Akira

    2003-04-01

    A series of well-defined model polypeptides of Bombyx mori silk fibroin, [Ala-Gly] n ( n=12 and 5-9), [Ala d4Gly] 12 and [Gly d2Ala] 12, (where Ala, Gly, Ala d4 and Gly d2 denote L-alanine, glycine, 2,3,3,3-deuterated L-alanine and 2,2-deuterated glycine residues, respectively), were successfully synthesized by an automatic solid phase peptide synthesizer. Followed by treatment with 9 M lithium bromide (LiBr) solution to convert their conformation from the silk II to the silk I form. We determined the intrinsic 1H, 13C and 15N NMR chemical shifts of Ala and Gly residues, characteristic to the silk I and silk II forms in Bombyx mori, by high-resolution and solid-state 13C CP-MAS, 1H CRAMPS, 1H- 13C HETCOR and 15N CP-MAS NMR measurements. Next, we demonstrated that it is necessary at least 12 amino acid residues ( n=6) in the [Ala-Gly] n-I series for the formation of stable silk I form by 13C CP-MAS NMR. Finally, we found that the intrinsic 1H and 13C chemical shifts of the specific deuterium labeled polypeptides, [Ala d4-Gly] 12 and [Gly d2-Ala] 12, cause a meaningful chemical shift displacement, suggesting that the deuterium interacts with proton and/or carbon atoms in the solid state. Thus, the selective deuterium labeling has a potential to useful for the structural analysis by 1H NMR in the solid state.

  12. 250 GHz CW Gyrotron Oscillator for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Biological Solid State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Vikram S.; Hornstein, Melissa K.; Kreischer, Kenneth E.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Woskov, Paul P.; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Herzfeld, Judith; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator, a critical component of an integrated system for magic angle spinning (MAS) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments at 9T, corresponding to 380 MHz 1H frequency. The 250 GHz gyrotron is the first gyro-device designed with the goal of seamless integration with an NMR spectrometer for routine DNP-enhanced NMR spectroscopy and has operated under computer control for periods of up to 21 days with a 100% duty cycle. Following a brief historical review of the field, we present studies of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) using DNP-enhanced multidimensional NMR. These results include assignment of active site resonances in [U-13C,15N]-bR and demonstrate the utility of DNP for studies of membrane proteins. Next, we review the theory of gyro-devices from quantum mechanical and classical viewpoints and discuss the unique considerations that apply to gyrotron oscillators designed for DNP experiments. We then characterize the operation of the 250 GHz gyrotron in detail, including its long-term stability and controllability. We have measured the spectral purity of the gyrotron emission using both homodyne and heterodyne techniques. Radiation intensity patterns from the corrugated waveguide that delivers power to the NMR probe were measured using two new techniques to confirm pure mode content: a thermometric approach based on the temperature-dependent color of liquid crystalline media applied to a substrate and imaging with a pyroelectric camera. We next present a detailed study of the mode excitation characteristics of the gyrotron. Exploration of the operating characteristics of several fundamental modes reveals broadband continuous frequency tuning of up to 1.8 GHz as a function of the magnetic field alone, a feature that may be exploited in future tunable gyrotron designs. Oscillation of the 250 GHz gyrotron at the second harmonic of cyclotron resonance begins at extremely low beam currents (as low 12 mA) at frequencies between 320–365 GHz, suggesting an efficient route for the generation of even higher frequency radiation. The low starting currents were attributed to an elevated cavity Q, which is confirmed by cavity thermal load measurements. We conclude with an appendix containing a detailed description of the control system that safely automates all aspects of the gyrotron operation. PMID:17942352

  13. Ultra-high resolution in MAS solid-state NMR of perdeuterated proteins: implications for structure and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Reif, Bernd

    2012-03-01

    High resolution proton spectra are obtained in MAS solid-state NMR in case samples are prepared using perdeuterated protein and D(2)O in the recrystallization buffer. Deuteration reduces drastically (1)H, (1)H dipolar interactions and allows to obtain amide proton line widths on the order of 20 Hz. Similarly, high-resolution proton spectra of aliphatic groups can be obtained if specifically labeled precursors for biosynthesis of methyl containing side chains are used, or if limited amounts of H(2)O in the bacterial growth medium is employed. This review summarizes recent spectroscopic developments to access structure and dynamics of biomacromolecules in the solid-state, and shows a number of applications to amyloid fibrils and membrane proteins. PMID:22280934

  14. Solution and Solid-State NMR Structural Studies of Antimicrobial Peptides LPcin-I and LPcin-II

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae-Joon; Kim, Ji-Sun; Ahn, Hee-Chul; Kim, Yongae

    2011-01-01

    Lactophoricin (LPcin-I) is an antimicrobial, amphiphatic, cationic peptide with 23-amino acid residues isolated from bovine milk. Its analogous peptide, LPcin-II, lacks six N-terminal amino acids compared to LPcin-I. Interestingly, LPcin-II does not display any antimicrobial activity, whereas LPcin-I inhibits the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria without exhibiting any hemolytic activity. Uniformly 15N-labeled LPcin peptides were prepared by the recombinant expression of fusion proteins in Escherichia coli, and their properties were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and antimicrobial activity tests. To understand the structure-activity relationship of these two peptides, they were studied in model membrane environments by a combination of solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We determined the tertiary structure of LPcin-I and LPcin-II in the presence of dodecylphosphorylcholine micelles by solution NMR spectroscopy. Magnetically aligned unflipped bicelle samples were used to investigate the structure and topology of LPcin-I and LPcin-II by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. PMID:21889457

  15. Structural analysis of a banana-liquid crystal in the B4 phase by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Kang, Sungmin; Takimoto, Koji; Hattori, Masaya; Shirata, Kei; Kawauchi, Susumu; Deguchi, Kenzo; Shimizu, Tadashi; Watanabe, Junji

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a structural investigation of 1,3-phenylene bis[4-((4-10-decyloxyphenyl)iminomethyl)-benzoate], known as a banana-liquid crystal, in the B4 phase, which was performed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methodology combined with quantum chemical calculations. The present solid-state NMR measurements including (13)C CPMAS, 2D TOSS-deTOSS, dipole-dephase, 1D and 2D EXSY, and MAS-j-HMQC provided accurate spectral assignments and unambiguous NMR parameters such as (13)C chemical shift tensors, which were used for construction of the three-dimensional structure with the aid of density functional theory calculations. In the obtained molecular structure, two arms of the bent-core molecule are asymmetrically expanded such that the direction of the dipole moment is off alignment with respect to the middle line of the center benzene ring. It is this antisymmetric structure that is the origin of the twisted helical system in the B4 phase. PMID:23654351

  16. The topology of lysine-containing amphipathic peptides in bilayers by circular dichroism, solid-state NMR, and molecular modeling.

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, B; Ducarme, P; Schinzel, S; Brasseur, R; Bechinger, B

    2000-01-01

    In order to better understand the driving forces that determine the alignment of amphipathic helical polypeptides with respect to the surface of phospholipid bilayers, lysine-containing peptide sequences were designed, prepared by solid-phase chemical synthesis, and reconstituted into membranes. CD spectroscopy indicates that all peptides exhibit a high degree of helicity in the presence of SDS micelles or POPC small unilamellar vesicles. Proton-decoupled (31)P-NMR solid-state NMR spectroscopy demonstrates that in the presence of peptides liquid crystalline phosphatidylcholine membranes orient well along glass surfaces. The orientational distribution and dynamics of peptides labeled with (15)N at selected sites were investigated by proton-decoupled (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Polypeptides with a single lysine residue adopt a transmembrane orientation, thereby locating this polar amino acid within the core region of the bilayer. In contrast, peptides with > or = 3 lysines reside along the surface of the membrane. With 2 lysines in the center of an otherwise hydrophobic amino acid sequence the peptides assume a broad orientational distribution. The energy of lysine discharge, hydrophobic, polar, and all other interactions are estimated to quantitatively describe the polypeptide topologies observed. Furthermore, a molecular modeling algorithm based on the hydrophobicities of atoms in a continuous hydrophilic-hydrophobic-hydrophilic potential describes the experimentally observed peptide topologies well. PMID:11053137

  17. Molecular Alignment within ?-Sheets in A?14-23 Fibrils: Solid-State NMR Experiments and Theoretical Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Zimei; Shi, Yuan; Callaway, David J. E.; Tycko, Robert

    2007-01-01

    We report investigations of the molecular structure of amyloid fibrils formed by residues 14–23 of the ?-amyloid peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease (A?14-23), using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques in conjunction with electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The NMR measurements, which include two-dimensional proton-mediated 13C-13C exchange and two-dimensional relayed proton-mediated 13C-13C exchange spectra, show that A?14-23 fibrils contain antiparallel ?-sheets with a registry of backbone hydrogen bonds that aligns residue 17+k of each peptide molecule with residue 22?k of neighboring molecules in the same ?-sheet. We compare these results, as well as previously reported experimental results for fibrils formed by other ?-amyloid fragments, with theoretical predictions of molecular alignment based on databases of residue-specific alignments in antiparallel ?-sheets in known protein structures. While the theoretical predictions are not in exact agreement with the experimental results, they facilitate the design of experiments by suggesting a small number of plausible alignments that are readily distinguished by solid-state NMR. PMID:17056725

  18. Investigating the interaction between peptides of the amphipathic helix of Hcf106 and the phospholipid bilayer by solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Lishan; Maltsev, Sergey; Lorigan, Gary A.; Dabney-Smith, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The chloroplast twin arginine translocation (cpTat) system transports highly folded precursor proteins into the thylakoid lumen using the protonmotive force as its only energy source. Hcf106, as one of the core components of the cpTat system, is part of the precursor receptor complex and functions in the initial precursor-binding step. Hcf106 is predicted to contain a single amino terminal transmembrane domain followed by a Pro-Gly hinge, a predicted amphipathic ?-helix (APH), and a loosely structured carboxy terminus. Hcf106 has been shown biochemically to insert spontaneously into thylakoid membranes. To better understand the membrane active capabilities of Hcf106, we used solid-state NMR spectroscopy to investigate those properties of the APH. In this study, synthesized peptides of the predicted Hcf106 APH (amino acids 28–65) were incorporated at increasing mol% into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (POPC) and POPC/MGDG (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol; mole ratio 85:15) multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) to probe the peptide-lipid interaction. Solid-state 31P NMR and 2H NMR spectroscopic experiments revealed that the peptide perturbs the headgroup and the acyl chain regions of phospholipids as indicated by changes in spectral lineshape, chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) line width, and 2H order SCD parameters. In addition, the comparison between POPC MLVs and POPC/MGDG MLVs indicated that the lipid bilayer composition affected peptide perturbation of the lipids, and such perturbation appeared to be more intense in a system more closely mimicking a thylakoid membrane. PMID:24144541

  19. Investigating the interaction between peptides of the amphipathic helix of Hcf106 and the phospholipid bilayer by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Lishan; Maltsev, Sergey; Lorigan, Gary A; Dabney-Smith, Carole

    2014-01-01

    The chloroplast twin arginine translocation (cpTat) system transports highly folded precursor proteins into the thylakoid lumen using the protonmotive force as its only energy source. Hcf106, as one of the core components of the cpTat system, is part of the precursor receptor complex and functions in the initial precursor-binding step. Hcf106 is predicted to contain a single amino terminal transmembrane domain followed by a Pro-Gly hinge, a predicted amphipathic ?-helix (APH), and a loosely structured carboxy terminus. Hcf106 has been shown biochemically to insert spontaneously into thylakoid membranes. To better understand the membrane active capabilities of Hcf106, we used solid-state NMR spectroscopy to investigate those properties of the APH. In this study, synthesized peptides of the predicted Hcf106 APH (amino acids 28-65) were incorporated at increasing mol.% into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (POPC) and POPC/MGDG (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol; mole ratio 85:15) multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) to probe the peptide-lipid interaction. Solid-state (31)P NMR and (2)H NMR spectroscopic experiments revealed that the peptide perturbs the headgroup and the acyl chain regions of phospholipids as indicated by changes in spectral lineshape, chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) line width, and (2)H order SCD parameters. In addition, the comparison between POPC MLVs and POPC/MGDG MLVs indicated that the lipid bilayer composition affected peptide perturbation of the lipids, and such perturbation appeared to be more intense in a system more closely mimicking a thylakoid membrane. PMID:24144541

  20. Aspects of the chemical structure of soil organic materials as revealed by solid-state 13 C NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Baldock; J. M. Oades; A. G. Waters; X. Peng; A. M. Vassallo; M. A. Wilson

    1992-01-01

    Solid-state cross-polarisation\\/magic-angle-spinning3C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP\\/MAS13C NMR) spectroscopy was used to characterise semi-quantitatively the organic materials contained in particle size and density\\u000a fractions isolated from five different mineral soils: two Mollisols, two Oxisols and an Andosol. The acquired spectra were\\u000a analysed to determine the relative proportion of carboxyl, aromatic, O-alkyl and alkyl carbon contained in each fraction.\\u000a Although similar types

  1. A solid-state NMR application of the anomeric effect in carbohydrates: galactosamine, glucosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Der-Lii M. Tzou

    2005-01-01

    Simple 2D 13C\\/15N heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectroscopy was implemented to resolve the 15N resonances of the ? and ? anomers of three amino monosaccharides: galactosamine (GalN), glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN), and N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) labeled specifically with 13C1\\/15N spin pairs. Although the 15N resonances could not be distinguished in normal 1D spectra, they were well resolved in 2D double CP\\/MAS correlation

  2. Solid-state NMR studies for DC 745: April--May 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, T.; Labouriau, A.

    2000-12-01

    Powles et al. reported in 1961 that pdydimethyl siloxane melts exhibit a transverse decay of nuclear spin magnetization (T{sub 2}) that is nonexponential. This observation was interpreted in terms of the proton NMR signal from the melt having characteristics of a broad line. Since then, similar findings were obtained for other polymer melts too. Accordingly to Powles et al. this peculiar proton line shape was the result of an intramolecular direct dipole-dipole interaction between a pair of protons. They also suggested that this dipolar interaction was weak because the dipolar interaction was motionally averaged since the orientation-dependent local dipolar field is modulated by molecular dynamics. In sum, the consequences and the origins of nuclear spin correlations in viscous polymer melts were recognized almost 4 decades ago. In the 1970s, Cohen-Addad suggested that these weak proton dipolar interactions could be used to characterize polymer melts and networks. In this work, we have used some of these ideas to probe the effects of thermal treatments on the proton spin-spin relaxation times for DC745.

  3. Crystallinity and compositional changes in carbonated apatites: Evidence from 31P solid-state NMR, Raman, and AFM analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElderry, John-David P.; Zhu, Peizhi; Mroue, Kamal H.; Xu, Jiadi; Pavan, Barbara; Fang, Ming; Zhao, Guisheng; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Franceschi, Renny T.; Holl, Mark M. Banaszak; Tecklenburg, Mary M. J.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Morris, Michael D.

    2013-10-01

    Solid-state (magic-angle spinning) NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool for obtaining structural information on bone organic and mineral components and synthetic model minerals at the atomic-level. Raman and 31P NMR spectral parameters were investigated in a series of synthetic B-type carbonated apatites (CAps). Inverse 31P NMR linewidth and inverse Raman PO43-?1 bandwidth were both correlated with powder XRD c-axis crystallinity over the 0.3-10.3 wt% CO32- range investigated. Comparison with bone powder crystallinities showed agreement with values predicted by NMR and Raman calibration curves. Carbonate content was divided into two domains by the 31P NMR chemical shift frequency and the Raman phosphate ?1 band position. These parameters remain stable except for an abrupt transition at 6.5 wt% carbonate, a composition which corresponds to an average of one carbonate per unit cell. This near-binary distribution of spectroscopic properties was also found in AFM-measured particle sizes and Ca/P molar ratios by elemental analysis. We propose that this transition differentiates between two charge-balancing ion-loss mechanisms as measured by Ca/P ratios. These results define a criterion for spectroscopic characterization of B-type carbonate substitution in apatitic minerals.

  4. Crystallinity and compositional changes in carbonated apatites: Evidence from 31P solid-state NMR, Raman, and AFM analysis

    PubMed Central

    McElderry, John-David P.; Zhu, Peizhi; Mroue, Kamal H.; Xu, Jiadi; Pavan, Barbara; Fang, Ming; Zhao, Guisheng; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Franceschi, Renny T.; Holl, Mark M. Banaszak; Tecklenburg, Mary M.J.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Morris, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state (magic-angle spinning) NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool for obtaining structural information on bone organic and mineral components and synthetic model minerals at the atomic-level. Raman and 31P NMR spectral parameters were investigated in a series of synthetic B-type carbonated apatites (CAps). Inverse 31P NMR linewidth and inverse Raman PO43? ?1 bandwidth were both correlated with powder XRD c-axis crystallinity over the 0.3–10.3 wt% CO32? range investigated. Comparison with bone powder crystallinities showed agreement with values predicted by NMR and Raman calibration curves. Carbonate content was divided into two domains by the 31P NMR chemical shift frequency and the Raman phosphate ?1 band position. These parameters remain stable except for an abrupt transition at 6.5 wt% carbonate, a composition which corresponds to an average of one carbonate per unit cell. This near-binary distribution of spectroscopic properties was also found in AFM-measured particle sizes and Ca/P molar ratios by elemental analysis. We propose that this transition differentiates between two charge-balancing ion-loss mechanisms as measured by Ca/P ratios. These results define a criterion for spectroscopic characterization of B-type carbonate substitution in apatitic minerals. PMID:24273344

  5. Intermolecular packing and alignment in an ordered beta-hairpin antimicrobial peptide aggregate from 2D solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming; Waring, Alan J; Hong, Mei

    2005-10-12

    The aggregation and packing of a membrane-disruptive beta-hairpin antimicrobial peptide, protegrin-1 (PG-1), in the solid state are investigated to understand its oligomerization and hydrogen-bonding propensity. Incubation of PG-1 in phosphate buffer saline produced well-ordered nanometer-scale aggregates, as indicated by 13C and 15N NMR line widths, chemical shifts, and electron microscopy. Two-dimensional 13C and 1H spin diffusion experiments using C-terminus strand and N-terminus strand labeled peptides indicate that the beta-hairpin molecules in these ordered aggregates are oriented parallel to each other with like strands lining the intermolecular interface. In comparison, disordered and lyophilized peptide samples are randomly packed with both parallel and antiparallel alignments. The PG-1 aggregates show significant immobilization of the Phe ring near the beta-turn, further supporting the structural ordering. The intermolecular packing of PG-1 found in the solid state is consistent with its oligomerization in lipid bilayers. This solid-state aggregation approach may be useful for determining the quaternary structure of peptides in general and for gaining insights into the oligomerization of antimicrobial peptides in lipid bilayers in particular. PMID:16201813

  6. Characterization by solid-state NMR and selective dissolution techniques of anhydrous and hydrated CEM V cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Brunet, F., E-mail: francine.brunet@cea.f [CEA, IRAMIS, Service Interdisciplinaire sur les Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, LSDRM, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Charpentier, T. [CEA, IRAMIS, Service Interdisciplinaire sur les Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, LSDRM, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Chao, C.N.; Peycelon, H. [CEA, DPC, Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Materiaux dans leur Environnement, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Nonat, A. [Institut Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS-Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 DIJON Cedex (France)

    2010-02-15

    The long term behaviour of cement based materials is strongly dependent on the paste microstructure and also on the internal chemistry. A CEM V blended cement containing pulverised fly ash (PFA) and blastfurnace slag (BFS) has been studied in order to understand hydration processes which influence the paste microstructure. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy with complementary X-ray diffraction analysis and selective dissolution techniques have been used for the characterization of the various phases (C{sub 3}S, C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 4}AF) of the clinker and additives and then for estimation of the degree of hydration of these same phases. Their quantification after simulation of experimental {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra has allowed us to follow the hydration of recent (28 days) and old (10 years) samples that constitutes a basis of experimental data for the prediction of hydration model.

  7. ?B-Crystallin: A Hybrid Solid-State/Solution-State NMR Investigation Reveals Structural Aspects of the Heterogeneous Oligomer

    SciTech Connect

    Jehle, Stefan; van Rossum, Barth; Stout, Joseph R.; Noguchi, Satoshi M.; Falber, Katja; Rehbein, Kristina; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Klevit, Rachel E.; Rajagopal, Ponni

    2009-02-06

    Atomic-level structural information on ?B-Crystallin (?B), a prominent member of the small heat-shock protein family, has been a challenge to obtain due its polydisperse oligomeric nature. We show that magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR can be used to obtain high-resolution information on an ?580-kDa human ?B assembled from 175-residue 20-kDa subunits. An ?100-residue ?-crystallin domain is common to all small heat-shock proteins, and solution-state NMR was performed on two different ?- crystallin domain constructs isolated from ?B. In vitro, the chaperone-like activities of full-length ?B and the isolated ?-crystallin domain are identical. Chemical shifts of the backbone and C? resonances have been obtained for residues 64–162 (?-crystallin domain plus part of the C-terminus) in ?B and the isolated ?-crystallin domain by solid-state and solution-state NMR, respectively. Both sets of data strongly predict six ?-strands in the ?-crystallin domain. A majority of residues in the ?-crystallin domain have similar chemical shifts in both solid-state and solution-state, indicating similar structures for the domain in its isolated and oligomeric forms. Sites of intersubunit interaction are identified from chemical shift differences that cluster to specific regions of the ?-crystallin domain. Multiple signals are observed for the resonances of M68 in the oligomer, identifying the region containing this residue as existing in heterogeneous environments within ?B. Evidence for a novel dimerization motif in the human ?-crystallin domain is obtained by a comparison of (i) solid-state and solution-state chemical shift data and (ii) 1H–15N heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectra as a function of pH. The isolated ?-crystallin domain undergoes a dimer–monomer transition over the pH range 7.5–6.8. This steep pHdependent switch may be important for ?B to function optimally (e.g., to preserve the filament integrity of cardiac muscle proteins such as actin and desmin during cardiac ischemia, which is accompanied by acidosis).

  8. Structure of uniaxially aligned 13C labeled silk fibroin fibers with solid state 13C-NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demura, Makoto; Yamazaki, Yasunobu; Asakura, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Katsuaki

    1998-01-01

    Carbon-13 isotopic labeling of B. mori silk fibroin was achieved biosynthetically with [1- 13C] glycine in order to determine the carbonyl bond orientation angle of glycine sites with the silk fibroin. Angular dependence of 13C solid state NMR spectra of uniaxially oriented silk fibroin fiber block sample due to the carbonyl 13C chemical shift anisotropy was simulated according to the chemical shift transformation with Euler angles, ?F and ?F, from principal axis system (PAS) to fiber axis system (FAS). The another Euler angles, ?DCO and ?DCO, for transformation from PAS to the molecular symmetry axis were determined from the [1- 13C] glycine sequence model compounds for the silk fibroin. By the combination of these Euler angles, the carbonyl bond orientation angle with respect to FAS of the [1- 13C] glycine sites of the silk fibroin was determined to be 90 ± 5°. This value is in agreement with the X-ray diffraction and our previous solid state NMR data of B. mori silk fibroin fiber (a typical ?-pleated sheet) within experimental error.

  9. The binding site of sodium in the gramicidin A channel: comparison of molecular dynamics with solid-state NMR data.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, T B; Roux, B

    1997-01-01

    The location of the main binding site for sodium in the gramicidin A (GA) channel was investigated with molecular dynamics simulations, using an atomic model of the channel embedded in a fully hydrated dimyristoyl phosphatidycholine (DMPC) bilayer. Twenty-four separate simulations in which a sodium was restrained at different locations along the channel axis were generated. The results are compared with carbonyl 13C chemical shift anisotropy solid-state NMR experimental data previously obtained with oriented GA:DMPC samples. Predictions are made for other solid-state NMR properties that could be observed experimentally. The combined information from experiment and simulation strongly suggests that the main binding sites for sodium are near the channel's mouth, approximately 9.2 A from the center of the dimer channel. The 13C chemical shift anisotropy of Leu10 is the most affected by the presence of a sodium ion in the binding site. In the binding site, the sodium ion is lying off-axis, making contact with two carbonyl oxygens and two single-file water molecules. The main channel ligand is provided by the carbonyl group of the Leu10-Trp11 peptide linkage, which exhibits the largest deviation from the ion-free channel structure. Transient contacts with the carbonyl group of Val8 and Trp15 are also present. The influence of the tryptophan side chains on the channel conductance is examined based on the current information about the binding site. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 7 PMID:9129798

  10. Arginine Dynamics in a Membrane-Bound Cationic Beta-Hairpin Peptide from Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ming; Waring, Alan J.; Hong, Mei

    2010-01-01

    The site-specific motion of Arg residues in a membrane-bound disulfide-linked antimicrobial peptide, protegrin-1 (PG-1), is investigated using magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR, to better understand the membrane insertion and lipid interaction of this cationic membrane-disruptive peptide. C-H and N-H dipolar couplings and 13C chemical shift anisotropies were measured in the anionic POPE/POPG membrane and found to be reduced from the rigid-limit values by varying extents, indicating the presence of segmental motion. An Arg residue at the ?-turn region of the peptide shows much weaker spin interactions, indicating larger amplitudes of motion, than an Arg residue in the ?-strand region of the peptide. This is consistent with the exposure of the ?-turn to the membrane surface and the immersion of the ?-strand in the hydrophobic middle of the membrane, and supports the previously proposed oligomerization of the peptide into ?-barrels in the anionic membrane. 13C T2 and 1H T1? relaxation times indicate that the ?-turn backbone undergoes large-amplitude intermediate-timescale motion in the fluid phase of the membrane, causing significant line broadening and loss of spectral intensity. This study illustrates the strong correlation between the dynamics and the structure of membrane proteins and the capability of solid-state NMR spectroscopy for providing detailed information on site-specific dynamics in complex membrane protein assemblies. PMID:18442147

  11. A spectrometer designed for 6.7 and 14.1 T DNP-enhanced solid-state MAS NMR using quasi-optical microwave transmission.

    PubMed

    Pike, Kevin J; Kemp, Thomas F; Takahashi, Hiroki; Day, Robert; Howes, Andrew P; Kryukov, Eugeny V; MacDonald, James F; Collis, Alana E C; Bolton, David R; Wylde, Richard J; Orwick, Marcella; Kosuga, Kosuke; Clark, Andrew J; Idehara, Toshitaka; Watts, Anthony; Smith, Graham M; Newton, Mark E; Dupree, Ray; Smith, Mark E

    2012-02-01

    A Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation (DNP) enhanced solid-state Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR spectrometer operating at 6.7 T is described and demonstrated. The 187 GHz TE(13) fundamental mode of the FU CW VII gyrotron is used as the microwave source for this magnetic field strength and 284 MHz (1)H DNP-NMR. The spectrometer is designed for use with microwave frequencies up to 395 GHz (the TE(16) second-harmonic mode of the gyrotron) for DNP at 14.1T (600 MHz (1)H NMR). The pulsed microwave output from the gyrotron is converted to a quasi-optical Gaussian beam using a Vlasov antenna and transmitted to the NMR probe via an optical bench, with beam splitters for monitoring and adjusting the microwave power, a ferrite rotator to isolate the gyrotron from the reflected power and a Martin-Puplett interferometer for adjusting the polarisation. The Gaussian beam is reflected by curved mirrors inside the DNP-MAS-NMR probe to be incident at the sample along the MAS rotation axis. The beam is focussed to a ~1 mm waist at the top of the rotor and then gradually diverges to give much more efficient coupling throughout the sample than designs using direct waveguide irradiation. The probe can be used in triple channel HXY mode for 600 MHz (1)H and double channel HX mode for 284 MHz (1)H, with MAS sample temperatures ?85 K. Initial data at 6.7 T and ~1 W pulsed microwave power are presented with (13)C enhancements of 60 for a frozen urea solution ((1)H-(13)C CP), 16 for bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane ((1)H-(13)C CP) and 22 for (15)N in a frozen glycine solution ((1)H-(15)N CP) being obtained. In comparison with designs which irradiate perpendicular to the rotation axis the approach used here provides a highly efficient use of the incident microwave beam and an NMR-optimised coil design. PMID:22218011

  12. Some studies on a solid-state sulfur probe for coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, K. T.; Rao, D. B.; Nelson, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of a program for the development of a sulfur probe for monitoring the sulfur potential in coal gasification reactors, an investigation was conducted regarding the efficiency of the solid electrolyte cell Ar+H2+H2S/CaS+CaF2+(Pt)//CaF2//Pt)+CaF2+CaS/H2S+H2+Ar. A demonstration is provided of the theory, design, and operation of a solid-state sulfur probe based on CaF2 electrolyte. It was found that the cell responds to changes in sulfur potential in a manner predicted by the Nernst equation. The response time of the cell at 1225 K, after a small change in temperature or gas composition, was 2.5 Hr, while at a lower temperature of 990 K the response time was approximately 9 hr. The cell emf was insensitive to a moderate increase in the flow rate of the test gas and/or the reference gas. The exact factors affecting the slow response time of galvanic cells based on a CaF2 electrolyte have not yet been determined. The rate-limiting steps may be either the kinetics of electrode reactions or the rate of transport through the electrolyte.

  13. Solid-state 2H NMR relaxation illuminates functional dynamics of retinal cofactor in membrane activation of rhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Struts, Andrey V.; Salgado, Gilmar F. J.; Brown, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Rhodopsin is a canonical member of the family of G protein-coupled receptors, which transmit signals across cellular membranes and are linked to many drug interventions in humans. Here we show that solid-state 2H NMR relaxation allows investigation of light-induced changes in local ps–ns time scale motions of retinal bound to rhodopsin. Site-specific 2H labels were introduced into methyl groups of the retinal ligand that are essential to the activation process. We conducted solid-state 2H NMR relaxation (spin-lattice, T1Z, and quadrupolar-order, T1Q) experiments in the dark, Meta I, and Meta II states of the photoreceptor. Surprisingly, we find the retinylidene methyl groups exhibit site-specific differences in dynamics that change upon light excitation—even more striking, the C9-methyl group is a dynamical hotspot that corresponds to a crucial functional hotspot of rhodopsin. Following 11-cis to trans isomerization, the 2H NMR data suggest the ?-ionone ring remains in its hydrophobic binding pocket in all three states of the protein. We propose a multiscale activation mechanism with a complex energy landscape, whereby the photonic energy is directed against the E2 loop by the C13-methyl group, and toward helices H3 and H5 by the C5-methyl of the ?-ionone ring. Changes in retinal structure and dynamics initiate activating fluctuations of transmembrane helices H5 and H6 in the Meta I–Meta II equilibrium of rhodopsin. Our proposals challenge the Standard Model whereby a single light-activated receptor conformation yields the visual response—rather an ensemble of substates is present, due to the entropy gain produced by photolysis of the inhibitory retinal lock. PMID:21527723

  14. 'Boomerang'-like insertion of a fusogenic peptide in a lipid membrane revealed by solid-state 19F NMR.

    PubMed

    Afonin, Sergii; Dürr, Ulrich H N; Glaser, Ralf W; Ulrich, Anne S

    2004-02-01

    Solid state (19)F NMR revealed the conformation and alignment of the fusogenic peptide sequence B18 from the sea urchin fertilization protein bindin embedded in flat phospholipid bilayers. Single (19)F labels were introduced into nine distinct positions along the wild-type sequence by substituting each hydrophobic amino acid, one by one, with L-4-fluorophenylglycine. Their anisotropic chemical shifts were measured in uniaxially oriented membrane samples and used as orientational constraints to model the peptide structure in the membrane-bound state. Previous (1)H NMR studies of B18 in 30% TFE and in detergent micelles had shown that the peptide structure consists of two alpha-helical segments that are connected by a flexible hinge. This helix-break-helix motif was confirmed here by the solid-state (19)F NMR data, while no other secondary structure (beta-sheet, 3(10)-helix) was compatible with the set of orientational constraints. For both alpha-helical segments we found that the helical conformation extends all the way to the respective N- and C-termini of the peptide. Analysis of the corresponding tilt and azimuthal rotation angles showed that the N-terminal helix of B18 is immersed obliquely into the bilayer (at a tilt angle tau approximately 54 degrees), whereas the C-terminus is peripherally aligned (tau approximately 91 degrees). The azimuthal orientation of the two segments is consistent with the amphiphilic distribution of side-chains. The observed 'boomerang'-like mode of insertion into the membrane may thus explain how peptide binding leads to lipid dehydration and acyl chain perturbation as a prerequisite for bilayer fusion to occur. PMID:14745800

  15. Determination of Anion Ordering in Mixed Apatites via Multinuclear Solid-State NMR & X-ray Crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, J. S.; Phillips, B. L.; Hughes, J. M.; Nekvasil, H.; Ustunisik, G. K.; Lindsley, D. H.; Coraor, A. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; Woerner, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Subtle changes in crystallographic anion position in apatite sensu latu Ca5(PO4)3(F,OH,Cl) are known to affect greatly its macroscopic physical properties, such as acid resistivity and hardness. While the anion positions in endmember compositions are well described, there exist substantial gaps in our understanding of anion ordering in mixed binary and ternary compositions because of potential steric anion interactions and symmetry changes. X-ray diffraction analysis of these binary/ternary mixtures is well-suited to address the atomic positions and average occupancies of these anion sites for well-ordered systems. Multinuclear solid-state NMR methods complement XRD structure studies if there exist column ordering reversals or disorder in the atomic positions of the anions, as NMR is sensitive to the atomic arrangement within short distances of the nucleus (<4Å). Using these analytical techniques the anion ordering along the F-Cl solid-solution join is reported, and features an off-mirror fluorine site at (0,0,0.167). The migration of fluorine away from its end-member site within the {00l} mirror plane and subsequent migration of chlorine in the opposing direction results in acceptable F-Cl distances in the anion column. Exceptionally low H content in the anion channel was afforded via high-temperature (1200°C) solid-state reaction under vacuum. The speciation of H was determined by 1H{31P} REDOR experiments, from which the REDOR difference spectrum features a single resonance at ?H = 1.6 ppm which can be assigned to OH groups. The abundance of OH was confirmed by comparison of single-pulse (SP) 31P and cross-polarization 31P{1H} NMR (CP) spectral intensities to those of a crystalline synthetic hydroxylapatite, and showed that only 0.4 mol% of the 31P in the composition occurs in hydroxylapatite-like configurations.

  16. Solid state NMR, MRI and Sir Peter Mansfield: (1) from broad lines to narrow and back again; and (2) a highly tenuous link to landmine detection.

    PubMed

    Garroway, A N

    1999-12-01

    The contributions of Sir Peter Mansfield to MRI are rooted in solid state NMR. I summarize some of the important contributions of Sir Peter to that field, provide a glimpse of the state of the art in multiple-pulse line-narrowing in the early 1970s, and indicate how the earliest MRI efforts at Nottingham flowed from solid state NMR. These line-narrowing methods, providing control over the Hamiltonian governing the dynamics of nuclear spins, continue to evolve and to find new uses. I indicate how some methods and ideas from solid state NMR of the 1970s are at present applied to the detection of explosives in landmines by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). PMID:10628681

  17. Solid-state NMR studies of the adsorption of acetylene on platinum/alumina catalysts

    E-print Network

    Lambregts, Marsha Jo Lupher

    1991-01-01

    is invisible in "C MAS spectra, presumably due to susceptibility broadening. This observation reconciles the conflicting conclusions of two previous NMR investigations of the system. This thesis underscores the need to apply complementary NMR techniques... REFERENCES 15 19 34 VITA 37 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE A Langmuir isotherm obtained for a representative 10%Pt/rt-alumina catalyst sample. 16 uC CP/MAS NMR spectra obtained at a resonance frequency of 50 MHz. 20 uC Interrupted Decoupling MAS...

  18. Deuterated peptides and proteins: structure and dynamics studies by MAS solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Reif, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Perdeuteration and back substitution of exchangeable protons in microcrystalline proteins, in combination with recrystallization from D(2)O-containing buffers, significantly reduce (1)H, (1)H dipolar interactions. This way, amide proton line widths on the order of 20 Hz are obtained. Aliphatic protons are accessible either via specifically protonated precursors or by using low amounts of H(2)O in the bacterial growth medium. The labeling scheme enables characterization of structure and dynamics in the solid-state without dipolar truncation artifacts. PMID:22167680

  19. High-resolution high-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization for biomolecular solid state NMR

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Alexander B. (Alexander Benjamin)

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has exploded in popularity over the last few years, finally realizing its potential to overcome the detrimental lack of sensitivity that has plagued performing NMR experiments. Applied ...

  20. An Investigation of Lanthanum Coordination Compounds by Using Solid- State 139La NMR Spectroscopy and Relativistic Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Willans, Mathew J.; Feindel, Kirk W.; Ooms, Kristopher J.; Wasylishen, Roderick E.

    2005-12-16

    Lanthanum-139 NMR spectra of stationary samples of several solid LaIII coordination compounds have been obtained at applied magnetic fields of 11.75 and 17.60 T. The breadth and shape of the 139La NMR spectra of the central transition are dominated by the interaction between the 139La nuclear quadrupole moment and the electric field gradient (EFG) at that nucleus; however, the influence of chemical-shift anisotropy on the NMR spectra is non-negligible for the majority of the compounds investigated. Analysis of the experimental NMR spectra reveals that the 139La quadrupolar coupling constants (CQ) range from 10.0 to 35.6 MHz, the spans of the chemical-shift tensor (W) range from 50 to 260 ppm, and the isotropic chemical shifts (diso) range from -80 to 178 ppm. In general, there is a correlation between the magnitudes of CQ and W, and diso is shown to depend on the La coordination number. Magnetic shielding tensors, calculated by using relativistic zeroth-order regular approximation density functional theory (ZORA-DFT) and incorporating scalar only or scalar plus spin-orbit relativistic effects, qualitatively reproduce the experimental chemical-shift tensors. In general, the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling yields results that are in better agreement with those from the experiment. The magnetic-shielding calculations and experimentally determined Euler angles can be used to predict the orientation of the chemical-shift and EFG tensors in the molecular frame. This study demonstrates that solid state 139La NMR spectroscopy is a useful characterization method and can provide insight into the molecular structure of lanthanum coordination compounds.

  1. A multinuclear solid state NMR spectroscopic study of the structural evolution of disordered calcium silicate sol-gel biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhongjie; Jones, Julian R; Hanna, John V; Smith, Mark E

    2015-01-28

    Disordered sol-gel prepared calcium silicate biomaterials show significant, composition dependent ability to bond with bone. Bone bonding is attributed to rapid hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation on the glass surface after immersion in body fluid (or implantation). Atomic scale details of the development of the structure of (CaO)x(SiO2)1-x (x = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5) under heat treatment and subsequent dissolution in simulated body fluid (SBF) are revealed through a multinuclear solid state NMR approach using one-dimensional (17)O, (29)Si, (31)P and (1)H. Central to this study is the combination of conventional static and magic angle spinning (MAS) and two-dimensional (2D) triple quantum (3Q) (17)O NMR experiments that can readily distinguish and quantify the bridging (BOs) and non-bridging (NBOs) oxygens in the silicate network. Although soluble calcium is present in the sol, the (17)O NMR results reveal that the sol-gel produced network structure is initially dominated by BOs after gelation, aging and drying (e.g. at 120 °C), indicating a nanoscale mixture of the calcium salt and a predominantly silicate network. Only once the calcium salt is decomposed at elevated temperatures do the Ca(2+) ions become available to break BO. Apatite forming ability in SBF depends strongly on the surface OH and calcium content. The presence of calcium aids HCA formation via promotion of surface hydration and the ready availability of Ca(2+) ions. (17)O NMR shows the rapid loss of NBOs charge balanced by calcium as it is leached into the SBF. The formation of nanocrystalline, partially ordered HCA can be detected via(31)P NMR. This data indicates the importance of achieving the right balance of BO/NBO for optimal biochemical response and network properties. PMID:25494341

  2. {sup 45}Sc Solid State NMR studies of the silicides ScTSi (T=Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt)

    SciTech Connect

    Harmening, Thomas [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie and NRW Graduate School of Chemistry, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Eckert, Hellmut, E-mail: eckerth@uni-muenster.de [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Fehse, Constanze M. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Sebastian, C. Peter, E-mail: sebastiancp@jncasr.ac.in [New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560064 (India); Poettgen, Rainer, E-mail: pottgen@uni-muenster.de [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie and NRW Graduate School of Chemistry, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The silicides ScTSi (T=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt) were synthesized by arc-melting and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. The structures of ScCoSi, ScRuSi, ScPdSi, and ScIrSi were refined from single crystal diffractometer data. These silicides crystallize with the TiNiSi type, space group Pnma. No systematic influences of the {sup 45}Sc isotropic magnetic shift and nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling parameters on various structural distortion parameters calculated from the crystal structure data can be detected. {sup 45}Sc MAS-NMR data suggest systematic trends in the local electronic structure probed by the scandium atoms: both the electric field gradients and the isotropic magnetic shifts relative to a 0.2 M aqueous Sc(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution decrease with increasing valence electron concentration and within each T group the isotropic magnetic shift decreases monotonically with increasing atomic number. The {sup 45}Sc nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling constants are generally well reproduced by quantum mechanical electric field gradient calculations using the WIEN2k code. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arc-melting synthesis of silicides ScTSi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal X-ray data of ScCoSi, ScRuSi, ScPdSi, and ScIrSi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 45}Sc solid state NMR of silicides ScTSi.

  3. Recoupling of chemical shift anisotropies in solid-state NMR under high-speed magic-angle spinning and in uniformly 13C-labeled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Jerry C. C.; Tycko, Robert

    2003-05-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of recoupling chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) interactions in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) under high-speed magic-angle spinning (MAS) while retaining a static CSA powder pattern line shape and simultaneously attenuating homonuclear dipole-dipole interactions. CSA recoupling is accomplished by a rotation-synchronized radio-frequency pulse sequence with symmetry properties that permit static CSA line shapes to be obtained. We suggest a specific recoupling sequence, which we call ROCSA, for which the scaling factors for CSA and homonuclear dipole-dipole interactions are 0.272 and approximately 0.05, respectively. This sequence is suitable for high-speed 13C MAS NMR experiments on uniformly 13C-labeled organic compounds, including biopolymers. We demonstrate the ROCSA sequence experimentally by measuring the 13C CSA patterns of the uniformly labeled, polycrystalline compounds L-alanine and N-acetyl-D,L-valine at MAS frequencies of 11 and 20 kHz. We also present experimental data for amyloid fibrils formed by a 15-residue fragment of the ?-amyloid peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, in which four amino acid residues are uniformly labeled, demonstrating the applicability to biochemical systems of high molecular weight and significant complexity. Analysis of the CSA patterns in the amyloid fibril sample demonstrates the utility of ROCSA measurements as probes of peptide and protein conformation in noncrystalline solids.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of nitroxide-based oligoradicals for low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization in solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Wai-Ming; Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert

    2014-07-01

    We describe the synthesis of new nitroxide-based biradical, triradical, and tetraradical compounds and the evaluation of their performance as paramagnetic dopants in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with magic-angle spinning (MAS). Under our experimental conditions, which include temperatures in the 25-30 K range, a 9.4 T magnetic field, MAS frequencies of 6.2-6.8 kHz, and microwave irradiation at 264.0 GHz from a 800 mW extended interaction oscillator source, the most effective compounds are triradicals that are related to the previously-described compound DOTOPA-TEMPO (see Thurber et al., 2010), but have improved solubility in glycerol/water solvent near neutral pH. Using these compounds at 30 mM total nitroxide concentration, we observe DNP enhancement factors of 92-128 for cross-polarized 13C NMR signals from 15N,13C-labeled melittin in partially protonated glycerol/water, and build-up times of 2.6-3.8 s for 1H spin polarizations. Net sensitivity enhancements with biradical and tetraradical dopants, taking into account absolute 13C NMR signal amplitudes and build-up times, are approximately 2-4 times lower than with the best triradicals.

  5. Molecular composition of recycled organic wastes, as determined by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR and elemental analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, S.M., E-mail: simon.eldridge@dpi.nsw.gov.au [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, Bruxner Highway, Wollongbar, NSW 2477 (Australia); Chen, C.R. [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Xu, Z.H. [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Nelson, P.N. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4870 (Australia); Boyd, S.E. [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Meszaros, I. [Formerly NSW Department of Primary Industries, Richmond, NSW 2753 (Australia); Chan, K.Y. [Graduate School of Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109 (Australia); Formerly NSW Department of Primary Industries, Richmond, NSW 2753 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Model estimated the molecular C components well for most RO wastes. • Molecular nature of organic matter in RO wastes varied widely. • Molecular composition by NMR modelling preferable to extraction techniques. • Some model shortcomings in estimating molecular composition of biochars. • Waste molecular composition important for carbon/nutrient outcomes in soil. - Abstract: Using solid state {sup 13}C NMR data and elemental composition in a molecular mixing model, we estimated the molecular components of the organic matter in 16 recycled organic (RO) wastes representative of the major materials generated in the Sydney basin area. Close correspondence was found between the measured NMR signal intensities and those predicted by the model for all RO wastes except for poultry manure char. Molecular nature of the organic matter differed widely between the RO wastes. As a proportion of organic C, carbohydrate C ranged from 0.07 to 0.63, protein C from <0.01 to 0.66, lignin C from <0.01 to 0.31, aliphatic C from 0.09 to 0.73, carbonyl C from 0.02 to 0.23, and char C from 0 to 0.45. This method is considered preferable to techniques involving imprecise extraction methods for RO wastes. Molecular composition data has great potential as a predictor of RO waste soil carbon and nutrient outcomes.

  6. Hydration properties of regioselectively etherified celluloses monitored by 2H and 13C solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Flemming H; Schöbitz, Michael; Schaller, Jens

    2012-06-20

    The hydration properties of 2,3-O-hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) and 2,3-O-hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) were analyzed by multi-nuclear solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy. By 13C single-pulse (SP) MAS and cross-polarization (CP) MAS NMR, differences between the immobile regions and all parts of the polysaccharides were detected as a function of hydration. Complementary information about the water environments was observed by 2H MAS NMR. By this approach it was demonstrated that side chains in 2,3-O-HPC and 2,3-O-HEC were easier to hydrate than the cellulose backbone. Furthermore the motion of water was more restricted (slower) in 2,3-O-HPC than in 2,3-O-HEC. For both polysaccharides the hydration could be explained by a two-step process: in step one increased ordering of the immobile regions occurs after which the entire polymer is hydrated in step two. PMID:24750769

  7. Tetraphosphine Linker Scaffolds with a Tetraphenyltin Core for Superior Immobilized Catalysts: A Solid-State NMR Study 

    E-print Network

    Perera, Melanie Ingrid

    2012-10-19

    -resolution magic angle spinning) NMR spectra of several phosphonium salts, adsorbed on SiO2, have been studied. This technique allows one to probe the leaching and mobility of the linkers on the surface. The mobilities of the linkers and the catalysts are crucial...

  8. Supramolecular Structure of Membrane-Associated Polypeptides by Combining Solid-State NMR and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Weingarth, Markus; Ader, Christian; Melquiond, Adrien J.S.; Nand, Deepak; Pongs, Olaf; Becker, Stefan; Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Baldus, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Elemental biological functions such as molecular signal transduction are determined by the dynamic interplay between polypeptides and the membrane environment. Determining such supramolecular arrangements poses a significant challenge for classical structural biology methods. We introduce an iterative approach that combines magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations for the determination of the structure and topology of membrane-bound systems with a resolution and level of accuracy difficult to obtain by either method alone. Our study focuses on the Shaker B ball peptide that is representative for rapid N-type inactivating domains of voltage-gated K+ channels, associated with negatively charged lipid bilayers. PMID:22828329

  9. Multiple-pulse and magic-angle spinning aided double-quantum proton solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhu, P. K.; Vinogradov, Elena; Vega, Shimon

    2004-08-01

    We here report on a high-resolution pulse scheme for double-quantum (DQ) proton NMR spectroscopy in the solid-state. The pulse scheme employs a combination of multiple-pulses and magic-angle spinning (MAS) for both the excitation and conversion of DQ coherences and their evolution under homonuclear dipolar decoupling. This is made possible in this two-dimensional experiment by an effective combination of homonuclear dipolar decoupling method of phase modulated Lee-Goldburg and symmetry adapted sequence for homonuclear dipolar recoupling under MAS. DQ spectra of monoethyl fumaric acid, glycine, and histidine are presented to highlight the utility of the pulse scheme together with some of the existing drawbacks.

  10. Unambiguous assignment of short- and long-range structural restraints by solid-state NMR spectroscopy with segmental isotope labeling.

    PubMed

    Schubeis, Tobias; Lührs, Thorsten; Ritter, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient method for the reduction of spectral complexity in the solid-state NMR spectra of insoluble protein assemblies, without loss of signal intensity. The approach is based on segmental isotope labeling by using the split intein DnaE from Nostoc punctiforme. We show that the segmentally (13)C, (15)N-labeled prion domain of HET-s exhibits significantly reduced spectral overlap while retaining the wild-type structure and spectral quality. A large number of unambiguous distance restraints were thus collected from a single two-dimensional (13)C, (13)C cross-correlation spectrum. The observed resonances could be unambiguously identified as intramolecular without the need for preparing a dilute, less sensitive sample. PMID:25394265

  11. Synthesis, solid-state NMR characterization, and application for hydrogenation reactions of a novel Wilkinson's-type immobilized catalyst.

    PubMed

    Abdulhussain, Safaa; Breitzke, Hergen; Ratajczyk, Tomasz; Grünberg, Anna; Srour, Mohamad; Arnaut, Danjela; Weidler, Heiko; Kunz, Ulrike; Kleebe, Hans Joachim; Bommerich, Ute; Bernarding, Johannes; Gutmann, Torsten; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2014-01-20

    Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were chosen as a solid support material for the immobilization of a new Wilkinson's-type catalyst. In a first step, polymer molecules (poly(triphenylphosphine)ethylene (PTPPE); 4-diphenylphosphine styrene as monomer) were grafted onto the silica nanoparticles by surface-initiated photoinferter-mediated polymerization (SI-PIMP). The catalyst was then created by binding rhodium (Rh) to the polymer side chains, with RhCl3?x?H2O as a precursor. The triphenylphosphine units and rhodium as Rh(I) provide an environment to form Wilkinson's catalyst-like structures. Employing multinuclear ((31)P, (29)Si, and (13)C) solid-state NMR spectroscopy (SSNMR), the structure of the catalyst bound to the polymer and the intermediates of the grafting reaction have been characterized. Finally, first applications of this catalyst in hydrogenation reactions employing para-enriched hydrogen gas (PHIP experiments) and an assessment of its leaching properties are presented. PMID:24338904

  12. Dipolar Assisted Assignment Protocol (DAAP) for MAS solid-state NMR of Rotationally Aligned Membrane Proteins in Phospholipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bibhuti B.; Zhang, Hua; Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    A method for making resonance assignments in magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectra of membrane proteins that utilizes the range of hetero-nuclear dipolar coupling frequencies in combination with conventional chemical shift based assignment methods is demonstrated. The dipolar assisted assignment protocol (DAAP) takes advantage of the rotational alignment of the membrane proteins in liquid crystalline phospholipid bilayers. Improved resolution is obtained by combining the magnetically inequivalent heteronuclear dipolar frequencies with isotropic chemical shift frequencies. Spectra with both dipolar and chemical shift frequency axes assist with resonance assignments. DAAP can be readily extended to three- and four- dimensional experiments and to include both backbone and side chain sites in proteins. PMID:24698983

  13. High-Resolution Structural Insights into Bone: A Solid-State NMR Relaxation Study Utilizing Paramagnetic Doping

    PubMed Central

    Mroue, Kamal H.; MacKinnon, Neil; Xu, Jiadi; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2012-01-01

    The hierarchical heterogeneous architecture of bone imposes significant challenges to structural and dynamic studies conducted by traditional biophysical techniques. High-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy is capable of providing detailed atomic-level structural insights into such traditionally challenging materials. However, the relatively long data-collection time necessary to achieve a reliable signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) remains a major limitation for the widespread application of SSNMR on bone and related biomaterials. In this study, we attempt to overcome this limitation by employing the paramagnetic relaxation properties of copper(II) ions to shorten the 1H intrinsic spin-lattice (T1) relaxation times measured in natural-abundance 13C cross-polarization (CP) magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR experiments on bone tissues for the purpose of accelerating the data acquisition time in SSNMR. To this end, high-resolution solid-state 13C CPMAS experiments were conducted on type I collagen (bovine tendon), bovine cortical bone, and demineralized bovine cortical bone, each in powdered form, to measure the 1H T1 values in the absence and in the presence of 30 mM Cu(II)(NH4)2EDTA. Our results show that the 1H T1 values were successfully reduced by a factor of 2.2, 2.9, and 3.2 for bovine cortical bone, type I collagen, and demineralized bone, respectively, without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition. In addition, paramagnetic quenching of particular 13C NMR resonances on exposure to Cu2+ ions in the absence of mineral was also observed, potentially suggesting the relative proximity of three of the main amino acids in the protein backbone (glycine, proline, and alanine) to the bone mineral surface. PMID:22953757

  14. Rapid and accurate determination of the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; McCallum, Scott A; Miao, Jianjun; Hart, Courtney; Tudryn, Gregory J; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    Biofuels and biomaterials, produced from lignocellulosic feedstock, require facile access to cellulose and hemicellulose to be competitive with petroleum processing and sugar-based fermentation. Physical-chemical barriers resulting from lignin complicates the hydrolysis biomass into fermentable sugars. Thus, the amount of lignin within a substrate is critical in determining biomass processing. The application of (13)C cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance for the direct quantification of lignin content in biomass is examined. Using a standard curve constructed from pristine lignin and cellulose, the lignin content of a biomass sample is accurately determined through direct measurement without chemical or enzymatic pre-treatment. PMID:25404762

  15. Mobility and relaxation determinations of lithium in lithium aluminate ceramics using solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, F.F.; Peterson, E.S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Stebbins, J.F. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Lithium aluminate is one of the materials being considered for fusion reactor blankets. When preparing the ceramic, it is important to be able to monitor the microstructures since it is a controlling factor in the rate of tritium release from the blanket. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has been shown to be a useful tool for the nondestructive analysis of ceramics. Studies detailed in this paper include spectral acquisition, assignment, spin-lattice relaxation time measurements, temperature effects, their correlation to structure, and material purity. The ceramic of interest was lithium aluminate, LiAl{sub 5}O{sub 8}. This material was studied by observation of the NMR active nuclei {sup 6}Li, {sup 7}Li, and {sup 27}Al. For these nuclei, spin-lattice relaxation times (T{sub 1}) were measured and were found to vary considerably, correlating to the presence of paramagnetic impurities within the crystalline lattice. Previous research has shown that the coordination about the aluminum nucleus can be determined using {sup 27}Al NMR spectroscopy. Aluminum-27 NMR spectroscopy was successfully applied, and it provided valuable insight into composition of the ceramic. 20 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Radio-Audio frequencies excitation in solid-state Fotating Frame NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. De Luca; P. Fattibene; N. Lugeri; R. Campanella; B. Maraviglia

    1991-01-01

    The modalities of the excitation in the Rotating Frame are described. The experimental set-up to reach a NMR pulse sequence\\u000a in the Rotating Frame at Magic Angle is discussed. In particular the active damping to eliminate the low frequency ringing,\\u000a which follows the Audio pulse excitation, is described in detail.

  17. Mechanism of Solid-State Thermolysis of Ammonia Boraine: 15N NMR Study Using Fast Magic-Angle Spinning and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Gupta, Shalabh [Ames Laboratory; Caporini, Marc A [Bruker BioSpin Corporation; Pecharsky, Vitalij K [Ames Laboratory; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-28

    The solid-state thermolysis of ammonia borane (NH3BH3, AB) was explored using state-of-the-art 15N solid-state NMR spectroscopy, including 2D indirectly detected 1H{15N} heteronuclear correlation and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced 15N{1H} cross-polarization experiments as well as 11B NMR. The complementary use of 15N and 11B NMR experiments, supported by density functional theory calculations of the chemical shift tensors, provided insights into the dehydrogenation mechanism of AB—insights that have not been available by 11B NMR alone. Specifically, highly branched polyaminoborane derivatives were shown to form from AB via oligomerization in the “head-to-tail” manner, which then transform directly into hexagonal boron nitride analog through the dehydrocyclization reaction, bypassing the formation of polyiminoborane.

  18. Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}: A new compound discovered with the application of solid-state and high temperature NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Gave, Matthew A.; Canlas, Christian G. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Chung, In [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)], E-mail: m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu; Weliky, David P. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: weliky@chemistry.msu.edu

    2007-10-15

    The new compound Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was serendipitously produced in high purity during a high-temperature synthesis done in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer. {sup 31}P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR of the products of the synthesis revealed that the dominant phosphorus-containing product had a chemical shift of -52.8 ppm that could not be assigned to any known compound. Deep reddish brown well-formed plate-like crystals were isolated from the NMR reaction ampoule and the structure was solved with X-ray diffraction. Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} has the triclinic space group P-1 with a=7.3587(11) A, b=7.4546(11) A, c=10.1420(15) A, {alpha}=85.938(2){sup o}, {beta}=88.055(2){sup o}, and {gamma}=85.609(2){sup o} and contains the [P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}]{sup 4-} anion. To our knowledge, this is the first compound containing this anion that is composed of two tetrahedral (PSe{sub 4}) units connected by a diselenide linkage. It was also possible to form a glass by quenching the melt in ice water, and Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was recovered upon annealing. The static {sup 31}P NMR spectrum at 350 deg. C contained a single peak with a -35 ppm chemical shift and a {approx}7 ppm peak width. This study highlights the potential of solid-state and high-temperature NMR for aiding discovery of new compounds and for probing the species that exist at high temperature. - Graphical abstract: The new compound Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was discovered following a high-temperature in situ synthesis in the NMR spectrometer and the structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It contains the new [P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}]{sup 4-} anion.

  19. Two and Three-dimensional Through-Bond Homonuclear-Heteronuclear Correlation Experiments for Quadrupolar Nuclei in Solid-State NMR

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for Quadrupolar Nuclei in Solid-State NMR Applied to 27 Al-O-31 P-O-27 Al networks Michaël Deschamps*, Dominique the correlation map characterizing the two 27 Al and the 31 P NMR signatures of 27 Al-O- 31 P-O-27 Al chemically be correlated via the scalar coupling J2 between 27 Al (X) and 31 P (Y) in materials featuring Al-O-P- O

  20. Preservation of proteinaceous material during the degradation of the green alga Botryococcus braunii: A solid-state 2D 15N 13C NMR spectroscopy study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Zang; Reno T. Nguyen; H. Rodger Harvey; Heike Knicker; Patrick G. Hatcher

    2001-01-01

    Using solid-state cross-polarization-magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 2-D double cross polarization (DCP) MAS 15N 13C NMR techniques, microbially degraded Botryococcus braunii was analyzed to study the chemical nature of organic nitrogen in the algal residue. The amide linkage, as found in protein, was observed as the major nitrogen component in 201-day-old degraded algae. No significant

  1. Cation substitution in ?-tricalcium phosphate investigated using multi-nuclear, solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigg, Andrew T.; Mee, Martin; Mallinson, Phillip M.; Fong, Shirley K.; Gan, Zhehong; Dupree, Ray; Holland, Diane

    2014-04-01

    The substitution of aluminium, gallium and sodium cations into ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP; Ca3(PO4)2) has been investigated, and the Ca sites involved successfully determined, using a combination of 1D 31P, 27Al, 71Ga, 23Na and 43Ca (natural abundance) NMR and 2D 27Al{31P}, 71Ga{31P} and 23Na{31P} rotary-resonance-recoupled heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation (R3-HMQC) NMR. Over the compositional range studied, substitution of Ca2+ by Al3+ or Ga3+ was observed only on the Ca(5) site, whilst substitution by Na+ was confined to the Ca(4) site. Some AlPO4 or GaPO4 second phase was observed at the highest doping levels in the Al3+ and Ga3+ substituted samples.

  2. Studies of Fossil and Modern Spore Wall Biomacromolecules using 13C Solid State NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALAN R. HEMSLEY; ANDREW C. SCOTT; PATRICK J. BARRIE; WILLIAM G. CHALONER

    1996-01-01

    A range of Carboniferous lycophyte megaspore exines have been investigated using13C magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy. Their composition differs considerably from sporopollenin obtained from an extant lycophyte. The differences observed result in part from varying degrees of diagenesis.Fossil fern spores, gymnosperm megaspore-membranes and pollen have also been examined. These show a similar composition to the fossil lycophyte

  3. Immobilization and chelation of metal complexes with bifunctional phosphine ligands: a solid-state NMR study

    E-print Network

    Bluemel, Janet

    to bonding via one, two, or three siloxane bridges and there is also the possibility of cross- linking.' Therefore, we used the monoethoxy phosphine PPh2(C6H4)SiMe20Et1 that forms just one siloxane bridge when or an addition reaction to surface siloxane groups takes place.'3 This can be seen in the 29Si CP MAS NMR

  4. Solid state NMR study of dietary fiber powders from aronia, bilberry, black currant and apple

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Wawer; M. Wolniak; K. Paradowska

    2006-01-01

    13C CPMAS NMR spectra of dietary fiber powders from aronia (chokeberry), bilberry, black currant and apple were recorded. The spectra are complex owing to superposition of resonances from different polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds. Standard, dipolar dephased and the T1?H partially relaxed spectra enabled the identification of several constituents: microcrystalline cellulose, pectins, lignins, cutin-like polymers and condensed tannins. The fiber powders

  5. Sweep direction and efficiency of the swept-frequency two pulse phase modulated scheme for heteronuclear dipolar-decoupling in solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Subhradip; Vinod Chandran, C.; Bräuniger, T.; Madhu, P. K.

    2011-04-01

    We present here a bimodal Floquet theoretical and experimental investigation of the direction of sweep in the swept-frequency two pulse phase modulated (SW f-TPPM) scheme used for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state NMR. The efficiency of the decoupling turns out to be independent of the sweep direction.

  6. Fine hierarchy of the V-O bonds by advanced solid state NMR: novel Pb4(VO2)(PO4)3 structure as a textbook case.

    PubMed

    Tricot, Grégory; Mentré, Olivier; Cristol, Sylvain; Delevoye, Laurent

    2012-12-17

    We report here a complete structural characterization of a new lead Pb(4)(VO(2))(PO(4))(3) vanadophosphate compound by single crystal X-ray diffraction and (51)V and (31)P solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Although structural data are commonly used for the estimation of bond lengths and further delimitation of the true coordination number (e.g., octahedral: 6 versus 5 + 1 versus 4 + 2), we show here for the first time by solid-state NMR a more accurate appreciation of the V-O bonding scheme in this complex oxide which appears well adapted to the full series of vanado-phosphate materials. The direct characterization of V-O-P bridges through the J-mediated correlation (51)V{(31)P} heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (J-HMQC) technique allows a contrasted hierarchy of the V-O electronic delocalization and indirectly supports the presence or not of the V-O bond. In the reported lead vanado-phosphate structure, the two vanadium polyhedra that have been assigned to octahedra from a bond length point of view have been finally reclassified as tetra- and penta-coordinated units on the basis of the solid-state NMR results. More generally, we believe that the improved characterization of interatomic bonds in various vanado-phosphate structures by solid-state NMR will contribute to a better understanding of the structure/property relationships in this important class of materials. PMID:23190003

  7. High-temperature steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK polymers with H2O and D2O: A solid-state NMR study

    E-print Network

    Bluemel, Janet

    High-temperature steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK polymers with H2O and D2O: A solid 2014 Keywords: Steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, PEKK Solid-state NMR Water and D2O uptake polymers a b counterfaces when compared to PAEK alone. ASTM standard tensile specimens of PBI, polyetheretherketone (PEEK

  8. Chemical structures of swine-manure chars produced under different carbonization conditions investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two types of swine manure chars, hydrothermally-produced hydrochar and slow-pyrolysis pyrochar, and their raw swine manure solid were characterized using advanced 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Compared with the parent raw swine manure, both hydrochars and pyrochar di...

  9. Dynamic Structure of a Protein Hydrogel: A Solid-State NMR Study S. B. Kennedy, E. R. deAzevedo, W. A. Petka, and T. P. Russell

    E-print Network

    Hong, Mei

    Dynamic Structure of a Protein Hydrogel: A Solid-State NMR Study S. B. Kennedy, E. R. deAzevedo, W used to study the dynamic structure of a genetically engineered multidomain protein hydrogel, a de- tailed understanding of the molecular structure and dynamics of the gel network is important

  10. Exploiting the Synergy of Powder X-ray Diffraction and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy in Structure Determination of Organic Molecular Solids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a strategy for structure determination of organic materials in which complete solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data is utilized within the context of structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. Following determination of the crystal structure from powder XRD data, first-principles density functional theory-based techniques within the GIPAW approach are exploited to calculate the solid-state NMR data for the structure, followed by careful scrutiny of the agreement with experimental solid-state NMR data. The successful application of this approach is demonstrated by structure determination of the 1:1 cocrystal of indomethacin and nicotinamide. The 1H and 13C chemical shifts calculated for the crystal structure determined from the powder XRD data are in excellent agreement with those measured experimentally, notably including the two-dimensional correlation of 1H and 13C chemical shifts for directly bonded 13C–1H moieties. The key feature of this combined approach is that the quality of the structure determined is assessed both against experimental powder XRD data and against experimental solid-state NMR data, thus providing a very robust validation of the veracity of the structure. PMID:24386493

  11. Solid-State NMR Line Shapes of Uniaxially Oriented Immobile Alexander A. Nevzorov, Stephan Moltke, Maarten P. Heyn, and Michael F. Brown*

    E-print Network

    Brown, Michael F.

    of various biological systems, including integral membrane proteins and peptides, receptor-bound ligands chemistry for investigating the properties of molecular solids, liquid crystals, and various supramolecular- crystalline or amorphous systems, comparison of the solid-state NMR line shapes with theory allows one

  12. High-resolution solid-state {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N NMR spectroscopy of pyrazole and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole adsorbed on alumina and silica

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Parrilla, F.; Limbach, H.H. [Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (Spain); Claramunt, R.M. [Instituto de Quimica Medica, Madrid (Spain)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Using pyrazole and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole mixtures with alumina and silica, high-resolution solid state {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N CPMAS NMR was performed to compare the spectra. The NH-N proton tautomers resulting depend strongly on the environment. 70 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Criteria to average out the chemical shift anisotropy in solid-state NMR when irradiated with BABA I, BABA II, and C7 radiofrequency pulse sequences.

    PubMed

    Stephane Mananga, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Floquet-Magnus expansion is used to study the effect of chemical shift anisotropy in solid-state NMR of rotating solids. The chemical shift interaction is irradiated with two types of radiofrequency pulse sequences: BABA and C7. The criteria for the chemical shift anisotropy to be averaged out in each rotor period are obtained. PMID:24060139

  14. Dynamic Effects on the Powder Line Shapes of Half-Integer Quadrupolar Nuclei: A Solid-State NMR Study of XO4

    E-print Network

    Frydman, Lucio

    of the most established approaches for the detection and molecular-level characterization of dynamics studies were EPR-related zero- field couplings treated with a diffusive stochastic Liouville theory.16Dynamic Effects on the Powder Line Shapes of Half-Integer Quadrupolar Nuclei: A Solid-State NMR

  15. Multinuclear solid state NMR investigation of two polymorphic forms of ciprofloxacin-saccharinate.

    PubMed

    Garro Linck, Y; Chattah, A K; Graf, R; Romañuk, C B; Olivera, M E; Manzo, R H; Monti, G A; Spiess, H W

    2011-04-14

    Two polymorphic forms of a novel pharmaceutical compound, ciprofloxacin-saccharinate (CIP-SAC), are analyzed using one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at fast magic angle spinning (MAS). Additionally (15)N spectroscopy and (1)H-(13)C correlation experiments were performed to complement our conclusions. The 1D (1)H NMR spectra of CIP and complexes reveal valuable information about the ionic bonding between ciprofloxacin and saccharine. Additionally, these spectra allow us to perform a clear characterization of each solid form, giving the number of molecules per unit cell in one of the polymorphs. From 2D (1)H-(1)H spectra obtained through double quantum correlations we can arrive at important conclusions about the hydrogen bonding, conformation, and intra and inter-molecular interactions present in these compounds. Comparing and contrasting the (1)H-(1)H correlation data obtained for both polymorphic forms and taking into account the single crystal structure data existing for the solid form CIP-SAC (II) was possible to extract some conclusions on the polymorph CIP-SAC (I) where no single crystal information is available. (1)H MAS NMR is shown to be an important tool in the field of polymorphism and for the characterization of multicomponent pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:21384011

  16. Molecular composition of recycled organic wastes, as determined by solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, S M; Chen, C R; Xu, Z H; Nelson, P N; Boyd, S E; Meszaros, I; Chan, K Y

    2013-11-01

    Using solid state (13)C NMR data and elemental composition in a molecular mixing model, we estimated the molecular components of the organic matter in 16 recycled organic (RO) wastes representative of the major materials generated in the Sydney basin area. Close correspondence was found between the measured NMR signal intensities and those predicted by the model for all RO wastes except for poultry manure char. Molecular nature of the organic matter differed widely between the RO wastes. As a proportion of organic C, carbohydrate C ranged from 0.07 to 0.63, protein C from <0.01 to 0.66, lignin C from <0.01 to 0.31, aliphatic C from 0.09 to 0.73, carbonyl C from 0.02 to 0.23, and char C from 0 to 0.45. This method is considered preferable to techniques involving imprecise extraction methods for RO wastes. Molecular composition data has great potential as a predictor of RO waste soil carbon and nutrient outcomes. PMID:23896223

  17. Efficient and stable reconstitution of the ABC transporter BmrA for solid-state NMR studies

    PubMed Central

    Kunert, Britta; Gardiennet, Carole; Lacabanne, Denis; Calles-Garcia, Daniel; Falson, Pierre; Jault, Jean-Michel; Meier, Beat H.; Penin, François; Böckmann, Anja

    2014-01-01

    We present solid-state NMR sample preparation and first 2D spectra of the Bacillus subtilis ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter BmrA, a membrane protein involved in multidrug resistance. The homodimeric 130-kDa protein is a challenge for structural characterization due to its membrane-bound nature, size, inherent flexibility and insolubility. We show that reconstitution of this protein in lipids from Bacillus subtilis at a lipid-protein ratio of 0.5 w/w allows for optimal protein insertion in lipid membranes with respect to two central NMR requirements, high signal-to-noise in the spectra and sample stability over a time period of months. The obtained spectra point to a well-folded protein and a highly homogenous preparation, as witnessed by the narrow resonance lines and the signal dispersion typical for the expected secondary structure distribution of BmrA. This opens the way for studies of the different conformational states of the transporter in the export cycle, as well as on interactions with substrates, via chemical-shift fingerprints and sequential resonance assignments. PMID:25988146

  18. Conformations of silica-bound (pentafluorophenyl)propyl groups determined by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Kanmi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Wiench, Jerzy W; Chen, Hung-Ting; Tsai, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Victor S-Y; Pruski, Marek

    2010-09-01

    The conformations of (pentafluorophenyl)propyl groups (-CH(2)-CH(2)-CH(2)-C(6)F(5), abbreviated as PFP), covalently bound to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), were determined by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and further refined by theoretical modeling. Two types of PFP groups were described, including molecules in the prone position with the perfluorinated aromatic rings located above the siloxane bridges (PFP-p) and the PFP groups denoted as upright (PFP-u), whose aromatic rings do not interact with the silica surface. Two-dimensional (2D) (13)C-(1)H, (13)C-(19)F and (19)F-(29)Si heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectra were obtained with high sensitivity on natural abundance samples using fast magic angle spinning (MAS), indirect detection of low-gamma nuclei and signal enhancement by Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) spin-echo sequence. 2D double-quantum (DQ) (19)F MAS NMR spectra and spin-echo measurements provided additional information about the structure and mobility of the pentafluorophenyl rings. Optimization of the PFP geometry, as well as calculations of the interaction energies and (19)F chemical shifts, proved very useful in refining the structural features of PFP-p and PFP-u functional groups on the silica surface. The prospects of using the PFP-functionalized surface to modify its properties (e.g., the interaction with solvents, especially water) and design new types of the heterogeneous catalytic system are discussed. PMID:20707348

  19. Efficient and stable reconstitution of the ABC transporter BmrA for solid-state NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Britta; Gardiennet, Carole; Lacabanne, Denis; Calles-Garcia, Daniel; Falson, Pierre; Jault, Jean-Michel; Meier, Beat H; Penin, François; Böckmann, Anja

    2014-01-01

    We present solid-state NMR sample preparation and first 2D spectra of the Bacillus subtilis ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter BmrA, a membrane protein involved in multidrug resistance. The homodimeric 130-kDa protein is a challenge for structural characterization due to its membrane-bound nature, size, inherent flexibility and insolubility. We show that reconstitution of this protein in lipids from Bacillus subtilis at a lipid-protein ratio of 0.5 w/w allows for optimal protein insertion in lipid membranes with respect to two central NMR requirements, high signal-to-noise in the spectra and sample stability over a time period of months. The obtained spectra point to a well-folded protein and a highly homogenous preparation, as witnessed by the narrow resonance lines and the signal dispersion typical for the expected secondary structure distribution of BmrA. This opens the way for studies of the different conformational states of the transporter in the export cycle, as well as on interactions with substrates, via chemical-shift fingerprints and sequential resonance assignments. PMID:25988146

  20. Solid-state NMR sequential assignments of the amyloid core of full-length Sup35p.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Anne K; Habenstein, Birgit; Luckgei, Nina; Bousset, Luc; Sourigues, Yannick; Nielsen, Anders B; Melki, Ronald; Böckmann, Anja; Meier, Beat H

    2014-10-01

    Sup35p is a yeast prion and is responsible for the [PSI(+)] trait in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 685 amino acids, full-length soluble and fibrillar Sup35p are challenging targets for structural biology as they cannot be investigated by X-ray crystallography or NMR in solution. We present solid-state NMR studies of fibrils formed by the full-length Sup35 protein. We detect an ordered and rigid core of the protein that gives rise to narrow and strong peaks, while large parts of the protein show either static disorder or dynamics on time scales which interfere with dipolar polarization transfer or shorten the coherence lifetime. Thus, only a small subset of resonances is observed in 3D spectra. Here we describe in detail the sequential assignments of the 22 residues for which resonances are observed in 3D spectra: their chemical shifts mostly corresponding to ?-sheet secondary structure. We suspect that these residues form the amyloid core of the fibril. PMID:23943018

  1. Solid-state dynamics in the closo-carboranes: a (11)B MAS NMR and molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Hernán; Kurkiewicz, Teresa; Thrippleton, Michael J; Wimperis, Stephen

    2015-03-19

    This work explores the dynamic behavior of the three closo-carborane isomers (formula C2B10H12) using modern solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR techniques and relates the experimental measurements to theoretical results obtained using molecular dynamics simulations. At high temperatures and at B0 = 9.4 T, the (11)B MAS line widths are narrow (40-90 Hz) for the three isomers. The rotational correlation times (?c) calculated by molecular dynamics are on the picosecond time scale, showing a quasi-isotropic rotation at these temperatures, typical for liquid systems. For all three isomers, the values of the (11)B spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) show discontinuities as the temperature is decreased, confirming the phase changes reported in the literature. At low temperatures, the (11)B MAS spectra of all three isomers exhibit much broader lines. The simulations showed that the molecular reorientation was anisotropic around different symmetry axes for each isomer, and this was supported by the values of the reduced quadrupolar parameter PQ(eff) derived from "dynamic shift" measurements using (11)B MQMAS NMR spectroscopy. The behavior of PQ(eff) as a function of temperature for p-carborane suggests that molecular reorientation is about the C5 symmetry axis of the molecule at low temperatures, and this was supported by the molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25710751

  2. Tracking Stable Isotope Enrichment in Tree Seedlings with Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Charlotte E.; Quideau, Sylvie A.; Landhäusser, Simon M.; Bernard, Guy M.; Wasylishen, Roderick E.

    2012-01-01

    Enriching plant tissues with 13C and 15N isotopes has provided long-lasting, non-reactive tracers to quantify rates of terrestrial elemental fluxes (e.g., soil organic matter decomposition). However, the molecular location and level of isotope enrichment may differ among plant tissues. This factor is central to the integrity and interpretation of tracer data, but is seldom considered in experiments. We propose a rapid, non-destructive method to quantify molecular isotope allocation using solid-state 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. With this method, we tracked and quantified the fate of multiple pulses of 13CO2(g) and K 15NO3(l) in boreal tree seedling roots and leaves as a function of time. Results show that initial preferential 13C carbohydrate enrichment in the leaves was followed by redistribution to more complex compounds after seven days. While 13C allocation within the roots was uniform across molecules, 15N results indicate an initial enrichment of amine molecules after two hours. PMID:23056911

  3. A unified heteronuclear decoupling strategy for magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Equbal, Asif; Bjerring, Morten; Madhu, P K; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2015-05-14

    A unified strategy of two-pulse based heteronuclear decoupling for solid-state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance is presented. The analysis presented here shows that different decoupling sequences like two-pulse phase-modulation (TPPM), X-inverse-X (XiX), and finite pulse refocused continuous wave (rCW(A)) are basically specific solutions of a more generalized decoupling scheme which incorporates the concept of time-modulation along with phase-modulation. A plethora of other good decoupling conditions apart from the standard, TPPM, XiX, and rCW(A) decoupling conditions are available from the unified decoupling approach. The importance of combined time- and phase-modulation in order to achieve the best decoupling conditions is delineated. The consequences of different indirect dipolar interactions arising from cross terms comprising of heteronuclear and homonuclear dipolar coupling terms and also those between heteronuclear dipolar coupling and chemical-shift anisotropy terms are presented in order to unfold the effects of anisotropic interactions under different decoupling conditions. Extensive numerical simulation results are corroborated with experiments on standard amino acids. PMID:25978884

  4. A unified heteronuclear decoupling strategy for magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Equbal, Asif; Bjerring, Morten; Madhu, P. K.; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2015-05-01

    A unified strategy of two-pulse based heteronuclear decoupling for solid-state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance is presented. The analysis presented here shows that different decoupling sequences like two-pulse phase-modulation (TPPM), X-inverse-X (XiX), and finite pulse refocused continuous wave (rCWA) are basically specific solutions of a more generalized decoupling scheme which incorporates the concept of time-modulation along with phase-modulation. A plethora of other good decoupling conditions apart from the standard, TPPM, XiX, and rCWA decoupling conditions are available from the unified decoupling approach. The importance of combined time- and phase-modulation in order to achieve the best decoupling conditions is delineated. The consequences of different indirect dipolar interactions arising from cross terms comprising of heteronuclear and homonuclear dipolar coupling terms and also those between heteronuclear dipolar coupling and chemical-shift anisotropy terms are presented in order to unfold the effects of anisotropic interactions under different decoupling conditions. Extensive numerical simulation results are corroborated with experiments on standard amino acids.

  5. Probing porous media with gas diffusion NMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Wong, G. P.; Hoffmann, D.; Hurlimann, M. D.; Patz, S.; Schwartz, L. M.; Walsworth, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    We show that gas diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (GD-NMR) provides a powerful technique for probing the structure of porous media. In random packs of glass beads, using both laser-polarized and thermally polarized xenon gas, we find that GD-NMR can accurately measure the pore space surface-area-to-volume ratio, S/V rho, and the tortuosity, alpha (the latter quantity being directly related to the system's transport properties). We also show that GD-NMR provides a good measure of the tortuosity of sandstone and complex carbonate rocks.

  6. Probing porous media with gas diffusion NMR.

    PubMed

    Mair, R W; Wong, G P; Hoffmann, D; Hurlimann, M D; Patz, S; Schwartz, L M; Walsworth, R L

    1999-10-18

    We show that gas diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (GD-NMR) provides a powerful technique for probing the structure of porous media. In random packs of glass beads, using both laser-polarized and thermally polarized xenon gas, we find that GD-NMR can accurately measure the pore space surface-area-to-volume ratio, S/V rho, and the tortuosity, alpha (the latter quantity being directly related to the system's transport properties). We also show that GD-NMR provides a good measure of the tortuosity of sandstone and complex carbonate rocks. PMID:11543587

  7. Cation substitution in ?-tricalcium phosphate investigated using multi-nuclear, solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, Andrew T.; Mee, Martin [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mallinson, Phillip M.; Fong, Shirley K. [AWE, Aldermaston, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Gan, Zhehong [Center of Interdisciplinary Magnetic Resonance, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Dupree, Ray [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Holland, Diane, E-mail: d.holland@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    The substitution of aluminium, gallium and sodium cations into ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP; Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}) has been investigated, and the Ca sites involved successfully determined, using a combination of 1D {sup 31}P, {sup 27}Al, {sup 71}Ga, {sup 23}Na and {sup 43}Ca (natural abundance) NMR and 2D {sup 27}Al({sup 31}P), {sup 71}Ga({sup 31}P) and {sup 23}Na({sup 31}P) rotary-resonance-recoupled heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation (R{sup 3}-HMQC) NMR. Over the compositional range studied, substitution of Ca{sup 2+} by Al{sup 3+} or Ga{sup 3+} was observed only on the Ca(5) site, whilst substitution by Na{sup +} was confined to the Ca(4) site. Some AlPO{sub 4} or GaPO{sub 4} second phase was observed at the highest doping levels in the Al{sup 3+} and Ga{sup 3+} substituted samples. - Graphical abstract: 2D contour plots with skyline projections showing recoupling of {sup 27}Al, {sup 71}Ga and {sup 23}Na to different {sup 31}P sites. - Highlights: • ?-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} has been prepared pure and also with Al{sup 3+}, Ga{sup 3+} and Na{sup +} substituents. • Multi-nuclear 1D NMR and heteronuclear X({sup 31}P) recoupling have been used. • Models for substitution correctly predict site preference and occupancy. • Progressive changes in {sup 31}P spectra have been explained. • Al{sup 3+} and Ga{sup 3+} substitute onto the Ca(5) site, and Na{sup +} onto the Ca(4) site.

  8. Dipole tensor-based atomic-resolution structure determination of a nanocrystalline protein by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Franks, W Trent; Wylie, Benjamin J; Schmidt, Heather L Frericks; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J; Mayrhofer, Rebecca-Maria; Shah, Gautam J; Graesser, Daniel T; Rienstra, Chad M

    2008-03-25

    Magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (SSNMR) techniques have emerged in recent years for solving complete structures of uniformly labeled proteins lacking macroscopic order. Strategies used thus far have relied primarily on semiquantitative distance restraints, analogous to the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) routinely used in solution NMR. Here, we present a complementary approach for using relative orientations of molecular fragments, determined from dipolar line shapes. Whereas SSNMR distance restraints typically have an uncertainty of approximately 1 A, the tensor-based experiments report on relative vector (pseudobond) angles with precision of a few degrees. By using 3D techniques of this type, vector angle (VEAN) restraints were determined for the majority of the 56-residue B1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G [protein GB1 (a total of 47 HN-HN, 49 HN-HC, and 12 HA-HB restraints)]. By using distance restraints alone in the structure calculations, the overall backbone root-mean-square deviation (bbRMSD) was 1.01 +/- 0.13 A (1.52 +/- 0.12 A for all heavy atoms), which improved to 0.49 +/- 0.05 A (1.19 +/- 0.07 A) on the addition of empirical chemical shift [torsion angle likelihood obtained from shift and sequence similarity (TALOS)] restraints. VEAN restraints further improved the ensemble to 0.31 +/- 0.06 A bbRMSD (1.06 +/- 0.07 A); relative to the structure with distances alone, most of the improvement remained (bbRMSD 0.64 +/- 0.09 A; 1.29 +/- 0.07 A) when TALOS restraints were removed before refinement. These results represent significant progress toward atomic-resolution protein structure determination by SSNMR, capabilities that can be applied to a large range of membrane proteins and fibrils, which are often not amenable to solution NMR or x-ray crystallography. PMID:18344321

  9. Solid-state NMR analysis of a complex crystalline phase of ronacaleret hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Frederick G; Williams, Glenn R; Strohmeier, Mark; Johnson, Matthew N; Copley, Royston C B

    2014-08-28

    A crystalline phase of the pharmaceutical compound ronacaleret hydrochloride is studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure is determined to contain two independent cationic molecules and chloride anions in the asymmetric unit, which combine with the covalent structure of the molecule to yield complex SSNMR spectra. Experimental approaches based on dipolar correlation, chemical shift tensor analysis, and quadrupolar interaction analysis are employed to obtain detailed information about this phase. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to predict chemical shielding and electric field gradient (EFG) parameters for comparison with experiment. (1)H SSNMR experiments performed at 16.4 T using magic-angle spinning (MAS) and homonuclear dipolar decoupling provide information about hydrogen bonding and molecular connectivity that can be related to the crystal structure. (19)F and (13)C assignments for the Z' = 2 structure are obtained using DFT calculations, (19)F homonuclear dipolar correlation, and (13)C-(19)F heteronuclear dipolar correlation experiments. (35)Cl MAS experiments at 16.4 T observe two chlorine sites that are assigned using calculated chemical shielding and EFG parameters. SSNMR dipolar correlation experiments are used to extract (1)H-(13)C, (1)H-(15)N, (1)H-(19)F, (13)C-(19)F, and (1)H-(35)Cl through-space connectivity information for many positions of interest. The results allow for the evaluation of the performance of a suite of SSNMR experiments and computational approaches as applied to a complex but typical pharmaceutical solid phase. PMID:25133518

  10. Correlating fast and slow chemical shift spinning sideband patterns in solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Robin M.; Duer, Melinda J.; Ashbrook, Sharon E.

    2005-06-01

    An experiment is presented that enables the measurement of small chemical shift anisotropy tensors under fast magic-angle spinning (MAS). The two-dimensional spectra obtained give a fast MAS sideband pattern in the directly observed dimension with the spinning sideband intensities equivalent to the chemical shift anisotropy scaled by a factor of N, or equivalently the sample spinning frequency scaled by 1/ N, in the indirectly observed dimension. The scaling factor may be arbitrarily varied by changing the number and timings of the rotor synchronized ?-pulses used. Desirable features of the experiment include a fixed length pulse sequence and efficient sampling of the indirectly observed dimension. In addition, neither quadrature detection in the indirect dimension nor storage periods are required, consequently no signal intensity is discarded by the pulse sequence. The experiment is demonstrated using 31P NMR of sodium phosphate and 13C NMR of fumaric acid monoethyl ester for which a scaling factor of N = 10.2 was employed.

  11. Modeling an in-register, parallel "iowa" a? fibril structure using solid-state NMR data from labeled samples with rosetta.

    PubMed

    Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; Yau, Wai-Ming; Qiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Determining the structures of amyloid fibrils is an important first step toward understanding the molecular basis of neurodegenerative diseases. For ?-amyloid (A?) fibrils, conventional solid-state NMR structure determination using uniform labeling is limited by extensive peak overlap. We describe the characterization of a distinct structural polymorph of A? using solid-state NMR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Rosetta model building. First, the overall fibril arrangement is established using mass-per-length measurements from TEM. Then, the fibril backbone arrangement, stacking registry, and "steric zipper" core interactions are determined using a number of solid-state NMR techniques on sparsely (13)C-labeled samples. Finally, we perform Rosetta structure calculations with an explicitly symmetric representation of the system. We demonstrate the power of the hybrid Rosetta/NMR approach by modeling the in-register, parallel "Iowa" mutant (D23N) at high resolution (1.2Å backbone rmsd). The final models are validated using an independent set of NMR experiments that confirm key features. PMID:25543257

  12. 33S NMR cryogenic probe for taurine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobo, Fumio; Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    With the goal of a S33 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe applicable to in vivo NMR on taurine-biological samples, we have developed the S33 NMR cryogenic probe, which is applicable to taurine solutions. The NMR sensitivity gain relative to a conventional broadband probe is as large as 3.5. This work suggests that improvements in the preamplifier could allow NMR measurements on 100 ?M taurine solutions, which is the level of sensitivity necessary for biological samples.

  13. Transmission vs. Diffuse Transmission in Circular Dichroism: What to Choose for Probing Solid-State Samples?

    PubMed

    Górecki, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in equipment enabled the collection of solid-state electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra using the commercially available integrating sphere attachment for a regular ECD spectrometer. This accessory was designed to reduce negative factors occurring in solid-state ECD measurements, and is, thereby, very useful for recording diffuse transmittance CD (DTCD) spectra using the pellet technique. In the present article, the operating principle of the integrating sphere and utility of the DTCD method in recording solid-state ECD spectra is demonstrated. Based on illustrative examples, i.e., 10-camphorsulfonic acid ammonium, cholest-4-en-3-one, (3R,4R,5S)-oseltamivir, and (S)-linezolid, ECD solid-state measurements were performed by means of both transmission and diffusion methods and later compared. Selection of these compounds as models for comparative studies was made in view of their different chromophoric systems and the profound importance in the pharmaceutical industry. During the course of this work the benefits and limitations of the use of integrating sphere are presented. The final conclusion is that more relevant solid-state spectra can be obtained by means of the DTCD method. Chirality 27:441-448, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26039734

  14. Solid-state and solution /sup 13/C NMR in the conformational analysis of methadone-hydrochloride and related narcotic analgesics

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, S.C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Solid state and solution /sup 13/C NMR have been used to study the conformations of the racemic mixtures and single enantiomers of methadone hydrochloride, alpha and beta methadol hydrochloride, and alpha and beta acetylmethadol hydrochloride. The NMR spectra acquired for the compounds as solids, and in polar and nonpolar solvents are compared, in order to determine the conformation of the molecules in solution. To determine the reliability of assigning solution conformations by comparing solution and solid state chemical shift data, three bond coupling constants measured in solution are compared with those calculated from X-ray data. The conformations of the racemic mixture and plus enantiomer of methadone hydrochloride have been shown to be very similar in the solid state, where minor differences in conformation can be seen by comparing NMR spectra obtained for the solids. Also shown is that the molecules of methadone hydrochloride have conformations in polar and in nonpolar solvents which are very similar to the conformation of the molecules in the solid state.

  15. Energy transformations early in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle revealed by DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR

    PubMed Central

    Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Bajaj, Vikram S.; Hornstein, Melissa K.; Belenky, Marina; Griffin, Robert G.; Herzfeld, Judith

    2008-01-01

    By exploiting dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 90 K, we observe the first NMR spectrum of the K intermediate in the ion-motive photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin. The intermediate is identified by its reversion to the resting state of the protein in red light and by its thermal decay to the L intermediate. The 15N chemical shift of the Schiff base in K indicates that contact has been lost with its counterion. Under these circumstances, the visible absorption of K is expected to be more red-shifted than is observed and this suggests torsion around single bonds of the retinylidene chromophore. This is in contrast to the development of a strong counterion interaction and double bond torsion in L. Thus, photon energy is stored in electrostatic modes in K and is transferred to torsional modes in L. This transfer is facilitated by the reduction in bond alternation that occurs with the initial loss of the counterion interaction, and is driven by the attraction of the Schiff base to a new counterion. Nevertheless, the process appears to be difficult, as judged by the multiple L substates, with weaker counterion interactions, that are trapped at lower temperatures. The double-bond torsion ultimately developed in the first half of the photocycle is probably responsible for enforcing vectoriality in the pump by causing a decisive switch in the connectivity of the active site once the Schiff base and its counterion are neutralized by proton transfer. PMID:18195364

  16. Solid-state (13)C NMR reveals effects of temperature and hydration on elastin.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Ashlee; Stypa, Michael P; Tenn, Brandon K; Kumashiro, Kristin K

    2002-01-01

    Elastin is the principal protein component of the elastic fiber in vertebrate tissue. The waters of hydration in the elastic fiber are believed to play a critical role in the structure and function of this largely hydrophobic, amorphous protein. (13)C CPMAS NMR spectra are acquired for elastin samples with different hydration levels. The spectral intensities in the aliphatic region undergo significant changes as 70% of the water in hydrated elastin is removed. In addition, dramatic differences in the CPMAS spectra of hydrated, lyophilized, and partially dehydrated elastin samples over a relatively small temperature range (-20 degrees C to 37 degrees C) are observed. Results from other experiments, including (13)C T(1) and (1)H T(1 rho) measurements, direct polarization with magic-angle spinning, and static CP of the hydrated and lyophilized elastin preparations, also support the model that there is significant mobility in fully hydrated elastin. Our results support models in which water plays an integral role in the structure and proper function of elastin in vertebrate tissue. PMID:11806948

  17. The Muon g-2 Experiment The NMR Probe Circuitry

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

    The Muon g-2 Experiment The NMR Probe Circuitry Upgrading the Circuit Building the Circuit Future Work Updating NMR Probe Electronics in the Muon g-2 Experiment Audrey Kvam University of Washington September 1, 2014 Audrey Kvam Updating NMR Probe Electronics in the Muon g-2 Experiment #12;The Muon g-2

  18. Probing the Molecular Architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana Secondary Cell Walls Using Two- and Three-Dimensional 13C Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Dupree, Ray; Simmons, Thomas J.; Mortimer, Jennifer C.; Patel, Dharmesh; Iuga, Dinu; Brown, Steven P.; Dupree, Paul

    2015-03-04

    Probing the Molecular Architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana Secondary Cell Walls Using Two- and Three-Dimensional 13C Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Ray Dupree,† Thomas J. Simmons,‡ Jennifer C. Mortimer,‡ Dharmesh Patel,†,‡ Dinu...

  19. Chemical ligation of the influenza M2 protein for solid-state NMR characterization of the cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Byungsu; Tietze, Daniel; White, Paul B; Liao, Shu Y; Hong, Mei

    2015-07-01

    Solid-state NMR-based structure determination of membrane proteins and large protein complexes faces the challenge of limited spectral resolution when the proteins are uniformly (13) C-labeled. A strategy to meet this challenge is chemical ligation combined with site-specific or segmental labeling. While chemical ligation has been adopted in NMR studies of water-soluble proteins, it has not been demonstrated for membrane proteins. Here we show chemical ligation of the influenza M2 protein, which contains a transmembrane (TM) domain and two extra-membrane domains. The cytoplasmic domain, which contains an amphipathic helix (AH) and a cytoplasmic tail, is important for regulating virus assembly, virus budding, and the proton channel activity. A recent study of uniformly (13) C-labeled full-length M2 by spectral simulation suggested that the cytoplasmic tail is unstructured. To further test this hypothesis, we conducted native chemical ligation of the TM segment and part of the cytoplasmic domain. Solid-phase peptide synthesis of the two segments allowed several residues to be labeled in each segment. The post-AH cytoplasmic residues exhibit random-coil chemical shifts, low bond order parameters, and a surface-bound location, thus indicating that this domain is a dynamic random coil on the membrane surface. Interestingly, the protein spectra are similar between a model membrane and a virus-mimetic membrane, indicating that the structure and dynamics of the post-AH segment is insensitive to the lipid composition. This chemical ligation approach is generally applicable to medium-sized membrane proteins to provide site-specific structural constraints, which complement the information obtained from uniformly (13) C, (15) N-labeled proteins. PMID:25966817

  20. Characterization of phosphate sequestration by a lanthanum modified bentonite clay: a solid-state NMR, EXAFS, and PXRD study.

    PubMed

    Dithmer, Line; Lipton, Andrew S; Reitzel, Kasper; Warner, Terence E; Lundberg, Daniel; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

    2015-04-01

    Phosphate (Pi) sequestration by a lanthanum (La) exchanged clay mineral (La-Bentonite), which is extensively used in chemical lake restoration, was investigated on the molecular level using a combination of (31)P and (139)La solid state NMR spectroscopy (SSNMR), extended X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and sorption studies. (31)P SSNMR show that all Pi was immobilized as rhabdophane (LaPO4·n H2O, n ? 3), which was further supported by (139)La SSNMR and EXAFS. However, PXRD results were ambiguous with respect to rhabdophane and monazite (LaPO4). Adsorption studies showed that at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration above ca. 250 ?M the binding capacity was only 50% of the theoretical value or even less. No other La or Pi phases were detected by SSNMR and EXAFS indicating the effect of DOC is kinetic. Moreover, (31)P SSNMR showed that rhabdophane formed upon Pi sequestration is in close proximity to the clay matrix. PMID:25747941

  1. Advanced solid-state NMR techniques for characterization of membrane protein structure and dynamics: application to Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Ward, Meaghan E; Brown, Leonid S; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Studies of the structure, dynamics, and function of membrane proteins (MPs) have long been considered one of the main applications of solid-state NMR (SSNMR). Advances in instrumentation, and the plethora of new SSNMR methodologies developed over the past decade have resulted in a number of high-resolution structures and structural models of both bitopic and polytopic ?-helical MPs. The necessity to retain lipids in the sample, the high proportion of one type of secondary structure, differential dynamics, and the possibility of local disorder in the loop regions all create challenges for structure determination. In this Perspective article we describe our recent efforts directed at determining the structure and functional dynamics of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin, a heptahelical transmembrane (7TM) protein. We review some of the established and emerging methods which can be utilized for SSNMR-based structure determination, with a particular focus on those used for ASR, a bacterial protein which shares its 7TM architecture with G-protein coupled receptors. PMID:25637099

  2. Solid-state NMR study reveals collagen I structural modifications of amino acid side chains upon fibrillogenesis.

    PubMed

    De Sa Peixoto, Paulo; Laurent, Guillaume; Azaïs, Thierry; Mosser, Gervaise

    2013-03-15

    In vivo, collagen I, the major structural protein in human body, is found assembled into fibrils. In the present work, we study a high concentrated collagen sample in its soluble, fibrillar, and denatured states using one and two dimensional {(1)H}-(13)C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We interpret (13)C chemical shift variations in terms of dihedral angle conformation changes. Our data show that fibrillogenesis increases the side chain and backbone structural complexity. Nevertheless, only three to five rotameric equilibria are found for each amino acid residue, indicating a relatively low structural heterogeneity of collagen upon fibrillogenesis. Using side chain statistical data, we calculate equilibrium constants for a great number of amino acid residues. Moreover, based on a (13)C quantitative spectrum, we estimate the percentage of residues implicated in each equilibrium. Our data indicate that fibril formation greatly affects hydroxyproline and proline prolyl pucker ring conformation. Finally, we discuss the implication of these structural data and propose a model in which the attractive force of fibrillogenesis comes from a structural reorganization of 10 to 15% of the amino acids. These results allow us to further understand the self-assembling process and fibrillar structure of collagen. PMID:23341452

  3. Structure and Dynamics Characterization of HMDI- and MDI-based Poly(urethane urea) Elastomers via Solid- State NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weiguo; Hsieh, Alex; Rinderspacher, B. Christopher; Chantawansri, Tanya

    2013-03-01

    High performance elastomers have recently gained considerable interest throughout DoD, particularly for their potential in ballistic impact protection and blast mitigation capabilities. Recent simulation results based on coarse-grained modeling have revealed the role of the intermolecular interaction and the flexibility of interface between hard and soft segments on the morphology and mechanical deformation behavior of poly(urethane urea), PUU, elastomers. In this work, we exploit solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate the influence of hard domain size on molecular dynamics by comparing the diisocyanate chemistry (aliphatic 4,4'-dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate (HMDI) vs. aromatic 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)) in PUU elastomers. Despite identical stoichiometry and soft segment chemical structure, large difference in the molecular dynamics, indicated by the 1H dipolar dephasing time (Td) , is observed. The Td of HMDI-PUU is shorter and it exhibits higher activation energy, suggesting finer phase mixing. Results from 1H spin echo measurements are also included for comparison.

  4. Solid-state NMR Study Reveals Collagen I Structural Modifications of Amino Acid Side Chains upon Fibrillogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    De Sa Peixoto, Paulo; Laurent, Guillaume; Azaïs, Thierry; Mosser, Gervaise

    2013-01-01

    In vivo, collagen I, the major structural protein in human body, is found assembled into fibrils. In the present work, we study a high concentrated collagen sample in its soluble, fibrillar, and denatured states using one and two dimensional {1H}-13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We interpret 13C chemical shift variations in terms of dihedral angle conformation changes. Our data show that fibrillogenesis increases the side chain and backbone structural complexity. Nevertheless, only three to five rotameric equilibria are found for each amino acid residue, indicating a relatively low structural heterogeneity of collagen upon fibrillogenesis. Using side chain statistical data, we calculate equilibrium constants for a great number of amino acid residues. Moreover, based on a 13C quantitative spectrum, we estimate the percentage of residues implicated in each equilibrium. Our data indicate that fibril formation greatly affects hydroxyproline and proline prolyl pucker ring conformation. Finally, we discuss the implication of these structural data and propose a model in which the attractive force of fibrillogenesis comes from a structural reorganization of 10 to 15% of the amino acids. These results allow us to further understand the self-assembling process and fibrillar structure of collagen. PMID:23341452

  5. Integrating Solid-State NMR and Computational Modeling to Investigate the Structure and Dynamics of Membrane-Associated Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Els-Heindl, Sylvia; Chollet, Constance; Scheidt, Holger A.; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Meiler, Jens; Huster, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin activates the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a, also known as the ghrelin receptor. This 28-residue peptide is acylated at Ser3 and is the only peptide hormone in the human body that is lipid-modified by an octanoyl group. Little is known about the structure and dynamics of membrane-associated ghrelin. We carried out solid-state NMR studies of ghrelin in lipid vesicles, followed by computational modeling of the peptide using Rosetta. Isotropic chemical shift data of isotopically labeled ghrelin provide information about the peptide’s secondary structure. Spin diffusion experiments indicate that ghrelin binds to membranes via its lipidated Ser3. Further, Phe4, as well as electrostatics involving the peptide’s positively charged residues and lipid polar headgroups, contribute to the binding energy. Other than the lipid anchor, ghrelin is highly flexible and mobile at the membrane surface. This observation is supported by our predicted model ensemble, which is in good agreement with experimentally determined chemical shifts. In the final ensemble of models, residues 8–17 form an ?-helix, while residues 21–23 and 26–27 often adopt a polyproline II helical conformation. These helices appear to assist the peptide in forming an amphipathic conformation so that it can bind to the membrane. PMID:25803439

  6. Solid-state 19F MAS NMR study on the conformation and molecular mobility of poly(chlorotrifluoroethylene).

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Hiroto; Aimi, Keitaro; Ando, Shinji

    2007-05-01

    The temperature dependence of molecular mobility and conformational changes of poly(chlorotrifluoro- ethylene) (PCTFE) have been investigated by solid-state (19)F magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. The pulse techniques of dipolar-filter and T(1rho)-filter allow selective observation of the amorphous and crystalline domains, respectively. The temperature dependence of T(1rho) (F) revealed that the segmental motion in the amorphous domain becomes vigorous above ca 80 degrees C, which is well above the glass transition (T(g)) temperature (52 degrees C) and more close to the beta-relaxation temperature (95 degrees C). On the other hand, vigorous molecular motions in the crystalline domain occur above 120 degrees C, which is much below the melting temperature (212 degrees C). This indicates that the polymer chains in the PCTFE crystallites are more mobile than those of typical semicrystalline fluoropolymers like poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), which can be associated with structural imperfections in the crystallites. In addition, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations of (19)F magnetic shielding suggest that the high-frequency shifts observed for the crystalline signals above 80 degrees C can be ascribed to the conformational change around meso diads toward more twisted and/or helical conformations in the main chain. PMID:17372960

  7. Sensitivity and resolution enhanced solid-state NMR for paramagnetic systems and biomolecules under very fast magic angle spinning.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Sudhakar; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2013-09-17

    Recent research in fast magic angle spinning (MAS) methods has drastically improved the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy of biomolecules and materials in solids. In this Account, we summarize recent and ongoing developments in this area by presenting (13)C and (1)H solid-state NMR (SSNMR) studies on paramagnetic systems and biomolecules under fast MAS from our laboratories. First, we describe how very fast MAS (VFMAS) at the spinning speed of at least 20 kHz allows us to overcome major difficulties in (1)H and (13)C high-resolution SSNMR of paramagnetic systems. As a result, we can enhance both sensitivity and resolution by up to a few orders of magnitude. Using fast recycling (?ms/scan) with short (1)H T1 values, we can perform (1)H SSNMR microanalysis of paramagnetic systems on the microgram scale with greatly improved sensitivity over that observed for diamagnetic systems. Second, we discuss how VFMAS at a spinning speed greater than ?40 kHz can enhance the sensitivity and resolution of (13)C biomolecular SSNMR measurements. Low-power (1)H decoupling schemes under VFMAS offer excellent spectral resolution for (13)C SSNMR by nominal (1)H RF irradiation at ?10 kHz. By combining the VFMAS approach with enhanced (1)H T1 relaxation by paramagnetic doping, we can achieve extremely fast recycling in modern biomolecular SSNMR experiments. Experiments with (13)C-labeled ubiquitin doped with 10 mM Cu-EDTA demonstrate how effectively this new approach, called paramagnetic assisted condensed data collection (PACC), enhances the sensitivity. Lastly, we examine (13)C SSNMR measurements for biomolecules under faster MAS at a higher field. Our preliminary (13)C SSNMR data of A? amyloid fibrils and GB1 microcrystals acquired at (1)H NMR frequencies of 750-800 MHz suggest that the combined use of the PACC approach and ultrahigh fields could allow for routine multidimensional SSNMR analyses of proteins at the 50-200 nmol level. Also, we briefly discuss the prospects for studying bimolecules using (13)C SSNMR under ultrafast MAS at the spinning speed of ?100 kHz. PMID:23889329

  8. Solid-State and Solution NMR Studies of the CAP-Gly Domain of Mammalian Dynactin and Its Interaction with Microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Shangjin; Siglin, Amanda; Williams, John C.; Polenova, Tatyana E.

    2009-07-29

    Microtubules (MTs) and microtubule binding proteins (MTBPs) play fundamental physiological roles including vesicle and organelle transport, cell motility, and cell division. Despite the importance of the MT/MTBP assemblies, there remains virtually no structural or dynamic information about their interaction at the atomic level due to the inherent insolubility and lack of long-range order of MTs. In this study, we present a combined magic angle spinning solid-state and solution NMR study of the MTBP CAP-Gly domain of mammalian dynactin and its interaction with paclitaxel-stabilized microtubules. We report resonance assignments and secondary structure analysis of the free CAP-Gly in solution and in the solid state by a combination of two- and three-dimensional homo- and heteronuclear correlation spectra. In solution, binding of CAP-Gly to microtubules is accompanied by the broadening of the majority of the peaks in HSQC spectra except for the residues at the termini, precluding further structural analysis of the CAP-Gly/microtubule complexes. In the solid state, DARR spectra of free CAP-Gly and its complex with microtubules display well-resolved lines, permitting residue-specific resonance assignments. Interestingly, a number of chemical shifts in the solid-state DARR spectra of the CAP-Gly/microtubule complex are perturbed compared to those of the free CAP-Gly, suggesting that conformational changes occur in the protein upon binding to the microtubules. These results indicate that CAP-Gly/microtubule assemblies are amenable to detailed structural characterization by magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy and that solid-state NMR is a viable technique to study MT/protein interactions in general.

  9. Mechanism of formation of humus coatings on mineral surfaces 3. Composition of adsorbed organic acids from compost leachate on alumina by solid-state 13C NMR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R.L.; Llaguno, E.C.; Leenheer, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption of compost leachate DOC on alumina is used as a model for elucidation of the mechanism of formation of natural organic coatings on hydrous metal oxide surfaces in soils and sediments. Compost leachate DOC is composed mainly of organic acid molecules. The solid-state 13C NMR spectra of these organic acids indicate that they are very similar in composition to aquatic humic substances. Changes in the solid-state 13C NMR spectra of compost leachate DOC fractions adsorbed on alumina indicate that the DOC molecules are most likely adsorbed on metal oxide surfaces through a combination of polar and hydrophobic interaction mechanisms. This combination of polar and hydrophobic mechanism leads to the formation of bilayer coatings of the leachate molecules on the oxide surfaces.

  10. NMR crystallography of enzyme active sites: probing chemically detailed, three-dimensional structure in tryptophan synthase.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Leonard J; Dunn, Michael F

    2013-09-17

    NMR crystallography--the synergistic combination of X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and computational chemistry--offers unprecedented insight into three-dimensional, chemically detailed structure. Initially, researchers used NMR crystallography to refine diffraction data from organic and inorganic solids. Now we are applying this technique to explore active sites in biomolecules, where it reveals chemically rich detail concerning the interactions between enzyme site residues and the reacting substrate. Researchers cannot achieve this level of detail from X-ray, NMR,or computational methodologies in isolation. For example, typical X-ray crystal structures (1.5-2.5 Å resolution) of enzyme-bound intermediates identify possible hydrogen-bonding interactions between site residues and substrate but do not directly identify the protonation states. Solid-state NMR can provide chemical shifts for selected atoms of enzyme-substrate complexes, but without a larger structural framework in which to interpret them only empirical correlations with local chemical structure are possible. Ab initio calculations and molecular mechanics can build models for enzymatic processes, but they rely on researcher-specified chemical details. Together, however, X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and computational chemistry can provide consistent and testable models for structure and function of enzyme active sites: X-ray crystallography provides a coarse framework upon which scientists can develop models of the active site using computational chemistry; they can then distinguish these models by comparing calculated NMR chemical shifts with the results of solid-state NMR spectroscopy experiments. Conceptually, each technique is a puzzle piece offering a generous view of the big picture. Only when correctly pieced together, however, can they reveal the big picture at the highest possible resolution. In this Account, we detail our first steps in the development of NMR crystallography applied to enzyme catalysis. We begin with a brief introduction to NMR crystallography and then define the process that we have employed to probe the active site in the ?-subunit of tryptophan synthase with unprecedented atomic-level resolution. This approach has resulted in a novel structural hypothesis for the protonation state of the quinonoid intermediate in tryptophan synthase and its surprising role in directing the next step in the catalysis of L-Trp formation. PMID:23537227

  11. Characterization of the L sub. lambda. phase in trehalose-stabilized dry membranes by solid-state NMR and X-ray diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. B. Lee; S. K. Das Gupta; J. Mattai; G. G. Shipley; O. H. Abdel-Mageed; A. Makriyannis; R. G. Griffin

    1989-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction were used to investigate the mechanism of trehalose (TRE) stabilization of lipid bilayers. Calorimetric investigation of dry TRE-stabilized bilayers reveals a first-order phase transition at temperatures similar to the transition of hydrated lipid bilayers. X-ray diffraction studies show that dry mixtures of TRE and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) have a lamellar structure

  12. A high-resolution solid-state NMR study on starch–clay nanocomposites and the effect of aging on clay dispersion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoqing Zhang; Katherine Dean; Iko M Burgar; X Zhang

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was applied as a bulk analysis method to provide an indication of clay dispersion in starch–clay nanocomposites. The starch composite containing 2.5 wt% nano-clay appeared as an exfoliated system with an average distance between clay platelets () of around 40 nm. Increasing the amount of nano-clay to 5.0 wt% reduced the value to around

  13. Evaluating chemical degradation of proton conducting perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers in a Fenton test by solid-state 19F NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ghassemzadeh; K. D. Kreuer; J. Maier; K. Müller

    2011-01-01

    Chemical degradation and stability of perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomers against radical attack were investigated by an (ex situ) Fenton test. Solid-state and solution NMR as well as ATR-FTIR studies were performed on the samples before and after the Fenton reaction. By changing the concentration of the Fenton's solution it is found that the metallic catalyst (Fe2+) is a critical factor

  14. Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Line B.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Zorin, Vadim; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

    2014-11-01

    Ordering of gallium(III) in a series of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides (LDH’s), [Mg1-xGax(OH)2(NO3)x yH2O], was determined using solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy. Depletion of Ga in these LDH’s is demonstrated to be the result of soluble [Ga(OH)4]-complexes formed during synthesis.

  15. Joint Experimental and Computational 17O and 1H Solid State NMR Study of Ba2In2O4(OH)2 Structure and Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Dervi?o?lu, R?za; Middlemiss, Derek S.; Blanc, Frédéric; Lee, Yueh-Lin; Morgan, Dane; Grey, Clare P.

    2015-05-01

    of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA KEYWORDS: Multinuclear solid state NMR, DFT, GIPAW method, hydrated perovskites, protonic conductors ABSTRACT: A structural characterization of the hydrated form... Perovskites display a wide range of properties due to their abil-ity to accommodate varying cations, substitutions, non-stoichiometry and structural defects. They are consequently used in a widespread variety of applications. Of specific interest to this work...

  16. Mechanistic investigations of the methanol-to-olefin (MTO) process on acidic zeolite catalysts by in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wang; Yijiao Jiang; Michael Hunger

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews mechanistic investigations of the methanol-to-olefin (MTO) process by in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy, mainly performed under continuous-flow and stopped-flow conditions. During methanol conversion on the silicoaluminophosphate H-SAPO-34 under continuous-flow conditions, a hydrocarbon-pool consisting of a mixture of C6–C12 olefins and aromatics was found. The hydrocarbon-pool mechanism was verified as the dominating route in the MTO process under

  17. Preservation of proteinaceous material during the degradation of the green alga Botryococcus braunii: A solid-state 2D 15N 13C NMR spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xu; Nguyen, Reno T.; Harvey, H. Rodger; Knicker, Heike; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2001-10-01

    Using solid-state cross-polarization-magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 2-D double cross polarization (DCP) MAS 15N 13C NMR techniques, microbially degraded Botryococcus braunii was analyzed to study the chemical nature of organic nitrogen in the algal residue. The amide linkage, as found in protein, was observed as the major nitrogen component in 201-day-old degraded algae. No significant amount of heterocyclic nitrogen, or evidence for melanoidin products, was found. The results strongly suggest that proteinaceous material can survive early diagenesis and be preserved via its encapsulation by refractory, macromolecular, organic matter.

  18. The covariance of the differences between experimental and theoretical chemical shifts as an aid for assigning two-dimensional heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernek, Ji?í; Brus, Ji?í

    2014-07-01

    A robust method for the assignment of two-dimensional heteronuclear correlations in the solid-state NMR spectra is described. It statistically evaluates the differences between measured and theoretical (obtained from first-principles calculations of the NMR chemical shielding property of periodic materials) chemical shifts. The values of the covariance of these differences, and of the standard deviations of the respective linear correlations, are elucidative for the spectral assignment process. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated for three crystalline systems: L-tyrosine hydrochloride, L-tyrosine ansolvate, and the polymorphic form I of o-acetylsalicylic acid.

  19. Orphan spin operators enable the acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2013-05-01

    We propose a general method that enables the acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D solid-state NMR spectra for U-13C, 15N-labeled proteins. This method, called MEIOSIS (Multiple ExperIments via Orphan SpIn operatorS), makes it possible to detect four coherence transfer pathways simultaneously, utilizing orphan (i.e., neglected) spin operators of nuclear spin polarization generated during 15N-13C cross polarization (CP). In the MEIOSIS experiments, two phase-encoded free-induction decays are decoded into independent nuclear polarization pathways using Hadamard transformations. As a proof of principle, we show the acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D spectra of U-13C, 15N-labeled microcrystalline ubiquitin. Hadamard decoding of CP coherences into multiple independent spin operators is a new concept in solid-state NMR and is extendable to many other multidimensional experiments. The MEIOSIS method will increase the throughput of solid-state NMR techniques for microcrystalline proteins, membrane proteins, and protein fibrils.

  20. Orphan spin operators enable the acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectra

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    We propose a general method that enables the acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D solid-state NMR spectra for U-13C, 15N-labeled proteins. This method, called MEIOSIS (Multiple ExperIments via Orphan SpIn operatorS), makes it possible to detect four coherence transfer pathways simultaneously, utilizing orphan (i.e., neglected) spin operators of nuclear spin polarization generated during 15N-13C cross polarization (CP). In the MEIOSIS experiments, two phase-encoded free-induction decays are decoded into independent nuclear polarization pathways using Hadamard transformations. As a proof of principle, we show the acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D spectra of U-13C, 15N-labeled microcrystalline ubiquitin. Hadamard decoding of CP coherences into multiple independent spin operators is a new concept in solid-state NMR and is extendable to many other multidimensional experiments. The MEIOSIS method will increase the throughput of solid-state NMR techniques for microcrystalline proteins, membrane proteins, and protein fibrils. PMID:23676036

  1. Evaluating chemical degradation of proton conducting perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers in a Fenton test by solid-state 19F NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemzadeh, L.; Kreuer, K. D.; Maier, J.; Müller, K.

    2011-03-01

    Chemical degradation and stability of perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomers against radical attack were investigated by an (ex situ) Fenton test. Solid-state and solution NMR as well as ATR-FTIR studies were performed on the samples before and after the Fenton reaction. By changing the concentration of the Fenton's solution it is found that the metallic catalyst (Fe2+) is a critical factor which may affect the solid-state NMR results. After adjusting the experimental conditions, i.e., by reducing the Fe2+ concentration, it was possible to detect by solid-state 19F NMR spectroscopy the structural changes of the perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers during the ex situ Fenton test. A comparative study was made on the degradation of Nafion and Hyflon Ion membranes which differ in the length of the side chains. It is shown that the Hyflon Ion membrane with shorter side chains is more stable against side chain attack, most probably because of the absence of an additional tertiary carbon in the side chain. At the same time, there is evidence for enhanced main chain degradation in membranes with unprotected backbone chain ends.

  2. Sodium ion effect on silk fibroin conformation characterized by solid-state NMR and generalized 2D NMR–NMR correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Xia Ruan; Ping Zhou

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated Na+ ion effect on the silk fibroin (SF) conformation. Samples are Na+-involved regenerated silk fibroin films. 13C CP-MAS NMR demonstrates that as added [Na+] increases, partial silk fibroin conformation transit from helix-form to ?-form at certain Na+ ion concentration which is much higher than that in Bombyx mori silkworm gland. The generalized two-dimensional NMR–NMR

  3. Direct Speciation of Phosphorus in Alum-Amended Poultry Litter: Solid-State 31P NMR Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, Stefan; Cho, Herman M.; Sims, James T.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2004-02-01

    Amending poultry litter (PL) with aluminum sulfate (alum) has proven to be effective in reducing water-soluble phosphorus (P) in the litter and in runoff from fields that have received PL applications; it has therefore been suggested as a best management practice. Although its effectiveness has been demonstrated on a macroscopic scale in the field, little is known about P speciation in either alumamended or unamended litter. This knowledge is important for the evaluation of the long-term stability and bioavailability of P, which is a necessary prerequisite for the assessment of the sustainability of intensive poultry operations. Both solid state MAS and CP-MAS {sup 31}P NMR as well as {sup 31}P({sup 27}Al) TRAPDOR were used to investigate P speciation in alumamended and unamended PL. The results indicate the presence of a complex mixture of organic and inorganic orthophosphate phases. A calcium phosphate phase, probably a surface precipitate on calcium carbonate, could be identified in both unamended and alum-amended PL, as well as physically bound HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. Phosphate associated with Al was found in the alum-amended PL, most probably a mixture of a poorly ordered wavellite and phosphate surface complexes on aluminum hydroxide that had been formed by the hydrolysis of alum. However, a complex mixture of organic and inorganic phosphate species could not be resolved. Phosphate associated with Al comprised on average 40{+-}14% of the total P in alum-amended PL, whereas calcium phosphate phases comprised on average 7{+-}4% in the alum-amended PL and 14{+-}5% in the unamended PL.

  4. YPdSn and YPd2Sn: Structure, 89Y solid state NMR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höting, Christoph; Eckert, Hellmut; Langer, Thorsten; Schellenberg, Inga; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2012-06-01

    The stannides YPdSn and YPd2Sn were synthesized by high-frequency melting of the elements in sealed tantalum tubes. Both structures were refined on the basis of single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: TiNiSi type, Pnma, a=715.4(1), b=458.8(1), c=789.1(1) pm, wR2=0.0461, 510 F2 values, 20 variables for YPdSn and MnCu2Al type, Fm3barm, a=671.44(8), wR2=0.0740, 55 F2 values, 5 parameters for YPd2Sn. The yttrium atoms in the new stannide YPdSn are coordinated by two tilted Pd3Sn3 hexagons (ordered AlB2 superstructure). In the Heusler phase YPd2Sn each yttrium atom has octahedral tin coordination and additionally eight palladium neighbors. The cubic site symmetry of yttrium is reflected in the 119Sn Mössbauer spectrum which shows no quadrupole splitting. In contrast, YPdSn shows a single signal at ?=1.82(1) mm/s subjected to quadrupole splitting of ?EQ=0.93(1) mm/s. Both compounds have been characterized by high-resolution 89Y solid state NMR spectroscopy, which indicates the presence of strong Knight shifts. The spectrum of YPd2Sn is characterized by an unusually large linewidth, suggesting the presence of a Knight shift distribution reflecting local disordering effects. The range of 89Y Knight shifts of several binary and ternary intermetallic yttrium compounds is briefly discussed.

  5. Solid-state NMR spectroscopic study of chromophore-protein interactions in the Pr ground state of plant phytochrome A.

    PubMed

    Song, Chen; Essen, Lars-Oliver; Gärtner, Wolfgang; Hughes, Jon; Matysik, Jörg

    2012-05-01

    Despite extensive study, the molecular structure of the chromophore-binding pocket of phytochrome A (phyA), the principal photoreceptor controlling photomorphogenesis in plants, has not yet been successfully resolved. Here, we report a series of two-dimensional (2-D) magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR experiments on the recombinant N-terminal, 65-kDa PAS-GAF-PHY light-sensing module of phytochrome A3 from oat (Avena sativa), assembled with uniformly 13C- and 15N-labeled phycocyanobilin (u-[13C,15N]-PCB-As.phyA3). The Pr state of this protein was studied regarding the electronic structure of the chromophore and its interactions with the proximal amino acids. Using 2-D 13C-13C and 1H-15N experiments, a complete set of 13C and 15N assignments for the chromophore were obtained. Also, a large number of 1H-13C distance restraints between the chromophore and its binding pocket were revealed by interfacial heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy. 13C doublings of the chromophore A-ring region and the C-ring carboxylate moiety, together with the observation of two Pr isoforms, Pr-I and Pr-II, demonstrate the local mobility of the chromophore and the plasticity of its protein environment. It appears that the interactions and dynamics in the binding pocket of phyA in the Pr state are remarkably similar to those of cyanobacterial phytochrome (Cph1). The N-terminus of the region modeled (residues 56-66 of phyA) is highly mobile. Differences in the regulatory processes involved in plant and Cph1 phytochromes are discussed. PMID:22419823

  6. Active-Site Structure of the Thermophilic Foc-Subunit Ring in Membranes Elucidated by Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su-Jin; Todokoro, Yasuto; Yumen, Ikuko; Shen, Bo; Iwasaki, Iku; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Miyagi, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masasuke; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Akutsu, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    FoF1-ATP synthase uses the electrochemical potential across membranes or ATP hydrolysis to rotate the Foc-subunit ring. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we carried out a structural analysis focused on the active site of the thermophilic c-subunit (TFoc) ring in membranes with a solid-state NMR method developed for this purpose. We used stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) with a cell-free system to highlight the target. TFoc oligomers were purified using a virtual ring His tag. The membrane-reconstituted TFoc oligomer was confirmed to be a ring indistinguishable from that expressed in E. coli on the basis of the H+-translocation activity and high-speed atomic force microscopic images. For the analysis of the active site, 2D 13C-13C correlation spectra of TFoc rings labeled with SAIL-Glu and -Asn were recorded. Complete signal assignment could be performed with the aid of the C?i+1-C?i correlation spectrum of specifically 13C,15N-labeled TFoc rings. The C? chemical shift of Glu-56, which is essential for H+ translocation, and related crosspeaks revealed that its carboxyl group is protonated in the membrane, forming the H+-locked conformation with Asn-23. The chemical shift of Asp-61 C? of the E. coli c ring indicated an involvement of a water molecule in the H+ locking, in contrast to the involvement of Asn-23 in the TFoc ring, suggesting two different means of proton storage in the c rings. PMID:24461014

  7. Solid-state NMR Reveals the Carbon-based Molecular Architecture of Cryptococcus neoformans Fungal Eumelanins in the Cell Wall.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Itin, Boris; Casadevall, Arturo; Stark, Ruth E

    2015-05-29

    Melanin pigments protect against both ionizing radiation and free radicals and have potential soil remediation capabilities. Eumelanins produced by pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans fungi are virulence factors that render the fungal cells resistant to host defenses and certain antifungal drugs. Because of their insoluble and amorphous characteristics, neither the pigment bonding framework nor the cellular interactions underlying melanization of C. neoformans have yielded to comprehensive molecular-scale investigation. This study used the C. neoformans requirement of exogenous obligatory catecholamine precursors for melanization to produce isotopically enriched pigment "ghosts" and applied 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation solid-state NMR to reveal the carbon-based architecture of intact natural eumelanin assemblies in fungal cells. We demonstrated that the aliphatic moieties of solid C. neoformans melanin ghosts include cell-wall components derived from polysaccharides and/or chitin that are associated proximally with lipid membrane constituents. Prior to development of the mature aromatic fungal pigment, these aliphatic moieties form a chemically resistant framework that could serve as the scaffold for melanin synthesis. The indole-based core aromatic moieties show interconnections that are consistent with proposed melanin structures consisting of stacked planar assemblies, which are associated spatially with the aliphatic scaffold. The pyrrole aromatic carbons of the pigments bind covalently to the aliphatic framework via glycoside or glyceride functional groups. These findings establish that the structure of the pigment assembly changes with time and provide the first biophysical information on the mechanism by which melanin is assembled in the fungal cell wall, offering vital insights that can advance the design of bioinspired conductive nanomaterials and novel therapeutics. PMID:25825492

  8. The Nature of Polymerization in Silicate Glasses and Melts: Solid State NMR, Modeling and Qauntum Chemicial Calculations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Stebbins, J. F.; Mysen, B.; Cody, G. D.

    2002-12-01

    Silicate melts are among the dominant constituents of the upper mantle and crust. The full understanding of atomic scale disorder is essential to the macroscopic properties of the melts such as viscosity and configurational thermodynamic properties. Recently, we quantified the various aspects of the extent of disorder in ›r­’charge-balanced silicate glasses (non bridging (NBO)/T=0)›r­_ using solid state NMR and theoretical analysis, which allowed the degree of randomness of these systems to be determined in terms of the degree of Al-avoidance and degree of phase separations (Lee and Stebbins, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 66, 303). Quantitative estimation of the framework connectivity and the atomic structures of depolymerized silicate melts (NBO/T>0), however, are still poorly known and framework cations and anions have often been assumed to be randomly distributed. Here, we explore the extent of disorder and the nature of polymerization in several binary and ternary silicate glasses with varying NBO/T using O-17 NMR at varying magnetic fields of 7.1, 9.4 and 14.1 T in conjunction with quantum chemical calculations. We also quantify the extent of intermixing among non-framework cations in mixed cation glasses, and calculate corresponding configurational thermodynamic properties. Non-random distribution among cations is clearly demonstrated from the relative populations of oxygen sites and the variation of distribution of structurally relevant NMR parameters with NBO/T from O-17 3QMAS NMR. The proportion of NBO (Na-O-Si) in Na2O-SiO2 glasses increases with NBO/T. Its chemical shift distribution decreases about 18 % from NBO/T of 0.7 to 2, suggesting a reduced configurational disorder around NBO with Na contents. Preferential interactions among framework cations are further manifested in peralkaline Ca- and Na- aluminosilicate glasses where depolymerization of networks selectively occurs at Si rather than Al tetrahedra, forming Na-O-Si or Ca-O-Si. The result is consistent with our quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory where the silicate chain with Al-NBO has energy penalty of about 108 kJ/mol compared with the cluster with Ca-O-Si. The degree of Al avoidance (Q) among framework units in Na- aluminosilicate is larger than that in Ca-aluminosilicates, as recently observed for fully polymerized glasses. On the other hand, Q varies with NBO/T. The above results support the significant chemical order in silicate glasses that leads to considerable mixing among framework units. The degree of intermixing among non-framework cations in mixed-cation glasses has remained controversial. The population of each Na-NBO in Ca-Na and Ba-Na mixed cation silicate glasses is smaller than the prediction given from random distribution of these cations, and thus supports the preference for dissimilar pairs of cations, which could explain a decrease in diffusivity in these melts. In this study, we provide new insights into the structure of silicate glasses with varying NBO/T, highlighting more complete, atomic-level understanding on the dynamic processes in silicate magmas.

  9. Conformation analysis and molecular mobility of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene copolymer using solid-state 19F MAS and 1H --> 19F CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Aimi, Keitaro; Ando, Shinji

    2004-07-01

    The changes in the conformation and molecular mobility accompanied by a phase transition in the crystalline domain were analyzed for ethylene (E) and tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) copolymer, ETFE, using variable-temperature (VT) solid-state 19F magic angle spinning (MAS) and 1H --> 19F cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The shifts of the signals for fluorines in TFE units to higher frequency and the continuing decrease and increase in the T1rho(F) values suggest that conformational exchange motions exist in the crystalline domain between 42 and 145 degrees C. Quantum chemical calculations of magnetic shielding constants showed that the high-frequency shift of TFE units should be induced by trans to gauche conformational changes at the CH2-CF2 linkage in the E-TFE unit. Although the 19F signals of the crystalline domain are substantially overlapped with those of the amorphous domain at ambient probe temperature (68 degrees C), they were successfully distinguished by using the dipolar filter and spin-lock pulse sequences at 145 degrees C. The dipolar coupling constants for the crystalline domain, which can be estimated by fitting the dipolar oscillation behaviors in the 1H --> 19F CP curve, showed a significant decrease with increasing temperature from 42 to 145 degrees C. This is due to the averaging of 1H-19F dipolar interactions originating from the molecular motion in the crystalline domain. The increase in molecular mobility in the crystalline domain was clearly shown by VT T1rho(F) and 1H --> 19F CP measurements in the phase transition temperature range. PMID:15181627

  10. A refinement protocol to determine structure, topology, and depth of insertion of membrane proteins using hybrid solution and solid-state NMR restraints

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Traaseth, Nathaniel J.; Verardi, Raffaello; Cembran, Alessandro; Gao, Jiali

    2010-01-01

    To fully describe the fold space and ultimately the biological function of membrane proteins, it is necessary to determine the specific interactions of the protein with the membrane. This property of membrane proteins that we refer to as structural topology cannot be resolved using X-ray crystallography or solution NMR alone. In this article, we incorporate into XPLOR-NIH a hybrid objective function for membrane protein structure determination that utilizes solution and solid-state NMR restraints, simultaneously defining structure, topology, and depth of insertion. Distance and angular restraints obtained from solution NMR of membrane proteins solubilized in detergent micelles are combined with backbone orientational restraints (chemical shift anisotropy and dipolar couplings) derived from solid-state NMR in aligned lipid bilayers. In addition, a supplementary knowledge-based potential, Ez (insertion depth potential), is used to ensure the correct positioning of secondary structural elements with respect to a virtual membrane. The hybrid objective function is minimized using a simulated annealing protocol implemented into XPLOR-NIH software for general use. PMID:19597943

  11. A refinement protocol to determine structure, topology, and depth of insertion of membrane proteins using hybrid solution and solid-state NMR restraints.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Traaseth, Nathaniel J; Verardi, Raffaello; Cembran, Alessandro; Gao, Jiali; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2009-08-01

    To fully describe the fold space and ultimately the biological function of membrane proteins, it is necessary to determine the specific interactions of the protein with the membrane. This property of membrane proteins that we refer to as structural topology cannot be resolved using X-ray crystallography or solution NMR alone. In this article, we incorporate into XPLOR-NIH a hybrid objective function for membrane protein structure determination that utilizes solution and solid-state NMR restraints, simultaneously defining structure, topology, and depth of insertion. Distance and angular restraints obtained from solution NMR of membrane proteins solubilized in detergent micelles are combined with backbone orientational restraints (chemical shift anisotropy and dipolar couplings) derived from solid-state NMR in aligned lipid bilayers. In addition, a supplementary knowledge-based potential, E (z) (insertion depth potential), is used to ensure the correct positioning of secondary structural elements with respect to a virtual membrane. The hybrid objective function is minimized using a simulated annealing protocol implemented into XPLOR-NIH software for general use. PMID:19597943

  12. Spin dynamics in the modulation frame: application to homonuclear recoupling in magic angle spinning solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    De Paëpe, Gaël; Lewandowski, Józef R; Griffin, Robert G

    2008-03-28

    We introduce a family of solid-state NMR pulse sequences that generalizes the concept of second averaging in the modulation frame and therefore provides a new approach to perform magic angle spinning dipolar recoupling experiments. Here, we focus on two particular recoupling mechanisms-cosine modulated rotary resonance (CMpRR) and cosine modulated recoupling with isotropic chemical shift reintroduction (COMICS). The first technique, CMpRR, is based on a cosine modulation of the rf phase and yields broadband double-quantum (DQ) (13)C recoupling using >70 kHz omega(1,C)/2pi rf field for the spinning frequency omega(r)/2=10-30 kHz and (1)H Larmor frequency omega(0,H)/2pi up to 900 MHz. Importantly, for p>or=5, CMpRR recouples efficiently in the absence of (1)H decoupling. Extension to lower p values (3.5

  13. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 29 (2006) 191198 Towards rapid throughput NMR studies of full wine bottles

    E-print Network

    Augustine, Mathew P.

    2006-01-01

    been pursued. This marriage of NMR and MRI has led to the development of functional MRI [5] and NMR specific vintages and types of French wine. In a similar vein high field high resolution NMR spectroscopy wine samples but with a different focus from the small sample study mentioned above. Specifically, NMR

  14. Tilt and azimuthal angles of a transmembrane peptide: a comparison between molecular dynamics calculations and solid-state NMR data of sarcolipin in lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Cembran, Alessandro; Gao, Jiali; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2009-05-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations in the explicit membrane environment of a small membrane-embedded protein, sarcolipin, which regulates the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase activity in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. In its monomeric form, we found that sarcolipin adopts a helical conformation, with a computed average tilt angle of 28 +/- 6 degrees and azymuthal angles of 66 +/- 22 degrees, in reasonable accord with angles determined experimentally (23 +/- 2 degrees and 50 +/- 4 degrees, respectively) using solid-state NMR with separated-local-field experiments. The effects of time and spatial averaging on both (15)N chemical shift anisotropy and (1)H/(15)N dipolar couplings have been analyzed using short-time averages of fast amide out-of-plane motions and following principal component dynamic trajectories. We found that it is possible to reproduce the regular oscillatory patterns observed for the anisotropic NMR parameters (i.e., PISA wheels) employing average amide vectors. This work highlights the role of molecular dynamics simulations as a tool for the analysis and interpretation of solid-state NMR data. PMID:19413970

  15. Probing the spatial organization of bacteriochlorophyll C by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shih-Chi; Khin, Yadana; Huang, Shing-Jong; Yang, Yanshen; Hou, Tsai-Yi; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Chen, Hao Ming; Chin, Yi-Ying; Chen, Chien-Te; Lin, Hong-Ji; Tang, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang; Chan, Jerry Chun Chung

    2014-09-01

    Green sulfur bacteria, which live in extremely low-light environments, use chlorosomes to harvest light. A chlorosome is the most efficient, and arguably the simplest, light-harvesting antenna complex, which contains hundreds of thousands of densely packed bacteriochlorophylls (BChls). To harvest light efficiently, BChls in a chlorosome form supramolecular aggregates; thus, it is of great interest to determine the organization of the BChls in a chlorosome. In this study, we conducted a (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and Mg K-edge X-ray absorption analysis of chlorosomes from wild-type Chlorobaculum tepidum. The X-ray absorption results indicated that the coordination number of the Mg in the chlorosome must be >4, providing evidence that electrostatic interactions formed between the Mg of a BChl and the carbonyl group or the hydroxyl group of the neighboring BChl molecule. According to the intermolecular distance constraints obtained on the basis of (13)C homonuclear dipolar correlation spectroscopy, we determined that the molecular assembly of BChls is dimer-based and that the hydrogen bonds among the BChls are less extensive than commonly presumed because of the twist in the orientation of the BChl dimers. This paper also reports the first (13)C homonuclear correlation spectrum acquired for carotenoids and lipids-which are minor, but crucial, components of chlorosomes-extracted from wild-type Cba. tepidum. PMID:25141176

  16. Structure and Topology of the Huntingtin 1–17 Membrane Anchor by a Combined Solution and Solid-State NMR Approach

    PubMed Central

    Michalek, Matthias; Salnikov, Evgeniy S.; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    The very amino-terminal domain of the huntingtin protein is directly located upstream of the protein’s polyglutamine tract, plays a decisive role in several important properties of this large protein and in the development of Huntington’s disease. This huntingtin 1–17 domain is on the one hand known to markedly increase polyglutamine aggregation rates and on the other hand has been shown to be involved in cellular membrane interactions. Here, we determined the high-resolution structure of huntingtin 1–17 in dodecyl phosphocholine micelles and the topology of its helical domain in oriented phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Using two-dimensional solution NMR spectroscopy the low-energy conformations of the polypeptide were identified in the presence of dodecyl phosphocholine detergent micelles. In a next step a set of four solid-state NMR angular restraints was obtained from huntingtin 1–17 labeled with 15N and 2H at selected sites. Of the micellar ensemble of helical conformations only a limited set agrees in quantitative detail with the solid-state angular restraints of huntingtin 1–17 obtained in supported planar lipid bilayers. Thereby, the solid-state NMR data were used to further refine the domain structure in phospholipid bilayers. At the same time its membrane topology was determined and different motional regimes of this membrane-associated domain were explored. The pronounced structural transitions of huntingtin 1–17 upon membrane-association result in a ?-helical conformation from K6 to F17, i.e., up to the very start of the polyglutamine tract. This amphipathic helix is aligned nearly parallel to the membrane surface (tilt angle ?77°) and is characterized by a hydrophobic ridge on one side and an alternation of cationic and anionic residues that run along the hydrophilic face of the helix. This arrangement facilitates electrostatic interactions between huntingtin 1–17 domains and possibly with the proximal polyglutamine tract. PMID:23931318

  17. Solid-state 35/37Cl NMR spectroscopy of hydrochloride salts of amino acids implicated in chloride ion transport channel selectivity: opportunities at 900 MHz.

    PubMed

    Bryce, David L; Sward, Gregory D; Adiga, Samyuktha

    2006-02-15

    The results of a detailed systematic chlorine solid-state NMR study of several hydrochloride salts of amino acids implicated in chloride ion transport channel selectivity are reported. (35)Cl and (37)Cl NMR spectra have been obtained for stationary and/or magic-angle spinning powdered samples of the following compounds on 500 and/or 900 MHz spectrometers: DL-arginine HCl monohydrate, L-lysine HCl, L-serine HCl, L-glutamic acid HCl, L-proline HCl, L-isoleucine HCl, L-valine HCl, L-phenylalanine HCl, and glycine HCl. Spectral analyses provide information on the anisotropic properties and relative orientations of the chlorine electric field gradient and chemical shift (CS) tensors, which are intimately related to the local molecular and electronic structure. Data obtained at 900 MHz provide unique examples of the effects of CS anisotropy on the NMR spectrum of a quadrupolar nucleus. The range of chlorine quadrupolar coupling constants (C(Q)) measured, -6.42 to 2.03 MHz, demonstrates the sensitivity of this parameter to the chloride ion environment and suggests the applicability of chlorine solid-state NMR as a novel experimental tool for defining chloride binding environments in larger ion channel systems. Salts of hydrophobic amino acids are observed to tend to exhibit larger values of C(Q) than salts of hydrophilic amino acids. A simple model for rationalizing the observed trend in C(Q) is proposed. For salts for which neutron diffraction structures are available, we identify a quantum chemical method which reproduces experimental values of C(Q) with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.1 MHz and a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. On the basis of this, chlorine NMR tensors are predicted for the Cl(-) binding site in ClC channels. PMID:16464115

  18. A broad-banded z-rotation windowed phase-modulated Lee Goldburg pulse sequence for 1H spectroscopy in solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskes, Michal; Madhu, P. K.; Vega, Shimon

    2007-10-01

    High-resolution 1H spectroscopy in solid-state NMR, rendered difficult due to the strong 1H- 1H homonuclear dipolar coupling, has been made possible under magic-angle spinning with homonuclear dipolar decoupling schemes, such as windowed phase-modulated Lee-Goldburg. Here, we outline the theory and implementation of a modification of this scheme with which an effective z-rotation for the magnetisation is obtained over a wide range of spectral window. Experimental results are presented for samples, such as glycine, histidine, and tryosine.

  19. Use of solid-state sup 13 C NMR spectroscopy to quantify the degree of asymmetry of bonding for semibridging CO groups in iron carbonyl complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, G.E.; Sales, K.D. (Queen Mary and Westfield College, London (England)); Aime, S.; Gobetto, R. (Universita de Torino (Italy)); Lian, Luyun (Univ. of Oxford (England))

    1991-04-03

    The solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectra of some substituted iron carbonyl complexes have been analyzed to give values for the carbonyl carbon chemical shift tensor components. It is shown that the lowest frequency tensor component and the chemical shift anisotropy correlate with the degree of bonding asymmetry in double-bridging carbonyl groups, whereas the {sup 13}C isotropic chemical shift does not correlate. The correlations are proposed to form the basis for a method of estimating iron-carbon bond lengths for {mu}{sub 2}-CO groups in this type of complex. 1 table, 4 figs., 30 refs.

  20. Nanoscale spatial resolution probes for scanning thermal microscopy of solid state materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovee, P.; Pumarol, M.; Zeze, D.; Kjoller, Kevin; Kolosov, O.

    2012-12-01

    Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) uses micromachined thermal sensors integrated in a force sensing cantilever with a nanoscale tip that can be highly useful for exploration of thermal management of nanoscale semiconductor devices as well as mapping of surface and subsurface properties of related materials. Whereas SThM is capable to image externally generated heat with nanoscale resolution, its ability to map and measure thermal conductivity of materials has been mainly limited to polymers or similar materials possessing low thermal conductivity in the range from 0.1 to 1 W m-1 K-1, with lateral resolution on the order of 1 ?m. In this paper, we use linked experimental and theoretical approaches to analyse thermal performance and sensitivity of the micromachined SThM probes in order to expand their applicability to a broader range of nanostructures from polymers to semiconductors and metals. We develop physical models of interlinked thermal and electrical phenomena in these probes and their interaction with the sample on the mesoscopic length scale of few tens of nm and then validate these models using experimental measurements of the real probes, which provided the basis for analysing SThM performance in exploration of nanostructures. Our study then highlights critical features of these probes, namely, the geometrical location of the thermal sensor with respect to the probe apex, thermal conductance of the probe to the support base, heat conduction to the surrounding gas, and the thermal conductivity of tip material adjacent to the apex. It furthermore allows us to propose a novel design of the SThM probe that incorporates a multiwall carbon nanotube or similar high thermal conductivity graphene sheet material with longitudinal dimensions on micrometre length scale positioned near the probe apex that can provide contact areas with the sample on the order of few tens of nm. The new sensor is predicted to provide greatly improved spatial resolution to thermal properties of nanostructures as well as to expand the sensitivity of the SThM probe to materials with heat conductivity values up to 100-1000 W m-1 K-1.

  1. Self-curable solid-state elastic dye lasers capable of mechanical stress probing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Liao, Zhifu; Zhou, Yuan; Cui, Yuanjing; Qian, Guodong

    2013-05-15

    Herein, a highly sensitive stress probe is reported based on pyrromethene 597 (PM597) doped elastic polydimethylsiloxane films. By sandwiching the dye doped elastic film with two plano dichromatic mirrors, a solid-sate microcavity laser with low laser threshold (~0.2 ?J) is presented as a straightforward probing method for mechanical stress, which is monitored by the laser output spectra, demonstrating a resolution limit higher than 0.01 MPa. The photostability of PM597 doped into the microcavity laser is higher than 7222 GJ/mol, which is among the highest record ever reported to our knowledge and a fast self-recovery on the laser output in less than 1 h, attributed to diffusion of dye molecules is observed, indicating a practical durability for such stress probes. PMID:23938891

  2. Effect of critical molecular weight of PEO in epoxy/EPO blends as characterized by advanced DSC and solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Lu, Shoudong; Sun, Pingchuan; Xue, Gi

    2013-03-01

    The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and solid state NMR have been used to systematically study the length scale of the miscibility and local dynamics of the epoxy resin/poly(ethylene oxide) (ER/PEO) blends with different PEO molecular weight. By DSC, we found that the diffusion behavior of PEO with different Mw is an important factor in controlling these behaviors upon curing. We further employed two-dimensional 13C-{1H}PISEMA NMR experiment to elucidate the possible weak interaction and detailed local dynamics in ER/PEO blends. The CH2O group of PEO forms hydrogen bond with hydroxyl proton of cured-ER ether group, and its local dynamics frozen by such interaction. Our finding indicates that molecular weight (Mw) of PEO is a crucial factor in controlling the miscibility, chain dynamics and hydrogen bonding interaction in these blends.

  3. Comparative analysis of the orientation of transmembrane peptides using solid-state (2)H- and (15)N-NMR: mobility matters.

    PubMed

    Grage, Stephan L; Strandberg, Erik; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Esteban-Martín, Santiago; Salgado, Jesús; Ulrich, Anne S

    2012-05-01

    Many solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approaches for membrane proteins rely on orientation-dependent parameters, from which the alignment of peptide segments in the lipid bilayer can be calculated. Molecules embedded in liquid-crystalline membranes, such as monomeric helices, are highly mobile, leading to partial averaging of the measured NMR parameters. These dynamic effects need to be taken into account to avoid misinterpretation of NMR data. Here, we compare two common NMR approaches: (2)H-NMR quadrupolar waves, and separated local field (15)N-(1)H polarization inversion spin exchange at magic angle (PISEMA) spectra, in order to identify their strengths and drawbacks for correctly determining the orientation and mobility of ?-helical transmembrane peptides. We first analyzed the model peptide WLP23 in oriented dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes and then contrasted it with published data on GWALP23 in dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC). We only obtained consistent tilt angles from the two methods when taking dynamics into account. Interestingly, the two related peptides differ fundamentally in their mobility. Although both helices adopt the same tilt in their respective bilayers (~20°), WLP23 undergoes extensive fluctuations in its azimuthal rotation angle, whereas GWALP23 is much less dynamic. Both alternative NMR methods are suitable for characterizing orientation and dynamics, yet they can be optimally used to address different aspects. PISEMA spectra immediately reveal the presence of large-amplitude rotational fluctuations, which are not directly seen by (2)H-NMR. On the other hand, PISEMA was unable to define the azimuthal rotation angle in the case of the highly dynamic WLP23, though the helix tilt could still be determined, irrespective of any dynamics parameters. PMID:22453992

  4. Accurate measurements of 13C-13C distances in uniformly 13C-labeled proteins using multi-dimensional four-oscillating field solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Bjerring, Morten; Khaneja, Navin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Application of sets of 13C-13C internuclear distance restraints constitutes a typical key element in determining the structure of peptides and proteins by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Accurate measurements of the structurally highly important 13C-13C distances in uniformly 13C-labeled peptides and proteins, however, pose a big challenge due to the problem of dipolar truncation. Here, we present novel two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR experiments capable of extracting distances between carbonyl (13C') and aliphatic (13Caliphatic) spins with high accuracy. The method is based on an improved version of the four-oscillating field (FOLD) technique [L. A. Straasø, M. Bjerring, N. Khaneja, and N. C. Nielsen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 225103 (2009)] which circumvents the problem of dipolar truncation, thereby offering a base for accurate extraction of internuclear distances in many-spin systems. The ability to extract reliable accurate distances is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional variants of the FOLD experiment on uniformly 13C,15N-labeled-L-isoleucine. In a more challenging biological application, FOLD 2D experiments are used to determine a large number of 13C'-13Caliphatic distances in amyloid fibrils formed by the SNNFGAILSS fibrillating core of the human islet amyloid polypeptide with uniform 13C,15N-labeling on the FGAIL fragment.

  5. Energy and density measurements of sloshing ions in tandem-mirror-experiment upgrade using solid-state probe techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, W.L.; Bastasz, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Rensink, M.E.; Allen, S.L.; Grubb, D.P.; Simonen, T.C.

    1985-07-01

    The energy and flux of charge-exchange neutrals from the sloshing ions in the endplug of tandem-mirror-experiment upgrade were measured using solid-state probes. An average energy of the sloshing ions of 6 keV was inferred from the depth profile of deuterium implanted in a silicon sample exposed to the charge-exchange neutrals. A bounce-averaged Fokker--Planck code was used to calculate the sloshing-ion energy distribution. The calculated depth profile of deuterium in the silicon sample resulting from this energy distribution is in good agreement with the measured profile. Carbon resistance probes were used to measure the charge-exchange flux from which the central chord sloshing-ion line density was inferred. The line density of particles with energies>2 keV was deduced to account for 60% of the total plasma line density in the endplug. By folding the sloshing-ion line density into the diamagnetic loop data, it was shown that the 1/e radial extent of the sloshing ions remained relatively constant from shot to shot at 14 cm.

  6. Nanotube array method for studying lipid-induced conformational changes of a membrane protein by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Marek, Antonin; Tang, Wenxing; Milikisiyants, Sergey; Nevzorov, Alexander A; Smirnov, Alex I

    2015-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide substrates with macroscopically aligned homogeneous nanopores of 80 nm in diameter enable two-dimensional, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lipid-induced conformational changes of uniformly (15)N-labeled Pf1 coat protein in native-like bilayers. The Pf1 helix tilt angles in bilayers composed of two different lipids are not entirely governed by the membrane thickness but could be rationalized by hydrophobic interactions of lysines at the bilayer interface. The anodic aluminum oxide alignment method is applicable to a broader repertoire of lipids versus bicelle bilayer mimetics currently employed in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented samples, thus allowing for elucidation of the role played by lipids in shaping membrane proteins. PMID:25564843

  7. Assessing the phosphate distribution in bioactive phosphosilicate glasses by 31P solid-state NMR and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Stevensson, Baltzar; Mathew, Renny; Edén, Mattias

    2014-07-24

    Melt-derived bioactive phosphosilicate glasses are widely utilized as bone-grafting materials for various surgical applications. However, the insight into their structural features over a medium-range scale up to ? 1 nm remains limited. We present a comprehensive assessment of the spatial distribution of phosphate groups across the structures of 11 Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glasses that encompass both bioactive and nonbioactive compositions, with the P contents and silicate network connectivities varied independently. Both parameters are known to strongly influence the bioactivity of the glass in vitro. The phosphate distribution was investigated by double-quantum (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments under magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions and by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The details of the phosphate-ion dispersion were probed by evaluating the MD-derived glass models against various scenarios of randomly distributed, as well as clustered, phosphate groups. From comparisons of the P-P interatomic-distance spreads and the statistics of small phosphate clusters assessed for variable cutoff radii, we conclude that the spatial arrangement of the P atoms in phosphosilicate glasses is well-approximated by a statistical distribution, particularly across a short-range scale of ? 450 pm. The primary distinction is reflected in slightly closer P-P interatomic contacts in the MD-derived structures over the distance span of 450-600 pm relative to that of randomly distributed phosphate groups. The nature of the phosphate-ion dispersion remains independent of the silicate network polymerization and nearly independent of the P content of the glass throughout our explored parameter space of 1-6 mol % P2O5 and silicate network connectivities up to 2.9. PMID:24967834

  8. Consensus structure of Pf1 filamentous bacteriophage from X-ray fibre diffraction and solid-state NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Straus; W. R. P. Scott; C. D. Schwieters; D. A. Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous bacteriophages (filamentous bacterial viruses or Inovirus) are simple and well-characterised macromolecular assemblies that are widely used in molecular biology and biophysics, both\\u000a as paradigms for studying basic biological questions and as practical tools in areas as diverse as immunology and solid-state\\u000a physics. The strains fd, M13 and f1 are virtually identical filamentous phages that infect bacteria expressing F-pili, and

  9. Investigation of the Conversion Reaction Mechanisms for Binary Copper(II) Compounds by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakawa, N.; Jiang, M; Grey, C

    2009-01-01

    The conversion reaction mechanisms of CuS, CuF2, and CuO during the electrochemical reaction with Li are studied by solid-state 63Cu, 19F, and 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For CuS, a two-step reaction is observed that is associated with an insertion reaction involving first limited incorporation of Li into CuS and then a two-phase reaction to form a material with the approximate composition LiCuS. This is followed by a conversion reaction to form Li2S and Cu, Cu1.96S being formed as a side product of the decomposition of LiCuS. Evidence for the insertion phases is found from both NMR and XRD. A direct conversion reaction to form LiF and Cu is seen for CuF2, whereas the 7Li NMR results indicate that CuO can tolerate a small amount of Li substitution before reacting to form Li2O and Cu. Both the diffraction and NMR results indicate that the size of the Cu particles formed on discharge are much larger in the CuS system, which is thought to result from the higher Cu1+ mobilities in the intermediate intercalation compounds LixCuS. The factors that control the possible mechanisms for these conversion reactions are discussed.

  10. High-resolution structure of a Shigella type III secretion needle by solid-state NMR and cryo-electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Demers, Jean-Philippe; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baker, David; Lange, Adam; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a general hybrid approach for determining the structures of supramolecular assemblies. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data define the overall envelope of the assembly and rigid-body orientation of the subunits while solid-state NMR (ssNMR) chemical shifts and distance constraints define the local secondary structure, protein fold and inter-subunit interactions. Finally, Rosetta structure calculations provide a general framework to integrate the different sources of structural information. Combining a 7.7-Å cryo-EM density map and 996 ssNMR distance constraints, the structure of the Type-III Secretion System (T3SS) needle of Shigella flexneri is determined to a precision of 0.4 Å. The calculated structures are cross-validated using an independent dataset of 691 ssNMR constraints and STEM measurements. The hybrid model resolves the conformation of the non-conserved N-terminus, that occupies a protrusion in the cryo-EM density, and reveals conserved pore residues forming a continuous pattern of electrostatic interactions, thereby suggesting a mechanism for effector protein translocation. PMID:25264107

  11. Some studies on a solid state sulfur probe for coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, K. T.; Rao, D. B.; Nelson, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements on the solid electrolyte cell (Ar + H(2) + H(2)S/CaS + CaF(2) + (Pt)//CaF(2)//(Pt) + CaF(2) + CaS/H(2) + H(2)+Ar) show that the emf of the cell is directly related to the difference in sulfur potentials established at the Ar + H(2) + H(2)S/electrode interfaces. The electrodes convert the sulfur potential gradient across the calcium fluoride electrolyte into an equivalent fluorine potential gradient. Response time of the probe varies from approximately 9 hr at 990 K to 2.5 hr at 1225 K. The conversion of calcium sulfide and/or calcium fluoride into calcium oxide is not a problem anticipated in commercial coal gasification systems. Suggestions are presented for improving the cell for such commercial applications.

  12. Immobilization of the Influenza A M2 Transmembrane Peptide in Virus-Envelope Mimetic Lipid Membranes: A Solid-State NMR Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenbin; Cady, Sarah D.; Hong, Mei

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic and structural properties of membrane proteins are intimately affected by the lipid bilayer. One property of membrane proteins is uniaxial rotational diffusion, which depends on the membrane viscosity and thickness. This rotational diffusion is readily manifested in solid-state NMR spectra as characteristic lineshapes and temperature-dependent line narrowing or broadening. We show here that this whole-body uniaxial diffusion is suppressed in lipid bilayers mimicking the composition of eukaryotic cell membranes, which are rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin. We demonstrate this membrane-induced immobilization on the transmembrane peptide of the influenza A M2 (AM2-TM) proton channel protein. At physiological temperature, AM2-TM undergoes uniaxial diffusion faster than ~ 105 s?1 in DLPC, DMPC and POPC bilayers, but the motion is slowed by two orders of magnitude, to < 103 s?1, in a cholesterol-rich virus-envelope-mimetic membrane (“viral membrane”). The immobilization is manifested as near rigid-limit 2H quadrupolar couplings and 13C-1H, 15N-1H and 13C-15N dipolar couplings for all labeled residues. The immobilization suppresses intermediate time scale broadening of the NMR spectra, thus allowing high-sensitivity and high-resolution spectra to be measured at physiological temperature. The conformation of the protein in the viral membrane is more homogeneous than in model PC membranes, as evidenced by the narrow 15N lines. The immobilization of the M2 helical bundle by the membrane composition change indicates the importance of studying membrane proteins in as native environments as possible. It also suggests that eukaryote-mimetic lipid membranes may greatly facilitate structure determination of membrane proteins by solid-state NMR. PMID:19489611

  13. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy via Relaxation of Solid-State Spin Probes at the Nanoscale

    E-print Network

    L. T. Hall; P. Kehayias; D. A. Simpson; A. Jarmola; A. Stacey; D. Budker; L. C. L. Hollenberg

    2015-03-03

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) describes a suite of techniques for characterising electronic systems, with applications in physics, materials science, chemistry, and biology. However, the requirement for large electron spin ensembles in conventional ESR techniques limits their spatial resolution. Here we present a method for measuring the ESR spectrum of nanoscale electronic environments by measuring the relaxation time ($T_1$) of an optically addressed single-spin probe as it is systematically tuned into resonance with the target electronic system. As a proof of concept we extract the spectral distribution for the P1 electronic spin bath in diamond using an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centres, and demonstrate excellent agreement with theoretical expectations. As the response of each NV spin in this experiment is dominated by a single P1 spin at a mean distance of 2.7\\,nm, the extension of this all-optical technique to the single NV case will enable nanoscale ESR spectroscopy of atomic and molecular spin systems.

  14. Swept-frequency two-pulse phase modulation for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Kurur, Narayanan D.; Madhu, P. K.

    2006-08-01

    We introduce a heteronuclear dipolar decoupling sequence for application in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. The sequence, called swept-frequency two-pulse phase modulation (SW f-TPPM), is based on one of the decoupling sequences, TPPM. The sequence is robust in performance with respect to various experimental parameters, such as, the pulse flip angle, pulse phase, and offset and a comparison is made with other decoupling schemes, namely TPPM, SPINAL, and XiX, on a sample of U- 13C-labelled tyrosine for magic-angle spinning speeds up to 14 kHz.

  15. 1D Solid-state NMR Procedure (Avance III Machines running Topspin 3.1 under Windows 7)

    E-print Network

    Akhmedov, Azer

    ; ! Electronics: cell phone, mp3, ipod, etc.; ! Mechanic watches; ! Keys and other magnetic items. Table effects of magnetic field; For those who have pacemakers, please stay away from NMR magnets; Be aware

  16. Intermolecular Packing and Alignment in an Ordered -Hairpin Antimicrobial Peptide Aggregate from 2D Solid-State NMR

    E-print Network

    Hong, Mei

    -bonding propensity. Incubation of PG-1 in phosphate buffer saline produced well-ordered nanometer-scale aggregates, as indicated by 13 C and 15 N NMR line widths, chemical shifts, and electron microscopy. Two-dimensional 13 C

  17. Characterizing Surface Acidic Sites in Mesoporous-Silica-Supported Tungsten Oxide Catalysts Using Solid State NMR and Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Z. Hu; Ja Hun Kwak; Yong Wang; Mary Y. Hu; Romulus VF Turcu; Charles HF Peden

    2011-01-01

    The acidic sites in dispersed tungsten oxide supported on SBA-15 mesoporous silica were investigated using a combination of pyridine titration, both fast-, and slow-MAS ¹N NMR, static ²H NMR, and quantum chemistry calculations. It is found that the bridged acidic -OH groups in surface adsorbed tungsten dimers (i.e., W-OH-W) are the Broensted acid sites. The unusually strong acidity of these

  18. NMR Crystallography of Enzyme Active Sites: Probing Chemically-Detailed, Three-Dimensional Structure in Tryptophan Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Conspectus NMR crystallography – the synergistic combination of X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and computational chemistry – offers unprecedented insight into three-dimensional, chemically-detailed structure. From its initial role in refining diffraction data of organic and inorganic solids, NMR crystallography is now being developed for application to active sites in biomolecules, where it reveals chemically-rich detail concerning the interactions between enzyme site residues and the reacting substrate that is not achievable when X-ray, NMR, or computational methodologies are applied in isolation. For example, typical X-ray crystal structures (1.5 to 2.5 Å resolution) of enzyme-bound intermediates identify possible hydrogen-bonding interactions between site residues and substrate, but do not directly identify the protonation state of either. Solid-state NMR can provide chemical shifts for selected atoms of enzyme-substrate complexes, but without a larger structural framework in which to interpret them, only empirical correlations with local chemical structure are possible. Ab initio calculations and molecular mechanics can build models for enzymatic processes, but rely on chemical details that must be specified. Together, however, X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and computational chemistry can provide consistent and testable models for structure and function of enzyme active sites: X-ray crystallography provides a coarse framework upon which models of the active site can be developed using computational chemistry; these models can be distinguished by comparison of their calculated NMR chemical shifts with the results of solid-state NMR spectroscopy experiments. Conceptually, each technique is a puzzle piece offering a generous view of the big picture. Only when correctly pieced together, however, can they reveal the big picture at highest resolution. In this Account, we detail our first steps in the development of NMR crystallography for application to enzyme catalysis. We begin with a brief introduction to NMR crystallography and then define the process that we have employed to probe the active site in the ?-subunit of tryptophan synthase with unprecedented atomic-level resolution. This approach has resulted in a novel structural hypothesis for the protonation state of the quinonoid intermediate in tryptophan synthase and its surprising role in directing the next step in the catalysis of L-Trp formation. PMID:23537227

  19. Investigation of cation environment and framework changes in silicotitanate exchange materials using solid-state 23Na, 29Si, and 133Cs MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Brian R.; Nyman, May; Alam, Todd M.

    2004-06-01

    Crystalline silicotitanate (CST), HNa 3Ti 4Si 2O 14·4H 2O and the Nb-substituted CST (Nb-CST), HNa 2Ti 3NbSi 2O 14·4H 2O, are highly selective Cs + sorbents, which makes them attractive materials for the selective removal of radioactive species from nuclear waste solutions. The structural basis for the improved Cs + selectivity in the niobium analogs was investigated through a series of solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments. Changes in the local environment of the Na + and Cs + cations in both CST and Nb-CST materials as a function of weight percent cesium exchange were investigated using 23Na and 133Cs MAS NMR. Framework changes induced by Cs + loading and hydration state were investigated with 29Si MAS NMR. Multiple Cs + environments were observed in the CST and Nb-CST material. The relative population of these different Cs + environments varies with the extent of Cs + loading. Marked changes in the framework Si environment were noted with the initial incorporation of Cs +, however with increased Cs + loading the impact to the Si environment becomes less pronounced. The Cs + environment and Si framework structure were influenced by the Nb-substitution and were greatly affected by the amount of water present in the materials. The increased Cs + selectivity of the Nb-CST materials arises from both the chemistry and geometry of the tunnels and pores.

  20. Characterization of the wound-induced material in Citrus paradisi fruit peel by carbon-13 CP-MAS solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Simona; Lai, Adolfo; Stange, Richard R; McCollum, T Greg; Schirra, Mario

    2003-05-01

    Grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, were injured, inoculated with Penicillium digitatum and incubated under conditions favourable for the accumulation of defence related material. Histochemical examination revealed that tissues adjacent to inoculated injuries contained phloroglucinol-HCl (PG-HCl) reactive material. Solvent washed cell wall preparations of intact and injured-inoculated peel were further purified using a mixture of cell wall degrading enzymes. Samples from injured inoculated tissue contained PG-HCl reactive globular material in addition to the fragments of xylem and cuticle found in controls. The principal chemical moieties of the material that accumulates in grapefruit injuries during wound-healing were studied by solid state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR. A complete assignment of the NMR signals was made. From the analysis evidence was found that cellulose and hemicellulose are the biopolymers present in the intact peel samples, in addition, relevant quantities of cutin were found in the residues of enzyme digest. The NMR difference spectrum intact- wounded peels showed resonances which were attributed to all major functional groups of the aromatic-aliphatic suberin polyester of new material produced by the wounds. Information on the latter polyester was obtained by analyzing the T(1)rho (1H) relaxation. PMID:12711139

  1. High-resolution structure of the Shigella type-III secretion needle by solid-state NMR and cryo-electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Jean-Philippe; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Kumar Vasa, Suresh; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baker, David; Lange, Adam; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-09-01

    We introduce a general hybrid approach for determining the structures of supramolecular assemblies. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data define the overall envelope of the assembly and rigid-body orientation of the subunits while solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) chemical shifts and distance constraints define the local secondary structure, protein fold and inter-subunit interactions. Finally, Rosetta structure calculations provide a general framework to integrate the different sources of structural information. Combining a 7.7-Å cryo-EM density map and 996 ssNMR distance constraints, the structure of the type-III secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri is determined to a precision of 0.4?Å. The calculated structures are cross-validated using an independent data set of 691 ssNMR constraints and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements. The hybrid model resolves the conformation of the non-conserved N terminus, which occupies a protrusion in the cryo-EM density, and reveals conserved pore residues forming a continuous pattern of electrostatic interactions, thereby suggesting a mechanism for effector protein translocation.

  2. A Novel High-Resolution and Sensitivity-Enhanced Three-Dimensional Solid-State NMR Experiment Under Ultrafast Magic Angle Spinning Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongchun; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-01-01

    Although magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR is a powerful technique to obtain atomic-resolution insights into the structure and dynamics of a variety of chemical and biological solids, poor sensitivity has severely limited its applications. In this study, we demonstrate an approach that suitably combines proton-detection, ultrafast-MAS and multiple frequency dimensions to overcome this limitation. With the utilization of proton-proton dipolar recoupling and double quantum (DQ) coherence excitation/reconversion radio-frequency pulses, very high-resolution proton-based 3D NMR spectra that correlate single-quantum (SQ), DQ and SQ coherences of biological solids have been obtained successfully for the first time. The proposed technique requires a very small amount of sample and does not need multiple radio-frequency (RF) channels. It also reveals information about the proximity between a spin and a certain other dipolar-coupled pair of spins in addition to regular SQ/DQ and SQ/SQ correlations. Although 1H spectral resolution is still limited for densely proton-coupled systems, the 3D technique is valuable to study dilute proton systems, such as zeolites, small molecules, or deuterated samples. We also believe that this new methodology will aid in the design of a plethora of multidimensional NMR techniques and enable high-throughput investigation of an exciting class of solids at atomic-level resolution. PMID:26138791

  3. A Novel High-Resolution and Sensitivity-Enhanced Three-Dimensional Solid-State NMR Experiment Under Ultrafast Magic Angle Spinning Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongchun; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-01-01

    Although magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR is a powerful technique to obtain atomic-resolution insights into the structure and dynamics of a variety of chemical and biological solids, poor sensitivity has severely limited its applications. In this study, we demonstrate an approach that suitably combines proton-detection, ultrafast-MAS and multiple frequency dimensions to overcome this limitation. With the utilization of proton-proton dipolar recoupling and double quantum (DQ) coherence excitation/reconversion radio-frequency pulses, very high-resolution proton-based 3D NMR spectra that correlate single-quantum (SQ), DQ and SQ coherences of biological solids have been obtained successfully for the first time. The proposed technique requires a very small amount of sample and does not need multiple radio-frequency (RF) channels. It also reveals information about the proximity between a spin and a certain other dipolar-coupled pair of spins in addition to regular SQ/DQ and SQ/SQ correlations. Although (1)H spectral resolution is still limited for densely proton-coupled systems, the 3D technique is valuable to study dilute proton systems, such as zeolites, small molecules, or deuterated samples. We also believe that this new methodology will aid in the design of a plethora of multidimensional NMR techniques and enable high-throughput investigation of an exciting class of solids at atomic-level resolution. PMID:26138791

  4. Interaction of the Neuropeptide Met-Enkephalin with Zwitterionic and Negatively Charged Bicelles as Viewed by 31P and 2H Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Marcotte, Isabelle; Dufourc, Erick J.; Ouellet, Marise; Auger, Michèle

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of the neuropeptide methionine-enkephalin (Menk) with bicelles was investigated by solid-state NMR. Bicelles composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dicaproylphosphatidylcholine (DCPC) were modified to investigate the effect of the lipid headgroup and electrostatic charges on the association with Menk. A total of 10 mol % of DMPC was replaced by zwitterionic phosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), anionic phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG), or phosphatidylserine (DMPS). The preparation of DMPE-doped bicelles (Bic/PE) is reported for the first time. The 31P and 2H NMR results revealed changes in the lipid dynamics when Menk interacts with the bicellar systems. 2H NMR experiments showed a disordering effect of Menk on the lipid chains in all the bicelles except Bic/PG, whereas the study of the choline headgroups indicated a decreased order of the lipids only in Bic/PE and Bic/PG. Our results suggest that the insertion depth of Menk into bicelles is modulated by their composition, more specifically by the balance between hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Menk would be buried at the lipid polar/apolar interface, the depth of penetration into the hydrophobic membrane core following the scaling Bic > Bic/PE > Bic/PS at the slightly acidic pH used in this study. The peptide would not insert into the bilayer core of Bic/PG and would rather remain at the surface. PMID:12829487

  5. Perturbation of nuclear spin polarizations in solid state NMR of nitroxide-doped samples by magic-angle spinning without microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Thurber, Kent R., E-mail: thurberk@niddk.nih.gov; Tycko, Robert [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States)] [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    We report solid state {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, {sup 1}H and cross-polarized {sup 13}C NMR signals from {sup 15}N,{sup 13}C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T{sub 1e} is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.

  6. Sensitivity enhancement in natural-abundance solid-state 33S MAS NMR spectroscopy employing adiabatic inversion pulses to the satellite transitions.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Michael Ryan; Brorson, Michael; Bildsøe, Henrik; Skibsted, Jørgen; Jakobsen, Hans J

    2008-02-01

    The WURST (wideband uniform rate smooth truncation) and hyperbolic secant (HS) pulse elements have each been employed as pairs of inversion pulses to induce population transfer (PT) between the four energy levels in natural abundance solid-state (33)S (spin I=3/2) MAS NMR, thereby leading to a significant gain in intensity for the central transition (CT). The pair of inversion pulses are applied to the satellite transitions for a series of inorganic sulfates, the sulfate ions in the two cementitious materials ettringite and thaumasite, and the two tetrathiometallates (NH(4))(2)WS(4) and (NH(4))(2)MoS(4). These materials all exhibit (33)S quadrupole coupling constants (C(Q)) in the range 0.1-1.0 MHz, with precise C(Q) values being determined from analysis of the PT enhanced (33)S MAS NMR spectra. The enhancement factors for the WURST and HS elements are quite similar and are all in the range 1.74-2.25 for the studied samples, in excellent agreement with earlier reports on HS enhancement factors (1.6-2.4) observed for other spin I=3/2 nuclei with similar C(Q) values (0.3-1.2 MHz). Thus, a time saving in instrument time by a factor up to five has been achieved in natural abundance (33)S MAS NMR, a time saving which is extremely welcome for this important low-gamma nucleus. PMID:18082436

  7. Sensitivity enhancement in natural-abundance solid-state 33S MAS NMR spectroscopy employing adiabatic inversion pulses to the satellite transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Michael Ryan; Brorson, Michael; Bildsøe, Henrik; Skibsted, Jørgen; Jakobsen, Hans J.

    2008-02-01

    The WURST (wideband uniform rate smooth truncation) and hyperbolic secant (HS) pulse elements have each been employed as pairs of inversion pulses to induce population transfer (PT) between the four energy levels in natural abundance solid-state 33S (spin I = 3/2) MAS NMR, thereby leading to a significant gain in intensity for the central transition (CT). The pair of inversion pulses are applied to the satellite transitions for a series of inorganic sulfates, the sulfate ions in the two cementitious materials ettringite and thaumasite, and the two tetrathiometallates (NH 4) 2WS 4 and (NH 4) 2MoS 4. These materials all exhibit 33S quadrupole coupling constants ( CQ) in the range 0.1-1.0 MHz, with precise CQ values being determined from analysis of the PT enhanced 33S MAS NMR spectra. The enhancement factors for the WURST and HS elements are quite similar and are all in the range 1.74-2.25 for the studied samples, in excellent agreement with earlier reports on HS enhancement factors (1.6-2.4) observed for other spin I = 3/2 nuclei with similar CQ values (0.3-1.2 MHz). Thus, a time saving in instrument time by a factor up to five has been achieved in natural abundance 33S MAS NMR, a time saving which is extremely welcome for this important low-? nucleus.

  8. Fast amplitude-modulated pulse trains with frequency sweep (SW-FAM) in solid-state NMR of spin-7/2 nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuniger, Thomas; Madhu, P. K.

    2008-07-01

    We here investigate the sensitivity enhancement of central-transition NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei with spin-7/2 in the solid state, generated by fast amplitude-modulated RF pulse trains with constant (FAM-I) and incremented pulse durations (SW-FAM). Considerable intensity is gained for the central-transition resonance of single-quantum spectra by means of spin population transfer from the satellite transitions, both under static and magic-angle-spinning (MAS) conditions. It is also shown that incorporation of a SW-FAM train into the excitation part of a 7QMAS sequence improves the efficiency of 7Q coherence generation, resulting in improved signal-to-noise ratio. The application of FAM-type pulse trains may thus facilitate faster spectra acquisition of spin-7/2 systems.

  9. Asymmetric simultaneous phase-inversion cross-polarization in solid-state MAS NMR: Relaxing selective polarization transfer condition between two dilute spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengfeng; Fu, Riqiang; Li, Jianping; Yang, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Double cross polarization (DCP) has been widely used for heteronuclear polarization transfer between 13C and 15N in solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR. However, DCP is such sensitive to experimental settings that small variations or deviations in RF fields would deteriorate its efficiency. Here, we report on asymmetric simultaneous phase-inversion cross polarization (referred as aSPICP) for selective polarization transfer between low-? 13C and 15N spins. We have demonstrated through simulations and experiments using biological solids that the asymmetric duration in the simultaneous phase-inversion cross polarization scheme leads to efficient polarization transfer between 13C and 15N even with large chemical shift anisotropies in the presence of B1 field variations or mismatch of the Hartmann-Hahn conditions. This could be very useful in the aspect of long-duration experiments for membrane protein studies at high fields.

  10. Solid-state {sup 17}O magic-angle and dynamic-angle spinning NMR study of the SiO{sub 2} polymorph coesite

    SciTech Connect

    Grandinetti, P.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Baltisberger, J.H. [Berea College, KY (United States); Farnan, I.; Stebbins, J.F. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Werner, U.; Pines, A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-08-10

    Five distinctly resolved {sup 17}O solid-state NMR resonances in room temperature coesite, an SiO{sub 2} polymorph, have been observed and assigned using dynamic angle spinning (DAS) at 11.7 T along with magic angle spinning (MAS) spectra at 9.4 and 11.7 T. The {sup 17}O quadrupolar parameters for each of the five oxygen environments in coesite are correlated with the Si-O-Si bridging bond angles determined by diffraction experiments. The sign of e{sup 2}-qQ/h along with the orientation of the electric field gradient for oxygen in the Si-O-Si linkage were determined from a Townes-Dailey analysis of the data. 41 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Site-Resolved Measurement of Microsecond-to-Millisecond Conformational-Exchange Processes in Proteins by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that conformational exchange processes in proteins on microsecond-to-millisecond time scales can be detected and quantified by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We show two independent approaches that measure the effect of conformational exchange on transverse relaxation parameters, namely Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill relaxation-dispersion experiments and measurement of differential multiple-quantum coherence decay. Long coherence lifetimes, as required for these experiments, are achieved by the use of highly deuterated samples and fast magic-angle spinning. The usefulness of the approaches is demonstrated by application to microcrystalline ubiquitin. We detect a conformational exchange process in a region of the protein for which dynamics have also been observed in solution. Interestingly, quantitative analysis of the data reveals that the exchange process is more than 1 order of magnitude slower than in solution, and this points to the impact of the crystalline environment on free energy barriers. PMID:22908968

  12. Specific 13C labeling of leucine, valine and isoleucine methyl groups for unambiguous detection of long-range restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasshuber, Hannes Klaus; Demers, Jean-Philippe; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Here we present an isotopic labeling strategy to easily obtain unambiguous long-range distance restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies. The method is based on the inclusion of two biosynthetic precursors in the bacterial growth medium, ?-ketoisovalerate and ?-ketobutyrate, leading to the production of leucine, valine and isoleucine residues that are exclusively 13C labeled on methyl groups. The resulting spectral simplification facilitates the collection of distance restraints, the verification of carbon chemical shift assignments and the measurement of methyl group dynamics. This approach is demonstrated on the type-three secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri, where 49 methyl-methyl and methyl-nitrogen distance restraints including 10 unambiguous long-range distance restraints could be collected. By combining this labeling scheme with ultra-fast MAS and proton detection, the assignment of methyl proton chemical shifts was achieved.

  13. Specific 13C labeling of leucine, valine and isoleucine methyl groups for unambiguous detection of long-range restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Fasshuber, Hannes Klaus; Demers, Jean-Philippe; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Here we present an isotopic labeling strategy to easily obtain unambiguous long-range distance restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies. The method is based on the inclusion of two biosynthetic precursors in the bacterial growth medium, ?-ketoisovalerate and ?-ketobutyrate, leading to the production of leucine, valine and isoleucine residues that are exclusively (13)C labeled on methyl groups. The resulting spectral simplification facilitates the collection of distance restraints, the verification of carbon chemical shift assignments and the measurement of methyl group dynamics. This approach is demonstrated on the type-three secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri, where 49 methyl-methyl and methyl-nitrogen distance restraints including 10 unambiguous long-range distance restraints could be collected. By combining this labeling scheme with ultra-fast MAS and proton detection, the assignment of methyl proton chemical shifts was achieved. PMID:25625825

  14. The investigation of membrane binding by amphibian peptide agonists of CCK2R using (31)P and (2)H solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Patrick J; Separovic, Frances; Bowie, John H

    2014-05-01

    It has been proposed that some neuropeptides may be anchored to the cell membranes prior to attaching to the adjacent active sites of transmembrane receptors. The three amphibian skin neuropeptides signiferin 1 [RLCIPYIIPC(OH)] (smooth muscle active and immunomodulator), riparin 1.1 [[RLCIPVIFPC(OH)] (immunomodulator) and rothein 1 [SVSNIPESIGF(OH)] (immunomodulator) act via CCK2 transmembrane receptors. A combination of (31)P and (2)H solid state NMR studies of each of these three peptides in eukaryotic phospholipid models at 25°C shows that rothein 1 does not interact with the membrane at all. In contrast, both of the cyclic disulfides signiferin 1 and riparin 1.1 interact with phospholipid head groups and partially penetrate into the upper leaflet of the model bilayer, but to different extents. These interactions are not sufficiently effective to cause disruption of the lipid bilayer since the peptides are not antimicrobial, anticancer, antifungal nor active against enveloped viruses. PMID:24582625

  15. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Samoson, Ago (Tallinn, SU)

    1990-01-01

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero.

  16. Probing Porous Media with NMR Measurements of Restricted Gas Diffusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Mair; G. P. Wong; D. Hoffmann; R. L. Walsworth; M. D. Hurlimann; L. M. Schwartz; S. Patz

    1999-01-01

    We probe the structure of porous media using NMR measurements of the time-dependent diffusion of xenon gas imbibed into the pore space. The primary advantages of gas-phase NMR, relative to previous measurements using water, are: (i) gas diffusion coefficients are orders of magnitude larger than those of liquids; and (ii) noble gases interact much less strongly with surfaces than do

  17. Proton-detected 2D radio frequency driven recoupling solid-state NMR studies on micelle-associated cytochrome-b(5).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Im, Sangchoul; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-05-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is increasingly used in the high-resolution structural studies of membrane-associated proteins and peptides. Most such studies necessitate isotopically labeled ((13)C, (15)N and (2)H) proteins/peptides, which is a limiting factor for some of the exciting membrane-bound proteins and aggregating peptides. In this study, we report the use of a proton-based slow magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR experiment that exploits the unaveraged (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings from a membrane-bound protein. We have shown that the difference in the buildup rates of cross-peak intensities against the mixing time - obtained from 2D (1)H-(1)H radio frequency-driven recoupling (RFDR) and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments on a 16.7-kDa micelle-associated full-length rabbit cytochrome-b5 (cytb5) - can provide insights into protein dynamics and could be useful to measure (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings. The experimental buildup curves compare well with theoretical simulations and are used to extract relaxation parameters. Our results show that due to fast exchange of amide protons with water in the soluble heme-containing domain of cyb5, coherent (1)H-(1)H dipolar interactions are averaged out for these protons while alpha and side chain protons show residual dipolar couplings that can be obtained from (1)H-(1)H RFDR experiments. The appearance of resonances with distinct chemical shift values in (1)H-(1)H RFDR spectra enabled the identification of residues (mostly from the transmembrane region) of cytb5 that interact with micelles. PMID:24657390

  18. Proton-Detected 2D Radio Frequency Driven Recoupling Solid-state NMR Studies on Micelle-associated Cytochrome-b5

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Im, Sangchoul; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is increasingly used in the high-resolution structural studies of membrane-associated proteins and peptides. Most such studies necessitate isotopically labeled (13C, 15N and 2H) proteins/peptides, which is a limiting factor for some of the exciting membrane-bound proteins and aggregating peptides. In this study, we report the use of a proton-based slow magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR experiment that exploits the unaveraged 1H-1H dipolar couplings from a membrane-bound protein. We have shown that the difference in the buildup rates of cross peak intensities against the mixing time - obtained from 2D 1H-1H radio frequency-driven recoupling (RFDR) and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments on a 16.7-kDa micelle-associated full-length rabbit cytochrome-b5 (cytb5) - can provide insights into protein dynamics and could be useful to measure 1H-1H dipolar couplings. The experimental buildup curves compare well with theoretical simulations and are used to extract relaxation parameters. Our results show that due to fast exchange of amide protons with water in the soluble heme-containing domain of cyb5, coherent 1H-1H dipolar interactions are averaged out for these protons while alpha and side chain protons show residual dipolar couplings that can be obtained from 1H-1H RFDR experiments. The appearance of resonances with distinct chemical shift values in 1H-1H RFDR spectra enabled the identification of residues (mostly from the transmembrane region) of cytb5 that interact with micelles. PMID:24657390

  19. Efficiency of heteronuclear dipolar decoupling schemes in solid-state NMR: Investigation of effective transverse relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithu, Venus Singh; Pratihar, Supriya; Paul, Subhradip; Madhu, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    We here compare the T2' values of various heteronuclear dipolar decoupling schemes commonly used in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Swept-frequency two-pulse phase modulation scheme is shown to give longer T2' values for the majority of the magic-angle-spinning frequencies and radiofrequency amplitudes considered here. The longer T2' values obtained are shown to yield spectra with higher resolution in experiments, such as INADEQUATE, which incorporate spin-echo blocks. Such blocks normally constitute the indirect dimension of a multidimensional experiment during which heteronuclear dipolar decoupling is applied, thereby making the relevance of T2' manifest clearly. Experimental results are shown on samples of glycine, alanine, and A?42.

  20. Solid-state 13C NMR studies of a large fossil gymnosperm from the Yallourn Open Cut, Latrobe Valley, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bates, A.L.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    A series of samples taken from the cross section of a 3-m-diameter fossilized gymnospermous log (Araucariaceae) in the Yallourn Seam of the Australian brown coals was examined by solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance to delineate chemical changes related to the combined processes of peatification and coalification. The results show that cellulosic materials were degraded and lost on the periphery of the log, however, the degree of such degradation in the central core is substantially less. The lignin is uniformly altered by coalification reactions to a macromolecular substance displaying decreased aryl ether linkages but significantly greater amounts of carbon linkages compared to modern lignin. Changes in the methoxyl carbon contents of lignin in cross section reveal demethylation reactions, but these do not appear to be related to degree of carbon linking. Both the degredation of cellulosic materials and demethylation of lignin appear to be early diagenetic processes occurring during peatification independently of the coalification reactions. ?? 1989.

  1. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy reveals anomer specific transport of galactose in the milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Toshio; Abe, Akio; Nakamura, Atsusi; Horigome, Miyako; Naito, Akira

    2012-06-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that only the ?-anomer of galactose is transported to Kluyveromyces lactis cells by galactose/glucose transporter Hgt1p, and that aldose-1-epimerase encoded by GAL10 is a prerequisite for growth on galactose. Minor aldose-1-epimerases other than Gal10p also exist in K. lactis. Using a mutant defective in both aldose-1-epimerases, we show by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that only ?-anomer is transported in the cell and stays without or with a slow rate of conversion to ?-anomer. Signals due to intracellular ?-galactose appeared at two positions, both of which were shifted towards higher magnetic fields than that of ?-galactose in aqueous solution, suggesting that incorporated galactose binds to cellular components, probably proteins. PMID:22239854

  2. NMR crystallography for structural characterization of oxovanadium(V) complexes: deriving coordination geometry and detecting weakly coordinated ligands at atomic resolution in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingyue; Yehl, Jenna; Hou, Guangjin; Chatterjee, Pabitra B; Goldbourt, Amir; Crans, Debbie C; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-02-16

    NMR crystallography is an emerging method for atomic-resolution structural analysis of ubiquitous vanadium(V) sites in inorganic and bioinorganic complexes as well as vanadium-containing proteins. NMR crystallography allows for characterization of vanadium(V) containing solids, based on the simultaneous measurement of (51)V-(15)N internuclear distances and anisotropic spin interactions, described by (13)C, (15)N, and (51)V chemical shift anisotropy and (51)V electric field gradient tensors. We show that the experimental (51)V, (13)C, and (15)N NMR parameters are essential for inferring correct coordination numbers and deriving correct geometries in density functional theory (DFT) calculations, particularly in the absence of single-crystal X-ray structures. We first validate this approach on a structurally known vanadium(V) complex, ((15)N-salicylideneglycinate)-(benzhydroxamate)oxovanadium(V), VO(15)NGlySalbz. We then apply this approach to derive the three-dimensional structure of (methoxo)((15)N-salicylidene-glycinato)oxovanadium(V) with solvated methanol, [VO((15)NGlySal)(OCH3)]·(CH3OH). This is a representative complex with potentially variable coordination geometry depending on the solvation level of the solid. The solid material containing molecules of CH3OH, formally expressed as [VO((15)NGlySal)(OCH3)]·(CH3OH), is found to have one molecule of CH3OH weakly coordinated to the vanadium. The material is therefore best described as [VO((15)NGlySal)(OCH3)(CH3OH)] as deduced by the combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR experiments and DFT calculations. The approach reported here can be used for structural analysis of systems that are not amenable to single-crystal X-ray diffraction characterization and which can contain weakly associated solvents. PMID:25590382

  3. Solid-state 13C NMR analysis of size and density fractions of marine sediments: Insight into organic carbon sources and preservation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, Angela F.; Baldock, Jeffrey A.; Smernik, Ronald J.; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Arnarson, Thórarinn S.; Gélinas, Yves; Hedges, John I.

    2006-02-01

    Burial of organic carbon (OC) in ocean sediments acts as the ultimate long-term sink for both terrestrial and marine carbon, however, the mechanisms controlling the preservation of this carbon are poorly understood. To better understand these mechanisms, we applied solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, along with elemental, stable carbon isotopic (? 13C) and lignin phenol analyses, to size and density fractions of sediments influenced by either mixed terrestrial and marine OC inputs (Washington Coast slope) or dominantly marine inputs (Mexican Margin). Elemental, isotopic and lignin analyses all reveal that within the Washington Coast sediment, the OC mixes linearly between nitrogen-poor and 13C-depleted, lignin-rich OC in the large and light fractions and nitrogen-rich and 13C-enriched, lignin-poor OC in the small and dense fractions, suggesting that this sediment contains a two-component mixture of terrestrial vascular plant- and marine-derived OC. The integral areas of each of seven NMR spectral regions in the different samples trend linearly when plotted versus ? 13C signature, with most R2 values of 0.78 or greater, demonstrating that the NMR spectra of the two sources of carbon also mix linearly between the two endmembers. The terrestrial endmember in this sediment appears to be dominated by lignin and black carbon whereas the source of the marine endmember is less clear from the NMR spectra. In contrast, all of the analyses indicate that OC in the Mexican Margin sediment fractions is homogenous and derives almost exclusively from marine sources. It appears that selective preservation of (bio)chemically recalcitrant lignin and black carbon is the primary mechanism of preservation of terrestrial OC, whereas mineral-protection is the dominant mechanism preserving marine OC in the Washington coast sediment. There is little evidence showing that either preservation mechanism functions in the Mexican Margin sediments.

  4. Solid state NMR of salivary calculi: proline-rich salivary proteins, citrate, polysaccharide, lipid, and organic-mineral interactions

    E-print Network

    Li, Yang; Reid, David; Bazin, Dominique; Doudon, Michel; Duer, Melinda

    2015-07-13

    in kidney stones, can be distinguished with zero-crossing-point first-derivative spectrophotometry [7], and different apatite and other calcium phosphate materials can be identified by assigning P- O stretches. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examines... likely major organic component of the stones, consistent with the signals observed in the 13C ssNMR. The function of the statherin is widely believed to be, at low concentrations, the inhibition of propagation of calcium phosphate crystallization...

  5. Liquid and solid-state high-resolution NMR methods for the investigation of aging processes of silicone breast implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Britta Birkefeld; Rüdiger Bertermann; Hellmut Eckert; Bettina Pfleiderer

    2003-01-01

    To investigate aging processes of silicone gel breast implants, which may include migration of free unreacted material from the gel and rubber to local (e.g. connective tissue capsule) or distant sites in the body, chemical alteration of the polymer and infiltration of body compounds, various approaches of multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments (29Si, 13C, 1H) were evaluated. While 29Si,

  6. Supercycled homonuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state NMR: Toward cleaner 1H spectrum and higher spinning rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Leskes; P. K. Madhu; Shimon Vega

    2008-01-01

    A homonuclear dipolar decoupling scheme based on windowed phase-modulated Lee-Goldburg (wPMLG) pulse sequences that causes a``z-rotation'' of the spins for high-resolution proton NMR spectroscopy of solids is described and analyzed. This supercycled scheme suppresses the effect of pulse imperfections on the spectra and significantly relaxes the off-resonance dependence of the line-narrowing efficiency and scale factor. This leads to a broad

  7. Proton-Evolved Local-Field Solid-State NMR Studies of Cytochrome b5 Embedded in Bicelles – Revealing both Structural and Dynamical Information

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Ronald; Smith, Pieter E. S.; Xu, Jiadi; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Im, Sang-Choul; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2010-01-01

    Structural biology of membrane proteins has rapidly evolved into a new frontier of science. Although solving the structure of a membrane protein with atomic-level resolution is still a major challenge, separated local field (SLF) NMR spectroscopy has become an invaluable tool in obtaining structural images of membrane proteins under physiological conditions. Recent studies have demonstrated the use of rotating-frame SLF techniques to accurately measure strong heteronuclear dipolar couplings between directly bonded nuclei. However, in these experiments, all weak dipolar couplings are suppressed. On the other hand, weak heteronuclear dipolar couplings can be measured using laboratory-frame SLF experiments, but only at the expense of spectral resolution for strongly dipolar coupled spins. In the present study, we implemented 2D PELF (proton-evolved local-field) pulse sequences using either COMPOZER-CP (composite zero degree cross-polarization) or WIM (windowless isotropic mixing) for magnetization transfer. These PELF sequences can be used for the measurement of a broad range of heteronuclear dipolar couplings, allowing for a complete mapping of protein dynamics in a lipid bilayer environment. Experimental results from magnetically-aligned bicelles containing uniformly 15N-labeled cytochrome b5 are presented and theoretical analyses of the new PELF sequences are reported. Our results suggest that the PELF based experimental approaches will have a profound impact on solid-state NMR spectroscopy of membrane proteins and other membrane-associated molecules in magnetically-aligned bicelles. PMID:20334357

  8. Modifications under irradiation of a self-assembled monolayer grafted on a nano-porous silica glass: a solid-state NMR characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Le Caer, S.; Chatelain, C.; Renault, J.Ph. [CEA, CNRS, Inst Rayonnement Mat Saclay, Lab Radiolyse, SIS2M, Serv Interdisciplinaire Syst Mol et Mat, UMR 3299, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Brunet, F.; Charpentier, T. [CEA, Lab Struct et Dynam Resonance Magnet, CNRS, Inst Rayonnement Mat Saclay, SIS2M, Serv Interdisciplinaire Syst Mol et Mat, UMR 3299, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Durand, D.; Dauvois, V. [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SECR, LSRM, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2012-02-15

    Controlled pore glasses with a pore size of 8 nm are grafted with chlorodimethylsilane (ClSi(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}H). The surface of the glass is carefully characterized before and after irradiation with 10 MeV electrons by solid-state NMR measurements. {sup 1}H MAS NMR experiments in one and two dimensions (2D double quantum and 2D exchange) have been used to reveal the grafting of the chlorodimethylsilane at the silica surface and evidence the formation of a homogeneous layer on the surface. Irradiation leads to a high H{sub 2} yield (3.3 * 10{sup -7} mol/J) due to the efficient cleavage of the Si H bond. Methane is detected in smaller quantities (5.5 * 10{sup -8} mol/J), indicating that the Si-H bond is preferentially cleaved over the Si-C bond. The H{sub 2} production arising from OH groups on the surface is very minor in comparison to the S- H and Si-C radiolysis. (authors)

  9. Solid-state NMR spin-echo investigation of the metalloproteins parvalbumin, concanavalin A, and pea and lentil lectins, substituted with cadmium-113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Paul S.; Bhattacharyya, Lokesh; Ellis, Paul D.; Brewer, C. Fred

    Solid-state 113Cd NMR spectroscopy of static powder samples of 113Cd-substituted metalloproteins, parvalbumin, concanavalin A, and pea and lentil lectins, was carried out. Cross polarization followed by application of a train of uniformly spaced ? pulses was employed to investigate the origin of residual cadmium NMR linewidths observed previously in these proteins. Fourier transformation of the resulting spin-echo train yielded spectra consisting of uniformly spaced lines having linewidths of the order of 1-2 ppm. The observed linewidths were not influenced by temperature as low as -50°C or by extent of protein hydration. Since the echo-train pulse sequence is able to eliminate inhomogeneous but not homogeneous contributions to the linewidths, there is a predominant inhomogeneous contribution to cadmium linewidths in the protein CP/MAS spectra. However, significant changes in spectral intensities were observed with change in temperature and extent of protein hydration. These intensity changes are attributed for parvalbumin and concanavalin A to changes in cross-polarization efficiency with temperature and hydration. For pea and lentil lectins, this effect is attributed to the elimination of static disorder at the pea and lentil S2 metal-ion sites due to sugar binding.

  10. Determination of solid-state NMR structures of proteins by means of three-dimensional 15N-13C-13C dipolar correlation spectroscopy and chemical shift analysis.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Federica; van Rossum, Barth-Jan; Diehl, Annette; Rehbein, Kristina; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) NMR-based approach for the determination of the fold of moderately sized proteins by solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR is presented and applied to the alpha-spectrin SH3 domain. This methodology includes the measurement of multiple (13)C-(13)C distance restraints on biosynthetically site-directed (13)C-enriched samples, obtained by growing bacteria on [2-(13)C]glycerol and [1,3-(13)C]glycerol. 3D (15)N-(13)C-(13)C dipolar correlation experiments were applied to resolve overlap of signals, in particular in the region where backbone carbon-carbon correlations of the C(alpha)-C(alpha), CO-CO, C(alpha)-CO, and CO-C(alpha) type appear. Additional restraints for confining the structure were obtained from phi and psi backbone torsion angles of 29 residues derived from C(alpha), C(beta), CO, NH, and H(alpha) chemical shifts. Using both distance and angular restraints, a refined structure was calculated with a backbone root-mean-square deviation of 0.7 A with respect to the average structure. PMID:14516199

  11. Orientation of the Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Protein OmpX in Phospholipid Bilayer Membranes Determined by Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Mahalakshmi, Radhakrishnan; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2010-01-01

    The solid-state NMR orientation-dependent frequencies measured for membrane proteins in macroscopically oriented lipid bilayers provide precise orientation restraints for structure determination in membranes. Here we show that this information can also be used to supplement crystallographic structural data to establish the orientation of a membrane protein in the membrane. This is achieved by incorporating a few orientation restraints, measured for the Escherichia coli outer membrane protein OmpX in magnetically oriented lipid bilayers (bicelles), in a simulated annealing calculation with the coordinates of the OmpX crystal structure. The 1H–15N dipolar couplings measured for the seven Phe residues of OmpX in oriented bilayers can be assigned by back-calculation of the NMR spectrum from the crystal structure and are sufficient to establish the three-dimensional orientation of the protein in the membrane, while the 15N chemical shifts provide a measure of cross-validation for the analysis. In C14 lipid bilayers, OmpX adopts a transmembrane orientation with a 7° tilt of its ?-barrel axis relative to the membrane normal, matching the hydrophobic thickness of the barrel with that of the membrane. PMID:18512961

  12. Experimental (X-ray, (13)C CP/MAS NMR, IR, RS, INS, THz) and Solid-State DFT Study on (1:1) Co-Crystal of Bromanilic Acid and 2,6-Dimethylpyrazine.

    PubMed

    ?uczy?ska, Katarzyna; Dru?bicki, Kacper; Lyczko, Krzysztof; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz

    2015-06-01

    A combined structural, vibrational spectroscopy, and solid-state DFT study of the hydrogen-bonded complex of bromanilic acid with 2,6-dimethylpyrazine is reported. The crystallographic structure was determined by means of low-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which reveals the molecular units in their native protonation states, forming one-dimensional infinite nets of moderate-strength O···H-N hydrogen bonds. The nature of the crystallographic forces, stabilizing the studied structure, has been drawn by employing the noncovalent interactions analysis. It was found that, in addition to the hydrogen bonding, the intermolecular forces are dominated by stacking interactions and C-H···O contacts. The thermal and calorimetric analysis was employed to probe stability of the crystal phase. The structural analysis was further supported by a computationally assisted (13)C CP/MAS NMR study, providing a complete assignment of the recorded resonances. The vibrational dynamics was explored by combining the optical (IR, Raman, TDs-THz) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy techniques with the state-of-the-art solid-state density functional theory (DFT) computations. Despite the quasi-harmonic approximation assumed throughout the study, an excellent agreement between the theoretical and experimental data was achieved over the entire spectral range, allowing for a deep and possibly thorough understanding of the vibrational characteristics of the system. Particularly, the significant influence of the long-range dipole coupling on the IR spectrum has been revealed. On the basis of a wealth of information gathered, the recent implementation of a dispersion-corrected linear-response scheme has been extensively examined. PMID:25961154

  13. Solid-state 13C NMR studies of dissolved organic matter in pore waters from different depositional environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in pore waters from sediments of a number of different depositional environments was isolated by ultrafiltration using membranes with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 500. This > 500 molecular weight DOM represents 70-98% of the total DOM in these pore waters. We determined the gross chemical structure of this material using both solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Our results show that the DOM in these pore waters appears to exist as two major types: one type dominated by carbohydrates and paraffinic structures and the second dominated by paraffinic and aromatic structures. We suggest that the dominance of one or the other structural type of DOM in the pore water depends on the relative oxidizing/reducing nature of the sediments as well as the source of the detrital organic matter. Under dominantly anaerobic conditions carbohydrates in the sediments are degraded by bacteria and accumulate in the pore water as DOM. However, little or no degradation of lignin occurs under these conditions. In contrast, sediments thought to be predominantly aerobic in character have DOM with diminished carbohydrate and enhanced aromatic character. The aromatic structures in the DOM from these sediments are thought to arise from the degradation of lignin. The large amounts of paraffinic structures in both types of DOM may be due to the degradation of unidentified paraffinic materials in algal or bacterial remains. ?? 1987.

  14. Characterization of leucine side-chain reorientation in collagen-fibrils by solid-state 2H NMR.

    PubMed

    Batchelder, L S; Sullivan, C E; Jelinski, L W; Torchia, D A

    1982-01-01

    We have used 2H quadrupole-echo NMR spectroscopy to study the molecular dynamics of the leucine side chain in collagen fibrils labeled with [2H10]leucine. X-ray crystallographic studies of leucine and small leucyl-containing peptides and proteins [Benedetti, C. (1977) in Proceedings of the Fifth American Peptides Symposium, eds, Goodman, M. & Meienhofer, J. (Wiley, New York), pp. 257--274; Janin, J., Wodak, S., Levitt, M. & Maigret, B. (1978) J. Mol. Biol. 125, 357--386] show that the amino acid side chain exists predominantly in only two of the nine possible conformations. 2H NMR spectra of polycrystalline D,L [2H10]leucine obtained from -45 degrees C to +100 degrees C showed that interconversion of the two conformations did not take place on the 2H NMR timescale in this temperature range. In contrast, experimental lineshapes observed for [2H10]leucine-labeled collagen fibrils from -85 degrees C to +30 degrees C were simulated by using a model in which the side chain hops at various rates between the two predominant conformations found by the x-ray studies. A small difference between calculated and observed linewidths above the freezing point of water can be accounted for by backbone reorientation or by the presence of a small percentage of other side-chain conformations. Thus, these results provide strong evidence that the two predominant x-ray conformations not only exist in the fibrils as the preferred orientations but interconvert at rates that are proportional to temperature over the range - 85 degrees C to +30 degrees C. These observations concur with previous NNR studies of collagen fibrils that demonstrated a mobile contact region between collagen molecules. PMID:6952191

  15. Variable-temperature solid-state NMR studies of iron(II) and iron(III) complexes 

    E-print Network

    Shepard, Patricia Arlene

    1989-01-01

    Fe(2-pic)&C12 EtQH at room temperature. This approach provides an excellent control over sample spin-state composition and allows all NMR relaxation measurements to be made at room temperature, thereby eliminating temperature... sequence. CT is the cross-polarization contact time. MH and MC denote the magnetization of the H and C nuclei, respectively. 2. Variable-temperature C CP/MAS spectra for Fe(2-pic)3C12 EtOH 31 Variable-composition C CP/MAS spectra for FexZnl x(2-pic)3C...

  16. Use of solid-state 13C NMR in structural studies of humic acids and humin from Holocene sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; VanderHart, D.L.; Earl, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    13C NMR spectra of solid humic substances in Holocene sediments have been obtained using cross polarization with magic-angle sample spinning techniques. The results demonstrate that this technique holds great promise for structural characterizations of complex macromolecular substances such as humin and humic acids. Quantifiable distinctions can be made between structural features of aquatic and terrestrial humic substances. The aliphatic carbons of the humic substances are dominant components suggestive of input from lipid-like materials. An interesting resemblance is also noted between terrestrial humic acid and humin spectra. ?? 1980.

  17. Conformational stability and thermal pathways of relaxation in triclosan (antibacterial/excipient/contaminant) in solid-state: combined spectroscopic ((1)h NMR) and computational (periodic DFT) study.

    PubMed

    Latosi?ska, Jolanta Natalia; Latosi?ska, Magdalena; Tomczak, Marzena Agnieszka; Medycki, Wojciech

    2015-05-21

    The mechanism of molecular dynamics in the antibacterial/antifungal agent, triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2',4'-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol), in solid state was studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Temperature dependencies of the proton spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) in the ranges 86-293 and 90-250 K (at 15 and 24.667 MHz, respectively) and the second moment (M2) of the (1)H NMR resonant line in the range 103-300 K were measured. Two minima in the temperature dependence of T1 revealed a classical Arrhenius governed activation processes. The low temperature shallow minimum T1(T) of 71 s at 115 K, 15 MHz, which shifts with frequency, was assigned to classical hindered jumps of hydroxyl group around OC axis and with respect to a 5-chloro-2-phenol ring. The activation energy of this motion estimated on the basis of the fit of the theoretical model to the experimental points is 9.68 kJ/mol. The pointed high temperature minimum T1(T) of 59 s at 190 K, 15 MHz, which also shifts with frequency, was assigned to the small angle librations by ?lib= ± 9° between two positions of equilibrium differing in energy by 7.42 kJ/mol. The activation energy of this motion estimated on the basis of the fit of the theoretical model to the experimental points is 31.1 kJ/mol. Both motions result in a negligible reduction in the (1)H NMR line second moment, thus the second moment delivers an irrelevant description of the molecular motions in triclosan. PMID:25905444

  18. Spin-transfer pathways in paramagnetic lithium transition-metal phosphates from combined broadband isotropic solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Clément, Raphaële J; Pell, Andrew J; Middlemiss, Derek S; Strobridge, Fiona C; Miller, Joel K; Whittingham, M Stanley; Emsley, Lyndon; Grey, Clare P; Pintacuda, Guido

    2012-10-17

    Substituted lithium transition-metal (TM) phosphate LiFe(x)Mn(1-x)PO(4) materials with olivine-type structures are among the most promising next generation lithium ion battery cathodes. However, a complete atomic-level description of the structure of such phases is not yet available. Here, a combined experimental and theoretical approach to the detailed assignment of the (31)P NMR spectra of the LiFe(x)Mn(1-x)PO(4) (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) pure and mixed TM phosphates is developed and applied. Key to the present work is the development of a new NMR experiment enabling the characterization of complex paramagnetic materials via the complete separation of the individual isotropic chemical shifts, along with solid-state hybrid DFT calculations providing the separate hyperfine contributions of all distinct Mn-O-P and Fe-O-P bond pathways. The NMR experiment, referred to as aMAT, makes use of short high-powered adiabatic pulses (SHAPs), which can achieve 100% inversion over a range of isotropic shifts on the order of 1 MHz and with anisotropies greater than 100 kHz. In addition to complete spectral assignments of the mixed phases, the present study provides a detailed insight into the differences in electronic structure driving the variations in hyperfine parameters across the range of materials. A simple model delimiting the effects of distortions due to Mn/Fe substitution is also proposed and applied. The combined approach has clear future applications to TM-bearing battery cathode phases in particular and for the understanding of complex paramagnetic phases in general. PMID:23004936

  19. Structural investigation of ?-LaZr2F11 by coupling X-ray powder diffraction, 19F solid state NMR and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martineau, Charlotte; Legein, Christophe; Body, Monique; Péron, Olivier; Boulard, Brigitte; Fayon, Franck

    2013-03-01

    ?-LaZr2F11 has been synthesized by solid state reaction. Its crystal structure has been refined from X-ray powder diffraction data (space group no. 72 Ibam, a=7.785(1) Å, b=10.086(1) Å and c=11.102(1) Å). ?-LaZr2F11 contains one La, one Zr and four F inequivalent crystallographic sites. F3 and F4 are shared between one ZrF73- polyhedron and one LaF85- polyhedron, while F1 and F2 bridge two ZrF73- polyhedra. 19F 1D MAS NMR spectra of ?-LaZr2F11 are in agreement with the proposed structural model. Assignment of the 19F resonances to the corresponding crystallographic sites has been performed on the basis of both their relative intensities and their correlation patterns in a 19F 2D dipolar-based double-quantum recoupling MAS NMR spectrum. DFT calculations of the 19F chemical shielding tensors have been performed using the GIPAW method implemented in the NMR-CASTEP code, for the experimental structure and two PBE-DFT geometry optimized structures of ?-LaZr2F11 (atomic position optimization and full geometry optimization with rescaling of the unit cell volume to the experimental value). Computations were done with and without using a modified La pseudopotential allowing the treatment of the 4f localized empty orbitals of La3+. A relatively nice agreement between the experimental 19F isotropic and anisotropic chemical shifts and the values calculated for the proposed structural model is obtained.

  20. Characterizing Surface Acidic Sites in Mesoporous-Silica-Supported Tungsten Oxide Catalysts Using Solid State NMR and Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Z.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Yong; Hu, Mary Y.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Peden, Charles HF

    2011-10-18

    The acidic sites in dispersed tungsten oxide supported on SBA-15 mesoporous silica were investigated using a combination of pyridine titration, both fast-, and slow-MAS {sup 15}N NMR, static {sup 2}H NMR, and quantum chemistry calculations. It is found that the bridged acidic -OH groups in surface adsorbed tungsten dimers (i.e., W-OH-W) are the Broensted acid sites. The unusually strong acidity of these Broensted acid sites is confirmed by quantum chemistry calculations. In contrast, terminal W-OH sites are very stable and only weakly acidic as are terminal Si-OH sites. Furthermore, molecular interactions between pyridine molecules and the dimer Broensted and terminal W-OH sites for dispersed tungsten oxide species is strong. This results in restricted molecular motion for the interacting pyridine molecules even at room temperature, i.e., a reorientation mainly about the molecular 2-fold axis. This restricted reorientation makes it possible to estimate the relative ratio of the Broensted (tungsten dimer) to the weakly acidic terminal W-OH sites in the catalyst using the slow-MAS {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N CP PASS method.

  1. Fine refinement of solid-state molecular structures of Leu- and Met-enkephalins by NMR crystallography.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Tomasz; Potrzebowski, Marek J

    2014-03-27

    This paper presents a methodology that allows the fine refinement of the crystal and molecular structure for compounds for which the data deposited in the crystallographic bases are of poor quality. Such species belong to the group of samples with molecular disorder. In the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Center (CCDC), there are approximately 22,000 deposited structures with an R-factor over 10. The powerful methodology we present employs crystal data for Leu-enkephalin (two crystallographic forms) with R-factor values of 14.0 and 8.9 and for Met-enkephalin (one form) with an R-factor of 10.5. NMR crystallography was employed in testing the X-ray data and the quality of the structure refinement. The GIPAW (gauge invariant projector augmented wave) method was used to optimize the coordinates of the enkephalins and to compute NMR parameters. As we reveal, this complementary approach makes it possible to generate a reasonable set of new coordinates that better correlate to real samples. This methodology is general and can be employed in the study of each compound possessing magnetically active nuclei. PMID:24605867

  2. Development of Solid State NMR Methods for the Structural Characterization of Membrane Proteins: Applications to Understand Multiple Sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cosman, M; Tran, A T; Ulloa, J; Maxwell, R S

    2003-03-04

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a relapsing-remitting disorder of the central nervous system that results in the loss of the myelin sheaths insulating nerve fibers (axons). Strong evidence suggests that MS is an autoimmune disease mediated by T-cell and antibody responses against myelin antigens. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a 26 kD to 28 kD an integral membrane protein of the central nervous system implicated as a target for autoaggressive antibodies in MS. To date, the conformation of MOG in association with the myelin membrane is unknown and the exact nature of the interactions between this protein and disease-inducing immune responses have not been determined. Since membrane associated proteins are typically characterized by decreased correlation times, solution state NMR methodologies are often impracticable. Membrane proteins are also often difficult to crystallize for X-ray diffraction studies, Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop new structure characterization tools for this important class of biomolecules. The research described here overviews the initial stages of our effort to develop an integrated, NMR based approach to structural studies of MOG over the many structural domains it is postulated to posses. The structural knowledge gained about this important MS antigen in its native environment will contribute significantly to our understanding of its function in vivo. This project will also aid in the development of therapeutics to inhibit the antigedantibody interaction and thus prevent demyelination in MS patients.

  3. Dynamics of benzene guest inside a self-assembled cylindrical capsule: a combined solid-state 2H NMR and molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Albunia, Alexandra R; Gaeta, Carmine; Neri, Placido; Grassi, Alfonso; Milano, Giuseppe

    2006-10-01

    The reorientational dynamics of benzene-d(6) molecules hosted into the cavity of a cavitand-based, self-assembled capsule was investigated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and temperature-dependent solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy. MD simulations were preliminarily performed to assess the motional models of the guest molecules inside the capsules. An in-plane fast reorientation of the benzene guest around the C(6) symmetry axis (B1 motion), characterized by correlation times of the order of picoseconds, was predicted with an activation barrier ( approximately 8 kJ/mol) very similar to that found for neat benzene in the liquid state. An out-of-plane reorientation corresponding to a nutation of the C(6) symmetry axis in a cone angle of 39 degrees (B2 motion, 373 K) with an activation barrier ( approximately 39 kJ/mol) definitely larger than that of liquid benzene was also anticipated. In the temperature range 293-373 K correlation times of the order of a nanosecond have been calculated and a transition from fast to slow regime in the (2)H NMR scale has been predicted between 293 and 173 K. (2)H NMR spectroscopic analysis, carried out in the temperature range 173-373 K on the solid capsules containing the perdeuterated guest (two benzene molecules/capsule), confirmed the occurrence of the B1 and B2 motions found in slow exchange in the (2)H NMR time scale. Line shape simulation of the (2)H NMR spectral lines permitted defining a cone angle value of 39 degrees at 373 K and 35 degrees at 173 K for the nutation axis. The T(1) values measured for the (2)H nuclei of the encapsulated aromatic guest gave correlation times and energetic barrier for the in-plane motion B1 in fine agreement with theoretical calculation. The experimental correlation time for B2 as well as the corresponding energetic barrier are in the same range found for B1. A molecular mechanism for the encapsulated guest accounting for the B1 and B2 motions was also provided. PMID:17004770

  4. Characterization of vanadium oxide catalysts supported on TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} by solid-state {sup 51}V and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, B.M.; Reddy, E.P.; Srinivas, S.T. [Indian Inst. of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad (India)] [and others

    1992-08-20

    A series of TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide supported vanadia catalysts with various V{sub 2}O{sub 5} loadings ranging from 1 to 16 wt % were prepared by a wet impregnation method and were characterized by means of solid-state {sup 51}V and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The solid-state {sup 51}V NMR spectra of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} catalysts reveal the existence of two types of dispersed surface vanadium oxide complexes in a tetrahedral oxygen environment at lower vanadium loadings adn a third three-dimensional crystalline V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in distorted octahedral environment at higher vanadium contents. The proton NMR results provide evidence for the existence of metal oxide support interaction through the support hydroxyl groups. 33 regs., 4 figs.

  5. Supercycled homonuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state NMR: Toward cleaner 1H spectrum and higher spinning rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskes, Michal; Madhu, P. K.; Vega, Shimon

    2008-02-01

    A homonuclear dipolar decoupling scheme based on windowed phase-modulated Lee-Goldburg (wPMLG) pulse sequences that causes a"z-rotation" of the spins for high-resolution proton NMR spectroscopy of solids is described and analyzed. This supercycled scheme suppresses the effect of pulse imperfections on the spectra and significantly relaxes the off-resonance dependence of the line-narrowing efficiency and scale factor. This leads to a broad spectral window that is free of artifacts such as zero lines, image peaks, and localized rotor-radio-frequency resonances. High-resolution H1 spectra and two-dimensional homonuclear H1-H1 correlation spectra of standard amino acids, obtained by a combination of this supercycled scheme with magic angle spinning frequencies up to 25kHz, are demonstrated.

  6. Supercycled homonuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state NMR: toward cleaner 1H spectrum and higher spinning rates.

    PubMed

    Leskes, Michal; Madhu, P K; Vega, Shimon

    2008-02-01

    A homonuclear dipolar decoupling scheme based on windowed phase-modulated Lee-Goldburg (wPMLG) pulse sequences that causes a"z-rotation" of the spins for high-resolution proton NMR spectroscopy of solids is described and analyzed. This supercycled scheme suppresses the effect of pulse imperfections on the spectra and significantly relaxes the off-resonance dependence of the line-narrowing efficiency and scale factor. This leads to a broad spectral window that is free of artifacts such as zero lines, image peaks, and localized rotor-radio-frequency resonances. High-resolution (1)H spectra and two-dimensional homonuclear (1)H-(1)H correlation spectra of standard amino acids, obtained by a combination of this supercycled scheme with magic angle spinning frequencies up to 25 kHz, are demonstrated. PMID:18266426

  7. Poly(methyl acrylate- co-sodium methacrylate) ionomer studied by solid state 13C T1? NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, A. R.; Kim, J.-S.

    2000-06-01

    The poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) and poly(methyl acrylate- co-sodium methacrylate) containing 6.9 mol% of ionic groups (PMANa-6.9) were studied by 13C CP/MAS NMR. The 13C spin-lattice relaxation times in a rotating frame, T1?, have been measured as a function of temperature. Using these T1? spin-lattice relaxation times, we discuss the mobility, the correlation time, and activation energy for the PMA and PMANa-6.9, respectively. The molecular motion in the PMANa-6.9 needs higher activation energies than in PMA. It is worth noting that the motion of the 1-methyl carbons in the PMANa-6.9 ionomer distinctly differs from that in the PMA homopolymer. The slow side of the T1? minimum associated with the 1-methyl carbons is ascribed to stronger interactions between the polymer chains in the ionomer than in the homopolymer.

  8. Solid state 31P and 207Pb MAS NMR studies on polycrystalline O,O'-dialkyldithiophosphate lead(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Anna-Carin; Ivanov, Alexander V; Pike, Kevin J; Forsling, Willis; Antzutkin, Oleg N

    2005-11-01

    A number of lead(II) O,O'-dialkyldithiophosphate complexes were studied by (13)C, (31)P, and (207)Pb MAS NMR. Simulations of (31)P chemical shift anisotropy using spinning sideband analysis reveal a linear relationship between the SPS bond angle and the principal values delta(22) and delta(33) of the (31)P chemical shift tensor. The (31)P CSA data were used to assign ligands with different structural functions. In the cases of diethyldithiophosphate and di-iso-butyldithiophosphate lead(II) complexes, (2)J((31)P, (207)Pb)-couplings were resolved and used to confirm the suggested assignment of the ligands. The SIMPSON computer program was used to calculate (31)P and (207)Pb spectral sideband patterns. PMID:16102989

  9. A Mo-95 and C-13 Solid-state NMR and Relativistic DFT Investigation of Mesitylenetricarbonylmolybdenum(0) -a Typical Transition Metal Piano-stool Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, David L.; Wasylishen, Roderick E.

    2002-06-21

    The chemical shift (CS) and electric field gradient (EFG) tensors in the piano-stool compound mesitylenetricarbonylmolybdenum(0), 1, have been investigated via {sup 95}Mo and {sup 13}C solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR as well as relativistic zeroth-order regular approximation density functional theory (ZORA-DFT) calculations. Molybdenum-95 (I = 5/2) MAS NMR spectra acquired at 18.8 T are dominated by the anisotropic chemical shift interaction ({Omega} = 775 {+-} 30 ppm) rather than the 2nd-order quadrupolar interaction (C{sub Q} = -0.96 {+-} 0.15 MHz), an unusual situation for a quadrupolar nucleus. ZORA-DFT calculations of the {sup 95}Mo EFG and CS tensors are in agreement with the experimental data. Mixing of appropriate occupied and virtual d-orbital dominated MOs in the region of the HOMO-LUMO gap are shown to be responsible for the large chemical shift anisotropy. The small, but non-negligible, {sup 95}Mo quadrupolar interaction is discussed in terms of the geometry about Mo. Carbon-13 CPMAS spectra acquired at 4.7 T demonstrate the crystallographic and magnetic nonequivalence of the twelve {sup 13}C nuclei in 1, despite the chemical equivalence of some of these nuclei in isotropic solutions. The principal components of the carbon CS tensors are determined via a Herzfeld-Berger analysis, and indicate that motion of the mesitylene ring is slow compared to a rate which would influence the carbon CS tensors (i.e. tens of {micro}s). ZORA-DFT calculations reproduce the experimental carbon CS tensors accurately. Oxygen-17 EFG and CS tensors for 1 are also calculated and discussed in terms of existing experimental data for related molybdenum carbonyl compounds. This work provides an example of the information available from combined multi-field solid-state multinuclear magnetic resonance and computational investigations of transition metal compounds, in particular the direct study of quadrupolar transition metal nuclei with relatively small magnetic moments.

  10. Cation size effects in mixed-ion metaphosphate glasses: structural characterization by multinuclear solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J; Tsuchida, J; Eckert, H

    2013-09-14

    Metaphosphate glasses with two monovalent species A(1-x)B(x)PO3 (0 ?x? 1) show mixed-ion effects (MIE) in the dc conductivities and glass transition temperatures, which are strongly dependent on the cation size mismatch between the two mobile species. In the present contribution, mixed-ion metaphosphate glasses based on the cation combinations Cs-Li, Rb-Li, and Cs-Ag, exhibiting particularly large size mismatches, are analyzed by (31)P, (87)Rb, (109)Ag and (133)Cs NMR to determine possible correlations between this mismatch and some of the structural properties critical to the development of the MIE: the local environments around the mobile species and their spatial distribution relative to each other. The results are compared with those obtained in the Na-Ag metaphosphate series, which serves as a reference system, with minimized cation mismatch MIE. The local coordination environments of the Ag(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) ions follow analogous compositional trends as previously observed in Na-based mixed-ion metaphosphate glasses: for a given cation species A, the average A-O distance shows an expansion/compression when this cation is replaced by a second species B with smaller/bigger ionic radius, respectively. This compositional differentiation of the structural sites for the mobile species may contribute to the MIE. Concerning the relative spatial distribution of the mobile ions, results from (7)Li-(133)Cs (SEDOR) experiments indicate a random mixture of Cs and Li in Cs-Li metaphosphate glasses. While this result is in agreement with one of the fundamental hypotheses of the models proposed to describe the MIE, it is at variance with the observation of various partial cation segregation phenomena observed in Na-based mixed alkali glasses. This result suggests that cation size mismatch is not the decisive parameter in determining segregation or non-statistical mixing of cations in the glass. In the Cs-Ag and Na-Ag glasses, (109)Ag spin-echo NMR reveals a progressive slowing down of the Ag(+) diffusion dynamics as this species is replaced by Cs(+) or Na(+). The substitution by the bigger Cs(+) ion causes a strong reduction in Ag(+) mobility suggesting the existence of separated diffusion pathways for these cations. In contrast, substitution by the similarly-sized Na(+) causes a much weaker mobility reduction consistent with the existence of Ag-Na cooperative hopping. PMID:23877101

  11. Metal Carbonation of Forsterite in Supercritical CO2 and H2O Using Solid State 29Si, 13C NMR Spectroscop

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Sears, Jesse A.; Wang, Chong M.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2010-03-11

    Ex situ solid state NMR was used for the first time to study fundamental mineral carbonation processes and reaction extent relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) using a model silicate mineral forsterite (Mg2SiO4)+supercriticalCO2 with and without H2O. Run conditions were 80 C and 96 atm. 29Si NMR clearly shows that in the absence of CO2, the role of H2O is to hydrolyze surface Mg-O-Si bonds to produce dissolved Mg2+, and mono- and oligomeric hydroxylated silica species. Surface hydrolysis products contain only Q0 (Si(OH)4) and Q1(Si(OH)3OSi) species. An equilibrium between Q0, Q1 and Mg2+ with a saturated concentration equivalent to less than 3.2% of the Mg2SiO4 conversion is obtained at a reaction time of up to 7 days. Using scCO2 without H2O, no reaction is observed within 7 days. Using both scCO2 and H2O, the surface reaction products for silica are mainly Q3 (SiOH(OSi)3) species accompanied by a lesser amount of Q2 (Si(OH)2(OSi)2) and Q4 (Si(OSi)4). However, no Q0 and Q1 were detected, indicating the carbonic acid formation/deprotonation and magnesite (MgCO3) precipitation reactions are faster than the forsterite hydrolysis process. Thus it can be concluded that the Mg2SiO4 hydrolysis process is the rate limiting step of the overall mineral carbonation process. 29Si NMR combined with XRD, TEM, SAED and EDX further reveal that the reaction is a surface reaction with the Mg2SiO4 crystallite in the core and with condensed Q2-Q4 species forming amorphous surface layers. 13C MAS NMR identified a possible reaction intermediate as (MgCO3)4-Mg(OH)2-5H2O. However, at long reaction times only crystallite magnesite MgCO3 products are observed.

  12. Solid state NMR spectroscopy in the evaluation of the conformational changes of humic substances as affected by thermal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pasquale, C.; Berns, A. E.; Kucerik, J.; Conte, P.; Alonzo, G.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an ubiquitous, complex material which is produced by the degradation of plant tissues and animal bodies. It is the major indicator of soil quality since it is directly involved in the maintenance of soil fertility, prevention of erosion and desert encroachment and provision of suitable environment for biological activity. Organic matter is an important driving force in environmental global change as it acts as both a source and sink of atmospheric carbon. However, SOM is subjected to rapid changes due to environmental transformations such as massive deforestations, fires, intensive land uses, temperature increases and so on. In the present work, a characterization of humic substances was done in order to obtain information about the transformation occurring to SOM as affected by temperature increases. For the first time variable temperature cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) 13C NMR spectroscopy was applied in combination with thermal analyses (TG and DSC) on environmentally relevant soil organic matter. The results show that the conformational changes occurring in humic substances as temperature is raised can be associated to melting of alkyl components connected with sublimation of some organic compounds. The simultaneous application of solid phase micro extraction GC-MS also allowed the identification of the components which were released by sublimation processes.

  13. Polyunsaturated phosphatidylinositol and diacylglycerol substantially modify the fluidity and polymorphism of biomembranes: a solid-state deuterium NMR study.

    PubMed

    Larijani, Banafshé; Dufourc, Erick J

    2006-10-01

    One of the main biological systems that can be used as a model for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in membrane fusion is the formation of the nuclear envelope (NE). NE assembly to form the male pronucleus at fertilization occurs by binding of NE membrane precursor vesicles to chromatin and their fusion. MV1 is an NE precursor vesicle population of low density, highly enriched in [18:0/20:4]PI. The modification of [18:0/20:4]PI to [18:0/20:4]DAG leads to NE formation, and the depletion of MV1 from the total membrane precursors results in the inhibition of NE assembly. Here we show by 2H NMR studies of various physiologically relevant model membranes made of [18:0/20:4]PI, [18:0/20:4]DAG, and saturated and unsaturated PC that membranes of composition similar to MV1 exhibit dramatically enhanced fluidity and non-lamellar structures, thus providing a possible explanation for the essential role of MV1 and the modification of PI to DAG in membrane precursor vesicles during NE assembly. PMID:17180880

  14. Methyl rotation in 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene and tetramethylpyrazine in the solid state. Tunneling spectra by proton NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Sadamu; Chihara, Hideaki

    The temperature dependence of proton spin-lattice relaxation behavior in 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene (durene) and tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) was measured with particular attention to the dependence of magnetization recovery on the kind of pulse sequences. The tunneling spectra of the methyl groups of durene and TMP, which correspond to the tunneling-assisted maxima of the spin-lattice relaxation rate, were obtained by the NMR field-cycling method. The three tunneling splittings were observed for both materials in the low temperature limit: 29.3 ± 0.7 MHz, 25.3 ± 0.6 MHz, and 17.8 ± 0.5 MHz for durene and 26.8 ± 0.8 MHz, 20.2 ± 0.8 MHz, and 14.3 ± 0.6 MHz (or 6.4 ± 0.7 MHz) for TMP. Those tunneling spectra indicate collective rotational tunneling of the two neighboring methyl groups in the molecules. There is an indication that the apparent tunneling frequencies decrease as the temperature increases. The effects of correlated reorientation of two methyl groups on the spin-lattice relaxation rate are discussed.

  15. Structure, Topology and Tilt of Cell-Signaling Peptides Containing Nuclear Localization Sequences in Membrane Bilayers Determined by Solid-State NMR and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Kandasamy, Senthil K.; Lee, Dong-Kuk; Kidambi, Srikanth; Larson, Ronald G.

    2008-01-01

    Cell-signaling peptides have been extensively used to transport functional molecules across the plasma membrane into living cells. These peptides consist of a hydrophobic sequence and a cationic nuclear localization sequence (NLS). It has been assumed that the hydrophobic region penetrates through the hydrophobic lipid bilayer and delivers the NLS inside the cell. To better understand the transport mechanism of these peptides, in this study, we investigated the structure, orientation, tilt of the peptide relative to the bilayer normal, and the membraneinteraction of two cell-signaling peptides, SA and SKP. Results from CD and solid-state NMR experiments combined with molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the hydrophobic region is helical and has a transmembrane orientation with the helical axis tilted away from the bilayer normal. The influence of the hydrophobic mismatch, between the hydrophobic length of the peptide and the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer, on the tilt angle of the peptides was investigated using thicker POPC and thinner DMPC bilayers. NMR experiments showed that the hydrophobic domain of each peptide has a tilt angle of 15±3° in POPC, while in DMPC 25±3° and 30±3° tilts were observed for SA and SKP peptides respectively. These results are in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations, which predicts a tilt angle of 13.3° (SA in POPC), 16.4° (SKP in POPC), 22.3° (SA in DMPC) and 31.7° (SKP in POPC). These results and simulations on the hydrophobic fragment of SA or SKP suggest that the tilt of helices increases with a decrease in the bilayer thickness without changing the phase, order, and structure of the lipid bilayers. PMID:17240980

  16. Structural changes of humic acids from sinking organic matter and surface sediments investigated by advanced solid-state NMR: Insights into sources, preservation and molecularly uncharacterized components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jingdong; Tremblay, Luc; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the structural changes that particulate organic matter (POM) undergoes in natural systems is essential for determining its reactivity and fate. In the present study, we used advanced solid-state NMR techniques to investigate the chemical structures of sinking particulate matter collected at different depths as well as humic acids (HAs) extracted from these samples and underlying sediments from the Saguenay Fjord and the St. Lawrence Lower Estuary (Canada). Compared to bulk POM, HAs contain more non-polar alkyls, aromatics, and aromatic C-O, but less carbohydrates (or carbohydrate-like structures). In the two locations studied, the C and N contents of the samples (POM and HAs) decreased with depth and after deposition onto sediments, leaving N-poor but O-enriched HAs and suggesting the involvement of partial oxidation reactions during POM microbial degradation. Advanced NMR techniques revealed that, compared to the water-column HAs, sedimentary HAs contained more protonated aromatics, non-protonated aromatics, aromatic C-O, carbohydrates (excluding anomerics), anomerics, OC q, O-C q-O, OCH, and OCH 3 groups, but less non-polar alkyls, NCH, and mobile CH 2 groups. These results are consistent with the relatively high reactivity of lipids and proteins or peptides. In contrast, carbohydrate-like structures were selectively preserved and appeared to be involved in substitution and copolymerization reactions. Some of these trends support the selective degradation (or selective preservation) theory. The results provide insights into mechanisms that likely contribute to the preservation of POM and the formation of molecules that escape characterization by traditional methods. Despite the depletion of non-polar alkyls with depth in HAs, a significant portion of their general structure survived and can be assigned to a model phospholipid. In addition, little changes in the connectivities of different functional groups were observed. Substituted and copolymerized carbohydrates and fused-ring aromatics detected in the present study likely represented an important part of molecularly uncharacterized components (MUC).

  17. Solid-state phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy of a multiple-spin system: an investigation of a rhodium-triphosphine complex.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Guy M; Feindel, Kirk W; Wasylishen, Roderick E; Cameron, T Stanley

    2008-09-28

    Phosphorus-31 NMR spectra of solid [tris(dimethylphenylphosphine)](2,5-norbornadiene) rhodium(I) hexafluorophosphate have been acquired at several applied magnetic field strengths. The phosphorus nuclei of the three phosphine ligands are spin-spin coupled to each other and to 103Rh, resulting in complex NMR spectra; however, the three phosphorus chemical shift (CS) tensors were determined through the analysis of NMR spectra of slow magic angle spinning and stationary samples. Spectra of spinning samples in rotational resonance and two-dimensional 31P NMR spectra were particularly useful for determining the magnitudes of the indirect spin-spin couplings, and to probe their signs. Despite being in similar environments, the three phosphorus nuclei of the phosphine ligands have distinct CS tensors. In particular, the spans of these tensors, delta11-delta33, range from 80 to 176 ppm. The phosphorus CS tensors have been assigned to specific sites determined by X-ray crystallography, based on a combination of the experimental results and the results of quantum chemical calculations of the phosphorus shielding and 2J(31P,31P) values. The effect of coordination of dimethylphenylphosphine with rhodium has been investigated by comparing calculated phosphorus CS tensors for the uncoordinated ligand with those obtained for the ligands in the complex. PMID:18956090

  18. Control of the pump cycle in bacteriorhodopsin: mechanisms elucidated by solid-state NMR of the D85N mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Mary E; Hu, Jingui G; Belenky, Marina; Verdegem, Peter; Lugtenburg, Johan; Griffin, Robert G; Herzfeld, Judith

    2002-01-01

    By varying the pH, the D85N mutant of bacteriorhodopsin provides models for several photocycle intermediates of the wild-type protein in which D85 is protonated. At pH 10.8, NMR spectra of [zeta-(15)N]lys-, [12-(13)C]retinal-, and [14,15-(13)C]retinal-labeled D85N samples indicate a deprotonated, 13-cis,15-anti chromophore. On the other hand, at neutral pH, the NMR spectra of D85N show a mixture of protonated Schiff base species similar to that seen in the wild-type protein at low pH, and more complex than the two-state mixture of 13-cis,15-syn, and all-trans isomers found in the dark-adapted wild-type protein. These results lead to several conclusions. First, the reversible titration of order in the D85N chromophore indicates that electrostatic interactions have a major influence on events in the active site. More specifically, whereas a straight chromophore is preferred when the Schiff base and residue 85 are oppositely charged, a bent chromophore is found when both the Schiff base and residue 85 are electrically neutral, even in the dark. Thus a "bent" binding pocket is formed without photoisomerization of the chromophore. On the other hand, when photoisomerization from the straight all-trans,15-anti configuration to the bent 13-cis,15-anti does occur, reciprocal thermodynamic linkage dictates that neutralization of the SB and D85 (by proton transfer from the former to the latter) will result. Second, the similarity between the chromophore chemical shifts in D85N at alkaline pH and those found previously in the M(n) intermediate of the wild-type protein indicate that the latter has a thoroughly relaxed chromophore like the subsequent N intermediate. By comparison, indications of L-like distortion are found for the chromophore of the M(o) state. Thus, chromophore strain is released in the M(o)-->M(n) transition, probably coincident with, and perhaps instrumental to, the change in the connectivity of the Schiff base from the extracellular side of the membrane to the cytoplasmic side. Because the nitrogen chemical shifts of the Schiff base indicate interaction with a hydrogen-bond donor in both M states, it is possible that a water molecule travels with the Schiff base as it switches connectivity. If so, the protein is acting as an inward-driven hydroxyl pump (analogous to halorhodopsin) rather than an outward-driven proton pump. Third, the presence of a significant C [double bond] N syn component in D85N at neutral pH suggests that rapid deprotonation of D85 is necessary at the end of the wild-type photocycle to avoid the generation of nonfunctional C [double bond] N syn species. PMID:11806941

  19. On the Combined Analysis of 2H and 15N/1H Solid-State NMR Data for Determination of Transmembrane Peptide Orientation and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Vostrikov, Vitaly V.; Grant, Christopher V.; Opella, Stanley J.; Koeppe, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of membrane-spanning peptides have a strong affect on the solid-state NMR observables. We present a combined analysis of 2H-alanine quadrupolar splittings together with 15N/1H dipolar couplings and 15N chemical shifts, using two models to treat the dynamics, for the systematic evaluation of transmembrane peptides based on the GWALP23 sequence (acetyl-GGALW(LA)6LWLAGA-amide). The results indicate that derivatives of GWALP23 incorporating diverse guest residues adopt a range of apparent tilt angles that span 5°–35° in lipid bilayer membranes. By comparing individual and combined analyses of specifically 2H- or 15N-labeled peptides incorporated in magnetically or mechanically aligned lipid bilayers, we examine the influence of data-set size/identity, and of explicitly modeled dynamics, on the deduced average orientations of the peptides. We conclude that peptides with small apparent tilt values (

  20. Membrane-dependent oligomeric structure and pore formation of a ?-hairpin antimicrobial peptide in lipid bilayers from solid-state NMR

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Rajeswari; Cady, Sarah D.; Tang, Ming; Waring, Alan J.; Lehrer, Robert I.; Hong, Mei

    2006-01-01

    We used solid-state NMR spectroscopy to investigate the oligomeric structure and insertion of protegrin-1 (PG-1), a ?-hairpin antimicrobial peptide, in lipid bilayers that mimic either the bacterial inner membrane [palmitoyloleoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPE/POPG) bilayers] or the red blood cell membrane [neutral palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC)/cholesterol bilayers]. 1H spin diffusion from lipids to the peptide indicates that PG-1 contacts both the lipid acyl chains and the headgroups in the anionic membrane but resides far from the lipid chains in the POPC/cholesterol bilayer. 19F spin diffusion data indicates that 75% of the ?-hairpins have homodimerized N strands and C strands in the anionic membrane. The resulting (NCCN)n multimer suggests a membrane-inserted ?-barrel enclosing a water pore. The lipids surrounding the ?-barrel have high orientational disorder and chain upturns, thus they may act as fillers for the pore. These results revise several features of the toroidal pore model, first proposed for magainin and subsequently applied to PG-1. In the POPC/cholesterol membrane, the N and C strands of PG-1 cluster into tetramers, suggesting the formation of ?-sheets on the membrane surface. Thus, the membrane composition plays a decisive role in defining the assembly and insertion of PG-1. The different oligomeric structures of PG-1 help to explain its greater toxicity for bacteria than for eukaryotic cells. PMID:17060626

  1. Identifying Inter-Residue Resonances in Crowded 2D 13C-13C Chemical Shift Correlation Spectra of Membrane Proteins by Solid-State MAS NMR Difference Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yimin; Cross, Timothy A.; Fu, Riqiang

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using difference spectroscopy, i.e. subtraction of two correlation spectra at different mixing times, for substantially enhanced resolution in crowded two-dimensional 13C-13C chemical shift correlation spectra is presented. With the analyses of 13C-13C spin diffusion in simple spin systems, difference spectroscopy is proposed to partially separate the spin diffusion resonances of relatively short intra-residue distances from the longer inter-residue distances, leading to a better identification of the inter-residue resonances. Here solid-state magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR spectra of the full length M2 protein embedded in synthetic lipid bilayers have been used to illustrate the resolution enhancement in the difference spectra. The integral membrane M2 protein of Influenza A virus assembles as a tetrameric bundle to form a protonconducting channel that is activated by low pH and is essential for the viral lifecycle. Based on known amino acid resonance assignments from amino acid specific labeled samples of truncated M2 sequences or from time-consuming 3D experiments of uniformly labeled samples, some inter-residue resonances of the full length M2 protein can be identified in the difference spectra of uniformly 13C labeled protein that are consistent with the high resolution structure of the M2 (22–62) protein (Sharma et al. 2010). PMID:23708936

  2. Slow motions in the hydrophobic core of chicken villin headpiece subdomain and their contributions to configurational entropy and heat capacity from solid-state deuteron NMR measurements.

    PubMed

    Vugmeyster, Liliya; Ostrovsky, Dmitry; Khadjinova, Anastasia; Ellden, Jeremy; Hoatson, Gina L; Vold, Robert L

    2011-12-13

    We have investigated microsecond to millisecond time scale dynamics in several key hydrophobic core methyl groups of chicken villin headpiece subdomain protein (HP36) using a combination of single-site labeling, deuteron solid-state NMR line shape analysis, and computational modeling. Deuteron line shapes of hydrated powder samples are dominated by rotameric jumps and show a large variability of rate constants, activation energies, and rotameric populations. Site-specific activation energies vary from 6 to 38 kJ/mol. An additional mode of diffusion on a restricted arc is significant for some sites. In dry samples, the dynamics is quenched. Parameters of the motional models allow for calculations of configurational entropy and heat capacity, which, together with the rate constants, allow for observation of interplay between thermodynamic and kinetic picture of the landscape. Mutations at key phenylalanine residues at both distal (F47L&F51L) and proximal (F58L) locations to a relatively rigid side chain of L69 have a pronounced effect on alleviating the rigidity of this side chain at room temperature and demonstrate the sensitivity of the hydrophobic core environment to such perturbations. PMID:22085262

  3. A new Schiff base, (E)-4-((4-chlorophenylimino) methyl)-2-methoxyphenol: Crystal structure, thermal behavior, solid-state fluorescence, DFT calculations and FT NMR spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagapandiselvi, P.; Baby, C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2014-01-01

    A new Schiff base, (E)-4-((4-chlorophenylimino) methyl)-2-methoxyphenol (4CMP), was synthesized and grown as single crystal by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The crystal structure of the compound, elucidated from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, was in good agreement with the calculated structure using Density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) basis set of Gaussian 03 program. The physicochemical characterization of the title compound was further performed by modern spectroscopic techniques like FT-IR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR (both 1D and 2D), UV-Vis-NIR, and fluorescence analysis. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum showed the transparent nature of 4CMP crystal in the region 500-1200 nm. Solid state fluorescence of the crystal indicate that the title compound can serve as a photoactive material. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the grown crystal is thermally stable up to a temperature of 225 °C. From DSC, the phase transition of the compound was found to be at 131 °C. The dependence of both dielectric constant and dielectric loss with frequency was measured. Microscopic nonlinear optical properties like dipole moment (?) and first order hyperpolarizability (?) were also measured using DFT.

  4. Swept-frequency two-pulse phase modulation (SWf-TPPM) sequences with linear sweep profile for heteronuclear decoupling in solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Vinod Chandran, C; Madhu, P K; Kurur, Narayanan D; Bräuniger, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Recently, a pulse scheme for heteronuclear spin decoupling in solid-state NMR, called swept-frequency two-pulse phase modulation (SW(f)-TPPM), was introduced which outperforms the standard TPPM and small phase incremental alteration (SPINAL) schemes. It has also been shown that the frequency-sweep profile can be varied to achieve optimal efficiency for crystalline and liquid-crystalline samples, respectively. Here we present a detailed comparison of the proton decoupling performance for SW(f)-TPPM sequences with tangential sweep profiles (SW(f) (tan)-TPPM) and linear sweep profiles (SW(f) (lin)-TPPM). Using the (13)CH(2) resonance of crystalline tyrosine as a model system, it is shown that linear profiles have a decoupling performance which is at least as good and in some instances slightly better than that obtained from tangential sweep profiles. While tangential sweep profiles require a tangent cut-off angle as an additional parameter, the lack of that parameter makes linear sweep profiles easier to implement and optimise. PMID:18666219

  5. NMR implantable probe: limit of metabolites detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Baxan; J. F. Châteaux; A. Rengle; H. Rabeson; A. Briguet; G. Pasquet; P. Morin

    In this study a new concept of micro coil is presented in order to measure the small volumes and small concentrations samples by NMR spectroscopy. The goal of our work is to determine the concentration sensitivity and the limit of detection of a planar microcoil of ellipsoidal geometry 1000 x 500 ?m, fabricated using an electro plating technique and used

  6. A novel low-E field coil to minimize heating of biological samples in solid-state multinuclear NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Dillmann, Baudouin; Elbayed, Karim; Zeiger, Heinz; Weingertner, Marie-Catherine; Piotto, Martial; Engelke, Frank

    2007-07-01

    A novel coil, called Z coil, is presented. Its function is to reduce the strong thermal effects produced by rf heating at high frequencies. The results obtained at 500MHz in a 50 microl sample prove that the Z coil can cope with salt concentrations that are one order of magnitude higher than in traditional solenoidal coils. The evaluation of the rf field is performed by numerical analysis based on first principles and by carrying out rf field measurements. Reduction of rf heating is probed with a DMPC/DHPC membrane prepared in buffers of increasing salt concentrations. The intricate correlation that exists between the magnetic and electric field is presented. It is demonstrated that, in a multiply tuned traditional MAS coil, the rf electric field E(1) cannot be reduced without altering the rf magnetic field. Since the detailed distribution differs when changing the coil geometry, a comparison involving the following three distinct designs is discussed: (1) a regular coil of 5.5 turns, (2) a variable pitch coil with the same number of turns, (3) the new Z coil structure. For each of these coils loaded with samples of different salt concentrations, the nutation fields obtained at a certain power level provide a basis to discuss the impact of the dielectric and conductive losses on the rf efficiency. PMID:17448715

  7. Optimization of cross-polarization at low radiofrequency fields for sensitivity enhancement in solid-state NMR of membrane proteins reconstituted in magnetically aligned bicelles.

    PubMed

    Koroloff, Sophie N; Nevzorov, Alexander A

    2015-07-01

    Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) of oriented membrane proteins (MPs) is capable of providing structural and dynamic information at nearly physiological conditions. However, NMR experiments performed on oriented membrane proteins generally suffer from low sensitivity. Moreover, utilization of high-power radiofrequency (RF) irradiations for magnetization transfer may give rise to sample heating, thereby decreasing the efficiency of conventional cross-polarization schemes. Here we have optimized the recently developed repetitive cross-polarization (REP-CP) sequence (Tang et al., 2011) to further increase the magnetization transfer efficiency for membrane proteins reconstituted in magnetically aligned bicelles and compared its performance to single-contact Hartmann-Hahn cross-polarization (CP), CP-MOIST and the adiabatic transfer. It has been found that employing the REP-CP sequence at RF amplitudes of 19kHz instead of the commonly used higher RF fields (>45kHz) enhances the efficiency of REP-CP. An additional 30% signal can be obtained as compared to the previously published REP-CP, and 20% when compared to the re-optimized REP-CP at 50kHz RF fields. Moreover, the (15)N signal gain of low-power REP-CP was found to be 40% over the adiabatic CP and up to 80% over CP-MOIST. Thus, the low-power REP-CP sequence surpasses all of the previous CP schemes in addition of having the tremendous advantage of reducing the RF powers by a factor of seven, thereby preserving the liquid-like bicelle sample. By contrast, in purely static (NAL crystal) and semi-rigid systems (Pf1 phage), the adiabatic CP was found to be more effective. Periodic oscillations of the intensity profile (distinct from the transient oscillations) as a function of the CP contact time and B1 RF field strengths were observed during the REP-CP optimization with the oscillations becoming more pronounced with lower RF fields. Many-spin simulations were performed to explain the oscillations and their periodicity. PMID:25965279

  8. Solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy shows that the xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) occur in different domains: a new model for xyloglucan-cellulose interactions in the cell wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey J. Bootten; Philip J. Harris; Laurence D. Melton; Roger H. Newman

    2004-01-01

    Xyloglucans (XG) with different mobilities were identified in the primary cell walls of mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) by solid-state 13C-NMR spectro- scopy. To improve the signal:noise ratios compared with unlabelled controls, Glc labelled at either C-1 or C-4 with 13C-isotope was incorporated into the cell- wall polysaccharides of mung bean hypocotyls. Using cell walls from seedlings labelled with D-(1-

  9. Use of solid waste for chemical stabilization: Adsorption isotherms and {sup 13}C solid-state NMR study of hazardous organic compounds sorbed on coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Rovani, J.F.; Cox, J.D.; Clark, J.A.; Miknis, F.P.

    1993-09-01

    Adsorption of hazardous organic compounds on the Dave Johnston plant fly ash is described. Fly ash from Dave Johnston and Laramie River power plants were characterized using elemental, x-ray, and {sup 29}Si NMR; the Dave Johnston (DJ) fly ash had higher quartz contents, while the Laramie River fly ash had more monomeric silicate anions. Adsorption data for hydroaromatics and chlorobenzenes indicate that the adsorption capacity of DJ coal fly ash is much less than that of activated carbon by a factor of >3000; but it is needed to confirm that solid-gas and solid-liquid equilibrium isotherms can indeed be compared. However, for pyridine, pentachlorophenol, naphthalene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, the DJ fly ash appears to adsorb these compounds nearly as well as activated carbon. {sup 13}C NMR was used to study the adsorption of hazardous org. cpds on coal fly ash; the nuclear spin relaxation times often were very long, resulting in long experimental times to obtain a spectrum. Using a jumbo probe, low concentrations of some hazardous org. cpds could be detected; for pentachlorophenol adsorbed onto fly ash, the chemical shift of the phenolic carbon was changed. Use of NMR to study the adsorption needs further study.

  10. Auto-tuning for NMR probe using LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quen, Carmen; Pham, Stephanie; Bernal, Oscar

    2014-03-01

    Typical manual NMR-tuning method is not suitable for broadband spectra spanning several megahertz linewidths. Among the main problems encountered during manual tuning are pulse-power reproducibility, baselines, and transmission line reflections, to name a few. We present a design of an auto-tuning system using graphic programming language, LabVIEW, to minimize these problems. The program uses a simplified model of the NMR probe conditions near perfect tuning to mimic the tuning process and predict the position of the capacitor shafts needed to achieve the desirable impedance. The tuning capacitors of the probe are controlled by stepper motors through a LabVIEW/computer interface. Our program calculates the effective capacitance needed to tune the probe and provides controlling parameters to advance the motors in the right direction. The impedance reading of a network analyzer can be used to correct the model parameters in real time for feedback control.

  11. Recoupled long-range C-H dipolar dephasing in solid-state NMR, and its use for spectral selection of fused aromatic rings.

    PubMed

    Mao, J-D; Schmidt-Rohr, K

    2003-05-01

    This work introduces a simple new solid-state 13C NMR method for distinguishing various types of aromatic residues, e.g. those of lignin from fused rings of charcoal. It is based on long-range dipolar dephasing, which is achieved by recoupling of long-range C-H dipolar interactions, using two 1H 180 degrees pulses per rotation period. This speeds up dephasing of unprotonated carbon signals approximately threefold compared to standard dipolar dephasing without recoupling and thus provides much more efficient differential dephasing. It also reduces the effects of spinning-speed dependent effective proton-proton dipolar couplings on the heteronuclear dephasing. Signals of unprotonated carbons with two or more protons at a two-bond distance dephase to <3% within less than 0.9 ms, significantly faster than those of aromatic sites separated from the nearest proton by three or more bonds. Differential dephasing among different unprotonated carbons is demonstrated in a substituted anthraquinone and 3-methoxy benzamide. The data yield a calibration curve for converting the dephasing rates into estimated distances from the carbon to the nearest protons. This can be used for peak assignment in heavily substituted or fused aromatic molecules. Compared to lignin, slow dephasing is observed for the aromatic carbons in wood charcoal, and even slower for inorganic carbonate. Direct 13C polarization is used on these structurally complex samples to prevent loss of the signals of interest, which by design originate from carbons that are distant from protons and therefore crosspolarize poorly. In natural organic matter such as humic acids, this combination of recoupled dipolar dephasing and direct polarization at 7-kHz MAS enables selective observation of signals from fused rings that are characteristic of charcoal. PMID:12762998

  12. Characterization of the spherical intermediates and fibril formation of hCT in HEPES solution using solid-state 13C-NMR and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Itoh-Watanabe, Hikari; Kamihira-Ishijima, Miya; Kawamura, Izuru; Kondoh, Masashi; Nakakoshi, Masamichi; Sato, Michio; Naito, Akira

    2013-10-21

    Human calcitonin (hCT) is a 32-amino acid peptide hormone that contains an intrachain disulfide bridge between Cys1 and Cys7 and a proline amide at the C-terminus. hCT tends to associate to form a fibril precipitate of the same type as amyloid fibrils, and hence has been studied as a model of amyloid fibril formation. The fibrillation process in N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) solution was examined using transmission electron microscopy. The rate of hCT fibrillation in HEPES solution was much lower than in phosphate buffer and acetic acid solution. Spherical intermediate aggregates (nuclei) were observed during the early stage of fibril formation. Short proto-fibrils appeared on the surface of the spherical intermediates. Subsequently, the spherical intermediates transformed directly into long proto-fibrils, which then elongated into mature hCT fibrils. The fibrillation process was also examined using solid-state (13)C-NMR spectroscopy, which indicated that the fibril structure was a ?-sheet in the central region and a mixture of random coils and ?-sheets at the C-terminus. The kinetics of fibril formation was examined in terms of a two-step autocatalytic reaction mechanism. The first-step nucleation rate (k1) was lower in HEPES solution than in phosphate buffer and acetic acid solution because the half-life of the intermediates is significantly longer in HEPES solution. In contrast, the second-step fibril elongation rate (k2) was similar in HEPES solution and acidic solutions. Specific interaction of HEPES molecules with hCT may stabilize the spherical intermediates and consequently inhibit the fibril elongation process of hCT. PMID:24002168

  13. Recoupled long-range C-H dipolar dephasing in solid-state NMR, and its use for spectral selection of fused aromatic rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.-D.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2003-05-01

    This work introduces a simple new solid-state 13C NMR method for distinguishing various types of aromatic residues, e.g. those of lignin from fused rings of charcoal. It is based on long-range dipolar dephasing, which is achieved by recoupling of long-range C-H dipolar interactions, using two 1H 180° pulses per rotation period. This speeds up dephasing of unprotonated carbon signals approximately threefold compared to standard dipolar dephasing without recoupling and thus provides much more efficient differential dephasing. It also reduces the effects of spinning-speed dependent effective proton-proton dipolar couplings on the heteronuclear dephasing. Signals of unprotonated carbons with two or more protons at a two-bond distance dephase to <3% within less than 0.9 ms, significantly faster than those of aromatic sites separated from the nearest proton by three or more bonds. Differential dephasing among different unprotonated carbons is demonstrated in a substituted anthraquinone and 3-methoxy benzamide. The data yield a calibration curve for converting the dephasing rates into estimated distances from the carbon to the nearest protons. This can be used for peak assignment in heavily substituted or fused aromatic molecules. Compared to lignin, slow dephasing is observed for the aromatic carbons in wood charcoal, and even slower for inorganic carbonate. Direct 13C polarization is used on these structurally complex samples to prevent loss of the signals of interest, which by design originate from carbons that are distant from protons and therefore crosspolarize poorly. In natural organic matter such as humic acids, this combination of recoupled dipolar dephasing and direct polarization at 7-kHz MAS enables selective observation of signals from fused rings that are characteristic of charcoal.

  14. Characterization of polysulfone and polysulfone/vanillin microcapsules by 1H NMR spectroscopy, solid-state 13C CP/MAS-NMR spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption analyses.

    PubMed

    Peña, Brisa; de Ménorval, Louis-Charles; Garcia-Valls, Ricard; Gumí, Tània

    2011-11-01

    Textile detergent and softener industries have incorporated perfume microencapsulation technology to improve their products. Perfume encapsulation allows perfume protection until use and provides a long-lasting fragrance release. But, certain industrial microcapsules show low encapsulation capacity and low material stability. Polysulfone capsules have been already proposed to solve these drawbacks. Among them, PSf/Vanillin capsules were considered as a desirable system. They present both good material stability and high encapsulation capacity. However, several factors such as the final location of the perfume in the polymeric matrix, the aggregation state that it has in the capsule and its interaction with the capsule components have not been studied yet. These factors can provide vast information about the capsule performance and its improvement. With the aim to characterize these parameters, the physical and chemical properties of PSf/Vanillin capsules have been investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and N(2) adsorption-desorption measurements. AFM micrograph and N(2) isotherms confirm that the presence of vanillin modify the physical structure of PSf/Vanillin microcapsules as it is trapped in the capsule porosity. NMR results show that vanillin is present in solid state in PSf/Vanillin microcapsules. PMID:22008282

  15. Canopy Dynamics in Nanoscale Ionic Materials Probed by NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirau, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Nanoscale ionic materials (NIMs) are hybrids prepared from ionically functionalized nanoparticles (NP) neutralized by oligomeric polymer counter-ions. NIMs are designed to behave as liquids under ambient conditions in the absence of solvent and have no volatile organic content, making them useful for a number of applications. We have used NMR relaxation and pulse-field gradient NMR to probe local and collective canopy dynamics in NIMs based on silica nanoparticles (NP), fullerols and proteins in order to understand the relationship between the core and canopy structure and the bulk properties. The NMR studies show that the canopy dynamics depend on the degree of neutralization, the canopy radius of gyration and molecular crowding at the ionically modified NP surface. The viscosity in NIMs can be directly controlled with the addition of ions that enhance the exchange rate for polymers at the NP surface. These results show that NIMs for many applications can be prepared by controlling the dynamics of the NP interface.

  16. Solid-state NMR study of the charge-transfer complex between ubiquinone-8 and disulfide bond generating membrane protein DsbB.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming; Sperling, Lindsay J; Berthold, Deborah A; Nesbitt, Anna E; Gennis, Robert B; Rienstra, Chad M

    2011-03-30

    Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q) plays an important role in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and also acts as an antioxidant in its reduced form, protecting cellular membranes from peroxidation. De novo disulfide bond generation in the E. coli periplasm involves a transient complex consisting of DsbA, DsbB, and ubiquinone (UQ). It is hypothesized that a charge-transfer complex intermediate is formed between the UQ ring and the DsbB-C44 thiolate during the reoxidation of DsbA, which gives a distinctive ~500 nm absorbance band. No enzymological precedent exists for an UQ-protein thiolate charge-transfer complex, and definitive evidence of this unique reaction pathway for DsbB has not been fully demonstrated. In order to study the UQ-8-DsbB complex in the presence of native lipids, we have prepared isotopically labeled samples of precipitated DsbB (WT and C41S) with endogenous UQ-8 and lipids, and we have applied advanced multidimensional solid-state NMR methods. Double-quantum filter and dipolar dephasing experiments facilitated assignments of UQ isoprenoid chain resonances not previously observed and headgroup sites important for the characterization of the UQ redox states: methyls (~20 ppm), methoxys (~60 ppm), olefin carbons (120-140 ppm), and carbonyls (150-160 ppm). Upon increasing the DsbB(C41S) pH from 5.5 to 8.0, we observed a 10.8 ppm upfield shift for the UQ C1 and C4 carbonyls indicating an increase of electron density on the carbonyls. This observation is consistent with the deprotonation of the DsbB-C44 thiolate at pH 8.0 and provides direct evidence of the charge-transfer complex formation. A similar trend was noted for the UQ chemical shifts of the DsbA(C33S)-DsbB(WT) heterodimer, confirming that the charge-transfer complex is unperturbed by the DsbB(C41S) mutant used to mimic the intermediate state of the disulfide bond generating reaction pathway. PMID:21375236

  17. Probing organometallic reactions by time-resolved infrared spectroscopy in solution and in the solid state using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Calladine, James A; Horvath, Raphael; Davies, Andrew J; Wriglesworth, Alisdair; Sun, Xue-Zhong; George, Michael W

    2015-05-01

    The photochemistry and photophysics of metal carbonyl compounds (W(CO)6, Cp*Rh(CO)2 (Cp* = ?(5)-C5Me5), and fac-[Re(CO)3(4,4'-bpy)2Br] [bpy = bipyridine]) have been examined on the nanosecond timescale using a time-resolved infrared spectrometer with an external cavity quantum cascade laser (QCL) as the infrared source. We show the photochemistry of W(CO)6 in alkane solution is easily monitored, and very sensitive measurements are possible with this approach, meaning it can monitor small transients with absorbance changes less than 10(-6) ?OD. The C-H activation of Cp*Rh(CO)(C6H12) to form Cp*Rh(CO)(C6H11)H occurs within the first few tens of nanoseconds following photolysis, and we demonstrate that kinetics obtained following deconvolution are in excellent agreement with those measured using an ultrafast laser-based spectrometer. We also show that the high flux and tunability of QCLs makes them suited for solid-state and time-resolved measurements. PMID:25811673

  18. Shortening Spin-lattice Relaxation Using a Copper-Chelated lipid at Low-Temperatures – A Magic Angle Spinning Solid-State NMR Study on a Membrane-Bound Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Caporini, Marc; Im, Sangchoul; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2013-01-01

    Inherent low sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy has been a major disadvantage, especially to study biomolecules like membrane proteins. Recent studies have successfully demonstrated the advantages of performing solid-state NMR experiments at very low and ultralow temperatures to enhance the sensitivity. However, the long spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, at very low temperatures is a major limitation. To overcome this difficulty, we demonstrate the use of a copper-chelated lipid for magic angle spinning solid-state NMR measurements on cytochrome-b5 reconstituted in multilamellar vesicles. Our results on multilamellar vesicles containing as small as 0.5 mole % of a copper-chelated lipid can significantly shorten T1 of protons, which can be used to considerably reduce the data collection time or to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. We also monitored the effect of slow cooling on the resolution and sensitivity of 13C and 15N signals from the protein and 13C signals from lipids. PMID:24246881

  19. Applications of Floquet-Magnus expansion, average Hamiltonian theory and Fer expansion to study interactions in solid state NMR when irradiated with the magic-echo sequence.

    PubMed

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the possibility of applying the Floquet-Magnus expansion and the Fer expansion approaches to the most useful interactions known in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance using the magic-echo scheme. The results of the effective Hamiltonians of these theories and average Hamiltonian theory are presented. PMID:24034855

  20. Probing the Dynamics of a Protein Hydrophobic Core by Deutron Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Vugmeyster, Liliya; Ostrovsky, Dmitry; Ford, Joseph J.; Burton, Sarah D.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Hoatson, Gina; Vold, Robert L.

    2009-09-03

    With the goal of investigating dynamical features of hydrophobic cores of proteins over a wide range of temperatures, the villin headpiece subdomain protein (HP36) was labeled at a "single" site corresponding to any one of the two -C5D3 groups of Leucine-69, which is located in a key position of the core. The main techniques employed are deuteron NMR quadrupolar echo line shape analysis, and T1Z (Zeeman) and T1Q (Quadrupolar order) relaxation experiments performed at 11.7 and 17.6T over the temperature range of 112 to 298K. The experimental data are compared with computer simulations. The deuteron line shapes give an excellent fit to a three-mode motional model that consists of a) fast 3-site rotational jumps about the pseudo C3 methyl spinning axis, b) slower reorientation of the spinning axis, described by diffusion along a restricted arc and c) large angle jumps between traces of rotameric conformers. Relaxation behavior is described by a phenomenological distribution of activation energies for 3-site hops at high temperatures that collapses to a single, distinctly smaller value for lower temperatures.

  1. Solid-state {sup 19}F and {sup 13}C NMR of room temperature fluorinated graphite and samples thermally treated under fluorine: Low-field and high-resolution studies

    SciTech Connect

    Giraudet, J. [Matiere Condensee et Resonance Magnetique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Faculte des Sciences, CP 232, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 (Belgium); Dubois, M. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR-CNRS 6002-Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 av. des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Guerin, K. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR-CNRS 6002-Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 av. des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Pinheiro, J.P. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR-CNRS 6002-Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 av. des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Hamwi, A. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR-CNRS 6002-Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 av. des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Stone, W.E.E. [Matiere Condensee et Resonance Magnetique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Faculte des Sciences, CP 232, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 (Belgium); Pirotte, P. [Matiere Condensee et Resonance Magnetique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Faculte des Sciences, CP 232, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 (Belgium); Masin, F. [Matiere Condensee et Resonance Magnetique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Faculte des Sciences, CP 232, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 (Belgium)]. E-mail: fmasin@ulb.ac.be

    2005-04-15

    Room temperature graphite fluorides consisting of raw material and samples post-treated in pure fluorine atmosphere in the temperature range 100-500 deg. C have been studied by solid-state NMR. Several NMR approaches have been used, both high and low-field {sup 19}F, {sup 19}F MAS and {sup 13}C MAS with {sup 19}F to {sup 13}C cross polarization. The modifications, in the graphitic lattice, of the catalytic iodine fluorides products have been examined. A transformation of the C-F bond character from semi-ionic to covalent has been found to occur at a post-treatment temperature close to 400 deg. C. It is shown that covalency increases with temperature.

  2. Distinguishing tautomerism in the crystal structure of (Z)-N-(5-ethyl-2,3-di-hydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylidene) -4-methylbenzenesulfonamide using DFT-D calculations and {sup 13}C solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaozhou; Bond, Andrew D.; Johansson, Kristoffer E.; Van de Streek, Jacco, E-mail: jacco.vandestreek@sund.ku.dk [Department of Pharmacy, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark)

    2014-08-01

    The crystal structure of (Z)-N-(5-ethyl-2,3-di-hydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylidene) -4-methylbenzenesulfonamide contains an imine tautomer, rather than the previously reported amine tautomer. The tautomers can be distinguished using dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations and by comparison of calculated and measured {sup 13}C solid-state NMR spectra. The crystal structure of the title compound, C{sub 11}H{sub 13}N{sub 3}O{sub 2}S{sub 2}, has been determined previously on the basis of refinement against laboratory powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data, supported by comparison of measured and calculated {sup 13}C solid-state NMR spectra [Hangan et al. (2010 ?). Acta Cryst. B66, 615–621]. The mol@@ecule is tautomeric, and was reported as an amine tautomer [systematic name: N-(5-ethyl-1,3,4-thia@@diazol-2-yl)-p-toluene@@sulfonamide], rather than the correct imine tautomer. The protonation site on the mol@@ecule’s 1,3,4-thia@@diazole ring is indicated by the inter@@molecular contacts in the crystal structure: N—H?O hydrogen bonds are established at the correct site, while the alternative protonation site does not establish any notable inter molecular inter@@actions. The two tautomers provide essentially identical Rietveld fits to laboratory PXRD data, and therefore they cannot be directly distinguished in this way. However, the correct tautomer can be distinguished from the incorrect one by previously reported qu@@anti@@tative criteria based on the extent of structural distortion on optimization of the crystal structure using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. Calculation of the {sup 13}C SS-NMR spectrum based on the correct imine tautomer also provides considerably better agreement with the measured {sup 13}C SS-NMR spectrum.

  3. Accurate measurements of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled proteins using multi-dimensional four-oscillating field solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr., E-mail: ncn@inano.au.dk [Center for Insoluble Protein Structures (inSPIN), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Khaneja, Navin [Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-21

    Application of sets of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C internuclear distance restraints constitutes a typical key element in determining the structure of peptides and proteins by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Accurate measurements of the structurally highly important {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled peptides and proteins, however, pose a big challenge due to the problem of dipolar truncation. Here, we present novel two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR experiments capable of extracting distances between carbonyl ({sup 13}C?) and aliphatic ({sup 13}C{sub aliphatic}) spins with high accuracy. The method is based on an improved version of the four-oscillating field (FOLD) technique [L. A. Straasø, M. Bjerring, N. Khaneja, and N. C. Nielsen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 225103 (2009)] which circumvents the problem of dipolar truncation, thereby offering a base for accurate extraction of internuclear distances in many-spin systems. The ability to extract reliable accurate distances is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional variants of the FOLD experiment on uniformly {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled-L-isoleucine. In a more challenging biological application, FOLD 2D experiments are used to determine a large number of {sup 13}C?-{sup 13}C{sub aliphatic} distances in amyloid fibrils formed by the SNNFGAILSS fibrillating core of the human islet amyloid polypeptide with uniform {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeling on the FGAIL fragment.

  4. Solid-State NMR investigations of a MgCl2·4(CH3)2CHCH2OH molecular adduct: a peculiar case of reversible equilibrium between two phases.

    PubMed

    Thushara, K S; Ajithkumar, T G; Rajamohanan, P R; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S

    2014-02-20

    MgCl2·xROH molecular adducts are extensively employed as a support material for Ziegler-Natta polyolefin catalysis. However, their structural properties are not well understood. Recently, we reported on the preparation of an isobutanol adduct, MgCl2·4(CH3)2CHCH2OH (MgiBuOH) ( Dalton Trans. 2012 , 41 , 11311 ), which is very sensitive to the preparation conditions, such as the temperature and refluxing time. For the present study, the structural properties of MgiBuOH adducts prepared under different conditions have been investigated thoroughly by solid-state NMR and nonambient XRD. Formation of two phases has been confirmed, and in situ variable temperature solid-state NMR measurements confirm the coexistence of two phases as well as the oscillation from one to another phase. It is expected that such molecular adducts could have a significant role in organic transformation reactions due to an oscillating structural component. An understanding of phase oscillation with the Mg(2+) ion as the central metal ion might shed some light toward understanding various biological and structural functions. PMID:24476423

  5. New insight into the hydrocarbon-pool chemistry of the methanol-to-olefins conversion over zeolite H-ZSM-5 from GC-MS, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Chu, Yueying; Zheng, Anmin; Xu, Jun; Wang, Qiang; Gao, Pan; Qi, Guodong; Gong, Yanjun; Deng, Feng

    2014-09-22

    Over zeolite H-ZSM-5, the aromatics-based hydrocarbon-pool mechanism of methanol-to-olefins (MTO) reaction was studied by GC-MS, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. Isotopic-labeling experimental results demonstrated that polymethylbenzenes (MBs) are intimately correlated with the formation of olefin products in the initial stage. More importantly, three types of cyclopentenyl cations (1,3-dimethylcyclopentenyl, 1,2,3-trimethylcyclopentenyl, and 1,3,4-trimethylcyclopentenyl cations) and a pentamethylbenzenium ion were for the first time identified by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations under both co-feeding ([(13) C6 ]benzene and methanol) conditions and typical MTO working (feeding [(13) C]methanol alone) conditions. The comparable reactivity of the MBs (from xylene to tetramethylbenzene) and the carbocations (trimethylcyclopentenyl and pentamethylbenzium ions) in the MTO reaction was revealed by (13) C-labeling experiments, evidencing that they work together through a paring mechanism to produce propene. The paring route in a full aromatics-based catalytic cycle was also supported by theoretical DFT calculations. PMID:25178472

  6. Solid-phase peptide synthesis and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of (Ala/sup 3/-/sup 15/N)(Val/sup 1/)gramicidin A

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, G.B.; Fields, C.G.; Petefish, J.; Van Wart, H.E.; Cross, T.A.

    1988-03-01

    (Ala/sup 3-15/N)(Val/sup 1/)Gramicidin A has been prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis and studied by solid-state /sup 15/N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The synthesis of desformyl(Ala/sup 3-15/N)(Val/sup 1/)gramicidin A employed N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-N/sup ..cap alpha../-amino acids and completely avoided the use of acid. Since deblocking was done with piperidine and the peptide was removed from the resin by treatment with ethanolamine, this synthetic protocol prevented oxidation of the indole rings of this tryptophan-rich peptide and reduced truncations produced by acid hydrolysis. After formylation and purification by anion-exchange and high-pressure liquid chromatography, the peptide was obtained in an overall yield of 30%. Solid-state /sup 15/N nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of this peptide and uniformly labeled (/sup 15/N)gramicidin A' oriented in hydrated lipid bilayers have been obtained, allowing unambiguous assignment of the (/sup 15/N)Ala/sup 3/ resonance in the latter. The solid-state /sup 15/N nuclear magnetic resonance experiments provide evidence that (Val/sup 1/)gramicidin A is rotating about an axis that is perpendicular to the plane of the lipid bilayer and that the N-H axis is nearly parallel with the rotational axis. This study demonstrates that site-specifically labeled (/sup 15/N)gramicidin A analogs prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis are valuable tools in the study of the solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of samples in oriented lipid bilayers.

  7. Tridentate Phosphine Linkers for Immobilized Catalysts: Development and Characterization of Immobilized Rhodium Complexes and Solid-State NMR Studies of Polymers 

    E-print Network

    Guenther, Johannes 1983-

    2012-08-16

    of performance polymers with solid2state NMR techniques. First a brief overview of solid2state NMR and its relevance to the various areas of chemistry covered in this thesis is given. Following the synthesis, immobilization, and characterization of tridentate...

  8. Tridentate Phosphine Linkers for Immobilized Catalysts: Development and Characterization of Immobilized Rhodium Complexes and Solid-State NMR Studies of Polymers

    E-print Network

    Guenther, Johannes 1983-

    2012-08-16

    ) polymers. 13C CP/MAS (cross polarization with magic angle spinning) NMR and IR spectroscopy reveal that PEEK polymers show no detectable chemical change on the molecular level, while PPS polymers display signs of oxidation of the thioether group...

  9. 1H, 13C, 15N NMR analysis of sildenafil base and citrate (Viagra) in solution, solid state and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Wawer, Iwona; Pisklak, Maciej; Chilmonczyk, Zdzis?aw

    2005-08-10

    Sildenafil citrate (SC) (Viagra) and sildenafil base in pure form are easily and unequivocally characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of chemical shifts indicates that: (i) N6-H forms intramolecular hydrogen bonds, (ii) N25 is protonated in the salt and (iii) intermolecular OH...N hydrogen bonds involving N2 and N4 are present in the solid sildenafil citrate. 13C CPMAS NMR method has been proposed for the identification and quantitation of Viagra in its pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:16087048

  10. Probing electric fields in proteins in solution by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hass, Mathias A S; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Led, Jens J

    2008-07-01

    Electric fields generated in native proteins affect almost every aspect of protein function. We present a method that probes changes in the electric field at specific locations within a protein. The method utilizes the dependence of the amide (1)H and (15)N NMR chemical shifts on electric charges in proteins. Charges were introduced at different positions in the blue copper protein plastocyanin, by protonation of side chains or by substitution of the metal ion. It is found that the associated chemical shift perturbations (CSPs) stem mainly from long-range electric field effects caused by the change in the electric charge. It is demonstrated that the CSPs can be used to estimate the dielectric constant at different locations in the protein, estimate the nuclear shielding polarizability, or position charges in proteins. PMID:18214953

  11. What do NMR linewidths tell us? Dynamics of alkali cations in a PEO-based nanocomposite polymer electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shan Wong; David B. Zax

    1997-01-01

    Intercalation of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) into montmorillonite results in a nanocomposite polymer electrolyte potentially useful for solid state secondary batteries. We have used solid state NMR to probe cation dynamics on the timescales relevant to spatial diffusional motion of Li+, Na+, Rb+ and Cs+ in these nanocomposites. Cation dynamics is correlated to the charge-carrying capacity of the material as an

  12. Solid state DTV transmitters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Davis; J. Hawkins

    1997-01-01

    The developments in RF power transistor technology makes solid state transmitters economically attractive for UHF DTV terrestrial transmissions. These transmitters will probably use silicon bipolar, MOS or silicon carbide static induction transistors (SIT) in the RF power amplifiers. This paper examines these RF transistor technologies. In addition, this paper provides an overview of a typical DTV solid state transmitter. The

  13. Solid-state nanopores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cees Dekker

    2007-01-01

    The passage of individual molecules through nanosized pores in membranes is central to many processes in biology. Previously, experiments have been restricted to naturally occurring nanopores, but advances in technology now allow artificial solid-state nanopores to be fabricated in insulating membranes. By monitoring ion currents and forces as molecules pass through a solid-state nanopore, it is possible to investigate a

  14. Solid state {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al NMR and FTIR study of cement pastes containing industrial wastes and organics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, R.A.; Buchler, P.M. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Barrie, P.J. [University Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry] [University Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Cheeseman, C.R.; Hills, C.D. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Control and Waste Management] [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Control and Waste Management

    1995-10-01

    {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al NMR and FTIR have been used to study the products of OPC hydration in the presence of a heavy metal containing stabilized waste which is commercially solidified, selected organics and pulverized fuel ash. {sup 29}Si NMR unambiguously quantifies the extent of silicate polymerization, which is severely retarded in mixes containing the stabilized waste. {sup 27}Al NMR spectroscopy indicates the presence of both ettringite and monosulfate in a cement containing 2% of the stabilized waste, while only ettringite is detected in the spectra of samples with 19 and 30% additions. Phenol and ethylamine also reduce silicate condensation, although a sample containing both the metal waste and mixed organics showed silicate condensation levels similar to those found in a normal OPC paste. It is difficult to draw firm conclusions from the FTIR results due to band overlap in the region of interest.

  15. Solid-state {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si NMR characterization of hydrates formed in calcium aluminate-silica fume mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, P.; Rivas Mercury, J.M. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, C.S.I.C., C/ Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco-Madrid (Spain); Aza, A.H. de [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, C.S.I.C., C/ Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco-Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: aaza@icv.csic.es; Turrillas, X. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja, C.S.I.C., C/ Serrano Galvache, 4, 28032 Madrid (Spain); Sobrados, I.; Sanz, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, C.S.I.C., C/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Cantoblanco-Madrid (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    Partially deuterated Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub y}(OH){sub 12-4y}-Al(OH){sub 3} mixtures, prepared by hydration of Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} (C{sub 3}A), Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33} (C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) and CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CA) phases in the presence of silica fume, have been characterized by {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al magic-angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopies. NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize anhydrous and fully hydrated samples. In hydrated compounds, Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} and Al(OH){sub 3} phases were detected. From the quantitative analysis of {sup 27}Al NMR signals, the Al(OH){sub 3}/Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} ratio was deduced. The incorporation of Si into the katoite structure, Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3-x}(OH){sub 4x}, was followed by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopies. Si/OH ratios were determined from the quantitative analysis of {sup 27}Al MAS-NMR components associated with Al(OH){sub 6} and Al(OSi)(OH){sub 5} environments. The {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy was also used to quantify the unreacted silica and amorphous calcium aluminosilicate hydrates formed, C-S-H and C-A-S-H for short. From {sup 29}Si NMR spectra, the amount of Si incorporated into different phases was estimated. Si and Al concentrations, deduced by NMR, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and Rietveld analysis of both X-ray and neutron data, indicate that only a part of available Si is incorporated in katoite structures. - Graphical abstract: Transmission electron micrograph of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}-microsilica mixture hydrated at 90 deg. C for 31 days showing a cubic Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2.0{+-}}{sub 0.2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 0.9{+-}}{sub 0.2}(OH){sub 1.8} crystal surrounded by unreacted amorphous silica spheres.

  16. Estimating the molecular composition of a diverse range of natural organic materials from solid-state 13 C NMR and elemental analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul N. Nelson; Jeffrey A. Baldock

    2005-01-01

    Most techniques for determining the chemical nature of natural organic matter in soil, sediment and water require prior extraction or concentration steps that are not quantitative and that create artifacts. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis can avoid these problems, but it gives little information at the scale of molecules. Here we show that the molecular composition of a diverse

  17. Proton chemical shift anisotropy measurements of hydrogen-bonded functional groups by fast magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR

    E-print Network

    Proton chemical shift anisotropy measurements of hydrogen-bonded functional groups by fast magic) spectroscopy is one of the most suitable tools for studying hydrogen bonding phenomena. Proton NMR spectroscopy theoretically4 and experimentally5 that the isotropic chemical shifts of hydroxyl or amide protons depend

  18. P solid-state NMR studies of the dependence of inter-bilayer water dynamics on lipid headgroup structure and membrane peptides

    E-print Network

    Hong, Mei

    -water in several phospholipid membranes of different compositions is stud- ied by 2D 1 H­31 P heteronuclear the evolution period and 31 P detection, inter-bilayer water is selec- tively detected without resonance overlap group is not sufficiently strong to be detectable by NMR. Instead, water-31 P correlation peaks in 2D

  19. First-principles calculations of solid-state (17)O and (29)Si NMR spectra of Mg(2)SiO(4) polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Ashbrook, Sharon E; Le Pollès, Laurent; Pickard, Chris J; Berry, Andrew J; Wimperis, Stephen; Farnan, Ian

    2007-04-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding and electric field gradient (EFG) tensors of three polymorphs of Mg(2)SiO(4), forsterite (alpha-Mg(2)SiO(4)), wadsleyite (beta-Mg(2)SiO(4)) and ringwoodite (gamma-Mg(2)SiO(4)), have been calculated using a density functional theory (DFT) approach with a planewave basis set and pseudopotential approximation. These Mg(2)SiO(4) polymorphs are the principal components of the Earth down to depths of 660 km and have been proposed as the hosts of water in the Earth's upper mantle and transition zone. A comparison of our calculations with single-crystal spectroscopic data in the literature for the alpha-polymorph, forsterite, shows that both the magnitude and orientation of the shielding and EFG tensors for O and Si can be obtained with sufficient accuracy to distinguish subtle differences in atomic positions between published structures. We compare calculated (17)O MAS NMR quadrupolar powder lineshapes directly with experimental lineshapes and show that we are able to reproduce them within the precision with which the NMR parameters may be determined from multi-parameter fitting. The relatively small amounts of sample available for the beta- and gamma-polymorphs, arising from the high pressures required for synthesis, has hindered the extraction of NMR parameters in previous work. The application of DFT calculations to these high-pressure polymorphs confirms previous spectral assignments, and provides deeper insight into the empirical correlations and observations reported in the literature. These first-principles methods are highly promising for the determination of local bonding in more complex materials, such as the hydrated forms of Mg(2)SiO(4), by aiding analysis of their multinuclear NMR spectra. PMID:17429552

  20. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  1. Calorimetric, FTIR and 1H NMR measurements in combination with DFT calculations for monitoring solid-state changes of dynamics of sibutramine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Pajzderska, Aleksandra; Chudoba, Dorota M; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; W?sicki, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Two forms of sibutramine hydrochloride, monohydrate and anhydrous, have been investigated by calorimetric methods, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption and (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements as well as by density functional theory (DFT) of vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities, calculations of steric hindrances and Monte Carlo simulations. The results of FTIR spectra combined with DFT calculations permitted identification of the bands corresponding to the dynamics and vibrations of water molecules. NMR study and Monte Carlo simulations revealed the occurrence of reorientation jumps of the methyl groups in sibutramine cation and also revealed that the reorientation of isopropyl group is possible only in sibutramine monohydrate hydrochloride. The hydration of sibutramine hydrochloride causes a change in the conformation of sibutramine cation. PMID:22826266

  2. Carbon13 solid state NMR investigation and modeling of the morphological reorganization in regenerated cellulose fibres induced by controlled acid hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Ibbett; Dimitra Domvoglou; Franz Wortmann; K. Christian Schuster

    2010-01-01

    CPMAS carbon-13 NMR has been used to follow structural changes affecting regenerated cellulose fibres during hydrolysis by\\u000a mineral acids. The C4 envelope of regenerated cellulose was deconvoluted into separate peaks, for ordered (crystal), part-ordered\\u000a (surface) and disordered (non-crystal) polymer, which allowed calculation of average crystal lateral sizes, in good agreement\\u000a with WAXD data. A geometrical model has been used to

  3. Multinuclear high resolution solid state NMR characterization of zeolites Nu10 and ZSM-5 synthesized in the presence of tetraethylenepentamine and diaminopropane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Pellegrino; R Aiello; F Testa; F Crea; A Tuel; J. B Nagy

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of zeolite Nu-10 was investigated in the presence of alkali chlorides and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) or 1,3-diaminopropane (DAP) as organic structure-directing agents.By means of 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy it was possible to identify in each case the nature of the organic species occluded in the channel system of the as-synthesized zeolite. TEPA is incorporated intact in its di- or

  4. Solid-State 31P and 1H NMR Investigations of Amorphous and Crystalline Calcium Phosphates Grown Biomimetically From a Mesoporous Bioactive Glass

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    By exploiting 1H and 31P magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we explore the proton and orthophosphate environments in biomimetic amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and hydroxy-apatite (HA), as grown in vitro at the surface of a 10CaO–85SiO2–5P2O5 mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) in either a simulated body fluid or buffered water. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a calcium phosphate layer comprising nanocrystalline HA. Two-dimensional 1H–31P heteronuclear correlation NMR established predominantly 1H2O?31PO43– and O1H?31PO43– contacts in the amorphous and crystalline component, respectively, of the MBG surface-layer; these two pairs exhibit distinctly different 1H?31P cross-polarization dynamics, revealing a twice as large squared effective 1H–31P dipolar coupling constant in ACP compared with HA. These respective observations are mirrored in synthetic (well-crystalline) HA, and the amorphous calcium orthophosphate (CaP) clusters that are present in the pristine MBG pore walls: besides highlighting very similar local 1H and 31P environments in synthetic and biomimetic HA, our findings evidence closely related NMR characteristics, and thereby similar local structures, of the CaP clusters in the pristine MBG relative to biomimetic ACP. PMID:22132242

  5. A straightforward method for stereospecific assignment of val and leu prochiral methyl groups by solid-state NMR: Scrambling in the [2-13C]Glucose labeling scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Guohua; Faßhuber, Hannes Klaus; Loquet, Antoine; Demers, Jean-Philippe; Vijayan, Vinesh; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2013-03-01

    The unambiguous stereospecific assignment of the prochiral methyl groups in Val and Leu plays an important role in the structural investigation of proteins by NMR. Here, we present a straightforward method for their stereospecific solid-state NMR assignment based on [2-13C]Glucose ([2-13C]Glc) as the sole carbon source during protein expression. The approach is fundamentally based on the stereo-selective biosynthetic pathway of Val and Leu, and the co-presence of [2-13C]pyruvate produced mainly by glycolysis and [3-13C]/[1,3-13C]pyruvate most probably formed through scrambling in the pentose phosphate pathway. As a consequence, the isotope spin pairs 13C?-13C?2 and 13C?-13C?1 in Val, and 13C?-13C?2 and 13C?-13C?1 in Leu are obtained. The approach is successfully demonstrated with the stereospecific assignment of the methyl groups of Val and Leu of type 3 secretion system PrgI needles and microcrystalline ubiquitin.

  6. Structural and Catalytic Properties of the Alkali Metal Ion-Exchanged Y-Zeolites by 29Si and 27Al Solid-State NMR and FT-IR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang Seop; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Sung-Woo; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF

    2005-03-01

    A series of cation exchanged Y-zeolites were prepared by exchanging cations with various alkali (M+, M=Li, Na, K, Cs) metals. The structural and catalytic properties of the alkali metal exchanged Y-zeolites have been investigated by a number of analytical techniques. Comparative elemental analyses were determined by an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy X-ray (EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) before and after cation substitution. The framework and non-framework Al coordination and the Si/Al ratios of the Y-zeolites were investigated by MAS Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Al NMR spectra were characterized by two 27Al resonance signals at 12 and 59 ppm, indicating the presence of the non-framework and framework Al respectively. The intensities of these resonances were used to monitor the amount of the framework and non-framework of Al species in the series of exchanged zeolites.

  7. Long-Observation-Window Band-Selective Homonuclear Decoupling: Increased Sensitivity and Resolution in Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Struppe, Jochem O.; Yang, Chen; Wang, Yachong; Hernandez, Roy V.; Shamansky, Lisa M.; Mueller, Leonard J.

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity and resolution are the two fundamental obstacles to extending solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance to even larger protein systems. Here, a novel long-observation-window band-selective homonuclear decoupling (LOW BASHD) scheme is introduced that increases resolution up to a factor of 3 and sensitivity up to 1.8 by decoupling backbone alpha-carbon (C?) and carbonyl (C?) nuclei in U-13C-labeled proteins during direct 13C acquisition. This approach introduces short (<200 ?s) pulse breaks into much longer (~8 ms) sampling windows to efficiently refocus the J-coupling interaction during detection while avoiding the deleterious effects on sensitivity inherent in rapid stroboscopic band-selective homonuclear decoupling techniques. A significant advantage of LOW BASHD detection is that it can be directly incorporated into existing correlation methods, as illustrated here for 2D CACO, NCO, and NCA correlation spectroscopy applied to the ?1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G and 3D CBCACO correlation spectroscopy applied to the ?-subunit of tryptophan synthase. PMID:24095840

  8. Action of melittin on the DPPC-cholesterol liquid-ordered phase: a solid state 2H-and 31P-NMR study.

    PubMed Central

    Pott, T; Dufourc, E J

    1995-01-01

    Solid-state deuterium and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of deuterium-labeled beta--[2,2',3,4,4',6-2H6]-cholesterol and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine have been undertaken to monitor the action of melittin on model membranes containing 30 mol% cholesterol, both at the molecular and macroscopic level. Cholesterol totally inhibits the toxin-triggered formation of large unilamellar vesicles and strongly restricts the appearance of small discs. The latter remain stable over a wide temperature range (20-60 degrees C) because of an increase in their cholesterol content as the temperature increases. This process is related to a constant disc hydrophobic thickness of approximately 29 A. The system, when not in the form of discs, appears to be composed of very large vesicles on which melittin promotes magnetically induced ellipsoidal deformation. This deformation is the greatest when the maximum of discs is observed. A model to describe both the disc formation and stability is proposed. PMID:7756559

  9. The guest ordering and dynamics in urea inclusion compounds studied by solid-state 1H and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Müller, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Urea inclusion compounds with different guest species were studied by 13C CP MAS and 1H MAS NMR spectroscopy. It is possible to arrange the asymmetric guest species in three different ways: head-head, head-tail and tail-tail. 13C CP MAS NMR studies indicate that the preference arrangement is determined by the interaction strength of the end functional groups. 13C relaxation experiments are used to study the dynamic properties of urea inclusion compounds. 13C relaxation studies on urea inclusion compounds with n-alkane or decanoic acid show that the 13C T1 and 13C T1? values exhibit the position dependence towards the center of the chain, indicating internal chain mobility. The analysis of variable-temperature 13C T1? experiments on urea inclusion compounds with hexadecane and pentadecane, for the first time, suggests that chain fluctuations and lateral motion of n-alkane guests may contribute to the 13C T1? relaxation.

  10. Structure of Amantadine-Bound M2 Transmembrane Peptide of Influenza A in Lipid Bilayers from Magic-Angle-Spinning Solid-State NMR: the Role of Ser31 in Amantadine Binding

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Sarah D.; Mishanina, Tatiana V.; Hong, Mei

    2014-01-01

    The M2 proton channel of influenza A is the target of the antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine, whose effectiveness has been abolished by a single-site mutation of Ser31 to Asn in the transmembrane domain of the protein. Recent high-resolution structures of the M2 transmembrane domain obtained from detergent-solubilized protein in solution and crystal environments gave conflicting drug binding sites. We present magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR results of Ser31 and a number of other residues in the M2 transmembrane peptide (M2TMP) bound to lipid bilayers. Comparison of the spectra of the membrane-bound apo and complexed M2TMP indicates that Ser31 is the site of the largest chemical shift perturbation by amantadine. The chemical shift constraints lead to a monomer structure with a small kink of the helical axis at Gly34. A tetramer model is then constructed using the helix tilt angle and several interhelical distances previously measured on unoriented bilayer samples. This tetramer model differs from the solution and crystal structures in terms of the openness of the N-terminus of the channel, the constriction at Ser31, and the sidechain conformations of Trp41, a residue important for channel gating. Moreover, the tetramer model suggests that Ser31 may interact with amantadine amine via hydrogen bonding. While the apo and drug-bound M2TMP have similar average structures, the complexed peptide has much narrower linewidths at physiological temperature, indicating drug-induced changes of the protein dynamics in the membrane. Further, at low temperature, several residues show narrower lines in the complexed peptide than the apo peptide, indicating that amantadine binding reduces the conformational heterogeneity of specific residues. The differences of the current solid-state NMR structure of the bilayer-bound M2TMP from the detergent-based M2 structures suggest that the M2 conformation is sensitive to the environment, and care must be taken when interpreting structural findings from non-bilayer samples. PMID:19061899

  11. A two-armed lanthanoid-chelating paramagnetic NMR probe linked to proteins via thioether linkages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Min; Skinner, Simon P; Timmer, Monika; Blok, Anneloes; Hass, Mathias A S; Filippov, Dmitri V; Overhand, Mark; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2014-05-19

    Paramagnetic NMR probes provide valuable long-range structural information on proteins and protein complexes. A new, stable, two-armed lanthanoid probe is reported that can be attached to a protein site-specifically via chemically inert thioether linkages. PMID:24737492

  12. Effect of sugars on headgroup mobility in freeze-dried dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers: solid-state 31P NMR and FTIR studies.

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkova, N M; Phillips, B L; Crowe, L M; Crowe, J H; Risbud, S H

    1998-01-01

    The effect of the carbohydrates trehalose, glucose, and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) on the motional properties of the phosphate headgroup of freeze-dried dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes was studied by means of 31P NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that trehalose, which is a strong glass former (Tg = 115 degreesC), elevates the onset of the lipid headgroup rotations and preserves some rotational mobility of the phosphate headgroups after cooling from the liquid-crystalline state. Glucose (Tg = 30 degreesC), a very effective depressant of the phase transition temperature of freeze-dried DPPC, markedly elevates the initiation of the temperature of headgroup rotations. On the other hand, the monosaccharide does not preserve the headgroup disordering when cooled from the liquid-crystalline state. These effects are consistent with formation of hydrogen bonds between the OH groups of the sugar and the polar headgroups of DPPC. They show, however, that hydrogen bonding is not sufficient for preservation of the dynamic properties of freeze-dried DPPC. HES, although a very good glass former (Tg > 110 degreesC), does not depress the phase transition temperature and affects only slightly the rotational properties of freeze-dried DPPC. This lack of effect of HES is associated with the absence of direct interactions with the lipid phosphates, as evidenced by the FTIR results. These data show that vitrification of the additive is not sufficient to affect the dynamic properties of dried DPPC. PMID:9826615

  13. Solid state polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Vouyiouka; E. K. Karakatsani; C. D. Papaspyrides

    2005-01-01

    Polyesters and polyamides are commercially important polymers prepared by polycondensation. The conventional solution to melt polymerization techniques stop at a low or medium molecular weight product, due to problems arising from severe increase of the melt viscosity and operating temperatures. Higher molecular weights may be reached by Solid State Polymerization (SSP) at temperatures between the glass transition and the onset

  14. Solid state ionics 2

    SciTech Connect

    Nazri, G.A. (General Motors Research Lab., Warren, MI (US)); Shriver, D.F. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (US)); Huggins, R.A. (Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (US)); Balkanski, M. (Pierre et Marie Curie Univ., Paris (FR))

    1991-01-01

    The first part of this proceedings volume deals with application of solid state ionics. Potential application of solid state batteries and fuel cells, sensors, electrochromic windows, and displays are presented. The second part of the Proceedings volume deals with new advances in the theory of solid state ionics. Several approaches such as molecular dynamic relaxation phenomena in solids and ab-initio methods are presented. The third section of the Proceedings volume deals with polymeric electrolytes. Several key issues such as ion-ion and ion polymer interaction and nature of the polymer electrolytes are presented. The polymer dynamics and mechanism of ion transport in polymer electrolytes are discussed. The fourth part of the book deals with mixed conductors and insertion compounds. Physics and chemistry of mixed conductors and their electrochemical properties are presented. The fifth part of the book deals with the general aspects of materials and techniques in solid state ionics. Several new materials with unique properties are presented. Materials processing and fabrication are discussed. Fundamentals of defect chemistry and structure of several glasses are presented. Several in-situ and ex-situ techniques for materials characterization are presented.

  15. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Fusion Peptides Associated with Host-Cell-Like Membranes: 2D Correlation Spectra and Distance Measurements Support a Fully Extended Conformation and Models for Specific Antiparallel Strand Registries

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Wei; Bodner, Michele L.

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is “enveloped” by a membrane, and infection of a host cell begins with fusion between viral and target cell membranes. Fusion is catalyzed by the HIV gp41 protein which contains a functionally critical ~20-residue apolar “fusion peptide” (HFP) that associates with target cell membranes. In this study, chemically synthesized HFPs were associated with host-cell-like membranes and had “scatter-uniform” labeling (SUL), that is, only one residue of each amino acid type was U-13C, 15N labeled. For the first sixteen HFP residues, an unambiguous 13C chemical shift assignment was derived from 2D 13C/13C correlation spectra with short mixing times, and the shifts were consistent with continuous ?-strand conformation. 13C-13C contacts between residues on adjacent strands were derived from correlation spectra with long mixing times and suggested close proximity of the following residues: Ala-6/Gly-10, Ala-6/Phe-11, and Ile-4/Gly-13. Specific antiparallel ?-strand registries were further tested using a set of HFPs that were 13CO-labeled at Ala-14 and 15N-labeled at either Val-2, Gly-3, Ile-4, or Gly-5. The solid-state NMR data were fit with 50–60% population of antiparallel HFP with either Ala-14/Gly-3 or Ala-14/Ile-4 registries and 40–50% population of structures not specified by the NMR experiments. The first two registries correlated with intermolecular hydrogen bonding of 15–16 apolar N-terminal residues and this hydrogen-bonding pattern would be consistent with a predominant location of these residues in the hydrophobic membrane interior. To our knowledge, these results provide the first residue-specific structural models for membrane-associated HFP in its ?-strand conformation. PMID:18370385

  16. Thermostatted micro-reactor NMR probe head for monitoring fast reactions.

    PubMed

    Brächer, A; Hoch, S; Albert, K; Kost, H J; Werner, B; von Harbou, E; Hasse, H

    2014-05-01

    A novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe head for monitoring fast chemical reactions is described. It combines micro-reaction technology with capillary flow NMR spectroscopy. Two reactants are fed separately into the probe head where they are effectively mixed in a micro-mixer. The mixed reactants then pass through a capillary NMR flow cell that is equipped with a solenoidal radiofrequency coil where the NMR signal is acquired. The whole flow path of the reactants is thermostatted using the liquid FC-43 (perfluorotributylamine) so that exothermic and endothermic reactions can be studied under almost isothermal conditions. The set-up enables kinetic investigation of reactions with time constants of only a few seconds. Non-reactive mixing experiments carried out with the new probe head demonstrate that it facilitates the acquisition of constant highly resolved NMR signals suitable for quantification of different species in technical mixtures. Reaction kinetic measurements on a test system are presented that prove the applicability of the novel NMR probe head for monitoring fast reactions. PMID:24650728

  17. Composite-180° pulse-based symmetry sequences to recouple proton chemical shift anisotropy tensors under ultrafast MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Malon, Michal; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Nishiyama, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the measurement of proton (1H) chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors to obtain deeper insights into H-bonding interactions which find numerous applications in chemical and biological systems. However, the presence of strong 1H/1H dipolar interaction makes it difficult to determine small size 1H CSAs from the homogeneously broadened NMR spectra. Previously reported pulse sequences for 1H CSA recoupling are prone to the effects of radio frequency field (B1) inhomogeneity. In the present work we have carried out a systematic study using both numerical and experimental approaches to evaluate ?-encoded radio frequency (RF) pulse sequences based on R-symmetries that recouple 1H CSA in the indirect dimension of a 2D 1H/1H anisotropic/isotropic chemical shift correlation experiment under ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) frequencies. The spectral resolution and sensitivity can be significantly improved in both frequency dimensions of the 2D 1H/1H correlation spectrum without decoupling 1H/1H dipolar couplings but by using ultrafast MAS rates up to 70 kHz. We successfully demonstrate that with a reasonable RF field requirement (<200 kHz) a set of symmetry-based recoupling sequences, with a series of phase-alternating 270°0-90°180 composite-180° pulses, are more robust in combating B1 inhomogeneity effects. In addition, our results show that the new pulse sequences render remarkable 1H CSA recoupling efficiency and undistorted CSA lineshapes. Experimental results on citric acid and malonic acid comparing the efficiencies of these newly developed pulse sequences with that of previously reported CSA recoupling pulse sequences are also reported under ultrafast MAS conditions.

  18. Sensitivity enhancement of the central-transition signal of half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei in solid-state NMR: Features of multiple fast amplitude-modulated pulse transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Mithun; Madhu, P. K.

    2008-06-01

    Sensitivity enhancement of solid-state NMR spectrum of half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei under both magic-angle spinning (MAS) and static cases has been demonstrated by transferring polarisation associated with satellite transitions to the central m = -1/2 ? 1/2 transition with suitably modulated radio-frequency pulse schemes. It has been shown that after the application of such enhancement schemes, there still remains polarisation in the satellite transitions that can be transferred to the central transition. This polarisation is available without having to wait for the spin system to return to thermal equilibrium. We demonstrate here the additional sensitivity enhancement obtained by making use of this remaining polarisation with fast amplitude-modulated (FAM) pulse schemes under both MAS and static conditions on a spin-3/2 and a spin-5/2 system. Considerable signal enhancement is obtained with the application of the multiple FAM sequence, denoted as m-FAM. We also report here some of the salient features of these multiple FAM sequences with respect to the nutation frequency of the pulses and the spinning frequency.

  19. (1)H-(13)C-(29)Si triple resonance and REDOR solid-state NMR-A tool to study interactions between biosilica and organic molecules in diatom cell walls.

    PubMed

    Wisser, Dorothea; Brückner, Stephan I; Wisser, Florian M; Althoff-Ospelt, Gerhard; Getzschmann, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Brunner, Eike

    2015-01-01

    Triple resonance solid-state NMR experiments using the spin combination (1)H-(13)C-(29)Si are still rarely found in the literature. This is due to the low natural abundance of the two heteronuclei. Such experiments are, however, increasingly important to study hybrid materials such as biosilica and others. A suitable model substance, ideally labeled with both (13)C and (29)Si, is thus very useful to optimize the experiments before applying them to studies of more complex samples such as biosilica. Tetraphenoxysilane could be synthesized in an easy, two-step synthesis including double isotope labelling. Using tetraphenoxysilane, we established a (1)H-(13)C-(29)Si double CP-based HETCOR experiment and applied it to diatom biosilica from the diatom species Thalassiosira pseudonana. Furthermore, we carried out (1)H-(13)C{(29)Si} CP-REDOR experiments in order to estimate the distance between the organic matrix and the biosilica. Our experiments on diatom biosilica strongly indicate a close contact between polyamine-containing parts of the organic matrix and the silica. This corroborates the assumption that the organic matrix is essential for the control of the cell wall formation. PMID:25638422

  20. Hepatitis B subvirus particles display both a fluid bilayer membrane and a strong resistance to freeze drying: a study by solid-state NMR, light scattering, and cryo-electron microscopy/tomography.

    PubMed

    Grélard, Axelle; Guichard, Paul; Bonnafous, Pierre; Marco, Sergio; Lambert, Olivier; Manin, Catherine; Ronzon, Frédéric; Dufourc, Erick J

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) subvirus particles produced from yeast share immunological determinants with mature viruses, which enable the use of HBsAg as a potent antigen for human vaccination. Because the intimate structure of such pseudoviral particles is still a matter of debate, we investigated the robustness of the external barrier and its structure and dynamics using the noninvasive solid-state NMR technique. This barrier is made of 60% proteins and 40% lipids. Phospholipids represent 83% of all lipids, and chain unsaturation is of 72%. Dynamics was reported by embedding small amounts of deuterium chain-labeled unsaturated phospholipid into the external barrier of entire subviral particles, while controlling particle integrity by cryoelectron microscopy, tomography, and light scattering. Variable preparation modes were used, from mild incubation of small unilamellar vesicles to very stringent incorporation with freeze-drying. A lipid bilayer structure of 4- to 5-nm thickness was evidenced with a higher rigidity than that of synthetic phospholipid vesicles, but nonetheless reflecting a fluid membrane (50-52% of maximum rigidity) in agreement with the elevated unsaturation content. The HBsAg particles of 20- to 24-nm diameter were surprisingly found resistant to lyophilization, in such a way that trapped water inside particles could not be removed. These dual properties bring more insight into the mode of action of native subviral particles and their recombinant counterparts used in vaccines. PMID:23839934

  1. Examination of the structure in solid state of amino analogs of 4,4?-[1,5-pentanediylbis(oxy)]bisbenzonitrile by means of X-ray diffraction, 13C CP/MAS NMR, and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewska, Dorota; Wolska, Irena; ?abi?ski, Jerzy

    2008-05-01

    A single crystal of X-ray diffraction structures is presented for 4,4'-[1,5-(3-oxapentanediylbis(amino))]bisbenzonitrile 2 and 4,4'-[1,5-( N-methyl-3-azapentane-diylbis(oxy))]bisbenzonitrile 3. The molecular structures of these derivatives differ especially in conformations of the central linker: in 2 this linker adopts a trans/ gauche conformation, whereas in 3 - a fully extended conformation. The N atoms in various positions of the aliphatic linker change dramatically the molecular packing mode of both bisnitriles. But in both cases the nitrile groups take part in intermolecular hydrogen bonds: a type of N sbnd H···N in 2 and of C sbnd H···N in 3. Various conformations of both molecules were reflected in 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra in solid state as single and double resonance patterns for 2 and 3, respectively. A preliminary anticancer assay against 60 cell lines of 3 reveals strong growth inhibition of leukemia, melanoma, and renal cancer cells.

  2. Combination of 15 N Reverse Labeling and Afterglow Spectroscopy for Assigning Membrane Protein Spectra by Magic-Angle-Spinning Solid-State NMR: Application to the Multidrug Resistance Protein EmrE

    PubMed Central

    Banigan, James R.; Gayen, Anindita; Traaseth, Nathaniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy has emerged as a viable method to characterize membrane protein structure and dynamics. Nevertheless, the spectral resolution for uniformly labeled samples is often compromised by redundancy of the primary sequence and the presence of helical secondary structure that results in substantial resonance overlap. The ability to simplify the spectrum in order to obtain unambiguous site-specific assignments is a major bottleneck for structure determination. To address this problem, we used a combination of 15N reverse labeling and afterglow spectroscopic techniques that dramatically improved the ability to resolve peaks in a crowded spectrum. This was demonstrated using the polytopic membrane protein EmrE, an efflux pump involved in multidrug resistance. Residues preceding the 15N reverse labeled amino acid were imaged using a 3D NCOCX afterglow experiment and those following were recorded using a frequency-selective dephasing experiment. Our approach reduced the spectral congestion and provided a sensitive way to obtain chemical shift assignments for a membrane protein where no high-resolution structure is available. This MAS methodology is widely applicable to the study of other polytopic membrane proteins in functional lipid bilayer environments. PMID:23539118

  3. Combination of ¹?N reverse labeling and afterglow spectroscopy for assigning membrane protein spectra by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR: application to the multidrug resistance protein EmrE.

    PubMed

    Banigan, James R; Gayen, Anindita; Traaseth, Nathaniel J

    2013-04-01

    Magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy has emerged as a viable method to characterize membrane protein structure and dynamics. Nevertheless, the spectral resolution for uniformly labeled samples is often compromised by redundancy of the primary sequence and the presence of helical secondary structure that results in substantial resonance overlap. The ability to simplify the spectrum in order to obtain unambiguous site-specific assignments is a major bottleneck for structure determination. To address this problem, we used a combination of (15)N reverse labeling, afterglow spectroscopic techniques, and frequency-selective dephasing experiments that dramatically improved the ability to resolve peaks in crowded spectra. This was demonstrated using the polytopic membrane protein EmrE, an efflux pump involved in multidrug resistance. Residues preceding the (15)N reverse labeled amino acid were imaged using a 3D NCOCX afterglow experiment and those following were recorded using a frequency-selective dephasing experiment. Our approach reduced the spectral congestion and provided a sensitive way to obtain chemical shift assignments for a membrane protein where no high-resolution structure is available. This MAS methodology is widely applicable to the study of other polytopic membrane proteins in functional lipid bilayer environments. PMID:23539118

  4. Probing the surface of a sweet protein: NMR study of MNEI with a paramagnetic probe

    PubMed Central

    Niccolai, Neri; Spadaccini, Roberta; Scarselli, Maria; Bernini, Andrea; Crescenzi, Orlando; Spiga, Ottavia; Ciutti, Arianna; Di Maro, Daniela; Bracci, Luisa; Dalvit, Claudio; Temussi, Piero A.

    2001-01-01

    The design of safe sweeteners is very important for people who are affected by diabetes, hyperlipemia, and caries and other diseases that are linked to the consumption of sugars. Sweet proteins, which are found in several tropical plants, are many times sweeter than sucrose on a molar basis. A good understanding of their structure–function relationship can complement traditional SAR studies on small molecular weight sweeteners and thus help in the design of safe sweeteners. However, there is virtually no sequence homology and very little structural similarity among known sweet proteins. Studies on mutants of monellin, the best characterized of sweet proteins, proved not decisive in the localization of the main interaction points of monellin with its receptor. Accordingly, we resorted to an unbiased approach to restrict the search of likely areas of interaction on the surface of a typical sweet protein. It has been recently shown that an accurate survey of the surface of proteins by appropriate paramagnetic probes may locate interaction points on protein surface. Here we report the survey of the surface of MNEI, a single chain monellin, by means of a paramagnetic probe, and a direct assessment of bound water based on an application of ePHOGSY, an NMR experiment that is ideally suited to detect interactions of small ligands to a protein. Detailed surface mapping reveals the presence, on the surface of MNEI, of interaction points that include residues previously predicted by ELISA tests and by mutagenesis. PMID:11468346

  5. Shimming of a Magnet for Calibration of NMR Probes for the Muon g-2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielajew, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    The Muon g-2 Experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the anomalous magnetic moment a? ? (g-2)/2 of the muon to the precision of 0.14 parts per million. This experimental value of a? can then be compared to the similarly precise theoretical predictions of the Standard Model in order to test the completeness of the model. The value of a? is extracted from muons precessing in a magnetic field. The magnetic field will be measured with a set of 400 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) probes, which have the ability to measure the field to a precision of tens of parts per billion. Before the Muon g-2 Experiment can take place, new NMR probes must be designed, built, and tested using a 1.45 Tesla test magnet at the University of Washington Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics (CENPA). In order to achieve a significant signal from NMR probes, the magnetic field in which the probes are immersed must be extremely uniform. The existing magnet at CENPA has an approximately linear gradient in magnetic field of about 1 Gauss per centimeter in the smoothest direction. A pair of adjacent square Helmholtz coils was designed and built to create a linear gradient in order to cancel the existing gradient. The length of the NMR signals improved with the implementation of the coils. The results of the addition of the coils to the magnet on the signals from the NMR probes will be presented.

  6. Solid-State Lighting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leske, Cavin.

    2002-01-01

    Solid-state lighting is a revolutionary technology that uses semiconducting materials to create light while generating almost no heat. This is extremely energy efficient, but until recently has been impractical due to the small amount of light emitted. New developments in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have reversed this trend, and strong interest has been shown by the US government and many research bodies.A good introduction to the technology can be found at the Lighting Research Center (1). It has a few presentations that demonstrate the implications of solid-state lighting, as well as highlights of various research projects. The Compound Semiconductors Web site (2) is a good news source to learn about current breakthroughs. Abstracts of tutorials and industry outlooks are provided, which describe pure white light LEDs and other emerging technologies. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has a significant research effort in solid state lighting. This presentation (3), given in August 2002, describes the lab's motivation for advancing the technology. In a speech given by US Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham (4), he emphasizes the importance of solid-state lighting to reduce electricity usage. He describes the relationship between LEDs and conventional fluorescent lighting as similar to that between transistors and vacuum tubes. The Office of Building Technology offers this roadmap of lighting technology (5). The report anticipates advances in the industry over the next twenty years, with specific attention to solid state lighting. Another report is from the IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (6). The authors discuss current trends in high-power LED development and results of the first solid-state lamp that is as intense as Thomas Edison's twenty watt bulb. A recent accomplishment at Sandia National Laboratories is outlined in this article from Lighting.com (7). The "tungsten photonic lattice" is capable of converting heat to visible light and could improve electrical efficiency by over 50 percent. Another efficiency-related news story comes from researchers from a semiconductor company and North Carolina State University (8). Their product reduces the voltage of a high-brightness LED to less than three volts, which was a long standing scientific hurdle.

  7. CaBe2Ge2 type phosphides REIr2P2 (RE = La-Nd, Sm) and arsenides REIr2As2 (RE = La-Nd): synthesis, structure, and solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pfannenschmidt, Ulrike; Behrends, Frederik; Lincke, Hannes; Eul, Matthias; Schäfer, Konrad; Eckert, Hellmut; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2012-12-14

    The phosphides REIr(2)P(2) (RE = La-Nd, Sm) and arsenides REIr(2)As(2) (RE = La-Nd) were synthesized by a ceramic route via precursor compounds REIr(2) with phosphorus and arsenic, respectively. Well-shaped single crystals were obtained from lead and bismuth fluxes, respectively. The nine pnictides crystallize with the tetragonal CaBe(2)Ge(2) type structure, space group P4/nmm. The structures of CeIr(2)P(2), SmIr(2)P(2), LaIr(2)As(2) and CeIr(2)As(2) were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data. The structures are composed of three-dimensional [Ir(2)P(2)] and [Ir(2)As(2)] networks in which the rare earth atoms fill cavities of coordination number 16 (8 P + 8 Ir). The phosphorus and arsenic atoms have tetrahedral and square pyramidal iridium coordination. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements show intermediate cerium valence for CeIr(2)P(2). The rare-earth and phosphorus local environments in LaIr(2)P(2) are characterized further by (139)La and (31)P single and double resonance solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Strong (31)P Knight shifts and extremely short spin-lattice relaxation times indicate that the bonding character of the phosphide species is strongly metallic. The two crystallographically distinct phosphorus sites are well-resolved in the (31)P magic-angle spinning (MAS) spectrum and also differ significantly with respect to their effective magnetic shielding anisotropies. Unambiguous site assignments are accomplished on the basis of homonuclear (31)P-(31)P magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, which can be measured in a site-resolved fashion in this compound using static (31)P spin echo decay spectroscopy. The highly symmetric La environment in LaIr(2)P(2) is characterized by a sharp (139)La MAS-NMR spectrum, revealing rather weak nuclear electric quadrupole coupling. Furthermore, a second local environment is detected, which is characterized by stronger quadrupolar coupling and similar dipolar coupling strength with (31)P as the regular site, according to (139)La{(31)P} rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) NMR results. On the basis of these data we attribute this site to a La species next to a phosphorus vacancy. From the signal area of this resonance we deduce a composition LaIr(2)P(1.90). PMID:23037924

  8. Model-free estimation of the effective correlation time for C-H bond reorientation in amphiphilic bilayers: (1)H-(13)C solid-state NMR and MD simulations.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tiago Mendes; Ollila, O H Samuli; Pigliapochi, Roberta; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P; Topgaard, Daniel

    2015-01-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations give atomically detailed information on structure and dynamics in amphiphilic bilayer systems on timescales up to about 1 ?s. The reorientational dynamics of the C-H bonds is conventionally verified by measurements of (13)C or (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) longitudinal relaxation rates R1, which are more sensitive to motional processes with correlation times close to the inverse Larmor frequency, typically around 1-10 ns on standard NMR instrumentation, and are thus less sensitive to the 10-1000 ns timescale motion that can be observed in the MD simulations. We propose an experimental procedure for atomically resolved model-free estimation of the C-H bond effective reorientational correlation time ?e, which includes contributions from the entire range of all-atom MD timescales and that can be calculated directly from the MD trajectories. The approach is based on measurements of (13)C?R1 and R1? relaxation rates, as well as (1)H-(13)C dipolar couplings, and is applicable to anisotropic liquid crystalline lipid or surfactant systems using a conventional solid-state NMR spectrometer and samples with natural isotopic composition. The procedure is demonstrated on a fully hydrated lamellar phase of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine, yielding values of ?e from 0.1 ns for the methyl groups in the choline moiety and at the end of the acyl chains to 3 ns for the g1 methylene group of the glycerol backbone. MD simulations performed with a widely used united-atom force-field reproduce the ?e-profile of the major part of the acyl chains but underestimate the dynamics of the glycerol backbone and adjacent molecular segments. The measurement of experimental ?e-profiles can be used to study subtle effects on C-H bond reorientational motions in anisotropic liquid crystals, as well as to validate the C-H bond reorientation dynamics predicted in MD simulations of amphiphilic bilayers such as lipid membranes. PMID:25638007

  9. Solid State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Titan-CW Ti:sapphire (titanium-doped sapphire) tunable laser is an innovation in solid-state laser technology jointly developed by the Research and Solid State Laser Divisions of Schwartz Electro-optics, Inc. (SEO). SEO is producing the laser for the commercial market, an outgrowth of a program sponsored by Langley Research Center to develop Ti:sapphire technology for space use. SEO's Titan-CW series of Ti:sapphire tunable lasers have applicability in analytical equipment designed for qualitative analysis of carbohydrates and proteins, structural analysis of water, starch/sugar analyses, and measurements of salt in meat. Further applications are expected in semiconductor manufacture, in medicine for diagnosis and therapy, and in biochemistry.

  10. Solid State Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May-31 July 1995. The topics covered are: Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and analog device technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional Support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA and NIST.

  11. Solid State Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May - 31 July 1996. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional Support provided by the Army, DARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

  12. Solid-state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Pandey

    2003-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation has emerged as a potential technology for the production of microbial products such as feed, fuel, food, industrial chemicals and pharmaceutical products. Its application in bioprocesses such as bioleaching, biobeneficiation, bioremediation, biopulping, etc. has offered several advantages. Utilisation of agro-industrial residues as substrates in SSF processes provides an alternative avenue and value-addition to these otherwise under- or non-utilised

  13. The fluorinated anesthetic halothane as a potential NMR biologic probe.

    PubMed

    Burt, C T; Moore, R R; Roberts, M F; Brady, T J

    1984-12-11

    Fluorinated anesthetics such as halothane preferentially partition into hydrophobic environments such as cell membranes. The 19F-NMR spectrum of halothane in a rat adenocarcinoma (with known altered lipid metabolism and membrane composition) shows an altered chemical shift pattern compared to the anesthetic in normal tissue. In eight tumor samples examined, the 19F-NMR spectra exhibit two distinct resonances, compared to a single resonance observed in normal tissues. This is explained by an enhanced or altered hydrophobic component in the tumor tissue giving rise to two discrete halothane environments. Another fluorinated anesthetic, isoflurane, shows similar behavior in distinguishing normal from diseased tissue. Given the large chemical shift range of fluorine and the inherent sensitivity of this nucleus, 19F-NMR spectra of fluorinated anesthetics can also be used to follow anesthetic degradation by the liver. The ability of fluorinated anesthetics to discriminate tissues and to monitor metabolic processes is potentially useful for in vivo 19F-NMR surface coil and imaging studies. PMID:6509092

  14. Nano-Mole Scale Side-Chain Signal Assignment by 1H-Detected Protein Solid-State NMR by Ultra-Fast Magic-Angle Spinning and Stereo-Array Isotope Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Yusuke; Endo, Yuki; Nemoto, Takahiro; Yamauchi, Kazuo; Asakura, Tetsuo; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    We present a general approach in 1H-detected 13C solid-state NMR (SSNMR) for side-chain signal assignments of 10-50 nmol quantities of proteins using a combination of a high magnetic field, ultra-fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) at ~80 kHz, and stereo-array-isotope-labeled (SAIL) proteins [Kainosho M. et al., Nature 440, 52–57, 2006]. First, we demonstrate that 1H indirect detection improves the sensitivity and resolution of 13C SSNMR of SAIL proteins for side-chain assignments in the ultra-fast MAS condition. 1H-detected SSNMR was performed for micro-crystalline ubiquitin (~55 nmol or ~0.5mg) that was SAIL-labeled at seven isoleucine (Ile) residues. Sensitivity was dramatically improved by 1H-detected 2D 1H/13C SSNMR by factors of 5.4-9.7 and 2.1-5.0, respectively, over 13C-detected 2D 1H/13C SSNMR and 1D 13C CPMAS, demonstrating that 2D 1H-detected SSNMR offers not only additional resolution but also sensitivity advantage over 1D 13C detection for the first time. High 1H resolution for the SAIL-labeled side-chain residues offered reasonable resolution even in the 2D data. A 1H-detected 3D 13C/13C/1H experiment on SAIL-ubiquitin provided nearly complete 1H and 13C assignments for seven Ile residues only within ~2.5 h. The results demonstrate the feasibility of side-chain signal assignment in this approach for as little as 10 nmol of a protein sample within ~3 days. The approach is likely applicable to a variety of proteins of biological interest without any requirements of highly efficient protein expression systems. PMID:25856081

  15. Solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy shows that the xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) occur in different domains: a new model for xyloglucan-cellulose interactions in the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Bootten, Tracey J; Harris, Philip J; Melton, Laurence D; Newman, Roger H

    2004-03-01

    Xyloglucans (XG) with different mobilities were identified in the primary cell walls of mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) by solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. To improve the signal:noise ratios compared with unlabelled controls, Glc labelled at either C-1 or C-4 with 13C-isotope was incorporated into the cell-wall polysaccharides of mung bean hypocotyls. Using cell walls from seedlings labelled with d-[1-13C]glucose and, by exploiting the differences in rotating-frame and spin-spin proton relaxation, a small signal was detected which was assigned to Xyl of XGs with rigid glucan backbones. After labelling seedlings with d-[4-13C]glucose and using a novel combination of spin-echo spectroscopy with proton spin relaxation-editing, signals were detected that had 13C-spin relaxations and chemical shifts which were assigned to partly-rigid XGs surrounded by mobile non-cellulosic polysaccharides. Although quantification of these two mobility types of XG was difficult, the results indicated that the partly-rigid XGs were predominant in the cell walls. The results lend support to the postulated new cell-wall models in which only a small proportion of the total surface area of the cellulose microfibrils has XG adsorbed on to it. In these new models, the partly-rigid XGs form cross-links between adjacent cellulose microfibrils and/or between cellulose microfibrils and other non-cellulosic polysaccharides, such as pectic polysaccharides. PMID:14966211

  16. Nano-mole scale side-chain signal assignment by 1H-detected protein solid-state NMR by ultra-fast magic-angle spinning and stereo-array isotope labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songlin; Parthasarathy, Sudhakar; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Endo, Yuki; Nemoto, Takahiro; Yamauchi, Kazuo; Asakura, Tetsuo; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    We present a general approach in 1H-detected 13C solid-state NMR (SSNMR) for side-chain signal assignments of 10-50 nmol quantities of proteins using a combination of a high magnetic field, ultra-fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) at ~80 kHz, and stereo-array-isotope-labeled (SAIL) proteins [Kainosho M. et al., Nature 440, 52-57, 2006]. First, we demonstrate that 1H indirect detection improves the sensitivity and resolution of 13C SSNMR of SAIL proteins for side-chain assignments in the ultra-fast MAS condition. 1H-detected SSNMR was performed for micro-crystalline ubiquitin (~55 nmol or ~0.5mg) that was SAIL-labeled at seven isoleucine (Ile) residues. Sensitivity was dramatically improved by 1H-detected 2D 1H/13C SSNMR by factors of 5.4-9.7 and 2.1-5.0, respectively, over 13C-detected 2D 1H/13C SSNMR and 1D 13C CPMAS, demonstrating that 2D 1H-detected SSNMR offers not only additional resolution but also sensitivity advantage over 1D 13C detection for the first time. High 1H resolution for the SAIL-labeled side-chain residues offered reasonable resolution even in the 2D data. A 1H-detected 3D 13C/13C/1H experiment on SAIL-ubiquitin provided nearly complete 1H and 13C assignments for seven Ile residues only within ~2.5 h. The results demonstrate the feasibility of side-chain signal assignment in this approach for as little as 10 nmol of a protein sample within ~3 days. The approach is likely applicable to a variety of proteins of biological interest without any requirements of highly efficient protein expression systems. PMID:25856081

  17. Restraints on backbone conformations in solid state NMR studies of uniformly labeled proteins from quantitative amide 15N–15N and carbonyl 13C–13C dipolar recoupling data

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kan-Nian; Qiang, Wei; Bermejo, Guillermo A.; Schwieters, Charles D.; Tycko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Recent structural studies of uniformly 15N, 13C-labeled proteins by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) rely principally on two sources of structural restraints: (i) restraints on backbone conformation from isotropic 15N and 13C chemical shifts, based on empirical correlations between chemical shifts and backbone torsion angles; (ii) restraints on inter-residue proximities from qualitative measurements of internuclear dipole–dipole couplings, detected as the presence or absence of inter-residue crosspeaks in multidimensional spectra. We show that site-specific dipole–dipole couplings among 15N-labeled backbone amide sites and among 13C-labeled backbone carbonyl sites can be measured quantitatively in uniformly-labeled proteins, using dipolar recoupling techniques that we call 15N-BARE and 13C-BARE (BAckbone REcoupling), and that the resulting data represent a new source of restraints on backbone conformation. 15N-BARE and 13C-BARE data can be incorporated into structural modeling calculations as potential energy surfaces, which are derived from comparisons between experimental 15N and 13C signal decay curves, extracted from crosspeak intensities in series of two-dimensional spectra, with numerical simulations of the 15N-BARE and 13C-BARE measurements. We demonstrate this approach through experiments on microcrystalline, uniformly 15N, 13C-labeled protein GB1. Results for GB1 show that 15N-BARE and 13C-BARE restraints are complementary to restraints from chemical shifts and inter-residue crosspeaks, improving both the precision and the accuracy of calculated structures. PMID:22449573

  18. Solid state electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, D.J.

    1984-09-11

    A solid state electrochemical cell comprises an anode having Li as its active material, a cathode and an electrolyte comprising a complex of a polyether with lithium. The polyether is atactic, has a low glass transition temperature and is capable of forming a complex with Li/sup +/ ions but not with Na/sup +/ ions. An example of such a polyether is polyvinyl methyl ether. The complex may be blended with another polymer such as a poly (ethyleneoxide) LiClO/sub 4/ comples to improve mechanical properties for fabrication into the enectrolyte.

  19. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  20. Solid state devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Solid State Device research program is directed toward developing innovative devices for space remote and in-situ sensing, and for data processing. Innovative devices can result from the standard structures in innovative materials such as low and high temperature superconductors, strained layer superlattices, or diamond films. Innovative devices can also result from innovative structures achieved using electron tunneling or nanolithography in standard materials. A final step is to use both innovative structures and innovative materials. A new area of emphasis is the miniaturization of sensors and instruments molded by using the techniques of electronic device fabrication to micromachine silicon into micromechanical and electromechanical sensors and actuators.

  1. Solid state thermal engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wayman, C.M.

    1981-01-27

    An improved solid state thermal engine utilizes as a drive member a braided belt fabricated from a memory alloy such as nickel-titanium and nickel-titanium ternary alloys, copper-zinc and copper-zinc ternary alloys, and the like. The braided belt is mounted on a set of pulleys to provide passage through a hot zone where the belt contracts and develops tension, and through a cold zone where it relaxes and stretches. Since more energy is delivered by contraction than is required for relaxation, positive work output results with an efficiency of between onefifth and one-third of the carnot cycle.

  2. Accurate Measurement of Methyl 13C Chemical Shifts by Solid-State NMR for the Determination of Protein Sidechain Conformation: the Influenza A M2 Transmembrane Peptide as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mei; Mishanina, Tatiana V.; Cady, Sarah D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sidechain methyl 13C chemical shifts for the determination of the rotameric conformation of Val and Leu residues in proteins by solid-state NMR spectroscopy is described. Examination of the solution NMR stereospecifically assigned methyl groups shows significant correlation between the difference in the two methyl carbons’ chemical shifts and the sidechain conformation. It is found that ?-helical and ?-sheet backbones cause different sidechain methyl chemical shift trends. In ?-helical Leu’s, a relatively large absolute methyl 13C shift difference of 2.89 ppm is found for the most populated mt rotamer (?1=?60°, ?2=180°), while a much smaller value of 0.73 ppm is found for the next populated tp rotamer (?1=180°, ?2=60°). For ?-helical Val residues, the dominant t rotamer (?1=180°) has more downfield C?2 chemical shifts than C?1 by 1.71 ppm, while the next populated m rotamer (?1=?60°) shows the opposite trend of more downfield C?1 chemical shift by 1.23 ppm. These significantly different methyl 13C chemical shifts exist despite the likelihood of partial rotameric averaging at ambient temperature. We show that these conformation-dependent methyl 13C chemical shifts can be utilized for sidechain structure determination once the methyl 13C resonances are accurately measured by double-quantum (DQ) filtered 2D correlation experiments, most notably the dipolar DQ to single-quantum (SQ) correlation technique. The advantage of the DQ-SQ correlation experiment over simple 2D SQ – SQ correlation experiments is demonstrated on the transmembrane peptide of the influenza A M2 proton channel. The methyl chemical shifts led to predictions of the sidechain rotameric states for several Val and Leu residues in this tetrameric helical bundle. The predicted Val rotamers were further verified by dipolar correlation experiments that directly measure the ?1 torsion angles. It was found that the chemical-shift predicted sidechain conformations are fully consistent with the direct torsion angle results; moreover, the methyl 13C chemical shifts are sensitive to ~5° changes in the ?1 torsion angle due to drug binding. PMID:19441789

  3. Susceptibility-matched plugs for microcoil NMR probes

    PubMed Central

    Kc, Ravi; Gowda, Yashas N.; Djukovic, Danijel; Henry, Ian D; Park, Gregory H J; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    For mass limited samples, the residual sample volume outside the detection coil is an important concern, as is good base line resolution. Here, we present the construction and evaluation of magnetic susceptibility-matched plugs for microcoil NMR sample cells which address these issues. Mixed-epoxy glue and ultem tube plugs that have susceptibility values close to those of perfluorocarbon FC-43 (fluorinert) and copper were used in small volume (0.5 to 2 ?L) and larger volume (15 to 20 ?L) thin glass capillary sample cells. Using these plugs, the sample volume efficiency (i.e. ratio of active volume to total sample volume in the microcoil NMR cell) was improved by 6 to 12 fold without sensitivity and resolution trade-offs. Comparison with laser etched or heat etched microcoil sample cells is provided. The approaches described are potentially useful in metabolomics for biomarkers detection in mass limited biological samples. PMID:20510638

  4. NMR probes for measuring magnetic fields and field dynamics in MR systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola De Zanche; Christoph Barmet; Jurek A. Nordmeyer-Massner; Klaas P. Pruessmann

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field probes based on pulsed liquid- state NMR are presented. Static field measurements with an error of 10 nanotesla or less at 3 tesla are readily obtained in 100 ms. The further ability to measure dynamic magnetic fields results from using small (! 1 ! L) droplets of MR-active liquid surrounded by susceptibility-matched materials. The conse- quent high

  5. Quantitative Determination of Site-Specific Conformational Distributions in an Unfolded Protein by Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kan-Nian; Havlin, Robert H.; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Summary Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used to investigate the structure of the 35-residue villin headpiece subdomain (HP35) in folded, partially denatured, and fully denatured states. Experiments are carried out in frozen glycerol/water solutions, with chemical denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). Without GdnHCl, two-dimensional solid state 13C NMR spectra of samples prepared with uniform 13C labeling of selected residues show relatively sharp crosspeaks at chemical shifts that are consistent with the known three-helix bundle structure of folded HP35. At high GdnHCl concentrations, most crosspeaks broaden and shift, qualitatively indicating disruption of the folded structure and development of static conformational disorder in the frozen denatured state. Conformational distributions at one residue in each helical segment are probed quantitatively with three solid state NMR techniques that provide independent constraints on backbone ? and ? torsion angles in samples with sequential pairs of carbonyl 13C labels. Without GdnHCl, the combined data are well fit by ?-helical conformations. At [GdnHCl] = 4.5 M, corresponding to the approximate denaturation midpoint, the combined data are well fit by a combination of ?-helical and partially extended conformations at each site, but with a site-dependent population ratio. At [GdnHCl] = 7.0 M, corresponding to the fully denatured state, the combined data are well fit by a combination of partially extended and polyproline II conformations, again with a site-dependent population ratio. Two entirely different models for conformational distributions lead to nearly the same best-fit distributions, demonstrating the robustness of these conclusions. This work represents the first quantitative investigation of site-specific conformational distributions in partially folded and unfolded states of a protein by solid state NMR. PMID:19647001

  6. Solid state 13C-NMR, infrared, X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal studies of the homologous series of some mono-valent metal (Li, Na, K, Ag) n-alkanoates: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peter N.; Ellis, Henry A.; White, Nicole A. S.

    2015-06-01

    A comparative study of the molecular packing, lattice structures and phase behaviors of the homologous series of some mono-valent metal carboxylates (Li, Na, K and Ag) is carried out via solid state FT-infrared and 13C-NMR spectroscopes, X-rays powder diffraction, density measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing light microscopy and variable temperature infrared spectroscopy. It is proposed that, for lithium, sodium and potassium carboxylates, metal-carboxyl coordination is via asymmetric chelating bidentate bonding with extensive intermolecular interactions to form tetrahedral metal centers, irrespective of chain length. However, for silver n-alkanoates, carboxyl moieties are bound to silver ions via syn-syn type bridging bidentate coordination to form dimeric units held together by extensive head group inter-molecular interactions. Furthermore, the fully extended hydrocarbon chains which are crystallized in the all-trans conformation are tilted at ca. 30°, 27°, 15° and 31° with respect to a normal to the metal plane, for lithium, sodium, silver and potassium carboxylates, respectively. All compounds are packed as lamellar bilayer structures, however, lithium compounds are crystallized in a triclinic crystal system whilst silver, sodium and potassium n-alkanoates are all monoclinic with possible P1 bravais lattice. Odd-even alternation observed in various physical features is associated with different inter-planar spacing between closely packed layers in the bilayer which are not in the same plane; a phenomenon controlled by lattice packing symmetry requirements. All compounds, except silver carboxylates, show partially reversibly first order pre-melting transitions; the number of which increases with increasing chain length. These transitions are associated, for the most part, with lamellar collapse followed by increased gauche-trans isomerism in the methylene group assembly, irrespective of chain length. It is proposed that the absence of mesomorphic transitions in their phase sequences is due to a lack of sufficient balance between attractive and repulsive electrostatic and van der Waals forces during phase change. The evidence presented in this study shows that phase behaviors of mono-valent metal carboxylates are controlled, mainly, by head group bonding.

  7. Vibrational and NMR probe studies of S Az-1 montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Johnston; C. Erickson; W. L. Earl

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the interactions of exchangeable metal cations with mineral surfaces using a combined spectroscopic\\/macroscopic approach. Objectives were to examine the use of water molecules and metal cations as molecular probes of smectite water interactions. The νâ mode of water is used as a diagnostic vibrational band. An FTIR-gravimetric cell is used to examine the FTIR

  8. Development of a 13C-Optimized 1.5-mm High Temperature Superconducting NMR Probe

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Vijaykumar; Hooker, Jerris W.; Withers, Richard S.; Nast, Robert E.; Brey, William W.; Edison, Arthur S.

    2013-01-01

    We report a 1.5-mm NMR probe based on high temperature superconductors operating at 14.1 T optimized for 13C detection. The probe has a total sample volume of about 35 microliters (?L) with an active volume of 20 ?L and provides exceptional mass sensitivity for 13C detection. The probe also has excellent 1H sensitivity and employs a 2H channel lock; 15N irradiation capability can be added in the future. The coils are cooled to about 20 K using a standard Agilent cryogenic refrigeration system, and the sample temperature is regulated near room temperature. The coil design considerations are discussed in detail. This probe is ideal for directly detected 13C NMR experiments for natural products chemistry and metabolomics applications, for which 35 ?L is an optimal sample volume. The outstanding 13C sensitivity of this probe allowed us to directly determine the 13C connectivity on 1.1 mg of natural abundance histidine using an INADEQUATE experiment. We demonstrated the utility of this probe for 13C-based metabolomics using a synthetic mixture of common natural abundance metabolites whose concentrations ranged from 1 to 5 mM (40 to 200 nmol). PMID:23969086

  9. Glass for Solid State Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    Glass film has low intrinsic compressive stress for isolating active layers of magnetic-bubble and other solid-state devices. Solid-state device structure incorporates low-stress glasses as barrier and spacer layers. Glass layers mechanically isolate substrate, conductor, and nickel/iron layers.

  10. Auto-tuning system for NMR probe with LabView

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quen, Carmen; Mateo, Olivia; Bernal, Oscar

    2013-03-01

    Typical manual NMR-tuning method is not suitable for broadband spectra spanning several megahertz linewidths. Among the main problems encountered during manual tuning are pulse-power reproducibility, baselines, and transmission line reflections, to name a few. We present a design of an auto-tuning system using graphic programming language, LabVIEW, to minimize these problems. The program is designed to analyze the detected power signal of an antenna near the NMR probe and use this analysis to automatically tune the sample coil to match the impedance of the spectrometer (50 ?). The tuning capacitors of the probe are controlled by a stepper motor through a LabVIEW/computer interface. Our program calculates the area of the power signal as an indicator to control the motor so disconnecting the coil to tune it through a network analyzer is unnecessary. Typical manual NMR-tuning method is not suitable for broadband spectra spanning several megahertz linewidths. Among the main problems encountered during manual tuning are pulse-power reproducibility, baselines, and transmission line reflections, to name a few. We present a design of an auto-tuning system using graphic programming language, LabVIEW, to minimize these problems. The program is designed to analyze the detected power signal of an antenna near the NMR probe and use this analysis to automatically tune the sample coil to match the impedance of the spectrometer (50 ?). The tuning capacitors of the probe are controlled by a stepper motor through a LabVIEW/computer interface. Our program calculates the area of the power signal as an indicator to control the motor so disconnecting the coil to tune it through a network analyzer is unnecessary. Work supported by NSF-DMR 1105380

  11. Solid-state NMR on thermal and fire residues of bisphenol A polycarbonate\\/silicone acrylate rubber\\/bisphenol A Bis(diphenyl-phosphate) (PC\\/SiR\\/BDP) and PC\\/SiR\\/BDP\\/zinc borate (PC\\/SiR\\/BDP\\/ZnB) — Part II: The influence of SiR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Karrasch; E. Wawrzyn; B. Schartel; C. Jäger

    2010-01-01

    Solid residues of bisphenol A polycarbonate (containing 0.45 wt% poly(tetrafluoroethylene))\\/silicone acrylate rubber\\/bisphenol A bis(diphenyl-phosphate) (PC\\/SiR\\/BDP) and PC\\/SiR\\/BDP\\/zinc borate (PC\\/SiR\\/BDP\\/ZnB) after thermal treatment were investigated by solid-state and liquid-state NMR, focusing on the role and interaction of SiR with the other components of the polymer blend.In PC\\/SiR\\/BDP, part of the SiR reacts to an amorphous silicate network rather than being completely released

  12. Solid-state 93Nb MAS NMR studies of single crystal Pb(Mg1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3, (PMN) and Pb(Zn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3, (PZN) and related lead titanate solid-solution relaxor ferroelectrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Fitzgerald; Jiong Huang; Jay S. Shore

    1999-01-01

    Solid-state 93Nb MAS NMR spectra measured at 14.1 Tesla of single crystal Pb(Mg1\\/3Nb2\\/3 (PMN), Pb(Zn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3 (PZN), 0.93 PMN\\/0.07 PT, and 0.92 PZN\\/0.08 PT, and polycrystalline PMN and 0.90 PMN\\/0.10 PT materials have two major resonances due to the central transition (+l\\/2?-l\\/2), a sharp peak at ?-900 ppm, and a broad resonance centered near -980 ppm. The sharp 93Nb signal has

  13. A low temperature NMR probe for use in a dilution refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhns, P. L.; Lee, S.-H.; Coretsopoulos, C.; Hammel, P. C.; Gonen, O.; Waugh, J. S.

    1991-09-01

    We report an NMR probe that we use in ultra low temperature experiments in a top-loading dilution refrigerator. The probe is thermally anchored to the 1.2 K pumped 4He pot and is thermally isolated from the sample located inside a Kel-F cup containing liquid 3He. The probe is adapted from a standard double resonance probe, using air trimmer capacitors, a ?/4 cable, a homemade saddle coil, and metal film resistors. The double resonance design breaks the probe's tuning ranges into two bands. The high frequency band tunes from 100 to 150 MHz covering all the nuclei with large gyromagnetic ratios, 3H, 19F, 1H, 3He. The low frequency band tunes for 17 to 54 MHz covering all nuclei with gyromagnetic ratios between 133Cs and 119Sn. The air trimmer capacitors have an open structure that allows efficient pumping and the metal film resistors are used to reduce the Q of the probe. This probe has been successfully used for a wide range of nuclei including 1H, 19F, 3He, 119Sn, 117Sn, 115Sn, 11B, 13C, 29Si, 27Al, and 2H.

  14. Solid-state laser engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Koechner

    1988-01-01

    This book provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. To present the subject, phenomenological descriptions using models are used.

  15. Structure and dynamics studies by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Itin, Boris

    2002-01-01

    The major goal of this work is the development of high resolution solid state 205T1 NMR techniques and their application to the elucidation of the mechanism and dynamics of ion exchange in biological solids. The thesis ...

  16. Chemical reactivity in solid-state pharmaceuticals: formulation implications.

    PubMed

    Byrn, S R; Xu, W; Newman, A W

    2001-05-16

    Solid-state reactions that occur in drug substances and formulations include solid-state phase transformations, dehydration/desolvation, and chemical reactions. Chemical reactivity is the focus of this chapter. Of particular interest are cases where the drug-substance may be unstable or react with excipients in the formulation. Water absorption can enhance molecular mobility of solids and lead to solid-state reactivity. Mobility can be measured using various methods including glass transition (T(g)) measurements, solid-state NMR, and X-ray crystallography. Solid-state reactions of drug substances can include oxidation, cyclization, hydrolysis, and deamidation. Oxidation studies of vitamin A, peptides (DL-Ala-DL-Met, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe methyl ester, and Met-enkaphalin acetate salt), and steroids (hydrocortisone and prednisolone derivatives) are discussed. Cyclization reactions of crystalline and amorphous angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (spirapril hydrochloride, quinapril hydrochloride, and moexipril) are presented which investigate mobility and chemical reactivity. Examples of drug-excipient interactions, such as transacylation, the Maillard browning reaction, and acid base reactions are discussed for a variety of compounds including aspirin, fluoxitine, and ibuprofen. Once solid-state reactions are understood in a pharmaceutical system, the necessary steps can be taken to prevent reactivity and improve the stability of drug substances and products. PMID:11325479

  17. Solid-State NMR Study of Paramagnetic Bis(alaninato-?(2)N,O)copper(II) and Bis(1-amino(cyclo)alkane-1-carboxylato-?(2)N,O)copper(II) Complexes: Reflection of Stereoisomerism and Molecular Mobility in (13)C and (2)H Fast Magic Angle Spinning Spectra.

    PubMed

    Szalontai, Gábor; Csonka, Róbert; Speier, Gábor; Kaizer, József; Sabolovi?, Jasmina

    2015-05-18

    Solid-state stereochemistry and mobility of paramagnetic copper(II) complexes formed by aliphatic amino acids (l-alanine, d,l-alanine, 1-amino-2-methyl-alanine) and 1-amino(cyclo)alkane-1-carboxylic acids (alkane = propane, butane, pentane, hexane) as bidentate ligands has been studied by (13)C and (2)H solid-state fast magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. We examined the prospective method to characterize solid-state paramagnetic compounds in a routine way. Both (13)C and (2)H MAS spectra can distinguish d,l and l,l diastereomers of natural and polydeuterated bis([Dn]alaninato)copper(II) (n = 0, 2, 8) complexes with axial and/or equatorial methyl positions (conformations) primarily due to different Fermi-contact (FC) contributions. The three-bond hyperfine couplings clearly show Karplus-like dependence on the torsional angles which turned out to be a useful assignment aid. Density functional theory calculations of the FC term and crystal structures were also used to aid the final assignments. The correlations obtained for bis(alaninato-?(2)N,O)copper(II) complexes were successfully used to characterize other complexes. The usefulness of the (2)H MAS spectra of the deuterated complexes was underlined. Even the spectra of the easily exchangeable amine protons contained essential stereochemical information. In the case of a dimer structure of bis(1-aminohexane-1-carboxylato-?(2)N,O)copper(II) both the (13)C and (2)H resolutions were good enough to confirm the presence of the cis and trans forms in the asymmetric unit. With regard to the internal solid-state motions in the crystal lattice, the obtained quadrupolar tensor parameters were similar for the d,l- and l,l-alaninato isomers and also for the cis-trans forms suggesting similar crystal packing effects, static amine deuterons involved in hydrogen bonding, and fast rotating methyl groups. PMID:25920900

  18. A broadband single-chip transceiver for multi-nuclear NMR probes.

    PubMed

    Grisi, Marco; Gualco, Gabriele; Boero, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we present an integrated broadband complementary metal-oxide semiconductor single-chip transceiver suitable for the realization of multi-nuclear pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probes. The realized single-chip transceiver can be interfaced with on-chip integrated microcoils or external LC resonators operating in the range from 1 MHz to 1 GHz. The dimension of the chip is about 1 mm(2). It consists of a radio-frequency (RF) power amplifier, a low-noise RF preamplifier, a frequency mixer, an audio-frequency amplifier, and fully integrated transmit-receive switches. As specific example, we show its use for multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy. With an integrated coil of about 150 ?m external diameter, a (1)H spin sensitivity of about 1.5 × 10(13) spins/Hz(1/2) is achieved at 7 T. PMID:25933876

  19. A broadband single-chip transceiver for multi-nuclear NMR probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisi, Marco; Gualco, Gabriele; Boero, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we present an integrated broadband complementary metal-oxide semiconductor single-chip transceiver suitable for the realization of multi-nuclear pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probes. The realized single-chip transceiver can be interfaced with on-chip integrated microcoils or external LC resonators operating in the range from 1 MHz to 1 GHz. The dimension of the chip is about 1 mm2. It consists of a radio-frequency (RF) power amplifier, a low-noise RF preamplifier, a frequency mixer, an audio-frequency amplifier, and fully integrated transmit-receive switches. As specific example, we show its use for multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy. With an integrated coil of about 150 ?m external diameter, a 1H spin sensitivity of about 1.5 × 1013 spins/Hz1/2 is achieved at 7 T.

  20. Prospective Real Time Head Motion Correction Using Inductively Coupled Wireless NMR Probes

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Saikat; Tadanki, Sasidhar; Gore, John C.; Welch, E. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Head motion continues to be a major source of artifacts and data quality degradation in MRI. The goal of this work was to develop and demonstrate a novel technique for prospective, 6 degrees of freedom (6DOF) rigid body motion estimation and real time motion correction using inductively coupled wireless nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe markers. Methods Three wireless probes that are inductively coupled with the scanner’s RF setup serve as fiducials on the subject’s head. A 12 ms linear navigator module is interleaved with the imaging sequence for head position estimation, and scan geometry is updated in real time for motion compensation. Flip angle amplification in the markers allows the use of extremely small navigator flip angles (~1°). A novel algorithm is presented to identify marker positions in the absence of marker specific receive channels. The method is demonstrated for motion correction in 1 mm3 gradient recalled echo experiments in phantoms and humans. Results Significant improvement of image quality is demonstrated in phantoms and human volunteers under different motion conditions. Conclusion A novel real time 6 DOF head motion correction technique based on wireless NMR probes is demonstrated in high resolution imaging at 7 Tesla. PMID:24243810